Skew deflection of magnetic vortices in a field gradient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papanicolaou, N.
1994-07-01
Magnetic vortices with a nonvanishing winding number, the strictly two-dimensional analogs of realistic magnetic bubbles, are studied within the isotropic Heisenberg model. In particular, we present a numerical simulation of their dynamics under the influence of an applied magnetic field gradient. In addition to verifying some known theoretical results concerning the gross features of skew deflection, in analogy with the Hall motion of an electron, we are able to exhibit some important details of the dynamics of the vortex around its guiding center.
Using absolute gravimeter data to determine vertical gravity gradients
Robertson, D.S.
2001-01-01
The position versus time data from a free-fall absolute gravimeter can be used to estimate the vertical gravity gradient in addition to the gravity value itself. Hipkin has reported success in estimating the vertical gradient value using a data set of unusually good quality. This paper explores techniques that may be applicable to a broader class of data that may be contaminated with "system response" errors of larger magnitude than were evident in the data used by Hipkin. This system response function is usually modelled as a sum of exponentially decaying sinusoidal components. The technique employed here involves combining the x0, v0 and g parameters from all the drops made during a site occupation into a single least-squares solution, and including the value of the vertical gradient and the coefficients of system response function in the same solution. The resulting non-linear equations must be solved iteratively and convergence presents some difficulties. Sparse matrix techniques are used to make the least-squares problem computationally tractable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Blaine Keith
An experimental study was conducted in Lehigh University's low-speed water channel to examine the effects of a zero, adverse, and favorable pressure gradients on the development of single hairpin vortices. Single hairpin vortices were generated in an initially laminar environment using controlled fluid injection through a streamwise slot at a Re(delta)* = 380, 440, and 570. Behavior of hairpin structures was determined by the use of dye and hydrogen bubble flow visualization techniques. Visualization results indicate that as a single hairpin vortex convects downstream a complicated growth process due to viscous-inviscid interactions and Biot-Savart deformation results in the generation of secondary and subsidiary vortices, eventually yielding a turbulent spot-like structure. The hairpin vortex structures are observed to be strongly affected by the presence of a pressure gradient, undergoing significant spatial growth changes, as well as experiencing significant flow structure modifications. As the hairpin initiation location is moved further into an adverse pressure gradient, the hairpin vortex lifts and rotates farther away from the surface relative to the behavior in a zero pressure gradient. Regions of low and high-velocity fluid near the surface are accentuated within an adverse pressure gradient, which amplifies the low-speed streak formation and breakdown process, accelerating the formation of vortical substructures and ejection of fluid from the surface.
On the Alignment of Strain, Vorticity and Scalar Gradient in Turbulent, Buoyant, Nonpremixed Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boratav, O. N.; Elghobashi, S. E.; Zhong, R.
1999-01-01
The alignment of vorticity and scalar gradient with the eigendirections of the rate of strain tensor is investigated in turbulent buoyant nonpremixed horizontal and vertical flames. The uniqueness of a buoyant nonpremixed flame is that it contains regions with distinct alignment characteristics. The strain-enstrophy angle Psi is used to identify these regions. Examination of the vorticity field and the vorticity production in these different regions indicates that Psi and consequently the alignment properties near the flame surface identified by the mixture fraction band F approximately equals F(sub st) differ from those in the fuel region, F > F(sub st) and the oxidizer region, F < F(sub st). The F approximately equals F(sub st) band shows strain-dominance resulting in vorticity/alpha alignment while F > F(sub st) (and F < F(sub st) for the vertical flame) band(s) show(s) vorticity/beta alignment. The implication of this result is that the scalar dissipation, epsilon(sub F), attains its maximum value always near F approximately equals F(sub st). These results are also discussed within the framework of recent dynamical results [Galanti et al., Nonlinearity 10, 1675 (1997)] suggesting that the Navier-Stokes equations evolved towards an attracting solution. It is shown that the properties of such an attracting solution are also consistent with our results of buoyant turbulent nonpremixed flames.
Roll-up of vorticity in adverse-pressure-gradient boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M. E.; Durbin, P. A.; Leib, S. J.
1987-01-01
It is shown how the unsteady, nonlinear critical-layer equation determines the evolution of instability waves in a weak adverse-pressure-gradient boundary layer. Numerical solutions show that the nonlinearity halts the growth of these inviscidly unstable waves. The stabilizing effect of nonlinearity, in the present case, can be described as a consequence of either the increase (toward zero) of the phase jump across the critical layer or the roll-up of the critical-layer disturbance vorticity.
The gradient of potential vorticity, quaternions and an orthonormal frame for fluid particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gibbon, J. D.; Holm, D. D.
2011-04-01
The gradient of potential vorticity (PV) is an important quantity because of the way PV (denoted as $q$) tends to accumulate locally in the oceans and atmospheres. Recent analysis by the authors has shown that the vector quantity $\\bdB = \\bnabla q\\times \\bnabla\\theta$ for the three-dimensional incompressible rotating Euler equations evolves according to the same stretching equation as for $\\bom$ the vorticity and $\\bB$, the magnetic field in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The $\\bdB$-vector therefore acts like the vorticity $\\bom$ in Euler's equations and the $\\bB$-field in MHD. For example, it allows various analogies, such as stretching dynamics, helicity, superhelicity and cross helicity. In addition, using quaternionic analysis, the dynamics of the $\\bdB$-vector naturally allow the construction of an orthonormal frame attached to fluid particles\\,; this is designated as a quaternion frame. The alignment dynamics of this frame are particularly relevant to the three-axis rotations that particles undergo as they traverse regions of a flow when the PV gradient $\\bnabla q$ is large.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Mitsuru; Yanase, Shinichiro
2010-05-01
The effect of the system rotation on shear flow turbulence is one of the central issues of fluid mechanics in relation to geophysical and astrophysical phenomena as well as engineering applications such as turbo machinery, so is still being vigorously investigated. If a turbulent shear flow is rotated as a whole about the axis parallel to the mean-shear vorticity, the flow structure is significantly influenced by the magnitude and direction of vorticity associated with the mean shear relative to those of the system rotation. The flow field is called either cyclonic or anti-cyclonic accordingly as vorticities associated with the mean shear and the system rotation are parallel or anti-parallel. Turbulence has a tendency to keep its two-dimensional structure along the system rotation both for cyclonic and for an anti-cyclonic regions for rapid system rotation, whereas the two-dimensional structure is unstable and easily broken down to three-dimensional in an anti-cyclonic region if the system rotation is relatively slow to the mean-shear vorticity. If the flow field is anti-cyclonic and the mean-shear vorticity cancels out that of the system rotation, the mean absolute vorticity is zero in the flow field, and then it is called the zero-mean-absolute-vorticity state (ZAVS). ZAVS, which is neutral to the above-mentioned instability, is observed in many rotating shear flow turbulence. One of the most remarkable features of ZAVS turbulence is the generation of very coherent quasi-streamwise vortex tubes which are not observed in other cases of rotating or nonrotating turbulence. Though the importance of the role of vortex tubes in shear flow turbulence is generally recognized, it is not easy to study their dynamics due to the interactions between vortex tubes and vortex-shear layers which are generated from the background mean-shear vorticity. In ZAVS, on the other hand, it is rather easy to investigate vortex tubes in turbulence because they are stable and long
Mütze, Annekathrin Heunemann, Peggy; Fischer, Peter
2014-11-01
Wormlike micellar salt/surfactant solutions (X-salicylate, cetylpyridinium chloride) are studied with respect to the applied shear stress, concentration, temperature, and composition of the counterions (X = lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium) of the salicylate salt solute to determine vorticity and gradient shear bands. A combination of rheological measurements, laser technique, video analysis, and rheo-small-angle neutron scattering allow for a detailed exploration of number and types of shear bands. Typical flow curves of the solutions show Newtonian, shear-thinning, and shear-thickening flow behavior. In the shear-thickening regime, the solutions show vorticity and gradient shear bands simultaneously, in which vorticity shear bands dominate the visual effect, while gradient shear bands always coexist and predominate the rheological response. It is shown that gradient shear bands change their phases (turbid, clear) with the same frequency as the shear rate oscillates, whereas vorticity shear bands change their phases with half the frequency of the shear rate. Furthermore, we show that with increasing molecular mass of the counterions the number of gradient shear bands increases, while the number of vorticity shear bands remains constant. The variation of temperature, shear stress, concentration, and counterions results in a predictable change in the rheological behavior and therefore allows adjustment of the number of vorticity shear bands in the shear band regime.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vukoslavcevic, P.; Wallace, J. M.
1981-01-01
An analysis and measurement of the effects of the streamwise velocity gradients partial derivative of U with respect to y and partial derivative of U with respect to z, on the velocity components, U, v, and w, and the streamwise vorticity component, omega sub x measured in turbulent flow with a pair of orthogonal hot-wire X arrays, is presented. It is shown that these gradients, which can have the same order of magnitude instantaneously as the mean shear stress at the wall, cause extremely large errors in the measured instantaneous cross-stream velocity and streamwise vorticity components.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shashkin, V. V.; Tolstykh, M. A.
2013-09-01
The semi-Lagrangian Absolute Vorticity (SL-AV) atmospheric model is the global semi-Lagrangian hydrostatic model used for operational medium-range and seasonal forecasts at Hydrometeorological centre of Russia. The distinct feature of SL-AV dynamical core is the semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian vorticity-divergence formulation on the unstaggered grid. Semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian approach allows for long time steps while violates the global and local mass-conservation. In particular, the total mass in simulations with semi-Lagrangian models can drift significantly if no aposteriori mass-fixing algorithms are applied. However, the global mass-fixing algorithms degrade the local mass conservation. The inherently mass-conservative version of SL-AV model dynamical core presented in the article ensures global and local mass conservation without mass-fixing algorithms. The mass conservation is achieved with the introduction of the finite-volume semi-Lagrangian discretization for continuity equation based on the 3-D extension of the conservative cascade semi-Lagrangian transport scheme (CCS). The numerical experiments show that the presented new version of SL-AV dynamical core combines the accuracy and stability of the standard SL-AV dynamical core with the mass-conservation properties. The results of the mountain induced Rossby wave test and baroclinic instability test for mass-conservative dynamical core are found to be in agreement with the results available in literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shashkin, V. V.; Tolstykh, M. A.
2014-02-01
The semi-Lagrangian absolute vorticity (SL-AV) atmospheric model is the global semi-Lagrangian hydrostatic model used for operational medium-range and seasonal forecasts at the Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia. The distinct feature of the SL-AV dynamical core is the semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian vorticity-divergence formulation on the unstaggered grid. A semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian approach allows for long time steps but violates the global and local mass conservation. In particular, the total mass in simulations with semi-Lagrangian models can drift significantly if no a posteriori mass-fixing algorithm is applied. However, the global mass-fixing algorithms degrade the local mass conservation. The new inherently mass-conservative version of the SL-AV model dynamical core presented here ensures global and local mass conservation without mass-fixing algorithms. The mass conservation is achieved with the introduction of the finite-volume, semi-Lagrangian discretization for a continuity equation based on the 3-D extension of the conservative cascade semi-Lagrangian transport scheme (CCS). Numerical experiments show that the new version of the SL-AV dynamical core presented combines the accuracy and stability of the standard SL-AV dynamical core with the mass-conservation properties. The results of the mountain-induced Rossby-wave test and baroclinic instability test for the mass-conservative dynamical core are found to be in agreement with the results available in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirza, Arshad M.; Masood, W.; Iqbal, Javed; Batool, Nazia
2015-09-01
Nonlinear equations which govern the dynamics of low-frequency toroidal ion-temperature-gradient driven modes (i.e., ω ≪ ω c i , where ωci is the ion gyro-frequency) are derived in the presence of equilibrium density, temperature, and magnetic field gradients. In the nonlinear case, solutions in the form of dipolar vortices and vortex street are presented for a plasma comprising of Maxwellian ions and nonthermal electrons that are embedded in an external magnetic field. By using Braginskii's transport equations for the Maxwellian ions and Kappa distributed electrons, the coupled mode equations for the system under consideration are derived. The results have been applied in Tokamak plasmas, and it has been observed that the scale lengths over which the nonlinear vortex structures form get modified in the presence of Kappa distributed electrons. The present study is also applicable to tokamaks and stellarators where non-Maxwellian population has been observed in resonant frequency heating, electron cyclotron heating experiments, and in runaway electrons.
Kaur, Manjit Bose, Sayak; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Sharma, D.; Ghosh, J.; Saxena, Y. C.; Thomas, Edward
2015-09-15
Observation of two well-separated dust vortices in an unmagnetized parallel plate DC glow discharge plasma is reported in this paper. A non-monotonic radial density profile, achieved by an especially designed cathode structure using a concentric metallic disk and ring of different radii, is observed to produce double dust tori between cathode and anode. PIV analysis of the still images of the double tori shows oppositely rotating dust structures between the central disk and the ring. Langmuir probe measurements of background plasma shows a non-uniform plasma density profile between the disk and the ring. Location and sense of rotation of the dust vortices coincides with the location and direction of the radial gradient in the ion drag force caused by the radial density gradient. The experimentally observed dust vorticity matches well with the calculated one using hydrodynamic formulations with shear in ion drag dominating over the dust charge gradient. These results corroborate that a radial gradient in the ion drag force directed towards cathode is the principal cause of dust rotation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutyrin, Georgi G.
2016-06-01
Wide compensated vortices are not able to remain circular in idealized two-layer models unless the ocean depth is assumed to be unrealistically large. Small perturbations on both cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies grow slower if a middle layer with uniform potential vorticity (PV) is added, owing to a weakening of the vertical coupling between the upper and lower layers and a reduction of the PV gradient in the deep layer. Numerical simulations show that the nonlinear development of the most unstable elliptical mode causes self-elongation of the upper vortex core and splitting of the deep PV anomaly into two corotating parts. The emerging tripolar flow pattern in the lower layer results in self-intensification of the fluid rotation in the water column around the vortex center. Further vortex evolution depends on the model parameters and initial conditions, which limits predictability owing to multiple equilibrium attractors existing in the dynamical system. The vortex core strips thin filaments, which roll up into submesoscale vortices to result in substantial mixing at the vortex periphery. Stirring and damping of vorticity by bottom friction are found to be essential for subsequent vortex stabilization. The development of sharp PV gradients leads to nearly solid-body rotation inside the vortex core and formation of transport barriers at the vortex periphery. These processes have important implications for understanding the longevity of real-ocean eddies.
Effect of vorticity on second- and third-order statistics of passive scalar gradients.
Gonzalez, Michel
2002-05-01
The influence of vorticity on second- and third-order moments of the spatial derivatives of a forced, passive scalar field has been studied in the framework of a simplified problem; the analysis is restricted to dominating rotation and molecular diffusion is represented by a linear model. The results reveal that, in the case of a passive scalar experiencing forcing in an isotropic medium, both vorticity and diffusion counteract anisotropy imposed on the scalar field. Anisotropy at the level of second-order moments appears to be destroyed essentially by the action of vorticity. PMID:12059703
Haque, Q.; Zakir, U.; Qamar, A.
2015-12-15
Linear and nonlinear dynamics of electron temperature gradient mode along with parallel electron dynamics is investigated by considering hydrodynamic electrons and non-Maxwellian ions. It is noticed that the growth rate of η{sub e}-mode driven linear instability decreases by increasing the value of spectral index and increases by reducing the ion/electron temperature ratio along the magnetic field lines. The eigen mode dispersion relation is also found in the ballooning mode limit. Stationary solutions in the form of dipolar vortices are obtained for both circular and elliptic boundary conditions. It is shown that the dynamics of both circular and elliptic vortices changes with the inclusion of inhomogeneity and non-Maxwellian effects.
Stirring vortices with vorticity holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velasco Fuentes, Oscar
2012-11-01
A vorticity hole is a region with, in absolute value, significantly lower vorticity than its surroundings. Here we discuss the dynamics of a Rankine vortex with two equal circular holes. If a symmetric initial condition is assumed, the evolution depends on three parameters: the vorticity drop, the hole size and the distance between the holes. We computed the evolution with a contour-dynamics model and quantified the stirring of fluid particles using finite-time Lyapunov exponents and Melnikov's method. The vorticity holes evolve similarly to a pair of vortices in an otherwise quiescent fluid, although they are additionally affected by their interaction with the boundary of the Rankine vortex. The strongest stirring occurs when the holes interact elastically and then always in the center of the vortex. This result contradicts the generally accepted notion that vortices are regions of null to weak stirring.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurka, R.; Diamessis, P.; Liberzon, A.
2009-04-01
The characterization of three-dimensional space and time-dependent coherent structures and internal waves in stratified environment is one of the most challenging tasks in geophysical fluid dynamics. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is applied to 2-D slices of vorticity and horizontal divergence obtained from 3-D DNS of a stratified turbulent wake of a towed sphere at Re=5x103 and Fr=4. The numerical method employed solves the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations under the Boussinesq approximation. The temporal discretization consists of three fractional steps: an explicit advancement of the nonlinear terms, an implicit solution of the Poisson equation for the pseudo-pressure (which enforces incompressibility), and an implicit solution of the Helmholtz equation for the viscous terms (where boundary conditions are imposed). The computational domain is assumed to be periodic in the horizontal direction and non-periodic in the vertical direction. The 2-D slices are sampled along the stream-depth (Oxz), span-depth (Oyz) and stream-span planes (Oxy) for 231 times during the interval, Nt ∈ [12,35] (N is the stratification frequency). During this interval, internal wave radiation from the wake is most pronounced and the vorticity field in the wake undergoes distinct structural transitions. POD was chosen amongst the available statistical tools due to its advantage in characterization of simulated and experimentally measured velocity gradient fields. The computational procedure, applied to any random vector field, finds the most coherent feature from the given ensemble of field realizations. The decomposed empirical eigenfunctions could be referred to as "coherent structures", since they are highly correlated in an average sense with the flow field. In our analysis, we follow the computationally efficient method of 'snapshots' to find the POD eigenfunctions of the ensemble of vorticity field realizations. The results contains of the separate POD modes, along with
Discussion on the complete-form vorticity equation and slantwise vorticity development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiuming; Zhou, Xiaogang; Tao, Zuyu; Liu, Hua
2016-02-01
The complete form of the vertical vorticity tendency equation (the complete-form vorticity equation) is derived from the Ertel potential vorticity equation to contain thermodynamic factors. In this study, a new complete-form vorticity equation, which has the same form as the original complete-form vorticity equation, is deduced from the absolute vorticity vector equation combined with the continuity equation and the expression of three-dimensional (3D) entropy gradient. By comparing the complete-form vorticity equation with the classical vertical vorticity equation, it is found that regardless of whether or not the isentropic surface is tilting, the two vorticity equations are in essence the same. The "baroclinic term" of the complete-form vorticity equation is exactly equal to the solenoidal term of the classical one, and there is a significant amount of cancellation between the two baroclinic items (the "slantwise term" and the horizontal vorticity change term) in the complete-form vorticity equation. In operational weather analysis, the tilt of the isentropic surface can be diagnosed according to the density of the isotherm on the upper-level isobaric map. For synoptic-scale motion, the vertical vorticity produced by the tilt of the isentropic surface is due to the contribution of atmospheric baroclinicity, which is measured by the solenoid. The 3D solenoid is parallel to the isentropic surface, so the more tilted the isentropic surface, the bigger the projection of the 3D solenoid in the vertical direction. The baroclinic contribution can be interpreted based on the PV thinking theory, but the relationship between the vorticity field and the potential vorticity field is not immediate.
Spanwise gradients in flow speed help stabilize leading-edge vortices on revolving wings.
Jardin, T; David, L
2014-07-01
While a leading-edge vortex on an infinite translating wing is shed after a short distance of travel, its counterpart on a finite span revolving insect wing or maple seed membrane exhibits robust attachment. The latter explains the aerodynamic lift generated by such biological species. Here we analyze the mechanisms responsible for leading-edge vortex attachment. We compute the Navier-Stokes solution of the flow past a finite span wing (i) embedded in a uniform oncoming flow, (ii) embedded in a spanwise varying oncoming flow, and (iii) revolving about its root. We show that over flapping amplitudes typical of insect flight (ϕ = 120°), the spanwise gradient of the local wing speed may suffice in maintaining leading-edge vortex attachment. We correlate this result with the development of spanwise flow, driven by the spanwise gradient of pressure, and we evaluate the sensitivity of such a mechanism to the Reynolds number. It is noted, however, that leading-edge vortex attachment through the spanwise gradient of the local wing speed does not promote large lift, which ultimately arises from centrifugal and Coriolis effects. PMID:25122373
Bashir, Adil; Gropler, Robert; Ackerman, Joseph
2015-01-01
Purpose Absolute concentrations of high-energy phosphorus (31P) metabolites in liver provide more important insight into physiologic status of liver disease compared to resonance integral ratios. A simple method for measuring absolute concentrations of 31P metabolites in human liver is described. The approach uses surface spoiling inhomogeneous magnetic field gradient to select signal from liver tissue. The technique avoids issues caused by respiratory motion, chemical shift dispersion associated with linear magnetic field gradients, and increased tissue heat deposition due to radiofrequency absorption, especially at high field strength. Methods A method to localize signal from liver was demonstrated using superficial and highly non-uniform magnetic field gradients, which eliminate signal(s) from surface tissue(s) located between the liver and RF coil. A double standard method was implemented to determine absolute 31P metabolite concentrations in vivo. 8 healthy individuals were examined in a 3 T MR scanner. Results Concentrations of metabolites measured in eight healthy individuals are: γ-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) = 2.44 ± 0.21 (mean ± sd) mmol/l of wet tissue volume, α-ATP = 3.2 ± 0.63 mmol/l, β-ATP = 2.98 ± 0.45 mmol/l, inorganic phosphates (Pi) = 1.87 ± 0.25 mmol/l, phosphodiesters (PDE) = 10.62 ± 2.20 mmol/l and phosphomonoesters (PME) = 2.12 ± 0.51 mmol/l. All are in good agreement with literature values. Conclusions The technique offers robust and fast means to localize signal from liver tissue, allows absolute metabolite concentration determination, and avoids problems associated with constant field gradient (linear field variation) localization methods. PMID:26633549
Plasma-Density-Gradient Injection of Low Absolute-Momentum-Spread Electron Bunches
Geddes, C. G. R.; Nakamura, K.; Plateau, G. R.; Toth, Cs.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B.; Leemans, W. P.; Cary, J. R.
2008-05-30
Plasma density gradients in a gas jet were used to control the wake phase velocity and trapping threshold in a laser wakefield accelerator, producing stable electron bunches with longitudinal and transverse momentum spreads more than 10 times lower than in previous experiments (0.17 and 0.02 MeV/c FWHM, respectively) and with central momenta of 0.76{+-}0.02 MeV/c. Transition radiation measurements combined with simulations indicated that the bunches can be used as a wakefield accelerator injector to produce stable beams with 0.2 MeV/c-class momentum spread at high energies.
Plasma density gradient injection of low absolute momentum spread electron bunches
Geddes, C.G.R.; Nakamura, K.; Plateau, G.R.; Toth, Cs.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Cary, J.R.; Leemans, W.P.
2007-12-22
Plasma density gradients in a gas jet were used to control the wake phase velocity and trapping threshold in a laser wakefield accelerator, producing stable electron bunches with longitudinal and transverse momentum spreads more than ten times lower than in previous experiments (0.17 and 0.02 MeV/c FWHM, respectively) and with central momenta of 0.76 +- 0.02 MeV/c. Transition radiation measurements combined with simulations indicated that the bunches can be used as a wakefield accelerator injector to produce stable beams with 0.2 MeV/c-class momentum spread at high energies.
2013-01-01
Background Valve effective orifice area EOA and transvalvular mean pressure gradient (MPG) are the most frequently used parameters to assess aortic stenosis (AS) severity. However, MPG measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) may differ from the one measured by transthoracic Doppler-echocardiography (TTE). The objectives of this study were: 1) to identify the factors responsible for the MPG measurement discrepancies by CMR versus TTE in AS patients; 2) to investigate the effect of flow vorticity on AS severity assessment by CMR; and 3) to evaluate two models reconciling MPG discrepancies between CMR/TTE measurements. Methods Eight healthy subjects and 60 patients with AS underwent TTE and CMR. Strouhal number (St), energy loss (EL), and vorticity were computed from CMR. Two correction models were evaluated: 1) based on the Gorlin equation (MPGCMR-Gorlin); 2) based on a multivariate regression model (MPGCMR-Predicted). Results MPGCMR underestimated MPGTTE (bias = −6.5 mmHg, limits of agreement from −18.3 to 5.2 mmHg). On multivariate regression analysis, St (p = 0.002), EL (p = 0.001), and mean systolic vorticity (p < 0.001) were independently associated with larger MPG discrepancies between CMR and TTE. MPGCMR-Gorlin and MPGTTE correlation and agreement were r = 0.7; bias = −2.8 mmHg, limits of agreement from −18.4 to 12.9 mmHg. MPGCMR-Predicted model showed better correlation and agreement with MPGTTE (r = 0.82; bias = 0.5 mmHg, limits of agreement from −9.1 to 10.2 mmHg) than measured MPGCMR and MPGCMR-Gorlin. Conclusion Flow vorticity is one of the main factors responsible for MPG discrepancies between CMR and TTE. PMID:24053194
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
James, T. S.; Mazzotti, S.; Mazzotti, S.; Lambert, A.
2001-12-01
The deformation gravity gradient (DGG) is the ratio of the time rate of change of surface gravity to vertical crustal velocity. Different processes generate different theoretical predictions of the DGG. Consequently, observational constraints on the DGG are necessary to link crustal uplift observations to satellite-derived observations of the time rate of change of the Earth's gravitational field, which will be generated by upcoming satellite missions such as GRACE. Larson and van Dam (2000) have compared secular gravity trends from 4 sites in interior North America to crustal uplift rates obtained from global point-positioning analyses of GPS observations, and found they agree, assuming a nominal DGG value appropriate to postglacial rebound of -0.15 μ Gal/mm (Wahr et al., 1995). Here we revisit and extend their analysis in order to determine the observational constraints on the DGG in mid-continent North America. We use recently published gravity rates derived from significantly more absolute gravity observations and a different GPS analysis scheme. Lambert et al. (2001) have published secular gravity rates for 7 sites in mid-continent North America, using all available absolute gravity observations and allowing for instrumental offsets. The sites, chosen to sample postglacial rebound, lie on a transect from Churchill, Manitoba, located on Hudson Bay, to North Liberty, Iowa. Four of these sites (Churchill, Flin Flon, Lac du Bonnet, and North Liberty) also feature a nearby GPS station. The GPS observations were analyzed using double differencing with Bernese 4.2, yielding 5 year time series for vertical position. The daily repeatabilities of 5 to 9 mm compare well to the weekly repeatabilities of 7-8 mm reported by Larson and van Dam (2000). A comparison of the vertical rates derived from these time series to the secular solid-surface gravity trends finds a DGG of -0.14 +/- 0.06 μ Gal/mm. This value is in good agreement with model predictions for postglacial
Interaction of Atmospheric Plasma Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Izhovkina, N. I.; Artekha, S. N.; Erokhin, N. S.; Mikhailovskaya, L. A.
2016-06-01
Atmospheric electric fields, connected with the ionization of particles and plasma processes, occur in the fields of pressure gradients of mosaic mesh topology. Atmospheric aerosol particles play a significant role in the vortex generation. The Coriolis force and the motion of charged particles in the geomagnetic field lead to gyrotropy of the atmosphere and ionosphere. Occurrence of plasma vortices is stochastically determined for such an inhomogeneous gyrotropic medium. The geomagnetic field influences the change of structures of inhomogeneous media in the process of excitation of plasma vortices and their interaction. If colliding vortices are centered on the one geomagnetic line, the merge of vortices and the generation of a joint powerful vortex are possible. If a collision of vortices with centers at different geomagnetic field lines occurs, then the emergence of areas of heating and jet streams and the generation of new vortices are possible.
Interaction of Atmospheric Plasma Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Izhovkina, N. I.; Artekha, S. N.; Erokhin, N. S.; Mikhailovskaya, L. A.
2016-08-01
Atmospheric electric fields, connected with the ionization of particles and plasma processes, occur in the fields of pressure gradients of mosaic mesh topology. Atmospheric aerosol particles play a significant role in the vortex generation. The Coriolis force and the motion of charged particles in the geomagnetic field lead to gyrotropy of the atmosphere and ionosphere. Occurrence of plasma vortices is stochastically determined for such an inhomogeneous gyrotropic medium. The geomagnetic field influences the change of structures of inhomogeneous media in the process of excitation of plasma vortices and their interaction. If colliding vortices are centered on the one geomagnetic line, the merge of vortices and the generation of a joint powerful vortex are possible. If a collision of vortices with centers at different geomagnetic field lines occurs, then the emergence of areas of heating and jet streams and the generation of new vortices are possible.
Voigt, J.; Knappe-Grüneberg, S.; Gutkelch, D.; Neuber, S.; Schnabel, A.; Burghoff, M.; Haueisen, J.
2015-05-15
Several experiments in fundamental physics demand an environment of very low, homogeneous, and stable magnetic fields. For the magnetic characterization of such environments, we present a portable SQUID system that measures the absolute magnetic flux density vector and the gradient tensor. This vector-tensor system contains 13 integrated low-critical temperature (LTc) superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) inside a small cylindrical liquid helium Dewar with a height of 31 cm and 37 cm in diameter. The achievable resolution depends on the flux density of the field under investigation and its temporal drift. Inside a seven-layer mu-metal shield, an accuracy better than ±23 pT for the components of the static magnetic field vector and ±2 pT/cm for each of the nine components of the gradient tensor is reached by using the shifting method.
Vorticity flux from active dimples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKeon, Beverley; Sherwin, Spencer; Morrison, Jonathan
2004-11-01
The effect of surface depressions, or dimples, in reducing drag on golf balls is well-known. Here this concept is extended to using ``active" dimples to manipulate vorticity flux at the wall. Surface vorticity flux is governed by surface accelerations, pressure and shear stress gradients, and surface curvature. ``Active" (or vibrating) dimples may generate vorticity flux by each of these terms, making them an excellent candidate for a basic study of flux manipulation, by which flow control may be achieved. Flow over an active dimple in fully-developed laminar channel flow is simulated with velocity boundary conditions developed from a linearized perturbation method imposed at the wall. This simple model cannot capture flow separation, but gives insight into the most straightforward means of flux generation from the concave surface. Vorticity flux due to dimple geometry and motion is quantified, and enhancements of two to three orders of magnitude in peak vorticity over the static dimple case are observed.
Vorticity from Isocurvature in the Early Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christopherson, Adam J.; Malik, Karim A.
2015-01-01
Vorticity is ubiquitous in nature however, to date, studies of vorticity in cosmology and the early universe have been quite rare. In this paper, based on a talk in session CM1 of the 13th Marcel Grossmann Meeting, we consider vorticity generation from scalar cosmological perturbations of a perfect fluid system. We show that, at second order in perturbation theory, vorticity is sourced by a coupling between energy density and entropy gradients, thus extending a well-known feature of classical fluid dynamics to a relativistic cosmological framework. This induced vorticity, sourced by isocurvature perturbations, may prove useful in the future as an additional discriminator between inflationary models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ern, Manfred; Trinh, Quang Thai; Kaufmann, Martin; Krisch, Isabell; Preusse, Peter; Ungermann, Jörn; Zhu, Yajun; Gille, John C.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M., III; Schwartz, Michael J.; Riese, Martin
2016-08-01
Sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) are circulation anomalies in the polar region during winter. They mostly occur in the Northern Hemisphere and affect also surface weather and climate. Both planetary waves and gravity waves contribute to the onset and evolution of SSWs. While the role of planetary waves for SSW evolution has been recognized, the effect of gravity waves is still not fully understood, and has not been comprehensively analyzed based on global observations. In particular, information on the gravity wave driving of the background winds during SSWs is still missing.We investigate the boreal winters from 2001/2002 until 2013/2014. Absolute gravity wave momentum fluxes and gravity wave dissipation (potential drag) are estimated from temperature observations of the satellite instruments HIRDLS and SABER. In agreement with previous work, we find that sometimes gravity wave activity is enhanced before or around the central date of major SSWs, particularly during vortex-split events. Often, SSWs are associated with polar-night jet oscillation (PJO) events. For these events, we find that gravity wave activity is strongly suppressed when the wind has reversed from eastward to westward (usually after the central date of a major SSW). In addition, gravity wave potential drag at the bottom of the newly forming eastward-directed jet is remarkably weak, while considerable potential drag at the top of the jet likely contributes to the downward propagation of both the jet and the new elevated stratopause. During PJO events, we also find some indication for poleward propagation of gravity waves. Another striking finding is that obviously localized gravity wave sources, likely mountain waves and jet-generated gravity waves, play an important role during the evolution of SSWs and potentially contribute to the triggering of SSWs by preconditioning the shape of the polar vortex. The distribution of these hot spots is highly variable and strongly depends on the zonal and
Computational simulations of vorticity enhanced diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vold, Erik L.
1999-11-01
Computer simulations are used to investigate a phenomenon of vorticity enhanced diffusion (VED), a net transport and mixing of a passive scalar across a prescribed vortex flow field driven by a background gradient in the scalar quantity. The central issue under study here is the increase in scalar flux down the gradient and across the vortex field. The numerical scheme uses cylindrical coordinates centered with the vortex flow which allows an exact advective solution and 1D or 2D diffusion using simple numerical methods. In the results, the ratio of transport across a localized vortex region in the presence of the vortex flow over that expected for diffusion alone is evaluated as a measure of VED. This ratio is seen to increase dramatically while the absolute flux across the vortex decreases slowly as the diffusion coefficient is decreased. Similar results are found and compared for varying diffusion coefficient, D, or vortex rotation time, τv, for a constant background gradient in the transported scalar vs an interface in the transported quantity, and for vortex flow fields constant in time vs flow which evolves in time from an initial state and with a Schmidt number of order unity. A simple analysis shows that for a small diffusion coefficient, the flux ratio measure of VED scales as the vortex radius over the thickness for mass diffusion in a viscous shear layer within the vortex characterized by (Dτv)1/2. The phenomenon is linear as investigated here and suggests that a significant enhancement of mixing in fluids may be a relatively simple linear process. Discussion touches on how this vorticity enhanced diffusion may be related to mixing in nonlinear turbulent flows.
Potential Vorticity as a Diagnostic of Transport into the Martian Polar Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McConnochie, Timothy H.; Conrath, B. J.; Gierasch, P. J.; Banfield, D.; Smith, M. D.
2009-09-01
Polar vortices dominate the dynamics of the winter mid- and polar latitudes in the martian atmosphere as well as in the terrestrial stratosphere. Polar vortices have also been observed on Venus (Taylor, 2002), Jupiter (Orton, 2002), Saturn (Fletcher, 2008), and Titan (Teanby, 2008). Potential vorticity is the analysis quantity of choice for the terrestrial polar vortices because its vertical component distills the most important features of the wind and temperature fields into a single scalar variable; because it is a conserved tracer under adiabatic conditions; because it serves as the medium for Rossby waves; and because steep potential vorticity gradients are observed to be correlated with steep gradients in the concentrations of chemical species. Using potential vorticity derived from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) temperature soundings, we find that the northern martian winter polar vortex, just like its terrestrial conterpart, is bounded by a region of very steep potential vorticity gradients and is surrounded by a "surf zone", a region of low potential vorticity and very low potential vorticity gradients. The surf zone concept, as first described for the terrestrial stratosphere by McIntyre and Palmer (1983), implies persistent Rossby wave breaking. In the vicinity of the northern polar vortex, the TES data set provides some examples of local gradient reversals that are suggestive of wave breaking. There is also one case of large-scale wave breaking accompanied by an abrupt polar warming. We also find that the martian southern polar vortex lacks a distinct boundary between the polar vortex and a surf zone. Instead, the potential vorticity field is highly disorganized with local gradient reversals throughout the middle and polar latitudes. In the zonal mean, the southern winter potential vorticity gradient ends up being relatively uniform, although it is somewhat enhanced near 60 degrees latitude.
Adiabatic dynamics of magnetic vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papanicolaou, N.
1994-03-01
We formulate a reasonably detailed adiabatic conjecture concerning the dynamics of skew deflection of magnetic vortices in a field gradient, which is expected to be valid at sufficiently large values of the winding number. The conjecture is consistent with the golden rule used to describe the dynamics of realistic magnetic bubbles and is verified here numerically within the 2-D isotropic Heisenberg model.
Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage
2015-01-01
The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…
Helicity and potential vorticity in the surface boundary layer turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chkhetiani, Otto; Kurgansky, Michael; Koprov, Boris; Koprov, Victor
2016-04-01
An experimental measurement of all three components of the velocity and vorticity vectors, as well as the temperature and its gradient, and potential vorticity, has been developed using four acoustic anemometers. Anemometers were placed at vertices of a tetrahedron, the horizontal base of which was a rectangular triangle with equal legs, and the upper point was exactly above the top of the right angle. The distance from the surface to the tetrahedron its base was 5.5 m, and the lengths of legs and a vertical edge were 5 m. The measurements were carried out of total duration near 100 hours both in stable and unstable stratification conditions (at the Tsimlyansk Scientific Station in a uniform area of virgin steppe 700 x 650 m, August 2012). A covariance-correlation matrix for turbulent variations in all measured values has been calculated. In the daytime horizontal and vertical components of the helicity are of the order of -0.03 and +0.01 m s-2, respectively. The nighttime signs remain unchanged, but the absolute values are several times smaller. It is confirmed also by statistics of a relative helicity. The cospectra and spectral correlation coefficients have been calculated for all helicity components. The time variations in the components of "instantaneous" relative helicity and potential vorticity are considered. Connections of helicity with Monin-Obukhov length and the wind vertical profile structure are discussed. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (Project No 14-27-00134).
Potential Vorticity as a Diagnostic for the Mars Polar Vortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McConnochie, T. H.; Conrath, B. J.; Gierasch, P. J.; Banfield, D.; Smith, M. D.
2009-05-01
Polar vortices dominate the dynamics of the winter mid- and polar latitudes in the martian atmosphere as well as in the terrestrial stratosphere. Polar vortices have also been observed on Venus (Taylor, 2002), Jupiter (Orton, 2002), Saturn (Fletcher, 2008), and Titan (Teanby, 2008). Potential vorticity is the analysis quantity of choice for the terrestrial polar vortices because its vertical component distills the most important features of the wind and temperature fields into a single scalar variable; because it is a conserved tracer under adiabatic conditions; because it serves as the medium for Rossby waves; and because steep potential vorticity gradients are observed to be correlated with steep gradients in the concentrations of chemical species. Using potential vorticity derived from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) temperature soundings, we compare the structure of the martian polar vortices to those of the earth. We find that the northern martian winter polar vortex, just like its terrestrial conterpart, is bounded by a region of very steep potential vorticity gradients and is surrounded by a "surf zone", a region of low potential vorticity and very low potential vorticity gradients. The surf zone concept, as first described for the terrestrial stratosphere by McIntyre and Palmer (1983), implies persistent Rossby wave breaking. In the vicinity of the northern polar vortex, the TES data set provides some examples of local gradient reversals that are suggestive of wave breaking. There is also one case of possible large-scale wave breaking accompanied by an abrupt polar warming. The martian southern polar vortex, unlike its terrestrial counterpart and unlike the northern martian polar vortex, lacks a distinct boundary between the polar vortex and a surf zone. Instead, the potential vorticity field is highly disorganized with local gradient reversals throughout the middle and polar latitudes. In the zonal mean, the southern winter
Potential vorticity in magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Webb, G. M.; Mace, R. L.
2015-01-01
A version of Noether's second theorem using Lagrange multipliers is used to investigate fluid relabelling symmetries conservation laws in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We obtain a new generalized potential vorticity type conservation equation for MHD which takes into account entropy gradients and the J × B force on the plasma due to the current J and magnetic induction B. This new conservation law for MHD is derived by using Noether's second theorem in conjunction with a class of fluid relabelling symmetries in which the symmetry generator for the Lagrange label transformations is non-parallel to the magnetic field induction in Lagrange label space. This is associated with an Abelian Lie pseudo algebra and a foliated phase space in Lagrange label space. It contains as a special case Ertel's theorem in ideal fluid mechanics. An independent derivation shows that the new conservation law is also valid for more general physical situations.
Turbulent Helicity and Potential Vorticity in Lower 25 meters of Atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koprov, B.; Koprov, V.; Kurganskiy, M. V.; Chkhetiani, O.
2015-12-01
The measuring procedure developed and results obtained as related to turbulent flux of vorticity
Dowling, T.E.; Spiegel, E.A. )
1990-12-01
The characteristics of 'Jovian' vortices (the large vortices observed in the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune) are summarized, and the existence of similar structures in the atmospheres of stars is considered theoretically. The problem of vortex maintenance is addressed, including potential vorticity, numerical simulations of Jovian vortices, and cyclones and anticyclones; the Great Red Spot of Jupiter is described on the basis of Voyager data; the evidence for convective generation of vertical vorticity in the sun is examined; the possibly vortical nature of the large spots of RS CVn stars is discussed; and models of spots on rapidly rotating hot stars are surveyed. 62 refs.
Defining coherent vortices objectively from the vorticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haller, G.; Hadjighasem, A.; Farazmand, M.; Huhn, F.
2016-05-01
Rotationally coherent Lagrangian vortices are formed by tubes of deforming fluid elements that complete equal bulk material rotation relative to the mean rotation of the deforming fluid volume. We show that initial positions of such tubes coincide with tubular level surfaces of the Lagrangian-Averaged Vorticity Deviation (LAVD), the trajectory integral of the normed difference of the vorticity from its spatial mean. LAVD-based vortices are objective, i.e., remain unchanged under time-dependent rotations and translations of the coordinate frame. In the limit of vanishing Rossby numbers in geostrophic flows, cyclonic LAVD vortex centers are precisely the observed attractors for light particles. A similar result holds for heavy particles in anticyclonic LAVD vortices. We also establish a relationship between rotationally coherent Lagrangian vortices and their instantaneous Eulerian counterparts. The latter are formed by tubular surfaces of equal material rotation rate, objectively measured by the Instantaneous Vorticity Deviation (IVD). We illustrate the use of the LAVD and the IVD to detect rotationally coherent Lagrangian and Eulerian vortices objectively in several two- and three-dimensional flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papanicolaou, N.; Tomaras, T. N.
1991-08-01
The canonical conservation laws of linear and angular momentum in the ferromagnetic continuum have been known to be plagued by certain ambiguities which are resolved in this paper by constructing conservation laws as suitable moments of a topological density. The resulting canonical structure is then shown to be analogous to that encountered in the familiar Hall effect and explains the unusual features of the dynamics of magnetic vortices without resorting to a detailed solution of the underlying nonlinear equations. Thus, in the absence of external magnetic fields, a magnetic vortex is shown to be spontaneously pinned around a fixed guiding center. The guiding center would drift in a direction perpendicular to an applied magnetic field gradient, provided that dissipation can be neglected, with a Hall velocity that is calculated explicitly in terms of the initial configuration of the vortex. In the presence of dissipation, the vortex undergoes skew deflection at an angle δ ≠ 90° with respect to the applied field gradient. The angle δ is related to the winding number of the vortex according to the well-known golden rule of bubble dynamics.
Noise from two-dimensional vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanders, N. D.; Stockman, N. O.
1972-01-01
The fluctuating flow in an idealized model of a turbulent shear layer composed of many discrete vortices is analyzed. Computer solutions reveal irregular motions which are similar in many respects to observed flows in turbulent three-dimensional layers. The model is further simplified to a pair of equal co-rotating vortices and the noise generation is analyzed in terms of equivalent quadrupole oscillations. Results of the analysis in a uniform medium are consistent with Lighthill's results. New results are obtained for the effects of mean velocity gradients, compressibility, temperature inhomogenities, and gradients of the mean Mach number.
On relation between scalar interfaces and vorticity in inviscid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramesh, O. N.; Patwardhan, Saurabh
2013-11-01
A great variety of applications like pollutant mixing in the atmosphere, mixing of reactants in combustion highlight the importance of passive scalar dynamics in fluid flows. The other dynamically important variable in the study of fluid flow is the vorticity. Vorticity though, unlike a passive scalar, does affect the fluid motion. The dynamics of scalar (linear) and vorticity (non-linear) are governed by the equations which inherently have different characteristics. This paper addresses the question of the faithfulness of representation of vorticity by scalar marker and the motivation for this comes from the experiment of Head and Bandyopadhyay (1981) which showed the existence of coherent vortices by using smoke flow visualization in a turbulent boundary layer. We will show analytically in regions where the molecular diffusion effects are negligible, the vorticity and scalar gradients are orthogonal to each other. The iso- surface of scalar follows the vorticity in an inviscid situation. Also, we will demonstrate that in the case of unsteady burgers vortex and vortex shedding behind a finite circular cylinder, the scalar gradient is orthogonal to vorticity and inner product of vorticity and scalar gradients is zero in regions away from the wall.
Vortices in simulations of solar surface convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moll, R.; Cameron, R. H.; Schüssler, M.
2011-09-01
We report on the occurrence of small-scale vortices in simulations of the convective solar surface. Using an eigenanalysis of the velocity gradient tensor, we find the subset of high-vorticity regions in which the plasma is swirling. The swirling regions form an unsteady, tangled network of filaments in the turbulent downflow lanes. Near-surface vertical vortices are underdense and cause a local depression of the optical surface. They are potentially observable as bright points in the dark intergranular lanes. Vortex features typically exist for a few minutes, during which they are moved and twisted by the motion of the ambient plasma. The bigger vortices found in the simulations are possibly, but not necessarily, related to observations of granular-scale spiraling pathlines in "cork animations" or feature tracking. Three movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
Hu, Kaifeng; Ellinger, James J; Chylla, Roger A; Markley, John L
2011-12-15
Time-zero 2D (13)C HSQC (HSQC(0)) spectroscopy offers advantages over traditional 2D NMR for quantitative analysis of solutions containing a mixture of compounds because the signal intensities are directly proportional to the concentrations of the constituents. The HSQC(0) spectrum is derived from a series of spectra collected with increasing repetition times within the basic HSQC block by extrapolating the repetition time to zero. Here we present an alternative approach to data collection, gradient-selective time-zero (1)H-(13)C HSQC(0) in combination with fast maximum likelihood reconstruction (FMLR) data analysis and the use of two concentration references for absolute concentration determination. Gradient-selective data acquisition results in cleaner spectra, and NMR data can be acquired in both constant-time and non-constant-time mode. Semiautomatic data analysis is supported by the FMLR approach, which is used to deconvolute the spectra and extract peak volumes. The peak volumes obtained from this analysis are converted to absolute concentrations by reference to the peak volumes of two internal reference compounds of known concentration: DSS (4,4-dimethyl-4-silapentane-1-sulfonic acid) at the low concentration limit (which also serves as chemical shift reference) and MES (2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid) at the high concentration limit. The linear relationship between peak volumes and concentration is better defined with two references than with one, and the measured absolute concentrations of individual compounds in the mixture are more accurate. We compare results from semiautomated gsHSQC(0) with those obtained by the original manual phase-cycled HSQC(0) approach. The new approach is suitable for automatic metabolite profiling by simultaneous quantification of multiple metabolites in a complex mixture. PMID:22029275
Potential Vorticity Structure of the Mars Polar Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guzewich, S.; Toigo, A. D.; Waugh, D.; Montabone, L.; Greybush, S. J.
2015-12-01
The increasing sophistication of Mars general circulation models (MGCMs) and the availability of regular atmospheric observations have allowed several teams to begin to assimilate these observations into their MGCMs and produce atmospheric reanalyses that enable, among other things, the potential vorticity (PV) structure of the Martian polar vortices to be examined. Here we perform such an analysis using the Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA, Montabone et al., 2013) and the Ensembles Mars Reanalysis System (EMARS, Greybush et al., 2012) reanalyses together with free-running MGCM simulations. Monthly-mean fields from the reanalyses and MGCMs show strong westerly winds in northern mid-high latitudes during NH winter, with near-zero PV at and equatorward of the maximum winds (jet core) and steep meridional PV gradients poleward of the jet core. Furthermore, in the lower atmosphere the maximum PV occurs off the pole and monthly-mean maps show a continuous ring (annulus) of high PV. On shorter (e.g., daily) time scales a different picture emerges, with maps showing multiple small-scale coherent regions of high PV that rotate around the pole, and only when averaged over monthly times does a high PV annulus appear. A PV budget analysis is performed to examine the cause of the annulus of high PV. We also relate the ring of small-scale vortices to the stability of the PV annulus, and discuss the implications on meridional transport between mid and high latitudes.
A numerical method of tracing a vortical axis along local topological axis line
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakayama, Katsuyuki; Hasegawa, Hideki
2016-06-01
A new numerical method is presented to trace or identify a vortical axis in flow, which is based on Galilean invariant flow topology. We focus on the local flow topology specified by the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the velocity gradient tensor, and extract the axis component from its flow trajectory. Eigen-vortical-axis line is defined from the eigenvector of the real eigenvalue of the velocity gradient tensor where the tensor has the conjugate complex eigenvalues. This numerical method integrates the eigen-vortical-axis line and traces a vortical axis in terms of the invariant flow topology, which enables to investigate the feature of the topology-based vortical axis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vich, M.; Romero, R.; Richard, E.; Arbogast, P.; Maynard, K.
2010-09-01
Heavy precipitation events occur regularly in the western Mediterranean region. These events often have a high impact on the society due to economic and personal losses. The improvement of the mesoscale numerical forecasts of these events can be used to prevent or minimize their impact on the society. In previous studies, two ensemble prediction systems (EPSs) based on perturbing the model initial and boundary conditions were developed and tested for a collection of high-impact MEDEX cyclonic episodes. These EPSs perturb the initial and boundary potential vorticity (PV) field through a PV inversion algorithm. This technique ensures modifications of all the meteorological fields without compromising the mass-wind balance. One EPS introduces the perturbations along the zones of the three-dimensional PV structure presenting the local most intense values and gradients of the field (a semi-objective choice, PV-gradient), while the other perturbs the PV field over the MM5 adjoint model calculated sensitivity zones (an objective method, PV-adjoint). The PV perturbations are set from a PV error climatology (PVEC) that characterizes typical PV errors in the ECMWF forecasts, both in intensity and displacement. This intensity and displacement perturbation of the PV field is chosen randomly, while its location is given by the perturbation zones defined in each ensemble generation method. Encouraged by the good results obtained by these two EPSs that perturb the PV field, a new approach based on a manual perturbation of the PV field has been tested and compared with the previous results. This technique uses the satellite water vapor (WV) observations to guide the correction of initial PV structures. The correction of the PV field intents to improve the match between the PV distribution and the WV image, taking advantage of the relation between dark and bright features of WV images and PV anomalies, under some assumptions. Afterwards, the PV inversion algorithm is applied to run
Annihilation of strained vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimura, Yoshifumi
2014-11-01
As an initial stage of vortex reconnection, approach of nearly anti-parallel vortices has often been observed experimentally and studied numerically. Inspired by the recent experiment by Kleckner and Irvine on the dynamics of knotted vortices, we have studied the motion of two anti-parellel Burgers vortices driven by an axisymmetric linear straining field. We first extend the Burgers vortex solution which is a steady exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equation to a time-dependent exact solution. Then by superposing two such solutions, we investigate the annihilation process analytically. We can demonstrate that during the annihilation process the total vorticity decays exponentially on a time-scale proportional to the inverse of the rate of strain, even as the kinematic viscosity tends to 0. The analytic results are compared with the numerical simulations of two strained vortices with the vortex-vortex nonlinear interaction by Buntine and Pullin.
Longitudinal vortices imbedded in turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehta, R. D.; Shabaka, I. M. M.; Shibl, A.; Bradshaw, P.
1983-01-01
The attenuation of skew-induced longitudinal vortices by turbulent or viscous stresses is studied for the case of pure, artificially-generated longitudinal vortices entrained into initially two-dimensional boundary layers in nominally zero pressure gradients. Three types of vortex-boundary interactions are studied in detail: (1) an isolated vortex in a two-dimensional boundary layer; (2) a vortex pair in a turbulent boundary layer with the common flow between the vortices moving away from the surface; (3) a vortex pair in a boundary layer with the common flow moving towards the surface. Detailed mean flow and turbulence measurements are made, showing that the eddy viscosities defined for the different shear-stress components behave in different and complicated ways. Terms in the Reynolds stress transport equations, notably the triple products that effect turbulent diffusion of Reynolds stress, also fail to obey simple rules.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.
2006-12-01
Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, Bruce J. (Inventor); Carraway, Debra L. (Inventor); Holmes, Harlan K. (Inventor); Moore, Thomas C. (Inventor)
1988-01-01
A crossflow vorticity sensor for the detection of crossflow vorticity characteristics is described. The sensor is comprised of crossflow sensors which are noninvasively adhered to a swept wing laminar surface either singularly, in multi-element strips, in polar patterns, or in orthogonal patterns. These crossflow sensors are comprised of hot-film sensor elements which operate as a constant temperature anemometer circuit to detect heat transfer rate changes. Accordingly, crossflow vorticity characteristics are determined via cross-correlation. In addition, the crossflow sensors have a thickness which does not exceed a maximum value h in order to avoid contamination of downstream crossflow sensors.
The distribution of vorticity in a large vortical motion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Disimile, Peter J.
1988-01-01
An experimental investigation into the distribution of vorticity in the large scale vortical motions which are found in free shear layers was undertaken. Using hot-wire anemometry, both quasi-instantaneous and phase averaged transverse vorticity were acquired. These results appear to indicate that the transverse vorticity in a large scale vortical motion is distributed in a marble cake manner and not in laminated sheets spooled up into a coil or helical spring. Also, levels of vorticity were found to vary by as much as an order of magnitude in these concentrated vortical cores.
Numerical simulation of baroclinic Jovian vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Achterberg, R. K.; Ingersoll, A. P.
1994-02-01
We examine the evolution of baroclinic vortices in a time-dependent, nonlinear numerical model of a Jovian atmosphere. The model uses a normal-mode expansion in the vertical, using the barotropic and first two baroclinic modes. Results for the stability of baroclinic vortices on an f plane in the absence of a mean zonal flow are similar to results of Earth vortex models, although the presence of a fluid interior on the Jovian planets shifts the stability boundaries to smaller length scales. The presence of a barotropic mean zonal flow in the interior stabilizes vortices against instability and significantly modifies the finite amplitude form of baroclinic instabilities. The effect of a zonal flow on a form of barotropic instability produces periodic oscillations in the latitude and longitude of the vortex as observed at the level of the cloud tops. This instability may explain some, but not all, observations of longitudinal oscillations of vortices on the outer planets. Oscillations in aspect ratio and orientation of stable vortices in a zonal shear flow are observed in this baroclinic model, as in simpler two-dimensional models. Such oscillations are also observed in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Neptune. The meridional propagation and decay of vortices on a beta plane is inhibited by the presence of a mean zonal flow. The direction of propagation of a vortex relative to the mean zonal flow depends upon the sign of the meridional potential vorticity gradient; combined with observations of vortex drift rates, this may provide a constraint on model assumption for the flow in the deep interior of the Jovian planets.
Characteristics of internal vortical structures in a merged turbulent spot†
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makita, Hideharu; Nishizawa, Akira
2001-07-01
Interaction phenomena between two turbulent spots were investigated in a zero pressure-gradient laminar boundary layer. Two types of hotwire rakes, a 16-channel I- and a 30-channel X-probe gave clear instantaneous vortical motion inside the spots, showing that the single spot was an aggregation of many small-scale hairpin vortices accompanied by upwashes and downwashes around their legs. The legs, a pair of counter-rotating longitudinal vortices, were identified by the existence of streaky velocity-defect and -excess regions at the bottom of the spot. As the spot grew downstream, the number of longitudinal vortices increased, though its wingtips were always accompanied by upwashes. When two spots were produced in parallel and merged with each other, the upwash of the low-speed fluid was strongly enhanced in their merged part through the mutual interaction between the longitudinal vortices at their inside wingtips. Resultant unstable inflectional velocity profile gave birth to several spanwise vortices around the top of the merged part. These intensified spanwise vortices conformed the heads of horseshoe vortices and grew larger than those around the head of non-interacting isolated spots. Such strengthened horseshoe vortices possibly maintain their geometric identity to the turbulent boundary layer further downstream and initiate the turbulent bulges in it.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillips, Alfred, Jr.
Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mortazavi, M.; Kollmann, W.; Squires, K.
1987-01-01
Vorticity plays a fundamental role in turbulent flows. The dynamics of vorticity in turbulent flows and the effect on single-point closure models were investigated. The approach was to use direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows to investigate the pdf of velocity and vorticity. The preliminary study of homogeneous shear flow has shown that the expectation of the fluctuating pressure gradient, conditioned with a velocity component, is linear in the velocity component, and that the coefficient is independent of velocity and vorticity. In addition, the work shows that the expectation of the pressure gradient, conditioned with a vorticity component, is essentially zero.
Separating Internal Waves and Vortical Structure in the Open Ocean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lauffenburger, N. E.; Sanford, T. B.; Lien, R.
2012-12-01
Deviating from past oceanographic surveys, a new, powerful array of profiling floats has been deployed for three weeks in the Sargasso Sea to monitor the evolving sub-mesoscale field. Using 18-20 EM-APEX floats, profiling to 100 m depth simultaneously, velocity (U and V), temperature, salinity and microstructure measurements (χ) were made on horizontal scales between 100 m and 10 km. This strategy provided a 3-D snapshot of the physical properties every half hour, which significantly reduces temporal aliasing. Area-averaged relative vorticity, vortex stretching, non-linear twisting, horizontal divergence and Ertel's potential vorticity have been computed and projected onto isopycnal surfaces. Since vortical modes carry Ertel's potential vorticity (and internal waves do not), this is a useful step in understanding the energetic contribution of vortical motions to the background internal wave field on small scales. In addition, the temporal material conservation law of Ertel's potential vorticity will be tested for the first time by determining the advection of the floats' measurements relative to the motion of the water parcels and by computing the horizontal gradients of the potential vorticity signal. The three deployments provide data to analyze the interaction of inertial waves, vortical processes and barotropic tides in and out of active frontogenesis.
Macek, Joseph H ORNL
2012-01-01
The time-dependent Schrodinger equation describes dynamical processes of one-electron species in terms of a complex wave function. The function is inherently complex, therefore zeros occur only when both the real and imaginary parts of the wave function vanish. If this happens at isolated points rather than on a nodal surface one can show the zero must correspond to a vortex. An imaging theorem is given which shows how such vortices can be seen experimentally. Since the theorem requires time propagation from microscopic to macroscopic scales, a method is developed that does just that. Examples of vortices that emerge in dynamical processes are given. The vortices that we nd are linked to the hydrodynamic interpretation of Schrodinger's time-dependent equation.
Relaminarization under stationary vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breidenthal, Robert
2005-11-01
Flow visualization reveals that a turbulent boundary layer is relaminarized when stationary streamwise vortices are introduced. Following a suggestion of Balle, the vortices are stabilized by large streamwise ``Karman'' grooves in a wavy wall. In a water tunnel, upstream vortex generators place a large streamwise vortex in the middle of each groove, at the stationary point where Prandtl's vortex force vanishes. According to a theory by Cotel, the wall fluxes of a turbulent boundary layer should decline to laminar values under such ``persistent'' vortices. The observed relaminarization is consistent with this theory and with previous measurements of heat transfer by Touel and Balle. However, the structure of the transverse flow resembles the cats-eye pattern of a temporal shear layer rather than the anticipated von Karman wake. The cats-eye pattern corresponds to the forced shear layers of Oster-Wygnanski and Roberts, who found that the Reynolds stresses and mixing rate also decline to laminar values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olson Reichhardt, C. J.; Hastings, M. B.
2004-04-01
We propose an experiment for directly constructing and locally probing topologically entangled states of superconducting vortices which can be performed with present-day technology. Calculations using an elastic string vortex model indicate that as the pitch (the winding angle divided by the vertical distance) increases, the vortices approach each other. At values of the pitch higher than a maximum value the entangled state becomes unstable to collapse via a singularity of the model. We provide predicted experimental signatures for both vortex entanglement and vortex cutting. The local probe we propose can also be used to explore a wide range of other quantities.
Cosmological perturbations: Vorticity, isocurvature and magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christopherson, Adam J.
2014-10-01
In this paper, I review some recent, interlinked, work undertaken using cosmological perturbation theory — a powerful technique for modeling inhomogeneities in the universe. The common theme which underpins these pieces of work is the presence of nonadiabatic pressure, or entropy, perturbations. After a brief introduction covering the standard techniques of describing inhomogeneities in both Newtonian and relativistic cosmology, I discuss the generation of vorticity. As in classical fluid mechanics, vorticity is not present in linearized perturbation theory (unless included as an initial condition). Allowing for entropy perturbations, and working to second order in perturbation theory, I show that vorticity is generated, even in the absence of vector perturbations, by purely scalar perturbations, the source term being quadratic in the gradients of first order energy density and isocurvature, or nonadiabatic pressure perturbations. This generalizes Crocco's theorem to a cosmological setting. I then introduce isocurvature perturbations in different models, focusing on the entropy perturbation in standard, concordance cosmology, and in inflationary models involving two scalar fields. As the final topic, I investigate magnetic fields, which are a potential observational consequence of vorticity in the early universe. I briefly review some recent work on including magnetic fields in perturbation theory in a consistent way. I show, using solely analytical techniques, that magnetic fields can be generated by higher order perturbations, albeit too small to provide the entire primordial seed field, in agreement with some numerical studies. I close this paper with a summary and some potential extensions of this work.
Continuously tailored Taylor vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sprague, M. A.; Weidman, P. D.
2009-11-01
Modified axisymmetric, finite-length Taylor-Couette (TC) cells with stationary outer cylinder and rotating inner cylinder are designed in an effort to produce simultaneous onset of toroidal vortices of continuously varying wavelength along the gap. For a given axial variation in the inner radius, the axial variation in the outer radius can be chosen such that at every axial position, the criterion for the onset of Taylor vortices in a corresponding classical TC cell is met. In one scenario, a conical inner cylinder is chosen and the shape of the outer cylinder is then determined by locally satisfying the onset criterion. In another scenario, the inner and outer radii are chosen such that the onset criterion is locally satisfied and the axial rate of change in the classical onset wave number is held constant. In both cases, the modified cells possess a large-scale meridional circulation wrought by the finite Ekman (Bödewadt) pumping on the inner (outer) cylinder walls. Using direct numerical simulation, it is found that for sufficiently large aspect ratio, there exists a critical rotation rate for the simultaneous transition from the base flow to counter-rotating toroidal vortices throughout the varying-radius region. The vortices propagate in the direction of decreasing gap width with a phase speed that decreases with increasing aspect ratio.
Vorticity production in shock diffraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, M.; Takayama, K.
2003-03-01
The production of vorticity or circulation production in shock wave diffraction over sharp convex corners has been numerically simulated and quantified. The corner angle is varied from 5° to 180°. Total vorticity is represented by the circulation, which is evaluated by integrating the velocity along a path enclosing the perturbed region behind a diffracting shock wave. The increase of circulation in unit time, or the rate of circulation production, depends on the shock strength and wall angle if the effects of viscosity and heat conductivity are neglected. The rate of vorticity production is determined by using a solution-adaptive code, which solves the Euler equations. It is shown that the rate of vorticity production is independent of the computational mesh and numerical scheme by comparing solutions from two different codes. It is found that larger wall angles always enhance the vorticity production. The vorticity production increases sharply when the corner angle is varied from 15° to 45°. However, for corner angles over 90°, the rate of vorticity production hardly increases and reaches to a constant value. Strong shock waves produce vorticity faster in general, except when the slipstream originating from the shallow corner attaches to the downstream wall. It is found that the vorticity produced by the slipstream represents a large proportion of the total vorticity. The slipstream is therefore a more important source of vorticity than baroclinic effects in shock diffraction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sprague, M. A.; Weidman, P. D.; Macumber, S.; Fischer, P. F.
2008-01-01
The stability of circular Couette flow in discontinuous axisymmetric geometries is investigated using numerical simulations and physical experiments. By contouring the geometry of the inner cylinder, Taylor vortices can be made to appear in discrete sections along the length of the cylinder while adjoining sections remain stable. The disparate flows are connected by transition regions that arise from the stability of the axially nonuniform base flow state. The geometry of the inner cylinder can be tailored to produce the simultaneous onset of Taylor vortices of different wavelength in neighboring sections. In another variant, a stack of inner cylinders of common radius are made to rotate independently to produce adjacent regions of stable and unstable flow.
Toward modeling wingtip vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeman, O.
1993-01-01
Wingtip vortices are generated by lifting airfoils; their salient features are compactness and relatively slow rate of decay. The principal motivation for studying the far field evolution of wingtip vortices is the need to understand and predict the extent of the vortex influence during aircraft take-off or landing. On submarines a wingtip vortex ingested into a propeller can be a source of undesirable noise. The main objectives of this research are (1) to establish theoretical understanding of the principal mechanisms that govern the later (diffusive) stages of a turbulent vortex, (2) to develop a turbulence closure model representing the basic physical mechanisms that control the vortex diffusive stage, and further (3) to investigate coupling between the near and far field evolutions; in other words, to study the effect of initial conditions on the vortex lifetime and the ultimate state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cropp, Bethan; Liberati, Stefano; Turcati, Rodrigo
2016-06-01
In the analog gravity framework, the acoustic disturbances in a moving fluid can be described by an equation of motion identical to a relativistic scalar massless field propagating in curved space-time. This description is possible only when the fluid under consideration is barotropic, inviscid, and irrotational. In this case, the propagation of the perturbations is governed by an acoustic metric that depends algebrically on the local speed of sound, density, and the background flow velocity, the latter assumed to be vorticity-free. In this work we provide a straightforward extension in order to go beyond the irrotational constraint. Using a charged—relativistic and nonrelativistic—Bose–Einstein condensate as a physical system, we show that in the low-momentum limit and performing the eikonal approximation we can derive a d’Alembertian equation of motion for the charged phonons where the emergent acoustic metric depends on flow velocity in the presence of vorticity.
Untangling Superfluid Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleckner, Dustin; Scheeler, Martin W.; Proment, Davide; Irvine, William T. M.
2015-03-01
What is the role of topology, or knottedness, in superfluid phase defects (quantum vortices)? In ideal classical fluids, vortex knots may never untie, and so there is an associated conserved quantity - helicity - which measures how tangled a flow is. One might expect a similar robustness for superfluid defects, however, simulations of the Gross-Pitevskii equation demonstrate that vortex knots and links spontaneously untie and unlink. Nonetheless, the topology dramatically affects the vortex evolution, and a component of the initial helicity is transferred to helical coils as the knots unravel. These effects are remarkably similar to the behavior of tangled vortices in viscous fluids, suggesting they are universal features of non-ideal fluids.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perry, A. E.; Chong, M. S.; Lim, T. T.
1982-01-01
Theoretical and experimental results of studies to determine the flow parameters and structures of plane mixing layers are reported. Smoke visualization, combined with hot-wire anemometry, sheets of laser light, and photography were used to gather data from the wall flow. The behavior of vortex rods was examined, noting that the rods persisted only if new vortex energy was supplied from the sublayer. A power spectral density was defined for the velocity fluctuations, as was a hierarchy of velocity scales for geometrically similar vortices. The length scale grows linearly with downstream distance, where the flow structures are fed by longitudinal vortices. A model is developed for vortex pairing in sequential order from the bottom of the mixing layer outward in a repetitive process involving vortex stretching. The model is actually a migration strategy that satisfies the flow self-preservation constraints.
Axisymmetric Vortices with Swirl
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elcrat, A.
2007-11-01
This talk is concerned with finding solutions of the Euler equations by solving elliptic boundary value problems for the Bragg-Hawthorne equation L u= -urr -(1/r)ur - = r^2f (u) + h(u). Theoretical results have been given for previously (Elcrat and Miller, Differential and Integral Equations 16(4) 2003, 949-968) for problems with swirl and general classes of profile functions f, h by iterating Lu(n+1)= rf(u)n)) + h(u(n)), and showing u(n) converges montonically to a solution. The solutions obtained depend on the initial guess, which can be thought of as prescribing level sets of the vortex. When a computational program was attempted these monotone iterations turned out to be numerically unstable, and a stable computation was acheived by fixing the moment of the cross section of a vortex in the merideanal plane. (This generalizes previous computational results in Elcrat, Fornberg and Miller, JFM 433 2001, (315-328) We obtain famillies of vortices related to vortex rings with swirl, Moffatt's generalization of Hill's vortex and tubes of vorticity with swirl wrapped around the symmetry axis. The vortices are embedded in either an irrotational flow or a flow with shear, and we deal with the transition form no swirl in the vortex to flow with only swirl, a Beltrami flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, D.; Nakamura, N.
2009-12-01
Spontaneous formation of a vorticity staircase and multiple jets is simulated using a one dimensional barotropic model on a beta-plane with parameterized eddy mixing. The model represents nearly inviscid geostrophic turbulence characterized by a uniform forcing of pseudomomentum, nonuniform dissipation due to mixing, and no frictional damping of the mean flow. The dissipation of pseudomomentum (diffusive flux of vorticity) is modeled with the effective diffusivity parameterization proposed recently by Ferrari and Nikurashin(2009). Rossby wave dynamics and upscale energy cascade are not modeled explicitly but implicit in the parameterization. The parameterized effective diffusivity is a decreasing function of squared vorticity gradient, revealing the active role of (potential) vorticity gradient as a barrier to mixing, consistent with the Rossby elasticity idea. Not only does the parameterized diffusivity agree well with the effective diffusivity of a direct numerical simulation, but it allows the 1D model to reproduce other salient features of the direct simulation, most notably the formation of a welldefined vorticity staircase from a uniform vorticity gradient, through inhomogeneous mixing of vorticity. The staircase formation starts as a small-scale, antidiffusive instability in vorticity gradient that develops when the eddy scale is comparable to the Rhines scale. This spawns numerous gaps (barriers) in diffusivity and corresponding small steps in vorticity, but many of them become unstable and disappear later, until a few stable ones remain. The final number of barriers (vorticity steps) is predictable to a good approximation with a few model parameters.
Vorticity in the solar photosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shelyag, S.; Keys, P.; Mathioudakis, M.; Keenan, F. P.
2011-02-01
Aims: We use magnetic and non-magnetic 3D numerical simulations of solar granulation and G-band radiative diagnostics from the resulting models to analyse the generation of small-scale vortex motions in the solar photosphere. Methods: Radiative MHD simulations of magnetoconvection are used to produce photospheric models. Our starting point is a non-magnetic model of solar convection, where we introduce a uniform magnetic field and follow the evolution of the field in the simulated photosphere. We find two different types of photospheric vortices, and provide a link between the vorticity generation and the presence of the intergranular magnetic field. A detailed analysis of the vorticity equation, combined with the G-band radiative diagnostics, allows us to identify the sources and observational signatures of photospheric vorticity in the simulated photosphere. Results: Two different types of photospheric vorticity, magnetic and non-magnetic, are generated in the domain. Non-magnetic vortices are generated by the baroclinic motions of the plasma in the photosphere, while magnetic vortices are produced by the magnetic tension in the intergranular magnetic flux concentrations. The two types of vortices have different shapes. We find that the vorticity is generated more efficiently in the magnetised model. Simulated G-band images show a direct connection between magnetic vortices and rotary motions of photospheric bright points, and suggest that there may be a connection between the magnetic bright point rotation and small-scale swirl motions observed higher in the atmosphere.
Orientation and circulation of vortices in a turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Qi; Ortiz-Dueñas, Cecilia; Longmire, Ellen
2007-11-01
The strengths of individual vortices are important in determining the generation and development of surrounding vortices in turbulent boundary layers. The dual-plane PIV data at z^+ = 110 and z/δ = 0.53 in a turbulent boundary layer at Reτ=1160 obtained by Ganapathisubramani et al. (2006) were investigated. 3D swirl strength was used to identify vortex cores. The eigenvector of the velocity gradient tensor was used to determine the orientation of each core, and the resulting eigenvector direction was compared with the average vorticity direction. Circulation of the cores was calculated using the vorticity vector only and using the vorticity vector projected onto the eigenvector. The probability distribution of the angle between the eigenvector and the vorticity vector indicated a peak at 15-20 degrees. The eigenvector angle distributions indicate that at z^+=110, more hairpin legs cross the measurement plane while at z/δ = 0.53, more heads are evident. Details of the orientation and circulation distributions will be discussed in the presentation.
The treatment of convected vortices in compressible potential flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steinhoff, J.; Ramachandran, K.; Suryanarayanan, K.
1983-01-01
A method is described for incorporating line vortices into the three dimensional compressible potential flow equation. A modified Biot-Savart law is used to compute a vortical velocity field, which is added to the gradient of the potential to form a total velocity. A rapidly converging approximate factorization (AFZ) scheme is then used to compute a potential such that the modified potential flow equation as well as the appropriate boundary conditions, based on total velocity, are satisfied. As part of a coupled iteration procedure, the positions of the line vortices are computed so that they convect with the total flow. The method is used to compute the field due to a single line vortex convecting past a wing. This represents an approximation of the effect of a canard or other lifting surface ahead of the wing, which sheds a tip vortex. It is seen that the flow field is substantially modified by the passage of the vortex. Unlike Euler equation schemes, which are also used to compute these flows, the solutions exhibit no numerical diffusion: The convected vortices retain their initial upstream width. Euler solutions, on the other hand, involve a vorticity which is numerically convected in an Eulerian frame and, unless extensive adaptive grid refinement is used they result in vortices with spread as they convect. Also, the potential flow method requires approximately two orders of magnitude less computing time and much less computer storage than the Euler methods.
Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wade, Angela
2012-01-01
What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…
Defining and Computing Vortices Objectively from the Vorticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haller, George; Hadjighasem, Alireza; Farazmand, Mohammad; Huhn, Florian
2015-11-01
We introduce the notion of rotationally coherent Lagrangian vortices as tubular material surfaces in which fluid elements complete equal bulk material rotation relative to the mean rotation of the fluid. We find that initial positions of such tubes coincide with tubular level surfaces of the Lagrangian-Averaged Vorticity Deviation (LAVD), the trajectory integral of the normed difference of the vorticity from its spatial mean. LAVD-based vortices turn out to be objective, i.e., invariant under time-dependent rotations and translations of the reference frame. In the limit of vanishing Rossby numbers in geostrophic flows, cyclonic LAVD vortex centers can be proven to coincide with the observed attractors for light particles. A similar result holds for heavy particles in anticyclonic LAVD vortices. We also discuss a relationship between rotationally coherent Lagrangian vortices and their instantaneous Eulerian counterparts. The latter are formed by tubular surfaces of equal material rotation rate, objectively measured by the Instantaneous Vorticity Deviation (IVD). We show how the LAVD and the IVD detect rotationally coherent Lagrangian and Eulerian vortices objectively in analytic flow models and numerical flow data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greenblatt, David
2005-01-01
A wind tunnel investigation was carried out on a semi-span wing model to assess the feasibility of controlling vortices emanating from outboard flaps and tip-flaps by actively varying the degree of boundary layer separation. Separation was varied by means of perturbations produced from segmented zero-efflux oscillatory blowing slots, while estimates of span loadings and vortex sheet strengths were obtained by integrating wing surface pressures. These estimates were used as input to inviscid rollup relations as a means of predicting changes to the vortex characteristics resulting from the perturbations. Surveys of flow in the wake of the outboard and tip-flaps were made using a seven-hole probe, from which the vortex characteristics were directly deduced. Varying the degree of separation had a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size for both outboard and tip-flaps. Qualitative changes in vortex characteristics were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations, while the failure to account for viscosity was presumed to be the main reason for observed discrepancies. Introducing perturbations near the outboard flap-edges or on the tip-flap exerted significant control over vortices while producing negligible lift excursions.
Three-dimensional flow visualization and vorticity dynamics in revolving wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Bo; Sane, Sanjay P.; Barbera, Giovanni; Troolin, Daniel R.; Strand, Tyson; Deng, Xinyan
2013-01-01
We investigated the three-dimensional vorticity dynamics of the flows generated by revolving wings using a volumetric 3-component velocimetry system. The three-dimensional velocity and vorticity fields were represented with respect to the base axes of rotating Cartesian reference frames, and the second invariant of the velocity gradient was evaluated and used as a criterion to identify two core vortex structures. The first structure was a composite of leading, trailing, and tip-edge vortices attached to the wing edges, whereas the second structure was a strong tip vortex tilted from leading-edge vortices and shed into the wake together with the vorticity generated at the tip edge. Using the fundamental vorticity equation, we evaluated the convection, stretching, and tilting of vorticity in the rotating wing frame to understand the generation and evolution of vorticity. Based on these data, we propose that the vorticity generated at the leading edge is carried away by strong tangential flow into the wake and travels downwards with the induced downwash. The convection by spanwise flow is comparatively negligible. The three-dimensional flow in the wake also exhibits considerable vortex tilting and stretching. Together these data underscore the complex and interconnected vortical structures and dynamics generated by revolving wings.
Three-dimensional flow visualization and vorticity dynamics in revolving wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Bo; Sane, Sanjay P.; Barbera, Giovanni; Troolin, Daniel R.; Strand, Tyson; Deng, Xinyan
2012-12-01
We investigated the three-dimensional vorticity dynamics of the flows generated by revolving wings using a volumetric 3-component velocimetry system. The three-dimensional velocity and vorticity fields were represented with respect to the base axes of rotating Cartesian reference frames, and the second invariant of the velocity gradient was evaluated and used as a criterion to identify two core vortex structures. The first structure was a composite of leading, trailing, and tip-edge vortices attached to the wing edges, whereas the second structure was a strong tip vortex tilted from leading-edge vortices and shed into the wake together with the vorticity generated at the tip edge. Using the fundamental vorticity equation, we evaluated the convection, stretching, and tilting of vorticity in the rotating wing frame to understand the generation and evolution of vorticity. Based on these data, we propose that the vorticity generated at the leading edge is carried away by strong tangential flow into the wake and travels downwards with the induced downwash. The convection by spanwise flow is comparatively negligible. The three-dimensional flow in the wake also exhibits considerable vortex tilting and stretching. Together these data underscore the complex and interconnected vortical structures and dynamics generated by revolving wings.
Population trends of spanwise vortices in wall turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Y.; Christensen, K. T.
2006-12-01
The present effort documents the population trends of prograde and retrograde spanwise vortex cores in wall turbulence outside the buffer layer. Large ensembles of instantaneous velocity fields are acquired by particle-image velocimetry in the streamwise wall-normal plane of both turbulent channel flow at Re_tauequiv u_*delta/nu=570, 1185 and 1760 and a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer at Re_tau=1400, 2350 and 3450. Substantial numbers of prograde spanwise vortices are found to populate the inner boundary of the log layer of both flows and most of these vortices have structural signatures consistent with the heads of hairpin vortices. In contrast, retrograde vortices are most prominent at the outer edge of the log layer, often nesting near clusters of prograde vortices. Appropriate Reynolds-number scalings for outer- and inner-scaled population densities of prograde and retrograde vortices are determined. However, the Re_tau=570 channel-flow case deviates from these scalings, indicating that it suffers from low-Re effects. When the population densities are recast in terms of fractions of resolved prograde and retrograde spanwise vortices, similarity is observed for 100 {<} y(+ {<} 0.8delta^+) in channel flow and in both flows for 100 {<} y(+ {<} 0.3delta^+) over the Re_tau range studied. The fraction of retrograde vortices increases slightly with Re_tau beyond the log layer in both flows, suggesting that they may play an increasingly important role at higher Reynolds numbers. Finally, while the overall prograde and retrograde population trends of channel flow and the boundary layer show little difference for y {<} 0.45delta, the retrograde populations differ considerably beyond this point, highlighting the influence of the opposing wall in channel flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassanzadeh, Pedram
Large coherent vortices are abundant in geophysical and astrophysical flows. They play significant roles in the Earth's oceans and atmosphere, the atmosphere of gas giants, such as Jupiter, and the protoplanetary disks around forming stars. These vortices are essentially three-dimensional (3D) and baroclinic, and their dynamics are strongly influenced by the rotation and density stratification of their environments. This work focuses on improving our understanding of the physics of 3D baroclinic vortices in rotating and continuously stratified flows using 3D spectral simulations of the Boussinesq equations, as well as simplified mathematical models. The first chapter discusses the big picture and summarizes the results of this work. In Chapter 2, we derive a relationship for the aspect ratio (i.e., vertical half-thickness over horizontal length scale) of steady and slowly-evolving baroclinic vortices in rotating stratified fluids. We show that the aspect ratio is a function of the Brunt-Vaisala frequencies within the vortex and outside the vortex, the Coriolis parameter, and the Rossby number of the vortex. This equation is basically the gradient-wind equation integrated over the vortex, and is significantly different from the previously proposed scaling laws that find the aspect ratio to be only a function of the properties of the background flow, and independent of the dynamics of the vortex. Our relation is valid for cyclones and anticyclones in either the cyclostrophic or geostrophic regimes; it works with vortices in Boussinesq fluids or ideal gases, and non-uniform background density gradient. The relation for the aspect ratio has many consequences for quasi-equilibrium vortices in rotating stratified flows. For example, cyclones must have interiors more stratified than the background flow (i.e., super-stratified), and weak anticyclones must have interiors less stratified than the background (i.e., sub-stratified). In addition, this equation is useful to
Dynamics of vortices in superconductors
Weinan, E.
1992-12-31
We study the dynamics of vortices in type-II superconductors from the point of view of time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations. We outline a proof of existence, uniqueness and regularity of strong solutions for these equations. We then derive reduced systems of ODEs governing the motion of the vortices in the asymptotic limit of large Ginzburg-Landau parameter.
Quantised vortices in polariton lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berloff, Natalia
2015-11-01
The first comprehensive treatment of quantised vorticity in the light of research on vortices in modern fluid mechanics appeared in Russell Donnelly seminal research papers and summarized in his 1991 book ``Quantized Vortices in Helium II''. Recently quantized vortices have been studied in polariton condensates. Polaritons are the mixed light-matter quasi-particles that are formed in the strong exciton-photon coupling regime. Under non-resonant optical excitation rapid relaxation of carriers and bosonic stimulation result in the formation of a non-equilibrium polariton condensate characterized by a single many-body wave-function, therefore, naturally possessing quantized vortices. Polariton condensates can be imprinted into any two-dimensional lattice by spatial modulation of the pumping laser and form vortices via interacting outfows from the pumping sites. Optically pumped polariton condensates can be injected in lattice configurations with arbitrary density profiles offering the possibility to control the kinetics of the condensate and therefore the number and location of vortices. I will present some new developments in theoretical and experimental studies of quantized vortices in polariton condensates and discuss possible practical implementations of polariton lattices.
Flame propagation through periodic vortices
Dold, J.W.; Kerr, O.S.; Nikolova, I.P.
1995-02-01
The discovery of a new class of Navier-Stokes solutions representing steady periodic stretched vortices offers a useful test-bed for examining interactions between flames and complex flow-fields. After briefly describing these vortex solutions and their wide-ranging parameterization in terms of wavelength and amplitude, this article examines their effect on flames of constant normal propagation speed as observed through numerical solutions of an eikonal equation. Over certain ranges of vortex amplitude and flame-speed, a corridor of enhanced flame passage is seen to be created as a leading flame-tip managers to leap-frog between successive vortices. However, for large enough amplitudes of vorticity or small enough flame-speeds, the flame fails to be able to benefit from the advection due to the vortices. It is shown that the leading tips of such flames are effectively trapped by the stretched vortices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassanzadeh, Pedram
Large coherent vortices are abundant in geophysical and astrophysical flows. They play significant roles in the Earth's oceans and atmosphere, the atmosphere of gas giants, such as Jupiter, and the protoplanetary disks around forming stars. These vortices are essentially three-dimensional (3D) and baroclinic, and their dynamics are strongly influenced by the rotation and density stratification of their environments. This work focuses on improving our understanding of the physics of 3D baroclinic vortices in rotating and continuously stratified flows using 3D spectral simulations of the Boussinesq equations, as well as simplified mathematical models. The first chapter discusses the big picture and summarizes the results of this work. In Chapter 2, we derive a relationship for the aspect ratio (i.e., vertical half-thickness over horizontal length scale) of steady and slowly-evolving baroclinic vortices in rotating stratified fluids. We show that the aspect ratio is a function of the Brunt-Vaisala frequencies within the vortex and outside the vortex, the Coriolis parameter, and the Rossby number of the vortex. This equation is basically the gradient-wind equation integrated over the vortex, and is significantly different from the previously proposed scaling laws that find the aspect ratio to be only a function of the properties of the background flow, and independent of the dynamics of the vortex. Our relation is valid for cyclones and anticyclones in either the cyclostrophic or geostrophic regimes; it works with vortices in Boussinesq fluids or ideal gases, and non-uniform background density gradient. The relation for the aspect ratio has many consequences for quasi-equilibrium vortices in rotating stratified flows. For example, cyclones must have interiors more stratified than the background flow (i.e., super-stratified), and weak anticyclones must have interiors less stratified than the background (i.e., sub-stratified). In addition, this equation is useful to
Vorticity scaling and intermittency in drift-interchange plasma turbulence
Dura, P. D.; Hnat, B.; Robinson, J.; Dendy, R. O.
2012-09-15
The effects of spatially varying magnetic field strength on the scaling properties of plasma turbulence, modelled by an extended form of Hasegawa-Wakatani model, are investigated. We study changes in the intermittency of the velocity, density, and vorticity fields, as functions of the magnetic field inhomogeneity C=-{partial_derivative} ln B/{partial_derivative}x. While the velocity fluctuations are always self-similar and their scaling is unaffected by the value of C, the intermittency levels in density and vorticity change with parameter C, reflecting morphological changes in the coherent structures due to the interchange mechanism. Given the centrality of vorticity in conditioning plasma transport, this result is of interest in scaling the results of transport measurements and simulations in tokamak edge plasmas, where drift-interchange turbulence in the presence of a magnetic field gradient is likely to occur.
Vorticity scaling and intermittency in drift-interchange plasma turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dura, P. D.; Hnat, B.; Robinson, J.; Dendy, R. O.
2012-09-01
The effects of spatially varying magnetic field strength on the scaling properties of plasma turbulence, modelled by an extended form of Hasegawa-Wakatani model, are investigated. We study changes in the intermittency of the velocity, density, and vorticity fields, as functions of the magnetic field inhomogeneity C =-∂ ln B/∂x. While the velocity fluctuations are always self-similar and their scaling is unaffected by the value of C, the intermittency levels in density and vorticity change with parameter C, reflecting morphological changes in the coherent structures due to the interchange mechanism. Given the centrality of vorticity in conditioning plasma transport, this result is of interest in scaling the results of transport measurements and simulations in tokamak edge plasmas, where drift-interchange turbulence in the presence of a magnetic field gradient is likely to occur.
Waves and vortices in rotating stratified turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pouquet, Annick; Herbert, Corentin; Marino, Raffaele; Rosenberg, Duane
2015-04-01
The interactions between vortices and waves is a long-standing problem in fluid turbulence. It can lead to a self-sustaining process that is dominant, for example in pipe flows, and to the prediction of large-scale coherent structures such as baroclinic jets in planetary atmospheres, and it can also be used as a control tool for the onset of turbulence. Similarly, the dynamics of the atmosphere and the ocean is dominated by complex interactions between nonlinear eddies and waves due to a combination of rotation and stratification (characterized respectively by frequencies f and N), as well as shear layers. The waves are faster at large scales, and this leads to a quasi-geostrophic quasi-linear regime in which there is a balance between pressure gradient and the Coriolis and gravity forces. The range of scales in these geophysical flows before dissipation prevails is such that other regimes can arise in which turbulence comes into play, with the eddy turn-over time becoming comparable to the wave period, and for which isotropy recovers for sufficiently high Reynolds numbers. One may decompose the flow-- observational, experimental or numerical, in terms of the normal modes that it supports, i.e. the inertia-gravity waves and the (slow, zero frequency) vortical modes carrying the potential vorticity, thanks to the existence of a small parameter, as for example the fluctuation around a mean flow or the ratio of the wave period to the eddy turn-over time. In this context an ensemble of data sets of rotating stratified turbulence will be analyzed, stemming from accurate direct numerical simulations of the Boussinesq equations at high resolution, up to 40963 grid points, using high-performance computing. These flows all support a constant-flux bi-directional cascade of energy towards both the large scales and the small scales. The parameter space includes the Reynolds number, the Prandtl number(s), and the Rossby and Froude numbers, and a universal response to a variety
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Four vortices on doubly periodic paths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rott, Nicholas
1994-02-01
Plane vortex configurations in ideal flow are considered for which the total ``mass'' of the vortex strengths, their ``moments,'' and their ``polar moments of inertia'' all vanish. These properties are conserved for all times. The simplest nontrivial realization of such a configuration requires four vortices. For this case, which belongs to the more extended family of four-vortex problems that are known to be integrable [Phys. Fluids 31, 2796 (1989); Phys. Fluids A 2, 1477 (1990)], some simple closed-form results are given. The analysis shows that the paths are periodic in a ``configuration plane'' moving with the vortices as well as in the absolute fluid plane. A ``winding number'' is determined from the analysis, which gives the ratio of the two periods. Patterns of the vortex paths are determined by a program based on the step-by-step integration of the equations of motion, which is—beyond a certain level of the analysis—still the more practical method of solution. Results showing the typical behavior of the motion paths for different winding numbers are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rossow, Vernon J.
2011-01-01
As part of an ongoing effort to find ways to make vortex flow fields decompose more quickly, photographs and observations are presented of vortex flow fields that indicate the presence of multiple layers of fluid rotating about a common axis. A survey of the literature indicates that multiple-layered vortices form in waterspouts, tornadoes and lift-generated vortices of aircraft. An explanation for the appearance of multiple-layered structures in vortices is suggested. The observations and data presented are intended to improve the understanding of the formation and persistence of vortex flow fields.
Vorticity Transfer in Shock Wave Interactions with Turbulence and Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agui, J. H.; Andreopoulos, J.
1998-11-01
Time-dependent, three-dimensional vorticity measurements of shock waves interacting with grid generated turbulence and concentrated tip vortices were conducted in a large diameter shock tube facility. Two different mesh size grids and a NACA-0012 semi-span wing acting as a tip vortex generator were used to carry out different relative Mach number interactions. The turbulence interactions produced a clear amplification of the lateral and spanwise vorticity rms, while the longitudinal component remained mostly unaffected. By comparison, the tip vortex/shock wave interactions produced a two fold increase in the rms of longitudinal vorticity. Considerable attention was given to the vorticity source terms. The mean and rms of the vorticity stretching terms dominated by 5 to 7 orders of magnitude over the dilitational compression terms in all the interactions. All three signals of the stretching terms manifested very intermittent, large amplitude peak events which indicated the bursting character of the stretching process. Distributions of these signals were characterized by extremely large levels of flatness with varying degrees of skewness. These distribution patterns were found to change only slightly through the turbulence interactions. However, the tip vortex/shock wave interactions brought about significant changes in these distributions which were associated with the abrupt structural changes of the vortex after the interaction.
Vorticity Transport on a Flexible Wing in Stall Flutter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akkala, James; Buchholz, James; Farnsworth, John; McLaughlin, Thomas
2014-11-01
The circulation budget within dynamic stall vortices was investigated on a flexible NACA 0018 wing model of aspect ratio 6 undergoing stall flutter. The wing had an initial angle of attack of 6 degrees, Reynolds number of 1 . 5 ×105 and large-amplitude, primarily torsional, limit cycle oscillations were observed at a reduced frequency of k = πfc / U = 0 . 1 . Phase-locked stereo PIV measurements were obtained at multiple chordwise planes around the 62.5% and 75% spanwise locations to characterize the flow field within thin volumetric regions over the suction surface. Transient surface pressure measurements were used to estimate boundary vorticity flux. Recent analyses on plunging and rotating wings indicates that the magnitude of the pressure-gradient-driven boundary flux of secondary vorticity is a significant fraction of the magnitude of the convective flux from the separated leading-edge shear layer, suggesting that the secondary vorticity plays a significant role in regulating the strength of the primary vortex. This phenomenon is examined in the present case, and the physical mechanisms governing the growth and evolution of the dynamic stall vortices are explored. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research through the Flow Interactions and Control Program monitored by Dr. Douglas Smith, and through the 2014 AFOSR/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program (JA and JB).
Inviscid Interactions Between Wake Vortices and Shear Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zheng, Z. C.; Baek, K.
1998-01-01
Aircraft trailing vortices can be influenced significantly by atmospheric conditions such as crosswind, turbulence, and stratification. According to the NASA 1994 and 1995 field measurement program in Memphis, Tennessee, the descending aircraft wake vortices could stall or be deflected at the top of low-level temperature inversions that usually produce pronounced shear zones. Numerical simulations of vortex/shear interactions with ground effects have been performed by several groups. Burnham used a series of evenly spaced line vortices at a particular altitude to model the ground shear layer of the cross- wind. He found that the wind shear was swept up around the downwind vortex and caused the downwind vortex to move upward, and claimed that the effect was actually produced by the vertical gradient in the wind shear rather than by the wind shear directly, because uniformly distributed wind-shear vortices would have no effect on the trailing vortex vertical motion. Recently, Proctor et al. numerically tested the effects of narrow shear zones on the behavior of the vortex pair, motivated by the observation of the Memphis field data. The shear-layer sensitivity tests indicated that the downwind vortex was more sensitive and deflected to a higher altitude than its upwind counterpart. The downstream vortex contained vorticity of opposite sign to that of the shear. There was no detectable preference for the downwind vortex (or upwind vortex) to weaken (or strengthen) at a greater rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Shouting; Li, Xiaofan; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Shie, Chung-Lin; Lang, Steve
2007-01-01
The relationships between cloud hydrometeors and convective/moist vorticity vectors are investigated using hourly data from a three-dimensional, 5-day cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulation during the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX). Vertical components of convective and moist vorticity vectors are highly correlated with cloud hydrometeors. The vertical components represent the interaction between horizontal vorticity and horizontal moist potential temperature/specific humidity gradient. The vertical components of convective and moist vorticity vectors can be used to study tropical oceanic convection in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional frameworks.
Absolute nuclear material assay
Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.
2012-05-15
A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.
Absolute nuclear material assay
Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.
2010-07-13
A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.
Jupiter's Great Red Spot and other vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marcus, Philip S.
1993-01-01
A theoretical explanation of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) as the self-organization of vorticity in turbulence is presented. A number of properties of the GRS and other Jovian vortices that are unambiguous from the data are listed. The simplest possible model that explains these properties one at a time rather than in a difficult all-encompassing planetary global circulation model is presented. It is shown that Jovian vortices reflect the behavior of quasi-geostrophic (QG) vortices embedded in an east-west wind with bands of uniform potential vorticity. It is argued that most of the properties of the Jovian vortices can be easily explained and understood with QG theory. Many of the signatures of QG vortices are apparent on Voyager images. In numerical and laboratory experiments, QG vortices relax to approximately steady states like the Jovian vortices, rather than oscillating or rotating Kida ellipses.
How rotational vortices enhance transfers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Griffani, D.; Rognon, P.; Metzger, B.; Einav, I.
2013-09-01
Inspired by recent observations of granular flow, we examine how rotational vortices contribute to heat or mass transfer enhancement in a fluid. We use a tracer method to simulate both diffusion and advection in systems of differing intrinsic diffusivities D0, vortex sizes R, vortex rotation frequencies f, and vortex lifetimes ℓ. The results reveal that these systems exhibit an effective diffusive behavior, characterized by an effective diffusivity Deff. A striking finding is the existence of two regimes, dichotomised by the Péclet number Pe = R2f/D0. When the Péclet number is less than one, there is no transfer enhancement, Deff = D0. For higher values, vortices produce some transfer enhancement with a corresponding power law Deff/D0 ≈ Pen. The power n ranges from a lower bound of 0.5 for stationary vortices of lifetime infinity, to an upper bound of 1 for vortices of lifetimes shorter than half a rotation. This difference is attributed to two different internal mechanisms involving the coupling of diffusion and advection. These results could provide new insights on the transfer properties of fluid systems comprising rotational vortices, such as granular materials, suspensions, foams, and emulsions, as well as low Reynolds number stirred flows.
Filamentation with nonlinear Bessel vortices.
Jukna, V; Milián, C; Xie, C; Itina, T; Dudley, J; Courvoisier, F; Couairon, A
2014-10-20
We present a new type of ring-shaped filaments featured by stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions to the laser beam propagation equation. Two different regimes are identified by direct numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of axicon focused Gaussian beams carrying helicity in a Kerr medium with multiphoton absorption: the stable nonlinear propagation regime corresponds to a slow beam reshaping into one of the stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions, called nonlinear Bessel vortices. The region of existence of nonlinear Bessel vortices is found semi-analytically. The influence of the Kerr nonlinearity and nonlinear losses on the beam shape is presented. Direct numerical simulations highlight the role of attractors played by nonlinear Bessel vortices in the stable propagation regime. Large input powers or small cone angles lead to the unstable propagation regime where nonlinear Bessel vortices break up into an helical multiple filament pattern or a more irregular structure. Nonlinear Bessel vortices are shown to be sufficiently intense to generate a ring-shaped filamentary ionized channel in the medium which is foreseen as opening the way to novel applications in laser material processing of transparent dielectrics. PMID:25401574
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Shuai; Gao, Shou-Ting
2014-11-01
For the potential vorticity (PV) invariant, there is a PV-based complete-form vorticity equation, which we use heuristically in the present paper to answer the following question: for the Ertel—Rossby invariant (ERI), is there a corresponding vorticity tendency equation? Such an ERI-based thermally-coupled vorticity equation is derived and discussed in detail in this study. From the obtained new vorticity equation, the vertical vorticity change is constrained by the vertical velocity term, the term associated with the slope of the generalized momentum surface, the term related to the horizontal vorticity change, and the baroclinic or solenoid term. It explicitly includes both the dynamical and thermodynamic factors' influence on the vorticity change. For the ERI itself, besides the traditional PV term, the ERI also includes the moisture factor, which is excluded in dry ERI, and the term related to the gradients of pressure, kinetic energy, and potential energy that reflects the fast-manifold property. Therefore, it is more complete to describe the fast motions off the slow manifold for severe weather than the PV term. These advantages are naturally handed on and inherited by the ERI-based thermally-coupled vorticity equation. Then the ERI-based thermally-coupled vorticity equation is further transformed and compared with the traditional vorticity equation. The main difference between the two equations is the term which describes the contribution of the solenoid term to the vertical vorticity development. In a barotropic flow, the solenoid term disappears, then the ERI-based thermally-coupled vorticity equation can regress to the traditional vorticity equation.
Bottom pressure torque and the vorticity balance from observations in Drake Passage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Firing, Yvonne L.; Chereskin, Teresa K.; Watts, D. Randolph; Mazloff, Matthew R.
2016-06-01
The vorticity balance of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in Drake Passage is examined using 4 years of observations from current- and pressure-recording inverted echo sounders. The time-varying vorticity, planetary and relative vorticity advection, and bottom pressure torque are calculated in a two-dimensional array in the eddy-rich Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ). Bottom pressure torque is also estimated at sites across Drake Passage. Mean and eddy nonlinear relative vorticity advection terms dominate over linear advection in the local (50-km scale) vorticity budget in the PFZ, and are balanced to first order by the divergence of horizontal velocity. Most of this divergence comes from the ageostrophic gradient flow, which also provides a second-order adjustment to the geostrophic relative vorticity advection. Bottom pressure torque is approximately one-third the size of the local depth-integrated divergence. Although the cDrake velocity fields exhibit significant turning with depth throughout Drake Passage even in the mean, surface vorticity advection provides a reasonable representation of the depth-integrated vorticity balance. Observed near-bottom currents are strongly topographically steered, and bottom pressure torques grow large where strong near-bottom flows cross steep topography at small angles. Upslope flow over the northern continental slope dominates the bottom pressure torque in cDrake, and the mean across this Drake Passage transect, 3 to 4×10-9 m s-2, exceeds the mean wind stress curl by a factor of 15-20.
Transport of absolute angular momentum in quasi-axisymmetric equatorial jet streams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Read, P. L.
1986-01-01
It is well known that prograde equatorial jet stresses cannot occur in an axisymmetric inviscid fluid, owing to the constraints of local angular momentum conservation. For a viscous fluid, the constraints of mass conservation prevent the formation of any local maximum of absolute angular momentum (m) without a means of transferring m against its gradient (delta m) in the meridional plane. The circumstances under which m can be diffused up-gradient by normal molecular viscosity are derived, and illustrated with reference to numerical simulations of axisymmetric flows in a cylindrical annulus. Viscosity is shown to act so as to tend to expel m from the interior outwards from the rotation axis. Such an effect can produce local super-rotation even in a mechanically isolated fluid. The tendency of viscosity to result in the expulsion of m is shown to be analogous in certain respects to a vorticity-mixing hypothesis for the effects of non-axisymmetric eddies of the zonally-averaged flow. It is shown how the advective and diffusive transport of m by non-axisymmetric eddies can be represented by the Transformed Eulerian Mean meridional circulation and the Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux of Andrews and McIntyre respectively, in the zonal mean. Constraints on the form and direction of the EP flux in an advective/diffusive flow for such eddies are derived, by analogy with similar constraints on the diffusive flux of m due to viscosity.
Hairpin Vortices: Autogeneration and Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabatino, Daniel; Maharjan, Rijan; Sanders, Andrew
2013-11-01
The regeneration of hairpin vortices is examined in a free-surface water channel where vortices are artificially generated by means of injection in a laminar boundary layer. The process is visualized with dye and hydrogen bubble-wire techniques. The strength of an isolated hairpin required to begin the autogeneration process is established by means of PIV measurements on the symmetry plane. Because hairpins are in close proximity in a fully-turbulent boundary layer, two hairpins are generated at different streamwise locations and allowed to interact at different stages of development. The relative position, strength and maturity of the interacting hairpins that generate secondary vortices are examined. The morphology of the generation process and of the resulting secondary hairpin for both the isolated and interacting cases are discussed and compared to previous work. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant CBET-1040236.
Superconducting vortices in semilocal models.
Forgács, Péter; Reuillon, Sébastien; Volkov, Mikhail S
2006-02-01
It is shown that the SU(2) semilocal model--the Abelian Higgs model with two complex scalars--admits a new class of stationary, straight string solutions carrying a persistent current and having finite energy per unit length. In the plane orthogonal to their direction they correspond to a nontrivial deformation of the embedded Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen (ANO) vortices by the current flowing through them. The new solutions bifurcate with the ANO vortices in the limit of vanishing current. They can be either static or stationary. In the stationary case, the relative phase of the two scalars rotates at constant velocity, giving rise to an electric field and angular momentum, while the energy remains finite. The new static vortex solutions have lower energy than the ANO vortices and could be of considerable importance in various physical systems (from condensed matter to cosmic strings). PMID:16486806
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebeau, Raymond Paul, Jr.
We use the EPIC atmospheric: model, a primitive-equation, isentropic-coordinate GCM, to simulate time-dependent vortices under conditions similar to those found on Neptune. The vortices have roughly elliptical cross- sections and exhibit motions that resemble the behavior of Neptune's Great Dark Spot (GDS), including equatorward drift, nutating oscillations in aspect ratio and orientation angle, and quasi-periodic tail formation. The simulated vortices also exhibit complex, three- dimensional motions that may explain the occasional appearance of the GDS as two overlapping ellipses. We find that the meridional drift of the vortices is strongly correlated with the meridional gradient of the environmental potential vorticity, β*. This result complements related studies of hurricane motions. The correlation suggests that the drift rate of GDS-type vortices on Neptune, which can be monitored over the long term by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is diagnostic of the vorticity gradient on the planet. The best fit to the Voyager GDS drift rate in our simulations corresponds to β*/approx2×10-12/ m-1s- 1. This is about 1/3 of the value given by the zonal- wind profile of Sromovsky et al. (1993), determined by fitting a polynomial in latitude to the cloud-tracking data. We calculate new fit to the same data using Legendre polynomials (spherical harmonics), which yields a significantly lower value for β*, more in line with our vortex-drift results. We show that vortex shape oscillations occur both in cases of zero background potential-vorticity gradient, corresponding to the conditions in analytical Kida-type models of oscillating vortices, and in cases of non-zero background gradient, corresponding to conditions that have not yet been investigated analytically. While the shape oscillations are qualitatively Kida-like, in detail they are distinctly different, suggesting that existing theory may not be sufficient to describe non-uniform, three- dimensional vortices. We
Paraboloids and Vortices in Hydrodynamics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goodman, John M.
1969-01-01
Describes an apparatus designed to demonstrate vortical flow of a fluid. The apparatus consists of a transparent acrylic cylinder, with a drain hole, and mounted so that it can be rotated about its axis at speeds up to 1000 rpm. Experimental observations with water as the fluid under study are reported. (LC)
Combustor with multistage internal vortices
Shang, Jer Y.; Harrington, Richard E.
1989-01-01
A fluidized bed combustor is provided with a multistage arrangement of vortex generators in the freeboard area. The vortex generators are provided by nozzle means which extend into the interior of the freeboard for forming vortices within the freeboard area to enhance the combustion of particulate material entrained in product gases ascending into the freeboard from the fluidized bed. Each of the nozzles are radially inwardly spaced from the combustor walls defining the freeboard to provide for the formation of an essentially vortex-free, vertically extending annulus about the vortices whereby the particulate material centrifuged from the vortices against the inner walls of the combustor is returned through the annulus to the fluidized bed. By adjusting the vortex pattern within the freeboard, a significant portion of the full cross-sectional area of the freeboard except for the peripheral annulus can be contacted with the turbulent vortical flow for removing the particulate material from the gaseous products and also for enhancing the combustion thereof within the freeboard.
Combustor with multistage internal vortices
Shang, Jer Yu; Harrington, R.E.
1987-05-01
A fluidized bed combustor is provided with a multistage arrangement of vortex generators in the freeboard area. The vortex generators are provided by nozzle means which extend into the interior of the freeboard for forming vortices within the freeboard areas to enhance the combustion of particulate material entrained in product gases ascending into the freeboard from the fluidized bed. Each of the nozzles are radially inwardly spaced from the combustor walls defining the freeboard to provide for the formation of an essentially vortex-free, vertically extending annulus about the vortices whereby the particulate material centrifuged from the vortices against the inner walls of the combustor is returned through the annulus to the fluidized bed. By adjusting the vortex pattern within the freeboard, a significant portion of the full cross-sectional area of the freeboard except for the peripheral annulus can be contacted with the turbulent vortical flow for removing the particulate material from the gaseous products and also for enhancing the combustion thereof within the freeboard. 2 figs.
Stochastic Vorticity and Associated Filtering Theory
Amirdjanova, A.; Kallianpur, G.
2002-12-19
The focus of this work is on a two-dimensional stochastic vorticity equation for an incompressible homogeneous viscous fluid. We consider a signed measure-valued stochastic partial differential equation for a vorticity process based on the Skorohod-Ito evolution of a system of N randomly moving point vortices. A nonlinear filtering problem associated with the evolution of the vorticity is considered and a corresponding Fujisaki-Kallianpur-Kunita stochastic differential equation for the optimal filter is derived.
McLeod, Stephen
2014-07-01
Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876
Population Trends of Small-Scale Spanwise Vortices in Wall Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Y.
2005-11-01
The population trends of prograde and retrograde (counter to the sense of the mean shear) spanwise vortex cores are studied via detailed PIV measurements in the streamwise--wall-normal plane of turbulent channel flow at Reτ=566, 1184 and 1759 and in a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer at &+circ;=1401 and 2347. A vortex extraction algorithm is used to isolate individual small-scale spanwise vortex cores from the background turbulence and the population trends of these vortices are studied as a function of Reynolds number and wall-normal position in both flows. Substantial numbers of prograde spanwise vortices with structural signatures consistent with the heads of hairpin-like vortices are found to populate the inner boundary of the log layer. In addition, a significant number of retrograde vortices also exist, sometimes appearing as isolated structures but often forming counter-rotating vortex pairs with the remaining prograde vortices. Retrograde vortices are found to be most prominent near the outer edge of the log layer of both turbulent channel flow and the turbulent boundary layer, indicating that they may be generated locally within the log layer, advected into this region from more-distant wall-normal locations, and/or may be the byproduct of vortex merging. Of particular significance is the observation that the fractions of prograde and retrograde spanwise vortices collapse irrespective of Reynolds-number and flow in the log layer of wall turbulence.
Learning in the temporal bisection task: Relative or absolute?
de Carvalho, Marilia Pinheiro; Machado, Armando; Tonneau, François
2016-01-01
We examined whether temporal learning in a bisection task is absolute or relational. Eight pigeons learned to choose a red key after a t-seconds sample and a green key after a 3t-seconds sample. To determine whether they had learned a relative mapping (short→Red, long→Green) or an absolute mapping (t-seconds→Red, 3t-seconds→Green), the pigeons then learned a series of new discriminations in which either the relative or the absolute mapping was maintained. Results showed that the generalization gradient obtained at the end of a discrimination predicted the pattern of choices made during the first session of a new discrimination. Moreover, most acquisition curves and generalization gradients were consistent with the predictions of the learning-to-time model, a Spencean model that instantiates absolute learning with temporal generalization. In the bisection task, the basis of temporal discrimination seems to be absolute, not relational. PMID:26752233
Intermittency and scaling of vorticity in drift-interchange plasma turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hnat, Bogdan; Dura, Paula; Robinson, James; Dendy, Richard
2012-10-01
Vorticity plays a central role in particle and energy transport driven by fluid and drift turbulence in plasmas with magnetic fields. Characterising the largest spatiotemporal concentrations of vorticity, and quantifying the scaling of vorticity with plasma parameters and system size, is therefore important for tokamak transport studies. We address this using a modified Hasegawa-Wakatani model, extended (J M Dewhurst et al, Phys. Plasmas 16, 072306 (2009)) to include a background magnetic field gradient. Although vorticity is defined in terms of gradients in the underlying fluid velocity, we find that the statistical properties of fluctuations in vorticity can differ significantly from those of fluctuations in velocity and density. We relate this to changes in the morphology of coherent structures within the turbulence, and to the nature of turbulent interactions -- cascade, or few-wave coupling. Some of the key properties depend on the direction of the magnetic field gradient. This may give rise to differences between inboard and outboard edge plasma transport in tokamaks.
Jupiter's closed cyclones and anticyclones vorticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Legarreta, J.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.
2003-05-01
We have measured the motions and derived de velocity field tracking the cloud elements present in Jovian large-scale cyclones and anticyclones. We have used very high spatial resolution images obtained by the Voyager 1 and 2 (in 1979) and the Galileo (1997-1999) spacecrafts. In total we measured motions in 13 vortices covering a range of latitudes from -59 deg to + 41 deg. The tangential component of the velocity as a function of the distance to the vortex centre and position angle is used to retrieve the vorticity field. Then, we compare each vortex mean vorticity with the ambient and planetary vorticities (i. e. with latitude). For most cases studied (11), the vortex vorticity is greater than the ambient vorticity, although two types of vortices showed the same vorticity than the ambient, suggesting that their periphery motions can be entrained by the ambient shear. We present an analysis of the correlations between the mean vorticity and mean zonal motion of each vortex, and the relationship between the ambient to intrinsic vorticity versus the zonal to meridional size ratio. This is used to demonstrate that most vortices do not follow the Kida type vortex relationship. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MCYT PNAYA 2000-0932 and Grupos-UPV/EHU. We acknowledge the access to the Voyager and Galileo images through the NASA - PDS Atmospheric node at NMSU.
Mechanical Control of Individual Superconducting Vortices.
Kremen, Anna; Wissberg, Shai; Haham, Noam; Persky, Eylon; Frenkel, Yiftach; Kalisky, Beena
2016-03-01
Manipulating individual vortices in a deterministic way is challenging; ideally, manipulation should be effective, local, and tunable in strength and location. Here, we show that vortices respond to local mechanical stress applied in the vicinity of the vortex. We utilized this interaction to move individual vortices in thin superconducting films via local mechanical contact without magnetic field or current. We used a scanning superconducting quantum interference device to image vortices and to apply local vertical stress with the tip of our sensor. Vortices were attracted to the contact point, relocated, and were stable at their new location. We show that vortices move only after contact and that more effective manipulation is achieved with stronger force and longer contact time. Mechanical manipulation of vortices provides a local view of the interaction between strain and nanomagnetic objects as well as controllable, effective, and reproducible manipulation technique. PMID:26836018
Mechanical Control of Individual Superconducting Vortices
2016-01-01
Manipulating individual vortices in a deterministic way is challenging; ideally, manipulation should be effective, local, and tunable in strength and location. Here, we show that vortices respond to local mechanical stress applied in the vicinity of the vortex. We utilized this interaction to move individual vortices in thin superconducting films via local mechanical contact without magnetic field or current. We used a scanning superconducting quantum interference device to image vortices and to apply local vertical stress with the tip of our sensor. Vortices were attracted to the contact point, relocated, and were stable at their new location. We show that vortices move only after contact and that more effective manipulation is achieved with stronger force and longer contact time. Mechanical manipulation of vortices provides a local view of the interaction between strain and nanomagnetic objects as well as controllable, effective, and reproducible manipulation technique. PMID:26836018
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robinson, A. P. L.; Schmitz, H.; Fox, T. E.; Pasley, J.; Symes, D. R.
2015-03-01
When strong shocks interact with transverse density gradients, it is well known that vorticity deposition occurs. When two non-planar blast waves interact, a strong shock will propagate through the internal structure of each blast wave where the shock encounters such density gradients. There is therefore the potential for the resulting vorticity to produce pronounced density structures long after the passage of these shocks. If the two blast waves have evolved to the self-similar (Sedov) phase this is not a likely prospect, but for blast waves at a relatively early stage of their evolution this remains possible. We show, using 2D numerical simulations, that the interactions of two 'marginally young' blast waves can lead to strong vorticity deposition which leads to the generation of a strong protrusion and vortex ring as mass is driven into the internal structure of the weaker blast wave.
Breathers on quantized superfluid vortices.
Salman, Hayder
2013-10-18
We consider the propagation of breathers along a quantized superfluid vortex. Using the correspondence between the local induction approximation (LIA) and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we identify a set of initial conditions corresponding to breather solutions of vortex motion governed by the LIA. These initial conditions, which give rise to a long-wavelength modulational instability, result in the emergence of large amplitude perturbations that are localized in both space and time. The emergent structures on the vortex filament are analogous to loop solitons but arise from the dual action of bending and twisting of the vortex. Although the breather solutions we study are exact solutions of the LIA equations, we demonstrate through full numerical simulations that their key emergent attributes carry over to vortex dynamics governed by the Biot-Savart law and to quantized vortices described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The breather excitations can lead to self-reconnections, a mechanism that can play an important role within the crossover range of scales in superfluid turbulence. Moreover, the observation of breather solutions on vortices in a field model suggests that these solutions are expected to arise in a wide range of other physical contexts from classical vortices to cosmological strings. PMID:24182275
Breathers on Quantized Superfluid Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salman, Hayder
2013-10-01
We consider the propagation of breathers along a quantized superfluid vortex. Using the correspondence between the local induction approximation (LIA) and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we identify a set of initial conditions corresponding to breather solutions of vortex motion governed by the LIA. These initial conditions, which give rise to a long-wavelength modulational instability, result in the emergence of large amplitude perturbations that are localized in both space and time. The emergent structures on the vortex filament are analogous to loop solitons but arise from the dual action of bending and twisting of the vortex. Although the breather solutions we study are exact solutions of the LIA equations, we demonstrate through full numerical simulations that their key emergent attributes carry over to vortex dynamics governed by the Biot-Savart law and to quantized vortices described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The breather excitations can lead to self-reconnections, a mechanism that can play an important role within the crossover range of scales in superfluid turbulence. Moreover, the observation of breather solutions on vortices in a field model suggests that these solutions are expected to arise in a wide range of other physical contexts from classical vortices to cosmological strings.
Vortices in vibrated granular rods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neicu, Toni; Kudrolli, Arshad
2002-03-01
We report the first experimental observation of vortex patterns in granular rods inside a container that is vibrated vertically . The experiments were carried out with an anodized aluminum circular container which is rigidly attached to an electromagnetic shaker and the patterns are imaged using a high-frame rate digital camera. At low rod numbers and driving amplitudes, the rods are observed to lie horizontally. Above a critical number or packing fraction of rods, moving domains of vertical rods are spontaneously observed to form which coexist with horizontal rods. These small domains of vertical rods coarsen over time to form a few large vortices. The size of the vortices increases with the number of rods. We are able to track the ends of the vertical rods and obtain the velocity fields of the vortices. The mean azimuthal velocity as a function of distance from the center of the vortex is obtained as a function of the packing fraction. We will report the phase diagram of the various patterns observed as function of number of rods and driving amplitude. The mechanism for the formation and motion of the domains of vertical rods will be also discussed.
Buoyancy-Induced, Columnar Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simpson, Mark; Glezer, Ari
2015-11-01
Free buoyancy-induced, columnar vortices (dust devils) that are driven by thermal instabilities of ground-heated, stratified air in areas with sufficient insolation convert the potential energy of low-grade heat in the surface air layer into a vortex flow with significant kinetic energy. A variant of the naturally-occurring vortex is deliberately triggered and anchored within an azimuthal array of vertical, stator-like flow vanes that form an open-top enclosure and impart tangential momentum to the radially entrained air. This flow may be exploited for power generation by coupling the vortex to a vertical-axis turbine. The fundamental mechanisms associated with the formation, evolution, and dynamics of an anchored, buoyancy-driven columnar vortex within such a facility are investigated experimentally using a heated ground plane. Specific emphasis is placed on the manipulation of the vortex formation and structure and the dependence of the vorticity production and sustainment mechanisms on the thermal resources and characteristic scales of the anchoring flow vanes using stereo-PIV. It is shown that manipulation of the formation and advection of vorticity concentrations within the enclosure can be exploited for increasing the available kinetic energy. Supported by ARPA-E.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2012-05-11
The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less
Moody, A.
2012-05-11
The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, G.; Mozer, F.; Shen, C.; Phan, T.; Parks, G. K.; McFadden, J. P.; Rème, H.; Chen, T.
2015-12-01
By revisiting two Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) vortex events under northward (Hasegawa et al, 2004) and southward (Yan et al, 2014) interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) observed by Cluster and THEMIS respectively, we investigated the ion density gradient at the dusk flank magnetopause with K-H vortices, by using the technique developed by Shen et al (2012) which can calculate the spatial gradient of a physical quantity even when only three-point simultaneous measurements are available or the tetrahedron is highly distorted. With three-point simultaneous observations, two components of the ion density gradient can be calculated in the vortex plane. In the results, we find that: (1) under either northward or southward IMF, cold dense plasma was found in the Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) vortices even when the IMF was southward; (2) in both events, there existed an ion density gradient as large as 0.5 cm-3/Mm for southward IMF and 2.0 cm-3/Mm for southward IMF alongside with K-H vortices in the low latitude boundary layer (LLBL); (3) the dominant direction of the ion density gradient in the vortex plane pointed outward to the magnetopause when the gradient is defined as the increasing direction; (4) in both events, the ion density gradient has positive correlation with the vorticity calculated by the same technique. The ion density gradient driven by K-H vortices indicates that plasma diffusion plays an important role as the micro-physical process of plasma transport into the magnetosphere directly through the LLBL with K-H vortices.
Numerical study of vortical structures around a wall-mounted cubic obstacle in channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Jong-Yeon; Yang, Kyung-Soo
2004-07-01
Vortical structures around a wall-mounted cubic obstacle in channel flow are studied using numerical simulation. Flows of low-to-moderate Reynolds numbers up to Re=3500 are considered. The objective of this work is to elucidate characteristics of coherent vortical structures produced by the presence of the wall-mounted cubic obstacle, including horseshoe vortex systems upstream of the obstacle, lateral vortices in the vicinity of the two lateral faces of the cube, and hairpin vortices in the near-wake region. As the flow approaches the cube, the adverse pressure gradient produces three-dimensional boundary-layer separation, resulting in the formation of laminar horseshoe vortices. As the Reynolds number increases, the structure of the horseshoe vortex system becomes complex and the number of vortices increases in pairs. The distribution of skin friction on the cube-mounted wall reflects the effect of the horseshoe vortices. Unsteady horseshoe vortex systems are hardly found as long as the upstream flow is fully viscous; they are obtained when the cube is placed in the entrance region of a developing channel flow. The unsteady horseshoe vortex systems are characterized by a repeated process of generation, translation, and mutual merging of the vortices. The laminar wake is characterized by a pair of spiral vortices behind the obstacle; distinct singular points are identified leading to consistent flow topology. In the case of a turbulent wake, however, it is observed that the flow becomes less coherent in the near-wall region downstream of the obstacle. Instead, coherent structures such as lateral vortices and hairpin vortices are found in the vicinity of the two lateral faces of the cube and in the turbulent near-wake region, respectively. Quasiperiodic behaviors of those vortices are noticed and their frequencies are computed. The translating speed of the head portion of a hairpin vortex is lower than the streamwise mean velocity at that location. In the vicinity
On the origin of vorticity in magnetic particle suspensions subjected to triaxial fields
Martin, James E.
2016-06-06
We have recently reported that two classes of time-dependent triaxial magnetic fields can induce vorticity in magnetic particle suspensions. The first class – symmetry-breaking fields – is comprised of two ac components and one dc component. The second class – rational triad fields – is comprised of three ac components. In both cases deterministic vorticity occurs when the ratios of the field frequencies form rational numbers. A strange aspect of these fields is that they produce fluid vorticity without generally having a circulating field vector, such as would occur in a rotating field. It has been shown, however, that themore » symmetry of the field trajectory, considered jointly with that of the converse field, allows vorticity to occur around one particular field axis. This axis might be any of the field components, and is determined by the relative frequencies of the field components. However, the symmetry theories give absolutely no insight into why vorticity should occur. In this paper we propose a particle-based model of vorticity in these driven fluids. This model proposes that particles form volatile chains that follow, but lag behind, the dynamic field vector. Furthermore, this model is consistent with the predictions of symmetry theory and gives reasonable agreement with previously reported torque density measurements for a variety of triaxial fields.« less
On the origin of vorticity in magnetic particle suspensions subjected to triaxial fields.
Martin, James E
2016-07-01
We have recently reported that two classes of time-dependent triaxial magnetic fields can induce vorticity in magnetic particle suspensions. The first class - symmetry-breaking fields - is comprised of two ac components and one dc component. The second class - rational triad fields - is comprised of three ac components. In both cases deterministic vorticity occurs when the ratios of the field frequencies form rational numbers. A strange aspect of these fields is that they produce fluid vorticity without generally having a circulating field vector, such as would occur in a rotating field. It has been shown, however, that the symmetry of the field trajectory, considered jointly with that of the converse field, allows vorticity to occur around one particular field axis. This axis might be any of the field components, and is determined by the relative frequencies of the field components. However, the symmetry theories give absolutely no insight into why vorticity should occur. In this paper we propose a particle-based model of vorticity in these driven fluids. This model proposes that particles form volatile chains that follow, but lag behind, the dynamic field vector. This model is consistent with the predictions of symmetry theory and gives reasonable agreement with previously reported torque density measurements for a variety of triaxial fields. PMID:27263641
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deveaud-Plédran, Benoit
2012-02-01
Polariton quantum fluids may be created both spontaneously through a standard phase transition towards a Bose Einstein condensate, or may be resonantly driven with a well-defined speed. Thanks to the photonic component of polaritons, the properties of the quantum fluid may be accessed rather directly with in particular the possibility of detained interferometric studies. Here, I will detail the dynamics of vortices, obtained with a picosecond time resolution, in different configurations, with in particular their phase dynamics. I will show in particular the dynamics the dynamics of spontaneous creation of a vortex, the dissociation of a full vortex into two half vortices as well as the dynamics of the dissociation of a dark soliton line into a street of pairs of vortices. Work done at EPFL by a dream team of Postdocs PhD students and collaborators: K. Lagoudakis, G. Nardin, T. Paraiso, G. Grosso, F. Manni, Y L'eger, M. Portella Oberli, F. Morier-Genoud and the help of our friend theorists V, Savona, M. Vouters and T. Liew.
Chirp-driven giant phase space vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trivedi, Pallavi; Ganesh, Rajaraman
2016-06-01
In a collisionless, unbounded, one-dimensional plasma, modelled using periodic boundary conditions, formation of steady state phase space coherent structures or phase space vortices (PSV) is investigated. Using a high resolution one-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson solver based on piecewise-parabolic advection scheme, the formation of giant PSV is addressed numerically. For an infinitesimal external drive amplitude and wavenumber k, we demonstrate the existence of a window of chirped external drive frequency that leads to the formation of giant PSV. The linear, small amplitude, external drive, when chirped, is shown to couple effectively to the plasma and increase both streaming of "untrapped" and "trapped" particle fraction. The steady state attained after the external drive is turned off and is shown to lead to a giant PSV with multiple extrema and phase velocities, with excess density fraction, defined as the deviation from the Maxwellian background, Δ n / n 0 ≃ 20 % - 25 % . It is shown that the process depends on the chirp time duration Δt. The excess density fraction Δn/n0, which contains both trapped and untrapped particle contribution, is also seen to scale with Δt, only inhibited by the gradient of the distribution in velocity space. Both single step drive and multistep chirp processes are shown to lead to steady state giant PSV, with multiple extrema due to embedded holes and clumps, long after the external drive is turned off.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scott, Richard
2010-05-01
Propagation of planetary-scale Rossby waves within the stratosphere, and hence the location of wave-induced zonal mean momentum forcing and the resulting Brewer-Dobson circulation, is dynamically determined by the distribution of zonal mean potential vorticity. Steep potential vorticity gradients at the vortex edge act both as a wave-guide for upward propagating waves, as well as increasing the resilience of the vortex edge to wave breaking. Further, the potential vorticity distribution imposes a dynamical constraint on the possible latitudinal extent of wavebreaking, and suggests the importance of breaking planetary-scale waves in the stratospheric surf zone for the driving of tropical upwelling in the lowermost stratosphere. Using simple numerical experiments we examine the effect of the potential vorticity distribution on planetary wave propagation and breaking. In these experiments, the potential vorticity distribution may either be varied directly or implicitly through the effect of finite horizontal resolution, which acts to limit the extent to which wave breaking may steepen potential vorticity gradients at the vortex edge. Details of individual wave breaking events and the secondary circulations they induce are highly sensitive to the potential vorticity distribution, and, in particular, to horizontal resolution. However, in long, forced-dissipative integrations, bulk quantities such as the total time-average tropical upwelling in the lowermost stratosphere appear relatively insensitive to horizontal resolution.
Plane mixing layer vortical structure kinematics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leboeuf, Richard L.
1993-01-01
The objective of the current project was to experimentally investigate the structure and dynamics of the streamwise vorticity in a plane mixing layer. The first part of this research program was intended to clarify whether the observed decrease in mean streamwise vorticity in the far-field of mixing layers is due primarily to the 'smearing' caused by vortex meander or to diffusion. Two-point velocity correlation measurements have been used to show that there is little spanwise meander of the large-scale streamwise vortical structure. The correlation measurements also indicate a large degree of transverse meander of the streamwise vorticity which is not surprising since the streamwise vorticity exists in the inclined braid region between the spanwise vortex core regions. The streamwise convection of the braid region thereby introduces an apparent transverse meander into measurements using stationary probes. These results corroborated with estimated secondary velocity profiles in which the streamwise vorticity produces a signature which was tracked in time.
Numerical evaluation of gas core length in free surface vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cristofano, L.; Nobili, M.; Caruso, G.
2014-11-01
The formation and evolution of free surface vortices represent an important topic in many hydraulic intakes, since strong whirlpools introduce swirl flow at the intake, and could cause entrainment of floating matters and gas. In particular, gas entrainment phenomena are an important safety issue for Sodium cooled Fast Reactors, because the introduction of gas bubbles within the core causes dangerous reactivity fluctuation. In this paper, a numerical evaluation of the gas core length in free surface vortices is presented, according to two different approaches. In the first one, a prediction method, developed by the Japanese researcher Sakai and his team, has been applied. This method is based on the Burgers vortex model, and it is able to estimate the gas core length of a free surface vortex starting from two parameters calculated with single-phase CFD simulations. The two parameters are the circulation and the downward velocity gradient. The other approach consists in performing a two-phase CFD simulation of a free surface vortex, in order to numerically reproduce the gas- liquid interface deformation. Mapped convergent mesh is used to reduce numerical error and a VOF (Volume Of Fluid) method was selected to track the gas-liquid interface. Two different turbulence models have been tested and analyzed. Experimental measurements of free surface vortices gas core length have been executed, using optical methods, and numerical results have been compared with experimental measurements. The computational domain and the boundary conditions of the CFD simulations were set consistently with the experimental test conditions.
Theory and simulations of electron vortices generated by magnetic pushing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richardson, A. S.; Angus, J. R.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Ottinger, P. F.; Schumer, J. W.
2013-08-01
Vortex formation and propagation are observed in kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of magnetic pushing in the plasma opening switch. These vortices are studied here within the electron-magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) approximation using detailed analytical modeling. PIC simulations of these vortices have also been performed. Strong v ×B forces in the vortices give rise to significant charge separation, which necessitates the use of the EMHD approximation in which ions are fixed and the electrons are treated as a fluid. A semi-analytic model of the vortex structure is derived, and then used as an initial condition for PIC simulations. Density-gradient-dependent vortex propagation is then examined using a series of PIC simulations. It is found that the vortex propagation speed is proportional to the Hall speed vHall≡cB0/4πneeLn. When ions are allowed to move, PIC simulations show that the electric field in the vortex can accelerate plasma ions, which leads to dissipation of the vortex. This electric field contributes to the separation of ion species that has been observed to occur in pulsed-power experiments with a plasma-opening switch.
Polarization of massive fermions in a vortical fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Ren-hong; Pang, Long-gang; Wang, Qun; Wang, Xin-nian
2016-08-01
Fermions become polarized in a vortical fluid due to spin-vorticity coupling. Such a polarization can be calculated from the Wigner function in a quantum kinetic approach. By extending previous results for chiral fermions, we derive the Wigner function for massive fermions up to next-to-leading order in spatial gradient expansion. The polarization density of fermions can be calculated from the axial vector component of the Wigner function and is found to be proportional to the local vorticity ω . The polarizations per particle for fermions and antifermions decrease with the chemical potential and increase with energy (mass). Both quantities approach the asymptotic value ℏ ω /4 in the large energy (mass) limit. The polarization per particle for fermions is always smaller than that for antifermions, whose ratio of fermions to antifermions also decreases with the chemical potential. The polarization per particle on the Cooper-Frye freeze-out hypersurface can also be formulated and is consistent with the previous result of Becattini et al.
Heat-Transfer Enhancement by Artificially Generated Streamwise Vorticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghanem, Akram; Habchi, Charbel; Lemenand, Thierry; Della Valle, Dominique; Peerhossaini, Hassan
2012-11-01
Vortex-induced heat transfer enhancement exploits longitudinal and transverse pressure-driven vortices through the deliberate artificial generation of large-scale vortical flow structures. Thermal-hydraulic performance, Nusselt number and friction factor are experimentally investigated in a HEV (high-efficiency vortex) mixer, which is a tubular heat exchanger and static mixer equipped with trapezoidal vortex generators. Pressure gradients are generated on the trapezoidal tab initiating a streamwise swirling motion in the form of two longitudinal counter-rotating vortex pairs (CVP). Due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, the shear layer generated at the tab edges, which is a production site of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), becomes unstable further downstream from the tabs and gives rise to periodic hairpin vortices. The aim of the study is to quantify the effects of hydrodynamics on the heat- and masstransfer phenomena accompanying such flows for comparison with the results of numerical studies and validate the high efficiency of the intensification process implementing such vortex generators. The experimental results reflect the enhancement expected from the numerical studies and confirm the high status of the HEV heat exchanger and static mixer.
Two applications of potential vorticity thinking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, Walter A.
1987-01-01
The phenomena of dissipative destabilization of external Rossby waves and the acceleration of the zonal mean jet during baroclinic life cycles are described in terms of potential vorticity. The main principle of the potential temperature variations at rigid boundaries have the same effect on the interior flow as do sheets of potential vorticity located just within the boundaries. It is noted that the potential vorticity theory is useful for understanding the dynamical behavior of meterological phenomena.
Aircraft trailing vortices: an introduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacquin, Laurent
2005-05-01
Flow momentum that is deflected in a persistent way by a wing, or by another flow, becomes organised in coherent and energetic vortex structures. This phenomenon is briefly introduced here by comparison with other phenomena such as the production of vortices by impulsive forces (e.g. during animal flight), or the production of turbulence by jets. These considerations aim at underlining the fundamental nature of this strange mechanism, which is usually hidden behind engineering models produced by aerodynamic science. The control of these mechanisms, for applications to the safety of the airplanes for example, opens a vast multidisciplinary field of research. To cite this article: L. Jacquin, C. R. Physique 6 (2005).
Making sound vortices by metasurfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Liping; Qiu, Chunyin; Lu, Jiuyang; Tang, Kun; Jia, Han; Ke, Manzhu; Peng, Shasha; Liu, Zhengyou
2016-08-01
Based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, a metasurface structure is designed to generate a sound vortex beam in airborne environment. The metasurface is constructed by a thin planar plate perforated with a circular array of deep subwavelength resonators with desired phase and amplitude responses. The metasurface approach in making sound vortices is validated well by full-wave simulations and experimental measurements. Potential applications of such artificial spiral beams can be anticipated, as exemplified experimentally by the torque effect exerting on an absorbing disk.
Vortices on surfaces with cylindrical ends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venugopalan, Sushmita
2015-12-01
We consider Riemann surfaces obtained from nodal curves with infinite cylinders in the place of nodal and marked points, and study the space of finite energy vortices defined on these surfaces. To compactify the space of vortices, we need to consider stable vortices - these incorporate breaking of cylinders and sphere bubbling in the fibers. In this paper, we prove that the space of gauge equivalence classes of stable vortices representing a fixed equivariant homology class is compact and Hausdorff under the Gromov topology. We also show that this space is homeomorphic to the moduli space of quasimaps defined by Ciocan-Fontanine et al. (2014).
Quantized vortices around wavefront nodes, 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hirschfelder, J. O.; Goebel, C. J.; Bruch, L. W.
1974-01-01
Quantized vortices can occur around nodal points in wavefunctions. The derivation depends only on the wavefunction being single valued, continuous, and having continuous first derivatives. Since the derivation does not depend upon the dynamical equations, the quantized vortices are expected to occur for many types of waves such as electromagnetic and acoustic. Such vortices have appeared in the calculations of the H + H2 molecular collisions and play a role in the chemical kinetics. In a companion paper, it is shown that quantized vortices occur when optical waves are internally reflected from the face of a prism or particle beams are reflected from potential energy barriers.
A reinterpretation of the distribution of vortical structure in wall turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKeon, Beverley; Jacobi, Ian; Sharma, Ati
2010-11-01
The critical layer framework for turbulent pipe flow proposed by McKeon & Sharma (J. Fluid Mech, 2010, see also the DFD-2010 presentation on `Structure from the critical layer framework in turbulent flow' by Sharma & McKeon) provides a model by which the distribution of hairpin-like vortices in wall turbulence can be reinterpreted. The model is used to demonstrate that the shear associated with the wall-normal variation of the mean velocity profile suppresses so-called retrograde vortices. Analysis of PIV images in the streamwise/wall-normal plane of a relatively low Reynolds number, zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer shows that the use of a Gallilean invariant decomposition of the velocity field prior to the calculation of swirl, i.e. subtraction of a constant convection velocity from the field, leads to a distorted count of the apparent number of retrograde spanwise vortices. By comparison, the result of a Reynolds decomposition suggests an essentially even distribution between prograde vortices (identified by many researchers as the heads of hairpin vortices) and retrograde ones, (i.e. vortices with the opposite sense of rotation) in agreement with the critical layer model.
Kempka, S.N.; Strickland, J.H.
1993-08-01
A numerical method to simulate viscous diffusion of vorticity using vortex blobs (i.e., without a grid) is presented. The method consists of casting the effects of viscous diffusion into an effective ``diffusion velocity`` at which vortex blobs convect. The diffusion velocity was proposed previously by Ogami and Akamatsu, but they did not consider the effects of the divergence of the diffusion velocity. In fact, the diffusion velocity is highly non-solenoidal, which significantly affects the area over which a vortex blob diffuses. A formulation is presented that relates the area expansion to the diffusion velocity divergence. By taking into account the area expansion, more accurate simulations of diffusion are obtained, as demonstrated by a comparison of numerical and analytical diffusion solutions. Results from simulations show that vortex areas expand significantly in regions of large vorticity gradients. As a result of the area expansion, adjacent vortices remain overlapped, thereby maintaining smooth solution fields. The non-solenoidal diffusion velocity method is easily implemented in vortex blob algorithms, thus facilitating the development of vortex methods to simulate flows with finite Reynolds numbers.
Criterion for Identifying Vortices in High-Pressure Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bellan, Josette; Okong'o, Nora
2007-01-01
A study of four previously published computational criteria for identifying vortices in high-pressure flows has led to the selection of one of them as the best. This development can be expected to contribute to understanding of high-pressure flows, which occur in diverse settings, including diesel, gas turbine, and rocket engines and the atmospheres of Jupiter and other large gaseous planets. Information on the atmospheres of gaseous planets consists mainly of visual and thermal images of the flows over the planets. Also, validation of recently proposed computational models of high-pressure flows entails comparison with measurements, which are mainly of visual nature. Heretofore, the interpretation of images of high-pressure flows to identify vortices has been based on experience with low-pressure flows. However, high-pressure flows have features distinct from those of low-pressure flows, particularly in regions of high pressure gradient magnitude caused by dynamic turbulent effects and by thermodynamic mixing of chemical species. Therefore, interpretations based on low-pressure behavior may lead to misidentification of vortices and other flow structures in high-pressure flows. The study reported here was performed in recognition of the need for one or more quantitative criteria for identifying coherent flow structures - especially vortices - from previously generated flow-field data, to complement or supersede the determination of flow structures by visual inspection of instantaneous fields or flow animations. The focus in the study was on correlating visible images of flow features with various quantities computed from flow-field data.
Atmospheric Vortices in Shallow Convection.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hess, G. D.; Spillane, K. T.; Lourensz, R. S.
1988-03-01
Observations of funnel clouds over Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia, indicate that they occur during outbreaks of cool air from the Southern Ocean advecting over the relatively warm bay waters. These clouds act as tracers for shallow convection vortices with dynamics similar to large dust devils. The related phenomena of waterspouts and tornadoes differ from these vortices by requiring deep convection and downdraft and updraft interactions associated with rain processes.Deardorff (1978a) suggests that a necessary condition for the formation of dust devils is /L of the order of 100 or more, where h is the convective boundary layer height and L the Obukhov length. Calculations of /L over the bay and over land for the days of observation are consistent with this suggestion. They indicate that significant rotation may occur at /L as low as 50. This information, if confirmed, may make it possible to use boundary layer numerical models to forecast likely conditions of dust devil occurrence over mesoscale regions, which would be of benefit to pilots of light aircraft and helicopters.
Tunneling decay of false vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han
2013-10-01
We consider the decay of vortices trapped in the false vacuum of a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. The potential is inspired by models with intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that completely breaks a U(1) symmetry, while in the true vacuum, the symmetry is unbroken. The false vacuum is unstable through the formation of true vacuum bubbles; however, the rate of decay can be extremely long. On the other hand, the false vacuum can contain metastable vortex solutions. These vortices contain the true vacuum inside in addition to a unit of magnetic flux and the appropriate topologically nontrivial false vacuum outside. We numerically establish the existence of vortex solutions which are classically stable; however, they can decay via tunneling. In general terms, they tunnel to a configuration which is a large, thin-walled vortex configuration that is now classically unstable to the expansion of its radius. We compute an estimate for the tunneling amplitude in the semiclassical approximation. We believe our analysis would be relevant to superconducting thin films or superfluids.
Coexistence of Jets and Vortices in Anelastic Numerical Models of Deep Convection in Giant Planets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heimpel, Moritz; Gastine, Thomas; Wicht, Johannes
2014-05-01
Observations of cloud motions reveal strong zonal flows and vortices on all four giant planets. Jupiter and Saturn feature a strong prograde equatorial flow and higher latitude jets that alternate in latitude between prograde and retrograde flow directions. These higher latitude zonal flows seem to be stable over long timescales, and exhibit a rough symmetry between cyclonic and anticyclonic shear zones. In contrast to this shear zone symmetry, vortices on Jupiter show a clear asymmetry between cyclones and anticyclones, and both Jupiter and Saturn have vortices with a large range of observed sizes and lifetimes. We have used the benchmarked 3D spherical anelastic convection code MagIC to investigate the relationship between zonal jets and vortices. Rotating deep convection is modelled for relatively thin spherical shells. We study the effect of varying the radial background density variation and the thermal boundary conditions on the formation of jets and vortices. We find that, whereas the formation of jets is relatively insensitive to these conditions, vortex formation and dynamics depends strongly on them. For constant entropy difference between top and bottom boundaries, models with strong radial density gradients form alternating, zonal flows, and very small-scale flow and vorticity structures at the outer boundary. Models driven by constant convective entropy flux at the bottom, and small convective, or reversed entropy flux at the top, also can produce multiple zonal jets. However, these models, with a nearly neutral or stably stratified background vertical thermal structure near the outer boundary, can produce vortices of larger scale and lifetime. In particular, anticyclonic vortices with large lateral scales tend to form in the first anticyclonic shear zone, away from the equatorial jet. These model results have implications for the formation of of Jupiter's Great Red Spot.
On generating counter-rotating streamwise vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winoto, S. H.; Mitsudharmadi, H.; Budiman, A. C.; Hasheminejad, S. M.; Nadesan, T.; Tandiono; Low, H. T.; Lee, T. S.
2015-09-01
Counter-rotating streamwise vortices are known to enhance the heat transfer rate from a surface and also to improve the aerodynamic performance of an aerofoil. In this paper, some methods to generate such counter-rotating vortices using different methods or physical conditions will be briefly considered and discussed.
Flute vortices in nonuniform magnetic fields
Yu, M.Y.; Shukla, P.K.; Varma, R.K.
1985-09-01
Localized double vortices associated with the flute modes are shown to exist. Special emphasis is given to the effect of the convective variation of the fluid magnetic moment. It is shown that the latter effect considerably modifies the existence regions of the vortices.
Optical vortices generation using the Wollaston prism
Kurzynowski, Piotr; Wozniak, Wladyslaw A.; Fraczek, Ewa
2006-10-20
A new setup of interferometers is proposed in which the set of specific optical markers - optical vortices - could be generated. The classical Mach-Zender two-beam interferometer has been modernized using the Wollaston prism. In this setup, the optical vortices could be obtained for a wide range of both beam parameters. The numerical analysis and experiments confirm our theoretical predictions.
Vortices in normal part of proximity system
Kogan, V. G.
2015-05-26
It is shown that the order parameter Δ induced in the normal part of superconductor-normal-superconductor proximity system is modulated in the magnetic field differently from vortices in bulk superconductors. Whereas Δ turns zero at vortex centers, the magnetic structure of these vortices differs from that of Abrikosov's.
Nonquasineutral electron vortices in nonuniform plasmas
Angus, J. R.; Richardson, A. S.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Schumer, J. W.; Ottinger, P. F.
2014-11-15
Electron vortices are observed in the numerical simulation of current carrying plasmas on fast time scales where the ion motion can be ignored. In plasmas with nonuniform density n, vortices drift in the B × ∇n direction with a speed that is on the order of the Hall speed. This provides a mechanism for magnetic field penetration into a plasma. Here, we consider strong vortices with rotation speeds V{sub ϕ} close to the speed of light c where the vortex size δ is on the order of the magnetic Debye length λ{sub B}=|B|/4πen and the vortex is thus nonquasineutral. Drifting vortices are typically studied using the electron magnetohydrodynamic model (EMHD), which ignores the displacement current and assumes quasineutrality. However, these assumptions are not strictly valid for drifting vortices when δ ≈ λ{sub B}. In this paper, 2D electron vortices in nonuniform plasmas are studied for the first time using a fully electromagnetic, collisionless fluid code. Relatively large amplitude oscillations with periods that correspond to high frequency extraordinary modes are observed in the average drift speed. The drift speed W is calculated by averaging the electron velocity field over the vorticity. Interestingly, the time-averaged W from these simulations matches very well with W from the much simpler EMHD simulations even for strong vortices with order unity charge density separation.
Complex Convective Thermal Fluxes and Vorticity Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Redondo, Jose M.; Tellez, Jackson; Sotillos, Laura; Lopez Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar; Sanchez, Jesus M.; Furmanek, Petr; Diez, Margarita
2015-04-01
Local Diffusion and the topological structure of vorticity and velocity fields is measured in the transition from a homogeneous linearly stratified fluid to a cellular or layered structure by means of convective cooling and/or heating[1,2]. Patterns arise by setting up a convective flow generated by an array of Thermoelectric devices (Peltier/Seebeck cells) these are controlled by thermal PID generating a buoyant heat flux [2]. The experiments described here investigate high Prandtl number mixing using brine and fresh water in order to form density interfaces and low Prandtl number mixing with temperature gradients. The set of dimensionless parameters define conditions of numeric and small scale laboratory modeling of environmental flows. Fields of velocity, density and their gradients were computed and visualized [3,4]. When convective heating and cooling takes place the combination of internal waves and buoyant turbulence is much more complicated if the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers are high in order to study entrainment and mixing. Using ESS and selfsimilarity structures in the velocity and vorticity fieds and intermittency [3,5] that forms in the non-homogeneous flow is related to mixing and stiring. The evolution of the mixing fronts are compared and the topological characteristics of the merging of plumes and jets in different configurations presenting detailed comparison of the evolution of RM and RT, Jets and Plumes in overall mixing. The relation between structure functions, fractal analysis and spectral analysis can be very useful to determine the evolution of scales. Experimental and numerical results on the advance of a mixing or nonmixing front occurring at a density interface due to body forces [6]and gravitational acceleration are analyzed considering the fractal and spectral structure of the fronts like in removable plate experiments for Rayleigh-Taylor flows. The evolution of the turbulent mixing layer and its complex configuration is studied
Complex Convective Thermal Fluxes and Vorticity Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Redondo, Jose M.; Tellez, Jackson; Sotillos, Laura; Lopez Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar; Sanchez, Jesus M.; Furmanek, Petr; Diez, Margarita
2015-04-01
Local Diffusion and the topological structure of vorticity and velocity fields is measured in the transition from a homogeneous linearly stratified fluid to a cellular or layered structure by means of convective cooling and/or heating[1,2]. Patterns arise by setting up a convective flow generated by an array of Thermoelectric devices (Peltier/Seebeck cells) these are controlled by thermal PID generating a buoyant heat flux [2]. The experiments described here investigate high Prandtl number mixing using brine and fresh water in order to form density interfaces and low Prandtl number mixing with temperature gradients. The set of dimensionless parameters define conditions of numeric and small scale laboratory modeling of environmental flows. Fields of velocity, density and their gradients were computed and visualized [3,4]. When convective heating and cooling takes place the combination of internal waves and buoyant turbulence is much more complicated if the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers are high in order to study entrainment and mixing. Using ESS and selfsimilarity structures in the velocity and vorticity fieds and intermittency [3,5] that forms in the non-homogeneous flow is related to mixing and stiring. The evolution of the mixing fronts are compared and the topological characteristics of the merging of plumes and jets in different configurations presenting detailed comparison of the evolution of RM and RT, Jets and Plumes in overall mixing. The relation between structure functions, fractal analysis and spectral analysis can be very useful to determine the evolution of scales. Experimental and numerical results on the advance of a mixing or nonmixing front occurring at a density interface due to body forces [6]and gravitational acceleration are analyzed considering the fractal and spectral structure of the fronts like in removable plate experiments for Rayleigh-Taylor flows. The evolution of the turbulent mixing layer and its complex configuration is studied
Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leviton, Douglas B.
2006-01-01
An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the
Relative equilibria of vortices in two dimensions.
Palmore, J I
1982-01-01
An old problem of the evolution of finitely many interacting point vortices in the plane is shown to be amenable to investigation by critical point theory in a way that is identical to the study of the planar n-body problem of celestial mechanics. For any choice of positive circulations of the vortices it is shown by critical point theory applied to Kirchhoff's function that there are many relative equilibria configurations. Each of these configurations gives rise to a stationary configuration of the vortices in a suitably chosen rotating coordinate system. A sharp lower bound on the number of stationary vortex configurations for the problem of point vortices interacting in the plane is given. The problem of point vortices in a circular disk is defined and it is shown that these estimates hold for stationary configurations of small size. PMID:16593155
Vorticity generation by contoured wall injectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waitz, Ian A.; Marble, Frank E.; Zukoski, Edward E.
1992-01-01
A class of contoured wall fuel injectors was designed to enable shock-enhancement of hypervelocity mixing for supersonic combustion ramjet applications. Previous studies of these geometries left unresolved questions concerning the relative importance of various axial vorticity sources in mixing the injectant with the freestream. The present study is a numerical simulation of two generic fuel injectors which is aimed at elucidating the relative roles of axial vorticity sources including: baroclinic torque through shock-impingement, cross-stream shear, turning of boundary layer vorticity, shock curvature, and diffusive flux. Both the magnitude of the circulation, and the location of vorticity with respect to the mixing interface were considered. Baroclinic torque and cross-stream shear were found to be most important in convectively mixing the injectant with the freestream, with the former providing for deposition of vorticity directly on the fuel/air interface.
Electrothermal blinking vortices for chaotic mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loire, Sophie; Kauffmann, Paul; Gimenez, Paul; Meinhart, Carl; Mezic, Igor
2012-11-01
We present an experimental and theoretical study of electrothermal chaotic mixing using blinking of asymmetric 2D electrothermal vortices. Electrothermal flows are modelled with 2D finite element method using COMSOL software based on an enhanced electrothermal model. Velocities in top-view and side-view devices are measured by micro particle image velocimetry (μPIV). The experimentally reconstructed velocity profile shows a dramatic asymmetry between the two vortices, in good agreement with the FEM model. The separation line between the two vortices is shifted and tilted making the blinking vortices overlap. We use the mix-variance coefficient (MVC) on experimental particle detection data and numerical trajectory simulations to evaluate mixing at different scales including the layering of fluid interfaces by the flow, a keypoint for efficient mixing. The blinking vortices method greatly improve mixing efficiency. Theoretical, experimental and simulation results of the mixing process will be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazar, A.; Stegner, A.; Heifetz, E.
2012-04-01
The stability of axisymmetric oceanic-like vortices to inertial perturbations is investigated by means of linear stability analysis, taking into account the thickness and the stratification of the thermocline, as well as the vertical eddy viscosity. The model considers different types of circular barotropic vortices in a linearly stratified shallow layer confined with rigid lids. In this case the aspect ratio (thermocline height to vortex radius ratio) should be added to the parameters that control the stability for columnar vortices, which are the stratification, and the Ekman and Rossby numbers. We show that for strong stratification the Burger number (the radius of the vortex in relation to the Rossby radius of deformation) replaces the aspect ratio and the stratification parameter, and then only three parameters are needed. Numerical analysis reveals that if the intensity of the vortex is characterized by the vortex Rossby number, then for monotonic and non-isolated vortices, the instability is not sensitive to the vorticity profile. This allows extending our analytical solutions for the Rankine vortex to a wide variety of oceanic cases, including results such as the analytic dispersion relation, and the marginal stability criterion. This criterion suits oceanic conditions better than the generalized Rayleigh criterion, which is only valid for non-dissipative and non-stratified eddies. Comparison with literature oceanographic data shows that our criterion allows for cases that seem to contradict the common oceanographic hypothesis for inertial instability: 1. Intense submesoscale anticyclones may be stable even with a core region of negative absolute vorticity; and on the other hand, 2. mesoscale vortices can be unstable. We corroborate our findings with large-scale laboratory experiments, performed at the LEGI-Coriolis platform.
OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.
2007-09-10
Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.
Turbulent vortices in stratified fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hecht, A. M.; Bilanin, A. J.; Hirsh, J. E.; Snedeker, R. S.
1979-01-01
In the present paper, calculations, made with the finite difference axisymmetric WAKE computer code, of the influence of turbulence and stratification on the behavior of vortex rings are compared with experimental data. Calculations, made with the two-dimensional version of the code, are used to study the behavior of vortex pairs in stably stratified atmospheres for a range of Froude numbers. Stratification is shown to have a profound effect on the radius of a vortex ring descending into a stably stratified fluid. The separation of the vortices of a vortex pair remains nearly constant or decreases monotonically with increasing penetration of a stably stratified fluid, depending on whether the stratification is discontinuous or linear. An analysis based on an energy balance is used to assess the maximum descent of a vortex pair in a stably stratified fluid.
Twist Helicity in Classical Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheeler, Martin W.; Kedia, Hridesh; Kleckner, Dustin; Irvine, William T. M.
2015-11-01
Recent experimental work has demonstrated that a partial measure of fluid Helicity (the sum of linking and writhing of vortex tubes) is conserved even as those vortices undergo topology changing reconnections. Measuring the total Helicity, however, requires additional information about how the vortex lines are locally twisted inside the vortex core. To bridge this gap, we have developed a novel technique for experimentally measuring twist Helicity. Using this method, we are able to measure the production and eventual decay of twist for a variety of vortex evolutions. Remarkably, we observe twist dynamics capable of conserving total Helicity even in the presence of rapidly changing writhe. This work was supported by the NSF MRSEC shared facilities at the University of Chicago (DMR-0820054) and an NSF CAREER award (DMR-1351506). W.T.M.I. further acknowledges support from the A.P. Sloan Foundation and the Packard Foundation.
Vertical structure of Jupiter's troposphere from nonlinear simulations of long-lived vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Legarreta, Jon; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín
2008-07-01
Numerical simulations of jovian vortices at tropical and temperate latitudes, under different atmospheric conditions, have been performed using the EPIC code [Dowling, T.E., Fisher, A.S., Gierasch, P.J., Harrington, J., LeBeau, R.P., Santori, C.M., 1998. Icarus 132, 221-238] to simulate the high-resolution observations of motions and of the lifetimes presented in a previous work [Legarreta, J., Sánchez-Lavega, A., 2005. Icarus 174, 178-191] and infer the vertical structure of Jupiter's troposphere. We first find that in order to reproduce the longevity and drift rate of the vortices, the Brunt-Väisälä frequency of the atmosphere in the upper troposphere (pressures P˜1 to 7 bar) should have a lower limit value of 5×10 s, increasing upward up to 1.25×10 s at pressures P˜0.5 bar (latitudes between 15° and 45° in both hemispheres). Second, the vortices drift also depend on the vertical structure of the zonal wind speed in the same range of altitudes. Simulations of the slowly drifting Southern hemisphere vortices (GRS, White Ovals and anticyclones at 40° S) require a vertically-constant zonal-wind with depth, but Northern hemisphere vortices (cyclonic "barges" and anticyclones at 19, 41 and 45° N) require decreasing winds at a rate of ˜5 m s -1 per scale height. However vortices drifting at a high speed, close to or in the peak of East or West jets and in both hemispheres, require the wind speed slightly increasing with depth, as is the case for the anticyclones at 20° S and at 34° N. We deduce that the maximum absolute vertical shear of the zonal wind from P˜1 bar up to P˜7 bar in these jets is ˜15 m s -1 per scale height. Intense vortices with tangential velocity at their periphery ˜100 m s -1 tend to decay asymptotically to velocities ˜40 to 60 m s -1 with a characteristic time that depends on the vortex intensity and static stability of the atmosphere. The vortices adjust their tangential velocity to the averaged peak to peak velocity of the
Generation and Growth of Single Hairpin Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haji-Haidari, Ahmad
The behavior of selectively generated single hairpin vortices are examined within a laminar boundary layer environment over a range of Reynolds numbers, the hairpin vortices are experimentally generated by means of controlled fluid injection from a streamwise slot. Flow visualization using both dye and hydrogen bubble wire is employed in conjunction with hot film anemometry to investigate the growth characteristics and evolution of these single hairpin vortices. Qualitatively, it is established that hairpin vortices form by local destabilization at the interface between the low-speed fluid introduced through the slot and the higher speed boundary layer flow. Kinematical considerations of the hairpin vortex are established. It is observed that a hairpin vortex generally displays visualization and velocity signatures characteristic of those observed for a turbulent boundary layer. Hydrogen-bubble wire visualization results specifically indicate that hairpin vortices generate two purely turbulent-like flow patterns. The first is a low-speed streak pattern developing immediately adjacent to the surface due to surface interaction by the counter -rotating legs of the hairpin vortex; the second pattern is a turbulent pocket-like pattern farther removed from the surface. It is determined from the visualization data that hairpin vortices manifest the necessary flow characteristics which give rise to the regenerative and sustained process required for maintenance of turbulence. The regeneration and the growth process takes place through the formation of similar hairpin-like vortices by one of two means. The first is an inviscid lateral propagation of the initial disturbance which gives rise to outboard (subsidiary), vortices which cause the lateral spreading of the structure. A more complicated and eruptive process occurs by means of viscous-inviscid interactions which give rise to trailing vortices (secondary), which cause the streamwise elongation of the disturbance. A
On calculating the potential vorticity flux
Hsu, Pei-Chun; Diamond, P. H.
2015-03-15
We discuss and compare different approaches to calculating the dynamics of anisotropic flow structure formation in quasi two-dimensional turbulence based on potential vorticity (PV) transport in real space. The general structure of the PV flux in the relaxation processes is deduced non-perturbatively. The transport coefficients of the PV flux are then systematically calculated using perturbation theory. We develop two non-perturbative relaxation models: the first is a mean field theory for the dynamics of minimum enstrophy relaxation based on the requirement that the mean flux of PV dissipates total potential enstrophy but conserves total fluid kinetic energy. The results show that the structure of PV flux has the form of a sum of a positive definite hyper-viscous and a negative or positive viscous flux of PV. Turbulence spreading is shown to be related to PV mixing via the link of turbulence energy flux to PV flux. In the relaxed state, the ratio of the PV gradient to zonal flow velocity is homogenized. This homogenized quantity sets a constraint on the amplitudes of PV and zonal flow in the relaxed state. The second relaxation model is derived from symmetry principles alone. The form of PV flux contains a nonlinear convective term in addition to viscous and hyper-viscous terms. For both cases, the transport coefficients are calculated using perturbation theory. For a broad turbulence spectrum, a modulational calculation of the PV flux gives both a negative viscosity and a positive hyper-viscosity. For a narrow turbulence spectrum, the result of a parametric instability analysis shows that PV transport is also convective. In both relaxation and perturbative analyses, it is shown that turbulent PV transport is sensitive to flow structure, and the transport coefficients are nonlinear functions of flow shear.
A vorticity dynamics based model for the turbulent dissipation: Model development and validation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liou, William W.; Shabbir, Aamir; Yang, Zhigang; Zhu, Jian
1994-01-01
A new model dissipation rate equation is proposed based on the dynamic equation of the mean-square vorticity fluctuation for large Reynolds number turbulence. The advantage of working with the vorticity fluctuation equation is that the physical meanings of the terms in this equation are more clear than those in the dissipation rate equation. Hence, the model development based on the vorticity fluctuation equation is more straightforward. The resulting form of the model equation is consistent with the spectral energy cascade analysis introduced by Lumley. The proposed model dissipation rate equation is numerically well behaved and can be applied to any level of turbulence modeling. It is applied to a realizable eddy viscosity model. Flows that are examined include: rotating homogeneous shear flows; free shear flows; a channel flow and flat plate boundary layers with and without pressure gradients; and backward facing step separated flows. In most cases, the present model predictions show considerable improvement over the standard kappa-epsilon model.
Can symmetry transitions of complex fields enable 3-d control of fluid vorticity?
Martin, James E.; Solis, Kyle Jameson
2015-08-01
Methods of inducing vigorous noncontact fluid flow are important to technologies involving heat and mass transfer and fluid mixing, since they eliminate the need for moving parts, pipes and seals, all of which compromise system reliability. Unfortunately, traditional noncontact flow methods are few, and have limitations of their own. We have discovered two classes of fields that can induce fluid vorticity without requiring either gravity or a thermal gradient. The first class we call Symmetry-Breaking Rational Fields. These are triaxial fields comprised of three orthogonal components, two ac and one dc. The second class is Rational Triad Fields, which differ in that all three components are alternating. In this report we quantify the induced vorticity for a wide variety of fields and consider symmetry transitions between these field types. These transitions give rise to orbiting vorticity vectors, a technology for non-contact, non-stationary fluid mixing.
Crossflow effects on the growth rate of inviscid Goertler vortices in a hypersonic boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fu, Yibin; Hall, Philip
1992-01-01
The effects of crossflow on the growth rate of inviscid Goertler vortices in a hypersonic boundary layer with pressure gradient are studied. Attention is focused on the inviscid mode trapped in the temperature adjustment layer; this mode has greater growth rate than any other mode. The eigenvalue problem which governs the relationship between the growth rate, the crossflow amplitude, and the wavenumber is solved numerically, and the results are then used to clarify the effects of crossflow on the growth rate of inviscid Goertler vortices. It is shown that crossflow effects on Goertler vortices are fundamentally different for incompressible and hypersonic flows. The neutral mode eigenvalue problem is found to have an exact solution, and as a by-product, we have also found the exact solution to a neutral mode eigenvalue problem which was formulated, but unsolved before, by Bassom and Hall (1991).
An Eulerian/Lagrangian coupling procedure for three-dimensional vortical flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Felici, Helene M.; Drela, Mark
1993-01-01
A coupled Eulerian/Lagrangian method is presented for the reduction of numerical diffusion observed in solutions of 3D vortical flows using standard Eulerian finite-volume time-marching procedures. A Lagrangian particle tracking method, added to the Eulerian time-marching procedure, provides a correction of the Eulerian solution. In turn, the Eulerian solution is used to integrate the Lagrangian state-vector along the particles trajectories. While the Eulerian solution ensures the conservation of mass and sets the pressure field, the particle markers describe accurately the convection properties and enhance the vorticity and entropy capturing capabilities of the Eulerian solver. The Eulerian/Lagrangian coupling strategies are discussed and the combined scheme is tested on a constant stagnation pressure flow in a 90 deg bend and on a swirling pipe flow. As the numerical diffusion is reduced when using the Lagrangian correction, a vorticity gradient augmentation is identified as a basic problem of this inviscid calculation.
Development of Hairpin Vortices in Turbulent Spots and End-Wall Transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Charles R.
2007-01-01
The end-stage phase of boundary layer transition is characterized by the development of hairpin-like vortices which evolve rapidly into patches of turbulent behavior. In general, the characteristics of the evolution form this hairpin stage to the turbulent stage is poorly understood, which has prompted the present experimental examination of hairpin vortex development and growth processes. Two topics of particular relevance to the workshop focus will be covered: 1) the growth of turbulent spots through the generatio and amalgamation of hairpin-like vortices, and 2) the development of hairpin vortices during transition in an end-wall junction flow. Brief summaries of these studies are described below. Using controlled generation of hairpin vortices by surface injection in a critical laminar boundary layer, detailed flow visualization studies have been done of the phases of growth of single hairpin vortices, from the initial hairgin generation, through the systematic generation of secondary hairpin-like flow structures, culminating in the evolution to a turbulent spot. The key to the growth process is strong vortex-surface interactions, which give rise to strong eruptive events adjacent to the surface, which results in the generation of subsequent hairpin vortex structures due to inviscid-viscuous interactions between the eruptive events and the free steam fluid. The general process of vortex-surface fluid interaction, coupled with subsequent interactions and amalgamation of the generated multiple hairpin-type vortices, is demonstrated as a physical mechanism for the growth and development of turbulent spots. When a boundary layer flow along a surface encounters a bluff body obstruction extending from the surface (such as cylinder or wing), the strong adverse pressure gradients generated by these types of flows result in the concentration of the impinging vorticity into a system of discrete vortices near the end-wall juncture of the obstruction, with the extensions
Implants as absolute anchorage.
Rungcharassaeng, Kitichai; Kan, Joseph Y K; Caruso, Joseph M
2005-11-01
Anchorage control is essential for successful orthodontic treatment. Each tooth has its own anchorage potential as well as propensity to move when force is applied. When teeth are used as anchorage, the untoward movements of the anchoring units may result in the prolonged treatment time, and unpredictable or less-than-ideal outcome. To maximize tooth-related anchorage, techniques such as differential torque, placing roots into the cortex of the bone, the use of various intraoral devices and/or extraoral appliances have been implemented. Implants, as they are in direct contact with bone, do not possess a periodontal ligament. As a result, they do not move when orthodontic/orthopedic force is applied, and therefore can be used as "absolute anchorage." This article describes different types of implants that have been used as orthodontic anchorage. Their clinical applications and limitations are also discussed. PMID:16463910
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shebalin, John V.
1997-01-01
The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.
Measurement of vorticity diffusion by NMR microscopy.
Brown, Jennifer R; Callaghan, Paul T
2010-05-01
In a Newtonian fluid, vorticity diffuses at a rate determined by the kinematic viscosity. Here we use rapid NMR velocimetry, based on a RARE sequence, to image the time-dependent velocity field on startup of a fluid-filled cylinder and therefore measure the diffusion of vorticity. The results are consistent with the solution to the vorticity diffusion equation where the angular velocity on the outside surface of the fluid, at the cylinder's rotating wall, is fixed. This method is a means of measuring kinematic viscosity for low viscosity fluids without the need to measure stress. PMID:20189854
Vortices and turbulence in trapped atomic condensates
White, Angela C.; Anderson, Brian P.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.
2014-01-01
After more than a decade of experiments generating and studying the physics of quantized vortices in atomic gas Bose–Einstein condensates, research is beginning to focus on the roles of vortices in quantum turbulence, as well as other measures of quantum turbulence in atomic condensates. Such research directions have the potential to uncover new insights into quantum turbulence, vortices, and superfluidity and also explore the similarities and differences between quantum and classical turbulence in entirely new settings. Here we present a critical assessment of theoretical and experimental studies in this emerging field of quantum turbulence in atomic condensates. PMID:24704880
Vortices in magnetically coupled superconducting layered systems
Mints, Roman G.; Kogan, Vladimir G.; Clem, John R.
2000-01-01
Pancake vortices in stacks of thin superconducting films or layers are considered. It is stressed that in the absence of Josephson coupling topological restrictions upon possible configurations of vortices are removed and various examples of structures forbidden in bulk superconductors are given. In particular, it is shown that vortices may skip surface layers in samples of less than a certain size R{sub c} which might be macroscopic. The Josephson coupling suppresses R{sub c} estimates. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Vorticity in heavy-ion collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Wei-Tian; Huang, Xu-Guang
2016-06-01
We study the event-by-event generation of flow vorticity in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Au +Au collisions and CERN Large Hadron Collider Pb +Pb collisions by using the hijing model. Different definitions of the vorticity field and velocity field are considered. A variety of properties of the vorticity are explored, including the impact parameter dependence, the collision energy dependence, the spatial distribution, the event-by-event fluctuation of the magnitude and azimuthal direction, and the time evolution. In addition, the spatial distribution of the flow helicity is also studied.
Hollow vortices in weakly compressible flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnamurthy, Vikas; Crowdy, Darren
2014-11-01
In a two-dimensional, inviscid and steady fluid flow, hollow vortices are bounded regions of constant pressure with non-zero circulation. It is known that for an infinite row of incompressible hollow vortices, analytical solutions for the flow field and the shape of the hollow vortex boundary can be obtained using conformal mapping methods. In this talk, we show how to derive analytical expressions for a weakly compressible hollow vortex row. This is done by introducing a new method based on the Imai-Lamla formula. We will also touch upon how to extend these results to a von-Karman street of hollow vortices.
Hollow vortices in weakly compressible flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnamurthy, Vikas; Crowdy, Darren
2015-11-01
In a two-dimensional, inviscid and steady fluid flow, hollow vortices are bounded regions of constant pressure with non-zero circulation. It is known that for an infinite row of incompressible hollow vortices, analytical solutions for the flow field and the shape of the hollow vortex boundary can be obtained using conformal mapping methods. In this talk, we show how to derive analytical expressions for a weakly compressible hollow vortex row. This is done by introducing a new method based on the Imai-Lamla formula. We will also touch upon how to extend these results to a von-Karman street of hollow vortices.
Transonic interactions of unsteady vortical flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccroskey, W. J.; Srinivasan, G. R.
1984-01-01
Unsteady interactions of strong concentrated vortices, distributed gusts, and sharp-edged gusts with stationary airfoils were analyzed in two-dimensional transonic flow. A simple and efficient method for introducing such vortical disturbances was implemented in numerical codes that range from inviscid transonic small disturbance to thin-layer Navier Stokes. The numerical results demonstrate the large distortions in the overall flow field and in the surface air loads that are produced by various vortical interactions. The results of the different codes are in excellent qualitative agreement, but, as might expected, the transonic small-disturbance calculations are deficient in the important region near the leading edge.
Atmospheric Vortices near Guadalupe Island
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
These MISR images from June 11, 2000 (Terra orbit 2569) demonstrate a turbulent atmospheric flow pattern known as the von Karman vortex street. This phenomenon is named after aerodynamicist Theodore von Karman, who theoretically derived the conditions under which it occurs. The alternating double row of vortices can form in the wake of an obstacle, in this instance the eastern Pacific island of Guadalupe. The rugged terrain of this volcanic Mexican island reaches a maximum elevation of 1.3 kilometers. The island is about 35 kilometers long and is located 260 kilometers west of Baja California.
The vortex pattern is made visible by the marine stratocumulus clouds around Guadalupe Island. The upper image is a color view obtained by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. North is toward the left. The orientation of the vortex street indicates that the wind direction is from lower left to upper right (northwest to southeast). The areas within the vortex centers tend to be clear because the rotating motions induce a vertical wind component that can break up the cloud deck.
The lower view is a stereo picture generated from data acquired by MISR's fore- and aft-viewing 70-degree cameras. A 3-D effect is obtained by viewing the image with red/blue glasses and placing the red filter over your left eye. Note how the downwelling atmospheric motion (change in elevation from high to low) is accompanied by a clearing in the center of the first vortex. As the vortices propagate downstream, their rotational velocities weaken. As a consequence, the induced vertical motion and cloud-clearing effect weakens as well.
Theodore von Karman was a Professor of Aeronautics at Caltech and Director of Caltech's Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory from 1930-1949. He was one of the principal founders of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harrison, D. E.; Holland, W. R.
1981-01-01
A mean vorticity budget analysis is presented of Holland's (1978) numerical ocean general circulation experiment. The stable budgets are compared with classical circulation theory to emphasize the ways in which the mesoscale motions of the model alter (or leave unaltered) classical vorticity balances. The basinwide meridional transports of vorticity by the mean flow and by the mesoscale flow in the mean are evaluated to establish the role(s) of the mesoscale in the larger scale equilibrium vorticity transports. The vorticity equation for this model fluid system is presented and the budget analysis method is described. Vorticity budgets over the selected regions and on a larger scale are given, and a summary of budget results is provided along with remarks about the utility of this type of analysis.
Buoyancy in tropical cyclones and other rapidly rotating atmospheric vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Roger K.; Montgomery, Michael T.; Zhu, Hongyan
2005-07-01
Motivated primarily by its application to understanding tropical-cyclone intensification and maintenance, we re-examine the concept of buoyancy in rapidly rotating vortices, distinguishing between the buoyancy of the symmetric balanced vortex or system buoyancy, and the local buoyancy associated with cloud dynamics. The conventional definition of buoyancy is contrasted with a generalized form applicable to a vortex, which has a radial as well as a vertical component. If, for the special case of axisymmetric motions, the balanced density and pressure distribution of a rapidly rotating vortex are used as the reference state, the buoyancy field then characterizes the unbalanced density perturbations, i.e. the local buoyancy. We show how to determine such a reference state without approximation. The generation of the toroidal circulation of a vortex, which is necessary for vortex amplification, is characterized in the vorticity equation by the baroclinicity vector. This vector depends, inter-alia, on the horizontal (or radial) gradient of buoyancy evaluated along isobaric surfaces. We show that for a tropical-cyclone-scale vortex, the buoyancy so calculated is significantly different from that calculated at constant height or on surfaces of constant σ ( σ = ( p - p*)/( ps - p*), where p is the actual pressure, p* some reference pressure and ps is the surface pressure). Since many tropical-cyclone models are formulated using σ-coordinates, we examine the calculation of buoyancy on σ-surfaces and derive an expression for the baroclinicity vector in σ-coordinates. The baroclinic forcing term in the azimuthal vorticity equation for an axisymmetric vortex is shown to be approximately equal to the azimuthal component of the curl of the generalized buoyancy. A scale analysis indicates that the vertical gradient of the radial component of generalized buoyancy makes a comparatively small contribution to the generation of toroidal vorticity in a tropical cyclone, but may be
Tornadoes and other atmospheric vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deissler, R. G.
1976-01-01
The growth of random vortices in an atmosphere with buoyant instability and vertical wind shear is studied along with the velocities in a single gravity-driven vortex; a frictionless adiabatic model which is supported by laboratory experiments is first considered. The effects of axial drag, heat transfer, and precipitation-induced downdrafts are then calculated. Heat transfer and axial drag tend to have stabilizing effects; they reduce the downdrafts of updrafts due to buoyancy. It is found that downdrafts or tornadic magnitude might occur in negatively-buoyant columns. The radial-inflow velocity required to maintain a given maximum tangential velocity in a tornado is determined by using a turbulent vortex model. Conditions under which radial-inflow velocities become sufficiently large to produce tangential velocities of tornadic magnitude are determined. The radial velocities in the outer regions, as well as the tangential velocities in the inner regions may be large enough to cause damage. The surface boundary layer, which is a region where large radial inflows can occur, is studied, and the thickness of the radial-inflow friction layer is estimated. A tornado model which involves a rotating parent cloud, as well as buoyancy and precipitation effects, is discussed.
Combustion enhancement by axial vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gutmark, E.; Schadow, K. C.; Parr, T. P.; Parr, D. M.; Wilson, K. J.
1987-06-01
A tapered slot jet was studied experimentally in nonreacting and reacting tests using hot-wire anemometry, water-tunnel flow visualization, and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF). The tapered slot jet is a modified elliptic jet which has a conical contraction leading to its outlet. The added contraction changes the entire flow field. The jet spread in the major axis plane is larger than in the minor axis plane, which is the opposite behavior of an elliptic jet. Consequently, no axes switching, typical to an elliptic jet, is observed. The turbulence amplification in the jet core is higher than in circular and elliptic jets. The different behavior is attributed to the change in flow direction, inside the nozzle, from the conical section to the slot outlet. During this transition, the flow acquires angular momentum thereby generating axial vorticity. The influence of the contraction angle and the outlet aspect ratio were investigated. The effect of the augmented turbulence on reactive flow was tested in a premixed flame. The combustion rate was augmented in both the core and edges of the flame relative to a circular burner.
Vorticity matching in superfluid helium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samuels, David C.
1991-12-01
Recent experiments have rekindled interest in high Reynolds number flows using superfluid helium. In a continuing series of experiments, the flow of helium II through various devices (smooth pipes, corrugated pipes, valves, venturies, turbine flowmeters, and coanda flowmeters for example) was investigated. In all cases, the measured values (typically, mass flow rates and pressure drops) were found to be well described by classical relations for high Reynolds flows. This is unexpected since helium II consists of two interpenetrating fluids; one fluid with nonzero viscosity (the normal fluid) and one with zero viscosity (the superfluid). Only the normal fluid component should directly obey classical relations. Since the experiments listed above only measure the external behavior of the flow (i.e., pressure drops over devices), there is a great deal of room for interpretation of their results. One possible interpretation is that in turbulent flows the normal fluid and the superfluid velocity fields are somehow 'locked' together, presumably by the mutual friction force between the superfluid vortex filaments and the normal fluid. We refer to this locking together of the two fluids as 'vorticity matching.'
Absolute neutrino mass measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolf, Joachim
2011-10-01
The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2β) searches, single β-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy. Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium β-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope (137Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R&D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2β decay and single β-decay.
Absolute neutrino mass measurements
Wolf, Joachim
2011-10-06
The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.
Transition experiments in a boundary layer with embedded streamwise vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakchinov, A. A.; Grek, G. R.; Klingmann, B. G. B.; Kozlov, V. V.
1995-04-01
The stability of a flat plate boundary layer modulated by stationary streamwise vortices was studied experimentally in the T-324 low speed wind tunnel in Novosibirsk. Vortices were generated inside the boundary layer by means of roughness elements arranged in a regular array along the spanwise (z-) direction. Transition is not caused directly by these structures, but by the growth of small amplitude traveling waves riding on top of the steady vortices. This situation is analogous to the transition process in Görtler and cross-flows. The waves were found to amplify up to a stage where higher harmonics are generated, leading to turbulent breakdown and disintegration of the spanwise boundary layer structure. For strong modulations, the observed instability is quite powerful, and can be excited ``naturally'' by small uncontrollable background disturbances. Controlled oscillations were then introduced by means of a vibrating ribbon, allowing a detailed investigation of the wave characteristics. The instability seems to be associated with the spanwise gradients of the mean flow, ∂U/∂z, and at all z-positions, the maximum wave amplitude was found at a wall-normal position where the mean velocity is equal to the phase velocity of the wave, U(y)=c, i.e., at the local critical layer. Unstable waves were observed at frequencies well above those for which Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves amplify in the Blasius boundary layer. Excitation at lower frequencies and milder basic flow modulations showed that TS-type waves may also develop. The relation between TS-type waves and the observed high-frequency instability is discussed in the light of previous authors' findings.
Rotationally induced vortices in optical cavity modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Habraken, Steven J. M.; Nienhuis, Gerard
2009-09-01
We show that vortices appear in the modes of an astigmatic optical cavity when it is put into rotation about its optical axis. We study the properties of these vortices and discuss numerical results for a specific realization of such a set-up. Our method is exact up to first order in the time-dependent paraxial approximation and involves bosonic ladder operators in the spirit of the quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillator.
Atmospheric Columnar Vortices (Paper 7R0104)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snow, John T.
1987-04-01
The family of atmospheric columnar vortices includes tornadoes, waterspouts, firewhirls, dust devils and a variety of other whirlwinds. Each member of the family is characterized by the presence of a relatively tall, concentrated vortical core. Descriptions of such swirling flows are inherently complex, reflecting the presence of a multiplicity of length and velocity scales. In many cases, the flow is both three-dimensional and unsteady.
Compactlike kinks and vortices in generalized models
Bazeia, D.; Hora, E. da; Menezes, R.; Oliveira, H. P. de; Santos, C. dos
2010-06-15
This work deals with the presence of topological defects in k-field models, where the dynamics is generalized to include higher order power in the kinetic term. We investigate kinks in (1, 1) dimensions and vortices in (2, 1) dimensions, focusing on some specific features of the solutions. In particular, we show how the kinks and vortices change to compactlike solutions, controlled by the parameter used to introduce the generalized models.
Zhang, Dengke; Feng, Xue; Cui, Kaiyu; Liu, Fang; Huang, Yidong
2015-01-01
In this work, an explicit formula is deduced for identifying the orbital angular moment (OAM) of vectorial vortex with space-variant state of polarization (SOP). Different to scalar vortex, the OAM of vectorial vortex can be attributed to two parts: 1. the azimuthal gradient of Pancharatnam phase; 2. the product between the azimuthal gradient of orientation angle of SOP and relevant solid angle on the Poincaré sphere. With our formula, a geometrical description for OAM of light beams can be achieved under the framework of the traditional Poincaré sphere. Numerical simulations for two types of vectorial vortices have been carried on to confirm our presented formula as well as demonstrate the geometrical description of OAM. Furthermore, this work would pave the way for precise characterization of OAM charge of vectorial vortices. PMID:26160007
The Vorticity Budgets of North Atlantic Winter Marine Extratropical Cyclones Development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azad, R.; Sorteberg, A.
2012-12-01
A partitioned form of the Zwack-Okossi (Z-O) tendency equation is employed to examine the composite role of dynamic and thermodynamic forcing mechanisms to the development of North Atlantic winter marine extratropical cyclones. The results provide a further insight into the budgets of near surface cyclonic geostrophic vorticity (CGV) and their evolution during the life cycle of mid-latitude low pressure systems. Of interest are the direct, indirect and net effects of the Z-O forcing mechanisms. The direct effect shows the contribution of each process to the near surface geostrophic vorticity tendency, while the indirect effect implies the contribution from the associated vertical motion and resulting adiabatic cooling or warming. The net effect is the sum of the direct and indirect effects.We found that the vorticity advection term is the largest net contributor to the development of the marine cyclones. The net positive effect of both the temperature advection and latent heating terms is smaller owing to the induced adiabatic cooling which reduces the positive direct contributions. The direct and indirect parts of ageostrophic tendency and friction terms support each other, resulting in significant net contributions at the low center.Comparisons of the composite contributions by the Z-O forcing terms at different pressure levels over the low center indicate that, in agreement with previous studies, the commencement of significant development is accompanied with the upper level cyclonic absolute vorticity advection, upper level warm advection and mid-to low level latent heating. However, during the end of the development, mid-tropospheric net contribution by vorticity advection term and low level warm advection controls the production of CGV. The former is due to both the presence of mid-level cyclonic vorticity advection and induced adiabatic warming over the composite low center.
Singularimetry of local phase gradients using vortex lattices and in-line holography.
Petersen, Timothy C; Bishop, Alexis I; Eastwood, Samuel A; Paganin, David M; Morgan, Kaye S; Morgan, Michael J
2016-02-01
We have developed a differential form of singularimetry, which utilizes phase vortices or intensity gradient singularities as topological fiducial markers in a structured illumination context. This approach analytically measures phase gradients imparted by refracting specimens, yielding quantitative information that is both local and deterministic. We have quantified our phase gradient experiments to demonstrate that lattices of wave field singularities can be used to detect subtle phase gradients imparted by a spherical specimen and fiber optic cylinders. PMID:26906802
The role of intraventricular vortices in the left ventricular filling?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez-Legazpi, Pablo; Bermejo, Javier; Benito, Yolanda; Alhama, Marta; Yotti, Raquel; Perez Del Villar, Candelas; Gonzalez-Mansilla, Ana; Barrio, Alicia; Fernandez-Aviles, Francisco; Del Alamo, Juan Carlos
2013-11-01
The generation of vortices during early filling is a salient feature of left ventricular hemodynamics. Existing clinical data suggest that these intraventricular vortices may facilitate pulling flow from the left atrium. To test this hypothesis, we have quantitatively dissected the contribution of the vortex to intraventricular pressure gradients by isolating its induced flow in ultrasound-derived data in 20 patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM), 20 age-matched healthy controls and 20 patients with hypertrophied cardiomyopathy. We have observed that, in patients with NIDCM, the hemodynamic forces were shown to be partially supported by the flow inertia whereas that effect was minimized in healthy hearts. In patients with hypertrophied cardiomiopathy such effect was not observed. Supported by grants, PIS09/02603, RD06/0010 (RECAVA), CM12/00273 (to CPV) and BA11/00067 (to JB) from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain. PML and JCA were partially supported by NIH grant 1R21 HL108268-01.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakayama, Katsuyuki; Mizushima, Lucas Dias; Murata, Junsuke; Maeda, Takao
2016-06-01
A numerical method is presented to extract three-dimensional vortical structure of a spiral vortex (wing tip vortex) in a wind turbine, from two-dimensional velocity data at several azimuthal angles. This numerical method contributes to analyze a vortex observed in experiment where three-dimensional velocity field is difficult to be measured. This analysis needs two-dimensional velocity data in parallel planes at different azimuthal angles of a rotating blade, which facilitates the experiment since the angle of the plane does not change. The vortical structure is specified in terms of the invariant flow topology derived from eigenvalues and eigenvectors of three-dimensional velocity gradient tensor and corresponding physical properties. In addition, this analysis enables to investigate not only vortical flow topology but also important vortical features such as pressure minimum and vortex stretching that are derived from the three-dimensional velocity gradient tensor.
Absolute Identification by Relative Judgment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick
2005-01-01
In unidimensional absolute identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of absolute magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…
Be Resolute about Absolute Value
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kidd, Margaret L.
2007-01-01
This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…
A procedure for calculating vorticity boundary conditions in the stream-function-vorticity method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacKinnon, R. J.; Carey, G. F.; Murray, P.
1990-01-01
A superconvergent projection formula is constructed for determining vorticity boundary data in the stream-function-vorticity method. The approach applies to both straight and curved boundaries and can be used for either finite-element or finite-difference computations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazar, Ayah; Stegner, Alexandre; Heifetz, Eyal
2012-11-01
Inertial instability is a possible mechanism for vertical mixing in the submesoscale ocean. The stability of axisymmetric oceanic-like vortices to inertial perturbations is investigated by linear stability analysis, taking into account the thickness and the stratification of the thermocline, as well as the vertical eddy viscosity. Numerical analysis reveals that the instability is insensitive to the vorticity profile if the intensity of the vortex is characterized by the vortex Rossby number (instead of the local normalized vorticity). This allows extending our analytical solutions for the Rankine vortex to a wide variety of oceanic cases, including results such as the analytic dispersion relation, and the marginal stability criterion. This suits oceanic conditions better than the widely used generalized Rayleigh criterion. Comparison with oceanographic data shows that our criterion permits cases that contradict the common oceanographic hypothesis for inertial instability. For instance, intense submesoscale anticyclones may be stable even with a core region of negative absolute vorticity. We corroborate our findings with large-scale laboratory experiments and find a signature of the instability on the mean-flow, which could be used in future oceanographic measurements.
Mean flow generation by Görtler vortices in a rotating annulus with librating side walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghasemi V., Abouzar; Klein, Marten; Harlander, Uwe; Kurgansky, Michael V.; Schaller, Eberhard; Will, Andreas
2016-05-01
Time periodic variation of the rotation rate of an annulus induces in supercritical regime an unstable Stokes boundary layer over the cylinder side walls, generating Görtler vortices in a portion of a libration cycle as a discrete event. Numerical results show that these vortices propagate into the fluid bulk and generate an azimuthal mean flow. Direct numerical simulations of the fluid flow in an annular container with librating outer (inner) cylinder side wall and Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations as diagnostic equations are used to investigate generation mechanism of the retrograde (prograde) azimuthal mean flow in the bulk. First, we explain, phenomenologically, how absolute angular momentum of the bulk flow is mixed and changed due to the propagation of the Görtler vortices, causing a new vortex of basin size. Then we investigate the RANS equations for intermediate time scale of the development of the Görtler vortices and for long time scale of the order of several libration periods. The former exhibits sign selection of the azimuthal mean flow. Investigating the latter, we predict that the azimuthal mean flow is proportional to the libration amplitude squared and to the inverse square root of the Ekman number and libration frequency and then confirms this using the numerical data. Additionally, presence of an upscale cascade of energy is shown, using the kinetic energy budget of fluctuating flow.
Initial Circulation and Peak Vorticity Behavior of Vortices Shed from Airfoil Vortex Generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wendt, Bruce J.; Biesiadny, Tom (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
An extensive parametric study of vortices shed from airfoil vortex generators has been conducted to determine the dependence of initial vortex circulation and peak vorticity on elements of the airfoil geometry and impinging flow conditions. These elements include the airfoil angle of attack, chord length, span, aspect ratio, local boundary layer thickness, and free stream Mach number. In addition, the influence of airfoil-to-airfoil spacing on the circulation and peak vorticity has been examined for pairs of co-rotating and counter-rotating vortices. The vortex generators were symmetric airfoils having a NACA-0012 cross-sectional profile. These airfoils were mounted either in isolation, or in pairs, on the surface of a straight pipe. The turbulent boundary layer thickness to pipe radius ratio was about 17 percent. The circulation and peak vorticity data were derived from cross-plane velocity measurements acquired with a seven-hole probe at one chord-length downstream of the airfoil trailing edge location. The circulation is observed to be proportional to the free-stream Mach number, the angle-of-attack, and the span-to-boundary layer thickness ratio. With these parameters held constant, the circulation is observed to fall off in monotonic fashion with increasing airfoil aspect ratio. The peak vorticity is also observed to be proportional to the free-stream Mach number, the airfoil angle-of-attack, and the span-to-boundary layer thickness ratio. Unlike circulation, however, the peak vorticity is observed to increase with increasing aspect ratio, reaching a peak value at an aspect ratio of about 2.0 before falling off again at higher values of aspect ratio. Co-rotating vortices shed from closely spaced pairs of airfoils have values of circulation and peak vorticity under those values found for vortices shed from isolated airfoils of the same geometry. Conversely, counter-rotating vortices show enhanced values of circulation and peak vorticity when compared to values
Numerical Study of Interaction of a Vortical Density Inhomogeneity with Shock and Expansion Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Povitsky, A.; Ofengeim, D.
1998-01-01
We studied the interaction of a vortical density inhomogeneity (VDI) with shock and expansion waves. We call the VDI the region of concentrated vorticity (vortex) with a density different from that of ambiance. Non-parallel directions of the density gradient normal to the VDI surface and the pressure gradient across a shock wave results in an additional vorticity. The roll-up of the initial round VDI towards a non-symmetrical shape is studied numerically. Numerical modeling of this interaction is performed by a 2-D Euler code. The use of an adaptive unstructured numerical grid makes it possible to obtain high accuracy and capture regions of induced vorticity with a moderate overall number of mesh points. For the validation of the code, the computational results are compared with available experimental results and good agreement is obtained. The interaction of the VDI with a propagating shock wave is studied for a range of initial and induced circulations and obtained flow patterns are presented. The splitting of the VDI develops into the formation of a non-symmetrical vortex pair and not in a set of vortices. A method for the analytical computation of an overall induced circulation Gamma(sub 1) as a result of the interaction of a moving VDI with a number of waves is proposed. Simplified, approximated, expressions for Gamma(sub 1) are derived and their accuracy is discussed. The splitting of the VDI passing through the Prandtl-Meyer expansion wave is studied numerically. The obtained VDI patterns are compared to those for the interaction of the VDI with a propagating shock wave for the same values of initial and induced circulations. These patterns have similar shapes for corresponding time moments.
Numerical study of comparison of vorticity and passive vectors in turbulence and inviscid flows.
Ohkitani, Koji
2002-04-01
The nonlinear vortex stretching in incompressible Navier-Stokes turbulence is compared with a linear stretching process of passive vectors (PVs). In particular, we pay special attention to the difference of these processes under long and short time evolutions. For finite time evolution, we confirm our previous finding that the stretching effect of vorticity is weaker than that of general passive vectors for a majority of the initial conditions with the same energy spectra. The above difference can be explained qualitatively by examining the Biot-Savart formula. In order to see to what extent infinitesimal time development explains the above difference, we examine the probability density functions (PDFs) of the stretching rates of the passive vectors in the vicinity of a solution of Navier-Stokes equations. It is found that the PDFs are found to have a Gaussian distribution, suggesting that there are equally many PVs that stretched less and more than the vorticity. This suggests the importance of the vorticity-strain correlation built up over finite time in turbulence. We also discuss the case of Euler equations, where the dynamics of the Jacobian matrix relating the physical and material coordinates is examined numerically. A kind of alignment problem associated with the Cauchy-Green tensor is proposed and studied using the results of numerical simulations. It is found that vorticity tends to align itself with the most compressing eigenvector of the Cauchy-Green tensor. A two-dimensional counterpart of active-passive comparison is briefly studied. There is no essential difference between stretching of vorticity gradients and that of passive scalar gradients and a physical interpretation is given to it. PMID:12006010
Interaction of vortices with flexible piezoelectric beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goushcha, Oleg; Akaydin, Huseyin Dogus; Elvin, Niell; Andreopoulos, Yiannis
2012-11-01
A cantilever piezoelectric beam immersed in a flow is used to harvest fluidic energy. Pressure distribution induced by naturally present vortices in a turbulent fluid flow can force the beam to oscillate producing electrical output. Maximizing the power output of such an electromechanical fluidic system is a challenge. In order to understand the behavior of the beam in a fluid flow where vortices of different scales are present, an experimental facility was set up to study the interaction of individual vortices with the beam. In our set up, vortex rings produced by an audio speaker travel at specific distances from the beam or impinge on it, with a frequency varied up to the natural frequency of the beam. Depending on this frequency both constructive and destructive interactions between the vortices and the beam are observed. Vortices traveling over the beam with a frequency multiple of the natural frequency of the beam cause the beam to resonate and larger deflection amplitudes are observed compared to excitation from a single vortex. PIV is used to compute the flow field and circulation of each vortex and estimate the effect of pressure distribution on the beam deflection. Sponsored by NSF Grant: CBET #1033117.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, W.; Meng, H.
1999-11-01
The dynamics of vortex structures in the wake of surface-mounted trapezoidal tab at Re=600 based on tab height was studied in detail using time-series, 2D particle image velocimetry. From a total of over 20,000 PIV realizations acquired in x-y, x-z, and y-z planes, we successfully identified vortex structures using the methods proposed by Jeong and Hussain (JFM, vol 285, 1995) and proposed by Chong, Perry, and Cantwell (Phys. Fluids A2, 1990), and cross-checked them with conventional velocity subtraction. Similar to prior measurement at Re=2080, secondary vortices, reverse vortices, and tertiary vortices were observed frequently in the present study. Higher PIV spatial resolution and higher temporal resolution (relative to the flow periodicity) allow us to investigate these dynamical phenomena in much greater detail and confidence. Furthermore, y-z measurements demonstrate that hairpin vortex legs, taking the shape of streamwise vortices, pair with their neighbor counterparts while traveling downstream, and possibly merge with each other. Circulation distribution of the hairpin vortex heads along the x direction shows that it increases at the very near-tab region with the help of pressure induced counter-rotating vortex pairs, but gradually decreases very slowly with the increasing downstream distance, indicating that hairpin vortices are long-lived vortex structures.
3D Vortices in Protoplanetary Disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamal, Samy; Barranco, Joseph; Marcus, Philip
2010-11-01
Like the atmosphere of Jupiter, protoplanetary disks (thin disks of gas & dust in orbit around newly-formed stars) are characterized by rapid rotation and intense shear, inspiring proposals that disks may also be populated with long-lived, robust storms analogous to the Great Red Spot. Such vortices may play key roles in the formation of stars and planets by transporting angular momentum, as well as trapping and concentrating dust grains, seeding the formation of planetesimals, the "building blocks" of planets. In our previous work (Barranco & Marcus 2005), we showed via numerical simulation (with an anelastic spectral code) that vortices near the midplane of the disk suffer an antisymmetric instability and are destroyed. However, internal gravity waves propagate away from the midplane, amplify and break, creating bands of vorticity that roll-up into new long-lived, stable vortices above and below the midplane. We will present new results on 3D vortex dynamics in protoplanetary disks, exploring the role of factors unique to this context: the Coriolis parameter f, the shear rate σ, and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency N are all of the same order of magnitude. In the region around the midplane N
A direct numerical simulation study of vorticity transformation in weakly turbulent premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipatnikov, A. N.; Nishiki, S.; Hasegawa, T.
2014-10-01
Database obtained earlier in 3D Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of statistically stationary, 1D, planar turbulent flames characterized by three different density ratios σ is processed in order to investigate vorticity transformation in premixed combustion under conditions of moderately weak turbulence (rms turbulent velocity and laminar flame speed are roughly equal to one another). In cases H and M characterized by σ = 7.53 and 5.0, respectively, anisotropic generation of vorticity within the flame brush is reported. In order to study physical mechanisms that control this phenomenon, various terms in vorticity and enstrophy balance equations are analyzed, with both mean terms and terms conditioned on a particular value c of the combustion progress variable being addressed. Results indicate an important role played by baroclinic torque and dilatation in transformation of average vorticity and enstrophy within both flamelets and flame brush. Besides these widely recognized physical mechanisms, two other effects are documented. First, viscous stresses redistribute enstrophy within flamelets, but play a minor role in the balance of the mean enstrophy overline{Ω } within turbulent flame brush. Second, negative correlation overline{mathbf {u}^' } \\cdot nabla Ω ^' }} between fluctuations in velocity u and enstrophy gradient contributes substantially to an increase in the mean overline{Ω } within turbulent flame brush. This negative correlation is mainly controlled by the positive correlation between fluctuations in the enstrophy and dilatation and, therefore, dilatation fluctuations substantially reduce the damping effect of the mean dilatation on the vorticity and enstrophy fields. In case L characterized by σ = 2.5, these effects are weakly pronounced and overline{Ω } is reduced mainly due to viscosity. Under conditions of the present DNS, vortex stretching plays a minor role in the balance of vorticity and enstrophy within turbulent flame brush in all three
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Dato, M.; Fiori, A.; Chiogna, G.; de Barros, F.; Bellin, A.
2015-12-01
Modeling flow in porous media is relevant for many environmental, energy and industrial applications. From an environmental perspective, the relevance of porous media flow becomes evident in subsurface hydrology. In general, flow in natural porous media is at low Reynolds numbers, yet the large variability in the hydraulic conductivity values encountered in natural aquifers leads to highly heterogeneous flow fields. This natural variability in the conductivity field will affect both dilution rates of non reactive tracers and reactive mixing. A physical consequence of this heterogeneity is also the presence of localized kinematical features such as straining, shearing and vorticity in the fluid element. These kinematical features will influence the shape of solute clouds and its fate. While in porous media straining and shearing have been considered as important kinematical features controlling the shape of the plume and consequently mixing, much less attention has been devoted to vorticity, which can be defined as the anti-symmetric component of the velocity gradient tensor. In the present work we analyze how vorticity is related to large scale heterogeneity, as described by global parameters such as the log-conductivity variance and integral scale, and porous microstructure. Following a micro-mechanical approach, the medium is schematized as an ensemble of independent inclusions placed at random in a homogeneous matrix. Adopting this model permits to solve the flow problem by means of only few parameters, such as the conductivity contrast, the volume fraction and the shape and inclination of the inclusions, the latter two properties representing the microstructure. Through this conceptualization, it is possible to approximate the structure of natural heterogeneous porous media. We show that vorticity depends on both conductivity contrast, epitomized by the log-conductivity variance, and the microstructure. In addition, vorticity and lateral dispersion are related
Vorticity, defects and correlations in active turbulence
Thampi, Sumesh P.; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M.
2014-01-01
We describe a numerical investigation of a continuum model of an active nematic, concentrating on the regime of active turbulence. Results are presented for the effect of three parameters, activity, elastic constant and rotational diffusion constant, on the order parameter and flow fields. Defects and distortions in the director field act as sources of vorticity, and thus vorticity is strongly correlated to the director field. In particular, the characteristic length of decay of vorticity and order parameter correlations is controlled by the defect density. By contrast, the decay of velocity correlations is determined by a balance between activity and dissipation. We highlight the role of microscopic flow generation mechanisms in determining the flow patterns and characteristic scales of active turbulence and contrast the behaviour of extensile and contractile active nematics. PMID:25332382
Characterization of reconnecting vortices in superfluid helium.
Bewley, Gregory P; Paoletti, Matthew S; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R; Lathrop, Daniel P
2008-09-16
When two vortices cross, each of them breaks into two parts and exchanges part of itself for part of the other. This process, called vortex reconnection, occurs in classical and superfluids, and in magnetized plasmas and superconductors. We present the first experimental observations of reconnection between quantized vortices in superfluid helium. We do so by imaging micrometer-sized solid hydrogen particles trapped on quantized vortex cores and by inferring the occurrence of reconnection from the motions of groups of recoiling particles. We show that the distance separating particles on the just-reconnected vortex lines grows as a power law in time. The average value of the scaling exponent is approximately 1/2, consistent with the self-similar evolution of the vortices. PMID:18768790
Vortical mechanism for generation of astrophysical jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abrahamyan, M. G.
2008-04-01
A vortical mechanism for generation of astrophysical jets is proposed based on exact solutions of the hydrodynamic equations with a generalized Rankine vortex. It is shown that the development of a Rankine vortex in the polar layer of a rotating gravitating body creates longitudinal fluxes of matter that converge toward the vortex trunk, providing an exponential growth in the angular rotation velocity of the trunk and a pressure drop on its axis. The increased rotational velocity of the vortex trunk and the on-axis pressure drop cease when the discontinuity in the azimuthal velocity at the surface of the trunk reaches the sound speed. During this time, ever deeper layers of the gravitating body are brought into the vortical motion, while the longitudinal velocity of the flow along the vortex trunk builds up, producing jet outflows of mass from its surface. The resulting vortices are essentially dissipationless.
Center vortices as composites of monopole fluxes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deldar, S.; Nejad, S. M. Hosseini
2016-01-01
We study the relation between the flux of a center vortex obtained from the center vortex model and the flux formed between monopoles from the Abelian gauge fixing method. Motivated by the Monte Carlo simulations which have shown that almost all monopoles are sitting on the top of vortices, we construct the fluxes of center vortices for SU (2) and SU (3) gauge groups using fractional fluxes of monopoles. Then, we compute the potentials in the fundamental representation induced by center vortices and fractional fluxes of monopoles. We show that by combining the fractional fluxes of monopoles one can produce the center vortex fluxes for SU (3) gauge group in a "center vortex model". Comparing the potentials, we conclude that the fractional fluxes of monopoles attract each other.
How center vortices break chiral symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faber, Manfried; Höllwieser, Roman
2016-01-01
We investigate the chiral properties of near-zero modes for thick classical center vortices in SU(2) lattice gauge theory as examples of the phenomena which may arise in a vortex vacuum. In particular we analyze the creation of near-zero modes from would-be zero modes of various topological charge contributions from center vortices. We show that classical colorful spherical vortex and instanton ensembles have almost identical Dirac spectra and the low-lying eigenmodes from spherical vortices show all characteristic properties for chiral symmetry breaking. We further show that also vortex intersections are able to give rise to a finite density of near-zero modes, leading to chiral symmetry breaking via the Banks-Casher formula. We discuss the mechanism by which center vortex fluxes contribute to chiral symmetry breaking.
Potential Vorticity Analysis of Tropical Cyclone Intensification.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molinari, John; Skubis, Steven; Vollaro, David; Alsheimer, Frank; Willoughby, Hugh E.
1998-08-01
The interaction of marginal Tropical Storm Danny (1985) with an upper-tropospheric positive potential vorticity anomaly was examined. The intensification mechanism proposed earlier for mature Hurricane Elena appears to be valid for Danny as well, despite significant differences in the synoptic-scale environment and in the stage of the tropical cyclone prior to the interaction. Both storms experienced rapid pressure falls as a relatively small-scale positive upper potential vorticity anomaly began to superpose with the low-level tropical cyclone center.The interaction is described in terms of a complex interplay between vertical wind shear, diabatic heating, and mutual advection among vortices at and below the level of the outflow anticyclone. Despite this complexity, the superposition principle appears to be conceptually useful to describe the intensification of tropical cyclones during such interactions.
A Note on Trapping Moving Vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, Hsiao C.
2000-01-01
The topic of stationary configurations of point vortices, also known as vortex equilibrium, has received considerable attention in recent years. By observing numerical results, it is found that a "counterpart" of this system also exists, in which moving vortices may be "trapped" by an inlet-like device to form a stationary pattern with no translational motion. After an intuitive explanation for the process, vortex trajectory maps based on numerical results are presented. These maps exhibit two stationary points under the present conditions, which are the focal points of vortex trajectories. A vortex upstream of these points, if within a certain offset range, will move towards these points spontaneously and be captured there. This proposed device is also capable of trapping spinning vortex pairs and triads. It is possible to impose a uniform stream at infinity, as long as the flow field is still dominated by the moving vortices.
Measurements of Supersonic Wing Tip Vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smart, Michael K.; Kalkhoran, Iraj M.; Benston, James
1994-01-01
An experimental survey of supersonic wing tip vortices has been conducted at Mach 2.5 using small performed 2.25 chords down-stream of a semi-span rectangular wing at angle of attack of 5 and 10 degrees. The main objective of the experiments was to determine the Mach number, flow angularity and total pressure distribution in the core region of supersonic wing tip vortices. A secondary aim was to demonstrate the feasibility of using cone probes calibrated with a numerical flow solver to measure flow characteristics at supersonic speeds. Results showed that the numerically generated calibration curves can be used for 4-hole cone probes, but were not sufficiently accurate for conventional 5-hole probes due to nose bluntness effects. Combination of 4-hole cone probe measurements with independent pitot pressure measurements indicated a significant Mach number and total pressure deficit in the core regions of supersonic wing tip vortices, combined with an asymmetric 'Burger like' swirl distribution.
Vorticity and divergence in the solar photosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, YI; Noyes, Robert W.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M.
1995-01-01
We have studied an outstanding sequence of continuum images of the solar granulation from Pic du Midi Observatory. We have calculated the horizontal vector flow field using a correlation tracking algorithm, and from this determined three scalar field: the vertical component of the curl; the horizontal divergence; and the horizontal flow speed. The divergence field has substantially longer coherence time and more power than does the curl field. Statistically, curl is better correlated with regions of negative divergence - that is, the vertical vorticity is higher in downflow regions, suggesting excess vorticity in intergranular lanes. The average value of the divergence is largest (i.e., outflow is largest) where the horizontal speed is large; we associate these regions with exploding granules. A numerical simulation of general convection also shows similar statistical differences between curl and divergence. Some individual small bright points in the granulation pattern show large local vorticities.
Characterization of reconnecting vortices in superfluid helium
Bewley, Gregory P.; Paoletti, Matthew S.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.; Lathrop, Daniel P.
2008-01-01
When two vortices cross, each of them breaks into two parts and exchanges part of itself for part of the other. This process, called vortex reconnection, occurs in classical and superfluids, and in magnetized plasmas and superconductors. We present the first experimental observations of reconnection between quantized vortices in superfluid helium. We do so by imaging micrometer-sized solid hydrogen particles trapped on quantized vortex cores and by inferring the occurrence of reconnection from the motions of groups of recoiling particles. We show that the distance separating particles on the just-reconnected vortex lines grows as a power law in time. The average value of the scaling exponent is approximately ½, consistent with the self-similar evolution of the vortices. PMID:18768790
Identification of vortices in complex flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, P.; Balachandar, S.; Adrian, R. J.
2007-12-01
Dating back to Leonardo da Vinci's famous sketches of vortices in turbulent flows, fluid dynamicists for over five centuries have continued to visualize and interpret complex flows in terms of motion of vortices. Nevertheless, much debate surrounds the question of how to unambiguously define vortices in complex flows. This debate has resulted in the availability of many vortex identification criteria---mathematical statements of what constitutes a vortex. Here we review the popularly used local or point- wise vortex identification criteria. Based on local flow kinematics, we describe a unified framework to interpret the similarities and differences in the usage of these criteria. We discuss the limitations on the applicability of these criteria when there is a significant component of vortex interactions. Finally, we provide guidelines for applying these criteria to geophysical flows.
Moduli of Vortices and Grassmann Manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biswas, Indranil; Romão, Nuno M.
2013-05-01
We use the framework of Quot schemes to give a novel description of the moduli spaces of stable n-pairs, also interpreted as gauged vortices on a closed Riemann surface Σ with target {Mat_{r × n}({C})}, where n ≥ r. We then show that these moduli spaces embed canonically into certain Grassmann manifolds, and thus obtain natural Kähler metrics of Fubini-Study type. These spaces are smooth at least in the local case r = n. For abelian local vortices we prove that, if a certain "quantization" condition is satisfied, the embedding can be chosen in such a way that the induced Fubini-Study structure realizes the Kähler class of the usual L 2 metric of gauged vortices.
Ward, G.J. Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne ); Heckbert, P.S. . School of Computer Science Technische Hogeschool Delft . Dept. of Technical Mathematics and Informatics)
1992-04-01
A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques.
Aerodynamics and vortical structures in hovering fruitflies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Xue Guang; Sun, Mao
2015-03-01
We measure the wing kinematics and morphological parameters of seven freely hovering fruitflies and numerically compute the flows of the flapping wings. The computed mean lift approximately equals to the measured weight and the mean horizontal force is approximately zero, validating the computational model. Because of the very small relative velocity of the wing, the mean lift coefficient required to support the weight is rather large, around 1.8, and the Reynolds number of the wing is low, around 100. How such a large lift is produced at such a low Reynolds number is explained by combining the wing motion data, the computed vortical structures, and the theory of vorticity dynamics. It has been shown that two unsteady mechanisms are responsible for the high lift. One is referred as to "fast pitching-up rotation": at the start of an up- or downstroke when the wing has very small speed, it fast pitches down to a small angle of attack, and then, when its speed is higher, it fast pitches up to the angle it normally uses. When the wing pitches up while moving forward, large vorticity is produced and sheds at the trailing edge, and vorticity of opposite sign is produced near the leading edge and on the upper surface, resulting in a large time rate of change of the first moment of vorticity (or fluid impulse), hence a large aerodynamic force. The other is the well known "delayed stall" mechanism: in the mid-portion of the up- or downstroke the wing moves at large angle of attack (about 45 deg) and the leading-edge-vortex (LEV) moves with the wing; thus, the vortex ring, formed by the LEV, the tip vortices, and the starting vortex, expands in size continuously, producing a large time rate of change of fluid impulse or a large aerodynamic force.
Vorticity Confinement Applied to Turbulent Wing Tip Vortices for Wake-Integral Drag Prediction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pierson, Kristopher; Povitsky, Alex
2013-11-01
In the current study the vorticity confinement (VC) approach was applied to tip vortices shed by edges of stationary wings in order to predict induced drag by far-field integration in Trefftz plane. The VC parameter was evaluated first by application to convection of vortices in 2-D uniform flow and then to tip vortices shed in 3-D simulation of finite-aspect ratio rectangular wing in subsonic flight. Dependence of VC parameter on the flight Mach number and the angle of attack was evaluated. The aerodynamic drag results with application of VC to prevent numerical diffusion are much closer to analytic lifting line theory compared to integration over surface of wing while the viscous profile drag is more accurately evaluated by surface integration. To apply VC to viscous and turbulent flows, it is shown that VC does not affect the physical rate of dissipation of vortices in viscous/turbulent flows at time scales corresponding to convection of vortices from the wing to Trefftz plane of integration. To account for turbulent effects on tip vortices, VC was applied in combination with Spalart-Allmaras, k- ɛ, and six Reynolds stresses models of turbulence. The results are compared to experiments to validate the physical dissipation of tip vortex. This research was supported by The Dayton Area Graduate Studies Institute (DAGSI) and US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) grants in 2009-2013, US Army Research Office (ARO) in 2012-2013 and ASEE/AFRL summer faculty grant.
Conditions for laminar flow in geophysical vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiedler, Brian H.
1989-01-01
The sufficient condition for inviscid, helical instability at large wavenumbers is applied to solutions for columnar vortices arising from the vortical flow of an end-wall boundary layer. The end-wall vortex arising from the laminar boundary layer under a potential vortex will be unstable at sufficiently high Reynolds number. Hoewever, if the end-wall boundary layer is turbulent, the end-wall vortex can be stable and laminar even at very high Reynolds number; therefore, stable, laminar tornadoes and waterspouts are suggested as theoretical possibilities.
Spatially-partitioned many-body vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klaiman, S.; Alon, O. E.
2016-02-01
A vortex in Bose-Einstein condensates is a localized object which looks much like a tiny tornado storm. It is well described by mean-field theory. In the present work we go beyond the current paradigm and introduce many-body vortices. These are made of spatially- partitioned clouds, carry definite total angular momentum, and are fragmented rather than condensed objects which can only be described beyond mean-field theory. A phase diagram based on a mean-field model assists in predicting the parameters where many-body vortices occur. Implications are briefly discussed.
Linear phase distribution of acoustical vortices
Gao, Lu; Zheng, Haixiang; Ma, Qingyu; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong
2014-07-14
Linear phase distribution of phase-coded acoustical vortices was theoretically investigated based on the radiation theory of point source, and then confirmed by experimental measurements. With the proposed criterion of positive phase slope, the possibility of constructing linear circular phase distributions is demonstrated to be determined by source parameters. Improved phase linearity can be achieved at larger source number, lower frequency, smaller vortex radius, and/or longer axial distance. Good agreements are observed between numerical simulations and measurement results for circular phase distributions. The favorable results confirm the feasibility of precise phase control for acoustical vortices and suggest potential applications in particle manipulation.
A Critical Review of the Transport and Decay of Wake Vortices in Ground Effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sarpkaya, T.
2004-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the transport and decay of wake vortices in ground effect and cites a need for a physics-based parametric model. The encounter of a vortex with a solid body is always a complex event involving turbulence enhancement, unsteadiness, and very large gradients of velocity and pressure. Wake counter in ground effect is the most dangerous of them all. The interaction of diverging, area-varying, and decaying aircraft wake vortices with the ground is very complex because both the vortices and the flow field generated by them are altered to accommodate the presence of the ground (where there is very little room to maneuver) and the background turbulent flow. Previous research regarding vortex models, wake vortex decay mechanisms, time evolution within in ground effect of a wake vortex pair, laminar flow in ground effect, and the interaction of the existing boundary layer with a convected vortex are reviewed. Additionally, numerical simulations, 3-dimensional large-eddy simulations, a probabilistic 2-phase wake vortex decay and transport model and a vortex element method are discussed. The devising of physics-based, parametric models for the prediction of (operational) real-time response, mindful of the highly three-dimensional and unsteady structure of vortices, boundary layers, atmospheric thermodynamics, and weather convective phenomena is required. In creating a model, LES and field data will be the most powerful tools.
Dynamics of vorticity defects in layered stratified shear flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caulfield, C. P.; Roy, A.; Balmforth, N. J.
2011-11-01
Layered stratified flows, where relatively deep regions of weak stratification are separated by thinner interfacial layers of substantially stronger density gradient are commonly observed in nature. If such flows are subjected to vertical shear, it is well-known that a wide range of qualitatively different instabilities may develop. For example, the three-layer, two interface case is susceptible to a ``Taylor'' instability which, although superficially similar to the classic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, is actually qualitatively different in its growth mechanism. The investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of this instability, and to a lesser extent the single-interface ``Holmboe'' instability, has proved difficult, as the need to resolve the associated sharp density gradients places heavy demands on the required numerical resolutions for simulation. However, we show that it is possible to gain insight into the key nonlinear dynamics of such layered stratified shear flows by generalizing a reduced matched asymptotic ``vorticity defect'' model (N. J. Balmforth et al. J. Fluid Mech. 333, 197 [1997]) to include the dynamical effects of density variations. We particularly focus on investigating the finite amplitude structure of the saturated primary Taylor instability, and the properties of the secondary instabilities to which Taylor and Holmboe instabilities are susceptible.
A factor involved in efficient breakdown of supersonic streamwise vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiejima, Toshihiko
2015-03-01
Spatially developing processes in supersonic streamwise vortices were numerically simulated at Mach number 5.0. The vortex evolution largely depended on the azimuthal vorticity thickness of the vortices, which governs the negative helicity profile. Large vorticity thickness greatly enhanced the centrifugal instability, with consequent development of perturbations with competing wavenumbers outside the vortex core. During the transition process, supersonic streamwise vortices could generate large-scale spiral structures and a number of hairpin like vortices. Remarkably, the transition caused a dramatic increase in the total fluctuation energy of hypersonic flows, because the negative helicity profile destabilizes the flows due to helicity instability. Unstable growth might also relate to the correlation length between the axial and azimuthal vorticities of the streamwise vortices. The knowledge gained in this study is important for realizing effective fuel-oxidizer mixing in supersonic combustion engines.
Evolution of a barotropic shear layer into elliptical vortices.
Guha, Anirban; Rahmani, Mona; Lawrence, Gregory A
2013-01-01
When a barotropic shear layer becomes unstable, it produces the well-known Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). The nonlinear manifestation of the KHI is usually in the form of spiral billows. However, a piecewise linear shear layer produces a different type of KHI characterized by elliptical vortices of constant vorticity connected via thin braids. Using direct numerical simulation and contour dynamics, we show that the interaction between two counterpropagating vorticity waves is solely responsible for this KHI formation. We investigate the oscillation of the vorticity wave amplitude, the rotation and nutation of the elliptical vortex, and straining of the braids. Our analysis also provides a possible explanation for the formation and evolution of elliptical vortices appearing in geophysical and astrophysical flows, e.g., meddies, stratospheric polar vortices, Jovian vortices, Neptune's Great Dark Spot, and coherent vortices in the wind belts of Uranus. PMID:23410439
Temporal stability of multiple-cell vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khorrami, M. R.; Grosch, C. E.
1989-01-01
The temporal stability of multiple cell vortices is studied with a staggered Chebyshev spectral collocation technique. It is shown that cell multiplicity in the vortex core has a drastic effect on the stability characteristics. While validating the spectral collocation algorithm, two new viscous modes of instability for Batchelor's (1964) vortex were found. These modes are discussed in detail.
Long Term Changes in the Polar Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braathen, Geir O.
2016-04-01
As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented. The unusual meteorological conditions of the 2015 south polar vortex and the 2010/11 and 2015/16 north polar vortices will be compared to other recent years.
Experimental Study of Lift-Generated Vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rossow, Vernon J.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
The flow fields of vortices, whether bouyancy-driven or lift-generated, are fascinating fluid-dynamic phenomena which often possess intense swirl velocities and complex time-dependent behavior. As part of the on-going study of vortex behavior, this paper presents a historical overview of the research conducted on the structure and modification of the vortices generated by the lifting surfaces of subsonic transport aircraft. It is pointed out that the characteristics of lift-generated vortices are related to the aerodynamic shapes that produce them and that various arrangements of surfaces can be used to produce different vortex structures. The primary purpose of the research to be described is to find a way to reduce the hazard potential of lift-generated vortices shed by subsonic transport aircraft in the vicinity of airports during landing and takeoff operations. It is stressed that lift-generated vortex wakes are so complex that progress towards a solution requires application of a combined theoretical and experimental research program because either alone often leads to incorrect conclusions. It is concluded that a satisfactory aerodynamic solution to the wake-vortex problem at airports has not yet been found but a reduction in the impact of the wake-vortex hazard on airport capacity may become available in the foreseeable future through wake-vortex avoidance concepts currently under study. The material to be presented in this overview is drawn from aerospace journals that are available publicly.
Hairpin vortices in turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eitel-Amor, G.; Flores, O.; Schlatter, P.
2014-04-01
The present work addresses the question whether hairpin vortices are a dominant feature of near-wall turbulence and which role they play during transition. First, the parent-offspring mechanism is investigated in temporal simulations of a single hairpin vortex introduced in a mean shear flow corresponding to turbulent channels and boundary layers up to Reτ = 590. Using an eddy viscosity computed from resolved simulations, the effect of a turbulent background is also considered. Tracking the vortical structure downstream, it is found that secondary hairpins are created shortly after initialization. Thereafter, all rotational structures decay, whereas this effect is enforced in the presence of an eddy viscosity. In a second approach, a laminar boundary layer is tripped to transition by insertion of a regular pattern of hairpins by means of defined volumetric forces representing an ejection event. The idea is to create a synthetic turbulent boundary layer dominated by hairpin-like vortices. The flow for Reτ < 250 is analysed with respect to the lifetime of individual hairpin-like vortices. Both the temporal and spatial simulations demonstrate that the regeneration process is rather short-lived and may not sustain once a turbulent background has formed. From the transitional flow simulations, it is conjectured that the forest of hairpins reported in former DNS studies is an outer layer phenomenon not being connected to the onset of near-wall turbulence.
A comparison of spanwise vorticity fluctuations statistics over δ+ = 350 - 8000
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morrill-Winter, Caleb; Ebner, Rachel; Baidya, Rio; Vukoslavcevic, Petar; Klewicki, Joseph; Wallace, James; Marusic, Ivan
2012-11-01
The behaviors of the spanwise vorticity fluctuations (ωz) and their correlation with the wall normal and streamwise velocity fluctuations are central to describing the momentum and kinetic energy transport mechanisms in the turbulent boundary layer. To date, however, well-resolved laboratory measurements of ωz have been confined to low Reynolds numbers. Compact four-element hot-wire probe measurements are used to explore the statistical structure of the spanwise vorticity fluctuations in zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers. Existing well-resolved laboratory data, δ+ = 375, 970 & 1500, along with recently acquired data from the University of New Hampshire's low-speed boundary layer wind tunnel and University of Melbourne's High Reynolds Number Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel are examined. In the present flows, the spatial resolution of the probe ranged from l+ = 4 - 12. The properties of individual velocity gradient contributions to ωz are examined, along with the Reynolds number scaling behaviors of the first four statistical moments of ωz. The present results indicate that the motions bearing spanwise vorticity exhibit a significant Reynolds number dependence in the wake region of the boundary layer.
Two-dimensional vortices and accretion disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nauta, Michiel Doede
2000-01-01
Observations show that there are disks around certain stars that slowly rain down on the central (compact) object: accretion disks. The rate of depletion of the disk might be slow but is still larger than was expected on theoretical grounds. That is why it has been suggested that the disks are turbulent. Because the disk is thin and rotating this turbulence might be related to two-dimensional (2D) turbulence which is characterized by energy transfers towards small wave numbers and the formation of 2D-vortices. This hypothesis is investigated in this thesis by numerical simulations. After an introduction, the numerical algorithm that was inplemented is discussed together with its relation to an accretion disk. It performs well under the absence of discontinuities. The code is used to study 2D-turbulence under the influence of background rotation with compressibility and a shearing background flow. The first is found to be of little consequence but the shear flow alters 2D-turbulence siginificantly. Only prograde vortices of enough strength are able to withstand the shear flow. The size of the vortices in the cross stream direction is also found to be smaller than the equivalent of the thickness of an accretion disk. These circulstances imply that the assumption of two-dimensionality is questionable so that 2D-vortices might not abound in accretion disks. However, the existence of such vortices is not ruled out and one such a cortex is studied in detail in chapter 4. The internal structure of the vortex is well described by a balance between Coriolis, centrifugal and pressure forces. The vortex is also accompanied by two spiral compressible waves. These are not responsible for the azimuthal drift of the vortex, which results from secondary vortices, but they might be related to the small radial drift that is observed. Radial drift leads to accretion but it is not very efficient. Multiple vortex interactions are the topic of tha last chapter and though interesting the
Hairpin vortices in turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eitel-Amor, G.; Örlü, R.; Schlatter, P.; Flores, O.
2015-02-01
The present work presents a number of parallel and spatially developing simulations of boundary layers to address the question of whether hairpin vortices are a dominant feature of near-wall turbulence, and which role they play during transition. In the first part, the parent-offspring regeneration mechanism is investigated in parallel (temporal) simulations of a single hairpin vortex introduced in a mean shear flow corresponding to either turbulent channels or boundary layers (Reτ ≲ 590). The effect of a turbulent background superimposed on the mean flow is considered by using an eddy viscosity computed from resolved simulations. Tracking the vortical structure downstream, it is found that secondary hairpins are only created shortly after initialization, with all rotational structures decaying for later times. For hairpins in a clean (laminar) environment, the decay is relatively slow, while hairpins in weak turbulent environments (10% of νt) dissipate after a couple of eddy turnover times. In the second part, the role of hairpin vortices in laminar-turbulent transition is studied using simulations of spatial boundary layers tripped by hairpin vortices. These vortices are generated by means of specific volumetric forces representing an ejection event, creating a synthetic turbulent boundary layer initially dominated by hairpin-like vortices. These hairpins are advected towards the wake region of the boundary layer, while a sinusoidal instability of the streaks near the wall results in rapid development of a turbulent boundary layer. For Reθ > 400, the boundary layer is fully developed, with no evidence of hairpin vortices reaching into the wall region. The results from both the parallel and spatial simulations strongly suggest that the regeneration process is rather short-lived and may not sustain once a turbulent background is developed. From the transitional flow simulations, it is conjectured that the forest of hairpins reported in former direct numerical
Controlled Manipulation of Individual Vortices in a Superconductor
Straver, E.W.J.
2010-04-05
We report controlled local manipulation of single vortices by low temperature magnetic force microscope (MFM) in a thin film of superconducting Nb. We are able to position the vortices in arbitrary configurations and to measure the distribution of local depinning forces. This technique opens up new possibilities for the characterization and use of vortices in superconductors.
Absolute/convective instability of planar viscoelastic jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ray, Prasun K.; Zaki, Tamer A.
2015-01-01
Spatiotemporal linear stability analysis is used to investigate the onset of local absolute instability in planar viscoelastic jets. The influence of viscoelasticity in dilute polymer solutions is modeled with the FENE-P constitutive equation which requires the specification of a non-dimensional polymer relaxation time (the Weissenberg number, We), the maximum polymer extensibility, L, and the ratio of solvent and solution viscosities, β. A two-parameter family of velocity profiles is used as the base state with the parameter, S, controlling the amount of co- or counter-flow while N-1 sets the thickness of the jet shear layer. We examine how the variation of these fluid and flow parameters affects the minimum value of S at which the flow becomes locally absolutely unstable. Initially setting the Reynolds number to Re = 500, we find that the first varicose jet-column mode dictates the presence of absolute instability, and increasing the Weissenberg number produces important changes in the nature of the instability. The region of absolute instability shifts towards thin shear layers, and the amount of back-flow needed for absolute instability decreases (i.e., the influence of viscoelasticity is destabilizing). Additionally, when We is sufficiently large and N-1 is sufficiently small, single-stream jets become absolutely unstable. Numerical experiments with approximate equations show that both the polymer and solvent contributions to the stress become destabilizing when the scaled shear rate, η = /W e dU¯1/dx 2L ( /d U ¯ 1 d x 2 is the base-state velocity gradient), is sufficiently large. These qualitative trends are largely unchanged when the Reynolds number is reduced; however, the relative importance of the destabilizing stresses increases tangibly. Consequently, absolute instability is substantially enhanced, and single-stream jets become absolutely unstable over a sizable portion of the parameter space.
An eddy closure for potential vorticity
Ringler, Todd D
2009-01-01
The Gent-McWilliams (GM) parameterization is extended to include a direct influence in the momentum equation. The extension is carried out in two stages; an analysis of the inviscid system is followed by an analysis of the viscous system. In the inviscid analysis the momentum equation is modified such that potential vorticity is conserved along particle trajectories following a transport velocity that includes the Bolus velocity in a manner exactly analogous to the continuity and tracer equations. In addition (and in contrast to traditional GM closures), the new formulation of the inviscid momentum equation results in a conservative exchange between potential and kinetic forms of energy. The inviscid form of the eddy closure conserves total energy to within an error proportional to the time derivative of the Bolus velocity. The hypothesis that the viscous term in the momentum equation should give rise to potential vorticity being diffused along isopycnals in a manner analogous to other tracers is examined in detail. While the form of the momentum closure that follows from a strict adherence to this hypothesis is not immediately interpretable within the constructs of traditional momentum closures, three approximations to this hypothesis results in a form of dissipation that is consistent with traditional Laplacian diffusion. The first two approximations are that relative vorticity, not potential vorticity, is diffused along isopyncals and that the flow is in approximate geostrophic balance. An additional approximation to the Jacobian term is required when the dissipation coefficient varies in space. More importantly, the critique of this hypothesis results in the conclusion that the viscosity parameter in the momentum equation should be identical to the tradition GM closure parameter {Kappa}. Overall, we deem the viscous form of the eddy closure for potential vorticity as a viable closure for use in ocean circulation models.
Bilinear relative equilibria of identical point vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aref, Hassan; Beelen, Peter; Brøns, Morten
2011-11-01
A new class of bilinear relative equilibria of identical point vortices in which the vortices are constrained to be on two perpendicular lines, taken to be the x- and y-axes of a cartesian coordinate system, is introduced and studied. In general we have m vortices on the y-axis and n on the x- axis. We define generating polynomials q (z) and p (z) , respectively, for each set of vortices. A second order, linear ODE for p (z) given q (z) is derived. Several results relating the general solution of the ODE to relative equilibrium configurations are established. Our strongest result, obtained using Sturm's comparison theorem, is that if p (z) satisfies the ODE for a given q (z) with its imaginary zeros symmetric relative to the x-axis, then it must have at least n - m + 2 simple, real zeros. For m = 2 this provides a complete characterization of all zeros, and we study this case in some detail. In particular, we show that given q (z) =z2 +η2 , where η is real, there is a unique p (z) of degree n, and a unique value of η2 =An , such that the zeros of q (z) and p (z) form a relative equilibrium of n + 2 point vortices. We show that An ~2/3 n +1/2 , as n --> ∞ , where the coefficient of n is determined analytically, the next order term numerically. Supported in part by the Danish National Research Foundation through a Niels Bohr visiting professorship.
On the Transition from Hydrodynamic to MHD Cascade and the Breakdown of Vorticity Homogenization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katt, L. T.; Tobias, S. M.
2005-10-01
We adress the simple question of ``At what value of a weak uniform B0 does a 2D hydrodynamic dual cascade (associated with enstrophy homogenization) convert to a 2D MHD forward energy cascade?" We approach this by calculating the gradient in vorticity within a cell or eddy (with closed streamlines) linked to an external magnetic field. Both a local and an averaged criterion are derived. The global criterion is in terms of an Hartmann nuber and is consistent with preliminary results of simulation. More interestingly, the degree of vorticity homogenization emerges as related to the topology of filed line to streamline linkage at the boundary of the cell, as well as the profile of current density on the boundary of the cell. A variety of stable configurations are shown to be possible and will be discussed.
Measuring vortical flows in the solar interior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langfellner, Jan
2015-09-01
This thesis focuses on observations of the effects of rotation on solar convection at the length scales of supergranulation and larger (>30 Mm). Rotation drives vortical flows through the Coriolis force and causes anisotropic velocity correlations that are believed to influence the large-scale solar dynamics. We obtain horizontal flows using photospheric Doppler velocity and continuum intensity images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft via the techniques of time-distance helioseismology (TD) and local correlation tracking (LCT) of granules. In time-distance helioseismology, the local vertical vorticity can be measured by taking the difference between wave travel times measured in the anti-clockwise and clockwise directions along a closed contour. The agreement between the TD and LCT methods is excellent up to Â±60Â° latitude, provided that a center-to-limb correction is applied. Averaging over longitude, one finds that there is a small but significant correlation between the horizontal divergence and the vertical vorticity component of supergranular flows away from the solar equator. By comparison to a noise model, we find that the TD technique can be used to probe the vertical vorticity of flows on spatial scales larger than about 15 Mm, thus including supergranules and also giant cells. We also find that the vertical vorticity signal is much easier to measure using SDO/HMI observations than previous observations. The impact of the Sun's rotation on supergranulation is studied in detail by making spatial maps of the vertical vorticity of the flows associated with the average supergranule. The average supergranule is constructed by co-aligning thousands of individual supergranules in a given latitude band. For the first time, we are able to spatially resolve vorticity associated with inflows and outflow regions. In the northern hemisphere, outflows are on average associated with a clockwise
Three-dimensional instability analysis of boundary layers perturbed by streamwise vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martín, Juan A.; Paredes, Pedro
2016-08-01
A parametric study is presented for the incompressible, zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate boundary layer perturbed by streamwise vortices. The vortices are placed near the leading edge and model the vortices induced by miniature vortex generators (MVGs), which consist in a spanwise-periodic array of small winglet pairs. The introduction of MVGs has been experimentally proved to be a successful passive flow control strategy for delaying laminar-turbulent transition caused by Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. The counter-rotating vortex pairs induce non-modal, transient growth that leads to a streaky boundary layer flow. The initial intensity of the vortices and their wall-normal distances to the plate wall are varied with the aim of finding the most effective location for streak generation and the effect on the instability characteristics of the perturbed flow. The study includes the solution of the three-dimensional, stationary, streaky boundary layer flows by using the boundary region equations, and the three-dimensional instability analysis of the resulting basic flows by using the plane-marching parabolized stability equations. Depending on the initial circulation and positioning of the vortices, planar TS waves are stabilized by the presence of the streaks, resulting in a reduction in the region of instability and shrink of the neutral stability curve. For a fixed maximum streak amplitude below the threshold for secondary instability (SI), the most effective wall-normal distance for the formation of the streaks is found to also offer the most stabilization of TS waves. By setting a maximum streak amplitude above the threshold for SI, sinuous shear layer modes become unstable, as well as another instability mode that is amplified in a narrow region near the vortex inlet position.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeCroix, David; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Kao, C.-T.; Shen, S.
1997-01-01
The vortices produced by an aircraft in flight are a complex phenomena created from a 'sheet of vorticity' leaving the trailing edge of the aircraft surfaces. This sheet tends to roll-up into two counter-rotating vortices. After a few spans downstream of the aircraft, the roll-up process is complete and the vortex pair may be characterized in a simple manner for modeling purposes. Our research will focus on what happens to these post roll-up vortices in the vicinity of an airport terminal. As the aircraft wake vortices descend, they are transported by the air mass which they are embedded and are decayed by both internal and external processes. In the vicinity of the airport, these external influences are usually due to planetary boundary layer (PBL) turbulence. Using large-eddy simulation (LES), one may simulate a variety of PBL conditions. In the LES method, turbulence is generated in the PBL as a response to surface heat flux, horizontal pressure gradient, wind shear, and/or stratification, and may produce convective or unstably stratified, neutral, or stably stratified PBL's. Each of these PBL types can occur during a typical diurnal cycle of the PBL. Thus it is important to be able to characterize these conditions with the LES method. Once this turbulent environment has been generated, a vortex pair will be introduced and the interactions are observed. The objective is to be able to quantify the PBL turbulence vortex interaction and be able to draw some conclusions of vortex behavior from the various scale interactions. This research is ongoing, and we will focus on what has been accomplished to date and the future direction of this research. We will discuss the model being used, show results that validate its use in the PBL, and present a nested-grid method proposed to analyze the entire PBL and vortex pair simultaneously.
Recovering the vorticity of a light beam after scattering
Salla, Gangi Reddy Perumangattu, Chithrabhanu; Anwar, Ali; Prabhakar, Shashi; Singh, Ravindra P.
2015-07-13
We generate optical vortices and scatter them through a rough surface. However, the scattered light passing through a lens shows the same vorticity when probed at the Fourier plane. The vorticity is measured using a nonseparable state of polarization and orbital angular momentum of light as it cannot be confirmed by the standard interferometric technique. The observed vorticity is found to be independent of the amount of scattered light collected. Therefore, vortices can be used as information carriers even in the presence of scattering media. The experimental results are well supported by the theoretical results.
Recovering the vorticity of a light beam after scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salla, Gangi Reddy; Perumangattu, Chithrabhanu; Prabhakar, Shashi; Anwar, Ali; Singh, Ravindra P.
2015-07-01
We generate optical vortices and scatter them through a rough surface. However, the scattered light passing through a lens shows the same vorticity when probed at the Fourier plane. The vorticity is measured using a nonseparable state of polarization and orbital angular momentum of light as it cannot be confirmed by the standard interferometric technique. The observed vorticity is found to be independent of the amount of scattered light collected. Therefore, vortices can be used as information carriers even in the presence of scattering media. The experimental results are well supported by the theoretical results.
Analytical study of the origin and behavior of asymmetric vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tobak, Murray; Degani, David; Zilliac, Gregory G.
1990-01-01
An hypothesis advanced originally to explain computational observations is supported by theoretical considerations: The asymmetric mean flow observed on bodies of revolution at moderate to high angles of attack is the result of a convective instability of an originally symmetric flow to a time-invariant space-fixed disturbance. Additionally, the time-dependent fluctuations characteristic of the flow at higher angles of attack (up to 90 deg) are the result of an absolute instability of an originally steady flow to a small temporal disturbance of finite duration. Within a common domain, the instability mechanisms may coexist. The experimentally confirmed existence of bistable states, wherein the side-force variation with nose roll angle approaches a square-wave distribution, is attributed to the dominant influence of a pair of trailing vortices from the ogival forebody. Their existence is made possible by the appearance of foci of separation in the skin-friction line pattern beyond a critical angle of attack. The extreme sensitivity of the asymmetric flow orientation to nose geometry, demonstrated experimentally, is attributed to the presence of an indeterminate phase in the family of possible solutions for the three-dimensional wave system.