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Sample records for absorbing galaxies imaging

  1. NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING OF SIX METAL-RICH QUASAR ABSORBER GALAXY FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Straka, Lorrie A.; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; York, Donald G.

    2011-06-15

    Absorption lines in quasar spectra allow us to locate and study intervening galaxies. In order to obtain a clearer picture of these absorber galaxies, we have used the Near-Infrared Camera Fabry-Perot System at Apache Point Observatory to obtain near-infrared broadband images in one or more filters (J and K{sub s} ) of six quasar fields containing metal-rich low-z damped or sub-damped Ly{alpha} systems. These data allow us to search for the galaxies and constrain their luminosities. Candidate absorber galaxies are detected at 2.''01-7.''38 separation from the quasar in three out of six fields in the J and K{sub s} bands at >3{sigma} level with luminosities ranging from log(L/L{sub sun}) = 10.44-10.36 in the J band (for E-Sc type galaxies) and log(L/L{sub sun}) = 11.59-10.03 in the K{sub s} band for our detections. We place limits on the remaining fields with no detections of log(L/L{sub sun}) <10.83-9.75 for the J band and log(L/L{sub sun}) <10.43-10.05 for the K{sub s} band. We are also able to utilize Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra for each field to calculate optical fluxes and limits as well as limits on star formation rate via [O II]{lambda}3727 emission in spectra. Our data, combined with other recent imaging results for metal-rich absorbers, suggest a possible positive correlation between absorber metallicity and galaxy luminosity, although the samples are still small.

  2. The Gaseous Extent of Galaxies and the Origin of Lyα Absorption Systems. III. Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Lyα-absorbing Galaxies at z < 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Webb, John K.; Barcons, Xavier

    1998-05-01

    We present initial results of a program to obtain and analyze Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images of galaxies identified in an imaging and spectroscopic survey of faint galaxies in fields of HST spectroscopic target QSOs. We measure properties of 87 galaxies, of which 33 are associated with corresponding Lyα absorption systems and 24 do not produce corresponding Lyα absorption lines to within sensitive upper limits. Considering only galaxy and absorber pairs that are likely to be physically associated and excluding galaxy and absorber pairs within 3000 km s-1 of the background QSOs leaves 26 galaxy and absorber pairs and seven galaxies that do not produce corresponding Lyα absorption lines to within sensitive upper limits. Redshifts of the galaxy and absorber pairs range from 0.0750 to 0.8912 with a median of 0.3718, and impact parameter separations of the galaxy and absorber pairs range from 12.4 to 157.4 h-1 kpc with a median of 62.4 h-1 kpc. The primary result of the analysis is that the amount of gas encountered along the line of sight depends on the galaxy impact parameter and B-band luminosity but does not depend strongly on the galaxy average surface brightness, disk-to-bulge ratio, or redshift. This result confirms and improves upon the anticorrelation between Lyα absorption equivalent width and galaxy impact parameter found previously by Lanzetta et al. in 1995. Spherical halos cannot be distinguished from flattened disks on the basis of the current observations, and there is no evidence that galaxy interactions play an important role in distributing tenuous gas around galaxies in most cases. Galaxies might account for all Lyα absorption systems with W > 0.3 Å, but this depends on the unknown luminosity function and gaseous cross sections of low-luminosity galaxies as well as on the uncertainties of the observed number density of Lyα absorption systems. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope

  3. Nearby Galaxies as Damped Lyman alpha Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Sandhya

    1993-12-01

    The evolution of the neutral hydrogen content of galaxies as a function of time is an important constraint on processes in galactic evolution. We present a comprehensive, statistical description of the HI content and distribution within galaxies at the present epoch and compare these statistics with the properties of HI associated with ``damped Lyman alpha '' absorption systems at high redshift that are observed in the spectra of QSOs. Omega_ {HI}(z=0), the HI mass density at the present epoch relative to the present critical mass density, is found to be (2.3 +/- 0.6) times 10(-4) h75(-1) , consistent with the decreasing trend of the HI content with time deduced from QSO absorption line statistics for redshifts from about 4 to 0.5 (Lanzetta 1993). Spiral galaxies contain an overwhelming 94% of this neutral hydrogen mass. The rest is contained in irregulars (3%), and S0s plus ellipticals (3%). Spirals also offer the largest cross-section to line-of-sight absorption of light from QSOs. By considering nearby spirals as potential absorbers, the interception probability as a function of the HI column density, N(HI), is derived for comparison with the cross-sections inferred from observations of damped Lyman alpha systems. Consistent with previous studies, the comparison shows that the damped Ly alpha lines are created by absorbers that subtend larger cross-sections than present-day spirals by a factor of 5 implying that galaxies were either larger or more numerous at z ~ 2.5. We are also investigating the statistics of damped Lyman alpha absorbers in the redshift range 0.2 1.5.

  4. MAGIICAT I. THE Mg II ABSORBER-GALAXY CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Nikole M.; Churchill, Christopher W.; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Murphy, Michael T.

    2013-10-20

    We describe the Mg II Absorber-Galaxy Catalog, MAGIICAT, a compilation of 182 spectroscopically identified intermediate redshift (0.07 ≤ z ≤ 1.1) galaxies with measurements of Mg II λλ2796, 2803 absorption from their circumgalactic medium within projected distances of 200 kpc from background quasars. In this work, we present 'isolated' galaxies, which are defined as having no spectroscopically identified galaxy within a projected distance of 100 kpc and a line of sight velocity separation of 500 km s{sup –1}. We standardized all galaxy properties to the ΛCDM cosmology and galaxy luminosities, absolute magnitudes, and rest-frame colors to the B- and K-band on the AB system. We present galaxy properties and rest-frame Mg II equivalent width, W{sub r} (2796), versus galaxy redshift. The well-known anti-correlation between W{sub r} (2796) and quasar-galaxy impact parameter, D, is significant to the 8σ level. The mean color of MAGIICAT galaxies is consistent with an Sbc galaxy for all redshifts. We also present B- and K-band luminosity functions for different W{sub r} (2796) and redshift subsamples: 'weak absorbing' [W{sub r} (2796) < 0.3 Å], 'strong absorbing' [W{sub r} (2796) ≥ 0.3 Å], low redshift (z < (z)), and high redshift (z ≥ (z)), where (z) = 0.359 is the median galaxy redshift. Rest-frame color B – K correlates with M{sub K} at the 8σ level for the whole sample but is driven by the strong absorbing, high-redshift subsample (6σ). Using M{sub K} as a proxy for stellar mass and examining the luminosity functions, we infer that in lower stellar mass galaxies, Mg II absorption is preferentially detected in blue galaxies and the absorption is more likely to be weak.

  5. Featured Image: Spitzer Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    These three galaxies (click for a full view!) were imaged as a part of the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G), a recent survey of 2352 nearby galaxies with deep imaging at 3.6 and 4.5 m. The bottom panels show false-color near-UV and far-UV images previously obtained with GALEX. The top panels show the new images obtained with Spitzer as part of S4G. The three galaxies shown here represent three types of galaxies that have a high concentration of mass in their centers, yet still have a high specific star-formation rate (the star formation rate per unit stellar mass):Barred galaxies with a prominent ring around their nucleus, like NGC 7552Interacting systems, like NGC 2782Galaxies with compact bulges and smooth extended disks, like NGC 3642To learn why this is the case, and to see more results from S4G, see the original paper below.CitationJuan Carlos Muoz-Mateos et al 2015 ApJS 219 3. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/219/1/3

  6. Extended LY alpha -absorbing Halos around Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, David V.; Blades, J. Chris; Pettini, Max

    1996-06-01

    In order to establish the Lyα absorption cross section of present-day galaxies, we have identified 38 galaxies with z = 0-0.08 that lie within 40-500 h^-1^ kpc of the line of sight to a QSO observed with the Faint Object Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Including three galaxies in the field of 3C 273 investigated by previous authors, we find that nine of 41 galaxies have associated Lyα absorption. If the identified Lyα absorption systems are genuinely associated with the galaxies, then the covering factor of gas around galaxies remains roughly constant at ~40% between 100 and 300 h^-1^ kpc. Beyond 300 h^-1^ kpc, the incidence of absorption drops sharply. We conclude that (1) nearby galaxies do not possess Lyα-absorbing halos beyond 300 h^-1^ kpc in radius and (2) the covering factor of present-day galaxies between 50 and 300 h^-1^ kpc is 44% at an equivalent width limit of W >= 0.3 A. For the nine galaxies with associated Lyα absorption lines, differences in the galaxies systemic velocities and the velocity of the absorption line, {DELTA}v, range over +/- 300 km s^-1^, consistent with the distribution found at redshifts > 0.1 by Lanzetta et al. and Le Brun, Bergeron, & Boisse. Values of {DELTA}v spanning several hundred km s^-1^ are probably real for some of the QSO-galaxy pairs, however, and do not simply arise from errors in measuring cz_gal_ or cz_abs_. This suggests that the absorbing clouds are kinematically tied to the galaxy disks and that the distribution of {DELTA}v may arise because of the effects of galaxy inclination. We find no evidence for a correlation between Lyα equivalent width and galaxy line-of-sight separation, which weakens the argument that the identified galaxies are directly associated with the Lyα lines. Also, we find that absorption does not arise only from bright galaxies, since there are several examples in which low-luminosity galaxies apparently cause absorption. Yet we show that the absorbing halos around

  7. The Warm Absorber of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 5548

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M.; Krongold, Y.; Elvis, M.; Nicastro, F.; Binette, L.; Brickhouse, N.

    2008-04-01

    We present a spectral analysis of the X-ray Chandraof the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 5548. The warm absorber present in this object was modeled with the code PHASE. We detected two different outflow velocity systems in this source. One of the absorbing systems has outflow velocity of -1091+/-63 km s(-1) and the other of -568+/-49 km s(-1) . Each system required two absorption components with different ionization level to fit the observed features. Each velocity system may consist of a multi-phase medium.

  8. COS-GTO: QSO Absorbers, Galaxies and Large-scale Structures in the Local Universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, James

    2009-07-01

    metallicity and what are mass outflow rates of these winds?4. A large galaxy's gaseous halo: Three probes of the kinematics and metallicity of a single L* galaxy halo. These observations includes G130M, G160M exposures at SNR 20 and G285M at 2850A and SNR 10 for MgII. The 2L* galaxy, ESO 157-G049 {cz=1678 km/s}, being probed by these sightlines has an available H I 21cm map from ATCA, H alpha imaging from CTIO and long-slit spectra from MSSSO. Science drivers: What are the extent, metallicity, ionization conditions and kinematics of gaseous halos of normal luminous {L*} galaxies? Is there evidence for outflow, inflow or galactic fountain circulation of gas in massive galaxy halos? What is the source of halo gas {outflowing winds, infalling metal-poor gas from stripping of nearby dwarf galaxies, nuclear outflows, large numbers of bound dark matter halos??} and what is the relationship between this gas and Galactic high-velocity clouds {HVCs}?5. Dwarf galaxy winds: These targets probe the kinematics and metallicities of outflows from active and inactive {in terms of star formation} dwarfs. Science drivers: Outflowing winds from dwarf galaxies have also been implicated as a primary mechanism to enrich the IGM in mass, metals and energy. What is the evidence that either current starforming dwarfs or "dormant" {and low surface brightness; LSB} dwarfs {presumably in between star forming episodes} create unbound winds of substantial cross section { 100 kpc} sufficient to account for all weak metal-line absorbers at high- and low-z? What are the ionization conditions, mass outflow rates, extents and metallicities of these winds, if they are ubiquitous around dwarf galaxies?{H0 is assumed to be 70 km/s/Mpc}

  9. CONSTRAINING STELLAR PROPERTIES OF INTERVENING DAMPED Ly{alpha} AND Mg II ABSORBING GALAXIES TOWARD GRB 050730

    SciTech Connect

    Minowa, Y.; Okoshi, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Takami, H.

    2012-09-15

    We performed multiband deep imaging of the field around GRB 050730 to identify the host galaxies of intervening absorbers, which consist of a damped Ly{alpha} absorption (DLA) system at z{sub abs} = 3.564, a sub-DLA system at z{sub abs} = 3.022, and strong Mg II absorption systems at z{sub abs} = 1.773 and 2.253. Our observations were performed after the gamma-ray burst afterglow had disappeared. Thus, our imaging survey has a higher sensitivity to the host galaxies of the intervening absorbers than the normal imaging surveys in the direction of QSOs, for which the QSO glare tends to hide the foreground galaxies. In this deep imaging survey, we could not detect any unambiguous candidates for the host galaxies of the intervening absorbers. Using the 3{sigma} upper limit of the flux in the optical to mid-infrared observing bands, which corresponds to the UV to optical bands in the rest frame of the intervening absorbers, we constrained the star formation rates and stellar masses of the hosts. We estimated the star formation rates for the intervening absorbers to be {approx}< 2.5 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for z > 3 DLAs and {approx}< 1.0 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for z {approx} 2 Mg II systems. Their stellar masses are estimated to be several times 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} or smaller for all intervening galaxies. These properties are comparable to dwarf galaxies, rather than the massive star-forming galaxies commonly seen in the z > 2 galaxy surveys based on emission-line selection or color selection.

  10. Warm absorber in Seyfert-1 galaxies observed with ASCA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otani, C.; Kii, T.; Fabian, A. C.; Reynolds, C. S.; Iwasawa, K.; Inoue, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Matsuoka, M.

    1996-02-01

    The authors present the results of ASCA observations of the warm absorber in five Seyfert-1 galaxies and one quasar. The most important result is the detection of the continuous increase in O VIII absorption depth in MCG -6-30-15 within half a day with the continuum decrease. If this change is due to the recombination of O IX ions, the density and radius for increased O VIII ions should be n ⪆ 106cm-3 and R ⪉ 1017cm, respectively. It is also shown that the filling factor of the matter should be very small, implying that the warm absorber is probably clumpy. These results suggest this warm absorber as some link to the broad line region (BLR). On the other hand, no significant change in O VII was observed in MCG -6-30-15. These results are explained by two distinct warm absorbers in the line-of-sight unless some unknown reason causes the stability of O VII near the BLR; one of them corresponding to O VIII is located near the BLR, and another corresponding to O VII is located far outside from the BLR.

  11. Enhancement classification of galaxy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkinson, John

    With the advent of astronomical imaging technology developments, and the increased capacity of digital storage, the production of photographic atlases of the night sky have begun to generate volumes of data which need to be processed autonomously. As part of the Tonantzintla Digital Sky Survey construction, the present work involves software development for the digital image processing of astronomical images, in particular operations that preface feature extraction and classification. Recognition of galaxies in these images is the primary objective of the present work. Many galaxy images have poor resolution or contain faint galaxy features, resulting in the misclassification of galaxies. An enhancement of these images by the method of the Heap transform is proposed, and experimental results are provided which demonstrate the image enhancement to improve the presence of faint galaxy features thereby improving classification accuracy. The feature extraction was performed using morphological features that have been widely used in previous automated galaxy investigations. Principal component analysis was applied to the original and enhanced data sets for a performance comparison between the original and reduced features spaces. Classification was performed by the Support Vector Machine learning algorithm.

  12. Modeling the distribution of Mg II absorbers around galaxies using background galaxies and quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Bordoloi, R.; Lilly, S. J.; Kacprzak, G. G.; Churchill, C. W.

    2014-04-01

    We present joint constraints on the distribution of Mg II absorption around high redshift galaxies obtained by combining two orthogonal probes, the integrated Mg II absorption seen in stacked background galaxy spectra and the distribution of parent galaxies of individual strong Mg II systems as seen in the spectra of background quasars. We present a suite of models that can be used to predict, for different two- and three-dimensional distributions, how the projected Mg II absorption will depend on a galaxy's apparent inclination, the impact parameter b and the azimuthal angle between the projected vector to the line of sight and the projected minor axis. In general, we find that variations in the absorption strength with azimuthal angles provide much stronger constraints on the intrinsic geometry of the Mg II absorption than the dependence on the inclination of the galaxies. In addition to the clear azimuthal dependence in the integrated Mg II absorption that we reported earlier in Bordoloi et al., we show that strong equivalent width Mg II absorbers (W{sub r} (2796) ≥ 0.3 Å) are also asymmetrically distributed in azimuth around their host galaxies: 72% of the absorbers in Kacprzak et al., and 100% of the close-in absorbers within 35 kpc of the center of their host galaxies, are located within 50° of the host galaxy's projected semi minor axis. It is shown that either composite models consisting of a simple bipolar component plus a spherical or disk component, or a single highly softened bipolar distribution, can well represent the azimuthal dependencies observed in both the stacked spectrum and quasar absorption-line data sets within 40 kpc. Simultaneously fitting both data sets, we find that in the composite model the bipolar cone has an opening angle of ∼100° (i.e., confined to within 50° of the disk axis) and contains about two-thirds of the total Mg II absorption in the system. The single softened cone model has an exponential fall off with azimuthal

  13. Infrared images of merging galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, G. S.; James, P. A.; Joseph, R. D.; Mclean, I. S.; Doyon, R.

    1990-01-01

    Infrared imaging of interacting galaxies is especially interesting because their optical appearance is often so chaotic due to extinction by dust and emission from star formation regions, that it is impossible to locate the nuclei or determine the true stellar distribution. However, at near-infrared wavelengths extinction is considerably reduced, and most of the flux from galaxies originates from red giant stars that comprise the dominant stellar component by mass. Thus near infrared images offer the opportunity to study directly components of galactic structure which are otherwise inaccessible. Such images may ultimately provide the framework in which to understand the activity taking place in many of the mergers with high Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) luminosities. Infrared images have been useful in identifying double structures in the nuclei of interacting galaxies which have not even been hinted at by optical observations. A striking example of this is given by the K images of Arp 220. Graham et al. (1990) have used high resolution imaging to show that it has a double nucleus coincident with the radio sources in the middle of the dust lane. The results suggest that caution should be applied in the identification of optical bright spots as multiple nuclei in the absence of other evidence. They also illustrate the advantages of using infrared imaging to study the underlying structure in merging galaxies. The authors have begun a program to take near infrared images of galaxies which are believed to be mergers of disk galaxies because they have tidal tails and filaments. In many of these the merger is thought to have induced exceptionally luminous infrared emission (cf. Joseph and Wright 1985, Sanders et al. 1988). Although the optical images of the galaxies show spectacular dust lanes and filaments, the K images all have a very smooth distribution of light with an apparently single nucleus.

  14. Ly alpha and IR galaxy companions of high redshift damped Ly alpha QSO absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caulet, Adeline; Mccaughrean, Mark

    1993-01-01

    We have used a Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS3) HgCdTe 256x256 array detector with the Infrared (IR) camera on the 2.3m telescope at Steward Observatory to image several Quasi-Stellar Object (QSO) fields. The limiting magnitude is K'(2.1 microns) = 21.0 - 21.5 mag per square arcsec for a 3 sigma detection in 3 hours of in-field chopping observations. Each QSO line-of-sight samples several known absorbers with Mg2(lambda)2796-2803 A and/or C4(lambda)1548-1551 A absorption doublets. The equivalent width distributions of the low and high ionization absorption lines of the absorber sample are identical to those of the parent population of all absorbers. This selection process, used already for a spectroscopic survey of Mg2 absorption lines in C4-selected absorption systems at high z, gives a methodical approach to observing, reduces the observer biases, and makes a more efficient use of telescope time. This selection guarantees that imaging of the sample of QSO fields will provide complete sampling of the whole population of high z QSO absorbers. Follow-up optical and IR spectroscopy of these objects is scheduled for redshift measurement and confirmation of the absorbing galaxies and the cluster members.

  15. The Gaseous Extent of Galaxies and the Origin of Lyα Absorption Systems. V. Optical and Near-Infrared Photometry of Lyα-absorbing Galaxies at z<1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Webb, John K.; Barcons, Xavier

    2001-10-01

    We present results of a program to obtain and analyze HST WFPC2 images and ground-based images of galaxies identified in an imaging and spectroscopic survey of faint galaxies in fields of HST spectroscopic target QSOs. Considering a sample of physically correlated galaxy and absorber pairs with galaxy-absorber cross-correlation amplitude ξga(v,ρ)>1 and with galaxy impact parameter ρ<200 h-1 kpc, we confirm and improve the results presented by Lanzetta et al. and Chen et al. that (1) extended gaseous envelopes are a common and generic feature of galaxies of a wide range of luminosity and morphological type, (2) the extent of tenuous gas [N(H I)>~1014 cm-2] around galaxies scales with galaxy B-band luminosity as r~L0.39+/-0.09B, and (3) galaxy interactions do not play an important role in distributing tenuous gas around galaxies in most cases. We further demonstrate that (4) the gaseous extent of galaxies scales with galaxy K-band luminosity as r~L0.28+/-0.08K, and (5) tenuous gas around typical L* galaxies is likely to be distributed in spherical halos of radius ~180 h-1 kpc of covering factor of nearly unity. The sample consists of 34 galaxy and absorber pairs and 13 galaxies that do not produce Lyα absorption lines to within sensitive upper limits. Redshifts of the galaxy and absorber pairs range from z=0.0752 to 0.8920 with a median of z=0.3567; impact parameter separations of the galaxy and absorber pairs range from ρ=12.4 to 175.2 h-1 kpc with a median of ρ=62.2 h-1 kpc. Of the galaxies, 15 (32%) are of B-band luminosity LB<0.25 LB* and six (13%) are of low surface brightness. The galaxy sample is therefore representative of the galaxy population over a large fraction of the Hubble time. Because galaxies of all morphological types possess extended gaseous halos and because the extent of tenuous gas around galaxies scales with galaxy K-band luminosity, we argue that galaxy mass-rather than recent star formation activity-is likely to be the dominant factor

  16. Updated models for the creation of a low-Z QSO absorber by a dwarf galaxy wind

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, Brian A.; Joeris, Peter; Stocke, John T.; Danforth, Charles W.; Levesque, Emily M.

    2014-11-01

    We present new GALEX images and optical spectroscopy of J1229+02, a dwarf post-starburst galaxy located 81 kpc from the 1585 km s{sup −1} absorber in the 3C 273 sight line. The absence of Hα emission and the faint GALEX UV fluxes confirm that the galaxy's recent star formation rate is <10{sup −3} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Absorption-line strengths and the UV−optical SED give similar estimates of the acceptable model parameters for its youngest stellar population where f{sub m}<60% of its total stars (by mass) formed in a burst t{sub sb}=0.7–3.4 Gyr ago with a stellar metallicity of −1.7<[Fe/H]<+0.2; we also estimate the stellar mass of J1229+02 to be 7.3galaxy (none is observed today) and could by itself plausibly create the nearby absorber. But, using new data, we find a significantly higher galaxy/absorber velocity difference, a younger starburst age, and a smaller starburst mass than previously reported. Simple energy-conserving wind models for J1229+02 using fiducial values of f{sub m}∼0.1, t{sub sb}∼2 Gyr, and log(M{sub ∗}/M{sub ⊙})∼7.5 allow us to conclude that the galaxy alone cannot produce the observed QSO absorber; i.e., any putative ejecta must interact with ambient gas from outside J1229+02. Because J1229+02 is located in the southern extension of the Virgo cluster ample potential sources of this ambient gas exist. Based on the two nearest examples of strong metal-line absorbers discovered serendipitously (the current one and the 1700 km s{sup −1} metal-line absorber in the nearby Q1230 + 0115 sight line), we conclude that absorbers with 10{sup 14}galaxy.

  17. Automatic morphological classification of galaxy images

    PubMed Central

    Shamir, Lior

    2009-01-01

    We describe an image analysis supervised learning algorithm that can automatically classify galaxy images. The algorithm is first trained using a manually classified images of elliptical, spiral, and edge-on galaxies. A large set of image features is extracted from each image, and the most informative features are selected using Fisher scores. Test images can then be classified using a simple Weighted Nearest Neighbor rule such that the Fisher scores are used as the feature weights. Experimental results show that galaxy images from Galaxy Zoo can be classified automatically to spiral, elliptical and edge-on galaxies with accuracy of ~90% compared to classifications carried out by the author. Full compilable source code of the algorithm is available for free download, and its general-purpose nature makes it suitable for other uses that involve automatic image analysis of celestial objects. PMID:20161594

  18. Enhancement of galaxy images for improved classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkinson, John; Grigoryan, Artyom M.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the classification accuracy of galaxy images is demonstrated to be improved by enhancing the galaxy images. Galaxy images often contain faint regions that are of similar intensity to stars and the image background, resulting in data loss during background subtraction and galaxy segmentation. Enhancement darkens these faint regions, enabling them to be distinguished from other objects in the image and the image background, relative to their original intensities. The heap transform is employed for the purpose of enhancement. Segmentation then produces a galaxy image which closely resembles the structure of the original galaxy image, and one that is suitable for further processing and classification. 6 Morphological feature descriptors are applied to the segmented images after a preprocessing stage and used to extract the galaxy image structure for use in training the classifier. The support vector machine learning algorithm performs training and validation of the original and enhanced data, and a comparison between the classification accuracy of each data set is included. Principal component analysis is used to compress the data sets for the purpose of classification visualization and a comparison between the reduced and original feature spaces. Future directions for this research include galaxy image enhancement by various methods, and classification performed with the use of a sparse dictionary. Both future directions are introduced.

  19. COS-GTO: QSO Absorbers, Galaxies and Large-scale Structures in the Local Universe Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, James

    2010-09-01

    metallicity and what are mass outflow rates of these winds?4. A large galaxy's gaseous halo: Three probes of the kinematics and metallicity of a single L* galaxy halo. These observations includes G130M, G160M exposures at SNR 20 and G285M at 2850A and SNR 10 for MgII. The 2L* galaxy, ESO 157-G049 {cz=1678 km/s}, being probed by these sightlines has an available H I 21cm map from ATCA, H alpha imaging from CTIO and long-slit spectra from MSSSO. Science drivers: What are the extent, metallicity, ionization conditions and kinematics of gaseous halos of normal luminous {L*} galaxies? Is there evidence for outflow, inflow or galactic fountain circulation of gas in massive galaxy halos? What is the source of halo gas {outflowing winds, infalling metal-poor gas from stripping of nearby dwarf galaxies, nuclear outflows, large numbers of bound dark matter halos??} and what is the relationship between this gas and Galactic high-velocity clouds {HVCs}?5. Dwarf galaxy winds: These targets probe the kinematics and metallicities of outflows from active and inactive {in terms of star formation} dwarfs. Science drivers: Outflowing winds from dwarf galaxies have also been implicated as a primary mechanism to enrich the IGM in mass, metals and energy. What is the evidence that either current starforming dwarfs or "dormant" {and low surface brightness; LSB} dwarfs {presumably in between star forming episodes} create unbound winds of substantial cross section { 100 kpc} sufficient to account for all weak metal-line absorbers at high- and low-z? What are the ionization conditions, mass outflow rates, extents and metallicities of these winds, if they are ubiquitous around dwarf galaxies?6} M31 Galaxy Halo {added 12/2010}This program extension will probe the large scale structure of baryons in the universe, with a particular emphasis on the relationships between absorbers in the intergalactic medium {IGM} and galaxies. Science drivers include: What are the extent, metallicity, ionization conditions

  20. An Imaging and Spectroscopic Study of Four Strong Mg II Absorbers Revealed by GRB 060418

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, L. K.; Chen, H.-W.; Prochaska, J. X.; Bloom, J. S.

    2009-08-01

    We present results from an imaging and spectroscopic study of four strong Mg II absorbers of W(2796) gsim 1 Å revealed by the afterglow of GRB 060418 at z GRB = 1.491. These absorbers, at z = 0.603, 0.656, 1.107, and z GRB, exhibit large ion abundances that suggest neutral gas columns characteristic of damped Lyα systems. The imaging data include optical images obtained using Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS) on the Keck I telescope and using Advanced Camera for Surveys on board Hubble Space Telescope, and near-infrared H-band images obtained using Persson's Auxiliary Nasmyth Infrared Camera on the Magellan Baade Telescope and K'-band images obtained using NIRC2 with laser guide star adaptive optics on the Keck II telescope. These images reveal six distinct objects at Δ θ lsim 3farcs5 of the afterglow's position, two of which exhibit well-resolved mature disk morphology, one shows red colors, and three are blue compact sources. Follow-up spectroscopic observations using LRIS confirm that one of the disk galaxies coincides with the Mg II absorber at z = 0.656. The observed broadband spectral energy distributions of the second disk galaxy and the red source indicate that they are associated with the absorbers at z = 0.603 and z = 1.107, respectively. These results show that strong Mg II absorbers identified in gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow spectra are associated with typical galaxies of luminosity ≈0.1 - 1 L * at impact parameter of ρ lsim 10 h -1 kpc. The close angular separation would preclude easy detections toward a bright quasar. Finally, we associate the remaining three blue compact sources with the GRB host galaxy, noting that they are likely star-forming knots located at projected distances of ρ = 2 - 12 h -1 kpc from the afterglow. At the afterglow's position, we derive a 2σ upper limit to the underlying star-formation rate intensity of 0.0074 M sun yr-1 kpc-2. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope

  1. AN IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF FOUR STRONG Mg II ABSORBERS REVEALED BY GRB 060418

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, L. K.; Prochaska, J. X.; Chen, H.-W.; Bloom, J. S.

    2009-08-20

    We present results from an imaging and spectroscopic study of four strong Mg II absorbers of W(2796) {approx}> 1 A revealed by the afterglow of GRB 060418 at z{sub GRB} = 1.491. These absorbers, at z = 0.603, 0.656, 1.107, and z {sub GRB}, exhibit large ion abundances that suggest neutral gas columns characteristic of damped Ly{alpha} systems. The imaging data include optical images obtained using Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS) on the Keck I telescope and using Advanced Camera for Surveys on board Hubble Space Telescope, and near-infrared H-band images obtained using Persson's Auxiliary Nasmyth Infrared Camera on the Magellan Baade Telescope and K'-band images obtained using NIRC2 with laser guide star adaptive optics on the Keck II telescope. These images reveal six distinct objects at {delta} {theta} {approx}< 3.''5 of the afterglow's position, two of which exhibit well-resolved mature disk morphology, one shows red colors, and three are blue compact sources. Follow-up spectroscopic observations using LRIS confirm that one of the disk galaxies coincides with the Mg II absorber at z = 0.656. The observed broadband spectral energy distributions of the second disk galaxy and the red source indicate that they are associated with the absorbers at z = 0.603 and z = 1.107, respectively. These results show that strong Mg II absorbers identified in gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow spectra are associated with typical galaxies of luminosity {approx}0.1 - 1 L{sub *} at impact parameter of {rho} {approx}< 10 h {sup -1} kpc. The close angular separation would preclude easy detections toward a bright quasar. Finally, we associate the remaining three blue compact sources with the GRB host galaxy, noting that they are likely star-forming knots located at projected distances of {rho} = 2 - 12 h {sup -1} kpc from the afterglow. At the afterglow's position, we derive a 2{sigma} upper limit to the underlying star-formation rate intensity of 0.0074 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} kpc

  2. GRAVITATIONAL LENS CAPTURES IMAGE OF PRIMEVAL GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Hubble Space Telescope image shows several blue, loop-shaped objects that actually are multiple images of the same galaxy. They have been duplicated by the gravitational lens of the cluster of yellow, elliptical and spiral galaxies - called 0024+1654 - near the photograph's center. The gravitational lens is produced by the cluster's tremendous gravitational field that bends light to magnify, brighten and distort the image of a more distant object. How distorted the image becomes and how many copies are made depends on the alignment between the foreground cluster and the more distant galaxy, which is behind the cluster. In this photograph, light from the distant galaxy bends as it passes through the cluster, dividing the galaxy into five separate images. One image is near the center of the photograph; the others are at 6, 7, 8, and 2 o'clock. The light also has distorted the galaxy's image from a normal spiral shape into a more arc-shaped object. Astronomers are certain the blue-shaped objects are copies of the same galaxy because the shapes are similar. The cluster is 5 billion light-years away in the constellation Pisces, and the blue-shaped galaxy is about 2 times farther away. Though the gravitational light-bending process is not new, Hubble's high resolution image reveals structures within the blue-shaped galaxy that astronomers have never seen before. Some of the structures are as small as 300 light-years across. The bits of white imbedded in the blue galaxy represent young stars; the dark core inside the ring is dust, the material used to make stars. This information, together with the blue color and unusual 'lumpy' appearance, suggests a young, star-making galaxy. The picture was taken October 14, 1994 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2. Separate exposures in blue and red wavelengths were taken to construct this color picture. CREDIT: W.N. Colley and E. Turner (Princeton University), J.A. Tyson (Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies) and NASA Image files

  3. Deep H alpha images of interacting galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, S. C.; Kovo, O.

    1993-01-01

    Gravitational interactions between galaxies are believed to increase star formation activity dramatically, and most of the brightest starburst galaxies show clear signs of recent interactions. However, it is still not known how interaction triggers star formation, nor are there models to relate the type or strength of interaction to the location or amount of star formation. We report on a series of deep H alpha images of interacting and post-interaction galaxies which we took with the purpose of finding the young stars and ionized gas in these objects. We were motivated in part by the hope that by studying the very recently formed stars we could see how the interaction process had affected the star formation. We observed the galaxies through 50 A-wide filters, one on the redshifted H alpha line and one off, and a standard R filter. Depending on the galaxy and conditions, images in the B, V, and I filters were also obtained. The images were recorded with a 4x7 ft. or 17 ft. diameter CCD at the 1-meter telescope of the Wise Observatory in Mitzpe Ramon. The H alpha and continuum images are used, together with observations at other wavelengths, to put together as complete a picture as possible of star formation and interactions in each galaxy. The complete observation set is not yet available for all the galaxies but certain results are already clear. There do not seem to be any correlations between H 1 and H alpha structures. In some H 1 plume galaxies H alpha extensions were seen on the other side of the galaxy from the H 1; in others extensive H alpha filaments have been found but not H 1. The preliminary results agree with the simplest model that interaction-induced star formation will be concentrated in the system center, since that is where the mass ends up.

  4. XMM-Newton Observations of the Heavily Absorbed Seyfert 1 Galaxy IC 4329A

    SciTech Connect

    Steenbrugge, K.

    2005-01-05

    We detect seven distinct absorbing systems in the high-resolution X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert 1 galaxy IC 4329A, taken with XMM-Newton. Firstly we detect absorption due to cold gas in our own Galaxy and warm gas in the Galactic halo or the Local Group. This local warm gas is only detected through O VII absorption, from which we deduce a temperature between 0.03 and 0.2 keV. In IC 4329A we detect absorption from the host galaxy as well as from a warm absorber, close to the nucleus, which has 4 components. The absorption from the host galaxy is well modeled by neutral material. The warm absorber detected in IC 4329A is photoionized and has an ionization range between log {xi} = -1.37 and log {xi} = 2.7. A broad excess is measured at the O VIII Ly{alpha} and N VII Ly{alpha} emission lines, which can be modeled by either disklines or multiple Gaussians. From the lightcurve we find that the source changed luminosity by about 20 % over the 140 ks observation, while the spectral shape, i.e. the softness ratio did not vary. In the EPIC spectra a narrow Fe K{alpha} and Fe XXVI Ly{alpha} emission line are detected. The narrowness of the Fe K{alpha} line and the fact that there is no evidence for flux variability between different observations leads us to conclude that the Fe K{alpha} line is formed at a large distance from the central black hole.

  5. Imaging of Nearby Seyfert Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theios, Rachel L.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Ross, Nathaniel R.

    2016-05-01

    We used narrowband (Δλ = 70 Å) interference filters with the CCD imaging camera on the Nickel 1.0 m telescope at Lick Observatory to observe 31 nearby (z < 0.03) Seyfert galaxies in the 12 μm active galaxy sample. We obtained pure emission-line images of each galaxy, which reach down to a flux limit of 7.3 × 10‑15 erg cm‑2 s‑1 arcsec‑2, and corrected these images for [N ii] emission and extinction. We separated the Hα emission line of the “nucleus” (central 100–1000 pc) from that of the host galaxy. The extended Hα emission is expected to be powered by newly formed hot stars, and indeed correlates well with other indicators of current star formation rates (SFRs) in these galaxies: extended 7.7 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, total far-infrared, and radio luminosity. Relative to what would be expected from recent star formation, there is a 0.8 dex excess of radio emission in our Seyfert galaxies. The Hα luminosity we measured in the centers of our galaxies is dominated by the active galactic nucleus (AGN), and is linearly correlated with the hard X-ray luminosity. There is, however, an upward offset of 1 dex in this correlation for the Seyfert 1s, because their nuclear Hα emission includes a strong additional contribution from the broad-line region. We found a correlation between SFR and AGN luminosity. In spite of selection effects, we concluded that the absence of bright Seyfert nuclei in galaxies with low SFRs is real, albeit only weakly significant. Finally, we used our measured spatial distributions of Hα emission to determine what these Seyfert galaxies would look like when observed through fixed apertures (e.g., a spectroscopic fiber) at high redshifts. We found that although all of these Seyfert galaxies would be detectable emission-line galaxies at any redshift, most of them would appear to be dominated by (>67%) their H ii region emission. Only the most luminous AGNs (log(L Hα /erg s‑1) > 41.5) would still be identified as

  6. Imaging of Nearby Seyfert Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theios, Rachel L.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Ross, Nathaniel R.

    2016-05-01

    We used narrowband (Δλ = 70 Å) interference filters with the CCD imaging camera on the Nickel 1.0 m telescope at Lick Observatory to observe 31 nearby (z < 0.03) Seyfert galaxies in the 12 μm active galaxy sample. We obtained pure emission-line images of each galaxy, which reach down to a flux limit of 7.3 × 10‑15 erg cm‑2 s‑1 arcsec‑2, and corrected these images for [N ii] emission and extinction. We separated the Hα emission line of the “nucleus” (central 100–1000 pc) from that of the host galaxy. The extended Hα emission is expected to be powered by newly formed hot stars, and indeed correlates well with other indicators of current star formation rates (SFRs) in these galaxies: extended 7.7 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, total far-infrared, and radio luminosity. Relative to what would be expected from recent star formation, there is a 0.8 dex excess of radio emission in our Seyfert galaxies. The Hα luminosity we measured in the centers of our galaxies is dominated by the active galactic nucleus (AGN), and is linearly correlated with the hard X-ray luminosity. There is, however, an upward offset of 1 dex in this correlation for the Seyfert 1s, because their nuclear Hα emission includes a strong additional contribution from the broad-line region. We found a correlation between SFR and AGN luminosity. In spite of selection effects, we concluded that the absence of bright Seyfert nuclei in galaxies with low SFRs is real, albeit only weakly significant. Finally, we used our measured spatial distributions of Hα emission to determine what these Seyfert galaxies would look like when observed through fixed apertures (e.g., a spectroscopic fiber) at high redshifts. We found that although all of these Seyfert galaxies would be detectable emission-line galaxies at any redshift, most of them would appear to be dominated by (>67%) their H ii region emission. Only the most luminous AGNs (log(L Hα /erg s‑1) > 41.5) would still be identified as

  7. Imaging Radio Galaxies with Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, W. H.; van Breugel, W. J. M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Roberts, J.; Fidkowski, K.

    2000-12-01

    We present 42 milli-arcsecond resolution Adaptive Optics near-infrared images of 3C 452 and 3C 294, two powerful radio galaxies at z=0.081 and z=1.79 respectively, obtained with the NIRSPEC/SCAM+AO instrument on the Keck telescope. The observations provide unprecedented morphological detail of radio galaxy components like nuclear dust-lanes, off-centered or binary nuclei, and merger induced starforming structures; all of which are key features in understanding galaxy formation and the onset of powerful radio emission. Complementary optical HST imaging data are used to construct high resolution color images, which, for the first time, have matching optical and near-IR resolutions. Based on these maps, the extra-nuclear structural morphologies and compositions of both galaxies are discussed. Furthermore, detailed brightness profile analysis of 3C 452 allows a direct comparison to a large literature sample of nearby ellipticals, all of which have been observed in the optical and near-IR by HST. Both the imaging data and the profile information on 3C 452 are consistent with it being a relative diminutive and well-evolved elliptical, in stark contrast to 3C 294 which seems to be in its initial formation throes with an active AGN off-centered from the main body of the galaxy. These results are discussed further within the framework of radio galaxy triggering and the formation of massive ellipticals. The work of WdV and WvB was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. The work at UCSD has been supported by the NSF Science and Technology Center for Adaptive Optics, under agreement No. AST-98-76783.

  8. Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) observations of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, S. G.

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet images of several galaxies were obtained during the ASTRO-1 shuttle mission in December, 1990. The images have a FWHM angular resolution of approximately 3 arcsecond and are of circular fields approximately 40 arcminutes in diameter. Most galaxies were observed in at least two and sometimes as many as four broad bands. A very few fields were observed with narrower band filters. The most basic result of these observations is that most systems look dramatically different in the UV from their well-known optical appearances. Preliminary results of these studies will be presented. Information will be available on fields observed by the UTI during the ASTRO 1 mission; when that data becomes public it can be obtained from the NSSDC. The ASTRO observatory is expected to fly again in 1994 with approximately half of the observing time from that mission devoted to guest observers. The Ultraviolet Imaging telescope is extremely well suited for galaxy studies, and the UIT term is interested in encouraging a wide range of scientific studies by guest observers. Ultraviolet Imaging telescope is extremely well suited for galaxy studies, and the UIT team is interested in encouraging a wide range of scientific studies by guest observers.

  9. The neutral gas extent of galaxies as derived from weak intervening Ca ii absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, P.; Krause, F.; Fechner, C.; Charlton, J. C.; Murphy, M. T.

    2011-04-01

    We present a systematic study of weak intervening Ca ii absorbers at low redshift (z < 0.5), based on the analysis of archival high-resolution (R ≥ 45 000) optical spectra of 304 quasars and active galactic nuclei observed with VLT/UVES. Along a total redshift path of Δz ≈ 100 we detected 23 intervening Ca ii absorbers in both the Ca ii H & K lines, with rest frame equivalent widths Wr,3934 = 15-799 mÅ and column densities log N(Ca ii) = 11.25-13.04 (obtained by fitting Voigt-profile components). We obtain a bias-corrected number density of weak intervening Ca ii absorbers of {d{N}/dz=0.117 ± 0.044} at ⟨zabs⟩ = 0.35 for absorbers with log N(Ca ii) ≥ 11.65 (Wr,3934 ≥ 32 mÅ). This is 2.6 times the value obtained for damped Lyman α absorbers (DLAs) at low redshift. All Ca ii absorbers in our sample show associated absorption by other low ions such as Mg ii and Fe ii; 45 percent of them have associated Na i absorption. From ionization modelling we conclude that intervening Ca ii absorption with log N(Ca ii) ≥ 11.5 arises in DLAs, sub-DLAs and Lyman-limit systems (LLS) at H i column densities of log N(H i) ≥ 17.4. Using supplementary H i information for nine of the absorbers we find that the Ca ii/H i ratio decreases strongly with increasing H i column density, indicating a column-density-dependent dust depletion of Ca. The observed column density distribution function of Ca ii absorption components follows a relatively steep power law, f(N) ∝ N - β, with a slope of - β = -1.68, which again points towards an enhanced dust depletion in high column density systems. The relatively large cross section of these absorbers together with the frequent detection of Ca ii absorption in high-velocity clouds (HVCs) in the halo of the Milky Way suggests that a considerable fraction of the intervening Ca ii systems trace (partly) neutral gas structures in the halos and circumgalactic environment of galaxies (i.e., they are HVC analogs). Based on the recently

  10. A Deep Search for Faint Galaxies Associated with Very Low-redshift C IV Absorbers: A Case with Cold-accretion Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchett, Joseph N.; Tripp, Todd M.; Werk, Jessica K.; Howk, J. Christopher; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Ford, Amanda Brady; Davé, Romeel

    2013-12-01

    Studies of QSO absorber-galaxy connections are often hindered by inadequate information on whether faint/dwarf galaxies are located near the QSO sight lines. To investigate the contribution of faint galaxies to QSO absorber populations, we are conducting a deep galaxy redshift survey near low-z C IV absorbers. Here we report a blindly detected C IV absorption system (z abs = 0.00348) in the spectrum of PG1148+549 that appears to be associated either with an edge-on dwarf galaxy with an obvious disk (UGC 6894, z gal = 0.00283) at an impact parameter of ρ = 190 kpc or with a very faint dwarf irregular galaxy at ρ = 23 kpc, which is closer to the sightline but has a larger redshift difference (z gal = 0.00107, i.e., δv = 724 km s-1). We consider various gas/galaxy associations, including infall and outflows. Based on current theoretical models, we conclude that the absorber is most likely tracing (1) the remnants of an outflow from a previous epoch, a so-called "ancient outflow", or (2) intergalactic gas accreting onto UGC 6894, "cold mode" accretion. The latter scenario is supported by H I synthesis imaging data that shows the rotation curve of the disk being codirectional with the velocity offset between UGC 6894 and the absorber, which is located almost directly along the major axis of the edge-on disk. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope operated at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Also, based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the US, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona, on behalf of the Arizona University System; Instituto Nazionale do Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute of Potsdam, and

  11. Discovery of a Ly-alpha galaxy near a damped Ly-alpha absorber at z = 2.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowenthal, James D.; Hogan, Craig J.; Green, Richard F.; Caulet, Adeline; Woodgate, Bruce E.; Brown, Larry; Foltz, Craig B.

    1991-01-01

    The detection of a galaxy associated with the damped Ly-alpha absorbing cloud seen at z = 2.309 toward the QSO PHL 957 is reported. In addition to a strong but narrow Ly-alpha emission line and weaker C IV and He II lines, the object shows continuum at V about 24, with a slope rising slightly toward the red. This is similar to what is seen in high-redshift radio galaxies, but this galaxy does not correspond to any known radio source. The detected emission lines and continuum are most easily interpreted as light from hot, recently formed stars, implying a sizable star formation rate and a scarcity of dust. The spatial correlation of the absorbing cloud and the companion galaxy supports the interpretation of damped Ly-alpha clouds as objects fundamentally different from the lower column density Ly-alpha forest clouds, which show weak or no clustering.

  12. Thermal imaging of subsurface microwave absorbers in dielectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osiander, Robert; Maclachlan Spicer, Jane W.; Murphy, John C.

    1994-03-01

    The use of microwaves as a heating source in time-resolved IR radiometry provides the ability to heat surface and subsurface microwave-absorbing regions of a specimen directly. This can improve the contrast and spatial resolution of such regions and enhance their detectibility when compared with conventional laser or flashlamp sources. The experiments reported here use microwave heating with IR detection. Results on plexiglass-water-Teflon test specimens with absorbers at different depths in the sample are described by a 1D analytical model. Measurements using microwave and optical heating on epoxy-coated steel pipes are compared and demonstrate the ability of microwave heating to detect subsurface water voids very efficiently. Other applications of the method to microwave imaging, field mapping and imaging of defects in composite materials are discussed.

  13. Spectral Imaging of Galaxy Clusters with Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P.; Rasia, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect is a promising tool for detecting the presence of hot gas out to the galaxy cluster peripheries. We developed a spectral imaging algorithm dedicated to the SZ observations of nearby galaxy clusters with Planck, with the aim of revealing gas density anisotropies related to the filamentary accretion of materials, or pressure discontinuities induced by the propagation of shock fronts. To optimize an unavoidable trade-off between angular resolution and precision of the SZ flux measurements, the algorithm performs a multi-scale analysis of the SZ maps as well as of other extended components, such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and the Galactic thermal dust. The demixing of the SZ signal is tackled through kernel-weighted likelihood maximizations. The CMB anisotropies are further analyzed through a wavelet analysis, while the Galactic foregrounds and SZ maps are analyzed via a curvelet analysis that best preserves their anisotropic details. The algorithm performance has been tested against mock observations of galaxy clusters obtained by simulating the Planck High Frequency Instrument and by pointing at a few characteristic positions in the sky. These tests suggest that Planck should easily allow us to detect filaments in the cluster peripheries and detect large-scale shocks in colliding galaxy clusters that feature favorable geometry.

  14. Imaging Absorbing Structures Embedded in Thick Diffusing Media.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilworth, David Saunders

    Linear systems models and confocal imaging techniques are applied to the problem of imaging absorbing structures embedded in thick diffusing media. At the microscopic level, the model is linear in complex field and space variant; at the macroscopic level where spatial averaging processes are considered the model is linear in irradiance and space variant, thereby becoming mathematically more tractable. We describe the planar confocal imager, in which a small spot of light scans the front surface of a diffuser, and the light distribution on the back surface is sampled for each position of the scanning spot. A composite image is then formed by selection of one pixel from each of the 25,600 images, viz., a pixel from a spot opposite or nearly opposite from the scanning spot. The overall process is effectively a confocal imaging process. The planar system can be modified to create 3-D confocal imaging, where many stereo image pairs are created of the absorbing structures within a thick diffuser. Techniques for both planar and exfoliative deconvolution are investigated. Planar deconvolution sharpens images affected by space invariant processes in which the image point spread function is always the same. Exfoliatative deconvolution is a systematic method for sharpening images formed by space variant processes in which the point spread function varies in accordance with the depth of the embedded object. Results from planar and 3-D confocal scanning verify the linear systems model and demonstrate that the broad beam point spread function width (the point spread function formed by conventional, non-confocal imaging) can be reduced by a factor of 2. Results from planar and exfoliative deconvolution demonstrate that the confocal point spread function width can be reduced by a factor of 1.5. Preliminary optical and data processing techniques are discussed for developing a coherent confocal scanner. The image resolution from this type of scanner will be determined by the

  15. GALSIM: The modular galaxy image simulation toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, B. T. P.; Jarvis, M.; Mandelbaum, R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bosch, J.; Simet, M.; Meyers, J. E.; Kacprzak, T.; Nakajima, R.; Zuntz, J.; Miyatake, H.; Dietrich, J. P.; Armstrong, R.; Melchior, P.; Gill, M. S. S.

    2015-04-01

    GALSIM is a collaborative, open-source project aimed at providing an image simulation tool of enduring benefit to the astronomical community. It provides a software library for generating images of astronomical objects such as stars and galaxies in a variety of ways, efficiently handling image transformations and operations such as convolution and rendering at high precision. We describe the GALSIM software and its capabilities, including necessary theoretical background. We demonstrate that the performance of GALSIM meets the stringent requirements of high precision image analysis applications such as weak gravitational lensing, for current datasets and for the Stage IV dark energy surveys of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, ESA's Euclid mission, and NASA's WFIRST-AFTA mission. The GALSIM project repository is public and includes the full code history, all open and closed issues, installation instructions, documentation, and wiki pages (including a Frequently Asked Questions section). The GALSIM repository can be found at https://github.com/GalSim-developers/GalSim.

  16. An Imaging Survey of Late-Type Galaxies: Local Benchmarks of Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, V. A.

    2005-12-01

    Nearby (z ˜ 0) irregular, peculiar, and merging galaxies resemble the majority of galaxy types observed at high redshift. Since optical observations of galaxies at high redshift cover their rest-frame ultraviolet emission, imaging of local late-type galaxies in the ultraviolet and optical will provide a necessary basis for understanding high-redshift galaxies and their implications for galaxy formation and evolution. For this purpose, I present an analysis of a unique, panchromatic sample of 199 mostly late-type, irregular, peculiar, and merging nearby galaxies observed in a combination of 10 different pass-bands from the far ultraviolet through the infrared. I first present results of a study of the color gradients of these galaxies. I find that although elliptical through mid-type spiral galaxies are redder in their centers than their outskirts, most late-type spirals, irregular, and merging galaxies are bluer in their centers, becoming increasingly redder at larger radii. This indicates that late-type galaxies have a significant halo or thick disk of older stars, while young UV-bright stars dominate their inner regions. These results are consistent with models of hierarchical galaxy formation. I also present measurements of the concentration, asymmetry, and clumpiness ("CAS") parameters of these galaxies. These fundamental galaxy parameters can be used for galaxy classification, and studying and identifying merging and perturbed galaxies. The dependence of these parameters on wavelength yields a quantitative measure of the "morphological k-correction," which describes how the appearance of a galaxy changes with rest-frame wavelength. I find that the CAS parameters depend on galaxy type, and vary significantly with rest-frame wavelength, especially short-ward of the Balmer break. Galaxies generally become less concentrated and more asymmetric and clumpy at shorter wavelengths. Funded by NASA grants GO-8645.01-A, GO-9124.01-A and GO-9824.01-A, GALEXGI04

  17. 22 GHz water maser search in 37 nearby galaxies. Four new water megamasers in Seyfert 2 and OH maser/absorber galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, J.

    2013-12-01

    Aims: We report four new 22 GHz H2O water masers found in a Green Bank Telescope search toward 37 nearby objects. Our goal was to find new maser galaxies, active galactic nucleus (AGN) disk masers, and objects where hydroxyl and water maser species coexist. Methods: We observed 37 sources within 250 Mpc that were selected by high X-ray luminosity (LX > 1040 W) and high absorbing column density (NH ≳ 1022 cm-2). Sources included dual or triple AGN and interacting systems. We also searched objects detected in hydroxyl (OH). A catalog of 4038 known H2O (non)detections was assembled to avoid unnecessary reobservations. The final selection consisted of 16 new sources, 13 nondetections to follow up with a factor 10 higher sensitivity, 10 OH masers and 1 deep OH absorber, of which 37 were observed. Results: Water megamasers were detected towards the Sy 2 galaxy 2MFGC 13581, towards the 6 GHz OH absorber NGC 4261 and towards the two 1.6 GHz OH maser sources IRAS 17526+3253 and IRAS 20550+1656. We set upper limits on 33 nondetections. The detection rate was 25% in OH galaxies and 11% overall. The mean sensitivity was 4 mJy over 24.4 kHz (0.31 km s-1) or between 0.1 L⊙ and 1.0 L⊙ rms for the distances covered by the source sample. Combined with other searches, a total of 95 objects have now been searched for both OH and H2O masers. Conclusions: The maser features in 2MFGC 13581 are typical of a sub-parsec accretion disk, whereas NGC 4261 likely has jet masers in a masing torus. The NGC 4261 galaxy (3C 270; dusty torus, twin jet) and its masers appear similar to NGC 1052, where continuum seed emission by a twin jet supports masers in the torus. Imaging with very long baseline interferometry is required to determine the masing regions in NGC 4261 and 2MFGC 13581. IRAS 17526+3253 has narrow 350 L⊙ systemic masers, and the tentative 5σ detection in IRAS 20550+1656 (II Zw 96) strongly resembles massive star formation kilomasers in NGC 2146. The latter two detections

  18. The Average Properties Of CaII And NaI Absorbing Galaxies From Stacked Quasar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina E.; Cherinka, B.

    2014-01-01

    Cherinka & Schulte-Ladbeck (2011, AJ 142, 122) used the Sloan Digital Sky Survey SDSS/DR7 to construct a sample of 97,489 galaxy/quasar projections at impact parameters up to 100 kpc from the foreground galaxy, then searched the quasar spectra for CaII and NaI absorption within 500 km s-1 from the galaxy’s velocity. Here, we split the sample into absorbers, ≥3σ, and non-absorbers, <2σ, for galaxy redshifts z>0.01, and perform a spectral stacking analysis to derive average properties. In the 19 CaII absorbers, the CaIIK line has EW = (1.46±0.03) Å and vFWHM = (725±17) km s-1, and the H line has EW = (0.84±0.03) Å and vFWHM = (746±28) km s-1. The doublet is partially saturated with a ratio of ~1.7. We find weak NaI with EW = (0.16±0.02) Å and vFWHM = (294±38) km s-1. We detect no CaII features in 12,545 CaII non-absorbers. We do detect NaI with EW = (0.10±0.04) Å and vFWHM = (930±32) km s-1. In 36 NaI absorbers, the blended NaI feature has EW = (1.86±0.03) Å and vFWHM = (813±11) km s-1. We detect no CaII. We detect a weak NaI feature in the stack of 11,520 NaI non-absorbers, EW = (0.035±0.028) Å and vFWHM = (917±67) km s-1. We detect no CaII. Our main results are: 1. NaI absorption is ubiquitous. 2. CaII and NaI in absorbers is detected to our cutoff of 100 kpc. 3. No significant differences between absorbers and non-absorbers for a wide range of galaxy properties (size, color, concentration index, surface brightness profile) 4. Absorbers and non-absorbers occupy similar impact-parameter—luminosity space. 5. No difference in galaxy inclination, or azimuthal angle distribution, between absorbers and non-absorbers 6. Covering fractions of CaII and NaI are higher than non-absorbers, ~5% within 10 kpc, and drop off significantly, to <1% above 10 kpc. 7. Covering fractions within 10 kpc are slightly higher for luminous galaxies >0.1 Lr*, 12.5% for CaII and 6% for NaI, than for low-luminosity galaxies. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge the use of

  19. High Redshift Simulations Using the GALEX Ultraviolet Images of Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Bum-Suk; Kim, Young Kwang; Rey, Soo-Chang; Joe, Young Hoon; Gil de Paz, Armando

    2009-03-01

    We present simulated optical images of galaxies at high redshift using diverse and high-quality ultraviolet (UV) images of nearby galaxies obtained through the GALEX (Galaxy Evolution Explorer). Galaxy morphology plays an important role in the study of the evolution of galaxies. In this respect, the appearance of galaxies at high redshift requires images of nearby galaxies with various morphologies in the UV bandpass. Our simulation will be important in providing the basic information needed to study the evolution of galaxies.

  20. The Two-Phase, Two-Velocity Ionized Absorber in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 5548

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade-Velázquez, Mercedes; Krongold, Yair; Elvis, Martin; Nicastro, Fabrizio; Brickhouse, Nancy; Binette, Luc; Mathur, Smita; Jiménez-Bailón, Elena

    2010-03-01

    We present an analysis of X-ray high-quality grating spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 using archival Chandra-High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer and Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer observations for a total exposure time of 800 ks. The continuum emission (between 0.2 keV and 8 keV) is well represented by a power law (Γ = 1.6) plus a blackbody component (kT = 0.1 keV). We find that the well-known X-ray warm absorber (WA) in this source consists of two different outflow velocity systems. One absorbing system has a velocity of -1110 ± 150 km s-1 and the other of -490 ± 150 km s-1. Recognizing the presence of these kinematically distinct components allows each system to be fitted independently, each with two absorption components with different ionization levels. The high-velocity system consists of two components, one with a temperature of 2.7 ± 0.6 × 106 K, log U = 1.23, and another with a temperature of 5.8 ± 1.0 × 105 K, log U = 0.67. The high-velocity, high-ionization component produces absorption by charge states Fe XXI-XXIV, while the high-velocity, low-ionization component produces absorption by Ne IX-X, Fe XVII-XX, and O VII-VIII. The low-velocity system also required two absorbing components, one with a temperature of 5.8 ± 0.8 × 105 K, log U = 0.67, producing absorption by Ne IX-X, Fe XVII-XX, and O VII-VIII, and the other with a lower temperature of 3.5 ± 0.35 × 104 K and a lower ionization of log U = -0.49, producing absorption by O VI-VII and the Fe VII-XII M-shell Unresolved Transitions Array. Once these components are considered, the data do not require any further absorbers. In particular, a model consisting of a continuous radial range of ionization structures (as suggested by a previous analysis) is not required. The two absorbing components in each velocity system are in pressure equilibrium with each other. This suggests that each velocity system consists of a multi-phase medium. This is the first time that

  1. THE TWO-PHASE, TWO-VELOCITY IONIZED ABSORBER IN THE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY NGC 5548

    SciTech Connect

    Andrade-Velazquez, Mercedes; Krongold, Yair; Binette, Luc; Jimenez-Bailon, Elena; Elvis, Martin; Nicastro, Fabrizio; Brickhouse, Nancy; Mathur, Smita

    2010-03-10

    We present an analysis of X-ray high-quality grating spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 using archival Chandra-High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer and Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer observations for a total exposure time of 800 ks. The continuum emission (between 0.2 keV and 8 keV) is well represented by a power law (GAMMA = 1.6) plus a blackbody component (kT = 0.1 keV). We find that the well-known X-ray warm absorber (WA) in this source consists of two different outflow velocity systems. One absorbing system has a velocity of -1110 +- 150 km s{sup -1} and the other of -490 +- 150 km s{sup -1}. Recognizing the presence of these kinematically distinct components allows each system to be fitted independently, each with two absorption components with different ionization levels. The high-velocity system consists of two components, one with a temperature of 2.7 +- 0.6 x 10{sup 6} K, log U = 1.23, and another with a temperature of 5.8 +- 1.0 x 10{sup 5} K, log U = 0.67. The high-velocity, high-ionization component produces absorption by charge states Fe XXI-XXIV, while the high-velocity, low-ionization component produces absorption by Ne IX-X, Fe XVII-XX, and O VII-VIII. The low-velocity system also required two absorbing components, one with a temperature of 5.8 +- 0.8 x 10{sup 5} K, log U = 0.67, producing absorption by Ne IX-X, Fe XVII-XX, and O VII-VIII, and the other with a lower temperature of 3.5 +- 0.35 x 10{sup 4} K and a lower ionization of log U = -0.49, producing absorption by O VI-VII and the Fe VII-XII M-shell Unresolved Transitions Array. Once these components are considered, the data do not require any further absorbers. In particular, a model consisting of a continuous radial range of ionization structures (as suggested by a previous analysis) is not required. The two absorbing components in each velocity system are in pressure equilibrium with each other. This suggests that each velocity system consists of a multi

  2. STIS Ultraviolet Images of Interacting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, C. H.; Weistrop, D.; Hancock, M.

    1998-12-01

    We obtained UV images using STIS on board HST, of two interacting galaxy systems, NGC 3395, 3396 and NGC 3991, 3994, 3995. All of these galaxies are known to have strong UV emission from IUE observations (Kinney et al. 1993). To study the young stellar populations and the UV morphologies we used two bandpasses, the F25QTZ on the far-UV MAMA detector (lambda_c ~ 1590 Angstroms) and the F25CN182 on the near-UV MAMA detector (lambda_c ~ 1820 Angstroms). These images show many knots of UV emission indicating concentrated star-forming regions. To determine the intrinsic UV flux of these knots we use the fact that the unreddened UV spectra of stellar populations younger than 20 Myr follow F_λ ~ lambda (-2.5) (Calzetti et al. 1994, Leitherer & Heckman 1995). We calculate the extinction from the UV flux ratio and compare with ground-based estimates based on the Balmer decrement. We combine the UV fluxes with ground based optical aperture photometry to compare with evolutionary synthesis models of star-forming populations.

  3. THE PROPERTIES OF TWO LOW-REDSHIFT O VI ABSORBERS AND THEIR ASSOCIATED GALAXIES TOWARD 3C 263 ,

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, B. D.; Kim, T.-S.; Wakker, B. P.; Keeney, B.; Stocke, J.; Syphers, D.; Narayanan, A.

    2012-07-01

    Ultraviolet observations of the QSO 3C 263 (z{sub em} = 0.652) with Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and FUSE reveal O VI absorption systems at z = 0.06342 and 0.14072. WIYN multi-object spectrograph observations provide information about the galaxies associated with the absorbers. The multi-phase system at z = 0.06342 traces cool photoionized gas and warm collisionally ionized gas associated with an L {approx} 0.31 L* compact spiral emission line galaxy with an impact parameter of 63 kpc. The cool photoionized gas in the absorber is well modeled, with log U {approx} -2.6, log N(H) {approx} 17.8, log n(H) {approx} -3.3 and [Si/H] = -0.14 {+-} 0.23. The collisionally ionized gas containing C IV and O VI probably arises in cooling shock-heated transition temperature gas with log T {approx} 5.5. The absorber is likely tracing circumgalactic gas enriched by gas ejected from the spiral emission line galaxy. The simple system at z = 0.14072 only contains O VI and broad and narrow H I. The O VI with b = 33.4 {+-} 11.9 km s{sup -1} is likely associated with the broad H I {lambda}1215 absorption, with b = 86.7 {+-} 15.4 km s{sup -1}. The difference in Doppler parameters implies the detection of a very large column of warm gas with log T = 5.61(+0.16, -0.25), log N(H) = 19.54(+0.26, -0.44), and [O/H] = -1.48 (+0.46, -0.26). This absorber is possibly associated with a 1.6 L* absorption line galaxy with an impact parameter of 617 kpc, although an origin in warm filament gas or in the halo of a fainter galaxy is more likely.

  4. SUZAKU MONITORING OF THE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY NGC 5548: WARM ABSORBER LOCATION AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR COSMIC FEEDBACK

    SciTech Connect

    Krongold, Y.; Andrade-Velazquez, M.; Binette, L.; Jimenez-Bailon, E.; Elvis, M.; Nicastro, F.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Liu, Y.; Wilkes, B.; Mathur, S.; Reeves, J. N.; Grupe, D.; McHardy, I. M.; Minezaki, T.; Yoshii, Y.

    2010-02-10

    We present a 2 month Suzaku X-ray monitoring of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548. The campaign consists of seven observations (with exposure time of {approx}30 ks each), separated by {approx}1 week. This paper focus on the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer data of NGC 5548. We analyze the response in the opacity of the gas that forms the well-known ionized absorber in this source for ionizing flux variations. Despite variations by a factor of {approx}4 in the impinging continuum, the soft X-ray spectra of the source show little spectral variations, suggesting no response from the ionized absorber. A detailed time modeling of the spectra confirms the lack of opacity variations for an absorbing component with high ionization (U{sub X} {approx} -0.85), and high outflow velocity (v{sub out} {approx} 1040 km s{sup -1}), as the ionization parameter was found to be consistent with a constant value during the whole campaign. Instead, the models suggest that the ionization parameter of a low ionization (U{sub X} {approx} -2.8), low velocity (v{sub out} {approx} 590 km s{sup -1}) absorbing component might be changing linearly with the ionizing flux, as expected for gas in photoionization equilibrium. However, given the lack of spectral variations among observations, we consider the variations in this component as tentative. Using the lack of variations, we set an upper limit of n{sub e} < 2.0 x 10{sup 7} cm{sup -3} for the electron density of the gas forming the high ionization, high velocity component. This implies a large distance from the continuum source (R>0.033 pc; R>5000R{sub S} ). If the variations in the low ionization, low velocity component are real, they imply n{sub e} >9.8 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3} and R < 3 pc. We discuss our results in terms of two different scenarios: a large-scale outflow originating in the inner parts of the accretion disk, or a thermally driven wind originating much farther out. Given the large distance of the wind, the implied mass outflow rate is

  5. Imaging the Heart of Our Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    New radio images of the center of the Milky Way are providing an unprecedented view of the structure and processes occurring in the Galactic center.JVLA images of Sgr A at 5.5 GHz. The large-scale, bright ring structure is Sgr A East, a supernova remnant. The mini-spiral structure along the lower-right edge of the ring is Sgr A West, and Sgr A* is located near the center of the mini-spiral structure. Click for a closer look! [Zhao et al. 2016]Improved Radio ViewA recent study led by Jun-Hui Zhao (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) presents new images of the Galactic center using the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) at 5.5 GHz. The images center on the radio-bright zone at the core of our galaxy, with the field of view covering the central 13 of the Milky Way equivalent to a physical size of ~100 light-years.Due to recent hardware and software improvements in the VLA, these images are much deeper than any previously obtained of the Galactic center, reaching an unprecedented 100,000:1 dynamic range. Not only do these observations provide a detailed view of previously known structures within the Sagittarius A radio complex in the Milky Ways heart, but they also reveal new features that can help us understand the processes that formed this bright complex.Features in Sagittarius ASgr A consists of three main components nested within each other: the supernova remnant Sgr A East, the mini-spiral structure Sgr A West (located off-center within the Sgr A East structure), and the compact radio source Sgr A* (located near the center of the mini-spiral). Sgr A* is the supermassive black hole that resides at the very center of the Milky Way.The newest JVLA images reveal numerous filamentary sources that trace out two radio lobes, oriented nearly perpendicular to the Galactic plane and ~50 light-years in size. These are smaller radio counterparts to the enormous (on the scale of 30,000 light-years!) gamma-ray Fermi bubbles that have been observed to extend from the

  6. High resolution imaging of galaxy cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, P.; Stiavelli, M.; King, I. R.; Deharveng, J. M.; Albrecht, R.; Barbieri, C.; Blades, J. C.; Boksenberg, A.; Disney, M. J.; Jakobsen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Surface photometry data obtained with the Faint Object Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope in the cores of ten galaxies is presented. The major results are: (1) none of the galaxies show truly 'isothermal' cores, (2) galaxies with nuclear activity show very similar light profiles, (3) all objects show central mass densities above 10 exp 3 solar masses/cu pc3, and (4) four of the galaxies (M87, NGC 3862, NGC 4594, NGC 6251) show evidence for exceptional nuclear mass concentrations.

  7. Ganalyzer: A Tool for Automatic Galaxy Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, Lior

    2011-08-01

    We describe Ganalyzer, a model-based tool that can automatically analyze and classify galaxy images. Ganalyzer works by separating the galaxy pixels from the background pixels, finding the center and radius of the galaxy, generating the radial intensity plot, and then computing the slopes of the peaks detected in the radial intensity plot to measure the spirality of the galaxy and determine its morphological class. Unlike algorithms that are based on machine learning, Ganalyzer is based on measuring the spirality of the galaxy, a task that is difficult to perform manually, and in many cases can provide a more accurate analysis compared to manual observation. Ganalyzer is simple to use, and can be easily embedded into other image analysis applications. Another advantage is its speed, which allows it to analyze ~10,000,000 galaxy images in five days using a standard modern desktop computer. These capabilities can make Ganalyzer a useful tool in analyzing large data sets of galaxy images collected by autonomous sky surveys such as SDSS, LSST, or DES. The software is available for free download at http://vfacstaff.ltu.edu/lshamir/downloads/ganalyzer, and the data used in the experiment are available at http://vfacstaff.ltu.edu/lshamir/downloads/ganalyzer/GalaxyImages.zip.

  8. GANALYZER: A TOOL FOR AUTOMATIC GALAXY IMAGE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Shamir, Lior

    2011-08-01

    We describe Ganalyzer, a model-based tool that can automatically analyze and classify galaxy images. Ganalyzer works by separating the galaxy pixels from the background pixels, finding the center and radius of the galaxy, generating the radial intensity plot, and then computing the slopes of the peaks detected in the radial intensity plot to measure the spirality of the galaxy and determine its morphological class. Unlike algorithms that are based on machine learning, Ganalyzer is based on measuring the spirality of the galaxy, a task that is difficult to perform manually, and in many cases can provide a more accurate analysis compared to manual observation. Ganalyzer is simple to use, and can be easily embedded into other image analysis applications. Another advantage is its speed, which allows it to analyze {approx}10,000,000 galaxy images in five days using a standard modern desktop computer. These capabilities can make Ganalyzer a useful tool in analyzing large data sets of galaxy images collected by autonomous sky surveys such as SDSS, LSST, or DES. The software is available for free download at http://vfacstaff.ltu.edu/lshamir/downloads/ganalyzer, and the data used in the experiment are available at http://vfacstaff.ltu.edu/lshamir/downloads/ganalyzer/GalaxyImages.zip.

  9. PTFOS: Flexible and Absorbable Intracranial Electrodes for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bonmassar, Giorgio; Fujimoto, Kyoko; Golby, Alexandra J.

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial electrocortical recording and stimulation can provide unique knowledge about functional brain anatomy in patients undergoing brain surgery. This approach is commonly used in the treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. However, it can be very difficult to integrate the results of cortical recordings with other brain mapping modalities, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The ability to integrate imaging and electrophysiological information with simultaneous subdural electrocortical recording/stimulation and fMRI could offer significant insight for cognitive and systems neuroscience as well as for clinical neurology, particularly for patients with epilepsy or functional disorders. However, standard subdural electrodes cause significant artifact in MRI images, and concerns about risks such as cortical heating have generally precluded obtaining MRI in patients with implanted electrodes. We propose an electrode set based on polymer thick film organic substrate (PTFOS), an organic absorbable, flexible and stretchable electrode grid for intracranial use. These new types of MRI transparent intracranial electrodes are based on nano-particle ink technology that builds on our earlier development of an EEG/fMRI electrode set for scalp recording. The development of MRI-compatible recording/stimulation electrodes with a very thin profile could allow functional mapping at the individual subject level of the underlying feedback and feed forward networks. The thin flexible substrate would allow the electrodes to optimally contact the convoluted brain surface. Performance properties of the PTFOS were assessed by MRI measurements, finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations, micro-volt recording, and injecting currents using standard electrocortical stimulation in phantoms. In contrast to the large artifacts exhibited with standard electrode sets, the PTFOS exhibited no artifact due to the reduced amount of metal and conductivity of the

  10. An imaging survey of late-type galaxies: Local benchmarks of galaxy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Violet

    The majority of galaxies observed at high redshift display structures and morphologies resembling those of nearby (z ~ 0) irregular, peculiar and merging galaxies. To better understand galaxy assembly and evolution, the properties of such nearby galaxies must be compared with distant ones in the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV), where the highest resolution and deepest observations of high-redshift galaxies were taken. To evaluate the possible dependence of galaxy structure and morphology on rest-frame wavelength, it is necessary to study the nearby galaxies in redder bands as well. For this purpose, a panchromatic imaging survey was conducted in the far-UV through the near- infrared of 199 nearby, mostly late-type, irregular, peculiar, and merging galaxies. An analysis is presented here of the color gradients, and the wavelength- dependent quantitative morphology of this sample. Whereas ellipticals and early- to mid-type spiral galaxies tend to become bluer at larger radial distances from their centers, most late-type spiral, irregular, and merging galaxies become increasingly redder at larger radii. This may indicate that late-type galaxies have a significant halo or thick disk of older stars, while their inner regions are dominated by younger, UV-bright stars. This result is consistent with recent numerical models of hierarchical galaxy assembly. Galaxy morphology is also quantitatively analyzed, as parametrized with measurements of concentration index, asymmetry, and clumpiness (CAS) parameters. These CAS parameters depend on both galaxy type and the wavelength of observation, and can be used to measure the "morphological k-correction", i.e., the change in appearance of a galaxy with rest-frame wavelength. Whereas early-type galaxies (E-S0) appear the same at all wavelengths longward of the Balmer break, there is a significant wavelength-dependence of the CAS parameters for galaxies of types later than S0, which generally become less concentrated and more asymmetric

  11. ONLY THE LONELY: H I IMAGING OF VOID GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kreckel, K.; Van Gorkom, J. H.; Platen, E.; Van de Weygaert, R.; Van der Hulst, J. M.; Aragon-Calvo, M. A.; Yip, C.-W.; Kovac, K.; Peebles, P. J. E.

    2011-01-15

    Void galaxies, residing within the deepest underdensities of the Cosmic Web, present an ideal population for the study of galaxy formation and evolution in an environment undisturbed by the complex processes modifying galaxies in clusters and groups, as well as provide an observational test for theories of cosmological structure formation. We have completed a pilot survey for the H I imaging aspects of a new Void Galaxy Survey (VGS), imaging 15 void galaxies in H I in local (d < 100 Mpc) voids. H I masses range from 3.5 x 10{sup 8} to 3.8 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}, with one nondetection with an upper limit of 2.1 x 10{sup 8} M{sub sun}. Our galaxies were selected using a structural and geometric technique to produce a sample that is purely environmentally selected and uniformly represents the void galaxy population. In addition, we use a powerful new backend of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope that allows us to probe a large volume around each targeted galaxy, simultaneously providing an environmentally constrained sample of fore- and background control samples of galaxies while still resolving individual galaxy kinematics and detecting faint companions in H I. This small sample makes up a surprisingly interesting collection of perturbed and interacting galaxies, all with small stellar disks. Four galaxies have significantly perturbed H I disks, five have previously unidentified companions at distances ranging from 50 to 200 kpc, two are in interacting systems, and one was found to have a polar H I disk. Our initial findings suggest void galaxies are a gas-rich, dynamic population which present evidence of ongoing gas accretion, major and minor interactions, and filamentary alignment despite the surrounding underdense environment.

  12. Only the Lonely: H I Imaging of Void Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreckel, K.; Platen, E.; Aragón-Calvo, M. A.; van Gorkom, J. H.; van de Weygaert, R.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Kovač, K.; Yip, C.-W.; Peebles, P. J. E.

    2011-01-01

    Void galaxies, residing within the deepest underdensities of the Cosmic Web, present an ideal population for the study of galaxy formation and evolution in an environment undisturbed by the complex processes modifying galaxies in clusters and groups, as well as provide an observational test for theories of cosmological structure formation. We have completed a pilot survey for the H I imaging aspects of a new Void Galaxy Survey (VGS), imaging 15 void galaxies in H I in local (d < 100 Mpc) voids. H I masses range from 3.5 × 108 to 3.8 × 109 M sun, with one nondetection with an upper limit of 2.1 × 108 M sun. Our galaxies were selected using a structural and geometric technique to produce a sample that is purely environmentally selected and uniformly represents the void galaxy population. In addition, we use a powerful new backend of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope that allows us to probe a large volume around each targeted galaxy, simultaneously providing an environmentally constrained sample of fore- and background control samples of galaxies while still resolving individual galaxy kinematics and detecting faint companions in H I. This small sample makes up a surprisingly interesting collection of perturbed and interacting galaxies, all with small stellar disks. Four galaxies have significantly perturbed H I disks, five have previously unidentified companions at distances ranging from 50 to 200 kpc, two are in interacting systems, and one was found to have a polar H I disk. Our initial findings suggest void galaxies are a gas-rich, dynamic population which present evidence of ongoing gas accretion, major and minor interactions, and filamentary alignment despite the surrounding underdense environment.

  13. An infrared imaging study of galaxies in the local universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grauer, Albert D.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Mcleod, Kim K.

    1995-01-01

    This poster was a preliminary report on a survey of galaxies in the local universe at J and K using a NICMOS3 256 x 256 infrared photometric camera attached to the 61 inch telescope on Mt. Bigelow. Deep images are being obtained for a representative sample of galaxies in the Uppsala General Catalogue. Structural and color parameters are determined for a wide variety of galactic types. These data should prove to be valuable in characterizing stellar populations within disks and bulges, determining if IR-active galaxies have unusual global as well as- nuclear properties, and understanding the effects of evolution and redshift dimming in distant galaxies.

  14. Featured Image: A Galaxy Plunges Into a Cluster Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    The galaxy that takes up most of the frame in this stunning image (click for the full view!) is NGC 1427A. This is a dwarf irregular galaxy (unlike the fortuitously-located background spiral galaxy in the lower right corner of the image), and its currently in the process of plunging into the center of the Fornax galaxy cluster. Marcelo Mora (Pontifical Catholic University of Chile) and collaborators have analyzed observations of this galaxy made by both the Very Large Telescope in Chile and the Hubble Advanced Camera for Surveys, which produced the image shown here as a color composite in three channels. The team worked to characterize the clusters of star formation within NGC 1427A identifiable in the image as bright knots within the galaxy and determine how the interactions of this galaxy with its cluster environment affect the star formation within it. For more information and the original image, see the paper below.Citation:Marcelo D. Mora et al 2015 AJ 150 93. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/93

  15. Jet Directions in Seyfert Galaxies: Radio Continuum Imaging Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, H. R.; Ulvestad, J. S.; Antonucci, R. R. J.; Kinney, A. L.

    2001-02-01

    We present the results of VLA A-array 8.46 GHz continuum imaging of 55 Seyfert galaxies (19 Seyfert 1's and 36 Seyfert 2's). These galaxies are part of a larger sample of 88 Seyfert galaxies, selected from mostly isotropic properties, the flux at 60 μm, and warm infrared 25-60 μm colors. These images are used to study the structure of the radio continuum emission of these galaxies and their position angles, in the case of extended sources. These data, combined with information from broadband B and I observations, have been used to study the orientation of radio jets relative to the plane of their host galaxies (Kinney et al.).

  16. Synthetic galaxy images and spectra from the Illustris simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrey, Paul; Snyder, Gregory F.; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hayward, Christopher C.; Genel, Shy; Sijacki, Debora; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars; Nelson, Dylan; Kriek, Mariska; Pillepich, Annalisa; Sales, Laura V.; McBride, Cameron K.

    2015-03-01

    We present our methods for generating a catalogue of 7000 synthetic images and 40 000 integrated spectra of redshift z = 0 galaxies from the Illustris simulation. The mock data products are produced by using stellar population synthesis models to assign spectral energy distributions (SED) to each star particle in the galaxies. The resulting synthetic images and integrated SEDs therefore properly reflect the spatial distribution, stellar metallicity distribution, and star formation history of the galaxies. From the synthetic data products, it is possible to produce monochromatic or colour-composite images, perform SED fitting, classify morphology, determine galaxy structural properties, and evaluate the impacts of galaxy viewing angle. The main contribution of this paper is to describe the production, format, and composition of the image catalogue that makes up the Illustris Simulation Observatory. As a demonstration of this resource, we derive galactic stellar mass estimates by applying the SED fitting code FAST to the synthetic galaxy products, and compare the derived stellar masses against the true stellar masses from the simulation. We find from this idealized experiment that systematic biases exist in the photometrically derived stellar mass values that can be reduced by using a fixed metallicity in conjunction with a minimum galaxy age restriction.

  17. A pair of O VI and broad Ly α absorbers probing warm gas in a galaxy group environment at z ˜ 0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachat, Sachin; Narayanan, Anand; Muzahid, Sowgat; Khaire, Vikram; Srianand, Raghunathan; Wakker, Bart P.; Savage, Blair D.

    2016-05-01

    We report the detection of two O VI absorbers at z = 0.416 14 and 0.419 50 (|Δv| = 710 km s-1), towards SBS 0957+599. Both absorbers are multiphase systems tracing substantial reservoirs of warm baryons. The low- and intermediate-ionization metals in the z = 0.416 14 absorber are consistent with an origin in photoionized gas. O VI has a velocity structure different from other metal species. Ly α shows the presence of a broad feature. The linewidths for O VI and the broad Ly α suggest T = 7.1 × 105 K. This warm medium is probing a baryonic column, which is an order of magnitude more than the total hydrogen in the cooler photoionized gas. The second absorber is detected only in H I and O VI. Here a temperature of 4.6 × 104 K supports O VI originating in a low-density photoionized gas. A broad component is seen in Ly α, offset from O VI. The temperature in the broad Ly α is T ≲ 2.1 × 105 K. The absorbers reside in a galaxy overdensity region with seven spectroscopically identified galaxies within ˜10 Mpc and Δv ˜ 1000 km s-1 of the z = 0.416 14 absorber, and two galaxies inside a similar separation from the z = 0.419 50 absorber. The distribution of galaxies relative to the absorbers suggests that the line of sight could be intercepting a large-scale filament connecting galaxy groups, or the extended halo of a sub-L* galaxy. Though kinematically proximate, the two absorbers reaffirm the diversity in the physical conditions of low red-shift O VI systems and the galactic environments they inhabit.

  18. Multi-color imaging of selected southern interacting galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric P.; Hintzen, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The authors present preliminary results from a study of selected Arp-Madore Southern Hemisphere peculiar galaxies. Broadband charge coupled device (CCD) images (BVRI) of a subset of these galaxies allow us to study each galaxy's optical morphology, color, and (in a crude manner) degree of nuclear activity, and to compare them with similar data we possess on other active galaxies. Many of these galaxies have optical morphologies closely resembling those of powerful radio galaxies (Smith and Heckman 1989), yet their radio emission is unremarkable. Accurate positions for subsequent spectroscopic studies have been determined along with broad band photometry and morphology studies. Detailed observations of these comparatively bright, low-redshift, well-resolved interacting systems should aid our understanding of the role interactions play in triggering galaxy activity. This work is the initial effort in a long term project to study the role played by the dynamics of the interaction in the production and manifestations of activity in galaxies, and the frequency of galaxy mergers.

  19. Measuring photometric redshifts using galaxy images and Deep Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, B.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new method to estimate the photometric redshift of galaxies by using the full galaxy image in each measured band. This method draws from the latest techniques and advances in machine learning, in particular Deep Neural Networks. We pass the entire multi-band galaxy image into the machine learning architecture to obtain a redshift estimate that is competitive, in terms of the measured point prediction metrics, with the best existing standard machine learning techniques. The standard techniques estimate redshifts using post-processed features, such as magnitudes and colours, which are extracted from the galaxy images and are deemed to be salient by the user. This new method removes the user from the photometric redshift estimation pipeline. However we do note that Deep Neural Networks require many orders of magnitude more computing resources than standard machine learning architectures, and as such are only tractable for making predictions on datasets of size ≤50k before implementing parallelisation techniques.

  20. Unification of X-ray Winds in Seyfert Galaxies: From Ultra-fast Outflows to Warm Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombesi, Francesco; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J.; Nemmen, R.; Braito, V.; Gaspari, M.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2013-04-01

    The existence of ionized X-ray absorbing layers of gas along the line of sight to the nuclei of Seyfert galaxies is a well established observational fact. This material is systematically outflowing and shows a large range in parameters. However, its actual nature and dynamics are still not clear. In order to gain insights into these important issues we performed a literature search for papers reporting the parameters of the soft X-ray warm absorbers (WAs) in 35 type 1 Seyferts and compared their properties to those of the ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) detected in the same sample. The fraction of sources with WAs is >60%, consistent with previous studies. The fraction of sources with UFOs is >34%, >67% of which also show WAs. The large dynamic range obtained when considering all the absorbers together allows us, for the first time, to investigate general relations among them. In particular, we find significant correlations indicating that the closer the absorber is to the central black hole, the higher the ionization, column, outflow velocity and consequently the mechanical power. The absorbers continuously populate the whole parameter space, with the WAs and the UFOs lying always at the two ends of the distribution. This strongly suggest that these absorbers, often considered of different types, could actually represent parts of a single large-scale stratified outflow observed at different locations from the black hole. The observed parameters and correlations are consistent with both radiation pressure through Compton scattering and MHD processes contributing to the outflow acceleration, the latter playing a major role. Most of the absorbers, especially the UFOs, have a sufficiently high mechanical power to significantly contribute to the AGN feedback.

  1. Imaging the Hot Stellar Content of Early Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertola, Francesco

    1991-07-01

    WE PROPOSE TO IMAGE WITH THE FOC IN THE F/96 CONFIGURATION FIVE EARLY TYPE GALAXIES IN FOUR PASSBANDS CENTERED AT 1500 A, 2200 A, 2800 A AND 3400 A. WHEN COUPLED WITH PHOTOMETRY OBTAINED FROM THE GROUND OUR OBSERVATIONS WILL ALLOW US TO DERIVE COMPLETE SED OF THESE GALAXIES AS A FUNCTION OF THE DISTANCE FROM THE CENTER. THIS IS A KEY STEP TOWARDS THE UNDERSTANDING OF STELLAR POPULATIONS - IN PARTICULAR THE ONE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE UV EMISSION - IN EARLY TYPE GALAXIES AND WILL PROVIDE IMPORTANT INSIGHT IN THEIR FORMATION AND EVOLUTION. WE PLAN TO OBSERVE NGC 1399, NGC 2681, NGC 4552, NGC 5018 AND NGC 4627 WHICH SAMPLE A WIDE RANGE OF INTRINSIC PROPERTIES AS INDICATED BY PREVIOUS IUE OBSERVATIONS. FOR NGC 4627 THERE IS EVIDENCE OF ONGOING STAR FORMATION AND THE HST WILL BE ABLE TO SHOW THE CHARACTERISTIC CLUMPINESS. NGC 2681 HAD A STARBUST OF AGE GREATER THAN 1 GYR. NGC 4552 IS ONE OF THE MOST METAL RICH GALAXY KNOWN. NGC 1399 HAS THE SAME METALLICITY AND LUMINOSITY OF THE PREVIOUS GALAXY BUT IS A MUCH STRONGER X-RAY EMITTER. NGC 5018 IS A VERY GOOD CANDIDATE FOR ONGOING STAR FORMATION. WE BELIEVE IN THIS WAY WE CAN OBTAIN SED FOR THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL IMAGES OF EARLY TYPE GALAXIES FROM BROAD BAND IMAGING ALONE. THE CALIBRATION OF OUR FILTER SYSTEM WILL ALLOW US TO APPLY IT TO THE BIDIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE GENERAL SAMPLE OF EARLY TYPE GALAXIES.

  2. Infrared Imaging of the Galaxies Responsible for z ~ 0.5O VI Absorption Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, Jason X.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Mulchaey, John

    2001-02-01

    A comparison of the baryonic mass density inferred from BBN with a census of visible baryonic components (i.e. galaxies, clusters, HI gas) indicates a significant fraction of the universe's baryons are hidden in a dark component. Theoretical investigations into these 'missing' baryons suggest the majority lie in a hot (T ~ 10^6 K), low density medium which can only be efficiently detected through surveys for O VI absorption. Interestingly, recent STIS and FUSE searches for O VI are consistent with this gas comprising a significant fraction of the missing baryons. Establishing the physical nature of these O VI absorbers, therefore, may have large impact on our understanding of the distribution of baryons in the universe. In particular, it is important to determine if these systems arise in individual galactic halos, the intragroup or intracluster medium, the low density 'cosmic web' which connects collapsed objects, or a different region of the universe altogether. We are currently pursuing a program to search for galaxies associated with O VI absorbers at moderate redshift (z ~ 0.5). To accomplish this project, we must estimate photometric redshifts of the galaxies in the field (~ 8' × 8') surrounding the O VI absorbers in order to efficiently select candidates for follow-up spectroscopy. To this end, near-IR images are essential. With this proposal, we intend to obtain J and H band images of three fields surrounding four O VI absorbers in one night of observation with the Flamingos instrument. The results of this pilot program will help us to refine and focus our survey as well as double the number of O VI systems previously observed at z > 0.5.

  3. Imaging the mass structure of distant lens galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmans, Leon

    2005-07-01

    The surface brightness distribution of extended gravitationally lensed arcs and Einstein rings contains super-resolved information about the lensed object, and, more excitingly, about the smooth and clumpy mass distribution of the lens galaxies. The source and lens information can non-parametrically be separated, resulting in a direct "gravitational-mass image" of the inner mass-distribution of cosmologically-distant galaxies {Koopmans 2005}.With this goal in mind, we propose deep HST ACS-F555W/F814W and NICMOS-F160W imaging of 15 gravitational-lens systems with spatially resolved lensed sources, selected from the 17 new lens systems discovered by the Sloan Lens ACS Survey {Bolton et al. 2004}. Each system has been selected from the SDSS and confirmed in a time-efficient HST-ACS snapshot program {cycle-13}; they show highly-magnified arcs or Einstein rings, lensed by a massive early-type lens galaxy. High-fidelity multi-color HST images are required {not delivered by the 420-sec snapshot images} to isolate these lensed images {properly cleaned, dithered and extinction-corrected} from the lens galaxy surface brightness distribution, and apply our "gravitational-mass imaging" technique.The sample of galaxy mass distributions - determined through this method from the arcs and Einstein ring HST images - will be studied to: {i} measure the smooth mass distribution of the lens galaxies {Dark and luminous mass are separated using the HST images and the stellar M/L values derived from a joint stellar-dynamical analysis of each system}; {ii} quantify statistically and individually the incidence of mass-substructure {with or without obvious luminous counter-parts such as dwarf galaxies}. Since dark-matter substructure should be considerably more prevalent at higher redshift, both results provide a direct test of this prediction of the CDM hierarchical structure-formation model.

  4. Uncooled CMOS terahertz imager using a metamaterial absorber and pn diode.

    PubMed

    Escorcia, Ivonne; Grant, James; Gough, John; Cumming, David R S

    2016-07-15

    We demonstrate a low-cost uncooled terahertz (THz) imager fabricated in a standard 180 nm CMOS process. The imager is composed of a broadband THz metamaterial absorber coupled with a diode microbolometer sensor where the pn junction is used as a temperature sensitive device. The metamaterial absorber array is integrated in the top metallic layers of a six metal layer process allowing for complete monolithic integration of the metamaterial absorber and sensor. We demonstrate the capability of the detector for stand-off imaging applications by using it to form transmission and reflection images of a metallic object hidden in a manila envelope. PMID:27420510

  5. Unification of X-ray Winds in Seyfert Galaxies: From Ultra-fast Outflows to Warm Absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Nemmen, R. S.; Braito, V.; Gaspari, M.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2013-01-01

    The existence of ionized X-ray absorbing layers of gas along the line of sight to the nuclei of Seyfert galaxies is a well established observational fact. This material is systematically outflowing and shows a large range in parameters. However, its actual nature and dynamics are still not clear. In order to gain insights into these important issues we performed a literature search for papers reporting the parameters of the soft X-ray warm absorbers (WAs) in 35 type 1 Seyferts and compared their properties to those of the ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) detected in the same sample. The fraction of sources with WAs is >60 per cent, consistent with previous studies. The fraction of sources with UFOs is >34 per cent, >67 per cent of which also show WAs. The large dynamic range obtained when considering all the absorbers together, spanning several orders of magnitude in ionization, column, velocity and distance allows us, for the first time, to investigate general relations among them. In particular, we find significant correlations indicating that the closer the absorber is to the central black hole, the higher the ionization, column, outflow velocity and consequently the mechanical power. In all the cases, the absorbers continuously populate the whole parameter space, with the WAs and the UFOs lying always at the two ends of the distribution. These evidence strongly suggest that these absorbers, often considered of different types, could actually represent parts of a single large-scale stratified outflow observed at different locations from the black hole. The UFOs are likely launched from the inner accretion disc and the WAs at larger distances, such as the outer disc and/or torus. We argue that the observed parameters and correlations are, to date, consistent with both radiation pressure through Compton scattering and magnetohydrodynamic processes contributing to the outflow acceleration, the latter playing a major role. Most of the absorbers, especially the UFOs, show

  6. Unification of X-ray winds in Seyfert galaxies: from ultra-fast outflows to warm absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Nemmen, R. S.; Braito, V.; Gaspari, M.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2013-04-01

    The existence of ionized X-ray absorbing layers of gas along the line of sight to the nuclei of Seyfert galaxies is a well established observational fact. This material is systematically outflowing and shows a large range in parameters. However, its actual nature and dynamics are still not clear. In order to gain insights into these important issues we performed a literature search for papers reporting the parameters of the soft X-ray warm absorbers (WAs) in 35 type 1 Seyferts and compared their properties to those of the ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) detected in the same sample. The fraction of sources with WAs is >60 per cent, consistent with previous studies. The fraction of sources with UFOs is >34 per cent, >67 per cent of which also show WAs. The large dynamic range obtained when considering all the absorbers together, spanning several orders of magnitude in ionization, column, velocity and distance allows us, for the first time, to investigate general relations among them. In particular, we find significant correlations indicating that the closer the absorber is to the central black hole, the higher the ionization, column, outflow velocity and consequently the mechanical power. In all the cases, the absorbers continuously populate the whole parameter space, with the WAs and the UFOs lying always at the two ends of the distribution. These evidence strongly suggest that these absorbers, often considered of different types, could actually represent parts of a single large-scale stratified outflow observed at different locations from the black hole. The UFOs are likely launched from the inner accretion disc and the WAs at larger distances, such as the outer disc and/or torus. We argue that the observed parameters and correlations are, to date, consistent with both radiation pressure through Compton scattering and magnetohydrodynamic processes contributing to the outflow acceleration, the latter playing a major role. Most of the absorbers, especially the UFOs, show

  7. Distance determinations to shield galaxies from Hubble space telescope imaging

    SciTech Connect

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Cannon, John M.; Cave, Ian; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Salzer, John J.; Haynes, Martha P.; Adams, Elizabeth; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Elson, Ed C.; Ott, Juërgen; Saintonge, Amélie

    2014-04-10

    The Survey of H I in Extremely Low-mass Dwarf (SHIELD) galaxies is an ongoing multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies. The galaxies were selected from the first ∼10% of the H I Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey based on their inferred low H I mass and low baryonic mass, and all systems have recent star formation. Thus, the SHIELD sample probes the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function for star-forming galaxies. Here, we measure the distances to the 12 SHIELD galaxies to be between 5 and 12 Mpc by applying the tip of the red giant method to the resolved stellar populations imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope. Based on these distances, the H I masses in the sample range from 4 × 10{sup 6} to 6 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, with a median H I mass of 1 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. The tip of the red giant branch distances are up to 73% farther than flow-model estimates in the ALFALFA catalog. Because of the relatively large uncertainties of flow-model distances, we are biased toward selecting galaxies from the ALFALFA catalog where the flow model underestimates the true distances. The measured distances allow for an assessment of the native environments around the sample members. Five of the galaxies are part of the NGC 672 and NGC 784 groups, which together constitute a single structure. One galaxy is part of a larger linear ensemble of nine systems that stretches 1.6 Mpc from end to end. Three galaxies reside in regions with 1-9 neighbors, and four galaxies are truly isolated with no known system identified within a radius of 1 Mpc.

  8. Galaxy Image Processing and Morphological Classification Using Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kates-Harbeck, Julian

    2012-03-01

    This work uses data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Galaxy Zoo Project for classification of galaxy morphologies via machine learning. SDSS imaging data together with reliable human classifications from Galaxy Zoo provide the training set and test set for the machine learning architectures. Classification is performed with hand-picked, pre-computed features from SDSS as well as with the raw imaging data from SDSS that was available to humans in the Galaxy Zoo project. With the hand-picked features and a logistic regression classifier, 95.21% classification accuracy and an area under the ROC curve of 0.986 are attained. In the case of the raw imaging data, the images are first processed to remove background noise, image artifacts, and celestial objects other than the galaxy of interest. They are then rotated onto their principle axis of variance to guarantee rotational invariance. The processed images are used to compute color information, up to 4^th order central normalized moments, and radial intensity profiles. These features are used to train a support vector machine with a 3^rd degree polynomial kernel, which achieves a classification accuracy of 95.89% with an ROC area of 0.943.

  9. High-Resolution Imaging of Colliding and Merging Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, Brad

    1991-07-01

    We propose to obtain high-resolution images, using the WF/PC, of two colliding and merging galaxies (i.e., NGC 4038/4039 = "The Antennae" and NGC 7252 ="Atoms-for-Peace Galaxy". Our goal is to use HST to make critical observations of each object in order to gain a better understanding of the various phases of the merger process. Our primary objective is to determine whether globular clusters are formed during mergers\\?

  10. Terahertz metamaterials perfect absorbers for sensing and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilbert, David S.; Hokmabadi, Mohammad P.; Martinez, Joshua; Kung, Patrick; Kim, Seongsin M.

    2013-02-01

    Devices operating at THz frequencies have been continuously expanded in many areas of application and major research field, which requires materials with suitable electromagnetic responses at THz frequency ranges. Unlike most naturally occurring materials, novel THz metamaterials have proven to be well suited for use in various devices due to narrow and tunable operating ranges. In this work, we present the results of two THz metamaterial absorber structures aiming two important device aspects; polarization sensitivity and broad band absorption. The absorbers were simulated by finite element method and fabricated through the combination of standard lift-off photolithography and electron beam metal deposition. The fabricated devices were characterized by reflection mode THz time domain spectroscopy. The narrow band absorber structures exhibit up to 95% absorption with a bandwidth of 0.1 THz to 0.15 THz.

  11. Evolution of luminous IRAS galaxies: Radio imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, S. G.; Hutchings, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    In a recent study of IRAS galaxies' optical morphologies, we found that luminous IR sources lie in the IR color-luminosity plane in groups which separate out by optical spectroscopic type and also by degree of tidal disturbance. We found that the most luminous steep-IR-spectrum sources are generally galaxies in the initial stages of a major tidal interaction. Galaxies with active nuclei were generally found to have flatter IR spectra, to cover a range of IR luminosity, and to be in the later stages of a tidal interaction. We proposed a sequence of events by which luminous IR sources evolve: they start as interacting or merging galaxies, some develop active nuclei, and most undergo extensive star-formation in their central regions. Another way to study these objects and their individual evolution is to study their radio morphologies. Radio emission may arise at a detectable level from supernovae in star-forming regions and/or the appearance of an active nucleus can be accompanied by a nuclear radio source (which may develop extended structure). Therefore, the compact radio structure may trace the evolution of the inner regions of IRAS-luminous sources. If the radio sources are triggered by the interactions, we would expect to find the radio morphology related to the optical 'interactivity' of the systems. Here, we explore using the radio emission of IRAS galaxies as a possible tracer of galaxy evolution. We present and discuss observations of the compact radio morphology of 111 luminous IRAS-selected active galaxies covering a wide range of IR and optical properties.

  12. Simultaneous UV and X-ray Spectroscopy of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 5548. I: Physical Conditions in the UV Absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Gabel, J. R.; Kaastra, J. S.; Steenbrugge, K. C.; Brinkman, A. C.; Dunn, J. P.; George, I. M.; Liedahl, D. A.; Paerels, F. B. S.

    2003-01-01

    We present new UV spectra of the nucleus of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548, which we obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph at high spectral resolution, in conjunction with simultaneous Chandra X-ray Observatory spectra. Taking advantage of the low UV continuum and broad emission-line fluxes, we have determined that the deepest UV absorption component covers at least a portion of the inner, high-ionization narrow-line region (NLR). We find nonunity covering factors in the cores of several kinematic components, which increase the column density measurements of N V and C IV by factors of 1.2 to 1.9 over the full-covering case; however, the revised columns have only a minor effect on the parameters derived from our photoionization models. For the first time, we have simultaneous N V and C IV columns for component 1 (at -1040 km/s), and find that this component cannot be an X-ray warm absorber, contrary to our previous claim based on nonsimultaneous observations. We find that models of the absorbers based on solar abundances severely overpredict the O VI columns previously obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectrograph, and present arguments that this is not likely due to variability. However, models that include either enhanced nitrogen (twice solar) or dust, with strong depletion of carbon in either case, are successful in matching all of the observed ionic columns. These models result in substantially lower ionization parameters and total column densities compared to dust-free solar-abundance models, and produce little O VII or O VIII, indicating that none of the UV absorbers are X-ray warm absorbers.

  13. Massive Elliptical Galaxies at High Redshift: NICMOS Imaging of z~1 Radio Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirm, Andrew W.; Dickinson, Mark; Dey, Arjun

    2003-03-01

    We present deep, ~1.6 μm, continuum images of 11 high-redshift (0.811galaxies observed with NICMOS on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Our NICMOS images probe the rest-frame optical light where stars are expected to dominate the galaxy luminosity. The rest-frame ultraviolet light of eight of these galaxies demonstrates the well-known ``alignment effect,'' with extended and often complex morphologies elongated along an axis close to that of the Fanaroff-Riley type II (FRII) radio source. As has been previously noted from ground-based near-infrared imaging, most of the radio galaxies have rounder, more symmetric morphologies at rest-frame optical wavelengths. Here we show the most direct evidence that in most cases the stellar hosts are normal elliptical galaxies with r1/4-law light profiles. For a few galaxies, very faint traces (less than 4% of the total H-band light) of the UV-bright aligned component are also visible in the infrared images. We derive both the effective radius and surface brightness for nine of 11 sample galaxies by fitting one- and two-dimensional surface-brightness models to them. We compare the high-redshift radio galaxies to lower redshift counterparts. We find that their sizes are similar to those of local FRII radio source hosts and are in general larger than other local galaxies. The derived host galaxy luminosities are very high and lie at the bright end of luminosity functions constructed at similar redshifts. This indicates that the high-redshift radio galaxies are likely rare, massive sources. The galaxies in our sample are also brighter than the rest-frame size-surface-brightness locus defined by the low-redshift sources. Passive evolution roughly aligns the z~1 galaxies with the low-redshift samples with a slope equal to 4.7. This value is intermediate between the canonical Kormendy relation (~3.5) and a constant luminosity line (=5). The optical host is sometimes centered on a local minimum in the rest-frame UV

  14. ASKAP H I imaging of the galaxy group IC 1459

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, P.; Koribalski, B.; Kilborn, V.; Allison, J. R.; Amy, S. W.; Ball, L.; Bannister, K.; Bell, M. E.; Bock, D. C.-J.; Bolton, R.; Bowen, M.; Boyle, B.; Broadhurst, S.; Brodrick, D.; Brothers, M.; Bunton, J. D.; Chapman, J.; Cheng, W.; Chippendale, A. P.; Chung, Y.; Cooray, F.; Cornwell, T.; DeBoer, D.; Diamond, P.; Forsyth, R.; Gough, R.; Gupta, N.; Hampson, G. A.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Hay, S.; Hayman, D. B.; Heywood, I.; Hotan, A. W.; Hoyle, S.; Humphreys, B.; Indermuehle, B.; Jacka, C.; Jackson, C. A.; Jackson, S.; Jeganathan, K.; Johnston, S.; Joseph, J.; Kamphuis, P.; Leach, M.; Lenc, E.; Lensson, E.; Mackay, S.; Marquarding, M.; Marvil, J.; McClure-Griffiths, N.; McConnell, D.; Meyer, M.; Mirtschin, P.; Neuhold, S.; Ng, A.; Norris, R. P.; O'Sullivan, J.; Pathikulangara, J.; Pearce, S.; Phillips, C.; Popping, A.; Qiao, R. Y.; Reynolds, J. E.; Roberts, P.; Sault, R. J.; Schinckel, A. E. T.; Shaw, R.; Shimwell, T. W.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Storey, M.; Sweetnam, A. W.; Troup, E.; Tzioumis, A.; Voronkov, M. A.; Westmeier, T.; Whiting, M.; Wilson, C.; Wong, O. I.; Wu, X.

    2015-09-01

    We present H I imaging of the galaxy group IC 1459 carried out with six antennas of the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder equipped with phased-array feeds. We detect and resolve H I in 11 galaxies down to a column density of ˜1020 cm-2 inside a ˜6 deg2 field and with a resolution of ˜1 arcmin on the sky and ˜8 km s-1 in velocity. We present H I images, velocity fields and integrated spectra of all detections, and highlight the discovery of three H I clouds - two in the proximity of the galaxy IC 5270 and one close to NGC 7418. Each cloud has an H I mass of ˜109 M⊙ and accounts for ˜15 per cent of the H I associated with its host galaxy. Available images at ultraviolet, optical and infrared wavelengths do not reveal any clear stellar counterpart of any of the clouds, suggesting that they are not gas-rich dwarf neighbours of IC 5270 and NGC 7418. Using Parkes data, we find evidence of additional extended, low-column-density H I emission around IC 5270, indicating that the clouds are the tip of the iceberg of a larger system of gas surrounding this galaxy. This result adds to the body of evidence on the presence of intragroup gas within the IC 1459 group. Altogether, the H I found outside galaxies in this group amounts to several times 109 M⊙, at least 10 per cent of the H I contained inside galaxies. This suggests a substantial flow of gas in and out of galaxies during the several billion years of the group's evolution.

  15. Lyα-Emitting Galaxies as a Probe of Reionization: Large-Scale Bubble Morphology and Small-Scale Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakiichi, Koki; Dijkstra, Mark; Ciardi, Benedetta; Graziani, Luca

    2016-09-01

    The visibility of Lyα emitting galaxies during the Epoch of Reionization is controlled by both diffuse H I patches in large-scale bubble morphology and small-scale absorbers. To investigate their impacts on Lyα transfer, we apply a novel combination of analytic modelling and cosmological hydrodynamical, radiative transfer simulations to three reionization models: (i) the `bubble' model, where only diffuse H I outside ionized bubbles is present; (ii) the `web' model, where H I exists only in overdense self-shielded gas; and (iii) the hybrid `web-bubble' model. The three models can explain the observed Lyα luminosity function equally well, but with very different H I fractions. This confirms a degeneracy between the ionization topology of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the H I fraction inferred from Lyα surveys. We highlight the importance of the clustering of small-scale absorbers around galaxies. A combined analysis of the Lyα luminosity function and the Lyα fraction can break this degeneracy and provide constraints on the reionization history and its topology. Constraints can be improved by analyzing the full MUV-dependent redshift evolution of the Lyα fraction of Lyman break galaxies. We find that the IGM-transmission probability distribution function is unimodal for bubble models and bimodal in web models. Comparing our models to observations, we infer that the neutral fraction at z ˜ 7 is likely to be of order of tens of per cent when interpreted with bubble or web-bubble models, with a conservative lower limit ˜1% when interpreted with web models.

  16. DETAILED DECOMPOSITION OF GALAXY IMAGES. II. BEYOND AXISYMMETRIC MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Chien Y.; Ho, Luis C.; Impey, Chris D.; Rix, Hans-Walter E-mail: lho@obs.carnegiescience.ed E-mail: rix@mpia-hd.mpg.d

    2010-06-15

    We present a two-dimensional (2D) fitting algorithm (GALFIT, ver. 3) with new capabilities to study the structural components of galaxies and other astronomical objects in digital images. Our technique improves on previous 2D fitting algorithms by allowing for irregular, curved, logarithmic and power-law spirals, ring, and truncated shapes in otherwise traditional parametric functions like the Sersic, Moffat, King, Ferrer, etc., profiles. One can mix and match these new shape features freely, with or without constraints, and apply them to an arbitrary number of model components of numerous profile types, so as to produce realistic-looking galaxy model images. Yet, despite the potential for extreme complexity, the meaning of the key parameters like the Sersic index, effective radius, or luminosity remains intuitive and essentially unchanged. The new features have an interesting potential for use to quantify the degree of asymmetry of galaxies, to quantify low surface brightness tidal features beneath and beyond luminous galaxies, to allow more realistic decompositions of galaxy subcomponents in the presence of strong rings and spiral arms, and to enable ways to gauge the uncertainties when decomposing galaxy subcomponents. We illustrate these new features by way of several case studies that display various levels of complexity.

  17. Phantoms for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects, part 2: experimental implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelli, Fabrizio; Ninni, Paola Di; Zaccanti, Giovanni; Contini, Davide; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Torricelli, Alessandro; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Mazurenka, Mikhail; Macdonald, Rainer; Sassaroli, Angelo; Pifferi, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    We present the experimental implementation and validation of a phantom for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects for which, in the previous paper [J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 066014, (2013)], we have provided the basic theory. Totally absorbing objects have been manufactured as black polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cylinders and the phantom is a water dilution of intralipid-20% as the diffusive medium and India ink as the absorber, filled into a black scattering cell made of PVC. By means of time-domain measurements and of Monte Carlo simulations, we have shown the reliability, the accuracy, and the robustness of such a phantom in mimicking typical absorbing perturbations of diffuse optical imaging. In particular, we show that such a phantom can be used to generate any absorption perturbation by changing the volume and position of the totally absorbing inclusion.

  18. A Detailed Analysis of the Multi-Velocity Components of strong HI-selected absorbers in the Halos of z~0.5 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderhoof, Brittany; Ribaudo, Joseph; Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    One driving force of galaxy evolution is the presence and circulation of material throughout the extended gaseous environment of a galaxy, the circumgalactic material (CGM). In the Milky Way, high-velocity clouds (HVC) are well studied systems that trace outflows, inflows, and recycled material throughout the CGM. We examine archival QSO spectra from HST/COS in an effort to similarly identify absorption systems with high-velocity absorption relative to the rest-frame of a strong HI-selected absorber in order to dissect the various components and their origins in the halos of z~0.5 galaxies.

  19. Radio continuum polarimetric imaging of high redshift radio galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carilli, C. L.; Owen, F. N.; Harris, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    Multifrequency images of total and polarized radio continuum emission from the two high redshift radio galaxies 0902+343 (z = 3.40) and 0647+415 (4C 41.17, z = 3.80) are presented. These images represent the most sensitive polarimetric study of high redshift ratio galaxies to date. The emission from both galaxies is substantially polarized, up to 30% in some regions, and both sources sit behind deep 'Faraday screens,' producing large rotation measures, over 10(exp 3) rad/sq. m in magnitude, and large rotation measure gradients across the sources. Such large rotation measures provide further evidence that high redshift radio galaxies are situated in very dense environments. Drawing the analogy to a class of low redshift powerful radio galaxies with similarly large rotation measures, we suggest that 0902+343 and 0647+415 are situated at the centers of dense, x-ray 'colling flow' clusters, and that the cluster gas is substantially magnetized. The remarkable similarity between the optical and radio morphologies of 0647+415 on scales as small as 0.1 sec is presented. We consider, and reject, both synchrotron and inverse Compton radiation as possible sources of the optical emission. We also consider both scattering of light out of a 'cone' of radiation from an obscured nucleus, and jet-induced star formation, and find that both models encounter difficulties in explaining this remarkably close radio-optical alignment. High resolution spectral index images reveal compact, flat spectrum components in both sources. We suggest that these components are the active nuclei of the galaxies. Lastly, high resolution images of 0902+343 show that the southernmost component forms a 'ring' of 0.2 sec radius. We discuss the possibility that this ring is the result of gravitational lensing, along the lines proposed by Kochanek & Lawrence (1990).

  20. CI Slide: calibration slide for quantitative microscopy imaging in absorbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikhzadeh, Fahime; Ye, Qian; Zulkafly, Nasir; Carraro, Anita; Korbelic, Jagoda; Chen, Zhaoyang; Harrison, Alan; Follen, Michele; MacAulay, Calum; Ward, Rabab K.; Guillaud, Martial

    2014-03-01

    New imaging technologies are changing the field of digital pathology. This field faces numerous challenges and there is a pressing need for standardization, calibration protocols, quality control and quantitative assessment. We have designed a new calibration imaging slide (Cancer Imaging Slide), specifically to measure the characteristics of old or new imaging systems or scanners. The layout of the slide consists of 138 boxes with the side length of 1.6 mm, containing objects of known morphologic and photometric characteristics. Among them, 112 boxes contain different permutations of circles, ovals, and squares. The circles have different radii, radius/pitch ratios and step transmissions. The ovals have different sizes and orientations. The squares are consistent in size and orientation but have different step transmission values. Also, 16 boxes contain three resolution test targets: crosses, USAF target and Siemens star. The last 10 boxes are blank boxes with different transmission values. Four slides were scanned and imaged on one commercial whole-slide scanner and one high resolution imaging system. After segmenting the images, about 200 features (photometric, morphologic and architectural) were measured with our in-house image processing software. The objective of the project is to develop a statistical process control using this new slide. In this paper, we describe the characteristics of the slide and present our preliminary results.

  1. Distance Determinations to SHIELD Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Cannon, John M.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Salzer, John J.; Haynes, Martha P.; Adams, Elizabeth; Cave, Ian; Elson, Ed C.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Ott, Juërgen; Saintonge, Amélie

    2014-04-01

    The Survey of H I in Extremely Low-mass Dwarf (SHIELD) galaxies is an ongoing multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies. The galaxies were selected from the first ~10% of the H I Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey based on their inferred low H I mass and low baryonic mass, and all systems have recent star formation. Thus, the SHIELD sample probes the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function for star-forming galaxies. Here, we measure the distances to the 12 SHIELD galaxies to be between 5 and 12 Mpc by applying the tip of the red giant method to the resolved stellar populations imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope. Based on these distances, the H I masses in the sample range from 4 × 106 to 6 × 107 M ⊙, with a median H I mass of 1 × 107 M ⊙. The tip of the red giant branch distances are up to 73% farther than flow-model estimates in the ALFALFA catalog. Because of the relatively large uncertainties of flow-model distances, we are biased toward selecting galaxies from the ALFALFA catalog where the flow model underestimates the true distances. The measured distances allow for an assessment of the native environments around the sample members. Five of the galaxies are part of the NGC 672 and NGC 784 groups, which together constitute a single structure. One galaxy is part of a larger linear ensemble of nine systems that stretches 1.6 Mpc from end to end. Three galaxies reside in regions with 1-9 neighbors, and four galaxies are truly isolated with no known system identified within a radius of 1 Mpc. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  2. The Population of Galaxy-Galaxy Strong Lenses in Forthcoming Optical Imaging Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, Thomas E.

    2015-09-01

    Ongoing and future imaging surveys represent significant improvements in depth, area, and seeing compared to current data sets. These improvements offer the opportunity to discover up to three orders of magnitude more galaxy-galaxy strong lenses than are currently known. In this work we forecast the number of lenses that will be discoverable in forthcoming surveys and simulate their properties. We generate a population of statistically realistic strong lenses and simulate observations of this population for the Dark Energy Survey (DES), the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and Euclid surveys. We verify our model against the galaxy-scale lens search of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, predicting 250 discoverable lenses compared to 220 found by Gavazzi et al. The predicted Einstein radius distribution is also remarkably similar to that found by Sonnenfeld et al. For future surveys we find that, assuming Poisson limited lens galaxy subtraction, searches of the DES, LSST, and Euclid data sets should discover 2400, 120000, and 170000 galaxy-galaxy strong lenses, respectively. Finders using blue-minus-red (g-i) difference imaging for lens subtraction can discover 1300 and 62000 lenses in DES and LSST. The uncertainties on the model are dominated by the high-redshift source population, which typically gives fractional errors on the discoverable lens number at the level of tens of percent. We find that doubling the signal-to-noise ratio required for a lens to be detectable approximately halves the number of detectable lenses in each survey, indicating the importance of understanding the selection function and the sensitivity of future lens finders in interpreting strong lens statistics. We make our population forecasting and simulated observation codes publicly available so that the selection function of strong lens finders can easily be calibrated.

  3. MCG+00-32-16: An Irregular Galaxy Close to the Lowest Redshift Absorber on the 3C 273 Line of Sight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, G. L.; Lu, N. Y.; Salpeter, E. E.; Connell, B. M.; Fromhold-Treu, R.

    1998-01-01

    We present H I synthesis array mapping and CCD photometry in B and R for MCG+00-32-16. The H I disk is rotating in such a way that the side of the galaxy closer to the sight-line to the quasar has the larger velocity difference from the absorber.

  4. Fermi gamma-ray imaging of a radio galaxy.

    PubMed

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Colafrancesco, S; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; Davis, D S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Finke, J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Georganopoulos, M; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hughes, R E; Jackson, M S; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sambruna, R; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Stawarz, Ł; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wallace, E; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M; Hardcastle, M J; Kazanas, D

    2010-05-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has detected the gamma-ray glow emanating from the giant radio lobes of the radio galaxy Centaurus A. The resolved gamma-ray image shows the lobes clearly separated from the central active source. In contrast to all other active galaxies detected so far in high-energy gamma-rays, the lobe flux constitutes a considerable portion (greater than one-half) of the total source emission. The gamma-ray emission from the lobes is interpreted as inverse Compton-scattered relic radiation from the cosmic microwave background, with additional contribution at higher energies from the infrared-to-optical extragalactic background light. These measurements provide gamma-ray constraints on the magnetic field and particle energy content in radio galaxy lobes, as well as a promising method to probe the cosmic relic photon fields. PMID:20360067

  5. Deep HST imaging of distant weak radio and field galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windhorst, R. A.; Gordon, J. M.; Pascarelle, S. M.; Schmidtke, P. C.; Keel, W. C.; Burkey, J. M.; Dunlop, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide-Field Camera (WFC) V- and I-band images of three distant weak radio galaxies with z = 0.311-2.390 and seven field galaxies with z = 0.131-0.58. The images were deconvolved with both the Lucy and multiresolution CLEAN methods, which yield a restoring Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of less than or equal to 0.2 sec, (nearly) preserve photons and signal-to-noise ratio at low spatial frequencies, and produce consistent light profiles down to our 2 sigma surface brightness sensitivity limit of V approximately 27.2 and I approximately 25.9 mag/sq arcsec. Multi-component image modeling was used to provide deconvolution-independent estimates of structural parameters for symmetric galaxies. We present 12-band (m(sub 2750) UBVRIgriJHK) photometry for a subset of the galaxies and bootstrap the unknown FOC/48 zero point at 2750 A in three independent ways (yielding m(sub 2750) = 21.34 +/- 0.09 mag for 1.0 e(-)/s). Two radio galaxies with z = 0.311 and 0.528, as well as one field galaxy with z = 0.58, have the colors and spectra of early-type galaxies, and a(exp 1/4)-like light profiles in the HST images. The two at z greater than 0.5 have little or no color gradients in V - I and are likely giant ellipticals, while the z = 0.311 radio galaxy has a dim exponential disk and is likely an S0. Six of the seven field galaxies have light profiles that indicate (small) inner bulges following a(exp 1/4) laws and outer exponential disks, both with little or no color gradients. These are (early-type) spiral galaxies with z = 0.131-0.528. About half have faint companions or bars. One shows lumpy structure, possibly a merger. The compact narrow-line galaxy 53W002 at z = 2.390 has less than or = 30% +/- 10% of its HST V and I flux in the central kiloparsec (due to its weak Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN)). Most of its light (V approximately equal to 23.3) occurs in a symmetric envelope with a regular a(exp 1/4)-like profile of effective

  6. Discovery of a Damped Lyα Absorber at z = 3.3 along a Galaxy Sight-line in the SSA22 Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawatari, K.; Inoue, A. K.; Kousai, K.; Hayashino, T.; Cooke, R.; Prochaska, J. X.; Yamada, T.; Matsuda, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Using galaxies as background light sources to map the Lyα absorption lines is a novel approach to study Damped Lyα Absorbers (DLAs). We report the discovery of an intervening z = 3.335 ± 0.007 DLA along a galaxy sight-line identified among 80 Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG) spectra obtained with our Very Large Telescope/Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph survey in the SSA22 field. The measured DLA neutral hydrogen (H i) column density is log(NH i/cm-2) = 21.68 ± 0.17. The DLA covering fraction over the extended background LBG is >70% (2σ), yielding a conservative constraint on the DLA area of ≳1 kpc2. Our search for a counterpart galaxy hosting this DLA concludes that there is no counterpart galaxy with star formation rate larger than a few M⊙ yr-1, ruling out an unobscured violent star formation in the DLA gas cloud. We also rule out the possibility that the host galaxy of the DLA is a passive galaxy with M* ≳ 5 × 1010M⊙ or a heavily dust-obscured galaxy with E(B - V) ≳ 2. The DLA may coincide with a large-scale overdensity of the spectroscopic LBGs. The occurrence rate of the DLA is compatible with that of DLAs found in QSO sight-lines.

  7. Clues to (Radio) Galaxy Formation from Deep HST Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windhorst, Rogier A.

    We review recent clues from deep HST images on the formation and evolution of galaxies, and of μJy and mJy radio sources in particular. Constraints from the radio source counts over 7 dex in flux and 1 dex in frequency are discussed. We review recent results from deep HST primary and parallel surveys relevant to (radio) galaxy formation. The WFPC2 galaxy counts as a function of morphological type for B < ~ 27 mag show that E/S0's and Sabc's are only marginally above the non-evolving predictions. The faint blue galaxy counts are dominated by Sd/Irr's, and are explained by a combination of a moderately steep local luminosity function undergoing strong luminosity evolution plus low-luminosity lower-redshift dwarf galaxies. Deep WFPC2 images in the medium-band filter F410M yielded 18 faint, compact Lyα emitting candidates at z ≃ 2.4 surrounding the radio galaxy 53W002 at z𢐲.390, as well as 18 more z ≃ 2.4 candidates in three random parallel fields. These objects appear to be star-forming spheroids smaller (rhl ≍ 0''.1 or 0.5-1 kpc) and fainter (MV (z=0)=-17--> -21) than the bulges of typical galaxies seen today. They may the building blocks from which many of the luminous nearby galaxies were formed through repeated hierarchical mergers. HST/PC images in BV I - as well as in redshifted Lyα - of 53W002 show several morphological components: (1) a blue AGN with < ~ 20-25% of the total continuum light; (2) an r1/4-like light distribution with colors indicating a stellar population age ~0.4 Gyr; and (3) two small blue clouds roughly aligned with the radio axis and the main stellar population. We show that both reflected AGN light and jet-induced starformation likely play a role in explaining its "alignment effect". We discuss a possible formation and evolution scenario of 53W002 in context of its surrounding sub-galactic objects, and argue that it will end up like a giant elliptical today.

  8. IRAC Snapshot Imaging of Red Herschel Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Wardlow, Julie; Ivison, Rob; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Riechers, Dominik; Clements, David; Oliver, Seb; Oteo, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    Wide-field submillimeter surveys with Herschel have produced large samples of rare populations, which provide some of the most stringent constraints on galaxy formation theories. In this proposal we request IRAC observations of 'red' Herschel sources, which are the most extreme DSFGs at z>4. The proposed snapshot IRAC 3.6 and 4.5um data will probe the stellar emission from these systems - complementary data to the far-infrared dust emission that led to their identification. We will use these data to extend the SEDs into the near-IR regime and measure more reliable stellar masses than otherwise available. They will be combined with existing survey data and dedicated follow-up programs to map the evolution of DSFGs as a function of redshift, stellar mass and far-IR luminosity.

  9. Optical imaging for the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. Data release and notes on interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapen, Johan H.; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Roa, Javier; Bakos, Judit; Cisternas, Mauricio; Leaman, Ryan; Szymanek, Nik

    2014-09-01

    Context. The Spitzer Survey for Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) and its more recently approved extension will lead to a set of 3.6 and 4.5 μm images for 2829 galaxies, which can be used to study many different aspects of the structure and evolution of local galaxies. Aims: We have collected and re-reduced optical images of 1768 of the survey galaxies, aiming to make these available to the community as ready-to-use FITS files to be used in conjunction with the mid-IR images. Our sky-subtraction and mosaicking procedures were optimised for imaging large galaxies. We also produce false-colour images of some of these galaxies to be used for illustrative and public outreach purposes. Methods: We collected and re-processed images in five bands from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey for 1657 galaxies, which are publicly released with the publication of this paper. We observed, in only the g-band, an additional 111 S4G galaxies in the northern hemisphere with the 2.5 m Liverpool Telescope, so that optical imaging is released for 1768 galaxies, or for 62% of the S4G sample. We visually checked all images. We noted interactions and close companions in our optical data set and in the S4G sample, confirming them by determining the galaxies' radial velocities and magnitudes in the NASA-IPAC Extragalactic Database. Results: We find that 17% of the S4G galaxies (21% of those brighter than 13.5 mag) have a close companion (within a radius of five times the diameter of the sample galaxy, a recession velocity within ± 200 km s-1 and not more than 3 mag fainter) and that around 5% of the bright part of the S4G sample show significant morphological evidence of an ongoing interaction. This confirms and further supports previous estimates of these fractions. Conclusions: The over 8000 science images described in this paper, the re-processed Sloan Digital Sky Survey ones, the new Liverpool Telescope images, the set of 29 false-colour pictures, and the catalogue of companion and

  10. Adaptive Optics Imaging Survey of Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Laag, E A; Canalizo, G; van Breugel, W; Gates, E L; de Vries, W; Stanford, S A

    2006-03-13

    We present high resolution imaging observations of a sample of previously unidentified far-infrared galaxies at z < 0.3. The objects were selected by cross-correlating the IRAS Faint Source Catalog with the VLA FIRST catalog and the HST Guide Star Catalog to allow for adaptive optics observations. We found two new ULIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 12} L{sub {circle_dot}}) and 19 new LIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 11} L{sub {circle_dot}}). Twenty of the galaxies in the sample were imaged with either the Lick or Keck adaptive optics systems in H or K{prime}. Galaxy morphologies were determined using the two dimensional fitting program GALFIT and the residuals examined to look for interesting structure. The morphologies reveal that at least 30% are involved in tidal interactions, with 20% being clear mergers. An additional 50% show signs of possible interaction. Line ratios were used to determine powering mechanism; of the 17 objects in the sample showing clear emission lines--four are active galactic nuclei and seven are starburst galaxies. The rest exhibit a combination of both phenomena.

  11. Uncertainty analysis for absorbed dose from a brain receptor imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Aydogan, B.; Miller, L.F.; Sparks, R.B.; Stubbs, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    Absorbed dose estimates are known to contain uncertainties. A recent literature search indicates that prior to this study no rigorous investigation of uncertainty associated with absorbed dose has been undertaken. A method of uncertainty analysis for absorbed dose calculations has been developed and implemented for the brain receptor imaging agent {sup 123}I-IPT. The two major sources of uncertainty considered were the uncertainty associated with the determination of residence time and that associated with the determination of the S values. There are many sources of uncertainty in the determination of the S values, but only the inter-patient organ mass variation was considered in this work. The absorbed dose uncertainties were determined for lung, liver, heart and brain. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals of the organ absorbed dose distributions for each patient and for a seven-patient population group were determined by the ``Latin Hypercube Sampling`` method. For an individual patient, the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval of the absorbed dose was found to be about 2.5 times larger than the estimated mean absorbed dose. For the seven-patient population the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval of the absorbed dose distribution was around 45% more than the estimated population mean. For example, the 95% confidence interval of the population liver dose distribution was found to be between 1.49E+0.7 Gy/MBq and 4.65E+07 Gy/MBq with a mean of 2.52E+07 Gy/MBq. This study concluded that patients in a population receiving {sup 123}I-IPT could receive absorbed doses as much as twice as large as the standard estimated absorbed dose due to these uncertainties.

  12. Applying galactic archeology to massive galaxies using deep imaging surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Pierre-Alain

    2015-04-01

    Various programs aimed at exploring the still largely unknown low surface brightness Universe with deep imaging optical surveys have recently started. They open a new window for studies of galaxy evolution, pushing the technique of galactic archeology outside the Local Group (LG). The method, based on the detection and analysis of the diffuse light emitted by collisional debris or extended stellar halos (rather than on stellar counts as done for LG systems), faces however a number of technical difficulties, like the contamination of the images by reflection halos and Galactic cirrus. I review here the on-going efforts to address them and highlight the preliminary promising results obtained with a systematic survey with MegaCam on the CFHT of nearby massive early-type galaxies done as part of the ATLAS3D, NGVS and MATLAS collaborations.

  13. Chandra Images the Seething Cauldron of Starburst Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has imaged the core of the nearest starburst galaxy, Messier 82 (M82). The observatory has revealed a seething cauldron of exploding stars, neutron stars, black holes, 100 million degree gas, and a powerful galactic wind. The discovery will be presented by a team of scientists from Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Penn., Pennsylvania State University, University Park, and the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, on January 14 at the 195th national meeting of the American Astronomical Society. "In the disk of our Milky Way Galaxy, stars form and die in a relatively calm fashion like burning embers in a campfire," said Richard Griffiths, Professor of Astrophysics at Carnegie Mellon University. "But in a starburst galaxy, star birth and death are more like explosions in a fireworks factory." Short-lived massive stars in a starburst galaxy produce supernova explosions, which heat the interstellar gas to millions of degrees, and leave behind neutron stars and black holes. These explosions emit light in the X rays rather than in visible light. Because the superhot components inside starburst galaxies are complex and sometimes confusing, astronomers need an X-ray-detecting telescope with the highest focusing power (spatial resolution) to clearly discriminate the various structures. "NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory is the perfect tool for studying starburst galaxies since it has the critical combination of high-resolution optics and good sensitivity to penetrating X rays," said Gordon Garmire, the Evan Pugh Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics at Pennsylvania State University, and head of the team that conceived and built Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrograph (ACIS) X-ray camera, which acquired the data. Many intricate structures missed by earlier satellite observatories are now visible in the ACIS image, including more than twenty powerful X-ray binary systems that contain a normal star in a close orbit around a neutron star

  14. Scan-Free Absorbance Spectral Imaging A(x, y, λ) of Single Live Algal Cells for Quantifying Absorbance of Cell Suspensions.

    PubMed

    Isono, Takumi; Yamashita, Kyohei; Momose, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Hiroki; Kitamura, Masashi; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kanda, Hiroaki; Kudo, Ayane; Okada, Norihide; Yagi, Takafumi; Nakata, Kazuaki; Mineki, Shigeru; Tokunaga, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Label-free, non-invasive, rapid absorbance spectral imaging A(x,y,λ) microscopy of single live cells at 1.2 μm × 1.2 μm resolution with an NA = 0.85 objective was developed and applied to unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. By introducing the fiber assembly to rearrange a two-dimensional image to the one-dimensional array to fit the slit of an imaging spectrograph equipped with a CCD detector, scan-free acquisition of three-dimensional information of A(x,y,λ) was realized. The space-resolved absorbance spectra of the eyespot, an orange organelle about 1 μm, were extracted from the green-color background in a chlorophyll-rich single live cell absorbance image. Characteristic absorbance change in the cell suspension after hydrogen photoproduction in C. reinhardtii was investigated to find a single 715-nm absorption peak was locally distributed within single cells. The formula to calculate the absorbance of cell suspensions from that of single cells was presented to obtain a quantitative, parameter-free agreement with the experiment. It is quantitatively shown that the average number of chlorophylls per cell is significantly underestimated when it is evaluated from the absorbance of the cell suspensions due to the package effect. PMID:26061268

  15. Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Normal galaxies, radio galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies are considered. The large magellanic cloud and the great galaxy in Andromedia are highlighted. Quasars and BL lacertae objects are also discussed and a review of the spectral observations of all of these galaxies and celestial objects is presented.

  16. Effects of rubber shock absorber on the flywheel micro vibration in the satellite imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Changcheng; Mu, Deqiang; Jia, Xuezhi; Li, Zongxuan

    2016-07-01

    When a satellite is in orbit, its flywheel will generate micro vibration and affect the imaging quality of the camera. In order to reduce this effect, a rubber shock absorber is used, and a numerical model and an experimental set up are developed to investigate its effect on the micro vibration in the study. An integrated model is developed for the system, and a ray tracing method is used in the modeling. The spot coordinates and displacements of the image plane are obtained, and the modulate transfer function (MTF) of the system is calculated. A satellite including a rubber shock absorber is designed, and the experiments are carried out. Both simulation and experiments results show that the MTF increases almost 10 %, suggesting the rubber shock absorber is useful to decrease the flywheel vibration.

  17. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Image of Andromeda Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Chandra X-Ray Observatory took this first x-ray picture of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) on October 13, 1999. The blue dot in the center of the image is a 'cool' million-degree x-ray source where a supermassive black hole with the mass of 30-million suns is located. The x-rays are produced by matter furneling toward the black hole. Numerous other hotter x-ray sources are also apparent. Most of these are probably due to x-ray binary systems, in which a neutron star or black hole is in close orbit around a normal star. While the gas falling into the central black hole is cool, it is only cool by comparison to the 100 other x-ray sources in the Andromeda Galaxy. To be detected by an x-ray telescope, the gas must have a temperature of more than a million degrees. The Andromeda Galaxy is our nearest neighbor spiral galaxy at a distance of two million light years. It is similar to our own Milky Way in size, shape, and also contains a supermassive black hole at the center. (Photo Credit: NASA/CXC/SAO/S. Murray, M. Garcia)

  18. BVR Imaging of Extremely Isolated Early-Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcum, P. M.; Aars, C. E.; Fanelli, M. N.

    2004-05-01

    We have conducted a BVR imaging survey of nine extremely isolated early-type galaxies. Our objective is to understand their origins and evolutionary histories by searching for certain photometric and morphological signatures which would implicate that these objects are the remnants of merged galaxy groups. Our analysis reveals that these galaxies are underluminous by at least a magnitude as compared to objects recognized as "fossil groups" in the literature. Two of our objects are clearly late-stage merger remnants, as indicated by faint tidal tails, multiple nuclei and very blue colors. Two other objects also have blue colors indicating star formation within the past ˜2Gyr, but otherwise have morphological properties normal for spheroidal systems. Our potentially most exciting discovery is that two other objects are strong candidates for "primordial" elliptical galaxies formed early in cosmic time via protogalactic gravitational collapse in isolation. We acknowledge the McDonald Observatory, which is operated by the University of Texas at Austin, for use of their facilities. Support was provided through NASA grant NAG5-7040 and the Sigma Xi Grants-in-Aid of Research Program.

  19. Deep Imaging of Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, Michael

    2006-07-01

    Conflicting evidence exists regarding whether the most metal-poor and actively star-forming galaxies in the local universe such as I Zw 18 contain evolved stars. We propose to help settle this issue by obtaining deep ACS/HRC U, narrow-V, I, and H-alpha images of nine nearby {z < 0.01} extremely metal-poor {12 + O/H < 7.65} galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These objects are only marginally resolved from the ground and appear uniformly blue, strongly motivating HST imaging. The continuum images will establish: 1.} If underlying populations of evolved stars are present, by revealing the objects' colors on scales 10 pc, and 2.} The presence of any faint tidal features, dust lanes, and globular or super star clusters, all of which constrain the objects' evolutionary states. The H-alpha images, in combination with ground-based echelle spectroscopy, will reveal 1.} Whether the objects are producing "superwinds" that are depleting them of their metals; ground-based images of some of them indeed show large halos of ionized gas, and 2.} The correspondence of their nebular and stellar emission on scales of a few parsecs, which is important for understanding the "feedback" process by which supernovae and stellar winds regulate star formation. One of the sample objects, CGCG 269-049, lies only 2 Mpc away, allowing the detection of individual red giant stars in it if any are present. We have recently obtained Spitzer images and spectra of this galaxy to determine its dust content and star formation history, which will complement the proposed HST observations. [NOTE: THIS PROPOSAL WAS REDUCED TO FIVE ORBITS, AND ONLY ONE OF THE ORIGINAL TARGETS, CGCG 269-049, AFTER THE PHASE I REVIEW

  20. Peek-a-boo: Mapping Dust in Galaxies with Spitzer IRAC Imaging of Back-lit Galaxy Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Varsha; Higdon, Sarah; Higdon, James

    2010-06-01

    Interstellar dust affects the chemistry and energy budget of galaxies, and can profoundly affect studies of the distant universe. However, very little is known about the nature of interstellar dust in normal galaxies beyond the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds. A direct way to probe dust in galaxies is by using partially overlapping (backlit) pairs of galaxies. While this technique has been applied to a few galaxy pairs, it has been used primarily with optical data in B and I bands (and occasionally K band), which are all subject to substantial amounts of dust extinction. Here we propose to observe 15 backlit pairs/polar ring galaxies in IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 micron bands which are much less affected by dust. Our goals are: (1) to obtain essentially un-extinguished reference images for comparison with the existing optical images and thus to determine dust extinction more accurately across different parts of the foreground galaxies; (2) to determine the opacity of some nearby spiral disks and examine whether dust grain sizes decrease in outer parts of disks; (3) to probe large-scale dust structure in some elliptical galaxies; (4) to examine whether dust exhibits fractal structure; and (5) to map star formation rate across the galaxies using the 3.6/4.5 micron flux ratio. The very local nature of our sample allows a detailed look at dust properties at different positions within the galaxies, and examine what galaxy properties drive the variation in dust properties. Our study will provide new implications for observations of the distant universe that are necessarily affected by the presence of dust in foreground galaxies.

  1. Warm Absorbers in X-rays (WAX), a comprehensive high resolution grating spectral study of a sample of Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, S.; Guainazzi, M.; Dewangan, G.; Chakravorty, S.; Kembhavi, A.

    2014-07-01

    We present results from a homogeneous analysis of the broadband 0.3-10 keV CCD resolution as well as of soft X-ray high-resolution grating spectra of a hard X-ray flux-limited sample of 26 Seyfert galaxies observed with XMM-Newton. We could put a strict lower limit on the detection fraction of 50%. We find a gap in the distribution of the ionisation parameter in the range 0.5absorber flow is probably constituted by a clumpy distribution of discrete clouds. The distribution of the WA column densities for the sources with broad Fe K-alpha lines are similar to those sources which do not have broadened emission lines. Therefore the detected broad Fe K lines are bonafide and not artefacts of ionised absorption in the soft X-rays. The WA parameters show no correlation among themselves, except for one case. The shallow slope of the logξ versus logv_{out} linear regression (0.12± 0.03) is inconsistent with the scaling laws predicted by radiation or magneto-hydrodynamic-driven winds. Our results suggest also that WA and Ultra Fast Outflows (UFOs) do not represent extreme manifestation of the same astrophysical system.

  2. A Search For Multiple Images of QSOs Seen Through Damped Ly-alpha Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falco, Emilio

    1996-07-01

    We propose to obtain high-resolution images of a sample of QSOs with strong damped Ly-alpha absorption in their spectra. The observations would determine whether these QSOs are multiply imaged by gravitational lensing. It is widely believed that damped Ly-alpha absorption occurs in HI disks of spiral galaxies. Gravitational lensing is then inevitable for lines of sight passing close to the centers of these systems. For typical spiral galaxies, the resulting image separation is expected to be in the range 0.1''-0.5'' and can only be detected with HST at optical wavelengths. Because the neutral -hydrogen column density increases on average towards the center of galaxies, strong Ly-alpha absorption provides an efficient ``flag'' for gravitationally lensed QSOs with small image separations. Bartelmann & Loeb {1995, ApJ, in press} have shown that the frequency of multiple images is enhanced by 1-2 orders of magnitude in samples of QSOs with strong damped Ly-alpha absorption {N_ HI> 10^21 cm^-2}, compared to the overall QSO population. For this proposal, we have selected those QSOs most likely to exhibit gravitational lensing, from the published list of QSOs with damped Ly-alpha absorption. If lensing is found in this QSO sample, it will have important cosmological implications. First, it will confirm the association of damped Ly-alpha systems with galactic potential wells. Second, the magnification bias associated with lensing would make the appearance of damped systems more likely, and therefore affect estimates of the neutral-hydrogen fraction in the Universe {Bartelmann & Loeb 1995}. Third, the cosmological history of HI is linked to the process of galaxy formation and evolution {Lanzetta, Wolfe, & Turnshek 1995, ApJ, 440, 435}. Finally, the lensing frequency provides a sensitive probe of the cosmological constant.

  3. Properties of QSO Metal-line Absorption Systems at High Redshifts: Nature and Evolution of the Absorbers and New Evidence on Escape of Ionizing Radiation from Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boksenberg, Alec; Sargent, Wallace L. W.

    2015-05-01

    Using Voigt-profile-fitting procedures on Keck High Resolution Spectrograph spectra of nine QSOs, we identify 1099 C IV absorber components clumped in 201 systems outside the Lyman forest over 1.6 <~ z <~ 4.4. With associated Si IV, C II, Si II and N V where available, we investigate the bulk statistical and ionization properties of the components and systems and find no significant change in redshift for C IV and Si IV while C II, Si II and N V change substantially. The C IV components exhibit strong clustering, but no clustering is detected for systems on scales from 150 km s-1 out to 50,000 km s-1. We conclude that the clustering is due entirely to the peculiar velocities of gas present in the circumgalactic media of galaxies. Using specific combinations of ionic ratios, we compare our observations with model ionization predictions for absorbers exposed to the metagalactic ionizing radiation background augmented by proximity radiation from their associated galaxies and find that the generally accepted means of radiative escape by transparent channels from the internal star-forming sites is spectrally not viable for our stronger absorbers. We develop an active scenario based on runaway stars with resulting changes in the efflux of radiation that naturally enable the needed spectral convergence, and in turn provide empirical indicators of morphological evolution in the associated galaxies. Together with a coexisting population of relatively compact galaxies indicated by the weaker absorbers in our sample, the collective escape of radiation is sufficient to maintain the intergalactic medium ionized over the full range 1.9 < z <~ 4.4. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck

  4. Warm absorbers in X-rays (WAX), a comprehensive high-resolution grating spectral study of a sample of Seyfert Galaxies - II. Warm absorber dynamics and feedback to galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, Sibasish; Guainazzi, Matteo; Chakravorty, Susmita; Dewangan, Gulab C.; Kembhavi, Ajit K.

    2016-04-01

    This paper is a sequel to the extensive study of warm absorber (WA) in X-rays carried out using high-resolution grating spectral data from XMM-Newton satellite (WAX-I). Here we discuss the global dynamical properties as well as the energetics of the WA components detected in the WAX sample. The slope of WA density profile (n ∝ r-α) estimated from the linear regression slope of ionization parameter ξ and column density NH in the WAX sample is α = 1.236 ± 0.034. We find that the WA clouds possibly originate as a result of photoionized evaporation from the inner edge of the torus (torus wind). They can also originate in the cooling front of the shock generated by faster accretion disc outflows, the ultrafast outflows, impinging on to the interstellar medium or the torus. The acceleration mechanism for the WA is complex and neither radiatively driven wind nor MHD-driven wind scenario alone can describe the outflow acceleration. However, we find that radiative forces play a significant role in accelerating the WA through the soft X-ray absorption lines, and also with dust opacity. Given the large uncertainties in the distance and volume filling factor estimates of the WA, we conclude that the kinetic luminosity ĖK of WA may sometimes be large enough to yield significant feedback to the host galaxy. We find that the lowest ionization states carry the maximum mass outflow, and the sources with higher Fe M UTA absorption (15-17 Å) have more mass outflow rates.

  5. KPNO 0.9m H(alpha) Imaging Survey of ``Transforming Galaxies" in Local Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Christopher; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Raychaudhury, Somak; Gargiulo, Adriana; Campusano, Luis

    2012-02-01

    We propose to use the KPNO 0.9-m telescope to obtain panoramic H(alpha) imaging of ~200 galaxies in two nearby (32, 35 Mpc) galaxy groups NGC 4261 and NGC 5353 from the CLoGS local group survey. In rich clusters ram-pressure stripping has been shown to be very effective at removing the gas contents and quenching star formation in infalling spiral galaxies. It is much less clear how galaxies are affected by the much lower ram pressures found in galaxy groups, or if other environmental processes begin to dominate. Given that >50% of galaxies in the local volume reside in groups, it is vital we gain new insights into which mechanisms drive the SFR-density relation in groups. The proposed H(alpha) imaging will allow us to resolve where star-formation is occuring in each galaxy. This can effectively discriminate between ram-pressure stripping characterized by truncated H(alpha) disks, the much gentler starvation mechanism which produces anemic spirals, and nuclear star-bursts triggered by low-velocity encounters which should be most frequent in groups.

  6. KPNO 0.9m H(alpha) Imaging Survey of ``Transforming Galaxies'' in Local Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Christopher; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Raychaudhury, Somak; Egami, Eiichi; Campusano, Luis

    2012-08-01

    We propose to use the KPNO 0.9-m telescope to obtain panoramic H(alpha) imaging of ~135 galaxies in ten nearby galaxy groups (60- 80 Mpc) from the Complete Local-Volume Groups Sample (CLoGS). In rich clusters ram-pressure stripping has been shown to be very effective at removing the gas contents and quenching star formation in infalling spiral galaxies. It is much less clear how galaxies are affected by the much lower ram pressures found in galaxy groups, or if other environmental processes begin to dominate. Given that >50% of galaxies in the local volume reside in groups, it is vital that we gain new insights into which mechanisms drive the SFR-density relation in groups. The proposed H(alpha) imaging will allow us to resolve where star-formation is occurring in each galaxy. This can effectively discriminate between ram-pressure stripping characterized by truncated H(alpha) disks, the much gentler starvation mechanism which produces anemic spirals, and nuclear starbursts triggered by low-velocity encounters and mergers which should be most frequent in groups.

  7. A Deep Search for Galaxies Associated With Very Low-redshift Metal-line Absorbers: The Circumgalactic Media of Dwarf Galaxies and Environmental Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchett, Joseph; Tripp, Todd M.; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Willmer, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    I will present results from a deep survey of the galaxy environments surrounding HST/COS sightlines using SDSS and new followup ground-based observations. Our work reveals an extended, metal-enriched circumgalactic medium (CGM) that persists well beyond the virial radius of any potential host galaxy, reinforced by the depth of our galaxy data, which are complete to L ~ 0.02 L*. Furthermore, we present evidence that environmental effects manifest in the CGM even at densities commensurate with moderately populated groups. These effects might reflect the same mechanisms behind environmental quenching that eventually transforms galaxies into red-and-dead early types.

  8. Imaging of High Redshift Starburst galaxies in the light of Lyman alpha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckwith, Steven

    1997-07-01

    line. Most of the objects are a few seco nds of arc in extent suggesting th a t they are galaxies at the redshifts of the damped Lyman alpha absorbers. Two of these objects, Q1623+268A & Q1623+268B, were serendipitously observed by HST in an independent program to study quasars with absorption lines {by Steidel; we retrieved these images from the HST archive}. The HST images resolve the objects showing they are spiral galaxies. It is only with the HST images that a morphological identification can be made. {nB: I can make these images available as TIFF or GIF files, but I do not know how to do this via the web page for DDT}. Because our first survey targeted at the redshifts of quasars themselves uncovered only one emission- line galaxy in a larger volume, the results imply substantial clustering of young galaxies or formation within filaments or sheets whose locations are indicated by the redshifts of strong Lyman alpha line absorption along the lines of sight to more distant quasars. Our eighteen emission-line objects are unique in highlighti ng these sheets from an infrared-s elected sample. The proposed HST observations have two goals. The first is to resolve the objects that have not been observed with HST to determine the types of underlying galaxies. Our ground-based observations in the infrared and R band {WIYN telescope} are sufficient to show that most of these objects are between 1 and 3 seconds of arc across, large enough to be galaxies at high redshifts but too small to study the distribution of light from the ground. The two extent HST images of Q1623+268 A & B show clearly how HST uncovers the nature of these galaxies. The second goal is to measure the amount of Lyman alpha emission to compare the morphology of the regions producing Lyman alpha to the continuum. Such a comparison is important to understand what fraction of a young galaxy's light is produced in the starburst population, what fraction in the old population, and what fraction might be

  9. A Switchable Mid-Infrared Plasmonic Perfect Absorber with Multispectral Thermal Imaging Capability.

    PubMed

    Tittl, Andreas; Michel, Ann-Katrin U; Schäferling, Martin; Yin, Xinghui; Gholipour, Behrad; Cui, Long; Wuttig, Matthias; Taubner, Thomas; Neubrech, Frank; Giessen, Harald

    2015-08-19

    A switchable perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability is presented. Aluminum nanoantenna arrays above a germanium antimony telluride (GST) spacer layer and aluminum mirror provide efficient wavelength-tunable absorption in the mid-infrared. Utilizing the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition in GST, this device offers switchable absorption with strong reflectance contrast at resonance and large phase-change-induced spectral shifts. PMID:26173394

  10. Hubble Space Telescope Images of Submillimeter Sources: Large Irregular Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, S. C.; Windhorst, R.; Odewahn, S.; Yan, H.; Conselice, C.

    2003-12-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) high-resolution optical imaging of a sample of 13 submillimeter luminous galaxies for which the optical emission has been pinpointed either through radio 1.4 GHz or millimeter interferometry. We find a predominance of irregular and complex morphologies in the sample, suggesting that mergers are likely common for submillimeter galaxies. The component separations in these objects are on average a factor 2 larger than in local galaxies with similarly high bolometric luminosities. The sizes and star formation rates of the submillimeter galaxies are consistent with the maximal star formation rate densities of 20 Msolar kpc-2 in local starburst galaxies (Lehnert & Heckman). We derive quantitative morphological information for optical galaxies hosting submillimeter emission: total and isophotal magnitudes, Petrosian radius, effective radius, concentration, aspect ratio, surface brightness, and asymmetry. We compare these morphological indexes with those of other galaxies lying within the same STIS images. Most strikingly, we find ~70% of the submillimeter galaxies to be extraordinarily large and elongated relative to the field population, regardless of optical magnitude. Comparison of the submillimeter galaxy morphologies with those of optically selected galaxies at z~2-3 reveals the submillimeter galaxies to be a morphologically distinct population, with generally larger sizes, higher concentrations, and more prevalent major-merger configurations.

  11. IMAGE OF A DISTANT GALAXY CANDIDATE IN THE HUBBLE DEEP FIELD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Small portion of the Hubble Deep Field image -- the deepest view of the universe taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Arrow points to a very faint galaxy that appears to be more distant than any known previously. Other galaxies in the image are at smaller distances. Credit: Ken Lanzetta and Amos Yahil (State University of New York at Stony Brook), and NASA

  12. H I OBSERVATIONS OF THE Ca II ABSORBING GALAXIES Mrk 1456 AND SDSS J211701.26-002633.7

    SciTech Connect

    Cherinka, B.; Schulte-Ladbeck, R. E.; Rosenberg, J. L.

    2009-12-15

    In an effort to study Damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) galaxies at low redshift, we have been using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to identify galaxies projected onto quasi-stellar object (QSO) sight lines and to characterize their optical properties. For low-redshift galaxies, the H I 21 cm emission line can be used as an alternate tool for identifying possible DLA galaxies, since H I-emitting galaxies typically exhibit H I columns that are larger than the classical DLA limit. Here, we report on follow-up H I 21 cm emission-line observations of two DLA candidates that are both low-redshift spiral galaxies, Mrk 1456 and SDSS J211701.26-002633.7. The observations were made using the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) and Arecibo telescope, respectively. Analysis of their H I properties reveal the galaxies to be about one and two M*{sub HI} galaxies, respectively, and to have average H I mass, gas richness, and gas-mass fraction for their morphological types. We consider Mrk 1456 and SDSS J211701.26-002633.7 to be candidate DLA systems based upon the strength of the Ca II absorption lines they cause in their QSO's spectra, and impact parameters to the QSO that are smaller than the stellar disk. Compared to the small numbers of other H I detected DLA and candidate DLA galaxies, Mrk 1456 and SDSS J211701.26-002633.7 have high H I masses. Mrk 1456 and SDSS J211701.26-002633.7 have also been found to lie in galaxy groups that are high in H I gas mass compared to the group containing SBS 1543+593, the only DLA galaxy previously known to be situated in a galaxy group. When compared with the expected properties of low-z DLAs from an H I-detected sample of galaxies, Mrk 1456 and SDSS J211701.26-002633.7 fall within the ranges for impact parameter and M{sub B} ; and the H I mass distribution for the H I-detected DLAs agrees with that of the expected H I mass distribution for low-z DLAs. Our observations support galaxy-evolution models in which high-mass galaxies make up an increasing

  13. Evidence for a Circum-Nuclear and Ionised Absorber in the X-ray Obscured Broad Line Radio Galaxy 3C 445

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braito, V.; Reeves, J. N.; Sambruna, R. M.; Gofford, J.

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the results of a Suzaku observation of the Broad Line Radio Galaxy 3C 445. We confirm the results obtained with the previous X-ray observations which unveiled the presence of several soft X-ray emission lines and an overall X-ray emission which strongly resembles a typical Seyfert 2 despite of the optical classification as an unobscured AGN. The broad band spectrum allowed us to measure for the first time the amount of reflection (R approximately 0.9) which together with the relatively strong neutral Fe Ka emission line (EW approximately 100 eV) strongly supports a scenario where a Compton-thick mirror is present. The primary X ray continuum is strongly obscured by an absorber with a column density of NH = 2 - 3 x 10(exp 23) per square centimeter. Two possible scenarios are proposed for the absorber: a neutral partial covering or a mildly ionised absorber with an ionisation parameter log xi approximately 1.0 erg centimeter per second. A comparison with the past and more recent X-ray observations of 3C 445 performed with XMM-Newton and Chandra is presented, which provided tentative evidence that the ionised and outflowing absorber varied. We argue that the absorber is probably associated with an equatorial diskwind located within the parsec scale molecular torus.

  14. Investigation of microelectromechanical systems bimaterial sensors with metamaterial absorbers for terahertz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Fabio; Grbovic, Dragoslav; Karunasiri, Gamani

    2014-09-01

    One attractive option to achieve real-time terahertz (THz) imaging is a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) bimaterial sensor with embedded metamaterial absorbers. We have demonstrated that metamaterial films can be designed using standard MEMS materials such as silicon oxide (SiOx), silicon oxinitrate (SiOxNy), and aluminum (Al) to achieve nearly 100% resonant absorption matched to the illumination source, providing structural support, desired thermomechanical properties and access to external optical readout. The metamaterial structure absorbs the incident THz radiation and transfers the heat to bimaterial microcantilevers that are connected to the substrate, which acts as a heat sink via thermal insulating legs, allowing the overall structure to deform proportionally to the absorbed power. The amount of deformation can be probed by measuring the displacement of a laser beam reflected from the sensor's metallic ground plane. Several sensor configurations have been designed, fabricated, and characterized to optimize responsivity and speed of operation and to minimize structural residual stress. Measured responsivity values as high as 1.2 deg/μW and time constants as low as 20 ms with detectable power on the order of 10 nW were obtained, indicating that the THz MEMS sensors have a great potential for real-time imaging.

  15. Simulating Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the LSST Image Simulation Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizagno, James; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Chang, C.; Gibson, R. R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Jernigan, J. G.; Jones, L.; Kahn, S. M.; Krughoff, S. K.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, S.; Shmakova, S. M.; Sylvestri, N.; Todd, N.; Young, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present an extragalactic source catalog, which includes galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei, that is used for the Large Survey Synoptic Telescope Imaging Simulation effort. The galaxies are taken from the De Lucia et. al. (2006) semi-analytic modeling (SAM) of the Millennium Simulation. The LSST Image Simulation effort requires full SED information and galaxy morphological information, which is added to the catalog by fitting Bruzual & Charlot (2003) stellar population models, with Cardelli, Clayton, Mathis (1989) dust models, to the BVRIK colors provided by the De Lucia et. al. (2006) SAM. Galaxy morphology is modeled as a double Sersic profile for the disk and bulge. Galaxy morphological information and number counts are matched to existing observations. The catalog contains galaxies with a limiting r-band magnitude of mr=28, which results in roughly 1E6 galaxies per square degree. An existing AGN catalog (MacLeod et. al. 2010) is matched to galaxy hosts in the galaxy catalog using SDSS observations. AGN are morphologically modeled as variable point sources located at the center of the host galaxy. We demonstrate how this extragalactic source catalog allows LSST to plan for extended object extraction, variable extragalactic source detection, sensitivity level determination after image stacking, and perform various other cosmological tests.

  16. A Deep Search For Faint Galaxies Associated With Very Low-redshift C IV Absorbers. II. Program Design, Absorption-line Measurements, and Absorber Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchett, Joseph N.; Tripp, Todd M.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Werk, Jessica K.; Tumlinson, Jason; O'Meara, John M.; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Katz, Neal; Willmer, C. N. A.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the evolution of metal-enriched gas over recent cosmic epochs as well as to characterize the diffuse, ionized, metal-enriched circumgalactic medium, we have conducted a blind survey for C iv absorption systems in 89 QSO sightlines observed with the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. We have identified 42 absorbers at z < 0.16, comprising the largest uniform blind sample size to date in this redshift range. Our measurements indicate an increasing C iv absorber number density per comoving path length (d{N}/{dX}= 7.5 ± 1.1) and modestly increasing mass density relative to the critical density of the universe (ΩC iv = 10.0 ± 1.5 × 10-8) from z ˜ 1.5 to the present epoch, consistent with predictions from cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. Furthermore, the data support a functional form for the column density distribution function that deviates from a single power law, also consistent with independent theoretical predictions. As the data also probe heavy element ions in addition to C iv at the same redshifts, we identify, measure, and search for correlations between column densities of these species where components appear to be aligned in velocity. Among these ion-ion correlations, we find evidence for tight correlations between C ii and Si ii, C ii and Si iii, and C iv and Si iv, suggesting that these pairs of species arise in similar ionization conditions. However, the evidence for correlations decreases as the difference in ionization potential increases. Finally, when controlling for observational bias, we find only marginal evidence for a correlation (86.8% likelihood) between the Doppler line width b(C iv) and column density N(C iv).

  17. Deep imaging of the shell elliptical galaxy NGC 3923 with MegaCam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bílek, M.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Gwyn, S.; Ebrová, I.; Bartošková, K.; Jungwiert, B.; Jílková, L.

    2016-04-01

    Context. The elliptical galaxy NGC 3923 is known to be surrounded by a number of stellar shells, probable remnants of an accreted galaxy. Despite its uniqueness, the deepest images of its outskirts come from the 1980s. On the basis of the modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND), it has recently been predicted that a new shell lies in this region. Aims: We obtain the deepest image ever of the galaxy, map the tidal features in it, and search for the predicted shell. Methods: The image of the galaxy was taken by the MegaCam camera at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope in the g'-band. It reached the surface-brightness limit of 29 mag arcsec-2. In addition, we reanalyzed an archival HST image of the galaxy. Results: We detected up to 42 shells in NGC 3923. This is by far the highest number among all shell galaxies. We present the description of the shells and other tidal features in the galaxy. A probable progenitor of some of these features was discovered. The shell system likely originates from two or more progenitors. The predicted shell was not detected, but the new image revealed that the prediction was based on incorrect assumptions and poor data. The reduced images (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/588/A77

  18. Deep UV Imaging of Stripped Spiral Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowl, Hugh

    We propose moderately deep GALEX observations (6 ksec) of eighteen gas-stripped Virgo Cluster spiral galaxies. These observations will give a complete sample of strongly stripped, highly inclined (i>70 degrees) Virgo spirals brighter than magnitude 16. Optical imaging and HI mapping show that these spirals all lack dust and gas in their outer disks, presumably due to ICM-ISM interactions. GALEX UV observations will provide critical information on how these interactions have affected recent star formation in the galaxies. The GALEX FUV and NUV data, particularly when combined with our existing multi-wavelength data set including broadband optical, H-alpha, and Spitzer IR imaging, and optical spectroscopy, will strongly constrain when a galaxy was stripped, how rapidly it was stripped, and the strength of any starburst at the time of stripping. The UV light changes dramatically over timescales of 0-500 Myr, which are the same timescales over which ICM-ISM interactions take place, making it possible to constrain the most recent effects of the cluster environment on galaxy evolution and if these effects can effectively drive the transformation of spirals into S0s. The deep imaging we propose will enable us to detect age gradients in the stellar populations of the outer disks, which will tell us how rapidly the galaxies are stripped. The cluster locations of recently stripped galaxies and the timescales over which the galaxies are stripped will allow us to constrain the relative importance of stripping that occurs during cluster core passages and stripping which occurs when galaxies encounter an ICM shock outside the core. Ten of these galaxies have already been imaged with GALEX, and we are requesting deep observations of these galaxies, in addition to time to image the remaining eight to the same depth.

  19. imaging survey of Wolf-Rayet galaxies: morphologies and star formation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, S.; Omar, A.

    2016-06-01

    The Hα and optical broadband images of 25 nearby Wolf-Rayet (WR) galaxies are presented. The WR galaxies are known to have the presence of a recent (≤10 Myr) and massive star formation episode. The photometric Hα fluxes are estimated, and corrected for extinction and line contamination in the filter pass-bands. The star formation rates (SFRs) are estimated using Hα images and from the archival data in the far-ultraviolet (FUV), far-infrared (FIR) and 1.4 GHz radio continuum wave-bands. A comparison of SFRs estimated from different wavebands is made after including similar data available in literature for other WR galaxies. The Hα based SFRs are found to be tightly correlated with SFRs estimated from the FUV data. The correlations also exist with SFRs estimates based on the radio and FIR data. The WR galaxies also follow the radio-FIR correlation known for normal star forming galaxies, although it is seen here that majority of dwarf WR galaxies have radio deficiency. An analysis using ratio of non-thermal to thermal radio continuum and ratio of FUV to Hα SFR indicates that WR galaxies have lesser non-thermal radio emission compared to normal galaxies, most likely due to lack of supernova from the very young star formation episode in the WR galaxies. The morphologies of 16 galaxies in our sample are highly suggestive of an ongoing tidal interaction or a past merger in these galaxies. This survey strengthens the conclusions obtained from previous similar studies indicating the importance of tidal interactions in triggering star-formation in WR galaxies.

  20. Target extraction from blurred trace infrared images with a superstring galaxy template algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiao; Fu, Dongmei

    2014-05-01

    Accurate and efficient targets extraction from blurred trace infrared images has very important meaning for latent trace evidence collection in crime scene. Based on the superstring theory, a superstring galaxy template extraction algorithm for infrared trace target is presented. First, all of the pixels are divided into three classes: target pixels, background pixels and blurred pixels. Next, the superstring template characteristics for every pixel in a blurred infrared image are calculated as the features of each pixel. Finally, a galaxy covering algorithm is proposed, target pixels and background pixels are used for training the galaxy covering domain of every galaxy classifiers, and these classifiers will divide each blurred pixel into two classes: a target pixel or a background pixel. Experimental results indicate that the superstring galaxy template algorithm can improve the target extraction rate and reduce the extraction error rate.

  1. Galaxy pairs in deep HST images: Evidence for evolution in the galaxy merger rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkey, Jordan M.; Keel, William C.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Franklin, Barbara E.

    1994-01-01

    We use four deep serendipitous fields observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide-Field Camera to constrain the rate of galaxy merging between the current epoch and z approximately equals 0.7. Since most mergers occur between members of bound pairs, the merger rate is given to a good approximation by (half) the rate of disappearance of galaxies in pairs. An objective criterion for pair membership shows that 34% +/- 9% of our HST galaxies with I = 18-22 belong to pairs, compared to 7% locally. This means that about 13% of the galaxy population has disappeared due to merging in the cosmic epoch corresponding to this magnitude interval (or 0.1 approximately less than z approximately less than 0.7). Our pair fraction is a lower limit: correction for pair members falling below our detection threshold might raise the fraction to approximately 50%. Since we address only two-galaxy merging, these values do not include physical systems of higher multiplicity. Incorporating I-band field-galaxy redshift distributions, the pair fraction grows with redshift as alpha(1 + z)(exp 3.5 +/- 0.5) and the merger rate as (1 + z)(exp 2.5 +/- 0.5). This may have significant implications for the interpretation of galaxy counts (disappearance of faint blue galaxies), the cosmological evolution of faint radio sources and quasars (which evolve approximately as (1 + z)(exp 3), the similarity in the power law is necessary but not sufficient evidence for a causal relation), statistics of QSO companions, the galaxy content in distant clusters, and the merging history of a 'typical' galaxy.

  2. The core of the nearby S0 galaxy NGC 7457 imaged with the HST planetary camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, Tod R.; Faber, S. M.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Baum, William A.; Currie, Douglas G.; Ewald, S. P.; Groth, Edward J.; Hester, J. Jeff; Kelsall, T.

    1991-01-01

    A brief analysis is presented of images of the nearby S0 galaxy NGC 7457 obtained with the HST Planetary Camera. While the galaxy remains unresolved with the HST, the images reveal that any core most likely has r(c) less than 0.052 arcsec. The light distribution is consistent with a gamma = -1.0 power law inward to the resolution limit, with a possible stellar nucleus with luminosity of 10 million solar. This result represents the first observation outside the Local Group of a galaxy nucleus at this spatial resolution, and it suggests that such small, high surface brightness cores may be common.

  3. ALMA SUBMILLIMETER CONTINUUM IMAGING OF THE HOST GALAXIES OF GRB 021004 AND GRB 080607

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei-Hao; Huang, Kui-Yun; Chen, Hsiao-Wen

    2012-12-20

    We report 345 GHz continuum observations of the host galaxies of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) 021004 and 080607 at z > 2 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Cycle 0. Of the two bursts, GRB 021004 is one of the few GRBs that originate in a Lyman limit host, while GRB 080607 is classified as a 'dark burst' and its host galaxy is a candidate of dusty star-forming galaxy at z {approx} 3. With an order of magnitude improvement in the sensitivities of the new imaging searches, we detect the host galaxy of GRB 080607 with a flux of S{sub 345} = 0.31 {+-} 0.09 mJy and a corresponding infrared luminosity of L{sub IR} = (2.4-4.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }. However, the host galaxy of GRB 021004 remains undetected and the ALMA observations allow us to place a 3{sigma} upper limit of L{sub IR} < 3.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun} for the host galaxy. The continuum imaging observations show that the two galaxies are not ultraluminous infrared galaxies, but are at the faintest end of the dusty galaxy population that gives rise to the submillimeter extragalactic background light. The derived star formation rates of the two GRB host galaxies are less than 100 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, which are broadly consistent with optical measurements. The result suggests that the large extinction (A{sub V} {approx} 3) in the afterglow of GRB 080607 is confined along its particularly dusty sight line, and not representative of the global properties of the host galaxy.

  4. Deep Optical Imaging of a Compact Group of Galaxies: Seyfert's Sextet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiura, Shingo; Murayama, Takashi; Shimada, Masashi; Sato, Yasunori; Nagao, Tohru; Molikawa, Kohji; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Sanders, D. B.

    2000-11-01

    To investigate the dynamical status of Seyfert's Sextet (SS), we have obtained a deep optical (VR+I) image of this group. Our image shows that a faint envelope, down to a surface brightness μoptical(AB)~=27 mag arcsec-2, surrounds the member galaxies. This envelope is irregular in shape. It is likely that this shape is attributed either to recent-past or to ongoing galaxy interactions in SS. If the member galaxies have experienced a number of mutual interactions over a long timescale, the shape of the envelope should be rounder. Therefore, the irregularly shaped morphology suggests that SS is in an early phase of dynamical interaction among the member galaxies. It is interesting to note that the soft X-ray image obtained with ROSAT (Pildis, Bregman, & Evrard) is significantly similar in morphology. We discuss the possible future evolution of SS briefly.

  5. Combining Human and Machine Learning for Morphological Analysis of Galaxy Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuminski, Evan; George, Joe; Wallin, John; Shamir, Lior

    2014-10-01

    The increasing importance of digital sky surveys collecting many millions of galaxy images has reinforced the need for robust methods that can perform morphological analysis of large galaxy image databases. Citizen science initiatives such as Galaxy Zoo showed that large data sets of galaxy images can be analyzed effectively by nonscientist volunteers, but since databases generated by robotic telescopes grow much faster than the processing power of any group of citizen scientists, it is clear that computer analysis is required. Here, we propose to use citizen science data for training machine learning systems, and show experimental results demonstrating that machine learning systems can be trained with citizen science data. Our findings show that the performance of machine learning depends on the quality of the data, which can be improved by using samples that have a high degree of agreement between the citizen scientists. The source code of the method is publicly available.

  6. Imaging spectroscopy of albedo and radiative forcing by light-absorbing impurities in mountain snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, Thomas H.; Seidel, Felix C.; Bryant, Ann C.; McKenzie Skiles, S.; Rittger, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies show that deposition of dust and black carbon to snow and ice accelerates snowmelt and perturbs regional climate and hydrologic cycles. Radiative forcing by aerosols is often neglected in climate and hydrological models in part due to scarcity of observations. Here we describe and validate an algorithm suite (Imaging Spectrometer-Snow Albedo and Radiative Forcing (IS-SnARF)) that provides quantitative retrievals of snow grain size, snow albedo, and radiative forcing by light-absorbing impurities in snow and ice (LAISI) from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected on 15 June 2011 in the Senator Beck Basin Study Area (SBBSA), SW Colorado, USA. Radiative forcing by LAISI is retrieved by the integral of the convolution of spectral irradiance with spectral differences between the spectral albedo (scaled from the observed hemispherical-directional reflectance factor (HDRF)) and modeled clean snow spectral albedo. The modeled surface irradiance at time of acquisition at test sites was 1052 W m-2 compared to 1048 W m-2 measured with the field spectroradiometer measurements, a relative difference of 0.4%. HDRF retrievals at snow and bare soil sites had mean errors relative to in situ measurements of -0.4 ± 0.1% reflectance averaged across the spectrum and root-mean-square errors of 1.5 ± 0.1%. Comparisons of snow albedo and radiative forcing retrievals from AVIRIS with in situ measurements in SBBSA showed errors of 0.001-0.004 and 2.1 ± 5.1 W m-2, respectively. A counterintuitive result was that, in the presence of light absorbing impurities, near-surface snow grain size increased with elevation, whereas we generally expect that at lower elevation the grain size would be larger.

  7. Circumnuclear Regions In Barred Spiral Galaxies. 1; Near-Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Ramirez, D.; Knapen, J. H.; Peletier, R. F.; Laine, S.; Doyon, R.; Nadeau, D.

    2000-01-01

    We present sub-arcsecond resolution ground-based near-infrared images of the central regions of a sample of twelve barred galaxies with circumnuclear star formation activity, which is organized in ring-like regions typically one kiloparsec in diameter. We also present Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared images of ten of our sample galaxies, and compare them with our ground-based data. Although our sample galaxies were selected for the presence of circumnuclear star formation activity, our broad-band near-infrared images are heterogeneous, showing a substantial amount of small-scale structure in some galaxies, and practically none in others. We argue that, where it exists, this structure is caused by young stars, which also cause the characteristic bumps or changes in slope in the radial profiles of ellipticity, major axis position angle, surface brightness and colour at the radius of the circumnuclear ring in most of our sample galaxies. In 7 out of 10 HST images, star formation in the nuclear ring is clearly visible as a large number of small emitting regions, organised into spiral arm fragments, which are accompanied by dust lanes. NIR colour index maps show much more clearly the location of dust lanes and, in certain cases, regions of star formation than single broad-band images. Circumnuclear spiral structure thus outlined appears to be common in barred spiral galaxies with circumnuclear star formation.

  8. The application of infrared speckle interferometry to the imaging of remote galaxies and AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olivares, Robert O.

    1995-01-01

    A 1.5 meter reflector, used for both infrared and optical astronomy, is also being used for infrared speckle interferometry and CCD imaging. The application of these imaging techniques to remote galaxies and active galactic nuclei are discussed. A simple model for the origin of speckle in coherent imaging systems is presented. Very careful photometry of the continuum of the galaxy M31 is underway using CCD images. It involves extremely intensive data reduction because the object itself is very large and has low surface brightness.

  9. VLA neutral hydrogen imaging of compact groups of galaxies. II - HCG 31, 44, and 79

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.A.; Mcmahon, P.M.; Van gorkom, J.H. Columbia University, New York )

    1991-06-01

    Neutral hydrogen images of three compact groups of galaxies are presented: HCG 31, 44, and 79. The images were obtained with the very large array (VLA), an on-line Hanning smoothing was applied to the data, and the H I spectral channel was isolated. The images were made on the Pipeline, and were produced by means of a method described by Gorkon and Ekers (1988). The images of HCG 44 are compared with earlier Arecibo observations. The H I emission in HCG 44 is discovered within the galaxies, whereas the emission in 31 and 79 can be found throughout the group in clouds that are larger than the galaxies. Evidence of a relationship between the compact groups is found in the H I data, and the groups are considered to be merging into a single object. Some of the groups are theorized to be young amorphous galaxies where the H I is still bound to individual galaxies, and which have just begun to condense from the intergalactic medium. The kinematics of the gas are shown to vary, and a common gaseous envelope contains the dwarf galaxies. 42 refs.

  10. Warm absorbers in X-rays (WAX), a comprehensive high-resolution grating spectral study of a sample of Seyfert galaxies - I. A global view and frequency of occurrence of warm absorbers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, Sibasish; Guainazzi, Matteo; Dewangan, Gulab C.; Chakravorty, Susmita; Kembhavi, Ajit K.

    2014-07-01

    We present results from a homogeneous analysis of the broad-band 0.3-10 keV CCD resolution as well as of the soft X-ray high-resolution grating spectra of a hard X-ray flux-limited sample of 26 Seyfert galaxies observed with XMM-Newton. Our goal is to characterize warm absorbers (WAs) along the line of sight to the active nucleus. We significantly detect WAs in 65 per cent of the sample sources. Our results are consistent with WAs being present in at least half of the Seyfert galaxies in the nearby Universe, in agreement with previous estimates. We find a gap in the distribution of the ionization parameter in the range 0.5 < log ξ < 1.5 which we interpret as a thermally unstable region for WA clouds. This may indicate that the WA flow is probably constituted by a clumpy distribution of discrete clouds rather than a continuous medium. The distribution of the WA column densities for the sources with broad Fe Kα lines are similar to those sources which do not have broadened emission lines. Therefore, the detected broad Fe Kα emission lines are bona fide and not artefacts of ionized absorption in the soft X-rays. The WA parameters show no correlation among themselves, with the exception of the ionization parameter versus column density. The shallow slope of the log ξ versus log vout linear regression (0.12 ± 0.03) is inconsistent with the scaling laws predicted by radiation or magnetohydrodynamic-driven winds. Our results also suggest that WA and ultra fast outflows do not represent extreme manifestation of the same astrophysical system.

  11. HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, Paula; Baker, Andrew J.; Menanteau, Felipe; Lutz, Dieter; Tacconi, Linda J. E-mail: ajbaker@physics.rutgers.edu E-mail: lutz@mpe.mpg.de

    2013-05-10

    We present F110W ({approx}J) and F160W ({approx}H) observations of 10 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) NICMOS camera. Our targets have optical redshifts in the range 2.20 {<=} z {<=} 2.81 confirmed by millimeter CO or mid-IR spectroscopy, guaranteeing that the two bands sample the rest-frame optical with the Balmer break falling between them. Eight of ten are detected in both bands, while two are detected in F160W only. We study their F160W morphologies, applying a maximum-deblending detection algorithm to distinguish multiple- from single-component configurations, leading to reassessments for several objects. Based on our NICMOS imaging and/or previous dynamical evidence we identify five SMGs as multiple sources, which we interpret as merging systems. Additionally, we calculate morphological parameter asymmetry (A) and the Gini coefficient (G); thanks to our sample's limited redshift range we recover the trend that multiple-component, merger-like morphologies are reflected in higher asymmetries. We analyze the stellar populations of nine objects with F110W/F160W photometry, using archival HST optical data when available. For multiple systems, we are able to model the individual components that build up an SMG. With the available data we cannot discriminate among star formation histories, but we constrain stellar masses and mass ratios for merger-like SMG systems, obtaining a mean log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 10.9 {+-} 0.2 for our full sample, with individual values log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 9.6-11.8. The morphologies and mass ratios of the least and most massive systems match the predictions of the major-merger and cold accretion SMG formation scenarios, respectively, suggesting that both channels may have a role in the population's origin.

  12. A Phosphorus Phthalocyanine Formulation with Intense Absorbance at 1000 nm for Deep Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Wang, Depeng; Zhang, Yumiao; Chitgupi, Upendra; Geng, Jumin; Wang, Yuehang; Zhang, Yuzhen; Cook, Timothy R.; Xia, Jun; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2016-01-01

    Although photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) operates with high spatial resolution in biological tissues deeper than other optical modalities, light scattering is a limiting factor. The use of longer near infrared wavelengths reduces scattering. Recently, the rational design of a stable phosphorus phthalocyanine (P-Pc) with a long wavelength absorption band beyond 1000 nm has been reported. Here, we show that when dissolved in liquid surfactants, P-Pc can give rise to formulations with absorbance of greater than 1000 (calculated for a 1 cm path length) at wavelengths beyond 1000 nm. Using the broadly accessible Nd:YAG pulse laser emission output of 1064 nm, P-Pc could be imaged through 11.6 cm of chicken breast with PACT. P-Pc accumulated passively in tumors following intravenous injection in mice as observed by PACT. Following oral administration, P-Pc passed through the intestine harmlessly, and PACT could be used to non-invasively observe intestine function. When the contrast agent placed under the arm of a healthy adult human, a PACT transducer on the top of the arm could readily detect P-Pc through the entire 5 cm limb. Thus, the approach of using contrast media with extreme absorption at 1064 nm readily enables high quality optical imaging in vitro and in vivo in humans at exceptional depths. PMID:27022416

  13. A Phosphorus Phthalocyanine Formulation with Intense Absorbance at 1000 nm for Deep Optical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Wang, Depeng; Zhang, Yumiao; Chitgupi, Upendra; Geng, Jumin; Wang, Yuehang; Zhang, Yuzhen; Cook, Timothy R; Xia, Jun; Lovell, Jonathan F

    2016-01-01

    Although photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) operates with high spatial resolution in biological tissues deeper than other optical modalities, light scattering is a limiting factor. The use of longer near infrared wavelengths reduces scattering. Recently, the rational design of a stable phosphorus phthalocyanine (P-Pc) with a long wavelength absorption band beyond 1000 nm has been reported. Here, we show that when dissolved in liquid surfactants, P-Pc can give rise to formulations with absorbance of greater than 1000 (calculated for a 1 cm path length) at wavelengths beyond 1000 nm. Using the broadly accessible Nd:YAG pulse laser emission output of 1064 nm, P-Pc could be imaged through 11.6 cm of chicken breast with PACT. P-Pc accumulated passively in tumors following intravenous injection in mice as observed by PACT. Following oral administration, P-Pc passed through the intestine harmlessly, and PACT could be used to non-invasively observe intestine function. When the contrast agent placed under the arm of a healthy adult human, a PACT transducer on the top of the arm could readily detect P-Pc through the entire 5 cm limb. Thus, the approach of using contrast media with extreme absorption at 1064 nm readily enables high quality optical imaging in vitro and in vivo in humans at exceptional depths. PMID:27022416

  14. ALFALFA DISCOVERY OF THE NEARBY GAS-RICH DWARF GALAXY LEO P. II. OPTICAL IMAGING OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Van Sistine, Angela; Young, Michael D.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Cannon, John M.; Skillman, Evan D.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W. E-mail: slaz@astro.indiana.edu E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu

    2013-06-15

    We present results from ground-based optical imaging of a low-mass dwarf galaxy discovered by the ALFALFA 21 cm H I survey. Broadband (BVR) data obtained with the WIYN 3.5 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) are used to construct color-magnitude diagrams of the galaxy's stellar population down to V{sub o} {approx} 25. We also use narrowband H{alpha} imaging from the KPNO 2.1 m telescope to identify a H II region in the galaxy. We use these data to constrain the distance to the galaxy to be between 1.5 and 2.0 Mpc. This places Leo P within the Local Volume but beyond the Local Group. Its properties are extreme: it is the lowest-mass system known that contains significant amounts of gas and is currently forming stars.

  15. An Imaging and Spectroscopic Survey of Bright Strongly-Lensed Galaxies in the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth; Lin, Huan; Allam, Sahar; Kubo, Jeff; Diehl, Tom; Tucker, Douglas; Kubik, Donna; Annis, Jim

    2009-02-01

    We propose for WIYN imaging and Mayall spectroscopic follow-up for a sample of 21 very bright, candidate strong lensing systems from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), found as part of our systematic search for potentially lensed bright blue arcs and knots around luminous red galaxies from the SDSS. Our survey has already spectroscopically confirmed 12 strong lensing systems, including 6 among the brightest lensed Lyman break galaxies known at z > 2, including the ``8 o'clock arc.'' We will take advantage of the excellent WIYN image quality to obtain gri color data vital to derive optimal lensing models for our systems, and we also take advantage of the brightness of our lensed galaxies, whose redshifts may be efficiently measured on the Mayall 4m. Overall, we expect to compile a final sample of order 30 spectroscopically confirmed SDSS lensing systems, a large data set which allows us to expand our ongoing follow-up studies of the physical properties of individual bright lensed star-forming galaxies at high redshifts z ~ 1-3. Moreover, this larger sample allows us to better constrain the mass distributions of the group/cluster environments around our z ~ 0.4 red lens galaxies, in a 3''-10'' Einstein radius regime that is complementary to the smaller single- galaxy and larger galaxy-cluster scales probed by other SDSS strong lens data sets.

  16. Morphology classification of galaxies in CL 0939+4713 using a ground-based telescope image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukugita, M.; Doi, M.; Dressler, A.; Gunn, J. E.

    1995-01-01

    Morphological classification is studied for galaxies in cluster CL 0939+4712 at z = 0.407 using simple photometric parameters obtained from a ground-based telescope image with seeing of 1-2 arcseconds full width at half maximim (FWHM). By ploting the galaxies in a plane of the concentration parameter versus mean surface brightness, we find a good correlation between the location on the plane and galaxy colors, which are known to correlate with morphological types from a recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) study. Using the present method, we expect a success rate of classification into early and late types of about 70% or possibly more.

  17. Studying low-redshift universe through observation of Damped Lyman-alpha quasar absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharanfoli, Soheila

    2009-06-01

    In recent years, an extremely successful method to study galaxy formation and evolution, has been provided by observation of quasar absorbers. Quasar absorbers are systems intercepting our line-of-sight to a given quasar and thus produce a feature in the quasar spectrum, the so-called absorption lines. The Damped Lyman-a (DLA) and sub-Damped Lyman-a (sub-DLA) absorption features in quasar spectra are believed to be produced by intervening galaxies. However, the connection of quasar absorbers to galaxies is not well-understood, since attempts to image the absorbing galaxies have often failed. DLAs and sub-DLAs were originally thought to be the precursors of present day disk galaxies, but there is evidence that they may be dominated by gas-rich, proto-dwarf galaxies representing the basic building blocks of hierarchical growth of structure. While most DLAs appear to be metal-poor, a population of metal-rich absorbers, mostly sub-DLAs, has been discovered in recent spectroscopic studies. It is of great interest to image these metal-rich absorbers, especially with high spatial resolution, to understand the connection between the stellar and interstellar content of the underlying galaxies. This dissertation consists of several projects designed to further our understanding of galaxies and galactic structures associated with intervening quasar absorption lines. Two projects were completed that involved the imaging of 13 DLA/sub-DLA galaxies at z < 1. High angular resolution near-infrared images were obtained, using the Hokupa'a Adaptive Optics system with the QUIRC near-infrared camera on the 8-m Gemini-North telescope, and the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system on the 10-m Keck telescope. Detailed properties of the identified absorber galaxies are described. They are shown to be drawn from a variety of morphological types with a range of luminosities, sizes, and impact parameters. In the other set of projects, follow-up spectroscopy was performed to confirm the

  18. Probing the Properties of Distant Galaxies and their Circumgalactic Medium with Damped, Sub-damped, and Super-damped Lyman-alpha Quasar Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Varsha P.; Som, Debopam; Morrison, Sean; Peroux, Celine; York, Donald G.; Quiret, Samuel; Lauroesch, James Thomas; Khare, Pushpa; Aller, Monique C.

    2016-01-01

    Excellent tools to measure the chemical and physical properties of distant galaxies and their circumgalactic medium are provided by the high H I column density absorbers in quasar spectra. The damped Lyman-alpha absorbers [DLAs; log N(H I) >= 20.3] and the sub-DLA absorbers [19.0 <= log N(H I) < 20.3] dominate the neutral gas reservoir available for star formation. The super-DLAs [DLAs with log N(H I) >= 21.7] provide ideal laboratories to study the most gas-rich and potentially vigorously star-forming galaxies. We report a study of the DLAs (including super-DLAs) and sub-DLAs, based on observations from Keck, VLT, Magellan, and HST. We combine our results with the literature to examine trends between N(H I), metallicity, dust depletion, and gas velocity dispersion. We find that sub-DLAs have higher metallicities than DLAs at all redshifts studied, even after making ionization corrections. We find the super-DLAs have a relatively narrow range of metallicities. A much larger fraction of the super-DLAs lie close to or above the line [X/H] = 20.59 - log N(H I) in the metallicity versus N(H I) plot, compared to less gas-rich DLAs, suggesting that super-DLAs are more likely to be rich in molecules. Relative abundances of Si, S, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn suggest a mixture of dust depletion and alpha-enhancement. We confirm a strong correlation between metallicity and Fe depletion for DLAs, and also find a correlation between metallicity and Si depletion. For sub-DLAs at z < 0.5, we find [N/S] below the level for secondary N production. For some super-DLAs, we estimate star formation rates from potential detections of Lyman-alpha emission. We discuss constraints on electron densities from C II*/C II and Si II*/Si II. The DLAs and sub-DLAs appear to have different metallicity vs. velocity dispersion relations. We also find that the super-DLAs may have somewhat narrower velocity dispersions than the less gas-rich DLAs, and may arise in cooler/ less turbulent gas. We gratefully

  19. Direct imaging of haloes and truncations in face-on nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapen, Johan; Peters, Stephan; van der Kruit, Piet; Trujillo, Ignacio; Fliri, Juergen; Cisternas, Mauricio

    2015-08-01

    We use ultra-deep imaging from the IAC Stripe82 Legacy Project to study the surface photometry of 22 nearby, face-on to moderately inclined spiral galaxies. The reprocessed and co-added SDSS/Stripe82 imaging allows us to probe the galaxy down to 29-30 r‧-magnitudes/arcsec2 and thus reach into the very faint outskirts of the galaxies. We find extended stellar haloes in over half of our sample galaxies, and truncations in three of them. The presence of stellar haloes and truncations is mutually exclusive, and we argue that the presence of a stellar halo can hide a truncation. We find that the onset of the halo and the truncation scales tightly with galaxy size. Interestingly, the fraction of light does not correlate with dynamic mass. We highlight the importance of a proper analysis of the extended wings of the point spread function (PSF), finding that around half the light at the faintest levels is from the inner regions, though not the nucleus, of a galaxy, re-distributed to the outskirts by the PSF. We discuss implications of this effect for future deep imaging surveys, such as with the LSST.

  20. STAR-GALAXY CLASSIFICATION IN MULTI-BAND OPTICAL IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Fadely, Ross; Willman, Beth; Hogg, David W.

    2012-11-20

    Ground-based optical surveys such as PanSTARRS, DES, and LSST will produce large catalogs to limiting magnitudes of r {approx}> 24. Star-galaxy separation poses a major challenge to such surveys because galaxies-even very compact galaxies-outnumber halo stars at these depths. We investigate photometric classification techniques on stars and galaxies with intrinsic FWHM <0.2 arcsec. We consider unsupervised spectral energy distribution template fitting and supervised, data-driven support vector machines (SVMs). For template fitting, we use a maximum likelihood (ML) method and a new hierarchical Bayesian (HB) method, which learns the prior distribution of template probabilities from the data. SVM requires training data to classify unknown sources; ML and HB do not. We consider (1) a best-case scenario (SVM{sub best}) where the training data are (unrealistically) a random sampling of the data in both signal-to-noise and demographics and (2) a more realistic scenario where training is done on higher signal-to-noise data (SVM{sub real}) at brighter apparent magnitudes. Testing with COSMOS ugriz data, we find that HB outperforms ML, delivering {approx}80% completeness, with purity of {approx}60%-90% for both stars and galaxies. We find that no algorithm delivers perfect performance and that studies of metal-poor main-sequence turnoff stars may be challenged by poor star-galaxy separation. Using the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve, we find a best-to-worst ranking of SVM{sub best}, HB, ML, and SVM{sub real}. We conclude, therefore, that a well-trained SVM will outperform template-fitting methods. However, a normally trained SVM performs worse. Thus, HB template fitting may prove to be the optimal classification method in future surveys.

  1. Understanding Galaxy Formation from Deep Hubble Images: The Forward-Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, Michael

    2015-08-01

    We present a new approach to comparing models of galaxy formation with deep images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). In particular, we generate simulated HST images by projecting the galaxy formation models all the way into observational domain, adding cosmological and instrumental effects, and we analyze these images in the same way as real HST images ("forward modeling"). This is a powerful method for testing the models, since it allows us to make unbiased comparisons between predictions and observations, while automatically taking into account all relevant selection effects. We model the evolving galaxy population by semi-empirical techniques based on cosmological simulations of dark matter halos, in which the baryonic evolution of galaxies follows closely that of their dark halos, as specified by a constant or evolving stellar mass-halo mass (SMHM) relation. We introduce a novel method to ensure that the star formation history in each simulated galaxy complies with the input SMHM relation. We compute the radiative spectra of simulated galaxies from stellar population synthesis models, taking into account absorption by gas and dust in the interstellar medium and by gas in the intergalactic medium. The appearance of our simulated galaxies is based on cutout images of real galaxies in the SDSS, but with luminosities and sizes rescaled to match those computed by our semi-empirical models. To determine which models are acceptable, we derive the distributions of luminosities, sizes, and surface brightnesses of galaxies in the simulated images (using SExtractor and other standard analysis tools) and compare these with the corresponding distributions derived from real HST images. We find remarkably good agreement between these distributions for reasonable values of the relatively few adjustable parameters in our models. As a byproduct of this analysis, we also quantify the potential biases and selection effects in the observations. The methods presented here

  2. WFPC2 Imaging of the Multiphase Halos of Two Spiral Galaxies: Dust and Ionized Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueff, Katherine; Pitterle, M.; Hirschauer, A.; Lehner, N.; Howk, C.

    2006-12-01

    We present high-resolution optical images of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the thick disks of the spiral galaxies NGC 4013 and NGC 4302. Our broadband (BVI) images acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope’s WFPC2 show extensive extraplanar dust clouds seen in absorption against the background stellar light, while our narrow-band H-alpha images taken with the WIYN 3.5-m telescope show the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in these galaxies. The dusty, thick disk clouds visible in our WFPC2 images, which can be found to heights approaching 2 kpc from the midplanes of these galaxies, trace a phase of the ISM that shows significant structure on quite small scales. In general this material is seen to be highly filamentary. By contrast, the thick disk DIG in these galaxies has significantly smoother distribution. We note several unresolved knots of H-alpha emission which may represent thick disk H II regions. We discuss the relationship of the dust-bearing clouds and the DIG in these galaxies.

  3. An accurate and practical method for inference of weak gravitational lensing from galaxy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Gary M.; Armstrong, Robert; Krawiec, Christina; March, Marisa C.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate highly accurate recovery of weak gravitational lensing shear using an implementation of the Bayesian Fourier Domain (BFD) method proposed by Bernstein & Armstrong, extended to correct for selection biases. The BFD formalism is rigorously correct for Nyquist-sampled, background-limited, uncrowded images of background galaxies. BFD does not assign shapes to galaxies, instead compressing the pixel data D into a vector of moments M, such that we have an analytic expression for the probability P(M|g) of obtaining the observations with gravitational lensing distortion g along the line of sight. We implement an algorithm for conducting BFD's integrations over the population of unlensed source galaxies which measures ≈10 galaxies s-1 core-1 with good scaling properties. Initial tests of this code on ≈109 simulated lensed galaxy images recover the simulated shear to a fractional accuracy of m = (2.1 ± 0.4) × 10-3, substantially more accurate than has been demonstrated previously for any generally applicable method. Deep sky exposures generate a sufficiently accurate approximation to the noiseless, unlensed galaxy population distribution assumed as input to BFD. Potential extensions of the method include simultaneous measurement of magnification and shear; multiple-exposure, multiband observations; and joint inference of photometric redshifts and lensing tomography.

  4. An accurate and practical method for inference of weak gravitational lensing from galaxy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Gary M.; Armstrong, Robert; Krawiec, Christina; March, Marisa C.

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate highly accurate recovery of weak gravitational lensing shear using an implementation of the Bayesian Fourier Domain (BFD) method proposed by Bernstein & Armstrong (2014, BA14), extended to correct for selection biases. The BFD formalism is rigorously correct for Nyquist-sampled, background-limited, uncrowded image of background galaxies. BFD does not assign shapes to galaxies, instead compressing the pixel data D into a vector of moments M, such that we have an analytic expression for the probability P(M|g) of obtaining the observations with gravitational lensing distortion g along the line of sight. We implement an algorithm for conducting BFD's integrations over the population of unlensed source galaxies which measures ≈10 galaxies/second/core with good scaling properties. Initial tests of this code on ≈109 simulated lensed galaxy images recover the simulated shear to a fractional accuracy of m = (2.1 ± 0.4) × 10-3, substantially more accurate than has been demonstrated previously for any generally applicable method. Deep sky exposures generate a sufficiently accurate approximation to the noiseless, unlensed galaxy population distribution assumed as input to BFD. Potential extensions of the method include simultaneous measurement of magnification and shear; multiple-exposure, multi-band observations; and joint inference of photometric redshifts and lensing tomography.

  5. Submillimeter Imaging of the Luminous Infrared Galaxy Pair VV114

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frayer, D.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, I.; Yun, M. S.; Armus, L.

    1999-01-01

    We report on 450 and 850 mue observations of the interacting galaxy pair, VV114E+W (IC 1623), taken with the SCUBA camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, and near-infrared observations taken with UFTI on the UK Infrared Telescope.

  6. Infrared imaging of MG 0414 + 0534 - The red gravitational lens systems as lensed radio galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annis, James; Luppino, Gerard A.

    1993-01-01

    We present an IR image of the gravitational lens system MG 0414 + 0534, and IR photometry of PG 1115 + 080, H1413 + 117, and Q1429 - 008. The IR of MG 0414 + 0534 shows a morphology that is similar to the radio and optical morphologies. The object is bright (K-prime = 13.7) and extremely red (I-K-prime = 5.7). MG 0414 + 0534 thus becomes the second radio-selected lens system to have very red optical IR colors. When plotted on a color-magnitude diagram of objects from a radio survey, MG 0414 + 0534 and the other very red system, MG 1131 + 0456, lie near the locus of radio galaxies. We therefore suggest that these systems are lensed high-redshift radio galaxies. In general, lensed radio galaxies should be common among lens systems selected from radio surveys, since a high proportion of radio sources are radio galaxies.

  7. Imaging the host galaxies of high-redshift radio-quiet QSOs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowenthal, James D.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Lehnert, Matthew, D.; Elias, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    We present new deep K-band and optical images of four radio-quiet QSOs at z approximately = 1 and six radio-quiet QSOs at z approximately = 2.5, as well as optical images only of six more at z approximately = 2.5. We have examined the images carefully for evidence of extended 'fuzz' from any putative QSO host galaxy. None of the z approximately = 2.5 QSOs shows any extended emission, and only two of the z approximately = 1 QSOs show marginal evidence for extended emission. Our 3 sigma detection limits in the K images, m(sub K) approximately = 21 for an isolated source, would correspond approximately to an unevolved L(sup star) elliptical galaxy at z = 2.5 or 2-3 mag fainter than an L(sup star) elliptical at z = 1, although our limits on host galaxy light are weaker than this due to the difficulty of separating galaxy light from QSO light. We simulate simple models of disk and elliptical host galaxies, and find that the marginal emission around the two z approximately = 1 QSOs can be explained by disks or bulges that are approximately 1-2 mag brighter than an unevolved L(sup star) galaxy in one case and approximately 1.5-2.5 mag brighter than L(sub star) in the other. For two other z approximately = 1 QSOs, we have only upper limits (L approximately = L(sup star)). The hosts of the high-redshift sample must be no brighter than about 3 mag above an unevolved L(sup star) galaxy, and are at least 1 magnitude fainter than the hosts of radio-loud QSOs at the same redshift. If the easily detected K-band light surrounding a previous sample of otherwise similar but radio-loud QSOs is starlight, then it must evolve on timescales of greater than or approximately equal to 10(exp 8) yr (e.g., Chambers & Charlot 1990); therefore our non-detection of host galaxy fuzz around radio-quiet QSOs supports the view that high-redshift radio-quiet and radio-loud QSOs inhabit different host objects, rather than being single types of objects that turn their radio emission on and off over

  8. H-alpha Imaging Survey of Low-Redshift Cluster Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkhouse, Wayne; Kalawila, Sandanuwan; Rude, Cody; Sultanova, Madina; Archer, Haylee Nichole; Foote, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    We describe our on-going H-alpha imaging survey to measure the star formation activity of dwarf galaxies selected from a sample of low-redshift (0.02 < z< 0.15) galaxy clusters using the KPNO 4-meter telescope+Mosaic camera. H-alpha observations are obtained using the narrow-band BATC filters centered on the redshifted H-alpha emission line. The continuum-subtracted H-alpha images allow us to constrain star formation rates via the correlation between star formation and H-alpha luminosity and equivalent width. The impact of the cluster environment can be quantified using radial-dependent measures of the star formation rate within individual clusters, and by comparing clusters within our sample on a cluster-to-cluster basis. Comparison of our H-alpha measurements to CFHT u-band imaging data of our cluster sample, permits us to explore the correlation between the UV continuum and H-alpha emission of the dwarf galaxy population. The goal of our survey is to further understand the mechanism that is responsible for the enhancement/quenching of star formation as dwarf galaxies fall into the galaxy cluster environment.

  9. Deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging of 53W044 - An S0 radio galaxy at z = 0.311

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keel, William C.; Windhorst, Rogier A.

    1993-01-01

    Images of the Wide Field Camera (WFC) and Faint-Object Camera (FOC) of the radio galaxy 53W044 are presented. The WFC images are used to examine the structure of the galaxy, and show evidence for a significant disk, on the basis of which 53W044 is classified as an S0. This radio galaxy is near the maximum radio power associated with sources in S0 host galaxies. The FOC image is combined with ground-based spectroscopy to study 53W044's stellar population, which appears normal for an E/S0 galaxy of modest luminosity. No evidence is found for a significant contribution from a nuclear blue-continuum source, and the stellar population is old with a continuum level at 2100 A, consistent with what is seen in nearby radio galaxies.

  10. The Swift Burst Alert Telescope Detected Seyfert 1 Galaxies: X-Ray Broadband Properties and Warm Absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Lisa M.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McKernan, Barry; Kallman, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present results from an analysis of the broadband, 0.3-195 keV, X-ray spectra of 48 Seyfert 1-1.5 sources detected in the very hard X-rays with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). This sample is selected in an all-sky survey conducted in the 14-195 keV band. Therefore, our sources are largely unbiased toward both obscuration and host galaxy properties. Our detailed and uniform model fits to Suzaku/BAT and XMM-Newton/BAT spectra include the neutral absorption, direct power-law, reflected emission, soft excess, warm absorption, and narrow Fe I K[alpha] emission properties for the entire sample. We significantly detect O VII and O VIII edges in 52% of our sample. The strength of these detections is strongly correlated with the neutral column density measured in the spectrum. Among the strongest detections, X-ray grating and UV observations, where available, indicate outflowing material. The ionized column densities of sources with O VII and O VIII detections are clustered in a narrow range with Nwarm [approx] 1021 cm-2, while sources without strong detections have column densities of ionized gas an order of magnitude lower. Therefore, we note that sources without strong detections likely have warm ionized outflows present but at low column densities that are not easily probed with current X-ray observations. Sources with strong complex absorption have a strong soft excess, which may or may not be due to difficulties in modeling the complex spectra of these sources. Still, the detection of a flat [Gamma] [approx] 1 and a strong soft excess may allow us to infer the presence of strong absorption in low signal-to-noise active galactic nucleus spectra. Additionally, we include a useful correction from the Swift BAT luminosity to bolometric luminosity, based on a comparison of our spectral fitting results with published spectral energy distribution fits from 33 of our sources.

  11. Spitzer Imaging of Strongly lensed Herschel-selected Dusty Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Brian; Cooray, Asantha; Calanog, J. A.; Nayyeri, H.; Timmons, N.; Casey, C.; Baes, M.; Chapman, S.; Dannerbauer, H.; da Cunha, E.; De Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; Farrah, D.; Fu, Hai; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Magdis, G.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I.; Riechers, D. A.; Scott, D.; Smith, M. W. L.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.; Vaccari, M.; Viaene, S.; Vieira, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    We present the rest-frame optical spectral energy distribution (SED) and stellar masses of six Herschel-selected gravitationally lensed dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at 1 < z < 3. These galaxies were first identified with Herschel/SPIRE imaging data from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). The targets were observed with Spitzer/IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Due to the spatial resolution of the IRAC observations at the level of 2″, the lensing features of a background DSFG in the near-infrared are blended with the flux from the foreground lensing galaxy in the IRAC imaging data. We make use of higher resolution Hubble/WFC3 or Keck/NIRC2 Adaptive Optics imaging data to fit light profiles of the foreground lensing galaxy (or galaxies) as a way to model the foreground components, in order to successfully disentangle the foreground lens and background source flux densities in the IRAC images. The flux density measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, once combined with Hubble/WFC3 and Keck/NIRC2 data, provide important constraints on the rest-frame optical SED of the Herschel-selected lensed DSFGs. We model the combined UV- to millimeter-wavelength SEDs to establish the stellar mass, dust mass, star formation rate, visual extinction, and other parameters for each of these Herschel-selected DSFGs. These systems have inferred stellar masses in the range 8 × 1010-4 × 1011 M⊙ and star formation rates of around 100 M⊙ yr-1. This puts these lensed submillimeter systems well above the SFR-M* relation observed for normal star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The high values of SFR inferred for these systems are consistent with a major merger-driven scenario for star formation.

  12. THE SWIFT BURST ALERT TELESCOPE DETECTED SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES: X-RAY BROADBAND PROPERTIES AND WARM ABSORBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, Lisa M.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McKernan, Barry; Kallman, T. R.

    2012-02-01

    We present results from an analysis of the broadband, 0.3-195 keV, X-ray spectra of 48 Seyfert 1-1.5 sources detected in the very hard X-rays with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). This sample is selected in an all-sky survey conducted in the 14-195 keV band. Therefore, our sources are largely unbiased toward both obscuration and host galaxy properties. Our detailed and uniform model fits to Suzaku/BAT and XMM-Newton/BAT spectra include the neutral absorption, direct power-law, reflected emission, soft excess, warm absorption, and narrow Fe I K{alpha} emission properties for the entire sample. We significantly detect O VII and O VIII edges in 52% of our sample. The strength of these detections is strongly correlated with the neutral column density measured in the spectrum. Among the strongest detections, X-ray grating and UV observations, where available, indicate outflowing material. The ionized column densities of sources with O VII and O VIII detections are clustered in a narrow range with N{sub warm} {approx} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}, while sources without strong detections have column densities of ionized gas an order of magnitude lower. Therefore, we note that sources without strong detections likely have warm ionized outflows present but at low column densities that are not easily probed with current X-ray observations. Sources with strong complex absorption have a strong soft excess, which may or may not be due to difficulties in modeling the complex spectra of these sources. Still, the detection of a flat {Gamma} {approx} 1 and a strong soft excess may allow us to infer the presence of strong absorption in low signal-to-noise active galactic nucleus spectra. Additionally, we include a useful correction from the Swift BAT luminosity to bolometric luminosity, based on a comparison of our spectral fitting results with published spectral energy distribution fits from 33 of our sources.

  13. Constraining spatial extent and temperature of dust around galaxies from far-infrared image stacking analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwagi, Toshiya; Suto, Yasushi

    2015-08-01

    We propose a novel method to constrain the spatial extent of dust around galaxies through the measurement of dust temperature. Our method combines the dust emission of galaxies from far-infrared (FIR) image stacking analysis and the quasar reddening due to the dust absorption around galaxies. As a specific application of our method, we use the stacked FIR emission profiles of SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) photometric galaxies over the IRAS 100 μm map, and the recent measurement of the SDSS galaxy-quasar cross-correlation. If we adopt a single-temperature dust model, the resulting temperature is around 18 K, which is consistent with a typical dust temperature for a central part of galaxies. If we assume an additional dust component with much lower temperature, the current data imply that the temperature of the galactic dust needs to be higher, 20-30 K. Since the model of the density and temperature distribution of dust adopted in the current paper is very simple, we cannot draw any strong conclusion at this point. Nevertheless, our novel method with the elaborated theoretical model and multiband measurement of dust will offer an interesting constraint on the statistical nature of galactic dust.

  14. A GALEX ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SURVEY OF GALAXIES IN THE LOCAL VOLUME

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Janice C.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr; Bothwell, Matthew; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Dalcanton, Julianne; Funes S. J., Jose G.; Sakai, Shoko; Skillman, Evan; Tremonti, Christy; Van Zee, Liese

    2011-01-15

    We present results from a GALEX ultraviolet (UV) survey of a complete sample of 390 galaxies within {approx}11 Mpc of the Milky Way. The UV data are a key component of the composite Local Volume Legacy, an ultraviolet-to-infrared imaging program designed to provide an inventory of dust and star formation in nearby spiral and irregular galaxies. The ensemble data set is an especially valuable resource for studying star formation in dwarf galaxies, which comprise over 80% of the sample. We describe the GALEX survey programs that obtained the data and provide a catalog of far-UV ({approx}1500 A) and near-UV ({approx}2200 A) integrated photometry. General UV properties of the sample are briefly discussed. We compute two measures of the global star formation efficiency, the star formation rate (SFR) per unit H I gas mass, and the SFR per unit stellar mass, to illustrate the significant differences that can arise in our understanding of dwarf galaxies when the FUV is used to measure the SFR instead of H{alpha}. We find that dwarf galaxies may not be as drastically inefficient in converting gas into stars as suggested by prior H{alpha} studies. In this context, we also examine the UV properties of late-type dwarf galaxies that appear to be devoid of star formation because they were not detected in previous H{alpha} narrowband observations. Nearly all such galaxies in our sample are detected in the FUV and have FUV SFRs that fall below the limit where the H{alpha} flux is robust to Poisson fluctuations in the formation of massive stars. Otherwise, the UV colors and star formation efficiencies of H{alpha}-undetected, UV-bright dwarf irregulars appear to be relatively unremarkable with respect to those exhibited by the general population of star-forming galaxies.

  15. HDI in Action: Comparison Imaging of the Interacting Starburst Galaxy NGC 3310

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    NGC 3310 is an interacting starburst galaxy located approximately 18 Mpc away. Previous studies reveal a circumnuclear starburst, substantial star formation in its spiral arms, and an extensive system of tidal debris likely induced from the collision with and subsequent merger of a now-destroyed companion galaxy. A study by Wehner et al. in 2006 revealed the presence of a previously undetected tidal loop in the Northeast quadrant of the system. We have obtained follow up observations of this system using the newly-built Half Degree Imager (HDI) recently mounted on the WIYN 0.9m telescope in Kitt Peak, Arizaon. We present a comparison of deep imaging of NGC 3310 from HDI and from S2KB, the former primary CCD camera on the 0.9m. We present our results for comparison of image depth and image quality in order to assess the new HDI camera for future low surface brightness observations.

  16. Broadband RF imaging and spectrum analysis using spatial-spectral hole-burning in an inhomogeneously broadened absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Youzhi; Braker, Benjamin; Schlottau, Friso; Gu, Donghua; Colice, Max; Wagner, Kelvin H.

    2005-09-01

    Broadband RF imaging by spatial Fourier beam-forming suffers from beam-squint. The compensation of this frequency dependent beam-steering requires true-time-delay multiple beam-forming or frequency-channelized beam-forming, substantially increasing system complexity. Real-time imaging using a wide bandwidth antenna array with a large number of elements is inevitably corrupted by beam-squint and is well beyond the capability of current or projected digital approaches. In this paper, we introduce a novel microwave imaging technique by use of the spectral selectivity of inhomogeneously broadened absorber (IBA) materials, which have tens of GHz bandwidth and sub-MHz spectral resolution, allowing real-time, high resolution, beam-squint compensated, broadband RF imaging. Our imager uses a self-calibrated optical Fourier processor for beam-forming, which allows rapid imaging without massive parallel digitization or RF receivers, and generates a squinted broadband image. We correct for the beam squint by capturing independent images at each resolvable spectral frequency in a cryogenically-cooled IBA crystal and then using a chirped laser to sequentially read out each spectral image with a synchronously scanned zoom lens to compensate for the frequency dependent magnification of beam squint. Preliminary experimental results for a 1-D broadband microwave imager are presented.

  17. MISSING LENSED IMAGES AND THE GALAXY DISK MASS IN CXOCY J220132.8-320144

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jacqueline; Lee, Samuel K.; Schechter, Paul L.; Castander, Francisco-Javier; Maza, Jose

    2013-05-20

    The CXOCY J220132.8-320144 system consists of an edge-on spiral galaxy lensing a background quasar into two bright images. Previous efforts to constrain the mass distribution in the galaxy have suggested that at least one additional image must be present. These extra images may be hidden behind the disk which features a prominent dust lane. We present and analyze Hubble Space Telescope observations of the system. We do not detect any extra images, but the observations further narrow the observable parameters of the lens system. We explore a range of models to describe the mass distribution in the system and find that a variety of acceptable model fits exist. All plausible models require 2 mag of dust extinction in order to obscure extra images from detection, and some models may require an offset between the center of the galaxy and the center of the dark matter halo of 1 kpc. Currently unobserved images will be detectable by future James Webb Space Telescope observations and will provide strict constraints on the fraction of mass in the disk.

  18. Imaging of the Wolf-Rayet galaxy He 2-10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbin, Michael R.; Korista, Kirk T.; Vacca, William D.

    1993-01-01

    We present B, V, and emission-line CCD images of the Wolf-Rayet galaxy He 2-10. The broad band images reveal the galaxy to consist of two starburst regions at the center of an elliptical stellar envelope about 10 times their size, with a major axis diameter of approximately 3.8 kpc. Previous imaging detected only the starburst regions, leading to the erroneous description of the object as an interacting pair. Morphologically, He 2-10 resembles the majority of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDGs), some of which also show Wolf-Rayet features in their spectra. The lack of nearby neighbors to He 2-10 suggests that its star formation is proceeding stochastically, rather than as the result of interaction, and its morphological similarity to other BCDGs suggests that all such galaxies may pass through a Wolf-Rayet phase. The similarity of the outer regions of He 2-10 and other BCDGs to normal dwarf ellipticals also supports models in which the former evolve into the latter.

  19. A 21 Centimeter Absorber Identified with a Spiral Galaxy: Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph and Wide-Field Camera Observations of 3CR 196

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ross D.; Beaver, E. A.; Diplas, Athanassios; Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Barlow, Thomas A.; Lyons, Ronald W.

    1996-01-01

    We present imaging and spectroscopy of the quasar 3CR 196 (z(sub e) = 0.871), which has 21 cm and optical absorption at z(sub a) = 0.437. We observed the region of Ly alpha absorption in 3CR 196 at z(sub a) = 0.437 with the Faint Object Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. This region of the spectrum is complicated because of the presence of a Lyman limit and strong lines from a z(sub a) approx. z(sub e) system. We conclude that there is Ly alpha absorption with an H I column density greater than 2.7 x 10(exp 19) cm(exp -2) and most probably 1.5 x 10(exp 20) cm(exp -2). Based on the existence of the high H I column density along both the optical and radio lines of sight, separated by more than 15 kpc, we conclude that the Ly alpha absorption must arise in a system comparable in size to the gaseous disks of spiral galaxies. A barred spiral galaxy, previously reported as a diffuse object in the recent work of Boisse and Boulade, can be seen near the quasar in an image taken at 0.1 resolution with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on the HST. If this galaxy is at the absorption redshift, the luminosity is approximately L(sub *) and any H I disk should extend in front of the optical quasar and radio lobes of 3CR 196, giving rise to both the Ly alpha and 21 cm absorption. In the z(sub a) approx. z(sub e) system we detect Lyman lines and the Lyman limit, as well as high ion absorption lines of C III, N V, S VI, and O VI. This absorption probably only partially covers the emission-line region. The ionization parameter is approximately 0.1. Conditions in this region may be similar to those in broad absorption line QSOs.

  20. Absorbed dose measurements for kV-cone beam computed tomography in image-guided radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Hioki, Kazunari; Araki, Fujio; Ohno, Takeshi; Nakaguchi, Yuji; Tomiyama, Yuuki

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we develope a novel method to directly evaluate an absorbed dose-to-water for kilovoltage-cone beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Absorbed doses for the kV-CBCT systems of the Varian On-Board Imager (OBI) and the Elekta X-ray Volumetric Imager (XVI) were measured by a Farmer ionization chamber with a (60)Co calibration factor. The chamber measurements were performed at the center and four peripheral points in body-type (30 cm diameter and 51 cm length) and head-type (16 cm diameter and 33 cm length) cylindrical water phantoms. The measured ionization was converted to the absorbed dose-to-water by using a (60)Co calibration factor and a Monte Carlo (MC)-calculated beam quality conversion factor, kQ, for (60)Co to kV-CBCT. The irradiation for OBI and XVI was performed with pelvis and head modes for the body- and the head-type phantoms, respectively. In addition, the dose distributions in the phantom for both kV-CBCT systems were calculated with MC method and were compared with measured values. The MC-calculated doses were calibrated at the center in the water phantom and compared with measured doses at four peripheral points. The measured absorbed doses at the center in the body-type phantom were 1.96 cGy for OBI and 0.83 cGy for XVI. The peripheral doses were 2.36-2.90 cGy for OBI and 0.83-1.06 cGy for XVI. The doses for XVI were lower up to approximately one-third of those for OBI. Similarly, the measured doses at the center in the head-type phantom were 0.48 cGy for OBI and 0.21 cGy for XVI. The peripheral doses were 0.26-0.66 cGy for OBI and 0.16-0.30 cGy for XVI. The calculated peripheral doses agreed within 3% in the pelvis mode and within 4% in the head mode with measured doses for both kV-CBCT systems. In addition, the absorbed dose determined in this study was approximately 4% lower than that in TG-61 but the absorbed dose by both methods was in agreement within their combined uncertainty. This method

  1. Surprising Image Revises Understanding Of Dwarf Galaxies -- Building Blocks of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    An intensive study of a neighboring dwarf galaxy has surprised astronomers by showing that most of its molecular gas -- the raw material for new stars -- is scattered among clumps in the galaxy's outskirts, not near its center as they expected. Composite view of galaxy Composite view of the galaxy IC 10. Optical view in blue; Ionized hydrogen (H-alpha) in red; and molecular gas (CO) in green. CREDIT: OVRO, Caltech, NOAO, KPNO "This tells us that the galaxies we call dwarf irregulars are even more irregular than we thought," said Fabian Walter, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. "Our new work also shows that these galaxies probably are useful 'laboratories' for studying how stars were formed when the Universe was young," Walter added. Walter worked with Christopher Taylor of the University of Massachusetts and Nick Scoville of Caltech. The scientists presented their results at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Seattle, WA. Using the millimeter-wave interferometer at Caltech's Owens Valley Radio Observatory, the astronomers combined 15 smaller images into a single mosaic to produce an image showing the location of Carbon Monoxide (CO) gas throughout a galaxy called IC 10, some 2.5 million light-years away. IC 10 is one of the Local Group of galaxies of which our own Milky Way is part. The telescope system was tuned to a frequency near 115 GigaHertz, where the CO molecule naturally emits radio waves. "We found the clumps of CO gas far from the galaxy's center, and not near the regions of current star formation," Walter said. "This tells us that stars may, in fact, form way out there in the outskirts of the galaxy, where we didn't expect," he added. Most of the galaxy's gas is atomic Hydrogen, composed of single Hydrogen atoms. Most of the galaxy's molecular gas is composed of Hydrogen molecules with two atoms each. Atomic Hydrogen can be seen with radio telescopes because it naturally emits at a radio frequency of 1420 Mega

  2. FIRST results of FIFI-LS Far Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging of Local Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Suzanne C.; Krabbe, Alfred; Beckmann, Simon; Bryant, Aaron; Colditz, Sebastian; Fischer, Christian; Fumi, Fabio; Geis, Norbert; Henning, Thomas; Honle, Rainer; Iserlohe, Christoph; Klein, Randolf; Looney, Leslie; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Raab, Walfried; Rebell, Felix; Vacca, William D.

    2016-01-01

    The FIFI-LS imaging spectrometer on SOFIA gives access to the most important cooling lines of the ISM, providing mapping capability of the FIR fine-structure lines as well as molecules in local galaxies. The valuable diagnostics available with FIFI-LS span a wide range of critical densities and ionization energies and thus, along with the velocity information, can link the local star formation with the energetics of the gas in the extended neutral and ionized gas. Since the commissioning of FIFI-LS in 2015, new results have emerged on star forming galaxies, both metal-rich and metal poor. We will present some of the new results of local galaxies observed with FIFI-LS.

  3. A Radio Continuum Study of Dwarf Galaxies: 6 cm imaging of LITTLE THINGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchener, Ben; Brinks, Elias; Heesen, Volker; Hunter, Deidre Ann; Zhang, Hongxin; Rau, Urvashi; Rupen, Michael P.; Little Things Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    To bypass uncertainties introduced by extinction caused by dust at optical wavelengths, we examine to what extent the radio continuum can probe star formation (SF) in dwarf galaxies. We provide VLA 6-cm C-array (4 to 8 GHz) radio continuum images with integrated flux densities for 40 dwarf galaxies taken from LITTLE THINGS. We find 27 harbor significant emission coincident with SF tracers; 17 are new detections. We infer the average thermal fraction to be 39 +- 25%. The LITTLE THINGS galaxies follow the Condon radio continuum - star formation rate (SFR) relation down to an SFR of 0.1 Msol/yr. At lower rates they follow a power-law characterized by a slope of 1.2 +- 0.1 with a scatter of 0.2 dex . We interpret this as an underproduction of the non-thermal radio continuum component. When considering the non-thermal radio continuum to star formation rate slope on its own, we find the slope to be 1.2. The magnetic field strength we find is typically 9.4 +- 3.8 muG in and around star forming regions which is similar to that in spiral galaxies. In a few dwarfs, the magnetic field strength can reach as high as 30 muG in localized 100 pc star forming regions. The underproduction of non-thermal radio continuum is likely due to the escape of Cosmic Ray electrons from the galaxy. The LITTLE THINGS galaxies are consistent with the radio continuum - far infrared luminosity relation. We observe a power-law slope of 1.06 +- 0.08 with a scatter of 0.24 dex which suggests that the 'conspiracy' of the radio continuum - far infrared relation continues to hold even for dwarf galaxies.

  4. Imaging the environment of a z = 6.3 submillimeter galaxy with SCUBA-2

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, E. I.; Holland, W. S.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, Ian; Geach, J. E.; Gibb, A. G.; Riechers, D.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bintley, D.; Bock, J.; Chapin, E. L.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Cooray, A.; Dunlop, J. S.; Farrah, D.; and others

    2014-09-20

    We describe a search for submillimeter emission in the vicinity of one of the most distant, luminous galaxies known, HerMES FLS3, at z = 6.34, exploiting it as a signpost to a potentially biased region of the early universe, as might be expected in hierarchical structure formation models. Imaging to the confusion limit with the innovative, wide-field submillimeter bolometer camera, SCUBA-2, we are sensitive to colder and/or less luminous galaxies in the surroundings of HFLS3. We use the Millennium Simulation to illustrate that HFLS3 may be expected to have companions if it is as massive as claimed, but find no significant evidence from the surface density of SCUBA-2 galaxies in its vicinity, or their colors, that HFLS3 marks an overdensity of dusty, star-forming galaxies. We cannot rule out the presence of dusty neighbors with confidence, but deeper 450 μm imaging has the potential to more tightly constrain the redshifts of nearby galaxies, at least one of which likely lies at z ≳ 5. If associations with HFLS3 can be ruled out, this could be taken as evidence that HFLS3 is less biased than a simple extrapolation of the Millennium Simulation may imply. This could suggest either that it represents a rare short-lived, but highly luminous, phase in the evolution of an otherwise typical galaxy, or that this system has suffered amplification due to a foreground gravitational lens and so is not as intrinsically luminous as claimed.

  5. A systematic search for lensed high-redshift galaxies in HST images of MACS clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repp, A.; Ebeling, H.; Richard, J.

    2016-04-01

    We present the results of a 135-arcmin2 search for high-redshift galaxies lensed by 29 clusters from the MAssive Cluster and extended MAssive Cluster Surveys. We use relatively shallow images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope in four passbands, namely, F606W, F814W, F110W, and F140W. We identify 130 F814W dropouts as candidates for galaxies at z ≳ 6. In order to fit the available broad-band photometry to galaxy spectral energy distribution (SED) templates, we develop a prior for the level of dust extinction at various redshifts. We also investigate the systematic biases incurred by the use of SED-fit software. The fits we obtain yield an estimate of 20 Lyman-break galaxies with photometric redshifts from z ˜ 7 to 9. In addition, our survey has identified over 100 candidates with a significant probability of being lower redshift (z ˜ 2) interlopers. We conclude that even as few as four broad-band filters - when combined with fitting the SEDs - are capable of isolating promising objects. Such surveys thus allow one both to probe the bright end (M1500 ≲ -19) of the high-redshift ultraviolet luminosity function and to identify candidate massive evolved galaxies at lower redshifts.

  6. Deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging of a compact radio galaxy at z = 2.390

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windhorst, Rogier; Mathis, Douglas F.; Keel, William C.

    1992-01-01

    The radio galaxy with the highest redshift in the Leiden-Berkeley Deep Survey, 53W002, is described and examined in terms of UV profile in relation to an early-type galaxy. The HST WFC images have a resolution of 0.2 arcsec FWHM, and the I- and V-band structures are assessed. The source is elongated in a manner similar to the Ly alpha cloud in V, and the structure is highly compact in I. The present object with a young starburst has very high central UV surface brightnesses relative to nearby luminous early-type galaxies, while the light profiles are similar. The data are concluded to suggest that 53W002 is a young galaxy that has a regular light profile at z = 2.390 even though it has been forming stars since not more than about 0.5 Gyr before z = 2.390. Such a scenario is consistent with concurrent dynamical collapse and star formation in the compact radio galaxy.

  7. Experimental imaging and profiling of absorbed dose in phantoms exposed to epithermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gambarini, G.; Colombi, C.

    2003-08-26

    Absorbed-dose images and depth-dose profiles have been measured in a tissue-equivalent phantom exposed to an epithermal neutron beam designed for neutron capture therapy. The spatial distribution of absorbed dose has been measured by means of gel dosimeters, imaged with optical analysis. From differential measurements with gels having different isotopic composition, the contributions of all the components of the neutron field have been separated. This separation is important, owing to the different biological effectiveness of the various kinds of emitted radiation. The doses coming from the reactions 1H(n,{gamma})2H and 14N(n,p)14C and the fast-neutron dose have been imaged. Moreover, a volume simulating a tumour with accumulation of 10B and/or 157Gd has been incorporated in the phantom and the doses due to the reactions with such isotopes have been imaged and profiled too. The results have been compared with those obtained with other experimental techniques and the agreement is very satisfactory.

  8. Using optoacoustic imaging for measuring the temperature dependence of Grüneisen parameter in optically absorbing solutions

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Elena; Ermilov, Sergey; Su, Richard; Nadvoretskiy, Vyacheslav; Conjusteau, André; Oraevsky, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Grüneisen parameter is a key temperature-dependent physical characteristic responsible for thermoelastic efficiency of materials. We propose a new methodology for accurate measurements of temperature dependence of Grüneisen parameter in optically absorbing solutions. We use two-dimensional optoacoustic (OA) imaging to improve accuracy of measurements. Our approach eliminates contribution of local optical fluence and absorbance. To validate the proposed methodology, we studied temperature dependence of aqueous cupric sulfate solutions in the range from 22 to 4°C. Our results for the most diluted salt perfectly matched known temperature dependence for the Grüneisen parameter of water. We also found that Grüneisen-temperature relationship for cupric sulfate exhibits linear trend with respect to the concentration. In addition to accurate measurements of Grüneisen changes with temperature, the developed technique provides a basis for future high precision OA temperature monitoring in live tissues. PMID:24150350

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Radiation-Absorbed Dose Estimation of {sup 166}Ho Microspheres in Liver Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Seevinck, Peter R.; Maat, Gerrit H. van de; Wit, Tim C. de; Vente, Maarten A.D.; Nijsen, Johannes F.W.; Bakker, Chris J.G.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for accurate assessment of the three-dimensional {sup 166}Ho activity distribution to estimate radiation-absorbed dose distributions in {sup 166}Ho-loaded poly (L-lactic acid) microsphere ({sup 166}Ho-PLLA-MS) liver radioembolization. Methods and Materials: MRI, computed tomography (CT), and single photon emission CT (SPECT) experiments were conducted on an anthropomorphic gel phantom with tumor-simulating gel samples and on an excised human tumor-bearing liver, both containing known amounts of {sup 166}Ho-PLLA-MS. Three-dimensional radiation-absorbed dose distributions were estimated at the voxel level by convolving the {sup 166}Ho activity distribution, derived from quantitative MRI data, with a {sup 166}Ho dose point-kernel generated by MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code) and from Medical Internal Radiation Dose Pamphlet 17. MRI-based radiation-absorbed dose distributions were qualitatively compared with CT and autoradiography images and quantitatively compared with SPECT-based dose distributions. Both MRI- and SPECT-based activity estimations were validated against dose calibrator measurements. Results: Evaluation on an anthropomorphic phantom showed that MRI enables accurate assessment of local {sup 166}Ho-PLLA-MS mass and activity distributions, as supported by a regression coefficient of 1.05 and a correlation coefficient of 0.99, relating local MRI-based mass and activity calculations to reference values obtained with a dose calibrator. Estimated MRI-based radiation-absorbed dose distributions of {sup 166}Ho-PLLA-MS in an ex vivo human liver visually showed high correspondence to SPECT-based radiation-absorbed dose distributions. Quantitative analysis revealed that the differences in local and total amounts of {sup 166}Ho-PLLA-MS estimated by MRI, SPECT, and the dose calibrator were within 10%. Excellent agreement was observed between MRI- and SPECT-based dose

  10. CLASH: THREE STRONGLY LENSED IMAGES OF A CANDIDATE z Almost-Equal-To 11 GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, Dan; Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Koekemoer, Anton; Zitrin, Adi; Carrasco, Mauricio; Shu, Xinwen; Zheng, Wei; Ford, Holland; Rodney, Steven A.; Bouwens, Rychard; Broadhurst, Tom; Host, Ole; Jouvel, Stephanie; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Moustakas, John; Van der Wel, Arjen; Donahue, Megan; Benitez, Narciso; and others

    2013-01-01

    We present a candidate for the most distant galaxy known to date with a photometric redshift of z = 10.7{sup +0.6} {sub -0.4} (95% confidence limits; with z < 9.5 galaxies of known types ruled out at 7.2{sigma}). This J-dropout Lyman break galaxy, named MACS0647-JD, was discovered as part of the Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). We observe three magnified images of this galaxy due to strong gravitational lensing by the galaxy cluster MACSJ0647.7+7015 at z = 0.591. The images are magnified by factors of {approx}80, 7, and 2, with the brighter two observed at {approx}26th magnitude AB ({approx}0.15 {mu}Jy) in the WFC3/IR F160W filter ({approx}1.4-1.7 {mu}m) where they are detected at {approx}>12{sigma}. All three images are also confidently detected at {approx}>6{sigma} in F140W ({approx}1.2-1.6 {mu}m), dropping out of detection from 15 lower wavelength Hubble Space Telescope filters ({approx}0.2-1.4 {mu}m), and lacking bright detections in Spitzer/IRAC 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m imaging ({approx}3.2-5.0 {mu}m). We rule out a broad range of possible lower redshift interlopers, including some previously published as high-redshift candidates. Our high-redshift conclusion is more conservative than if we had neglected a Bayesian photometric redshift prior. Given CLASH observations of 17 high-mass clusters to date, our discoveries of MACS0647-JD at z {approx} 10.8 and MACS1149-JD at z {approx} 9.6 are consistent with a lensed luminosity function extrapolated from lower redshifts. This would suggest that low-luminosity galaxies could have reionized the universe. However, given the significant uncertainties based on only two galaxies, we cannot yet rule out the sharp drop-off in number counts at z {approx}> 10 suggested by field searches.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of the Circumnuclear Environments of the CfA Seyfert Galaxies: Nuclear Spirals and Fueling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogge, Richard W.; Martini, Paul

    2002-01-01

    We present archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of the nuclear regions of 43 of the 46 Seyfert galaxies found in the volume limited,spectroscopically complete CfA Redshift Survey sample. Using an improved method of image contrast enhancement, we created detailed high-quality " structure maps " that allow us to study the distributions of dust, star clusters, and emission-line gas in the circumnuclear regions (100-1000 pc scales) and in the associated host galaxy. Essentially all of these Seyfert galaxies have circumnuclear dust structures with morphologies ranging from grand-design two-armed spirals to chaotic dusty disks. In most Seyfert galaxies there is a clear physical connection between the nuclear dust spirals on hundreds of parsec scales and large-scale bars and spiral arms in the host galaxies proper. These connections are particularly striking in the interacting and barred galaxies. Such structures are predicted by numerical simulations of gas flows in barred and interacting galaxies and may be related to the fueling of active galactic nuclei by matter inflow from the host galaxy disks. We see no significant differences in the circumnuclear dust morphologies of Seyfert 1s and 2s, and very few Seyfert 2 nuclei are obscured by large-scale dust structures in the host galaxies. If Sevfert 2s are obscured Sevfert Is, then the obscuration must occur on smaller scales than those probed by HST.

  12. Images From Hubbles's ACS Tell A Tale Of Two Record-Breaking Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Baltimore, Md. Optical Image of RDCS 1252.9-2927 HST Optical Image of RDCS 1252.9-2927 The second Hubble study uncovered, for the first time, a proto-cluster of "infant galaxies" that existed more than 12 billion years ago (at redshift 4.1). These galaxies are so young that astronomers can still see a flurry of stars forming within them. The galaxies are grouped around one large galaxy. These results will be published in the Jan. 1, 2004 issue of Nature. The paper's lead author is George Miley of Leiden Observatory in the Netherlands. "Until recently people didn't think that clusters existed when the universe was only about 5 billion years old," Blakeslee explained. "Even if there were such clusters," Miley added, "until recently astronomers thought it was almost impossible to find clusters that existed 8 billion years ago. In fact, no one really knew when clustering began. Now we can witness it." Both studies led the astronomers to conclude that these systems are the progenitors of the galaxy clusters seen today. "The cluster RDCS 1252 looks like a present-day cluster," said Marc Postman of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md., and co-author of both research papers. "In fact, if you were to put it next to a present-day cluster, you wouldn't know which is which." A Tale of Two Clusters How can galaxies grow so fast after the big bang? "It is a case of the rich getting richer," Blakeslee said. "These clusters grew quickly because they are located in very dense regions, so there is enough material to build up the member galaxies very fast." This idea is strengthened by X-ray observations of the massive cluster RDCS 1252. Chandra and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton provided astronomers with the most accurate measurements to date of the properties of an enormous cloud of hot gas that pervades the massive cluster. This 160-million-degree Fahrenheit (70-million-degree Celsius) gas is a reservoir of most of the heavy elements in the cluster and an

  13. A GREEN BANK TELESCOPE SURVEY FOR H I 21 cm ABSORPTION IN THE DISKS AND HALOS OF LOW-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Tripp, Todd M.; Yun, Min S.; Meiring, Joseph D.; Bowen, David V.; York, Donald G.; Momjian, Emmanuel

    2011-01-20

    We present an H I 21 cm absorption survey with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) of galaxy-quasar pairs selected by combining galaxy data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and radio sources from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters (FIRST) survey. Our sample consists of 23 sight lines through 15 low-redshift foreground galaxy-background quasar pairs with impact parameters ranging from 1.7 kpc up to 86.7 kpc. We detected one absorber in the GBT survey from the foreground dwarf galaxy, GQ1042+0747, at an impact parameter of 1.7 kpc and another possible absorber in our follow-up Very Large Array (VLA) imaging of the nearby foreground galaxy UGC 7408. The line widths of both absorbers are narrow (FWHM of 3.6 and 4.8km s{sup -1}). The absorbers have sub-damped Ly{alpha} column densities, and most likely originate in the disk gas of the foreground galaxies. We also detected H I emission from three foreground galaxies including UGC 7408. Although our sample contains both blue and red galaxies, the two H I absorbers as well as the H I emissions are associated with blue galaxies. We discuss the physical conditions in the 21 cm absorbers and some drawbacks of the large GBT beam for this type of survey.

  14. The Hubble Heritage Image of the Polar-Ring Galaxy NGC 4650A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, A. L.; Gallagher, J.; Matthews, L.; Sparke, L.; Bond, H. E.; Christian, C. A.; English, J.; Frattare, L.; Hamilton, F.; Levay, Z.; Noll, K.; Hubble Heritage Team

    1999-05-01

    The Hubble Heritage Project has the aim of providing the public with pictorially striking images of celestial objects obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. As part of the Heritage Project, we have used HST to obtain a multi-color image of the peculiar galaxy NGC 4650A. This was the first Heritage observation for which the public joined in the target selection. NGC 4650A was chosen in the winter of 1998-99 from among several candidate objects by over 8,000 members of the public, who used the Heritage web site (heritage.stsci.edu) to register their votes. The WFPC2 observations were obtained in April 1999, in the wide B (F450W), wide V (F606W), and I (F814W) bands. The resulting full-color image will be presented at the AAS meeting and on our web site, and the actual data frames are available publicly in the HST archive for use by interested scientists. NGC 4650A, located at a distance of about 40 Mpc, is the best-known and most spectacular example of the rare class of ``polar-ring'' galaxies. These objects are probably the remnants of collisions, in which the debris from a disrupted, gas-rich smaller galaxy has gone into orbit around a larger galaxy. The HST image of NGC 4650A shows a rotating, almost edge-on inner disk of old red stars, around which orbits a younger ring of dust, gas, and stars, in a plane that is nearly perpendicular to that of the old disk. Numerous young blue star clusters reveal that active star formation is occurring within the polar ring, triggered by the collision process. Polar rings are particularly useful for probing the distribution of dark matter in galactic halos.

  15. Hubble Space Telescope images of the Seyfert galaxies NGC 5929 and MCG 8-11-11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, Gary A.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Mulchaey, John S.; Miley, George K.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Krolik, Julian H.

    1994-01-01

    We present the initial results of a program to obtain high resolution images of Seyfert galaxies with the Planetary Camera aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). In this paper we discuss the images of the type 2 Seyfert NGC 5929 and the type 1.5 Seyfert MCG 8-11-11 (= UGC 3374). The images were obtained in the emission lines of (O III) lambda lambda 4959 and 5007 A and H alpha + (N II) lambda lambda 6548 and 6583 A and their adjacent continua. The high-excitation gas in the narrow line region (NLR) of NGC 5929 is resolved into individual clouds in the central 1 sec .5. Although the (O III) emission is clearly not spherically symmetric with respect to the nucleus, it does not define a distinct 'bicone' morphology, as observed by the HST in a few other Seyfert galaxies. We find no direct evidence for the reddening and/or obscuration effects characteristic of a dusty torus, which, in the context of 'unified models', is expected to obscure the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in type 2 Seyfert galaxies. The correspondence between the emission line gas and the radio morphology suggests that the structure of the NLR in NGC 5929 is governed by matter ejected from the AGN. A comparison of the recombination rate of hydrogen in the brightest emission line cloud with an upper limit on the ionizing luminosity emitted toward Earth provides no evidence that the central ionizing source radiates anisotropically. The images of MCG 8-11-11 show only an unresolved nuclear source. No emission line gas associated with the extended radio source is detected. We estimate upper limits on the intensity of extended line emission in this galaxy and examine their significance.

  16. IMAGE RELEASE: New Hydrogen Clouds in the M81 Group of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    A composite radio-optical image shows five new clouds of hydrogen gas discovered using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The spiral galaxy M81 and its satellite, M82, are seen in visible light (white); intergalactic hydrogen gas revealed by the GBT is shown in red; and additional hydrogen gas earlier detected by the Very Large Array is shown in green. The M81 Group of galaxies, 11.8 million light-years from Earth, are interacting gravitationally with each other, as shown clearly by the gas streaming among them. The newly-discovered gas clouds, each containing from 14 to 57 million times the mass of our Sun, are similar to gas clouds also found near our own Milky Way Galaxy. Astronomers analyzing these M81 Group clouds conclude that they are likely remnants of earlier interactions among the galaxies and that this indicates that their analogs near the Milky Way had a similar origin. The research team is: Katie Chynoweth, a graduate student at Vanderbilt University; Glen Langston of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO); Min Yun of the University of Massachusetts; Felix J. Lockman of NRAO; Kate Rubin of Lick Observatory; and Sarah Scoles of Cornell University. The astronomers presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Austin, Texas. Credit: Chynoweth et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF, Digital Sky Survey. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  17. H-alpha images of early type galaxies with hot gas

    SciTech Connect

    Trinchieri, G.; Di serego alighieri, S. European Southern Observatory, Garching )

    1991-05-01

    H-alpha imaging observations of 13 early type galaxies with known X-ray fluxes are presented from the Einstein Observatory data, and long-slit spectroscopy of nine of these. H-alpha emission is detected in the central regions of ten objects. The line emission appears extended over a radius of 5-10 kpc, is generally peaked on the nucleus with regular elliptical isophotes, similar to the red continuum, although with a steeper radial distribution. Low surface brightness filamentary structure is also seen in a few cases (NGC 4406 and NGC 5846). To study the different phases of the interstellar medium in early type galaxies, the emissions due to hot (X-ray) and warm (H-alpha) gas are compared. On average, galaxies with a larger content of hot gas also show a more powerful line emission. However, the scatter in the relation is significant, and suggests that other parameters must play a role. The depth of the gravitational potential and/or the shape of the objects are probably important in determining the amount of gas present in early type galaxies. 50 refs.

  18. Proper Motions of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope Imaging. 3; Measurement for URSA Minor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piatek, Slawomir; Pryor, Carlton; Bristow, Paul; Olszewski, Edward W.; Harris, Hugh C.; Mateo, Mario; Minniti, Dante; Tinney, Christopher G.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a measurement of the proper motion of the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy determined from images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope in two distinct fields. Each field contains a quasi-stellar object that serves as the "reference point". Integrating the motion of Ursa Minor in a realistic potential for the Milky Way produces orbital elements. The perigalacticon and apogalacticon are 40 (10, 76) and 89 (78, 160) kpc, respectively, where the values in the parentheses represent the 95% confidence intervals derived from Monte Carlo experiments. The eccentricity of the orbit is 0.39 (0.09, 0.79), and the orbital period is 1.5 (1.1, 2.7) Gyr. The orbit is retrograde and inclined by 124 degrees (94 deg, 36 deg ) to the Galactic plane. Ursa Minor is not a likely member of a proposed stream of galaxies on similar orbits around the Milky Way, nor is the plane of its orbit coincident with a recently proposed planar alignment of galaxies around the Milky Way. Comparing the orbits of Ursa Minor and Carina shows no reason for the different star formation histories of these two galaxies. Ursa Minor must contain dark matter to have a high probability of having survived disruption by the Galactic tidal force until the present.

  19. Deep g'r'i'z' GMOS Imaging of the Dwarf Irregular Galaxy Kar 50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidge, T. J.

    2002-11-01

    Images obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) are used to investigate the stellar content and distance of the dwarf irregular galaxy Kar 50. The brightest object is an H II region, and the bright stellar content is dominated by stars with g'-r'<0. The tips of the main sequence and the red giant branch (RGB) are tentatively identified near r'=24.9 and i'=25.5, respectively. The galaxy has a blue integrated color and no significant color gradient, and we conclude that Kar 50 has experienced a recent galaxy-wide episode of star formation. The distance estimated from the brightest blue stars indicates that Kar 50 is behind the M81 group, and this is consistent with the tentative RGB-tip brightness. Kar 50 has a remarkably flat central surface brightness profile, even at wavelengths approaching 1 μm, although there is no evidence of a bar. In the absence of another large star-forming episode, Kar 50 will evolve into a very low surface brightness galaxy. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council of Canada (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil), and CONICET (Argentina).

  20. The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. I. Overview and Atlas of Optical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Luis C.; Li, Zhao-Yu; Barth, Aaron J.; Seigar, Marc S.; Peng, Chien Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey (CGS) is a long-term program to investigate the photometric and spectroscopic properties of a statistically complete sample of 605 bright (BT < 12.9 mag), southern (δ < 0°) galaxies using the facilities at Las Campanas Observatory. This paper, the first in a series, outlines the scientific motivation of CGS, defines the sample, and describes the technical aspects of the optical broadband (BVRI) imaging component of the survey, including details of the observing program, data reduction procedures, and calibration strategy. The overall quality of the images is quite high, in terms of resolution (median seeing ~1''), field of view (8farcm9 × 8farcm9), and depth (median limiting surface brightness ~27.5, 26.9, 26.4, and 25.3 mag arcsec-2 in the B, V, R, and I bands, respectively). We prepare a digital image atlas showing several different renditions of the data, including three-color composites, star-cleaned images, stacked images to enhance faint features, structure maps to highlight small-scale features, and color index maps suitable for studying the spatial variation of stellar content and dust. In anticipation of upcoming science analyses, we tabulate an extensive set of global properties for the galaxy sample. These include optical isophotal and photometric parameters derived from CGS itself, as well as published information on multiwavelength (ultraviolet, U-band, near-infrared, far-infrared) photometry, internal kinematics (central stellar velocity dispersions, disk rotational velocities), environment (distance to nearest neighbor, tidal parameter, group, or cluster membership), and H I content. The digital images and science-level data products will be made publicly accessible to the community.

  1. HOMOGENEOUS UGRIZ PHOTOMETRY FOR ACS VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY GALAXIES: A NON-PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS FROM SDSS IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chin-Wei; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; West, Andrew A.; Peng, Eric W.

    2010-11-15

    We present photometric and structural parameters for 100 ACS Virgo Cluster Survey (ACSVCS) galaxies based on homogeneous, multi-wavelength (ugriz), wide-field SDSS (DR5) imaging. These early-type galaxies, which trace out the red sequence in the Virgo Cluster, span a factor of nearly {approx}10{sup 3} in g-band luminosity. We describe an automated pipeline that generates background-subtracted mosaic images, masks field sources and measures mean shapes, total magnitudes, effective radii, and effective surface brightnesses using a model-independent approach. A parametric analysis of the surface brightness profiles is also carried out to obtain Sersic-based structural parameters and mean galaxy colors. We compare the galaxy parameters to those in the literature, including those from the ACSVCS, finding good agreement in most cases, although the sizes of the brightest, and most extended, galaxies are found to be most uncertain and model dependent. Our photometry provides an external measurement of the random errors on total magnitudes from the widely used Virgo Cluster Catalog, which we estimate to be {sigma}(B{sub T}){approx} 0.13 mag for the brightest galaxies, rising to {approx} 0.3 mag for galaxies at the faint end of our sample (B{sub T} {approx} 16). The distribution of axial ratios of low-mass ('dwarf') galaxies bears a strong resemblance to the one observed for the higher-mass ('giant') galaxies. The global structural parameters for the full galaxy sample-profile shape, effective radius, and mean surface brightness-are found to vary smoothly and systematically as a function of luminosity, with unmistakable evidence for changes in structural homology along the red sequence. As noted in previous studies, the ugriz galaxy colors show a nonlinear but smooth variation over a {approx}7 mag range in absolute magnitude, with an enhanced scatter for the faintest systems that is likely the signature of their more diverse star formation histories.

  2. Subsurface diffuse optical tomography can localize absorber and fluorescent objects but recovered image sensitivity is nonlinear with depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepshire, Dax S.; Davis, Scott C.; Dehghani, Hamid; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2007-04-01

    Subsurface tomography with diffuse light has been investigated with a noncontact approach to characterize the performance of absorption and fluorescence imaging. Using both simulations and experiments, the reconstruction of local subsurface heterogeneity is demonstrated, but the recovery of target size and fluorophore concentration is not linear when changes in depth occur, whereas the mean position of the object for experimental fluorescent and absorber targets is accurate to within 0.5 and 1.45 mm when located within the first 10 mm below the surface. Improvements in the linearity of the response with depth appear to remain challenging and may ultimately limit the approach to detection rather than characterization applications. However, increases in tissue curvature and/or the addition of prior information are expected to improve the linearity of the response. The potential for this type of imaging technique to serve as a surgical guide is highlighted.

  3. Detailed Decomposition of Galaxy Images II: Fitting Spiral Arms, Bars, and Non-axisymmetric Structures in GALFIT 3.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chien Y.; Ho, L. C.; Impey, C. D.; Rix, H. W.

    2007-12-01

    The technique of fitting galaxy light profiles with analytic functions (e.g. de Vaucouleurs, exponential), also known as parametric fitting, has been a useful tool for studying galaxy structure and evolution. It is often used to quantify global properties of galaxies such as luminosity, size, ellipticity, and profile shape in a self-consistent manner. It also allows one to deblend multiple components of a galaxy, e.g. bulge/disk/bar/AGN, or to separate overlapping galaxies in a rigorous and robust way. However, the traditional method of fitting galaxies relies on using ellipsoid models, which is sometimes criticized to argue in favor of non-parametric techniques. In this study, we show that two dimensional image fitting is not fundamentally restricted to using axisymmetric ellipsoid shapes. By breaking from axisymmetry parametrically through the use of Fourier modes, one can better quantify the degree of galaxy irregularity in an intuitive and well-motivated manner. We also introduce a technique that allows one to fit spiral structures in late-type galaxies through the use of coordinate rotation. By comparing with more realistic models now possible, we find that the traditional use of simple ellipsoid models is robust even on irregular and spiral galaxies, because single component fits are by nature large scale averages. However, when it comes to quantifying sub-components of a galaxy, sometimes it is necessary to model structures in detail, such as when performing bulge-to-disk decomposition of galaxies with strong spiral arms, or quantifying the symmetry due to bright (e.g. bulge) and faint (e.g. disk) galaxy sub-components separately. These new techniques are implemented in GALFIT 3.0 (http://www.ociw.edu/ peng/work/galfit/galfit.html ). CYP gratefully acknowledges support from the Plaskett Fellowship (NRC-HIA) and the Institute/Giacconi Fellowship (STScI) programs.

  4. High near-infrared absorbing Cu5FeS4 nanoparticles for dual-modal imaging and photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qi; Yi, Xuan; Li, Meifang; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Shi, Quanliang; Yang, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Multifunctional nanomaterials have shown excellent and promising properties for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Herein, we have developed iron doped copper sulfide (Cu5FeS4) nanoparticles with a non-covalent polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating (Cu5FeS4-PEG) for tumor dual-modal imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT). The obtained Cu5FeS4-PEG nanoparticles with high near-infrared absorbance could be used for phototoacoustic (PA) imaging and PTT, whereas Fe3+ doping offer the nanoparticles the additional property for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. As shown by PA imaging, Cu5FeS4-PEG exhibit a high tumor uptake (~10% ID g-1) after intravenous injection. In vitro and in vivo cancer treatment further confirm that Cu5FeS4-PEG could act as a novel therapeutic agent for PTT of cancer cells. Our study further promotes the potential applications of multifunctional nanomaterials in a range of tumor diagnoses and treatments.Multifunctional nanomaterials have shown excellent and promising properties for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Herein, we have developed iron doped copper sulfide (Cu5FeS4) nanoparticles with a non-covalent polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating (Cu5FeS4-PEG) for tumor dual-modal imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT). The obtained Cu5FeS4-PEG nanoparticles with high near-infrared absorbance could be used for phototoacoustic (PA) imaging and PTT, whereas Fe3+ doping offer the nanoparticles the additional property for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. As shown by PA imaging, Cu5FeS4-PEG exhibit a high tumor uptake (~10% ID g-1) after intravenous injection. In vitro and in vivo cancer treatment further confirm that Cu5FeS4-PEG could act as a novel therapeutic agent for PTT of cancer cells. Our study further promotes the potential applications of multifunctional nanomaterials in a range of tumor diagnoses and treatments. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr04444a

  5. High-Resolution Imaging of the Multiphase Interstellar Thick Disk in Two Edge-On Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howk, J. Christopher; Rueff, K.

    2009-01-01

    We present broadband and narrow-band images, acquired from Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 and WIYN 3.5 m telescope respectively, of two edge-on spiral galaxies, NGC 4302 and NGC 4013. These high-resolution images (BVI + H-alpha) provide a detailed view of the thick disk interstellar medium (ISM) in these galaxies. Both galaxies show prominent extraplanar dust-bearing clouds viewed in absorption against the background stellar light. Individual clouds are found to z 2 kpc in each galaxy. These clouds each contain >10^4 to >10^5 solar masses of gas. Both galaxies have extraplanar diffuse ionized gas (DIG), as seen in our H-alpha images and earlier work. In addition to the DIG, discrete H II regions are found at heights up to 1 kpc from both galaxies. We compare the morphologies of the dusty clouds with the DIG in these galaxies and discuss the relationship between these components of the thick disk ISM.

  6. Absorbed dose measurements for kV-cone beam computed tomography in image-guided radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hioki, Kazunari; Araki, Fujio; Ohno, Takeshi; Nakaguchi, Yuji; Tomiyama, Yuuki

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we develope a novel method to directly evaluate an absorbed dose-to-water for kilovoltage-cone beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Absorbed doses for the kV-CBCT systems of the Varian On-Board Imager (OBI) and the Elekta X-ray Volumetric Imager (XVI) were measured by a Farmer ionization chamber with a 60Co calibration factor. The chamber measurements were performed at the center and four peripheral points in body-type (30 cm diameter and 51 cm length) and head-type (16 cm diameter and 33 cm length) cylindrical water phantoms. The measured ionization was converted to the absorbed dose-to-water by using a 60Co calibration factor and a Monte Carlo (MC)-calculated beam quality conversion factor, kQ, for 60Co to kV-CBCT. The irradiation for OBI and XVI was performed with pelvis and head modes for the body- and the head-type phantoms, respectively. In addition, the dose distributions in the phantom for both kV-CBCT systems were calculated with MC method and were compared with measured values. The MC-calculated doses were calibrated at the center in the water phantom and compared with measured doses at four peripheral points. The measured absorbed doses at the center in the body-type phantom were 1.96 cGy for OBI and 0.83 cGy for XVI. The peripheral doses were 2.36-2.90 cGy for OBI and 0.83-1.06 cGy for XVI. The doses for XVI were lower up to approximately one-third of those for OBI. Similarly, the measured doses at the center in the head-type phantom were 0.48 cGy for OBI and 0.21 cGy for XVI. The peripheral doses were 0.26-0.66 cGy for OBI and 0.16-0.30 cGy for XVI. The calculated peripheral doses agreed within 3% in the pelvis mode and within 4% in the head mode with measured doses for both kV-CBCT systems. In addition, the absorbed dose determined in this study was approximately 4% lower than that in TG-61 but the absorbed dose by both methods was in agreement within their combined

  7. The Wasilewski sample of emission-line galaxies - Follow-up CCD imaging and spectroscopic and IRAS observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bothun, Gregory D.; Schmitz, Mark; Halpern, Jules P.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Impey, Chris

    1989-01-01

    The results of an extensive imaging and spectroscopic follow-up of the objective prism-selected emission line galaxy (ELG) sample of Wasilewski (1982) are presented. Fluxes at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns were also obtained from the coadded IRAS survey data. ELGs found by objective prism surveys are found to be generally small and underluminous galaxies which usually have higher than average optical surface brightness. The Seyfert detection rate in objective prism surveys is roughly 10 percent and the ratio of the space densities of Seyfert 2 to Seyfert 1 galaxies is significantly larger than unity. Most of the galaxies selected by objective prism surveys are star-forming, late-type spirals which often show disturbed morphology. About 25 percent of the galaxies detected by the surveys are faint, high-excitation metal-poor compact H II regions.

  8. Images From Hubbles's ACS Tell A Tale Of Two Record-Breaking Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Baltimore, Md. Optical Image of RDCS 1252.9-2927 HST Optical Image of RDCS 1252.9-2927 The second Hubble study uncovered, for the first time, a proto-cluster of "infant galaxies" that existed more than 12 billion years ago (at redshift 4.1). These galaxies are so young that astronomers can still see a flurry of stars forming within them. The galaxies are grouped around one large galaxy. These results will be published in the Jan. 1, 2004 issue of Nature. The paper's lead author is George Miley of Leiden Observatory in the Netherlands. "Until recently people didn't think that clusters existed when the universe was only about 5 billion years old," Blakeslee explained. "Even if there were such clusters," Miley added, "until recently astronomers thought it was almost impossible to find clusters that existed 8 billion years ago. In fact, no one really knew when clustering began. Now we can witness it." Both studies led the astronomers to conclude that these systems are the progenitors of the galaxy clusters seen today. "The cluster RDCS 1252 looks like a present-day cluster," said Marc Postman of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md., and co-author of both research papers. "In fact, if you were to put it next to a present-day cluster, you wouldn't know which is which." A Tale of Two Clusters How can galaxies grow so fast after the big bang? "It is a case of the rich getting richer," Blakeslee said. "These clusters grew quickly because they are located in very dense regions, so there is enough material to build up the member galaxies very fast." This idea is strengthened by X-ray observations of the massive cluster RDCS 1252. Chandra and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton provided astronomers with the most accurate measurements to date of the properties of an enormous cloud of hot gas that pervades the massive cluster. This 160-million-degree Fahrenheit (70-million-degree Celsius) gas is a reservoir of most of the heavy elements in the cluster and an

  9. Narrowband Lyman-continuum imaging of galaxies at z ∼ 2.85

    SciTech Connect

    Mostardi, R. E.; Shapley, A. E.; Nestor, D. B.; Steidel, C. C.; Trainor, R. F.; Reddy, N. A.

    2013-12-10

    We present results from a survey for z ∼ 2.85 Lyman-continuum (LyC) emission in the HS1549+1933 field and place constraints on the amount of ionizing radiation escaping from star-forming galaxies. Using a custom narrowband filter (NB3420) tuned to wavelengths just below the Lyman limit at z ≥ 2.82, we probe the LyC spectral region of 49 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) and 91 Lyα emitters (LAEs) spectroscopically confirmed at z ≥ 2.82. Four LBGs and seven LAEs are detected in NB3420. Using V-band data probing the rest-frame nonionizing UV, we observe that many NB3420-detected galaxies exhibit spatial offsets between their LyC and nonionizing UV emission and are characterized by extremely blue NB3420–V colors, corresponding to low ratios of nonionizing to ionizing radiation (F {sub UV}/F {sub LyC}) that are in tension with current stellar population synthesis models. We measure average values of (F {sub UV}/F {sub LyC}) for our LBG and LAE samples, correcting for foreground galaxy contamination and H I absorption in the intergalactic medium. We find (F{sub UV}/F{sub LyC}){sub corr}{sup LBG}=82±45 and (F{sub UV}/F{sub LyC}){sub corr}{sup LAE}=7.4±3.6. These flux density ratios correspond, respectively, to relative LyC escape fractions of f{sub esc,} {sub rel}{sup LBG}=5%--8% and f{sub esc,} {sub rel}{sup LAE}=18%--49%, absolute LyC escape fractions of f{sub esc}{sup LBG}=1%--2% and f{sub esc}{sup LAE}=5%--15%, and a comoving LyC emissivity from star-forming galaxies of 8.8-15.0 × 10{sup 24} erg s{sup –1} Hz{sup –1} Mpc{sup –3}. In order to study the differential properties of galaxies with and without LyC detections, we analyze narrowband Lyα imaging and rest-frame near-infrared imaging, finding that while LAEs with LyC detections have lower Lyα equivalent widths on average, there is no substantial difference in the rest-frame near-infrared colors of LBGs or LAEs with and without LyC detections. These preliminary results are consistent with an

  10. High near-infrared absorbing Cu5FeS4 nanoparticles for dual-modal imaging and photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Yi, Xuan; Li, Meifang; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Shi, Quanliang; Yang, Kai

    2016-07-21

    Multifunctional nanomaterials have shown excellent and promising properties for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Herein, we have developed iron doped copper sulfide (Cu5FeS4) nanoparticles with a non-covalent polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating (Cu5FeS4-PEG) for tumor dual-modal imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT). The obtained Cu5FeS4-PEG nanoparticles with high near-infrared absorbance could be used for phototoacoustic (PA) imaging and PTT, whereas Fe(3+) doping offer the nanoparticles the additional property for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. As shown by PA imaging, Cu5FeS4-PEG exhibit a high tumor uptake (∼10% ID g(-1)) after intravenous injection. In vitro and in vivo cancer treatment further confirm that Cu5FeS4-PEG could act as a novel therapeutic agent for PTT of cancer cells. Our study further promotes the potential applications of multifunctional nanomaterials in a range of tumor diagnoses and treatments. PMID:27341480

  11. BREAKS IN THIN AND THICK DISKS OF EDGE-ON GALAXIES IMAGED IN THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S{sup 4}G)

    SciTech Connect

    Comeron, Sebastien; Salo, Heikki; Laurikainen, Eija; Laine, Jarkko; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Knapen, Johan H.; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Sheth, Kartik; Munoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Kim, Taehyun; Hinz, Joannah L.; Regan, Michael W.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Menendez-Delmestre, Karin; Seibert, Mark; Ho, Luis C.; Mizusawa, Trisha; Holwerda, Benne

    2012-11-10

    Breaks in the radial luminosity profiles of galaxies have until now been mostly studied averaged over disks. Here, we study separately breaks in thin and thick disks in 70 edge-on galaxies using imaging from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. We built luminosity profiles of the thin and thick disks parallel to midplanes and we found that thin disks often truncate (77%). Thick disks truncate less often (31%), but when they do, their break radius is comparable with that in the thin disk. This suggests either two different truncation mechanisms-one of dynamical origin affecting both disks simultaneously and another one only affecting the thin disk-or a single mechanism that creates a truncation in one disk or in both depending on some galaxy property. Thin disks apparently antitruncate in around 40% of galaxies. However, in many cases, these antitruncations are an artifact caused by the superposition of a thin disk and a thick disk, with the latter having a longer scale length. We estimate the real thin disk antitruncation fraction to be less than 15%. We found that the ratio of the thick and thin stellar disk mass is roughly constant (0.2 < M{sub T} /M{sub t} < 0.7) for circular velocities v{sub c} > 120 km s{sup -1}, but becomes much larger at smaller velocities. We hypothesize that this is due to a combination of a high efficiency of supernova feedback and a slower dynamical evolution in lower-mass galaxies causing stellar thin disks to be younger and less massive than in higher-mass galaxies.

  12. Galaxy NGC 55

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 55 was taken by Galaxy Evolution Explorer on September 14, 2003, during 2 orbits. This galaxy lies 5.4 million light years from our Milky Way galaxy and is a member of the 'local group' of galaxies that also includes the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the Magellanic clouds, and 40 other galaxies. The spiral disk of NGC 55 is inclined to our line of sight by approximately 80 degrees and so this galaxy looks cigar-shaped. This picture is a combination of Galaxy Evolution Explorer images taken with the far ultraviolet (colored blue) and near ultraviolet detectors, (colored red). The bright blue regions in this image are areas of active star formation detected in the ultraviolet by Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The red stars in this image are foreground stars in our own Milky Way galaxy.

  13. Model-free analysis of quadruply imaged gravitationally lensed systems and substructured galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldesenbet, Addishiwot G.; Williams, Liliya L. R.

    2015-11-01

    Multiple image gravitational lens systems, and especially quads, are invaluable in determining the amount and distribution of mass in galaxies. This is usually done by mass modelling using parametric or free-form methods. An alternative way of extracting information about lens mass distribution is to use lensing degeneracies and invariants. Where applicable, they allow one to make conclusions about whole classes of lenses without model fitting. Here, we use approximate, but observationally useful invariants formed by the three relative polar angles of quad images around the lens centre to show that many smooth elliptical+shear lenses can reproduce the same set of quad image angles within observational error. This result allows us to show in a model-free way what the general class of smooth elliptical+shear lenses looks like in the three-dimensional (3D) space of image relative angles, and that this distribution does not match that of the observed quads. We conclude that, even though smooth elliptical+shear lenses can reproduce individual quads, they cannot reproduce the quad population. What is likely needed is substructure, with clump masses larger than those responsible for flux ratio anomalies in quads, or luminous or dark nearby perturber galaxies.

  14. The Globular Cluster Systems of Five Nearby Spiral Galaxies: New Insights from Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandar, Rupali; Whitmore, Bradley; Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2004-08-01

    We use available multifilter Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 imaging of five (M81, M83, NGC 6946, M101, and M51, in order of distance) low-inclination, nearby spiral galaxies to study ancient star cluster populations. Combining rigorous selection criteria to reject contaminants (individual stars, background galaxies, and blends) with optical photometry including the U bandpass, we unambiguously detect ancient globular cluster (GC) systems in each galaxy. We present luminosities, colors, and size (effective radius) measurements for our candidate GCs. These are used to estimate specific frequencies, to assess whether intrinsic color distributions are consistent with the presence of both metal-poor and metal-rich GCs, and to compare relative sizes of ancient clusters between different galaxy systems. M81 globulars have intrinsic color distributions that are very similar to those in the Milky Way and M31, with ~40% of sample clusters having colors expected for a metal-rich population. The GC system in M51 meanwhile, appears almost exclusively blue and metal-poor. This lack of metal-rich GCs associated with the M51 bulge indicates that the bulge formation history of this Sbc galaxy may have differed significantly from that of our own. Ancient clusters in M101 and possibly in NGC 6946, two of the three later type spirals in our sample, appear to have luminosity distributions that continue to rise to our detection limit (MV~-6.0), well beyond the expected turnover (MV~-7.4) in the luminosity function. This is reminiscent of the situation in M33, a Local Group galaxy of similar Hubble type. The faint ancient cluster candidates in M101 and NGC 6946 have properties (colors and reff) similar to their more luminous counterparts, and we suggest that these are either intermediate-age (3-9 Gyr) disk clusters or the low-mass end of the original GC population. Potentially, these lower mass clusters were not destroyed because of different dynamical conditions relative to those

  15. Printable Nanoscopic Metamaterial Absorbers and Images with Diffraction-Limited Resolution.

    PubMed

    Richner, Patrizia; Eghlidi, Hadi; Kress, Stephan J P; Schmid, Martin; Norris, David J; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2016-05-11

    The fabrication of functional metamaterials with extreme feature resolution finds a host of applications such as the broad area of surface/light interaction. Nonplanar features of such structures can significantly enhance their performance and tunability, but their facile generation remains a challenge. Here, we show that carefully designed out-of-plane nanopillars made of metal-dielectric composites integrated in a metal-dielectric-nanocomposite configuration can absorb broadband light very effectively. We further demonstrate that electrohydrodynamic printing in a rapid nanodripping mode is able to generate precise out-of-plane forests of such composite nanopillars with deposition resolutions at the diffraction limit on flat and nonflat substrates. The nanocomposite nature of the printed material allows the fine-tuning of the overall visible light absorption from complete absorption to complete reflection by simply tuning the pillar height. Almost perfect absorption (∼95%) over the entire visible spectrum is achieved by a nanopillar forest covering only 6% of the printed area. Adjusting the height of individual pillar groups by design, we demonstrate on-demand control of the gray scale of a micrograph with a spatial resolution of 400 nm. These results constitute a significant step forward in ultrahigh resolution facile fabrication of out-of-plane nanostructures, important to a broad palette of light design applications. PMID:27100105

  16. Astrophysics. Multiple images of a highly magnified supernova formed by an early-type cluster galaxy lens.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patrick L; Rodney, Steven A; Treu, Tommaso; Foley, Ryan J; Brammer, Gabriel; Schmidt, Kasper B; Zitrin, Adi; Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Graur, Or; Filippenko, Alexei V; Jha, Saurabh W; Riess, Adam G; Bradac, Marusa; Weiner, Benjamin J; Scolnic, Daniel; Malkan, Matthew A; von der Linden, Anja; Trenti, Michele; Hjorth, Jens; Gavazzi, Raphael; Fontana, Adriano; Merten, Julian C; McCully, Curtis; Jones, Tucker; Postman, Marc; Dressler, Alan; Patel, Brandon; Cenko, S Bradley; Graham, Melissa L; Tucker, Bradley E

    2015-03-01

    In 1964, Refsdal hypothesized that a supernova whose light traversed multiple paths around a strong gravitational lens could be used to measure the rate of cosmic expansion. We report the discovery of such a system. In Hubble Space Telescope imaging, we have found four images of a single supernova forming an Einstein cross configuration around a redshift z = 0.54 elliptical galaxy in the MACS J1149.6+2223 cluster. The cluster's gravitational potential also creates multiple images of the z = 1.49 spiral supernova host galaxy, and a future appearance of the supernova elsewhere in the cluster field is expected. The magnifications and staggered arrivals of the supernova images probe the cosmic expansion rate, as well as the distribution of matter in the galaxy and cluster lenses. PMID:25745167

  17. Andromeda Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This image is a Galaxy Evolution Explorer observation of the large galaxy in Andromeda, Messier 31. The Andromeda galaxy is the most massive in the local group of galaxies that includes our Milky Way. Andromeda is the nearest large galaxy to our own. The image is a mosaic of 10 separate Galaxy Evolution Explorer images taken in September, 2003. The color image (with near ultraviolet shown by red and far ultraviolet shown by blue) shows blue regions of young, hot, high mass stars tracing out the spiral arms where star formation is occurring, and the central orange-white 'bulge' of old, cooler stars formed long ago. The star forming arms of Messier 31 are unusual in being quite circular rather than the usual spiral shape. Several companion galaxies can also be seen. These include Messier 32, a dwarf elliptical galaxy directly below the central bulge and just outside the spiral arms, and Messier 110 (M110), which is above and to the right of the center. M110 has an unusual far ultraviolet bright core in an otherwise 'red,' old star halo. Many other regions of star formation can be seen far outside the main body of the galaxy.

  18. Assessment of capabilities of multiangle imaging photo-polarimetry for atmospheric correction in presence of absorbing aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikova, O. V.; Garay, M. J.; Xu, F.; Seidel, F. C.; Diner, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing of ocean color is a critical tool for assessing the productivity of marine ecosystems and monitoring changes resulting from climatic or environmental influences. Yet water-leaving radiance comprises less than 10% of the signal measured from space, making correction for absorption and scattering by the intervening atmosphere imperative. Traditional ocean color retrieval algorithms utilize a standard set of aerosol models and the assumption of negligible water-leaving radiance in the near-infrared. Modern improvements have been developed to handle absorbing aerosols such as urban particulates in coastal areas and transported desert dust over the open ocean, where ocean fertilization can impact biological productivity at the base of the marine food chain. Even so, imperfect knowledge of the absorbing aerosol optical properties or their height distribution results in well-documented sources of error. In the UV, the problem of UV-enhanced absorption and nonsphericity of certain aerosol types are amplified due to the increased Rayleigh and aerosol optical depth, especially at off-nadir view angles. Multi-angle spectro-polarimetric measurements have been advocated as an additional tool to better understand and retrieve the aerosol properties needed for atmospheric correction for ocean color retrievals. The central concern of the work to be described is the assessment of the effects of absorbing aerosol properties on water leaving radiance measurement uncertainty by neglecting UV-enhanced absorption of carbonaceous particles and by not accounting for dust nonsphericity. In addition, we evaluate the polarimetric sensitivity of absorbing aerosol properties in light of measurement uncertainties achievable for the next generation of multi-angle polarimetric imaging instruments, and demonstrate advantages and disadvantages of wavelength selection in the UV/VNIR range. The phase matrices for the spherical smoke particles were calculated using a standard

  19. Tracing galaxy evolution through spatial and kinematic probes of the MgII circumgalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Nikole Marie

    Understanding how galaxies form and evolve is a paramount question today. While it is generally understood that galaxies are built by accreting gas and forming stars, mechanisms which can eventually shut off to form passively evolving red galaxies, the detailed physics are still not completely understood. What has become clear is that the baryon cycle is a key to understanding galaxy evolution and can be studied via the circumgalactic medium (CGM), or the massive, metal-enriched, extended gaseous reservoir surrounding galaxies. Extensive work has gone into examining the CGM using quasar absorption lines in which a background quasar sightline probes the CGM of a foreground galaxy. In this dissertation, we employ nearly three decades of absorber-galaxy survey data focusing on low-ionization MgII absorption to examine the basic structure of the CGM for galaxies in various stages of evolution. We compiled the MgII Absorber-Galaxy Catalog (MAG IICAT) consisting of 182 absorber-galaxy pairs ranging from 0.07 < zgal < 1.1, where the CGM has been probed out to nearly D = 200 kpc. With MAGIICAT, we examined the extent, distribution, and patchiness of gas traced by MgII in the CGM and found that the MgII absorption strength and covering fraction decrease with increasing impact parameter. We find differential properties of the CGM such that bluer, more luminous, and higher redshift galaxies host gaseous halos with a larger radius and covering fraction. By examining the kinematics of MgII absorbers in high-resolution quasar spectra, we also find a dependence of the velocity structure and distribution of column densities on galaxy properties and orientation modeled using HST images. The velocity structure of absorbers hosted by passive, red galaxies appears to evolve with redshift, while this is not the case for blue galaxies which tend to have ongoing star formation. We further find larger absorber velocity dispersions in blue galaxies consistent with bipolar, outflowing winds

  20. Detection of ultraviolet halos around highly inclined galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Bregman, Joel N.

    2014-07-10

    We report the discovery of diffuse ultraviolet light around late-type galaxies out to 5-20 kpc from the midplane using Swift and GALEX images. The emission is consistent with the stellar outskirts in the early-type galaxies but not in the late-type galaxies, where the emission is quite blue and consistent with a reflection nebula powered by light escaping from the galaxy and scattering off dust in the halo. Our results agree with expectations from halo dust discovered in extinction by Ménard et al. to within a few kpc of the disk and imply a comparable amount of hot and cold gas in galaxy halos (a few× 10{sup 8} M{sub ☉} within 20 kpc) if the dust resides primarily in Mg II absorbers. The results also highlight the potential of UV photometry to study individual galaxy halos.

  1. Near-infrared absorbing polymer nano-particle as a sensitive contrast agent for photo-acoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Hiroyuki; Nojiri, Mayumi; Mukai, Rieko; Ito, Shinzaburo

    2015-01-01

    Polymer nano-particles (PNPs) with a near-infrared (NIR) light absorption were prepared by the nano-emulsion method to develop contrast agents for photo-acoustic (PA) imaging. The PNP containing silicon naphthalocyanine showed a high absorption coefficient up to 10(10) M(-1) cm(-1). This is comparable to plasmonic gold nano-particles, which have been studied as PA contrast agents. For the PNP larger than 100 nm, the enhancement of the PA signal was observed compared to the gold nano-particle with a similar absorption coefficient and size. In the case of the PNP, the heat by the light absorption is confined in the particle due to the low thermal diffusivity of polymer materials. We showed that the strong thermal confinement effect of PNP results in the enhancement of the efficiency of the PA signal generation and that the PA intensity can be enhanced by the increase of the Grüneisen parameter of the matrix polymer of PNP. The PA signal from the PNP of poly(methyl methacrylate) was 9-fold larger than that of gold nano-particles with the same absorption coefficient. We demonstrated that in the in vivo PA imaging the detection limit of PNP was of the order of 10(-13) M. The NIR absorbing PNP will be a promising candidate of a sensitive contrast agent for PA imaging. PMID:25407911

  2. Catalog of Ultra-diffuse Galaxies in the Coma Clusters from Subaru Imaging Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Masafumi; Koda, Jin; Komiyama, Yutaka; Yamanoi, Hitomo

    2016-07-01

    We present a catalog of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in the Coma cluster. UDGs are a subset of low surface brightness (SB) galaxies with very large effective radii defined by van Dokkum et al. We surveyed the Subaru data archive for deep Suprime-Cam/Subaru R-band images, and used data covering the 1.°7 × 2.°7 region of the Coma cluster. The data are ∼1 magnitude deeper than the data of van Dokkum et al (2015a) in limiting SB. This paper explains the details of our sample selection procedure. This UDG catalog includes positions, magnitudes, effective radii, mean and central SBs, and colors (when available). Comparisons with previous galaxy catalogs in the literature are performed, and we show that the current catalog is the largest for UDGs. We also discuss that most of the UDGs are members of the Coma cluster, and the major axis of the UDGs tends to align toward the cluster center (radial alignment). Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  3. Planetary Camera imaging of the counter-rotating core galaxy NGC 4365

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, Duncan A.

    1994-01-01

    We analyze F555W(V) band Planetary Camera images of NGC 4365, for which ground-based spectroscopy has revealed a misaligned, counter-rotating core. Line profile analysis by Surma indicates that the counter-rotating component has a disk structure. After deconvolution and galaxy modeling, we find photometric evidence, at small radii to support this claim. There is no indication of a central point source or dust lane. The surface brightness profile reveals a steep outer profile and shallow, by not flat, inner profile with the inflection radius occurring at 1.8 sec. The inner profile is consistent with a cusp.

  4. Understanding the Relations between QSOs and Their Host Galaxies from Combined HST Imaging and VLT Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letawe, Y.; Magain, P.; Letawe, G.; Courbin, F.; Hutsemékers, D.

    2008-06-01

    The host galaxies of six nearby QSOs are studied on the basis of high-resolution HST optical images and spatially resolved VLT slit spectra. The gas ionization and velocity are mapped as a function of the distance to the central QSO. In the majority of the cases, the QSO significantly contributes to the gas ionization in its whole host galaxy, and sometimes even outside. Reflection or scattering of the QSO Hα line from remote regions of the galaxy is detected in several instances. The line shifts show that, in all cases, the matter responsible for the light reflection moves away from the QSO, likely accelerated by its radiation pressure. The two faintest QSOs reside in spirals, with some signs of a past gravitational perturbation. One of the intermediate-luminosity QSOs resides in a massive elliptical containing gas ionized (and probably pushed away) by the QSO radiation. The other medium-power object is found in a spiral galaxy displaying complex velocity structure, with the central QSO moving with respect to the bulge, probably as a result of a galactic collision. The two most powerful objects are involved in violent gravitational interactions, and one of them has no detected host. These results suggest that (1) large-scale phenomena, such as galactic collisions, are closely related to the triggering and the feeding of the QSO and (2) once ignited, the QSO has significant influence on its large-scale neighborhood (often the whole host and sometimes further away). Based on observations made with the Nasa/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (Cycle 13 proposal 10238), and with ANTU/UT1 at ESO-Paranal observatory in Chile [programs 65.P-0361(A) and 66.B-0139(A)].

  5. Strong Lensing by Subhalos in the Dwarf Galaxy Mass Range. I. Image Separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zackrisson, E.; Riehm, T.; Möller, O.; Wiik, K.; Nurmi, P.

    2008-09-01

    The cold dark matter scenario predicts that a large number of dark subhalos should be located within the halo of each Milky Way-sized galaxy. One telltale signature of such dark subhalos could be additional milliarcsecond-scale image splitting of quasars previously known to be multiply imaged on arcsecond scales. Here we estimate the image separations for the subhalo density profiles favored by recent N-body simulations and compare these to the angular resolution of both existing and upcoming observational facilities. We find that the image separations produced are very sensitive to the exact subhalo density profile assumed, but in all cases they are considerably smaller than previous estimates based on the premise that subhalos can be approximated by singular isothermal spheres. Only the most optimistic subhalo models produce image separations that would be detectable with current technology, and many models produce image separations that will remain unresolved with all telescopes expected to become available in the foreseeable future. Detections of dark subhalos through image-splitting effects will therefore be far more challenging than currently believed, albeit not necessarily impossible.

  6. Note: Gratings on low absorbing substrates for x-ray phase contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, F. J.; Schröter, T. J.; Kunka, D.; Meyer, P.; Meiser, J.; Faisal, A.; Khalil, M. I.; Birnbacher, L.; Viermetz, M.; Walter, M.; Schulz, J.; Pfeiffer, F.; Mohr, J.

    2015-12-01

    Grating based X-ray phase contrast imaging is on the verge of being applied in clinical settings. To achieve this goal, compact setups with high sensitivity and dose efficiency are necessary. Both can be increased by eliminating unwanted absorption in the beam path, which is mainly due to the grating substrates. Fabrication of gratings via deep X-ray lithography can address this issue by replacing the commonly used silicon substrate with materials with lower X-ray absorption that fulfill certain boundary conditions. Gratings were produced on both graphite and polymer substrates without compromising on structure quality. These gratings were tested in a three-grating setup with a source operated at 40 kVp and lead to an increase in the detector photon count rate of almost a factor of 4 compared to a set of gratings on silicon substrates. As the visibility was hardly affected, this corresponds to a significant increase in sensitivity and therefore dose efficiency.

  7. Note: Gratings on low absorbing substrates for x-ray phase contrast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, F. J. Schröter, T. J.; Kunka, D.; Meyer, P.; Meiser, J.; Faisal, A.; Khalil, M. I.; Mohr, J.; Birnbacher, L.; Viermetz, M.; Pfeiffer, F.; Walter, M.; Schulz, J.

    2015-12-15

    Grating based X-ray phase contrast imaging is on the verge of being applied in clinical settings. To achieve this goal, compact setups with high sensitivity and dose efficiency are necessary. Both can be increased by eliminating unwanted absorption in the beam path, which is mainly due to the grating substrates. Fabrication of gratings via deep X-ray lithography can address this issue by replacing the commonly used silicon substrate with materials with lower X-ray absorption that fulfill certain boundary conditions. Gratings were produced on both graphite and polymer substrates without compromising on structure quality. These gratings were tested in a three-grating setup with a source operated at 40 kVp and lead to an increase in the detector photon count rate of almost a factor of 4 compared to a set of gratings on silicon substrates. As the visibility was hardly affected, this corresponds to a significant increase in sensitivity and therefore dose efficiency.

  8. The dark side of galaxy formation.

    PubMed

    Smail, Ian

    2002-12-15

    I discuss the discovery of a population of extremely luminous, but very dusty and very distant, galaxies in the submillimetre (submm) waveband. Almost all the light emitted by the stars in these galaxies is absorbed by interstellar dust (which is produced by the same stars) and re-radiated in the far-infrared. This leaves little to be detected at optical wavelengths and results in most of these galaxies being effectively invisible in even the deepest optical images obtainable with the Hubble space telescope. Yet this population contributes most of the light emitted by galaxies at wavelengths of lambda > or approximately equal 100 microm over the lifetime of the Universe. Together with other observations, this suggests that perhaps up to half of all the stars seen in galaxies today were formed in very dusty regions in the early Universe. Hence, studying the galaxies detected in the submm wavebands is critical for developing and testing models of galaxy formation and evolution. Individually, these luminous submm galaxies are forming stars a thousand times faster than our Galaxy is at the present-day, sufficiently fast to form all the stars in the most luminous galaxy in the local Universe within a short period, up to ca. 0.1-1 Gyr. Detailed study of a handful of examples of this population confirm these estimates and unequivocally identify the bulk of this submm-selected population with dusty, star-burst galaxies in the very distant Universe. The extreme faintness of this population in the optical and near-infrared wavebands, resulting from their obscuration by dust, means that our understanding of the detailed nature of these galaxies is only slowly growing. I give a brief summary of the properties of these highly obscured systems and describe the wide range of facilities currently being developed that will greatly aid in their study. PMID:12626261

  9. The Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC): Deep Near-Infrared Imaging and the Selection of Distant Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadri, Ryan; Marchesini, Danilo; van Dokkum, Pieter; Gawiser, Eric; Franx, Marijn; Lira, Paulina; Rudnick, Gregory; Urry, C. Megan; Maza, José; Kriek, Mariska; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Castander, Francisco J.; Christlein, Daniel; Coppi, Paolo S.; Hall, Patrick B.; Herrera, David; Infante, Leopoldo; Taylor, Edward N.; Treister, Ezequiel; Willis, Jon P.

    2007-09-01

    We present deep near-infrared JHK imaging of four 10' × 10' fields. The observations were carried out as part of the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC) with ISPI on the CTIO 4 m telescope. The typical point-source limiting depths are J ~ 22.5, H ~ 21.5, and K ~ 21 (5 σ Vega). The effective seeing in the final images is ~1.0″. We combine these data with MUSYC UBVRIz imaging to create K-selected catalogs that are unique for their uniform size, depth, filter coverage, and image quality. We investigate the rest-frame optical colors and photometric redshifts of galaxies that are selected using common color selection techniques, including distant red galaxies (DRGs), star-forming and passive BzKs, and the rest-frame UV-selected BM, BX, and Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). These techniques are effective at isolating large samples of high-redshift galaxies, but none provide complete or uniform samples across the targeted redshift ranges. The DRG and BM/BX/LBG criteria identify populations of red and blue galaxies, respectively, as they were designed to do. The star-forming BzKs have a very wide redshift distribution, extending down to z ~ 1, a wide range of colors, and may include galaxies with very low specific star formation rates. In comparison, the passive BzKs are fewer in number, have a different distribution of K magnitudes, and have a somewhat different redshift distribution. By combining either the DRG and BM/BX/LBG criteria, or the star-forming and passive BzK criteria, it appears possible to define a reasonably complete sample of galaxies to our flux limit over specific redshift ranges. However, the redshift dependence of both the completeness and sampled range of rest-frame colors poses an ultimate limit to the usefulness of these techniques.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxy structural parameters from 3.6um images (Kim+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Gadotti, D. A.; Sheth, K.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Lee, M. G.; Madore, B. F.; Elmegreen, B.; Knapen, J. H.; Zaritsky, D.; Ho, L. C.; Comeron, S.; Holwerda, B.; Hinz, J. L.; Munoz-Mateos, J.-C.; Cisternas, M.; Erroz-Ferrer, S.; Buta, R.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Laine, J.; Menendez-Delmestre, K.; Regan, M. W.; de Swardt, B.; Gil de, Paz A.; Seibert, M.; Mizusawa, T.

    2016-03-01

    We select our samples from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G; Sheth et al. 2010, cat. J/PASP/122/1397). We chose galaxies that had already been processed by the first three S4G pipelines (Pipelines 1, 2, and 3; Sheth et al. 2010, cat. J/PASP/122/1397) at the moment of this study (2011 November). In brief, Pipeline processes images and provides science-ready images. Pipeline 2 prepares mask images (to exclude foreground and background objects) for further analysis, and Pipeline 3 derives surface brightness profiles and total magnitudes using IRAF ellipse fits. We excluded highly inclined (b/a<0.5), significantly disturbed, very faint, or irregular galaxies. Galaxies were also discarded if their images are unsuitable for decomposition due to contamination such as a bright foreground star or significant stray light from stars in the IRAC scattering zones. Then we chose barred galaxies from all Hubble types from S0 to Sdm using the numerical Hubble types from Hyperleda (Paturel et al. 2003, cat. VII/237, VII/238). The assessment of the presence of a bar was done visually by K. Sheth, T. Kim, and B. de Swardt. Later, we also confirmed the presence of a bar by checking the mid-infrared classification (Buta et al. 2010, cat. J/ApJS/190/147; Buta et al. 2015, cat. J/ApJS/217/32). A total of 144 barred galaxies were selected that satisfy our criteria, and we list our sample in Table1 with basic information. Table2 presents the measures of structural parameters for all galaxies in the sample obtained from the 2D model fit with BUDDA (BUlge/disk Decomposition Analysis, de Souza et al., 2004ApJS..153..411D; Gadotti, 2008MNRAS.384..420G) code. (2 data files).

  11. Polarimetric imaging of the polar ring galaxy NGC 660 - evidence for dust outside the stellar disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alton, P. B.; Stockdale, D. P.; Scarrott, S. M.; Wolstencroft, R. D.

    2000-05-01

    Optical imaging polarimetry has been carried out for the polar ring, starburst galaxy NGC 660. This galaxy has a highly inclined, severely tidally-disturbed disk which is surrounded by a gas-rich, polar ring. We detect scattered light from a large part of the halo and this is attributable to dust grains residing up to =~ 2.5 kpc from the stellar disk. There is evidence from emission-line imaging carried out in the past, that NGC 660 is host to an energetic outflow of hot gas along the minor axis (a `superwind'). Our results indicate that dust grains are entrained in this same outflow. Polarization due to scattering, however, is also present at positions away from the minor axis suggesting that grains may also be displaced from the stellar disk by tidal forces exerted during galactic collisions. Where the polar ring occludes the stellar disk we observe polarization due to magnetically aligned, dichroic grains. By comparing the recorded polarization with the associated optical extinction we infer that the magnetic field in the ring has a lower (but still comparable) strength to the magnetic field in the Milky Way. We also derive a dust-to-gas ratio for the ring and this is about a factor of 2-3 lower than in the solar neighbourhood (but close to the value measured in some nearby spirals). If the ring comprises the remnants of the `interloper' which collided with NGC 660, we expect that the ruptured galaxy was a massive, metal-rich spiral.

  12. SpIOMM and SITELLE: Wide-field Imaging FTS for the Study of Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drissen, Laurent; Bernier, Anne-Pier; Robert, Carmelle; Robert

    2011-12-01

    SpIOMM, a wide-field Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer attached to the Mont Mégantic 1.6-m telescope, is capable of obtaining the visible spectrum of every source of light in a 12 arcminute field of view, with a spectral resolution ranging from R = 1 (wide-band image) to R = 25 000, resulting in 1.7 million spectra with a spatial resolution of one arcsecond. SITELLE will be a similar instrument attached to the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope, and will be in operation in early 2013. We present a short description of these instruments and illustrate their capabilities to study nearby galaxies with the results of a data cube of M51.

  13. High-Resolution Emission-Line Imaging of Seyfert Galaxies. II. Evidence for Anisotropic Ionizing Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Andrew S.; Ward, Martin J.; Haniff, Christopher A.

    1988-11-01

    In the preceding paper, we describe a direct imaging survey of Seyfert galaxies with "linear" radio structures and find that the major axes and spatial scales of the circumnuclear emission-line gas are very similar to those of the radio continuum sources. In the present paper, the nature of this close connection between thermal and relativistic gases is assessed in detail. Models in which the kinetic energy of the radio jets or plasmoids powers shock waves, which ionize the gas, seem energetically feasible but disagree with the off-nuclear line intensity ratios. Ionization by relativistic electrons is negligible, but they may contribute to the heating of the gas. We favor a scenario in which the radio jets and plasmoids shock, accelerate, and compress ambient and entrained gas, but the dominant source of ionization is the nonstellar nuclear ultraviolet continuum. This ultraviolet source appears to be partially beamed along the axis of the radio jet. Photoionization by ultraviolet synchrotron radiation generated via shocks in the ejecta may also contribute, especially in Seyfert 2 galaxies. A comparison between the number of ionizing photons, N_i_, inferred by extrapolation of the directly observed continuum, and the number of ionizing photons, N_Hβ_, required to generate the Hβ emission has been made for six galaxies in our sample. In at least two galaxies, we find N_i_ << N_Hβ_, suggesting that the gas is exposed to a higher ionizing flux than inferred from direct observations of the nucleus, and supporting the idea of partial beaming. Similarly, the energy in the continuum between 100 A and 1 micron, if emitted isotropically, is inadequate to fuel the thermal nuclear infrared sources, implying that the radiating dust is heated by a more luminous optical-ultraviolet source. We speculate that the nuclear infrared emission of Seyfert 2 galaxies arises from dust in molecular clouds exposed to the partially beamed radiation, and we predict that the 10 micron

  14. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WFC3 GRISM SPECTROSCOPY AND IMAGING OF A GROWING COMPACT GALAXY AT z = 1.9

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Brammer, Gabriel

    2010-08-01

    We present HST/WFC3 grism near-IR spectroscopy of the brightest galaxy at z > 1.5 in the GOODS-South WFC3 ERS grism pointing. The spectrum is of remarkable quality and shows the redshifted Balmer lines H{beta}, H{gamma}, and H{delta} in absorption at z = 1.902 {+-} 0.002. The absorption lines can be produced by a post-starburst stellar population with a luminosity-weighted age of {approx}0.5 Gyr. The mass-to-light ratio inferred from the spectrum implies a stellar mass of (4 {+-} 1) x 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}. We determine the morphology of the galaxy from a deep WFC3 H{sub 160} image. Similar to other massive galaxies at z {approx} 2 the galaxy is compact, with an effective radius of 2.1 {+-} 0.3 kpc. Although most of the light is in a compact core, the galaxy has two red, smooth spiral arms that appear to be tidally induced. The spatially resolved spectroscopy demonstrates that the center of the galaxy is quiescent whereas the surrounding disk is forming stars, as it shows H{beta} in emission. The galaxy interacts with a companion at a projected distance of 18 kpc, which also shows prominent tidal features. The companion is a factor of {approx}10 fainter than the primary galaxy and may have a lower metallicity. It is tempting to interpret these observations as evidence for the growth of compact, quiescent high-redshift galaxies through minor mergers, which has been proposed by several recent observational and theoretical studies. Interestingly both objects host luminous active galactic nuclei, which implies that these mergers can be accompanied by significant black hole growth.

  15. HST Imaging of the Local Volume Dwarf Galaxies Pisces A and B: Prototypes for Local Group Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollerud, Erik J.; Geha, Marla C.; Grcevich, Jana; Putman, Mary E.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2016-08-01

    We present observations of the Pisces A and B galaxies with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. Photometry from these images clearly resolves a red giant branch (RGB) for both objects, demonstrating that they are nearby dwarf galaxies. We describe a Bayesian inferential approach to determining the distance to these galaxies using the magnitude of the tip of the RGB, and then apply this approach to these galaxies. This reveals the distance to these galaxies as {5.64}-0.15+0.13 {{Mpc}} and {8.89}-0.85+0.75 {{Mpc}} for Pisces A and B, respectively, placing both within the Local Volume but not the Local Group (LG). We estimate the star formation histories of these galaxies, which suggests that they have recently undergone an increase in their star formation rates. Together these yield luminosities for Pisces A and B of {M}V=-{11.57}-0.05+0.06 and ‑12.9 ± 0.2, respectively, and estimated stellar masses of {log}({M}* /{M}ȯ )={7.0}-1.7+0.4 and {7.5}-1.8+0.3. We further show that these galaxies are likely at the boundary between nearby voids and higher-density filamentary structure. This suggests that they are entering a higher-density region from voids, where they would have experienced delayed evolution, consistent with their recent increased star formation rates. If this is indeed the case, they are useful for study as proxies of the galaxies that later evolved into typical LG satellite galaxies.

  16. Instrumentation and method for measuring NIR light absorbed in tissue during MR imaging in medical NIRS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myllylä, Teemu S.; Sorvoja, Hannu S. S.; Nikkinen, Juha; Tervonen, Osmo; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Myllylä, Risto A.

    2011-07-01

    Our goal is to provide a cost-effective method for examining human tissue, particularly the brain, by the simultaneous use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Due to its compatibility requirements, MRI poses a demanding challenge for NIRS measurements. This paper focuses particularly on presenting the instrumentation and a method for the non-invasive measurement of NIR light absorbed in human tissue during MR imaging. One practical method to avoid disturbances in MR imaging involves using long fibre bundles to enable conducting the measurements at some distance from the MRI scanner. This setup serves in fact a dual purpose, since also the NIRS device will be less disturbed by the MRI scanner. However, measurements based on long fibre bundles suffer from light attenuation. Furthermore, because one of our primary goals was to make the measuring method as cost-effective as possible, we used high-power light emitting diodes instead of more expensive lasers. The use of LEDs, however, limits the maximum output power which can be extracted to illuminate the tissue. To meet these requirements, we improved methods of emitting light sufficiently deep into tissue. We also show how to measure NIR light of a very small power level that scatters from the tissue in the MRI environment, which is characterized by strong electromagnetic interference. In this paper, we present the implemented instrumentation and measuring method and report on test measurements conducted during MRI scanning. These measurements were performed in MRI operating rooms housing 1.5 Tesla-strength closed MRI scanners (manufactured by GE) in the Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology at the Oulu University Hospital.

  17. Getting to Know the Neighbors: Deep Imaging of the Andromeda Satellite Dwarf Galaxy Cassiopeia III with WIYN pODI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Madison; Rhode, Katherine L.; Janowiecki, Steven

    2016-01-01

    We present results from WIYN pODI imaging of Cassiopeia III/Andromeda XXXII (Cas III/And XXXII), an Andromeda satellite dwarf galaxy recently discovered by Martin et al. (2013) in Pan-STARRS1 survey data. Detailed studies of satellite dwarf galaxies in the Local Group and its environs provide important insight into how low-mass galaxies form and evolve as well as how more massive galaxies are assembled in a hierarchical universe. The goal of this project is to obtain deep, wide-field photometry of Cas III in order to study its stellar population in more detail. The images used for this analysis were taken in October 2013 with the 24' x 24' pODI camera on the WIYN 3.5-m telescope in the SDSS g and i filters. Calibrated photometry was performed on all point sources in the g and i images and then used to quantify the radial distribution of stars in Cas III and to construct a color-magnitude diagram (CMD). We present this CMD along with a map of the resolved stellar population and measurements of the galaxy magnitude and structural properties. This research was supported by the NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates program (grant number AST-1358980).

  18. The DART Imaging And CaT Survey of the Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, Giuseppina; Tolstoy, E.; Helmi, A.; Irwin, M.J.; Letarte, B.; Jablonka, P.; Hill, V.; Venn, K.A.; Shetrone, M.D.; Arimoto, N.; Primas, F.; Kaufer, A.; Francois, P.; Szeifert, T.; Abel, T.; Sadakane, K.; /Osaka Kyoiku U.

    2006-08-28

    As part of the DART project we have used the ESO/2.2m Wide Field Imager in conjunction with the VLT/FLAMES* GIRAFFE spectrograph to study the detailed properties of the resolved stellar population of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy out to and beyond its tidal radius. Fornax dSph has had a complicated evolution and contains significant numbers of young, intermediate age and old stars. We investigate the relation between these different components by studying their photometric, kinematic and abundance distributions. We re-derived the structural parameters of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal using our wide field imaging covering the galaxy out to its tidal radius, and analyzed the spatial distribution of the Fornax stars of different ages as selected from Colour-Magnitude Diagram analysis. We have obtained accurate velocities and metallicities from spectra in the Ca II triplet wavelength region for 562 Red Giant Branch stars which have velocities consistent with membership in Fornax dwarf spheroidal. We have found evidence for the presence of at least three distinct stellar components: a young population (few 100 Myr old) concentrated in the center of the galaxy, visible as a Main Sequence in the Colour-Magnitude Diagram; an intermediate age population (2-8 Gyr old); and an ancient population (> 10Gyr), which are distinguishable from each other kinematically, from the metallicity distribution and in the spatial distribution of stars found in the Colour-Magnitude Diagram. From our spectroscopic analysis we find that the ''metal rich'' stars ([Fe/H] > -1.3) show a less extended and more concentrated spatial distribution, and display a colder kinematics than the ''metal poor'' stars ([Fe/H] < -1.3). There is tentative evidence that the ancient stellar population in the center of Fornax does not exhibit equilibrium kinematics. This could be a sign of a relatively recent accretion of external material, such as the merger of another galaxy or other means of gas accretion at

  19. HST, UIT, and Groundbased Imaging of the Giant HII Regions in the Pinwheel Galaxy (Messier 33)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, W. H.; Hodge, P. W.; Stecher, T. P.

    1994-12-01

    At a distance of 0.84 Mpc, Messier 33 is the closest galaxy harboring giant HII regions of both low and high metallicity. As such, M33 provides the ideal laboratory for investigating the degree to which metal abundance affects stellar population at the high-mass end. Moreover, by comparing the resolvable constituents of M33's giant HII regions with the resulting composite colors and emission-line properties, one can establish benchmarks for interpreting the composite light from more distant starbursting systems. Through a coordinated combination of HST, UIT, and ground-based imaging, we have begun a program of comparing the resolved and composite properties of the giant HII regions in M33. Multiple-band images of 6 giant HII regions have been recently obtained with the HST/WFPC2. At a spatial resolution of 0.4 pc, these images show the central populations to be loosely clustered, unlike the densely packed population that is seen in 30 Doradus. Photometric measurement of the UV, U, B, and V-band images indicates the presence of some extremely hot and luminous stars in all 6 of the targeted HII regions. (Photometry and derived statistics of the stars in one such region is presented by E. Malumuth et al. as a Poster in this meeting.) Ground-based imaging at Hα and other visible bands provide composite spectral indices of the HII region's ionizing luminosity and effective temperature which can be compared with the stellar constituents that are resolved in the HST images. FUV and NUV imaging with the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope reveal diffuse knots of dust-scattered emission surrounding stellar cores, whose composite (FUV - NUV) colors provide sensitive information on the reddening. Comparison of the dereddened UV and Hα fluxes further constrain evolutionary models of the ionizing stellar populations, which in turn, can be checked against the resolved stellar properties. Progress on these investigations will be discussed.

  20. Ionizing photon budget: constraints from galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Östlin, Göran

    2015-08-01

    I will discuss the the production and propagation of ionizing photons in galaxies. Multi wavelength HST imaging and spectroscopy of local starbursts, including candidate Lyman continuum leakers, from the UV to the i-band plus Halpha and Hbeta are used to investigate where ionizing protons are produced and absorbed. We add IFU data, e.g. from MUSE, to further constrain the optical depth to Lyman continuum photons. I will further discuss rest frame UV observations of galaxies at higher redshifts, and their implications for the ionizing photon budget.

  1. THE LYMAN ALPHA MORPHOLOGY OF LOCAL STARBURST GALAXIES: RELEASE OF CALIBRATED IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Oestlin, Goeran; Hayes, Matthew; Kunth, Daniel; Atek, Hakim; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Leitherer, Claus; Petrosian, Artashes E-mail: matthew.hayes@unige.ch

    2009-09-15

    We present reduced and calibrated high resolution Lyman-alpha (Ly{alpha}) images for a sample of six local star-forming galaxies. Targets were selected to represent a range in luminosity and metallicity and to include both known Ly{alpha} emitters and nonemitters. Far ultraviolet imaging was carried out with the Solar Blind Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in the F122M (Ly{alpha} online) and F140LP (continuum) filters. The resulting Ly{alpha} images are the product of careful modeling of both the stellar and nebular continua, facilitated by supporting HST imaging at {lambda} {approx} 2200, 3300, 4400, 5500, H{alpha}, and 8000 A, combined with Starburst 99 evolutionary synthesis models, and prescriptions for dust extinction on the continuum. In all, the resulting morphologies in Ly{alpha}, H{alpha}, and UV continuum are qualitatively very different and we show that the bulk of Ly{alpha} emerges in a diffuse component resulting from resonant scattering events. Ly{alpha} escape fractions, computed from integrated H{alpha} luminosities and recombination theory, are found never to exceed 14%. Internal dust extinction is estimated in each pixel and used to correct Ly{alpha} fluxes. However, the extinction corrections are far too small (by factors from 2.6 to infinity) to reconcile the emerging global Ly{alpha} luminosities with standard recombination predictions. Surprisingly, when comparing the global equivalent widths of Ly{alpha} and H{alpha}, the two quantities appear to be anticorrelated, which may be due to the evolution of mechanical feedback from the starburst. This calls for caution in the interpretation of Ly{alpha} observations in terms of star formation rates. The images presented have a physical resolution 3 orders of magnitude better than attainable at high redshifts from the ground with current instrumentation and our images may therefore serve as useful templates for comparing with observations and modeling of

  2. On the properties of the interstellar medium in extremely metal-poor blue compact dwarf galaxies. A VIMOS-IFU study of the cometary galaxy and Ly α absorber Tol 65

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, P.; Demarco, R.; Papaderos, P.; Telles, E.; Nigoche-Netro, A.; Humphrey, A.; Roche, N.; Gomes, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we present high-resolution VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph integral field unit spectroscopy (VIMOS-IFU) of the extremely metal-poor H II/blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy Tol 65. The optical appearance of this galaxy shows clearly a cometary morphology with a bright main body and an extended and diffuse stellar tail. We focus on the detection of metallicity gradients or inhomogeneities as expected if the ongoing star formation activity is sustained by the infall/accretion of metal-poor gas. No evidences of significant spatial variations of abundances were found within our uncertainties. However, our findings show a slight anticorrelation between gas metallicity and star formation rate at spaxel scales, in the sense that high star formation is found in regions of low metallicity, but the scatter in this relation indicates that the metals are almost fully diluted. Our observations show the presence of extended Hα emission in the stellar tail of the galaxy. We estimated that the mass of the ionized gas in the tail M(H II)tail ˜1.7 × 105 M⊙ corresponds with ˜24 per cent of the total mass of the ionized gas in the galaxy. We found that the Hα velocity dispersion of the main body and the tail of the galaxy are comparable with the one found in the neutral gas by previous studies. This suggests that the ionized gas still retains the kinematic memory of its parental cloud and likely a common origin. Finally, we suggest that the infall/accretion of cold gas from the outskirts of the galaxy and/or minor merger/interaction may have produced the almost flat abundance gradient and the cometary morphology in Tol 65.

  3. High Resolution Radio Imaging of the Merging Galaxies NGC3256 and NGC4194

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, S. G.; Campion, S. D.; Ulvestad, J. S.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present new 6cm and 4cm radio continuum images of the central regions of the merging galaxy systems NGC3256 and NGC4194. NGC3256 is imaged with a resolution of approx. 1 in. or approx. 190pc; NGC4194 is imaged with a resolution of approx. 0.3 in. or approx. 50pc. In both systems, we detect numerous compact radio sources embedded in more diffuse radio emission. We detect 65 compact sources in NGC3256 at 6cm and we detect 46 compact sources in NGC4194, both to a limiting luminosity of approx. 5 x 10(exp 18) W/ Hz or approx. 5 times the luminosity of Cas A. Most of the compact radio sources are loosely associated with active star forming regions but not with specific optical emission sources. Several compact radio sources in NGC3256 are near positions of compact X-ray sources detected by Lira et al.. In both NGC3256 and NGC4194, we are able to measure reliable spectral indices for the stronger sources. We find in NGC3256 approx. 20% have nominally flat radio spectral indices (indicating they are dominated by thermal radio emission from HII regions) while approx. 80% have nominally steep spectral indices (indicating they are dominated by nonthermal emission from supernova remnants). In NGC4194, half the compact radio sources have flat spectral indices and half have steep indices. For the flat-spectrum sources, we estimate the number of young massive stars and the associated ionized gas masses. For the steep-spectrum sources, we estimate supernova rates. We compare these results with those from other well-studied merging galaxy systems. We gratefully acknowledge use of the NRAO Very Large Array (VLA) and the VLA Archive. NRAO is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  4. Highest Redshift Image of Neutral Hydrogen in Emission: A CHILES Detection of a Starbursting Galaxy at z = 0.376

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Ximena; Gim, Hansung B.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Yun, Min S.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Popping, Attila; Chomiuk, Laura; Hess, Kelley M.; Hunt, Lucas; Kreckel, Kathryn; Lucero, Danielle; Maddox, Natasha; Oosterloo, Tom; Pisano, D. J.; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Hales, Christopher A.; Chung, Aeree; Dodson, Richard; Golap, Kumar; Gross, Julia; Henning, Patricia; Hibbard, John; Jaffé, Yara L.; Donovan Meyer, Jennifer; Meyer, Martin; Sanchez-Barrantes, Monica; Schiminovich, David; Wicenec, Andreas; Wilcots, Eric; Bershady, Matthew; Scoville, Nick; Strader, Jay; Tremou, Evangelia; Salinas, Ricardo; Chávez, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    Our current understanding of galaxy evolution still has many uncertainties associated with the details of the accretion, processing, and removal of gas across cosmic time. The next generation of radio telescopes will image the neutral hydrogen (H i) in galaxies over large volumes at high redshifts, which will provide key insights into these processes. We are conducting the COSMOS H i Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES) with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, which is the first survey to simultaneously observe H i from z = 0 to z ∼ 0.5. Here, we report the highest redshift H i 21 cm detection in emission to date of the luminous infrared galaxy COSMOS J100054.83+023126.2 at z = 0.376 with the first 178 hr of CHILES data. The total H i mass is (2.9 ± 1.0) × 1010 M ⊙ and the spatial distribution is asymmetric and extends beyond the galaxy. While optically the galaxy looks undisturbed, the H i distribution suggests an interaction with a candidate companion. In addition, we present follow-up Large Millimeter Telescope CO observations that show it is rich in molecular hydrogen, with a range of possible masses of (1.8–9.9) × 1010 M ⊙. This is the first study of the H i and CO in emission for a single galaxy beyond z ∼ 0.2.

  5. Highest Redshift Image of Neutral Hydrogen in Emission: A CHILES Detection of a Starbursting Galaxy at z = 0.376

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Ximena; Gim, Hansung B.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Yun, Min S.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Popping, Attila; Chomiuk, Laura; Hess, Kelley M.; Hunt, Lucas; Kreckel, Kathryn; Lucero, Danielle; Maddox, Natasha; Oosterloo, Tom; Pisano, D. J.; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Hales, Christopher A.; Chung, Aeree; Dodson, Richard; Golap, Kumar; Gross, Julia; Henning, Patricia; Hibbard, John; Jaffé, Yara L.; Donovan Meyer, Jennifer; Meyer, Martin; Sanchez-Barrantes, Monica; Schiminovich, David; Wicenec, Andreas; Wilcots, Eric; Bershady, Matthew; Scoville, Nick; Strader, Jay; Tremou, Evangelia; Salinas, Ricardo; Chávez, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    Our current understanding of galaxy evolution still has many uncertainties associated with the details of the accretion, processing, and removal of gas across cosmic time. The next generation of radio telescopes will image the neutral hydrogen (H i) in galaxies over large volumes at high redshifts, which will provide key insights into these processes. We are conducting the COSMOS H i Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES) with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, which is the first survey to simultaneously observe H i from z = 0 to z ˜ 0.5. Here, we report the highest redshift H i 21 cm detection in emission to date of the luminous infrared galaxy COSMOS J100054.83+023126.2 at z = 0.376 with the first 178 hr of CHILES data. The total H i mass is (2.9 ± 1.0) × 1010 M ⊙ and the spatial distribution is asymmetric and extends beyond the galaxy. While optically the galaxy looks undisturbed, the H i distribution suggests an interaction with a candidate companion. In addition, we present follow-up Large Millimeter Telescope CO observations that show it is rich in molecular hydrogen, with a range of possible masses of (1.8–9.9) × 1010 M ⊙. This is the first study of the H i and CO in emission for a single galaxy beyond z ˜ 0.2.

  6. Multispectral metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Grant, J; McCrindle, I J H; Li, C; Cumming, D R S

    2014-03-01

    We present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a multispectral metamaterial absorber (MSMMA) and show that we can realize a simple absorber structure that operates in the mid-IR and terahertz (THz) bands. By embedding an IR metamaterial absorber layer into a standard THz metamaterial absorber stack, a narrowband resonance is induced at a wavelength of 4.3 μm. This resonance is in addition to the THz metamaterial absorption resonance at 109 μm (2.75 THz). We demonstrate the inherent scalability and versatility of our MSMMA by describing a second device whereby the MM-induced IR absorption peak frequency is tuned by varying the IR absorber geometry. Such a MSMMA could be coupled with a suitable sensor and formed into a focal plane array, enabling multispectral imaging. PMID:24690713

  7. a Dark Galaxy in the Virgo Cluster Imaged at 21-CM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minchin, R.; Disney, M. J.; Davies, J. I.; Marble, A. R.; Impey, C. D.; Boyce, P. J.; Garcia, D. A.; Grossi, M.; Jordan, C. A.; Lang, R. H.; Roberts, S.; Sabatini, S.; van Driel, W.

    Dark Matter supposedly dominates the extragalactic Universe (Peebles 1993; Peacock 1998; Moore et al. 1999; D'Onghi & Lake 2004), yet no dark structure of galactic proportions has ever been convincingly identified. Earlier (Minchin et al. 2005) we suggested that VIRGOHI 21, a 21-cm source we found in the Virgo Cluster at Jodrell Bank using single-dish observations (Davies et al. 2004), was probably such a dark galaxy because of its broad line-width (~200 km s-1) unaccompanied by any visible gravitational source to account for it. We have now imaged VIRGOHI 21 in the neutral-hydrogen line, and have found what appears to be a dark, edge-on, spinning disc with the mass and diameter of a typical spiral galaxy. Moreover the disc has unquestionably interacted with NGC 4254, a luminous spiral with an odd one-armed morphology, but lacking the massive interactor normally linked with such a feature. Published numerical models (Vollmer et al. 2005) of NGC 4254 call for a close interaction ~108 years ago with a perturber of ~1011 solar masses. This we take as further, independent evidence for the massive nature of VIRGOHI 21.

  8. High resolution H i imaging of VIRGOHI 21 - a dark galaxy in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minchin, R. F.; Davies, J. I.; Disney, M. J.; Marble, A. R.; Impey, C. D.; Boyce, P. J.; Garcia, D. A.; Grossi, M.; Jordan, C. A.; Lang, R. H.; Roberts, S.; Sabatini, S.; van Driel, W.

    2005-12-01

    Dark Matter supposedly dominates the extragalactic Universe, yet no totally dark structure of galactic proportions has ever been convincingly identified. Minchin et al. (2005) suggested that VIRGOHI 21, a 21-cm source found in the Virgo Cluster by Davies et al. (2004), was probably such a dark galaxy because of its broad line-width ( ˜ 200 km s-1) unaccompanied by any visible massive object to account for it. We have now imaged VIRGOHI 21 in the neutral hydrogen line, and indeed we find what appears to be a dark, edge-on, spinning disk with the mass and diameter of a typical spiral galaxy. We also find that there is an indubitable interaction with NGC 4254, a luminous spiral with an odd one-armed morphology but lacking the massive interactor normally linked with such a feature. Published numerical models of NGC 4254 call for a close interaction ˜ 108 years ago with a perturber of ˜ 1011 M⊙. This we take as further, independent evidence for the massive nature of VIRGOHI 21. The Arecibo Observatory is part of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, which is operated by Cornell University under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation

  9. Alignments of radio galaxies in deep radio imaging of ELAIS N1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, A. R.; Jagannathan, P.

    2016-06-01

    We present a study of the distribution of radio jet position angles of radio galaxies over an area of 1 square degree in the ELAIS N1 field. ELAIS N1 was observed with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 612 MHz to an rms noise level of 10 μJy and angular resolution of 6 arcsec × 5 arcsec. The image contains 65 resolved radio galaxy jets. The spatial distribution reveals a prominent alignment of jet position angles along a `filament' of about 1°. We examine the possibility that the apparent alignment arises from an underlying random distribution and find that the probability of chance alignment is less than 0.1 per cent. An angular covariance analysis of the data indicates the presence of spatially coherence in position angles on scales >0 .^{circ}5. This angular scales translates to a comoving scale of >20 Mpc at a redshift of 1. The implied alignment of the spin axes of massive black holes that give rise to the radio jets suggest the presence of large-scale spatial coherence in angular momentum. Our results reinforce prior evidence for large-scale spatial alignments of quasar optical polarization position angles.

  10. THE AzTEC/SMA INTERFEROMETRIC IMAGING SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER-SELECTED HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Younger, Joshua D.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Huang Jiasheng; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Petitpas, Glen R.; Wilner, David J.; Yun, Min S.; Wilson, Grant W.; Scott, Kimberly S.; Austermann, Jason; Perera, Thushara; Peck, Alison B.; Hughes, David H.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Kim, Sungeun; Lowenthal, James D.

    2009-10-10

    We present results from a continuing interferometric survey of high-redshift submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with the Submillimeter Array, including high-resolution (beam size approx2 arcsec) imaging of eight additional AzTEC 1.1 mm selected sources in the COSMOS field, for which we obtain six reliable (peak signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) >5 or peak S/N >4 with multiwavelength counterparts within the beam) and two moderate significance (peak S/N >4) detections. When combined with previous detections, this yields an unbiased sample of millimeter-selected SMGs with complete interferometric follow up. With this sample in hand, we (1) empirically confirm the radio-submillimeter association, (2) examine the submillimeter morphology-including the nature of SMGs with multiple radio counterparts and constraints on the physical scale of the far infrared-of the sample, and (3) find additional evidence for a population of extremely luminous, radio-dim SMGs that peaks at higher redshift than previous, radio-selected samples. In particular, the presence of such a population of high-redshift sources has important consequences for models of galaxy formation-which struggle to account for such objects even under liberal assumptions-and dust production models given the limited time since the big bang.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope imaging of a radio-quiet galaxy at redshift z = 3.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giavalisco, Mauro; Macchetto, F. Duccio; Madau, Piero; Sparks, William B.

    1995-01-01

    We have observed with the Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) a radio-quiet Ly alpha-emitting galaxy at redshift z = 3.428 (G2 below). The images probe the rest-frame UV light around 1250 A with an angular resolution of approx. = 0.1 sec, corresponding to 1.4 h(exp -1, sub 50) kpc at redshift z = 3.4 (in this Letter we use q(sub 0) = 0 and H(sub 0) = 50 h(exp -1, sub 50) km/s/Mpc). The light profile of the central approx. 10h(exp -1, sub 50) kpc region is well fitted by an r(exp 1/4) law with r(sub e) approx. = 1.3 h(exp -1, sub 50) kpc, suggesting a dynamically relaxed state. The outer regions are characterized by the presence of substructures, such as an elongated formation and low surface brightness nebulosities. The isophotal analysis shows no evidence of an active galactic nuclei (AGN)-like unresolved source in the center. The structural properties of G2 are consistent with a dynamically hot stellar system observed during an early phase of star formation, very likely the progenitor of an elliptical or the bulge of a spiral galaxy.

  12. Galaxies in southern bright star fields. I. Near-infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Andrew J.; Davies, Richard I.; Lehnert, M. D.; Thatte, N. A.; Vacca, W. D.; Hainaut, O. R.; Jarvis, M. J.; Miley, G. K.; Röttgering, H. J. A.

    2003-08-01

    As a prerequisite for cosmological studies using adaptive optics techniques, we have begun to identify and characterize faint sources in the vicinity of bright stars at high Galactic latitudes. The initial phase of this work has been a program of Ks imaging conducted with SOFI at the ESO NTT. From observations of 42 southern fields evenly divided between the spring and autumn skies, we have identified 391 additional stars and 1589 galaxies lying at separations Delta theta <= 60arcsec from candidate guide stars in the magnitude range 9.0 <= R <= 12.4. When analyzed as a ``discrete deep field'' with 131 arcmin2 area, our dataset gives galaxy number counts that agree with those derived previously over the range 16 <= Ks < 20.5. This consistency indicates that in the aggregate, our fields should be suitable for future statistical studies. We provide our source catalogue as a resource for users of large telescopes in the southern hemisphere. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, for programmes 66.A-0361 and 68.A-0440. The entirety of Table \\ref{t-src} is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/406/593}

  13. VLT/X-SHOOTER NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY AND HST IMAGING OF GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED z ∼ 2 COMPACT QUIESCENT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Geier, S.; Man, A. W. S.; Krühler, T.; Toft, S.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Richard, J.; Marchesini, D.

    2013-11-10

    Quiescent massive galaxies at z ∼ 2 are thought to be the progenitors of present-day massive ellipticals. Observations revealed them to be extraordinarily compact. Until now, the determination of stellar ages, star formation rates, and dust properties via spectroscopic measurements has been feasible only for the most luminous and massive specimens (∼3 × M*). Here we present a spectroscopic study of two near-infrared-selected galaxies that are close to the characteristic stellar mass M* (∼0.9 × M* and ∼1.3 × M*) and whose observed brightness has been boosted by the gravitational lensing effect. We measure the redshifts of the two galaxies to be z = 1.71 ± 0.02 and z = 2.15 ± 0.01. By fitting stellar population synthesis models to their spectrophotometric spectral energy distributions we determine their ages to be 2.4{sup +0.8}{sub -0.6} Gyr and 1.7 ± 0.3 Gyr, respectively, which implies that the two galaxies have higher mass-to-light ratios than most quiescent z ∼ 2 galaxies in other studies. We find no direct evidence for active star formation or active galactic nucleus activity in either of the two galaxies, based on the non-detection of emission lines. Based on the derived redshifts and stellar ages we estimate the formation redshifts to be z=4.3{sup +3.4}{sub -1.2} and z=4.3{sup +1.0}{sub -0.6}, respectively. We use the increased spatial resolution due to the gravitational lensing to derive constraints on the morphology. Fitting Sérsic profiles to the de-lensed images of the two galaxies confirms their compactness, with one of them being spheroid-like and the other providing the first confirmation of a passive lenticular galaxy at a spectroscopically derived redshift of z ∼ 2.

  14. Deep IRAC Imaging Lensing Galaxy Clusters for JWST 'First Light' Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haojing; Conselice, Christopher; Windhorst, Rogier; Cohen, Seth; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Zitrin, Adi; Broadhurst, Tom; Frye, Brenda; Driver, Simon; Robotham, Aaron; Hopkins, Andrew; Wyithe, Staurt; Jansen, Rolf; Hathi, Nimish; Mechtley, Matthew; Ryan, Russell; Rutkowski, Michael; Finkelstein, Steven; Koekemoer, Anton

    2016-08-01

    JWST has a key goal to search for First Light objects beyond z>10. Our 110-hr JWST GTO program, 'Webb Medium-Deep Fields' (WMDF), will target both blank and lensed fields to probe both the bright and the faint ends of the galaxy luminosity function at z > 10. While a number of well studied lensing clusters exist, not all of them are optimal for the JWST search of First Light objects, either because of their low Ecliptic latitudes (and hence high Zodiacal background) or because of their strong intra-cluster light (ICL) at the critical curve regions corresponding to the redshifts of interest. For this reason, our WMDF candidate lensing targets will include some recently discovered, high-mass (log[M/Msun] ~ 15) galaxy clusters, which we choose either because of their high Ecliptic latitude (beta > 40 deg) or because of their extreme compactness that minimizes the impact of the ICL. As part of our effort to collect ancillary data for these new systems to finalize the target list, we propose IRAC observations for 13 of them that are lacking sufficient data. These 3.6/4.5um data will be critical for our guaranteed JWST program: (1) they will greatly facilitate the modeling of the straylight that JWST will suffer in 1--5 um (the key range to search for z>10--20 objects), a problem that has recently been identified. If left untreated, such straylight components would severely hamper the detection of faint sources in a lensing field. The JWST observations alone would be difficult to separate the ICL from the straylight at the level needed. (2) the new 3.6/4.5um data will best match our deep optical imaging and spectroscopy at HST, Gemini, LBT and MMT. We will derive accurate photometric redshifts for any lensed background galaxies (at z<6) and most member galaxies in the outskirts, which will be critical in refining the mass profile through strong/weak lensing analysis. Finally, we note that these data will be highly valuable for the study of these clusters themselves

  15. A ground-based imaging study of galaxies causing damped Lyman α (DLA), sub-DLA and Lyman limit system absorption in quasar spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Sandhya M.; Belfort-Mihalyi, Michèle; Turnshek, David A.; Monier, Eric M.; Nestor, Daniel B.; Quider, Anna

    2011-09-01

    We present results from a search for galaxies that give rise to damped Lyman α (DLA), sub-DLA and Lyman limit system (LLS) absorption at redshifts 0.1 ≲z≲ 1 in the spectra of background quasars. The sample was formed from a larger sample of strong Mg II absorbers (Wλ27960≥ 0.3 Å) whose H I column densities were determined by measuring the Lyα line in Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectra. Photometric redshifts, galaxy colours and proximity to the quasar sightline, in decreasing order of importance, were used to identify galaxies responsible for the absorption. Our sample includes 80 absorption systems for which the absorbing galaxies have been identified, of which 54 are presented here for the first time. In some cases a reasonable identification for the absorbing galaxy could not be made. The main results of this study are (i) the surface density of galaxies falls off exponentially with increasing impact parameter, b, from the quasar sightline relative to a constant background of galaxies, with an e-folding length of ≈46 kpc. Galaxies with b≳ 100 kpc calculated at the absorption redshift are statistically consistent with being unrelated to the absorption system, and are either background or foreground galaxies. (ii) ? is inversely correlated with b at the 3.0σ level of significance. DLA galaxies are found systematically closer to the quasar sightline, by a factor of 2, than are galaxies which give rise to sub-DLAs or LLSs. The median impact parameter is 17.4 kpc for the DLA galaxy sample, 33.3 kpc for the sub-DLA sample and 36.4 kpc for the LLS sample. We also find that the decline in ? with b can be roughly described by an exponential with an e-folding length of 12 kpc that occurs at ?. (iii) Absorber galaxy luminosity relative to L*, L/L*, is not significantly correlated with Wλ27960, ? or b. (iv) DLA, sub-DLA and LLS galaxies comprise a mix of spectral types, but are inferred to be predominantly late-type galaxies based on their spectral

  16. Deep Fabry-Perot imaging of NGC 6240: Kinematic evidence for merging galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthorn, J. Bland; Wilson, A. S.; Tully, R. B.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have observed the superluminous, infrared galaxy NGC 6240 (z = 0.025) at H alpha with the Hawaii Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (HIFI - Bland and Tully 1989). During the past decade, observational evidence from all wavebands indicates that the unusual appearance of NGC 6240 has resulted from a collision between two gas-rich systems, a view which is supported by our spectrophotometric data. However, the origin of the enormous infrared luminosity (4 times 10(exp 11) solar luminosity) detected by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) remains highly controversial, where opinions differ on the relative roles of large-scale shocks, massive star formation or a buried 'active' nucleus. These mechanisms are discussed in the light of the author's Fabry-Perot observations.

  17. Particle accelerators in the hot spots of radio galaxy 3C 445, imaged with the VLT.

    PubMed

    Prieto, M Almudena; Brunetti, Gianfranco; Mack, Karl-Heinz

    2002-10-01

    Hot spots (HSs) are regions of enhanced radio emission produced by supersonic jets at the tip of the radio lobes of powerful radio sources. Obtained with the Very Large Telescope (VLT), images of the HSs in the radio galaxy 3C 445 show bright knots embedded in diffuse optical emission distributed along the post-shock region created by the impact of the jet into the intergalactic medium. The observations reported here confirm that relativistic electrons are accelerated by Fermi-I acceleration processes in HSs. Furthermore, both the diffuse emission tracing the rims of the front shock and the multiple knots demonstrate the presence of additional continuous re-acceleration processes of electrons (Fermi-II). PMID:12364799

  18. Halpha LEGUS: An Halpha Imaging Survey of Nearby Galaxies with HST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Janice C.; Chandar, Rupali; Krumholz, Mark R.; Thilker, David A.; Bright, Stacey N.; Halpha LEGUS

    2016-06-01

    We present first results from the Halpha LEGUS program, an HST narrowband survey of 30 nearby galaxies aimed at probing the relationship between young stars and the warm ionized interstellar medium (ISM). The superb resolution of HST enables the study of HII regions on the parsec scales where feedback from massive stellar populations is injected into the ISM. The span of the sample, which covers a large range in morphology, star formation rate, stellar mass, metallicity, and interaction state, allows for exploration of the possible dependencies of HII region evolution on galactic environment. We give an overview of the sample, observations, and initial characterization of HII region properties, all of which build on the foundation of HST NUV, U, B, V, I imaging obtained by the parent Legacy ExtraGalactic Ultraviolet Survey.

  19. Observational constraints on the nature of low redshift Lyα absorbers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Brun, V.; Bergeron, J.; Boisse, P.

    1996-02-01

    We present results from a spectroscopic and imaging survey of galaxies in the fields of quasars from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Quasar Absorption Line Key Project. The aim of this survey is to identify galaxies within 3.5' from the quasar sightline, to a limiting, integrated r-band magnitude m_r_=22.5. The data are then compared to the HST homogeneous sample of Lyα-only absorbers in order to put constraints on the nature of these absorbers, and in particular on their relation to galaxies. We have obtained spectra for 81 objects in three quasar fields and identified 66 galaxies (success rate of 81%) at redshifts in the range z=0.0500-0.7974, and at linear impact parameters to the quasar sightlines spanning D=57-2380h_50_^-1^kpc. Among these galaxies, 19 are at less than 750km/s from a Lyα absorber, and only one clearly does not give rise to any absorption. Three other galaxies are at the redshifts of metal-rich absorption systems, of which one belongs to a cluster with altogether 19 identified galaxies at the quasar redshift. The analysis of our sample combined with those of previous studies shows that: 1) the redshift agreements of the Lyα absorber-galaxy associations cannot be due to chance coincidence; 2) there is no clear anti-correlation between the Lyα rest-frame equivalent width and the impact parameter for the whole sample (w_r, min_=0.10A). When only the strongest lines are considered (w_r_>=0.24A), w_r_(Lyα) and D are marginally anti-correlated. Lanzetta et al. (1995) found a stronger anti-correlation which could be due, at least in part, to the existence of metal-rich absorbers in their sample. Our results suggest that most Lyα absorbers are not gaseous clouds that belong in a strict sense to galaxies, as is the case for MgII absorbers. The size of Lyα galactic halos can be inferred from the variation with D of the fraction of associations to the total number of galaxies at impact parameters < D. This fraction drops from 1 to ~0.65 at D~200h

  20. Galaxy NGC 4013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    An amazing 'edge-on' view of a spiral galaxy 55 million light years from Earth has been captured by the Hubble Space Telescope. The image, available at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/pictures/wfpc , reveals in great detail huge clouds of dust and gas extending along and above the galaxy's main disk.

    The image was taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, which was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    The galaxy, called NGC 4013, lies in the direction of the constellation Ursa Major. If we could see it pole-on, it would look like a nearly circular pinwheel. In this Hubble image, NGC 4013 is seen edge-on, from our vantage point. Because the galaxy is larger than Hubble's field of view, the image shows only a little more than half the object, but with unprecedented detail.

    Dark clouds of interstellar dust stand out, since they absorb the light of background stars. Most of the clouds lie in the galaxy's plane and form the dark band, about 500 light years thick, that appears to cut the galaxy in two from upper right to lower left. Scientists believe that new stars form in dark interstellar clouds. NGC 4013 shows several examples of these stellar kindergartens near the center of the image, in front of the dark band along the galaxy's equator. One extremely bright star near the upper left corner is merely a nearby foreground star that lies in our Milky Way and happened to be in the line of sight.

    This new picture was constructed from Hubble images taken in January 2000 by Dr. J. Christopher Howk of Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., and Dr. Blair D. Savage of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Images taken through three different filters have been combined into a color composite covering the region of the galaxy nucleus (behind the bright foreground star at the upper left) and extending along one edge of the galaxy to the lower right.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md., manages space

  1. Keck spectroscopy and imaging of globular clusters in the lenticular galaxy NGC 524

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Michael A.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Brodie, Jean P.; Kissler-Patig, Markus

    2004-02-01

    We have obtained Keck Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer imaging and spectra for 29 globular clusters associated with the lenticular galaxy NGC 524. Using the empirical calibration of Brodie & Huchra we find that our spectroscopic sample spans a metallicity range of -2.0 <=[Fe/H]<= 0. We have compared the composite spectrum of the metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -1) and metal-rich clusters with stellar population models in order to estimate the ages of the NGC 524 globular clusters. We conclude that the clusters are generally old, and are coeval at the 2σ confidence level. To determine the mean [α/Fe] ratios of the globular clusters, we have employed the Milone et al. α-enhanced stellar population models. We verified the reliability of these models by comparing them with high signal-to-noise Galactic globular cluster spectra. We observe a weak trend of decreasing [α/Fe] ratios with increasing metallicity in the NGC 524 clusters; the metal-poor clusters possess [α/Fe]~0.3, whilst the metal-rich clusters exhibit [α/Fe] ratios closer to solar-scaled values. Analysis of the cluster system kinematics reveals that the full sample (excluding an outlying cluster) exhibits a rotation of 114 +/- 60 km s-1 around a position angle of 22°+/- 27°, and a velocity dispersion of 186 +/- 29 km s-1 at a mean radius of 89 arcsec from the galaxy centre. Subdividing the clusters into metal-poor and metal-rich subcomponents (at [Fe/H]=-1.0), we find that the metal-poor (17) clusters and metal-rich (11) clusters have similar velocity dispersions (197 +/- 40 and 169 +/- 47 km s-1, respectively). However, the metal-poor clusters dominate the rotation in our sample with 147 +/- 75 km s-1, whilst the metal-rich clusters show no significant rotation (68 +/- 84 km s-1). We derive a virial and projected mass estimation for NGC 524 of between 4 and 13 × 1011 Msolar (depending on the assumed orbital distribution) interior to ~2 effective radii of this galaxy.

  2. Self-imaging of transparent objects and structures in focusing of spatially phase-modulated laser radiation into a weakly absorbing medium

    SciTech Connect

    Bubis, E L

    2011-06-30

    Self-imaging of transparent objects and structures in focusing of a spatially phase-modulated laser beam into an extended weakly absorbing medium is described. The laser power level that is necessary for effective imaging corresponds to the illuminating beam power when thermal self-defocusing starts evolving in the medium. The effect can be described in terms of the ideology of Zernike's classical phase-contrast method. Edge enhancement in visualised images of transparent objects is experimentally demonstrated. Self-imaging of a microscopic object in the form of transparent letters and long-lived refractive-index fluctuations in liquid glycerol is shown. Due to the adaptivity of the process under consideration, unlike the classical case, self-imaging occurs also in the situations where a beam is displaced (undergoes random walk) as a whole in the Fourier plane, for example, in the presence of thermal flows. (image processing)

  3. A 3D Monte Carlo Method for Estimation of Patient-specific Internal Organs Absorbed Dose for (99m)Tc-hynic-Tyr(3)-octreotide Imaging.

    PubMed

    Momennezhad, Mehdi; Nasseri, Shahrokh; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Parach, Ali Asghar; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Asl, Ruhollah Ghahraman

    2016-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based tracers are easily available and more widely used than positron emission tomography (PET)-based tracers, and SPECT imaging still remains the most prevalent nuclear medicine imaging modality worldwide. The aim of this study is to implement an image-based Monte Carlo method for patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) absorbed dose calculation in patients after injection of (99m)Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide (hynic)-Tyr(3)-octreotide as a SPECT radiotracer. (99m)Tc patient-specific S values and the absorbed doses were calculated with GATE code for each source-target organ pair in four patients who were imaged for suspected neuroendocrine tumors. Each patient underwent multiple whole-body planar scans as well as SPECT imaging over a period of 1-24 h after intravenous injection of (99m)hynic-Tyr(3)-octreotide. The patient-specific S values calculated by GATE Monte Carlo code and the corresponding S values obtained by MIRDOSE program differed within 4.3% on an average for self-irradiation, and differed within 69.6% on an average for cross-irradiation. However, the agreement between total organ doses calculated by GATE code and MIRDOSE program for all patients was reasonably well (percentage difference was about 4.6% on an average). Normal and tumor absorbed doses calculated with GATE were slightly higher than those calculated with MIRDOSE program. The average ratio of GATE absorbed doses to MIRDOSE was 1.07 ± 0.11 (ranging from 0.94 to 1.36). According to the results, it is proposed that when cross-organ irradiation is dominant, a comprehensive approach such as GATE Monte Carlo dosimetry be used since it provides more reliable dosimetric results. PMID:27134562

  4. A 3D Monte Carlo Method for Estimation of Patient-specific Internal Organs Absorbed Dose for 99mTc-hynic-Tyr3-octreotide Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Momennezhad, Mehdi; Nasseri, Shahrokh; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Parach, Ali Asghar; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Asl, Ruhollah Ghahraman

    2016-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based tracers are easily available and more widely used than positron emission tomography (PET)-based tracers, and SPECT imaging still remains the most prevalent nuclear medicine imaging modality worldwide. The aim of this study is to implement an image-based Monte Carlo method for patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) absorbed dose calculation in patients after injection of 99mTc-hydrazinonicotinamide (hynic)-Tyr3-octreotide as a SPECT radiotracer. 99mTc patient-specific S values and the absorbed doses were calculated with GATE code for each source-target organ pair in four patients who were imaged for suspected neuroendocrine tumors. Each patient underwent multiple whole-body planar scans as well as SPECT imaging over a period of 1-24 h after intravenous injection of 99mhynic-Tyr3-octreotide. The patient-specific S values calculated by GATE Monte Carlo code and the corresponding S values obtained by MIRDOSE program differed within 4.3% on an average for self-irradiation, and differed within 69.6% on an average for cross-irradiation. However, the agreement between total organ doses calculated by GATE code and MIRDOSE program for all patients was reasonably well (percentage difference was about 4.6% on an average). Normal and tumor absorbed doses calculated with GATE were slightly higher than those calculated with MIRDOSE program. The average ratio of GATE absorbed doses to MIRDOSE was 1.07 ± 0.11 (ranging from 0.94 to 1.36). According to the results, it is proposed that when cross-organ irradiation is dominant, a comprehensive approach such as GATE Monte Carlo dosimetry be used since it provides more reliable dosimetric results. PMID:27134562

  5. INVESTIGATING THE CORE MORPHOLOGY-SEYFERT CLASS RELATIONSHIP WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ARCHIVAL IMAGES OF LOCAL SEYFERT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, M. J.; Hegel, P. R.; Kim, Hwihyun; Windhorst, R. A.; Tamura, Kazuyuki

    2013-07-01

    The unified model of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has provided a successful explanation for the observed diversity of AGNs in the local universe. However, recent analysis of multi-wavelength spectral and image data suggests that the unified model is only a partial theory of AGNs, and may need to be augmented to remain consistent with all observations. Recent studies using high spatial resolution ground- and space-based observations of local AGNs show that Seyfert class and the ''core'' (r {approx}< 1 kpc) host-galaxy morphology are correlated. Currently, this relationship has only been established qualitatively, by visual inspection of the core morphologies of low-redshift (z < 0.035) Seyfert host galaxies. We re-establish this empirical relationship in Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging by visual inspection of a catalog of 85 local (D < 63 Mpc) Seyfert galaxies. We also attempt to re-establish the core morphology-Seyfert class relationship using an automated, non-parametric technique that combines both existing classification parameter methods (the adapted CAS and G-M {sub 20}) and a new method which implements the Source Extractor software for feature detection in unsharp-mask images. This new method is designed explicitly to detect dust features in the images. We use our automated approach to classify the morphology of the AGN cores and determine that Sy2 galaxies visually appear, on average, to have more dust features than Sy1. With the exception of this ''dustiness'' however, we do not measure a strong correlation between the dust morphology and the Seyfert class of the host galaxy using quantitative techniques. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of the unified model.

  6. Galaxies Collide to Create Hot, Huge Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This image of a pair of colliding galaxies called NGC 6240 shows them in a rare, short-lived phase of their evolution just before they merge into a single, larger galaxy. The prolonged, violent collision has drastically altered the appearance of both galaxies and created huge amounts of heat turning NGC 6240 into an 'infrared luminous' active galaxy.

    A rich variety of active galaxies, with different shapes, luminosities and radiation profiles exist. These galaxies may be related astronomers have suspected that they may represent an evolutionary sequence. By catching different galaxies in different stages of merging, a story emerges as one type of active galaxy changes into another. NGC 6240 provides an important 'missing link' in this process.

    This image was created from combined data from the infrared array camera of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope at 3.6 and 8.0 microns (red) and visible light from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (green and blue).

  7. GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS OF SPIRAL AND S0 GALAXIES: RESULTS FROM WIYN IMAGING OF NGC 1023, NGC 1055, NGC 7332, AND NGC 7339

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Michael D.; Dowell, Jessica L.; Rhode, Katherine L. E-mail: jlwind@astro.indiana.edu

    2012-10-01

    We present results from a study of the globular cluster (GC) systems of four spiral and S0 galaxies imaged as part of an ongoing wide-field survey of the GC systems of giant galaxies. The target galaxies-the SB0 galaxy NGC 1023, the SBb galaxy NGC 1055, and an isolated pair comprised of the Sbc galaxy NGC 7339 and the S0 galaxy NGC 7332-were observed in BVR filters with the WIYN 3.5 m telescope and Minimosaic camera. For two of the galaxies, we combined the WIYN imaging with previously published data from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Keck Observatory to help characterize the GC distribution in the central few kiloparsecs. We determine the radial distribution (surface density of GCs versus projected radius) of each galaxy's GC system and use it to calculate the total number of GCs (N{sub GC}). We find N{sub GC} = 490 {+-} 30, 210 {+-} 40, 175 {+-} 15, and 75 {+-} 10 for NGC 1023, NGC 1055, NGC 7332, and NGC 7339, respectively. We also calculate the GC specific frequency (N{sub GC} normalized by host galaxy luminosity or mass) and find values typical of those of the other spiral and E/S0 galaxies in the survey. The two lenticular galaxies have sufficient numbers of GC candidates for us to perform statistical tests for bimodality in the GC color distributions. We find evidence at a high confidence level (>95%) for two populations in the B - R distribution of the GC system of NGC 1023. We find weaker evidence for bimodality (>81% confidence) in the GC color distribution of NGC 7332. Finally, we identify eight GC candidates that may be associated with the Magellanic dwarf galaxy NGC 1023A, which is a satellite of NGC 1023.

  8. Proper motion of the Draco dwarf galaxy based on Hubble space telescope imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, Carlton; Piatek, Slawomir; Olszewski, Edward W. E-mail: piatek@physics.rutgers.edu

    2015-02-01

    We have measured the proper motion of the Draco dwarf galaxy using images at two epochs with a time baseline of about two years taken with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. Wide Field Channels 1 and 2 provide two adjacent fields, each containing a known QSO. The zero point for the proper motion is determined using both background galaxies and the QSOs and the two methods produce consistent measurements within each field. Averaging the results from the two fields gives a proper motion in the equatorial coordinate system of (μ{sub α},μ{sub δ})=(17.7±6.3,−22.1±6.3) mas century{sup −1} and in the Galactic coordinate system of (μ{sub ℓ},μ{sub b})=(−23.1±6.3,−16.3±6.3) mas century{sup −1}. Removing the contributions of the motion of the Sun and of the LSR to the measured proper motion yields a Galactic rest-frame proper motion of (μ{sub α}{sup Grf},μ{sub δ}{sup Grf})=(51.4±6.3,−18.7±6.3) mas century{sup −1} and (μ{sub ℓ}{sup Grf},μ{sub b}{sup Grf})=(−21.8±6.3,−50.1±6.3) mas century{sup −1}. The implied space velocity with respect to the Galactic center is (Π,Θ,Z)=(27±14,89±25,−212±20) km s{sup −1}. This velocity implies that the orbital inclination is 70{sup ∘}, with a 95% confidence interval of (59{sup ∘},80{sup ∘}), and that the plane of the orbit is consistent with that of the vast polar structure (VPOS) of Galactic satellite galaxies.

  9. A Machine-learning Model to Separate Stars and Galaxies in iPTF Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Adam; Kulkarni, Maya; Prince, Thomas A.; Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory

    2016-01-01

    The Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) is a dedicated time-domain survey optimized for the rapid characterization of fast transients. While significant efforts have been devoted to the development of software that quickly and reliably identifies new transients, there are currently no mechanisms to automatically classify these sources. The first component in deriving a classification is understanding whether or not the newly discovered transient is galactic or extragalactic in its origin. Here, we present our development of a new framework for classifying sources in iPTF reference images as either stars or galaxies. The framework utilizes the random forest algorithm and is trained with nearly 3 million sources that have Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra. The final optimized model achieves a cross-validation accuracy of ~96%, which represents a significant improvement over the automated classification provided by the SExtractor algorithm. This accuracy, while slightly worse than that provided by the SDSS photometric classifier, can be extended over the entire iPTF footprint, which covers >5000 deg^2 that have not been imaged by SDSS. Associating transients with galactic or extragalactic origin is the first step in delivering automated classifications of newly discovered transients.

  10. Image stacking analysis of SDSS galaxies with AKARI Far-Infrared Surveyor maps at 65 μm, 90 μm, and 140 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Taizo; Kashiwagi, Toshiya; Suto, Yasushi; Matsuura, Shuji; Doi, Yasuo; Takita, Satoshi; Ootsubo, Takafumi

    2016-04-01

    We perform image stacking analysis of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometric galaxies over the AKARI Far-Infrared Surveyor maps at 65 μm, 90 μm, and 140 μm. The resulting image profiles are decomposed into the central galaxy component (single term) and the nearby galaxy component (clustering term), as a function of the r-band magnitude, mr, of the central galaxy. We find that the mean far-infrared (FIR) flux of a galaxy with magnitude mr is well fitted with f^s_{90μ m}=13× 10^{0.306(18-m_{ r})} [mJy]. The FIR amplitude of the clustering term is consistent with that expected from the angular-correlation function of the SDSS galaxies, but galaxy morphology dependence needs to be taken into account for a more quantitative conclusion. We also fit the spectral energy distribution of stacked galaxies at 65 μm, 90 μm, and 140 μm, and derive a mean dust temperature of ˜30 K. This is consistent with the typical dust temperature of galaxies that are FIR luminous and individually detected.

  11. Sound Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  12. WFPC2 LRF Imaging of Emission-Line Nebulae in 3CR Radio Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privon, G. C.; O'Dea, C. P.; Baum, S. A.; Axon, D. J.; Kharb, P.; Buchanan, C. L.; Sparks, W.; Chiaberge, M.

    2008-04-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 Linear Ramp Filter images of high surface brightness emission lines (either [O II], [O III], or H α + [N II]) in 80 3CR radio sources. We overlay the emission-line images on high-resolution VLA radio images (eight of which are new reductions of archival data) in order to examine the spatial relationship between the optical and radio emission. We confirm that the radio and optical emission-line structures are consistent with weak alignment at low redshift (z < 0.6) except in the compact steep-spectrum (CSS) radio galaxies where both the radio source and the emission-line nebulae are on galactic scales and strong alignment is seen at all redshifts. There are weak trends for the aligned emission-line nebulae to be more luminous and for the emission-line nebula size to increase with redshift and/or radio power. The combination of these results suggests that there is a limited but real capacity for the radio source to influence the properties of the emission-line nebulae at these low redshifts (z < 0.6). Our results are consistent with previous suggestions that both mechanical and radiant energy are responsible for generating alignment between the radio source and emission-line gas. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 05-26555. These observations are associated with program 5957.

  13. Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Ultraviolet/Optical Spectroscopy of ``Warm'' Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrah, D.; Surace, J. A.; Veilleux, S.; Sanders, D. B.; Vacca, W. D.

    2005-06-01

    We present high spatial resolution ultraviolet and optical spectroscopy, obtained using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, of nuclear structures within four ``warm'' ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). We find an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in at least three and probably all four in our sample, hosted in a compact, optically luminous ``knot.'' In three cases these knots were previously identified as a putative AGN from multiband optical imaging. Three objects of the sample also harbor a starburst in one or more knots, suggesting that the optically luminous knots seen in local ULIRGs are the most likely sites of the dust-shrouded starburst and AGN activity that power the infrared emission. The four AGNs have a diverse range of properties: two are classical narrow-line AGNs, one shows both broad and narrow lines and evidence for lines of sight from the narrow- to the broad-line regions, and one is plausibly an FeLoBAL AGN. The probable presence in one object of an FeLoBAL AGN, which are extremely rare in the QSO population, supports the idea that LoBAL AGNs may be youthful systems shrouded in gas and dust rather than AGNs viewed along a certain line of sight. The three starbursts for which detailed constraints are possible show a smaller range in properties; all three bursts are young, with two having ages of ~4 Myr and the third having an age of 20 Myr, suggesting that ULIRGs undergo several bursts of star formation during their lifetimes. None of the starbursts show evidence for initial mass function slopes steeper than about 3.3. The metallicities of the knots for which metallicities can be derived are all at least 1.5 Zsolar. The properties of one further starburst knot are consistent with it being the forming core of an elliptical galaxy. Our results suggest that detailed studies of the knots seen in ULIRGs can give important insights into the most violent starburst and AGN activity at both low and high redshift.

  14. Deep WFPC2 and Ground-Based Imaging of a Complete Sample of 3C Quasars and Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridgway, Susan E.; Stockton, Alan

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of an HST and ground-based imaging study of a complete 3C sample of zeta approx. equal to 1 sources, comprising 5 quasars and 5 radio galaxies. We have observed all of the sample in essentially line-free bands at rest-frame 0.33 micrometers with WFPC2 and in rest-frame 1 micrometer images from the ground; we have also observed most of the sample in narrow-band filters centered on [O II]. We resolve continuum structure around all of our quasars in the high-resolution WFPC2 images, and in four of the five ground-based K' images. All of the quasars have some optical continuum structure that is aligned with the radio axis. In at least 3 of these cases, some of this optical structure is directly coincident with a portion of the radio structure, including optical counterparts to radio jets in 3C212 and 3C245 and an optical counterpart to a radio lobe in 3C2. These are most likely due to optical synchrotron radiation, and the radio and optical spectral indices in the northern lobe of 3C2 are consistent with this interpretation. The fact that we see a beamed optical synchotron component in the quasars but not in the radio galaxies complicates both the magnitude and the alignment comparisons. Nonetheless, the total optical and K' flux densities of the quasar hosts are consistent with those of the radio galaxies within the observed dispersion in our sample. The distributions of K' flux densities of both radio galaxies and quasar hosts exhibit similar mean and dispersion to that found for other radio galaxies at this redshift, and the average host galaxy luminosity is equivalent to, or a little fainter than, L*. The formal determination of the alignment in the optical and infrared in the two subsamples yields no significant difference between the radio galaxy and quasar subsamples, and the quasars 3C 196 and 3C 336 have aligned continuum and emission-line structure that is probably not due to beamed optical synchrotron emission. Very blue and/or edge

  15. The symbiosis of variable absorption and blurred reflection in the X-ray-absorbed Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 4151

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuchert, T.; Markowitz, A.; Dauser, T.; García, J.; Keck, M.; Brenneman, L.; Zdziarski, A.; Wilms, J.; Kadler, M.

    2016-06-01

    We present results on time resolved spectroscopy of the Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 4151. Suzaku, NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations from mid 2011 until the end of 2012 reveal significant variability in absorption by intermediately ionized gas on various time-scales. The soft X-rays, on the other hand, stay rather constant, favoring emission from large-scale, diffuse gas. The soft emission lines are consistent with high resolution spectroscopic studies of the extended emission resolved with Chandra gratings. We extend on recent work by Keck et al., who modeled relativistically blurred, reflected disk emission in a 150 ks Suzaku/NuSTAR observation from 2012. They explored multiple emitting/reflecting components in the context of the "lamppost" geometry. We perform additional testing of blurred disk reflection in NGC 4151, using Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations. We use the latest version of RELXILL, which incorporates a fully angle-resolved treatment of ionized reflection in combination with a thermal Comptonization continuum.

  16. Two-dimensional and 3-D images of thick tissue using time-constrained times-of-flight and absorbance spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaron, David A.; Lennox, M.; Stevenson, David K.

    1992-05-01

    Reconstructing deep-tissue images in real time using spectrophotometric data from optically diffusing thick tissues has been problematic. Continuous wave applications (e.g., pulse oximetry, regional cerebral saturation) ignore both the multiple paths traveled by the photons through the tissue and the effects of scattering, allowing scalar measurements but only under limited conditions; interferometry works poorly in thick, highly-scattering media; frequency- modulated approaches may not allow full deconvolution of scattering and absorbance; and pulsed-light techniques allow for preservation of information regarding the multiple paths taken by light through the tissue, but reconstruction is both computation intensive and limited by the relative surface area available for detection of photons. We have developed a picosecond times-of-flight and absorbance (TOFA) optical system, time-constrained to measure only photons with a narrow range of path lengths and arriving within a narrow angel of the emitter-detector axis. The delay until arrival of the earliest arriving photons is a function of both the scattering and absorbance of the tissues in a direct line between the emitter and detector, reducing the influence of surrounding tissues. Measurement using a variety of emitter and detector locations produces spatial information which can be analyzed in a standard 2-D grid, or subject to computer reconstruction to produce tomographic images representing 3-D structure. Using such a technique, we have been able to demonstrate the principles of tc-TOFA, detect and localize diffusive and/or absorptive objects suspended in highly scattering media (such as blood admixed with yeast), and perform simple 3-D reconstructions using phantom objects. We are now attempting to obtain images in vivo. Potential future applications include use as a research tool, and as a continuous, noninvasive, nondestructive monitor in diagnostic imaging, fetal monitoring, neurologic and cardiac

  17. VLT/X-Shooter Near-infrared Spectroscopy and HST Imaging of Gravitationally Lensed z ~ 2 Compact Quiescent Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, S.; Richard, J.; Man, A. W. S.; Krühler, T.; Toft, S.; Marchesini, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.

    2013-11-01

    Quiescent massive galaxies at z ~ 2 are thought to be the progenitors of present-day massive ellipticals. Observations revealed them to be extraordinarily compact. Until now, the determination of stellar ages, star formation rates, and dust properties via spectroscopic measurements has been feasible only for the most luminous and massive specimens (~3 × Msstarf). Here we present a spectroscopic study of two near-infrared-selected galaxies that are close to the characteristic stellar mass Msstarf (~0.9 × Msstarf and ~1.3 × Msstarf) and whose observed brightness has been boosted by the gravitational lensing effect. We measure the redshifts of the two galaxies to be z = 1.71 ± 0.02 and z = 2.15 ± 0.01. By fitting stellar population synthesis models to their spectrophotometric spectral energy distributions we determine their ages to be 2.4^{+0.8}_{-0.6} Gyr and 1.7 ± 0.3 Gyr, respectively, which implies that the two galaxies have higher mass-to-light ratios than most quiescent z ~ 2 galaxies in other studies. We find no direct evidence for active star formation or active galactic nucleus activity in either of the two galaxies, based on the non-detection of emission lines. Based on the derived redshifts and stellar ages we estimate the formation redshifts to be z=4.3^{+3.4}_{-1.2} and z=4.3^{+1.0}_{-0.6}, respectively. We use the increased spatial resolution due to the gravitational lensing to derive constraints on the morphology. Fitting Sérsic profiles to the de-lensed images of the two galaxies confirms their compactness, with one of them being spheroid-like and the other providing the first confirmation of a passive lenticular galaxy at a spectroscopically derived redshift of z ~ 2. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, under programs 087.B-0812 (PI: Toft) and 073.A-0537 (PI: Kneib).

  18. Electron absorbed fractions of energy and S-values in an adult human skeleton based on µCT images of trabecular bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, R.; Richardson, R. B.; Cassola, V. F.; Vieira, J. W.; Khoury, H. J.; Lira, C. A. B. de O.; Robson Brown, K.

    2011-03-01

    When the human body is exposed to ionizing radiation, among the soft tissues at risk are the active marrow (AM) and the bone endosteum (BE) located in tiny, irregular cavities of trabecular bone. Determination of absorbed fractions (AFs) of energy or absorbed dose in the AM and the BE represent one of the major challenges of dosimetry. Recently, at the Department of Nuclear Energy at the Federal University of Pernambuco, a skeletal dosimetry method based on µCT images of trabecular bone introduced into the spongiosa voxels of human phantoms has been developed and applied mainly to external exposure to photons. This study uses the same method to calculate AFs of energy and S-values (absorbed dose per unit activity) for electron-emitting radionuclides known to concentrate in skeletal tissues. The modelling of the skeletal tissue regions follows ICRP110, which defines the BE as a 50 µm thick sub-region of marrow next to the bone surfaces. The paper presents mono-energetic AFs for the AM and the BE for eight different skeletal regions for electron source energies between 1 keV and 10 MeV. The S-values are given for the beta emitters 14C, 59Fe, 131I, 89Sr, 32P and 90Y. Comparisons with results from other investigations showed good agreement provided that differences between methodologies and trabecular bone volume fractions were properly taken into account. Additionally, a comparison was made between specific AFs of energy in the BE calculated for the actual 50 µm endosteum and the previously recommended 10 µm endosteum. The increase in endosteum thickness leads to a decrease of the endosteum absorbed dose by up to 3.7 fold when bone is the source region, while absorbed dose increases by ~20% when the beta emitters are in marrow.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope imaging of distant galaxies - 4C 41.17 at z = 3.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, G. K.; Chambers, K. C.; Van Breugel, W. J. M.; Macchetto, F.

    1992-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has been used to image the continuum emission from 4C 41.17 at z = 3.8, the most distant galaxy known. The galaxy was detected with good signal-to-noise ratio and was spatially resolved at the 0.1 arcsec (440 pc) HST resolution. About 35 percent of this emission is in the form of a high brightness clumpy region extending by about 0.5 arcsec (1.7 kpc), whose morphology is remarkably similar to that of the radio components. A fainter more diffuse region of optical emission extends westward from the center of the nuclear complex for about 1.2 arcsec (5.3 kpc) out along the radio axis. The clumpiness of the optical emission and its close correspondence with the radio structure on the subkiloparsec scale is discussed in the light of current models for high-redshift galaxies. Our observations imply that the material in the center of this galaxy is clumpy on the subkiloparsec scale.

  20. HerMES: ALMA Imaging of Herschel-selected Dusty Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Riechers, D.; Fialkov, A.; Scudder, J.; Hayward, C. C.; Cowley, W. I.; Bock, J.; Calanog, J.; Chapman, S. C.; Cooray, A.; De Bernardis, F.; Farrah, D.; Fu, Hai; Gavazzi, R.; Hopwood, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M.; Lacey, C.; Loeb, A.; Oliver, S. J.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Scott, Douglas; Smith, A. J.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.

    2015-10-01

    The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) has identified large numbers of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) over a wide range in redshift. A detailed understanding of these DSFGs is hampered by the limited spatial resolution of Herschel. We present 870 μm 0.″45 resolution imaging obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of a sample of 29 HerMES DSFGs that have far-infrared (FIR) flux densities that lie between the brightest of sources found by Herschel and fainter DSFGs found via ground-based surveys in the submillimeter region. The ALMA imaging reveals that these DSFGs comprise a total of 62 sources (down to the 5σ point-source sensitivity limit in our ALMA sample; σ ≈ 0.2 {mJy}). Optical or near-infrared imaging indicates that 36 of the ALMA sources experience a significant flux boost from gravitational lensing (μ \\gt 1.1), but only six are strongly lensed and show multiple images. We introduce and make use of uvmcmcfit, a general-purpose and publicly available Markov chain Monte Carlo visibility-plane analysis tool to analyze the source properties. Combined with our previous work on brighter Herschel sources, the lens models presented here tentatively favor intrinsic number counts for DSFGs with a break near 8 {mJy} at 880 μ {{m}} and a steep fall-off at higher flux densities. Nearly 70% of the Herschel sources break down into multiple ALMA counterparts, consistent with previous research indicating that the multiplicity rate is high in bright sources discovered in single-dish submillimeter or FIR surveys. The ALMA counterparts to our Herschel targets are located significantly closer to each other than ALMA counterparts to sources found in the LABOCA ECDFS Submillimeter Survey. Theoretical models underpredict the excess number of sources with small separations seen in our ALMA sample. The high multiplicity rate and small projected separations between sources seen in our sample argue in favor of interactions

  1. Hubble Space Telescope Medium Deep Survey. 2: Deconvolution of Wide Field Camera field galaxy images in the 13 hour + 43 deg field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windhorst, R. A.; Schmidtke, P. C.; Pascarelle, S. M.; Gordon, J. M.; Griffiths, R. E.; Ratnatunga, K. U.; Neuschaefer, L. W.; Ellis, R. S.; Gilmore, G.; Glazebrook, K.

    1994-01-01

    We present isophotal profiles of six faint field galaxies from some of the first deep images taken for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Medium Deep Survey (MDS). These have redshifts in the range z = 0.126 to 0.402. The images were taken with the Wide Field Camera (WFC) in `parallel mode' and deconvolved with the Lucy method using as the point-spread function nearby stars in the image stack. The WFC deconvolutions have a dynamic range of 16 to 20 dB (4 to 5 mag) and an effective resolution approximately less than 0.2 sec (FWHM). The multiorbit HST images allow us to trace the morphology, light profiles, and color gradients of faint field galaxies down to V approximately equal to 22 to 23 mag at sub-kpc resolution, since the redshift range covered is z = 0.1 to 0.4. The goals of the MDS are to study the sub-kpc scale morphology, light profiles, and color gradients for a large samole of faint field galaxies down to V approximately equal to 23 mag, and to trace the fraction of early to late-type galaxies as function of cosmic time. In this paper we study the brighter MDS galaxies in the 13 hour + 43 deg MDS field in detail, and investigate to what extent model fits with pure exponential disks or a(exp 1/4) bulges are justified at V approximately less than 22 mag. Four of the six field galaxies have light profiles that indicate (small) inner bulges following r(exp 1/4) laws down to 0.2 sec resolution, plus a dominant surrounding exponential disk with little or no color gradients. Two occur in a group at z = 0.401, two are barred spiral galaxies at z = 0.179 and z = 0.302, and two are rather subluminous (and edge-on) disk galaxies at z = 0.126 and z = 0.179. Our deep MDS images can detect galaxies down to V, I approximately less than 25 to 26 mag, and demonstrate the impressive potential of HST--even with its pre-refurbished optics--to resolve morphological details in galaxies at cosmologically significant distances (v approximately less than 23 mag). Since the median

  2. The Morphology of Passively Evolving Galaxies at Z approximately 2 from HST/WFC3 Deep Imaging in the Hubble Ultradeep Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassata, P.; Giavalisco, M.; Guo, Yicheng; Ferguson, H.; Koekemoer, A.; Renzini, A.; Fontana, A.; Salimbeni, S.; Dickinson, M.; Casertano, S.; Conselice, C. J.; Grogin, N.; Lotz, J. M.; Papovich, C.; Lucas, R. A.; Straughn, A.; Gardner, J. P.; Moustakas, L.

    2010-01-01

    We present near-IR images of six passive galaxies (SSFR< 10(exp -2)/ Gyr) at redshift 1.3 < z < 2.4 with stellar mass M approximately 10(exp 11) solar M, selected from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the WFC3/IR camera. These images provide the deepest and highest angular resolution view of the optical rest-frame morphology of such systems to date. We find that the light profile of these galaxies is generally regular and well described by a Sersic model with index typical of today's spheroids. We confirm the existence of compact and massive early-type galaxies at z approximately 2: four out of six galaxies have r(sub e) approximately 1 kpc or less. The images reach limiting surface brightness mu approximates 26.5 mag/square arcsec in the F160W bandpass; yet there is no evidence of a faint halo in the galaxies of our sample, even in their stacked image. We also find very weak "morphological k-correction" in the galaxies between the rest-frame UV (from the ACS z-band), and the rest-frame optical (WFC3 H-band): the visual classification, Sersic indices and physical sizes of these galaxies are independent or only mildly dependent on the wavelength, within the errors. The presence of an active nucleus is suspected in two out of six galaxies (33%), opening the intriguing possibility that a large, presently unaccounted population of AGN is hosted in these galaxies, possibly responsible for the cessation of star formation.

  3. High-resolution ALMA observations of SDP.81. I. The innermost mass profile of the lensing elliptical galaxy probed by 30 milli-arcsecond images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Yoichi; Oguri, Masamune; Iono, Daisuke; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Matsuda, Yuichi; Hayashi, Masao

    2015-08-01

    We report the detailed modeling of the mass profile of a z = 0.2999 massive elliptical galaxy using 30 milli-arcsecond resolution 1 mm Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) images of the galaxy-galaxy lensing system SDP.81. The detailed morphology of the lensed multiple images of the z = 3.042 infrared-luminous galaxy, which is found to consist of tens of ≲ 100 pc-sized star-forming clumps embedded in a ˜ 2 kpc disk, are well reproduced by a lensing galaxy modeled by an isothermal ellipsoid with a 400 pc core. The core radius is consistent with that of the visible stellar light, and the mass-to-light ratio of {˜} 2 M_{⊙} L_{⊙}^{-1} is comparable to the locally measured value, suggesting that the inner 1 kpc region is dominated by luminous matter. The position of the predicted mass centroid is consistent to within ≃ 30 mas with a non-thermal source detected with ALMA, which likely traces an active galactic nucleus of the foreground elliptical galaxy. While the black hole mass and the core radius of the elliptical galaxy are degenerate, a point source mass of > 3 × 108 M⊙ mimicking a supermassive black hole is required to explain the non-detection of a central image of the background galaxy. The required mass is consistent with the prediction from the well-known correlation between black hole mass and host velocity dispersion. Our analysis demonstrates the power of high resolution imaging of strong gravitational lensing for studying the innermost mass profile and the central supermassive black hole of distant elliptical galaxies.

  4. Alfalfa discovery of the nearby gas-rich dwarf galaxy Leo P. IV. Distance measurement from LBT optical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle; Cannon, John M.; Salzer, John J.; Rhode, Katherine L.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Dolphin, Andrew E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu E-mail: slaz@astro.indiana.edu E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu

    2013-12-01

    Leo P is a low-luminosity dwarf galaxy discovered through the blind H I Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey. The H I and follow-up optical observations have shown that Leo P is a gas-rich dwarf galaxy with both active star formation and an underlying older population, as well as an extremely low oxygen abundance. Here, we measure the distance to Leo P by applying the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) distance method to photometry of the resolved stellar population from new Large Binocular Telescope V and I band imaging. We measure a distance modulus of 26.19{sub −0.50}{sup +0.17} mag corresponding to a distance of 1.72{sub −0.40}{sup +0.14} Mpc. Although our photometry reaches 3 mag below the TRGB, the sparseness of the red giant branch yields higher uncertainties on the lower limit of the distance. Leo P is outside the Local Group with a distance and velocity consistent with the local Hubble flow. While located in a very low-density environment, Leo P lies within ∼0.5 Mpc of a loose association of dwarf galaxies which include NGC 3109, Antlia, Sextans A, and Sextans B, and 1.1 Mpc away from its next nearest neighbor, Leo A. Leo P is one of the lowest metallicity star-forming galaxies known in the nearby universe, comparable in metallicity to I Zw 18 and DDO 68, but with stellar characteristics similar to dwarf spheriodals (dSphs) in the Local Volume such as Carina, Sextans, and Leo II. Given its physical properties and isolation, Leo P may provide an evolutionary link between gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies and dSphs that have fallen into a Local Group environment and been stripped of their gas.

  5. Whole-body biodistribution, radiation absorbed dose and brain SPECT imaging with iodine-123-{beta}-CIT in healthy human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Seibyl, J.P.; Wallace, E.; Smith, E.O.; Stabin, M.; Baldwin, R.M.; Zoghbi, S.; Zea-Ponce, Y.; Gao, Y.; Zhang, W.Y.; Neumeyer, J.L. ||

    1994-05-01

    SPECT imaging with {sup 123}I-labeled methyl 3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane-2{beta}-carboxylate ([{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT) in nonhuman primates has shown brain striatal activity, which primarily reflects binding to the dopamine transporter. The biodistribution and calculated radiation-absorbed doses of [{sup 123}]{beta}-CIT administered to eight healthy subjects were measured with attention to the accurate determination of organ time-activity data. Whole-body transmission images were obtained with a scanning line source for attenuation correction of the emission images. Following administration of 92.5 {+-} 22.2 MBq (2.5 {+-} 0.6 mCi) of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT, subjects were imaged with a whole-body imager every 30 min for 3 hr, every 60 min for the next 3 hr and at 12, 24 and 38 hr postinjection. Regional body conjugate counts were converted to microcuries of activity, with a calibration factor determined in a separate experiment using a distributed source of {sup 123}I. The peak brain uptake represented 14% of the injected dose, with 2% of the activity approximately overlying the striatal region. Highest radiation-absorbed doses were to the lung (0.1 mGy/MBq, 0.38 rads/mCi), liver (0.087 mGy/MBq, 0.32 rads/mCi) and lower large intestine (0.053 mGy/MBq, 0.20 rads/mCi). Iodine-123-{beta}-CIT is a promising SPECT agent for imaging of the dopamine transporter in humans with favorable dosimetry and high brain uptake. 18 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Properties of distant galaxies and QSO absortion line systems: A deep multicolor imaging survey of the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahata, Noriaki

    2001-03-01

    I present a study on statistical properties of faint galaxy population identified in the Hubble Deep Fields (HDFs). The broad-band imaging observations of the HDFs present the deepest images of the universe ever obtained. Based on the available optical and near-infrared space- and ground-based imaging data of the HDFs, I conducted photometry and photometric redshift measurements of all the objects detected in the HDFs. First, I developed and improved three kinds of techniques that allowed to optimally determine the photometry and redshift of faint galaxies identified in the HDFs. They are (1) optimal photometry technique, (2) non-negative least-squares image reconstruction technique, and (3) photometric redshift technique. Using these techniques, I constructed a catalog of 5,318 galaxies and 47 stars across ˜12 arcmin2 of the total survey area of the HDFs. The redshift range of the galaxies spans 0 < z < 10 and beyond. Next, based on the HDF observations, I studied a history of cosmic star formation toward high redshifts (0 < z < 10). The study was motivated by previous measurements of the ultraviolet (UV) luminosity density by other groups. Previous conclusions were that the UV luminosity density increases with increasing redshift up to z ˜ 1--2 and then decreases or remains constant (e.g., Madau et al. 1996, 1998). On the other hand, previous work neglected the effect of cosmological surface brightness dimming, that could dominate the measurements at high redshifts. I revisited this problem by considering the distribution of star formation rate intensity (calculated from the rest-frame 1500 A luminosity of galaxies) and thereby making explicit the surface brightness threshold of the HDF observations. The results of the analysis include (1) by neglecting cosmological surface brightness dimming effects, previous measurements have missed a dominant fraction of the UV luminosity density at z ≳ 2, (2) the UV luminosity density plausibly increases monotonically

  7. THE FAINT STELLAR HALOS OF MASSIVE RED GALAXIES FROM STACKS OF MORE THAN 42,000 SDSS LRG IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, Tomer; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2011-04-20

    We study the properties of massive galaxies at an average redshift of z {approx} 0.34 through stacking more than 42,000 images of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). This is the largest data set ever used for such an analysis and it allows us to explore the outskirts of massive red galaxies at unprecedented physical scales. Our image stacks extend farther than 400 kpc, where the r-band profile surface brightness reaches 30 mag arcsec{sup -2}. This analysis confirms that the stellar bodies of LRGs follow a simple Sersic profile out to 100 kpc. At larger radii, the profiles deviate from the best-fit Sersic models and exhibit extra light in the r-, i-, and z-band stacks. This excess light can probably be attributed to unresolved intragroup or intracluster light or a change in the light profile itself. We further show that standard analyses of SDSS-depth images typically miss 20% of the total stellar light and underestimate the size of LRGs by 10% compared to our best-fit r-band Sersic model of n = 5.5 and r{sub e} = 13.1 kpc. If the excess light at r > 100 kpc is considered to be part of the galaxy, the best-fit r-band Sersic parameters are n = 5.8 and r{sub e} = 13.6 kpc. In addition, we study the radially dependent stack ellipticity and find an increase with radius from {epsilon} = 0.25 at r = 10 kpc to {epsilon} = 0.3 at r = 100 kpc. This provides support that the stellar light that we trace out to at least 100 kpc is physically associated with the galaxies themselves and may confirm that the halos of individual LRGs have higher ellipticities than their central parts. Lastly, we show that the broadband color gradients of the stacked images are flat beyond roughly 40 kpc, suggesting that the stellar populations do not vary significantly with radius in the outer parts of massive ellipticals.

  8. Production and in vivo imaging of (203)Pb as a surrogate isotope for in vivo (212)Pb internal absorbed dose studies.

    PubMed

    Máthé, Domokos; Szigeti, Krisztián; Hegedűs, Nikolett; Horváth, Ildikó; Veres, Dániel S; Kovács, Béla; Szűcs, Zoltán

    2016-08-01

    (212)Pb is a clinically relevant therapeutic alpha emitter isotope. A surrogate, (203)Pb, if prepared with sufficiently high specific activity could be used to estimate (212)Pb in vivo absorbed doses. An improved production procedure of (203)Pb with a simple, new separation method and high specific radioactivity for imaging is reported. We determined the in-vivo biodistribution of (203)Pb in mice by SPECT/CT. This highlights application possibilities of (203)Pb for further in vivo and clinical uses (radiolabeled (212)Pb-peptide co-injection, dosimetry calculation). PMID:27156049

  9. Galaxy NGC 1850

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    By spying on a neighboring galaxy, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has captured an image of a young, globular-like star cluster -- a type of object unknown in our Milky Way Galaxy.

    The image, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, is online at http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2001/25 and http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc. The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    The double cluster NGC 1850 lies in a neighboring satellite galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. It has two relatively young components. The main, globular-like cluster is in the center. A smaller cluster is seen below and to the right, composed of extremely hot, blue stars and fainter red T-Tauri stars. The main cluster is about 50 million years old; the smaller one is 4 million years old.

    A filigree pattern of diffuse gas surrounds NGC 1850. Scientists believe the pattern formed millions of years ago when massive stars in the main cluster exploded as supernovas.

    Hubble can observe a range of star types in NGC 1850, including the faint, low-mass T-Tauri stars, which are difficult to distinguish with ground-based telescopes. Hubble's fine angular resolution can pick out these stars, even in other galaxies. Massive stars of the OB type emit large amounts of energetic ultraviolet radiation, which is absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere. From Hubble's position above the atmosphere, it can detect this ultraviolet light.

    NGC 1850, the brightest star cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud, is in the southern constellation of Dorado, called the Goldfish or the Swordfish. This image was created from five archival exposures taken by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 between April 3, 1994 and February 6, 1996. More information about the Hubble Space Telescope is online at http://www.stsci.edu. More information about the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 is at http://wfpc2.jpl.nasa.gov.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore

  10. Sub-kiloparsec Imaging of Cool Molecular Gas in Two Strongly Lensed Dusty, Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, J. S.; Aravena, M.; Marrone, D. P.; Béthermin, M.; Bothwell, M. S.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chapman, S. C.; Collier, J. D.; de Breuck, C.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Galvin, T.; Gonzalez, A. H.; González-López, J.; Grieve, K.; Hezaveh, Y.; Ma, J.; Malkan, M.; O'Brien, A.; Rotermund, K. M.; Strandet, M.; Vieira, J. D.; Weiss, A.; Wong, G. F.

    2015-10-01

    We present spatially resolved imaging obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) of three CO lines in two high-redshift gravitationally lensed dusty star-forming galaxies, discovered by the South Pole Telescope. Strong lensing allows us to probe the structure and dynamics of the molecular gas in these two objects, at z = 2.78 and z = 5.66, with effective source-plane resolution of less than 1 kpc. We model the lensed emission from multiple CO transitions and the dust continuum in a consistent manner, finding that the cold molecular gas as traced by low-J CO always has a larger half-light radius than the 870 μm dust continuum emission. This size difference leads to up to 50% differences in the magnification factor for the cold gas compared to dust. In the z = 2.78 galaxy, these CO observations confirm that the background source is undergoing a major merger, while the velocity field of the other source is more complex. We use the ATCA CO observations and comparable resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array dust continuum imaging of the same objects to constrain the CO-H2 conversion factor with three different procedures, finding good agreement between the methods and values consistent with those found for rapidly star-forming systems. We discuss these galaxies in the context of the star formation—gas mass surface density relation, noting that the change in emitting area with observed CO transition must be accounted for when comparing high-redshift galaxies to their lower redshift counterparts.

  11. Whirlpool Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Scientists are seeing unprecedented detail of the spiral arms and dust clouds in the nearby Whirlpool galaxy, thanks to a new Hubble Space Telescope image, available at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/pictures/wfpc/wfpc.html. The image uses data collected January 15 and 24, 1995, and July 21, 1999, by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by JPL. Using the image, a research group led by Dr. Nick Scoville of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, clearly defined the structure of the galaxy's cold dust clouds and hot hydrogen, and they linked star clusters within the galaxy to their parent dust clouds.

    The Whirlpool galaxy is one of the most photogenic galaxies. This celestial beauty is easily seen and photographed with smaller telescopes and studied extensively from large ground- and space-based observatories. The new composite image shows visible starlight and light from the emission of glowing hydrogen, which is associated with the most luminous young stars in the spiral arms.

    The galaxy is having a close encounter with a nearby companion galaxy, NGC 5195, just off the upper edge of the image. The companion's gravitational pull is triggering star formation in the main galaxy, lit up by numerous clusters of young and energetic stars in brilliant detail. Luminous clusters are highlighted in red by their associated emission from glowing hydrogen gas.

    This image was composed by the Hubble Heritage Team from Hubble archive data and was superimposed onto data taken by Dr. Travis Rector of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory at the .9-meter (35-inch) telescope at the National Science Foundation's Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, Ariz. Scoville's team includes M. Polletta of the University of Geneva, Switzerland; S. Ewald and S. Stolovy of Caltech; and R. Thompson and M. Rieke of the University of Arizona, Tucson.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md., manages space operations for the Hubble Space

  12. RINGFINDER: Automated detection of galaxy-scale gravitational lenses in ground-based multi-filter imaging data

    SciTech Connect

    Gavazzi, Raphaël; Marshall, Philip J.; Treu, Tommaso; Sonnenfeld, Alessandro

    2014-04-20

    We present RINGFINDER, a tool for finding galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses in multi-band imaging data. By construction, the method is sensitive to configurations involving a massive foreground ETG and a faint, background, blue source. RINGFINDER detects the presence of blue residuals embedded in an otherwise smooth red light distribution by difference imaging in two bands. The method is automated for efficient application to current and future surveys, having originally been designed for the 150 deg{sup 2} Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). We describe each of the steps of RINGFINDER. We then carry out extensive simulations to assess completeness and purity. For sources with magnification μ > 4, RINGFINDER reaches 42% (25%) completeness and 29% (86%) purity before (after) visual inspection. The completeness of RINGFINDER is substantially improved in the particular range of Einstein radii 0.''8 ≤ R {sub Ein} ≤ 2.''0 and lensed images brighter than g = 22.5, where it can be as high as ∼70%. RINGFINDER does not introduce any significant bias in the source or deflector population. We conclude by presenting the final catalog of RINGFINDER CFHTLS galaxy-scale strong lens candidates. Additional information obtained with Hubble Space Telescope and Keck adaptive optics high-resolution imaging, and with Keck and Very Large Telescope spectroscopy, is used to assess the validity of our classification and measure the redshift of the foreground and the background objects. From an initial sample of 640,000 ETGs, RINGFINDER returns 2500 candidates, which we further reduce by visual inspection to 330 candidates. We confirm 33 new gravitational lenses from the main sample of candidates, plus an additional 16 systems taken from earlier versions of RINGFINDER. First applications are presented in the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey galaxy-scale lens sample paper series.

  13. The HST Snapshot Survey of Nearby Dwarf Galaxy Candidates. II. Distance to the M81/NGC2403 Complex Via DSph Galaxies Imaged With WFPC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachentsev, I. D.; Karachentseva, V. E.; Dolphin, A. E.; Geisler, D.; Grebel, E. K.; Guhathakurta, P.; Hodge, P. W.; Sarajedini, A.; Seitzer, P.; Sharina, M. E.

    1999-12-01

    The bright spiral galaxies M81 and NGC 2403 and their dwarf companions are two of the closest galaxy groups to our own Local Group. The Cepheid distance moduli of M81 and NGC 2403 are (27.80+/-0.20) and (27.51+/-0.24) mag (Freedman et al. 1994, Freedman & Madore 1988). We obtained Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 images of the dwarf spheroidal galaxies K61, K63, K64, DDO 78, BK6N, kk077 in the M81 group and of DDO 44 in the NGC2403 group. The resulting CMDs show the red giant branch with tips in the range of I(TRGB)= [23.5 -- 24.0] mag. The derived true distance moduli of the six M81 dSphs range from 27.55 to 27.95 mag, consistent with their membership in this group. The TRGB distance modulus of DDO 44, (27.52+/-0.15) mag, confirms it as a companion of NGC 2403. Taking into account the TRGB distances derived for M82 (Sakai & Madore 1999), for the dSphs BK5N and F8D1 (Caldwell et al. 1998), and the BCD UGC6456 (Lynds et al. 1998), we obtain a mean distance modulus of (27.82 +/-0.06) mag for the M81 group. The standard deviation of the individual moduli is 0.17 mag. We find the difference of the TRGB distances to the two the groups to be (0.47+/-0.25) Mpc. {From} a projected separation of M81 and NGC 2403 of 0.83 Mpc follows a deprojected distance of 0.95 Mpc. With respect to the Local Group, M81 and NGC 2403 have radial velocities of 106 km/s and 216 km/s, while the velocities of the group centroids are 216 km/s and 275 km/s, respectively. The higher velocity of the closer group may indicate that the two groups are moving towards each other. IDK and EKG are supported by the Henri Chrétien International Research Grant administered by the American Astronomical Society.

  14. Classic Galaxy with Glamour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This color composite image of nearby NGC 300 combines the visible-light pictures from Carnegie Institution of Washington's 100-inch telescope at Las Campanas Observatory (colored red and yellow), with ultraviolet views from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. Galaxy Evolution Explorer detectors image far ultraviolet light (colored blue).

    This composite image traces star formation in progress. Young hot blue stars dominate the outer spiral arms of the galaxy, while the older stars congregate in the nuclear regions which appear yellow-green. Gases heated by hot young stars and shocks due to winds from massive stars and supernova explosions appear in pink, as revealed by the visible-light image of the galaxy.

    Located nearly 7 million light years away, NGC 300 is a member of a nearby group of galaxies known as the Sculptor Group. It is a spiral galaxy like our own Milky Way.

  15. Enhanced visualization of small peptides absorbed in rat small intestine by phytic-acid-aided matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seong-Min; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Yoshii, Saori; Mine, Yoshinori; Matsui, Toshiro

    2013-11-01

    Enhanced visualization of small peptides absorbed through a rat intestinal membrane was achieved by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) with the aid of phytic acid as a matrix additive. Penetrants through intestinal peptide transporter 1, i.e., glycyl-sarcosine (Gly-Sar, 147.1 m/z) and antihypertensive dipeptide, Val-Tyr (281.2 m/z), were chosen for MALDI-IMS. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios of dipeptides Gly-Sar and Val-Tyr were seen to increase by 2.4- and 8.0-fold, respectively, when using a 2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP) matrix containing 5.0 mM phytic acid, instead of the THAP matrix alone. Owing to the phytic-acid-aided MALDI-IMS method, Gly-Sar and Val-Tyr absorbed in the rat intestinal membrane were successfully visualized. The proposed imaging method also provided useful information on intestinal peptide absorption; to some extent, Val-Tyr was rapidly hydrolyzed to Tyr by peptidases located at the intestinal microvillus during the absorption process. In conclusion, the strongly acidic additive, phytic acid, is beneficial for enhancing the visualization of small peptides using MALDI-IMS, owing to the suppression of ionization-interfering salts in the tissue. PMID:24063774

  16. Spitzer/IRAC Imaging of Exceptionally Bright Cluster-Lensed Submillimeter Galaxies Discovered by the Herschel Lensing Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, Eiichi; Ebeling, Harald; Rawle, Timothy; Clement, Benjamin; Walth, Gregory; Pereira, Maria; Richard, Johan; Kneib, Jean-Paul

    2012-12-01

    Over the last few years, discoveries of exceptionally bright (e.g., observed S_peak > 100 mJy in the Herschel/SPIRE bands) gravitationally lensed submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) have generated great excitement. This is because these gravitationally lensed SMGs are so bright that they enable us to perform a variety of follow-up observations using a suite of observing facilities in the submillimeter, millimeter, and radio now available on the ground. Using Herschel, our team has been conducting a survey of such bright lensed galaxies in the fields of massive galaxy clusters: ``The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS)'' (PI: Egami; 419 hours). This large Herschel program targets a total of 581 X-ray/SZ-selected massive clusters, and is currently 80% complete. Cluster lenses are often more powerful than galaxy lenses, producing larger magnifications. For example, typical magnification factors for galaxy-lensed Herschel sources are x10 or less while cluster-lensed systems can often produce magnification factors of x20-30 and even above x100. Cluster lenses will therefore allow us to detect and study intrinsically less-luminous and/or more distant sources with the ability to provide a view of finer-scale (i.e., sub-kpc) structures. Here, we propose to conduct Spitzer/IRAC imaging of 56 bright lensed SMG candidates we have identified in the ~470 HLS cluster fields observed so far. The main scientific goal is twofold: (1) to locate the underlying stellar component, and (2) to study its properties (e.g., stellar mass, specific star-formation rate) by constraining the rest-frame near-infrared SED and comparing with the Herschel and other submillimeter/millimeter data (e.g., SMA, PdB, ALMA, etc.). These rare bright lensed SMGs will allow us to probe the population of heavily dust-obscured vigorously star-forming galaxies at high redshift (z>1), which is thought to play an important role in the cosmic star-formation history of the Universe and yet has been difficult to study due to the

  17. A Sharper Picture of X-ray Bright Galaxy Groups: Chandra Imaging and Spectroscopy of HCG 62 and NGC 741

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtilek, J. M.; Grego, L.; David, L. P.; Ponman, T. J.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Harris, D. E.

    2002-04-01

    Groups and poor clusters are the locus of most galaxies in the present-day Universe and the building blocks from which clusters form. They accordingly occupy a significant place in the continuum of structure between isolated galaxies and rich clusters. Owing to the lower temperature of their intracluster gas, X-ray emission from groups produces strong lines from a broader range of elements than do hotter clusters. Here, we employ Chandra images of the X-ray bright groups HCG 62 and NGC 741 to determine spatial variations of abundance and temperature, study the origin and enrichment of intragroup gas, and examine the interactions between gas and radio sources. Of particular note are the two X-ray "cavities" in HCG 62. With extents of about 10 kpc and nearly symmetrically placed on opposite sides of the X-ray peak, these cavities most likely result from interaction between relativistic plasma produced by a recently-active nucleus in the central elliptical galaxy and the intragroup gas. This observation extends to groups the phenomenon of X-ray cavities found in Chandra data of a number of clusters. This work was supported in part by NASA grants GO0-1037X and GO1-2138X and contract NAS8-39073.

  18. Characterization and MCNP simulation of neutron energy spectrum shift after transmission through strong absorbing materials and its impact on tomography reconstructed image.

    PubMed

    Hachouf, N; Kharfi, F; Boucenna, A

    2012-10-01

    An ideal neutron radiograph, for quantification and 3D tomographic image reconstruction, should be a transmission image which exactly obeys to the exponential attenuation law of a monochromatic neutron beam. There are many reasons for which this assumption does not hold for high neutron absorbing materials. The main deviations from the ideal are due essentially to neutron beam hardening effect. The main challenges of this work are the characterization of neutron transmission through boron enriched steel materials and the observation of beam hardening. Then, in our work, the influence of beam hardening effect on neutron tomographic image, for samples based on these materials, is studied. MCNP and FBP simulation are performed to adjust linear attenuation coefficients data and to perform 2D tomographic image reconstruction with and without beam hardening corrections. A beam hardening correction procedure is developed and applied based on qualitative and quantitative analyses of the projections data. Results from original and corrected 2D reconstructed images obtained shows the efficiency of the proposed correction procedure. PMID:22871438

  19. Increasing the field of view of x-ray phase contrast imaging using stitched gratings on low absorbent carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiser, J.; Amberger, M.; Willner, M.; Kunka, D.; Meyer, P.; Koch, F.; Hipp, A.; Walter, M.; Pfeiffer, F.; Mohr, J.

    2014-03-01

    X-ray phase contrast imaging has become a promising biomedical imaging technique for enhancing soft-tissue contrast. In addition to an absorption contrast image it provides two more types of image, a phase contrast and a small-angle scattering contrast image recorded at the same time. In biomedical imaging their combination allows for the conventional investigation of e.g. bone fractures on the one hand and for soft-tissue investigation like cancer detection on the other hand. Among the different methods of X-ray phase contrast imaging the grating based approach, the Talbot-Lau interferometry, has the highest potential for commercial use in biomedical imaging at the moment, because commercially available X-ray sources can be used in a compact setup. In Talbot-Lau interferometers, core elements are phase and absorption gratings with challenging specifications because of their high aspect ratios (structure height over width). For the long grating lamellas structural heights of more than 100 μm together with structural width in the micron range are requested. We are developing a fabrication process based on deep x-ray lithography and electroforming (LIGA) to fabricate these challenging structures. In case of LIGA gratings the structural area is currently limited to several centimeters by several centimeters which limit the field of view in grating based X-ray phase contrast imaging. In order to increase the grating area significantly we are developing a stitching method for gratings using a 625 μm thick silicon wafer as a carrier substrate. In this work we compare the silicon carrier with an alternative one, polyimide, for patient dose reduction and for the use at lower energies in terms of transmission and image reconstruction problems.

  20. ALMA Imaging and Gravitational Lens Models of South Pole Telescope—Selected Dusty, Star-Forming Galaxies at High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, J. S.; Marrone, D. P.; Aravena, M.; Béthermin, M.; Bothwell, M. S.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chapman, S. C.; Crawford, T. M.; de Breuck, C.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Greve, T. R.; Hezaveh, Y.; Litke, K.; Ma, J.; Malkan, M.; Rotermund, K. M.; Strandet, M.; Vieira, J. D.; Weiss, A.; Welikala, N.

    2016-08-01

    The South Pole Telescope has discovered 100 gravitationally lensed, high-redshift, dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs). We present 0.″5 resolution 870 μ {{m}} Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array imaging of a sample of 47 DSFGs spanning z=1.9{--}5.7, and construct gravitational lens models of these sources. Our visibility-based lens modeling incorporates several sources of residual interferometric calibration uncertainty, allowing us to properly account for noise in the observations. At least 70% of the sources are strongly lensed by foreground galaxies ({μ }870μ {{m}}\\gt 2), with a median magnification of {μ }870μ {{m}}=6.3, extending to {μ }870μ {{m}}\\gt 30. We compare the intrinsic size distribution of the strongly lensed sources to a similar number of unlensed DSFGs and find no significant differences in spite of a bias between the magnification and intrinsic source size. This may indicate that the true size distribution of DSFGs is relatively narrow. We use the source sizes to constrain the wavelength at which the dust optical depth is unity and find this wavelength to be correlated with the dust temperature. This correlation leads to discrepancies in dust mass estimates of a factor of two compared to estimates using a single value for this wavelength. We investigate the relationship between the [C ii] line and the far-infrared luminosity and find that the same correlation between the [C ii]/{L}{{FIR}} ratio and {{{Σ }}}{{FIR}} found for low-redshift star-forming galaxies applies to high-redshift galaxies and extends at least two orders of magnitude higher in {{{Σ }}}{{FIR}}. This lends further credence to the claim that the compactness of the IR-emitting region is the controlling parameter in establishing the “[C ii] deficit.”

  1. Integral field spectroscopy and multi-wavelength imaging of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5668: a case for MEGARA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.; Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Gallego, J.; Zamorano, J.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Boissier, S.

    2013-05-01

    In order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the evolution of disk galaxies we analyze the full bi-dimensional spectral cube of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5668, which was obtained as a mosaic of 6 pointings, covering a total area of 2 × 3 arcmin^{2}, obtained with the PPAK Integral Field Unit at the Calar Alto (CAHA) observatory 3.5 m telescope. From these data we obtain the bidimensional spatial distribution maps of the attenuation of the ionized gas, and chemical abundances of oxygen. We find a mean ionized-gas attenuation of A_V˜1 mag, with the gas attenuation appearing larger than the continuum attenuation by a factor of 3. With respect to the oxygen abundance, we find that, while inwards of r ˜36''˜ 4.4kpc ˜ 0.36 ({D_{25}}/{2}) the derived O/H ratio follows the radial gradient typical of the disks of spiral galaxies, the abundance gradient beyond r˜36'' flattens out. The multi-wavelength surface brightness profiles of NGC 5668 are compared with those predicted by chemo-spectrophotometric evolutionary models of galaxy disks in the context of the inside-out scenario of disk formation. Both the deviations of the color profiles and the shape of the metallicity radial distribution indicate that a secondary mechanism, possibly gas transfer induced by the presence of a young bar, must have played a role in shaping the recent chemical and star formation histories of NGC5668 beyond what is predicted by the inside-out scenario. This study demonstrates the strength of the combination of IFU and multi-wavelength imaging data. With MEGARA, the future optical IFU & MOS for 10.4-m GTC we will fill the gap currently existing in astronomical instrumentation with high spectral resolution and large area coverage simultaneously addressing such fundamental issues in galactic structure and evolution.

  2. RED STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT AT z = 0.4 REVEALED BY PANORAMIC H{alpha} IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, Yusei; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Okamura, Sadanori; Kodama, Tadayuki; Nakata, Fumiaki

    2011-06-10

    We present a wide-field H{alpha} imaging survey of the rich cluster CL0939+4713 (A851) at z = 0.41 with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope, using the narrow-band filter NB921. The survey is sensitive to active galaxies with star formation rates (SFRs) down to {approx}0.3 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} throughout the 27' x 27' field. We identified 445 H{alpha} emitters along the large-scale structures around the cluster. Using this sample, we find that (1) the fraction of H{alpha} emitters is a strong function of environment and shows a clear decline toward the cluster central region, and (2) the color of H{alpha} emitters is clearly dependent on environment. The majority of the H{alpha} emitters have blue colors with B - I < 2, but we find H{alpha} emitters with red colors as well. Such red emitters are very rare in the cluster center or its immediate surrounding regions, while they are most frequently found in groups located far away from the cluster center. These groups coincide with the environment where a sharp transition in galaxy color distribution is seen. This may suggest that dusty star formation activity tends to be involved in galaxy truncation processes that are effective in groups, and that it is probably related to the 'pre-processing' that generates present-day cluster S0 galaxies. Finally, we confirm that (3) the mass-normalized integrated SFR in clusters (i.e., the total SFR within 0.5 x R{sub 200} from the cluster center divided by the cluster dynamical mass) rapidly increases with look-back time following approximately {proportional_to}(1 + z){sup 6} and is also correlated with the cluster mass.

  3. Chandra and XMM View Galaxy Groups: New Details from Sharper Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtilek, J. M.; Ponman, T. J.; O'Sullivan, E. J.; David, L. P.; Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Lane, W. M.; Kassim, N. E.

    2004-08-01

    Groups and poor clusters are the locus of most galaxies in the present-day Universe and the building blocks from which clusters form. They accordingly occupy a significant place in the continuum of structure between isolated galaxies and rich clusters. Owing to the lower temperature of their intracluster gas, X-ray emission from groups produces strong lines from a broader range of elements than do hotter clusters. Here we show results from an examination of several X-ray bright groups, mostly from the Hickson, AWM, and MKW lists, relevant to issues of current interest in the study of both groups and clusters: the distribution of heavy elements, the presence and nature of X-ray cavities and their relation to radio observations, the presence of cooling cores, and X-ray signatures of recent galaxy interactions. This work was supported in part by NASA grants GO2-3186X and GO4-5154X.

  4. Optoacoustic imaging of absorbing objects in a turbid medium: ultimate sensitivity and application to breast cancer diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D.; Pelivanov, Ivan M.; Kozhushko, Victor V.; Zharinov, Alexei N.; Solomatin, Vladimir S.; Karabutov, Alexander A

    2007-01-10

    One of the major medical applications of optoacoustic (OA) tomography is in the diagnostics of early-stage breast cancer. A numerical approach was developed to characterize the following parameters of an OA imaging system: resolution, maximum depth at which the tumor can be detected, and image contrast. The parameters of the 64-element focused array transducer were obtained. The results of numerical modeling were compared with known analytical solutions and further validated by phantom experiments. The OA images of a3 mm piece of bovine liver immersed in diluted milk at various depths were obtained. Based on the results of modeling, a signal filtering algorithm for OA image contrast enhancement has been proposed.

  5. Optoacoustic imaging of absorbing objects in a turbid medium: ultimate sensitivity and application to breast cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D.; Pelivanov, Ivan M.; Kozhushko, Victor V.; Zharinov, Alexei N.; Solomatin, Vladimir S.; Karabutov, Alexander A.

    2007-01-01

    One of the major medical applications of optoacoustic (OA) tomography is in the diagnostics of early-stage breast cancer. A numerical approach was developed to characterize the following parameters of an OA imaging system: resolution, maximum depth at which the tumor can be detected, and image contrast. The parameters of the 64-element focused array transducer were obtained. The results of numerical modeling were compared with known analytical solutions and further validated by phantom experiments. The OA images of a 3 mm piece of bovine liver immersed in diluted milk at various depths were obtained. Based on the results of modeling, a signal filtering algorithm for OA image contrast enhancement has been proposed.

  6. Photometric Calibration of DECam Images of the Sextans Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Brittany; Vivas, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    As part of an ongoing study on the variable star population of the Sextans Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy, we present here details on the photometric calibration of the data, which were obtained with the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) at the Blanco 4mTelescope at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory. Since DECam is a relatively new instrument, we tested different calibration strategies including calibrating each chip individually and all together. Our results indicate that the color terms and zero points are constant across the camera, at least in the g, r and i bands. We present preliminary results on the location of variable stars in the Sextans dwarf galaxy.

  7. Quantitative assessment of selective in-plane shielding of tissues in computed tomography through evaluation of absorbed dose and image quality.

    PubMed

    Geleijns, J; Salvadó Artells, M; Veldkamp, W J H; López Tortosa, M; Calzado Cantera, A

    2006-10-01

    This study aimed at assessment of efficacy of selective in-plane shielding in adults by quantitative evaluation of the achieved dose reduction and image quality. Commercially available accessories for in-plane shielding of the eye lens, thyroid and breast, and an anthropomorphic phantom were used for the evaluation of absorbed dose and image quality. Organ dose and total energy imparted were assessed by means of a Monte Carlo technique taking into account tube voltage, tube current, and scanner type. Image quality was quantified as noise in soft tissue. Application of the lens shield reduced dose to the lens by 27% and to the brain by 1%. The thyroid shield reduced thyroid dose by 26%; the breast shield reduced dose to the breasts by 30% and to the lungs by 15%. Total energy imparted (unshielded/shielded) was 88/86 mJ for computed tomography (CT) brain, 64/60 mJ for CT cervical spine, and 289/260 mJ for CT chest scanning. An increase in image noise could be observed in the ranges were bismuth shielding was applied. The observed reduction of organ dose and total energy imparted could be achieved more efficiently by a reduction of tube current. The application of in-plane selective shielding is therefore discouraged. PMID:16604323

  8. Gemini/GMOS imaging of globular cluster systems in five early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faifer, Favio R.; Forte, Juan C.; Norris, Mark A.; Bridges, Terry; Forbes, Duncan A.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Beasley, Mike; Gebhardt, Karl; Hanes, David A.; Sharples, Ray M.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we present deep high-quality photometry of globular cluster systems (GCSs) belonging to five early-type galaxies, covering a range of mass and environment. Photometric data were obtained with the Gemini North and Gemini South telescopes in the filter passbands g', r' and i'. The combination of these filters with good seeing conditions allows an excellent separation between globular cluster (GC) candidates and unresolved field objects. In fact, our previously published spectroscopic data indicate a contamination level of only ˜10 per cent in our sample of GC candidates. Bimodal GC colour distributions are found in all five galaxies. Most of the GCSs appear bimodal even in the (g'-r') versus (r'-i') plane. A population of resolved/marginally resolved GC and ultracompact dwarf candidates was found in all the galaxies. A search for the so-called 'blue tilt' in the colour-magnitude diagrams reveals that NGC 4649 clearly shows this phenomenon, although no conclusive evidence was found for the other galaxies in the sample. This 'blue tilt' translates into a mass-metallicity relation given by Z∝M0.28 ±0.03. This dependence was found using a new empirical (g'-i') versus [Z/H] relation, which relies on an homogeneous sample of GC colours and metallicities. In this paper, we also explore the radial trends in both colour and surface density for the blue (metal-poor) and red (metal-rich) GC subpopulations. As usual, the red GCs show a steeper radial distribution than the blue GCs. Evidence of galactocentric colour gradients is found in some of the GCSs, which is more significant for the two S0 galaxies in the sample. Red GC subpopulations show similar colours and gradients to the galaxy halo stars in their inner region. A GC mean colour-galaxy luminosity relation, consistent with [Z/H]∝L0.26 ±0.08B, is present for the red GCs. Estimates of the total GC populations and specific frequency SN values are presented for NGC 3115, 3923 and 4649. Based on

  9. ALMA imaging of gas and dust in a galaxy protocluster at redshift 5.3: [C II] emission in 'typical' galaxies and dusty starbursts ≈1 billion years after the big bang

    SciTech Connect

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Capak, Peter L.; Yan, Lin; Scoville, Nicholas Z.; Smolčić, Vernesa; Schinnerer, Eva; Yun, Min; Cox, Pierre; Bertoldi, Frank; Karim, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    We report interferometric imaging of [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}→{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) and OH({sup 2}Π{sub 1/2} J = 3/2→1/2) emission toward the center of the galaxy protocluster associated with the z = 5.3 submillimeter galaxy (SMG) AzTEC-3, using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). We detect strong [C II], OH, and rest-frame 157.7 μm continuum emission toward the SMG. The [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}→{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) emission is distributed over a scale of 3.9 kpc, implying a dynamical mass of 9.7 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, and a star formation rate (SFR) surface density of Σ{sub SFR} = 530 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}. This suggests that AzTEC-3 forms stars at Σ{sub SFR} approaching the Eddington limit for radiation pressure supported disks. We find that the OH emission is slightly blueshifted relative to the [C II] line, which may indicate a molecular outflow associated with the peak phase of the starburst. We also detect and dynamically resolve [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}→{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) emission over a scale of 7.5 kpc toward a triplet of Lyman-break galaxies with moderate UV-based SFRs in the protocluster at ∼95 kpc projected distance from the SMG. These galaxies are not detected in the continuum, suggesting far-infrared SFRs of <18-54 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, consistent with a UV-based estimate of 22 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. The spectral energy distribution of these galaxies is inconsistent with nearby spiral and starburst galaxies, but resembles those of dwarf galaxies. This is consistent with expectations for young starbursts without significant older stellar populations. This suggests that these galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, 'normal' star-forming galaxies at z > 5, showing that ALMA can detect the interstellar medium in 'typical' galaxies in the very early universe.

  10. RGD-conjugated two-photon absorbing near-IR emitting fluorescent probes for tumor vascular imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfield, Kevin D.; Yue, Xiling; Morales, Alma R.; Githaiga, Grace W.; Woodward, Adam W.; Tang, Simon; Sawada, Junko; Komatsu, Masanobu; Liu, Xuan

    2016-03-01

    Observation of the activation and inhibition of angiogenesis processes is important in the progression of cancer. Application of targeting peptides, such as a small peptide that contains adjacent L-arginine (R), glycine (G) and L-aspartic acid (D) residues can afford high selectivity and deep penetration in vessel imaging. To facilitate deep tissue vasculature imaging, probes that can be excited via two-photon absorption (2PA) in the near-infrared (NIR) and subsequently emit in the NIR are essential. In this study, the enhancement of tissue image quality with RGD conjugates was investigated with new NIR-emitting pyranyl fluorophore derivatives in two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Linear and nonlinear photophysical properties of the new probes were comprehensively characterized; significantly the probes exhibited good 2PA over a broad spectral range from 700-1100 nm. Cell and tissue images were then acquired and examined, revealing deep penetration and high contrast with the new pyranyl RGD-conjugates up to 350 μm in tumor tissue.

  11. RGD-conjugated two-photon absorbing near-IR emitting fluorescent probes for tumor vasculature imaging.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiling; Morales, Alma R; Githaiga, Grace W; Woodward, Adam W; Tang, Simon; Sawada, Junko; Komatsu, Masanobu; Liu, Xuan; Belfield, Kevin D

    2015-11-21

    Observation of the activation and inhibition of angiogenesis processes is important in the progression of cancer. Application of targeting peptides, such as a small peptide that contains adjacent L-arginine (R), glycine (G) and L-aspartic acid (D) residues can afford high selectivity and deep penetration in vessel imaging. To facilitate deep tissue vasculature imaging, probes that can be excited via two-photon absorption (2PA) in the near-infrared (NIR) and subsequently emit in the NIR are essential. In this study, the enhancement of tissue image quality with RGD conjugates was investigated with new NIR-emitting pyranyl fluorophore derivatives in two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Linear and nonlinear photophysical properties of the new probes were comprehensively characterized; significantly the probes exhibited good 2PA over a broad spectral range from 700-1100 nm. Cell and tissue images were then acquired and examined, revealing deep penetration and high contrast with the new pyranyl RGD-conjugates up to 350 μm in tumor tissue. PMID:26351137

  12. HST Imaging of Fading AGN Candidates. I. Host-galaxy Properties and Origin of the Extended Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keel, William C.; Maksym, W. Peter; Bennert, Vardha N.; Lintott, Chris J.; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Moiseev, Alexei; Smirnova, Aleksandrina; Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, C. Megan; Evans, Daniel A.; Pancoast, Anna; Scott, Bryan; Showley, Charles; Flatland, Kelsi

    2015-05-01

    We present narrow- and medium-band Hubble Space Telescope imaging, with additional supporting ground-based imaging, spectrophotometry, and Fabry-Perot interferometric data, for eight galaxies identified as hosting a fading active galactic nucleus (AGN). These are selected to have AGN-ionized gas projected \\gt 10 kpc from the nucleus and energy budgets with a significant shortfall of ionizing radiation between the requirement to ionize the distant gas and the AGN as observed directly, indicating fading of the AGN on ≈50,000 yr timescales. This paper focuses on the host-galaxy properties and origin of the gas. In every galaxy, we identify evidence of ongoing or past interactions, including tidal tails, shells, and warped or chaotic dust structures; a similarly selected sample of obscured AGNs with extended ionized clouds shares this high incidence of disturbed morphologies. Several systems show multiple dust lanes in different orientations, broadly fit by differentially precessing disks of accreted material viewed ˜1.5 Gyr after its initial arrival. The host systems are of early Hubble type; most show nearly pure de Vaucouleurs surface brightness profiles and Sérsic indices appropriate for classical bulges, with one S0 and one SB0 galaxy. The gas has a systematically lower metallicity than the nuclei; three systems have abundances uniformly well below solar, consistent with an origin in tidally disrupted low-luminosity galaxies, while some systems have more nearly solar abundances (accompanied by such signatures as multiple Doppler components), which may suggest redistribution of gas by outflows within the host galaxies themselves. These aspects are consistent with a tidal origin for the extended gas in most systems, although the ionized gas and stellar tidal features do not always match closely. Unlike extended emission regions around many radio-loud AGNs, these clouds are kinematically dominated by rotation, in some cases in warped disks. Outflows can play

  13. Submillimeter Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, A. W.

    2009-12-01

    The Universe was a more exciting place at moderate to high redshifts z˜3, after reionization took place, but before the present day galaxy properties were firmly established. From a wide variety of directions, we are gaining insight into the Universe at these epochs. Less gas was sequestered into stars and had been ejected into the interstellar medium as weakly emitting, slowly cooling debris, because a significant amount of star formation and supermassive blackhole growth in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) was still to occur. Furthermore, the processes that shape today’s galaxies were at work, and can be seen in real time with the appropriate tools. The most active regions of galaxies at these redshifts are deeply obscured at ultraviolet and optical wavelengths by an opaque interstellar medium (ISM) that absorbs most of their radiation, and then re-emits at far-infrared (IR) wavelengths. This emission provides us with a very powerful probe of the regions within galaxies where the most intense activity takes place; both their total energy output, and from spectroscopy, about the physics and chemistry of the atomic and molecular gas that fuels, hides and surrounds these regions. This information is unique, but not complete: radio, mid- and near-IR, optical and X-ray observations each provide unique complementary views. Nevertheless, probing the obscured Universe, with the Atacama Large (Sub-)Millimeter Array (ALMA), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Herschel Space Observatory, Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), and missions and telescopes that are not yet in construction, like an actively cooled sub-10-m class IR space telescope and a 25-m class ground-based submillimeter/THz telescope (CCAT) will provide a more complete picture of in which neighborhoods, by what means and how quickly the most vigorous bursts of activity take place.

  14. Studying high redshift galaxy groups with the Athena Wide-Field-Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacaud, Florian; Reiprich, Thomas; Ramos Ceja, Miriam Elizabeth; Lovisari, Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    In this contribution, we will discuss the potential of Athena to study high redshift galaxy groups (1galaxy groups (average gas temperature, luminosity). Based on these tools, we discuss the science achievable with such systems thanks to Athena and its dependance on the final instrumental set-up. In particular, we investigate the impact of different levels of contamination by AGNs and assumptions on the luminosity of the groups as a function of their mass.

  15. A study of the circum-galactic medium at z ˜ 0.6 using DLA-galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Hadi; Péroux, Céline; Turnshek, David A.; Rao, Sandhya M.; Quiret, Samuel; Hamilton, Timothy S.; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; Monier, Eric M.; Zafar, Tayyaba

    2016-08-01

    We present the study of a sample of nine QSO fields, with damped-Lyα (DLA) or sub-DLA systems at z ˜ 0.6, observed with the X-Shooter spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. By suitably positioning the X-Shooter slit based on high spatial resolution images of HST/ACS we are able to detect absorbing galaxies in 7 out of 9 fields (˜ 78% success rate) at impact parameters from 10 to 30 kpc. In 5 out of 7 fields the absorbing galaxies are confirmed via detection of multiple emission lines at the redshift of DLAs where only 1 out of 5 also emits a faint continuum. In 2 out of these 5 fields we detect a second galaxy at the DLA redshift. Extinction corrected star formation rates (SFR) of these DLA-galaxies, estimated using their Hα fluxes, are in the range 0.3-6.7 M⊙ yr-1. The emission metallicities of these five DLA-galaxies are estimated to be from 0.2 to 0.9 Z⊙. Based on the Voigt profile fits to absorption lines we find the metallicity of the absorbing neutral gas to be in a range of 0.05-0.6 Z⊙. The two remaining DLA-galaxies are quiescent galaxies with SFR < 0.4 M⊙ yr-1 (3σ) presenting continuum emission but weak or no emission lines. Using X-Shooter spectrum we estimate i-band absolute magnitude of -19.5 ± 0.2 for both these DLA-galaxies that indicates they are sub-L⋆ galaxies. Comparing our results with that of other surveys in the literature we find a possible redshift evolution of the SFR of DLA-galaxies.

  16. Predictions for imaging and spectroscopic surveys of galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the mid-/far-Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonato, Matteo

    2015-02-01

    While continuum imaging data at far-infrared to sub-millimeter wavelengths have provided tight constraints on the population properties of dusty star-forming galaxies up to high redshifts, future space missions like the Space Infra-Red Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) and ground based facilities like the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Cerro Chajnantor Atacama Telescope (CCAT) will allow detailed investigations of their physical properties via their mid-/far-infrared line emission. The goal of this thesis project was to carry out predictions for these spectroscopic surveys using both a phenomenological approach and physically grounded models. These predictions are useful to optimize the planning of the surveys. In the first part of the work, I present updated predictions for the number counts and the redshift distributions of star-forming galaxies spectroscopically detectable by these future missions. These predictions exploit a recent upgrade of evolutionary models, that includes the effect of strong gravitational lensing, in the light of the most recent Herschel and South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. Moreover the relations between line and continuum infrared luminosity are re-assessed, considering also differences among source populations, with the support of extensive simulations that take into account dust obscuration. My reference model for the redshift dependent IR luminosity functions is the one worked out by Cai et al. (2013) based on a comprehensive hybrid approach combining a physical model for the progenitors of early-type galaxies with a phenomenological one for late-type galaxies. The derived line luminosity functions are found to be highly sensitive to the spread of the line to continuum luminosity ratios. Estimates of the expected numbers of detections per spectral line by the SpicA FAR infrared Instrument (SAFARI) and by CCAT surveys for different integration times per field of view at fixed total observing

  17. The ATLAS3D project - XXIX. The new look of early-type galaxies and surrounding fields disclosed by extremely deep optical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Pierre-Alain; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Karabal, Emin; Cappellari, Michele; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Michel-Dansac, Leo; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Paudel, Sanjaya; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Galactic archaeology based on star counts is instrumental to reconstruct the past mass assembly of Local Group galaxies. The development of new observing techniques and data reduction, coupled with the use of sensitive large field of view cameras, now allows us to pursue this technique in more distant galaxies exploiting their diffuse low surface brightness (LSB) light. As part of the ATLAS3D project, we have obtained with the MegaCam camera at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope extremely deep, multiband images of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs). We present here a catalogue of 92 galaxies from the ATLAS3D sample, which are located in low- to medium-density environments. The observing strategy and data reduction pipeline, which achieve a gain of several magnitudes in the limiting surface brightness with respect to classical imaging surveys, are presented. The size and depth of the survey are compared to other recent deep imaging projects. The paper highlights the capability of LSB-optimized surveys at detecting new prominent structures that change the apparent morphology of galaxies. The intrinsic limitations of deep imaging observations are also discussed, among those, the contamination of the stellar haloes of galaxies by extended ghost reflections, and the cirrus emission from Galactic dust. The detection and systematic census of fine structures that trace the present and past mass assembly of ETGs are one of the prime goals of the project. We provide specific examples of each type of observed structures - tidal tails, stellar streams and shells - and explain how they were identified and classified. We give an overview of the initial results. The detailed statistical analysis will be presented in future papers.

  18. The Gemini Frontier Field: Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics Ks-band imaging of selected HST Frontier Field galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivo, Gaetano; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Schirmer, Mischa; Pessev, Peter; Winge, Claudia; Garrel, Vincent; Neichel, Benoit; Vidal, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    We use the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS) and the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) at the Gemini South telescope to image three of the six Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Frontier Field targets. These observations cover the gap between the HST observations beyond 1.7 microns and the 3.6 micron provided by Spitzer. GeMS is the first multi-conjugate adaptive optics system in use at an 8meter telescope. It delivers and uniform, close to diffraction-limited near-infrared images over a 2‧ field of view. In this presentation we describe the release of 100'' x 100'' high resolution wide-field images obtained for the galaxy clusters MACS J0416.1-2403 and Abell 2744 in Ks-band. The angular resolution achieved is between 70 to 110 mas, twice as high as HST/WFC3, using a single natural guide star only. This is a demonstration that even for fields at high galactic latitude, where natural guide stars are scarce, current multi-conjugated adaptive optics technology at 8m-telescopes has opened a new window on the distant Universe.

  19. Directly Imaging Damped Ly-Alpha Galaxies at Redshifts Greater Than 2. III: The Star Formation Rates of Neutral Gas Reservoirs at Redshifts of Approximately 2.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fumagalli, Michele; OMeara, John M.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Rafelski, Marc; Kanekar, Nissim

    2014-01-01

    We present results from a survey designed to probe the star formation properties of 32 damped Ly alpha systems (DLAs) at redshifts of approximately 2.7. By using the "double-DLA" technique that eliminates the glare of the bright background quasars, we directly measure the rest-frame FUV flux from DLAs and their neighbouring galaxies. At the position of the absorbing gas, we place stringent constraints on the unobscured star formation rates (SFRs) of DLAs to 2 sigma limits of psi less than 0.09-0.27 solar mass yr(exp -1), corresponding to SFR surface densities sigma(sub sfr) less than 10(exp -2.6)-10(exp -1.5) solar mass yr(exp -1) kpc(exp -2). The implications of these limits for the star formation law, metal enrichment, and cooling rates of DLAs are examined. By studying the distribution of impact parameters as a function of SFRs for all the galaxies detected around these DLAs, we place new direct constraints on the bright end of the UV luminosity function of DLA hosts. We find that less than or equal to 13% of the hosts have psi greater than or equal to 2 solar mass yr(exp -1) at impact parameters b(sub dla) less than or equal to (psi/solar mass yr(exp -1))(exp 0.8) + 6 kpc, differently from current samples of confirmed DLA galaxies. Our observations also disfavor a scenario in which the majority of DLAs arise from bright LBGs at distances 20 less than or equal to b(sub dla) less than 100 kpc. These new findings corroborate a picture in which DLAs do not originate from highly star forming systems that are coincident with the absorbers, and instead suggest that DLAs are associated with faint, possibly isolated, star-forming galaxies. Potential shortcomings of this scenario and future strategies for further investigation are discussed.

  20. NEAR-INFRARED ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF INFRARED LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER MAGNITUDE-STAR FORMATION RATE RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Randriamanakoto, Z.; Väisänen, P.; Escala, A.; Kankare, E.; Kotilainen, J.; Mattila, S.; Ryder, S.

    2013-10-01

    We have established a relation between the brightest super star cluster (SSC) magnitude in a galaxy and the host star formation rate (SFR) for the first time in the near-infrared (NIR). The data come from a statistical sample of ∼40 luminous IR galaxies (LIRGs) and starbursts utilizing K-band adaptive optics imaging. While expanding the observed relation to longer wavelengths, less affected by extinction effects, it also pushes to higher SFRs. The relation we find, M{sub K} ∼ –2.6log SFR, is similar to that derived previously in the optical and at lower SFRs. It does not, however, fit the optical relation with a single optical to NIR color conversion, suggesting systematic extinction and/or age effects. While the relation is broadly consistent with a size-of-sample explanation, we argue physical reasons for the relation are likely as well. In particular, the scatter in the relation is smaller than expected from pure random sampling strongly suggesting physical constraints. We also derive a quantifiable relation tying together cluster-internal effects and host SFR properties to possibly explain the observed brightest SSC magnitude versus SFR dependency.

  1. The Host Galaxies of LoBAL QSOs at Low z: A Perspective from HST UVIS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behn, Wyatt Alan; Lazarova, Mariana; Canalizo, Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    We present GALFIT models of a complete optically-selected volume-limited sample of Low-Ionization Broad Absorption Line QSOs (LoBALs) in the redshift range 0.5-0.6 observed with HST WFC3 UVIS F475W. We investigate the morphologies in the rest frame u which map the younger stellar populations. In addition, we present statistics on the number of neighborhood galaxies within 150 kpc and possible trends between clustering and host galaxy properties. This sample of LoBALs is selected from QSOs characterized by their extreme blue-shifted absorption in the Mg II line—which is a signature of high velocity winds towards the observer. Only ~1-3% of optically selected QSOs are LoBALs. Their low fraction could be explained by their orientation or by a short period of outflow manifest in all QSOs during their lifetime. We aim to better understand the possibility of the evolutionary model by studying their morphologies in detail. Previous work on this sample, from images with F125W filter (rest frame i), shows that at least 60% of these objects exhibit signs of recent merger activity. We complement those results with our results from the UVIS observations and neighborhood clustering statistics.

  2. Detection of Lyman-alpha Emission from a Triply Imaged z = 6.85 Galaxy behind MACS J2129.4‑0741

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuang-Han; Lemaux, Brian C.; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Hoag, Austin; Bradač, Maruša; Treu, Tommaso; Dijkstra, Mark; Fontana, Adriano; Henry, Alaina; Malkan, Matthew; Mason, Charlotte; Morishita, Takahiro; Pentericci, Laura; Ryan, Russell E., Jr.; Trenti, Michele; Wang, Xin

    2016-05-01

    We report the detection of Lyα emission at ∼9538 Å in the Keck/DEIMOS and Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 G102 grism data from a triply imaged galaxy at z=6.846+/- 0.001 behind galaxy cluster MACS J2129.4‑0741. Combining the emission line wavelength with broadband photometry, line ratio upper limits, and lens modeling, we rule out the scenario that this emission line is [O ii] at z = 1.57. After accounting for magnification, we calculate the weighted average of the intrinsic Lyα luminosity to be ∼ 1.3× {10}42 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 and Lyα equivalent width to be 74 ± 15 Å. Its intrinsic UV absolute magnitude at 1600 Å is ‑18.6 ± 0.2 mag and stellar mass (1.5+/- 0.3)× {10}7\\quad {M}ȯ , making it one of the faintest (intrinsic {L}{UV}∼ 0.14 {L}{UV}\\ast ) galaxies with Lyα detection at z∼ 7 to date. Its stellar mass is in the typical range for the galaxies thought to dominate the reionization photon budget at z≳ 7; the inferred Lyα escape fraction is high (≳ 10%), which could be common for sub-L* z≳ 7 galaxies with Lyα emission. This galaxy offers a glimpse of the galaxy population that is thought to drive reionization, and it shows that gravitational lensing is an important avenue for probing the sub-L* galaxy population.

  3. Investigating the burstiness of the star formation history of low-mass galaxies at intermediate redshifts with KECK/DEIMOS spectroscopy and CANDELS imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yicheng; Koo, David C.; Faber, Sandra M.; Rafelski, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The history of gas accretion, expulsion, and recycling, and star formation of low-mass galaxies (with stellar mass below 10^9 Msun) is thought to be stochastic and bursty. We combine the deep broad-band images of CANDELS and the high-resolution optical spectroscopy from Keck/DEIMOS surveys --- TKRS, DEEP2, DEEP3, and HALO7D --- to explore the star formation histories of low-mass galaxies at intermediate redshifts (0.5≤z≤1.0). We study (1) the stellar mass (M)--gas-phase metallicity (Z) relation (MZR) and its scatter and (2) the ratio of star formation rates (SFRs) measured through FUV to that through Hβ (FUV--Hβ ratio). Our MZR sample is ˜20 times larger than those in previous studies beyond the local universe. This huge gain in sample size enables superior constraints on the MZR and its scatter in the low-mass regime. We find that the scatter of the MZR increases as mass decreases. For the FUV--Hβ ratio, we find that it increases with the decrease of mass and SFR. Both results can be explained by low-mass galaxies having a star formation history with more bursts than massive galaxies having. A simple model shows that the star formation occuring in starburst phases in low-mass galaxies is 5x higher than that in a constant star formation phase, while, for massive galaxies, the bursty phases of star formation is negligible. Finally, we find that our median FUV--Hβ ratio for low-mass galaxies is higher than that of local galaxies of the same mass, implying a redshift evolution.

  4. Hubble Identifies Source of Ultraviolet Light in an Old Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This videotape is comprised of four segments: (1) a Video zoom in on galaxy M32 using ground images, (2) Hubble images of galaxy M32, (3) Ground base color image of galaxies M31 and M32, and (4) Black and white ground based images of galaxy M32.

  5. Radio Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on radio galaxies. Topic areas addressed include: what produces the radio emission; radio telescopes; locating radio galaxies; how distances to radio galaxies are found; physics of radio galaxies; computer simulations of radio galaxies; and the evolution of radio galaxies with cosmic time. (JN)

  6. Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Christopher J. Miller

    2012-03-01

    There are many examples of clustering in astronomy. Stars in our own galaxy are often seen as being gravitationally bound into tight globular or open clusters. The Solar System's Trojan asteroids cluster at the gravitational Langrangian in front of Jupiter’s orbit. On the largest of scales, we find gravitationally bound clusters of galaxies, the Virgo cluster (in the constellation of Virgo at a distance of ˜50 million light years) being a prime nearby example. The Virgo cluster subtends an angle of nearly 8◦ on the sky and is known to contain over a thousand member galaxies. Galaxy clusters play an important role in our understanding of theUniverse. Clusters exist at peaks in the three-dimensional large-scale matter density field. Their sky (2D) locations are easy to detect in astronomical imaging data and their mean galaxy redshifts (redshift is related to the third spatial dimension: distance) are often better (spectroscopically) and cheaper (photometrically) when compared with the entire galaxy population in large sky surveys. Photometric redshift (z) [Photometric techniques use the broad band filter magnitudes of a galaxy to estimate the redshift. Spectroscopic techniques use the galaxy spectra and emission/absorption line features to measure the redshift] determinations of galaxies within clusters are accurate to better than delta_z = 0.05 [7] and when studied as a cluster population, the central galaxies form a line in color-magnitude space (called the the E/S0 ridgeline and visible in Figure 16.3) that contains galaxies with similar stellar populations [15]. The shape of this E/S0 ridgeline enables astronomers to measure the cluster redshift to within delta_z = 0.01 [23]. The most accurate cluster redshift determinations come from spectroscopy of the member galaxies, where only a fraction of the members need to be spectroscopically observed [25,42] to get an accurate redshift to the whole system. If light traces mass in the Universe, then the locations

  7. A robust morphological classification of high-redshift galaxies using support vector machines on seeing limited images. I. Method description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas-Company, M.; Rouan, D.; Tasca, L.; Soucail, G.; Le Fèvre, O.

    2008-02-01

    Context: Morphology is the most accessible tracer of the physical structure of galaxies, but its interpretation in the framework of galaxy evolution still remains a problem. Its dependence on wavelength renders the comparison between local and high redshift populations difficult. Furthermore, the quality of the measured morphology being strongly dependent on the image resolution, the comparison between different surveys is also a problem. Aims: We present a new non-parametric method to quantify morphologies of galaxies based on a particular family of learning machines called support vector machines. The method, which can be seen as a generalization of the classical C/A classification but with an unlimited number of dimensions and non-linear boundaries between decision regions, is fully automated and thus particularly well adapted to large cosmological surveys. The source code is available for download at http://www.lesia.obspm.fr/~huertas/galsvm.html Methods: To test the method, we use a seeing limited near-infrared (Ks band, 2,16 μm) sample observed with WIRCam at CFHT at a median redshift of z ~ 0.8. The machine is trained with a simulated sample built from a local visually classified sample from the SDSS, chosen in the high-redshift sample's rest-frame (i band, 0.77 μm) and artificially redshifted to match the observing conditions. We use a 12-dimensional volume, including 5 morphological parameters, and other characteristics of galaxies such as luminosity and redshift. A fraction of the simulated sample is used to test the machine and assess its accuracy. Results: We show that a qualitative separation in two main morphological types (late type and early type) can be obtained with an error lower than 20% up to the completeness limit of the sample (KAB ~ 22), which is more than 2 times better that what would be obtained with a classical C/A classification on the same sample and indeed comparable to space data. The method is optimized to solve a specific problem

  8. Specific absorbed fractions from the image-based VIP-Man body model and EGS4-VLSI Monte Carlo code: internal electron emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, T. C.; Xu, X. G.

    2001-04-01

    VIP-Man is a whole-body anatomical model newly developed at Rensselaer from the high-resolution colour images of the National Library of Medicine's Visible Human Project. This paper summarizes the use of VIP-Man and the Monte Carlo method to calculate specific absorbed fractions from internal electron emitters. A specially designed EGS4 user code, named EGS4-VLSI, was developed to use the extremely large number of image data contained in the VIP-Man. Monoenergetic and isotropic electron emitters with energies from 100 keV to 4 MeV are considered to be uniformly distributed in 26 organs. This paper presents, for the first time, results of internal electron exposures based on a realistic whole-body tomographic model. Because VIP-Man has many organs and tissues that were previously not well defined (or not available) in other models, the efforts at Rensselaer and elsewhere bring an unprecedented opportunity to significantly improve the internal dosimetry.

  9. Amazing Andromeda Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The many 'personalities' of our great galactic neighbor, the Andromeda galaxy, are exposed in this new composite image from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the Spitzer Space Telescope.

    The wide, ultraviolet eyes of Galaxy Evolution Explorer reveal Andromeda's 'fiery' nature -- hotter regions brimming with young and old stars. In contrast, Spitzer's super-sensitive infrared eyes show Andromeda's relatively 'cool' side, which includes embryonic stars hidden in their dusty cocoons.

    Galaxy Evolution Explorer detected young, hot, high-mass stars, which are represented in blue, while populations of relatively older stars are shown as green dots. The bright yellow spot at the galaxy's center depicts a particularly dense population of old stars.

    Swaths of red in the galaxy's disk indicate areas where Spitzer found cool, dusty regions where stars are forming. These stars are still shrouded by the cosmic clouds of dust and gas that collapsed to form them.

    Together, Galaxy Evolution Explorer and Spitzer complete the picture of Andromeda's swirling spiral arms. Hints of pinkish purple depict regions where the galaxy's populations of hot, high-mass stars and cooler, dust-enshrouded stars co-exist.

    Located 2.5 million light-years away, the Andromeda is our largest nearby galactic neighbor. The galaxy's entire disk spans about 260,000 light-years, which means that a light beam would take 260,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. By comparison, our Milky Way galaxy's disk is about 100,000 light-years across.

    This image is a false color composite comprised of data from Galaxy Evolution Explorer's far-ultraviolet detector (blue), near-ultraviolet detector (green), and Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer at 24 microns (red).

  10. Photometry of compact galaxies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, B. S. P.; Usher, P. D.; Barrett, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Photometric histories of the N galaxies 3C 390.3 and PKS 0521-36. Four other compact galaxies, Markarian 9, I Zw 92, 2 Zw 136, and III Zw 77 showed no evidence of variability. The photometric histories were obtained from an exhaustive study of those plates of the Harvard collection taken with large aperture cameras. The images of all galaxies reported were indistinguishable from stars due to the camera f-ratios and low surface brightness of the outlying nebulosities of the galaxies. Standard techniques for the study of variable stars are therefore applicable.

  11. HST/ACS EMISSION LINE IMAGING OF LOW-REDSHIFT 3CR RADIO GALAXIES. I. THE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, Grant R.; Chiaberge, Marco; Sparks, William B.; Macchetto, F. Duccio; Baum, Stefi A.; Axon, David J.; Noel-Storr, Jacob; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Allen, Mark G.; Capetti, Alessandro; Floyd, David J. E.; Miley, George K.; Perlman, Eric S.; Quillen, Alice C. E-mail: grant@astro.rit.edu

    2009-08-01

    We present 19 nearby (z < 0.3) 3CR radio galaxies imaged at low and high excitation as part of a Cycle 15 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) snapshot survey with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). These images consist of exposures of the H{alpha} (6563 A, plus [N II] contamination) and [O III]{lambda}5007 emission lines using narrowband linear ramp filters adjusted according to the redshift of the target. To facilitate continuum subtraction, a single-pointing 60 s line-free exposure was taken with a mediumband filter appropriate for the target's redshift. We discuss the steps taken to reduce these images independently of the automated recalibration pipeline so as to use more recent ACS flat-field data as well as to better reject cosmic rays. We describe the method used to produce continuum-free (pure line-emission) images, and present these images along with qualitative descriptions of the narrow-line region morphologies we observe. We present H{alpha}+[N II] and [O III] line fluxes from aperture photometry, finding the values to fall expectedly on the redshift-luminosity trend from a past HST/WFPC2 emission line study of a larger, generally higher redshift subset of the 3CR. We also find expected trends between emission line luminosity and total radio power, as well as a positive correlation between the size of the emission line region and redshift. We discuss the associated interpretation of these results, and conclude with a summary of future work enabled by this data set.

  12. THE MORPHOLOGY OF PASSIVELY EVOLVING GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2 FROM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/WFC3 DEEP IMAGING IN THE HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Cassata, P.; Giavalisco, M.; Guo Yicheng; Salimbeni, S.; Ferguson, H.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Casertano, S.; Grogin, N.; Lucas, R. A.; Renzini, A.; Fontana, A.; Dickinson, M.; Lotz, J. M.; Conselice, C. J.; Papovich, C.; Straughn, A.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Moustakas, L.

    2010-05-01

    We present near-IR images, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope and the WFC3/IR camera, of six passive and massive galaxies at redshift 1.3 < z < 2.4 (specific star formation rate <10{sup -2} Gyr{sup -1}; stellar mass M {approx} 10{sup 11} M {sub sun}), selected from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey. These images, which have a spatial resolution of {approx}1.5 kpc, provide the deepest view of the optical rest-frame morphology of such systems to date. We find that the light profile of these galaxies is regular and well described by a Sersic model with index typical of today's spheroids. Their size, however, is generally much smaller than today's early types of similar stellar masses, with four out of six galaxies having r{sub e} {approx} 1 kpc or less, in quantitative agreement with previous similar measures made at rest-frame UV wavelengths. The images reach limiting surface brightness {mu}{approx} 26.5 mag arcsec{sup -2} in the F160W bandpass; yet, there is no evidence of a faint halo in the galaxies of our sample, even in their stacked image. We also find that these galaxies have very weak 'morphological k-correction' between the rest-frame UV (from the Advanced Camera for Surveys z band) and the rest-frame optical (WFC3 H band): the Sersic index, physical size, and overall morphology are independent or only mildly dependent on the wavelength, within the errors.

  13. Wide-Field Imaging of the Hubble Deep Field-South Region. II. The Evolution of Galaxy Clustering at z < 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplitz, Harry I.; Hill, Robert S.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Collins, Nicholas R.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Palunas, Povilas; Woodgate, Bruce E.

    2001-02-01

    We present the galaxy-galaxy angular correlations as a function of photometric redshift in a deep, wide galaxy survey centered on the Hubble Deep Field-South (HDF-S). Images were obtained with the Big Throughput Camera on the Blanco 4 m telescope at CTIO, of 1/2 square degree in broadband uBVRI, reaching ~24 mag. Approximately 40,000 galaxies are detected in the survey. We determine photometric redshifts using galaxy template fitting to the photometry. Monte Carlo simulations show that redshifts from these data should be reliable out to z~1, where the 4000 Å break shifts into the I band. The inferred redshift distribution, n(z), shows good agreement with the distribution of galaxies measured in the Hubble Deep Field-North (HDF-N) and the Canada-France Redshift Survey. After assigning galaxies to redshift bins with width Δz=0.33, we determine the two-point angular correlation function in each bin. We find that the amplitude of the correlation, Aw, drops across the three bins to redshift z~1. Simple ɛ models of clustering evolution fit this result, with the best agreement for ɛ=0. Hierarchical cold dark matter models best fit in a low-density, Λ-dominated universe. Based on observations obtained at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, a division of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  14. NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING OF A z = 6.42 QUASAR HOST GALAXY WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3

    SciTech Connect

    Mechtley, M.; Windhorst, R. A.; Cohen, S. H.; Jansen, R. A.; Scannapieco, E.; Ryan, R. E.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Schneider, G.; Fan, X.; Hathi, N. P.; Keel, W. C.; Roettgering, H.; Schneider, D. P.; Strauss, M. A.; Yan, H. J.

    2012-09-10

    We report on deep near-infrared F125W (J) and F160W (H) Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 images of the z = 6.42 quasar J1148+5251 to attempt to detect rest-frame near-ultraviolet emission from the host galaxy. These observations included contemporaneous observations of a nearby star of similar near-infrared colors to measure temporal variations in the telescope and instrument point-spread function (PSF). We subtract the quasar point source using both this direct PSF and a model PSF. Using direct subtraction, we measure an upper limit for the quasar host galaxy of m{sub J} > 22.8 and m{sub H} > 23.0 AB mag (2 {sigma}). After subtracting our best model PSF, we measure a limiting surface brightness from 0.''3 to 0.''5 radius of {mu}{sub J} > 23.5 and {mu}{sub H} > 23.7 AB mag arcsec{sup -2} (2 {sigma}). We test the ability of the model subtraction method to recover the host galaxy flux by simulating host galaxies with varying integrated magnitude, effective radius, and Sersic index, and conducting the same analysis. These models indicate that the surface brightness limit ({mu}{sub J} > 23.5 AB mag arcsec{sup -2}) corresponds to an integrated upper limit of m{sub J} > 22-23 AB mag, consistent with the direct subtraction method. Combined with existing far-infrared observations, this gives an infrared excess log (IRX) > 1.0 and corresponding ultraviolet spectral slope {beta} > -1.2 {+-} 0.2. These values match those of most local luminous infrared galaxies, but are redder than those of almost all local star-forming galaxies and z {approx_equal} 6 Lyman break galaxies.

  15. Infrared Polarimetry of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, T. J.

    2005-12-01

    Imaging polarimetry at near infrared wavelengths can probe the magnetic field geometry in external galaxies in regions of high extinction inaccessible to optical techniques. Polarization of starlight from deep into dustlanes, blowouts, and dust enshrouded nuclei can be measured. A total of twelve galaxies showing only interstellar polarization have been observed to date. Normal galaxies such as NGC 4565 show a magnetic field geometry lying in the plane of the disk and a polarization strength very similar to what is observed in the Milky Way. Ultraluminous galaxies and galaxies with starburst nuclei show a polar magnetic field geometry in the nucleus, causing a crossed polaroid effect and reduced polarization. Interestingly, galaxies with active disks, but otherwise normal, such as NGC 891 show the effects of blowouts in the polarization maps.

  16. Galaxy NGC5474

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer took this ultraviolet color image of the galaxy NGC5474 on June 7, 2003. NGC5474 is located 20 million light-years from Earth and is within a group of galaxies dominated by the Messier 101 galaxy. Star formation in this galaxy shows some evidence of a disturbed spiral pattern, which may have been induced by tidal interactions with Messier 101.

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer mission is led by the California Institute of Technology, which is also responsible for the science operations and data analysis. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., a division of Caltech, manages the mission and built the science instrument. The mission was developed under NASA's Explorers Program, managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The mission's international partners include South Korea and France.

  17. How Do Galaxies Grow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-08-01

    Astronomers have caught multiple massive galaxies in the act of merging about 4 billion years ago. This discovery, made possible by combining the power of the best ground- and space-based telescopes, uniquely supports the favoured theory of how galaxies form. ESO PR Photo 24/08 ESO PR Photo 24/08 Merging Galaxies in Groups How do galaxies form? The most widely accepted answer to this fundamental question is the model of 'hierarchical formation', a step-wise process in which small galaxies merge to build larger ones. One can think of the galaxies forming in a similar way to how streams merge to form rivers, and how these rivers, in turn, merge to form an even larger river. This theoretical model predicts that massive galaxies grow through many merging events in their lifetime. But when did their cosmological growth spurts finish? When did the most massive galaxies get most of their mass? To answer these questions, astronomers study massive galaxies in clusters, the cosmological equivalent of cities filled with galaxies. "Whether the brightest galaxies in clusters grew substantially in the last few billion years is intensely debated. Our observations show that in this time, these galaxies have increased their mass by 50%," says Kim-Vy Tran from the University of Zürich, Switzerland, who led the research. The astronomers made use of a large ensemble of telescopes and instruments, including ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Hubble Space Telescope, to study in great detail galaxies located 4 billion light-years away. These galaxies lie in an extraordinary system made of four galaxy groups that will assemble into a cluster. In particular, the team took images with VIMOS and spectra with FORS2, both instruments on the VLT. From these and other observations, the astronomers could identify a total of 198 galaxies belonging to these four groups. The brightest galaxies in each group contain between 100 and 1000 billion of stars, a property that makes them comparable

  18. Tidal Dwarf Galaxies In Gas-rich Interacting Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eigenthaler, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy-galaxy interactions in gas-rich galaxy groups or pairs can form tidal bridges and tails. These tidal arms can contain kinematically decoupled structures with active star formation in the same mass range as dwarf galaxies, so-called tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs). They differ from ordinary dwarf galaxies by their lack of dark matter and higher metallicity content. Compact groups of galaxies are an ideal environment to study the origin and evolution of TDGs since the high spatial volume density of member galaxies allows for frequent and efficient interactions between galaxies forming tidal tails. Hunsberger et al. (1996) identified 47 TDG candidates in Hickson compact groups (HCGs) and estimated that more than 50% of all dwarf galaxies in compact groups are former TDGs. Statistical considerations based on observations of interacting galaxies illustrate that a significant fraction of today's dwarf galaxies could have had a tidal origin. In their early evolution, TDGs can easily be distinguished from classical dwarf galaxies as they are still embedded in large tidal structures and show ongoing star formation, identified via strong Hα emission in these aggregates. Simulations of interacting galaxies, and of TDGs in particular, have shown that TDGs can survive their first starburst event and turn into long-lived dwarf sized objects. Preliminary results from deep Hα imaging with the SOAR telescope to detect new TDGs in a sample of 10 Hickson compact groups will be presented.

  19. ALFALFA and WSRT Imaging of Extended H I Features in the Leo Cloud of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisman, Lukas; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Józsa, Gyula; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Hess, Kelley M.

    2016-08-01

    We present ALFALFA H I observations of a well studied region of the Leo Cloud, which includes the NGC 3227 group and the NGC 3190 group. We detect optically dark H I tails and plumes with extents potentially exceeding 600 kpc, well beyond the field of view of previous observations. These H I features contain ˜40% of the total H I mass in the NGC 3227 group and ˜10% of the NGC 3190 group. We also present WSRT maps which show the complex morphology of the the extended emission in the NGC 3227 group. We comment on previously proposed models of the interactions in these group and the implications for the scale of group processing through interactions. Motivated by the extent of the H I plumes, we place the H I observations in the context of the larger loose group, demonstrating the need for future sensitive, wide field H I surveys to understand the role of group processing in galaxy evolution.

  20. PARSEC-SCALE IMAGING OF THE RADIO-BUBBLE SEYFERT GALAXY NGC 6764

    SciTech Connect

    Kharb, P.; O'Dea, C. P.; Axon, D. J.; Robinson, A.; Hota, Ananda; Croston, J. H.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Kraft, R. P.

    2010-11-01

    We have observed the composite active galactic nucleus (AGN)-starburst galaxy NGC 6764 with the Very Long Baseline Array at 1.6 and 4.9 GHz. These observations have detected a 'core-jet' structure and a possible weak counterjet component at 1.6 GHz. The upper limits to the core and jet (1.6-4.9 GHz) spectral index are 0.6 and 0.3, respectively. Taken together with the high brightness temperature of {approx}10{sup 7} K for the core region, the radio emission appears to be coming from a synchrotron jet. At a position angle of {approx}25{sup 0}, the parsec-scale jet seems to be pointing closely toward the western edge of the southern kpc-scale bubble in NGC 6764. A real connection between the parsec- and sub-kpc-scale emission would not only suggest the presence of a curved jet, but also a close link between the AGN jet and the radio bubbles in NGC 6764. We demonstrate that a precessing jet model can explain the radio morphology from parsec to sub-kpc scales, and the model best-fit parameters of jet speed and orientation are fully consistent with the observed jet-to-counterjet surface brightness ratio. The jet however appears to be disrupted on scales of hundreds of parsecs, possibly due to interaction with and entrainment of the interstellar medium gas, which subsequently leads to the formation of bubbles. The jet energetics in NGC 6764 suggest that it would take 12-21 Myr to inflate the (southern) bubble. This timescale corresponds roughly to the starburst episode that took place in NGC 6764 about 15-50 Myr ago, and could be indicative of a close connection between jet formation and the starburst activity in this galaxy.

  1. Morphology of High Redshifted Galaxies using GALEX Ultraviolet Observations of Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Bum-Suk; Kim, Y.; Rey, S.; Kim, S.; Joe, Y.; Gil de Paz, A.

    2009-01-01

    Galaxy morphology provides clues about the processes in the understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies. In this respect, the prediction of optical-band morphologies at high redshifts requires ultraviolet (UV) images of local galaxies with various morphologies. We simulated optical images at high redshifts using more diverse and high-quality nearby galaxies obtained through the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) UV observations. We present a quantitative analysis of the morphology of galaxies at near-ultraviolet (NUV) and simulated optical images. We also present a correlation between the isophotal-shape parameter and UV colors for nearby early-type galaxies.

  2. Galaxy Messier 83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of the spiral galaxy Messier 83 was taken by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer on June 7, 2003. Located 15 million light years from Earth and known as the Southern Pinwheel Galaxy, Messier 83 displays significant amounts of ultraviolet emissions far from the optically bright portion of the galaxy. It is also known to have an extended hydrogen disc that appears to radiate a faint ultraviolet emission. The red stars in the foreground of the image are Milky Way stars.

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer mission is led by the California Institute of Technology, which is also responsible for the science operations and data analysis. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., a division of Caltech, manages the mission and built the science instrument. The mission was developed under NASA's Explorers Program, managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The mission's international partners include South Korea and France.

  3. Backwards Spiral Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have found a spiral galaxy that may rotate in the opposite direction from what was expected.

    A picture of the oddball galaxy is available at http://heritage.stsci.edu or http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/03 or http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . It was taken in May 2001 by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    The picture showed which side of galaxy NGC 4622 is closer to Earth; that information helped astronomers determine that the galaxy may be spinning clockwise. The image shows NGC 4622 and its outer pair of winding arms full of new stars, shown in blue.

    Astronomers are puzzled by the clockwise rotation because of the direction the outer spiral arms are pointing. Most spiral galaxies have arms of gas and stars that trail behind as they turn. But this galaxy has two 'leading' outer arms that point toward the direction of the galaxy's clockwise rotation. NGC 4622 also has a 'trailing' inner arm that is wrapped around the galaxy in the opposite direction. Based on galaxy simulations, a team of astronomers had expected that the galaxy was turning counterclockwise.

    NGC 4622 is a rare example of a spiral galaxy with arms pointing in opposite directions. Astronomers suspect this oddity was caused by the interaction of NGC 4622 with another galaxy. Its two outer arms are lopsided, meaning that something disturbed it. The new Hubble image suggests that NGC 4622 consumed a smaller companion galaxy.

    Galaxies, which consist of stars, gas, and dust, rotate very slowly. Our Sun, one of many stars in our Milky Way galaxy, completes a circuit around the Milky Way every 250 million years. NGC 4622 lies 111 million light-years away in the direction of the constellation Centaurus.

    The science team, consisting of Drs. Ron Buta and Gene Byrd from the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, and Tarsh Freeman of Bevill State

  4. Obscured Star-Formation in Merging Galaxies: High Resolution Radio Imaging of a Time-Ordered Sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, S. G.; Campion, S. D.; Ulvestad, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    We present new, deep, high resolution 6cm and 4cm radio continuum images of the central regions of a time-ordered sequence of seven large galaxy mergers. The radio observations are able to detect star-forming re- gions that are completely obscured at optical wavelengths. In all systems, we detect numerous compact radio sources embedded in more diffuse ra- dio emission, with limiting luminosities of approx. 1-5 x 10(exp l8) W Hz or approx. 1-5 times the luminosity of Cas A. Many of the compact radio sources are loosely associated with active starforming regions but not with specific optical or W emission sources. Several of the compact radio sources are coincident with Ultra-luminous X-ray objects (ULX's). In most systems, we are able to measure reliable spectral indices for the stronger sources. We find that the fraction of compact radio cources with nominally flat radio spectral indices (indicating they ae dominated by thermal radio emission from HII regions) decreases with merger age, while the fraction of sources with nonimally steep spectral indices (indicating they are dominated by nonthermal emission from supernova remnants) increases. For the flat-spectrum sources, we estimate the numbers of young massive stars, associated ionized gas masses, we estimate supernova rates and required star-formation rates, We compare these results with those from other well-studied merging galaxy systems and from other determinations of star-formation rates. We gratefully acknowledge use of the NRAO Very Large Array (VLA) and the VLA Archive. NRAO is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  5. Hα3: an Hα imaging survey of HI selected galaxies from ALFALFA. VI. The role of bars in quenching star formation from z = 3 to the present epoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, G.; Consolandi, G.; Dotti, M.; Fanali, R.; Fossati, M.; Fumagalli, M.; Viscardi, E.; Savorgnan, G.; Boselli, A.; Gutiérrez, L.; Hernández Toledo, H.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that the star formation rate per unit stellar mass (sSFR) decreases with increasing mass in normal main-sequence star-forming galaxies. Many processes have been advocated as being responsible for this trend (also known as mass quenching), e.g., feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the formation of classical bulges. In order to improve our insight into the mechanisms regulating the star formation in normal star-forming galaxies across cosmic epochs, we determine a refined star formation versus stellar mass relation in the local Universe. To this end we use the Hα narrow-band imaging follow-up survey (Hα3) of field galaxies selected from the HI Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA) in the Coma and Local superclusters. By complementing this local determination with high-redshift measurements from the literature, we reconstruct the star formation history of main-sequence galaxies as a function of stellar mass from the present epoch up to z = 3. In agreement with previous studies, our analysis shows that quenching mechanisms occur above a threshold stellar mass Mknee that evolves with redshift as ∝ (1 + z)2. Moreover, visual morphological classification of individual objects in our local sample reveals a sharp increase in the fraction of visually classified strong bars with mass, hinting that strong bars may contribute to the observed downturn in the sSFR above Mknee. We test this hypothesis using a simple but physically motivated numerical model for bar formation, finding that strong bars can rapidly quench star formation in the central few kpc of field galaxies. We conclude that strong bars contribute significantly to the red colors observed in the inner parts of massive galaxies, although additional mechanisms are likely required to quench the star formation in the outer regions of massive spiral galaxies. Intriguingly, when we extrapolate our model to higher redshifts, we successfully recover the observed

  6. A DETAILED GRAVITATIONAL LENS MODEL BASED ON SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY AND KECK ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF A HERSCHEL-ATLAS SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY AT z = 4.243 {sup ,} {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Bussmann, R. S.; Gurwell, M. A.; Fu Hai; Cooray, A.; Smith, D. J. B.; Bonfield, D.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Fritz, J.; Baker, A. J.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Dariush, A.; Coppin, K.; Dannerbauer, H.; De Zotti, G.; Hopwood, R.; and others

    2012-09-10

    We present high-spatial resolution imaging obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at 880 {mu}m and the Keck adaptive optics (AO) system at the K{sub S}-band of a gravitationally lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 4.243 discovered in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. The SMA data (angular resolution Almost-Equal-To 0.''6) resolve the dust emission into multiple lensed images, while the Keck AO K{sub S}-band data (angular resolution Almost-Equal-To 0.''1) resolve the lens into a pair of galaxies separated by 0.''3. We present an optical spectrum of the foreground lens obtained with the Gemini-South telescope that provides a lens redshift of z{sub lens} = 0.595 {+-} 0.005. We develop and apply a new lens modeling technique in the visibility plane that shows that the SMG is magnified by a factor of {mu} = 4.1 {+-} 0.2 and has an intrinsic infrared (IR) luminosity of L{sub IR} = (2.1 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }. We measure a half-light radius of the background source of r{sub s} = 4.4 {+-} 0.5 kpc which implies an IR luminosity surface density of {Sigma}{sub IR} (3.4 {+-} 0.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun} kpc{sup -2}, a value that is typical of z > 2 SMGs but significantly lower than IR luminous galaxies at z {approx} 0. The two lens galaxies are compact (r{sub lens} Almost-Equal-To 0.9 kpc) early-types with Einstein radii of {theta}{sub E1} 0.57 {+-} 0.01 and {theta}{sub E2} = 0.40 {+-} 0.01 that imply masses of M{sub lens1} = (7.4 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} and M{sub lens2} = (3.7 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. The two lensing galaxies are likely about to undergo a dissipationless merger, and the mass and size of the resultant system should be similar to other early-type galaxies at z {approx} 0.6. This work highlights the importance of high spatial resolution imaging in developing models of strongly lensed galaxies discovered by Herschel.

  7. Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Imaging of MACS Galaxy Clusters at z greater than 0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laroque, S. J.; Joy, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Ebeling, H.; Bonamente, M.; Dawson, K. S.; Edge, A.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Miller, A. D.; Nagai, D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present 30 GHz interferometric SZE measurements of a redshift limited, X-ray selected cluster sample from the Massive Cluster Survey (MACS). All eight of the high redshift (z.0.5, dec greater than -15) galaxy clusters were detected. Additional observations were made at 4.8 GHz with the Very Large Array to help constrain the amount of point source contamination to the SZE decrements. From SZE data alone, we derive electron temperatures in the range 5.5-18.5 keV and total masses between 1.5 and 2.6 x 10 circumflex 14 M_sun within a 65 arcsecond radius for the eight clusters. Six of the clusters are MACS discoveries, while two (C10016+1609 and MS 0451.6-0305) were detected by previous X-ray observations and have been recently observed with the Chandra observatory. The X-ray derived temperatures and masses for Cl0016+ 1609 and MS 0451.6-0305 are in good agreement with the SZE-derived values. Strong detections of the SZE signal in this sample of MACS objects confirms that they are hot, massive clusters.

  8. Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Imaging of Macs Galaxy Clusters at =>0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaRoque, Samuel; Joy, Marshall; Carlstrom, John E.; Ebeling, Harald; Bonamente, Massimiliano; Dawson, Kyle S.; Edge, Alastair; Holzapfel, William L.; Miller, Amber D.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2003-01-01

    We present 30 GHz interferometric Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE) measurements of a redshift-limited, X-ray-selected cluster sample from the Massive Cluster Survey (MACS). All eight of the high-redshift (z > 0.5, delta > -15 deg) galaxy clusters were detected. Additional observations were made at 4.8 GHz with the Very Large Array to help constrain the amount of point source contamination to the SZE decrements. From SZE data alone, we derive electron temperatures in the range 5.5-18.5 keV and total masses between 1.5 and 2.6 x 10(exp 14)/h solar masses within a 65 minute radius (0.28/h Mpc at z = 0.5) for the eight clusters. Six of the clusters are MACS discoveries, while two (C10016+1609 and MS 0451.6-0305) were detected by previous X-ray observations and have been recently observed with the Chandra observatory. The X-ray-derived temperatures and masses for C10016+1609 and MS 0451.6-0305 are in good agreement with the SZE derived values. Strong detections of the SZE signal in this sample of MACS objects confirm that they are hot, massive clusters.

  9. MC2: Galaxy Imaging and Redshift Analysis of the Merging Cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, William A.; Jee, M. James; Stroe, Andra; Ng, Y. Karen; Golovich, Nathan; Wittman, David; Sobral, David; Brüggen, M.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; van Weeren, R. J.

    2015-06-01

    X-ray and radio observations of CIZA J2242.8+5301 suggest that it is a major cluster merger. Despite being well studied in the X-ray and radio, little has been presented on the cluster structure and dynamics inferred from its galaxy population. We carried out a deep (i\\lt 25) broadband imaging survey of the system with Subaru SuprimeCam (g and i bands) and the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (r band), as well as a comprehensive spectroscopic survey of the cluster area (505 redshifts) using Keck DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph. We use these data to perform a comprehensive galaxy/redshift analysis of the system, which is the first step to a proper understanding of the geometry and dynamics of the merger, as well as using the merger to constrain self-interacting dark matter. We find that the system is dominated by two subclusters of comparable richness with a projected separation of 6\\buildrel{ \\prime}\\over{.} 9-0.5+0.7 (1.3-0.10+0.13 Mpc). We find that the north and south subclusters have similar redshifts of z≈ 0.188 with a relative line-of-sight (LOS) velocity difference of 69 ± 190 km {{s}-1}. We also find that north and south subclusters have velocity dispersions of 1160-90+100 and 1080-70+100 km {{s}-1}, respectively. These correspond to masses of 16.1-3.3+4.6× {{10}14} and 13.0-2.5+4.0× {{10}14} {{M}ȯ }, respectively. While velocity dispersion measurements of merging clusters can be biased, we believe the bias in this system to be minor due to the large projected separation and nearly plane-of-sky merger configuration. We also find that the cDs of the north and south subclusters are very near their subcluster centers, in both projection (55 and 85 kpc, respectively) and normalized LOS velocity (|{Δ }v|/{{σ }v}=0.43+/- 0.13 and 0.21 ± 0.12 for the north and south, respectively). CIZA J2242.8+5301 is a relatively clean dissociative cluster merger with near 1:1 mass ratio, which makes it an ideal merger for studying merger

  10. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) blended spectra catalogue: strong galaxy-galaxy lens and occulting galaxy pair candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holwerda, B. W.; Baldry, I. K.; Alpaslan, M.; Bauer, A.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cluver, M. E.; Conselice, C.; Driver, S. P.; Hopkins, A. M.; Jones, D. H.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Loveday, J.; Meyer, M. J.; Moffett, A.

    2015-06-01

    We present the catalogue of blended galaxy spectra from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. These are cases where light from two galaxies are significantly detected in a single GAMA fibre. Galaxy pairs identified from their blended spectrum fall into two principal classes: they are either strong lenses, a passive galaxy lensing an emission-line galaxy; or occulting galaxies, serendipitous overlaps of two galaxies, of any type. Blended spectra can thus be used to reliably identify strong lenses for follow-up observations (high-resolution imaging) and occulting pairs, especially those that are a late-type partly obscuring an early-type galaxy which are of interest for the study of dust content of spiral and irregular galaxies. The GAMA survey setup and its AUTOZ automated redshift determination were used to identify candidate blended galaxy spectra from the cross-correlation peaks. We identify 280 blended spectra with a minimum velocity separation of 600 km s-1, of which 104 are lens pair candidates, 71 emission-line-passive pairs, 78 are pairs of emission-line galaxies and 27 are pairs of galaxies with passive spectra. We have visually inspected the candidates in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS) images. Many blended objects are ellipticals with blue fuzz (Ef in our classification). These latter `Ef' classifications are candidates for possible strong lenses, massive ellipticals with an emission-line galaxy in one or more lensed images. The GAMA lens and occulting galaxy candidate samples are similar in size to those identified in the entire SDSS. This blended spectrum sample stands as a testament of the power of this highly complete, second-largest spectroscopic survey in existence and offers the possibility to expand e.g. strong gravitational lens surveys.

  11. Irregular Dwarf Galaxy IC 1613

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet image (left) and visual image (right) of the irregular dwarf galaxy IC 1613. Low surface brightness galaxies, such as IC 1613, are more easily detected in the ultraviolet because of the low background levels compared to visual wavelengths.

  12. Imaging the Nearby Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 1068, and Spectrum and Variability of Geminga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.

    1993-01-01

    The results of the research for NASA Grant NAG5-1606 are summarized in the following publications: (1) A ROSAT high resolution image of NGC 1068; (2) Discovery of soft x-ray pulsations from the gamma-ray source Geminga; and (3) Soft x-ray properties of the Geminga pulsar.

  13. The COSMOS-WIRCam Near-Infrared Imaging Survey. I. BzK-Selected Passive and Star-Forming Galaxy Candidates at z gsim 1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, H. J.; Capak, P.; Salvato, M.; Aussel, H.; Thompson, D.; Daddi, E.; Sanders, D. B.; Kneib, J.-P.; Willott, C. J.; Mancini, C.; Renzini, A.; Cook, R.; Le Fèvre, O.; Ilbert, O.; Kartaltepe, J.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Mellier, Y.; Murayama, T.; Scoville, N. Z.; Shioya, Y.; Tanaguchi, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new near-infrared survey covering the 2 deg2 COSMOS field conducted using WIRCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. By combining our near-infrared data with Subaru B and z images, we construct a deep, wide-field optical-infrared catalog. At K s < 23 (AB magnitudes), our survey completeness is greater than 90% and 70% for stars and galaxies, respectively, and contains 143,466 galaxies and 13,254 stars. Using the BzK diagram, we divide our galaxy catalog into quiescent and star-forming galaxy candidates. At z ~ 2, our catalogs contain 3931 quiescent and 25,757 star-forming galaxies representing the largest and most secure sample at these depths and redshifts to date. Our counts of quiescent galaxies turns over at K s ~ 22, an effect that we demonstrate cannot be due to sample incompleteness. Both the number of faint and bright quiescent objects in our catalogs exceed the predictions of a recent semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, indicating potentially the need for further refinements in the amount of merging and active galactic nucleus feedback at z ~ 2 in these models. We measure the angular correlation function for each sample and find that the slope of the field galaxy correlation function flattens to 1.5 by K s ~ 23. At small angular scales, the angular correlation function for passive BzK galaxies is considerably in excess of the clustering of dark matter. We use precise 30-band photometric redshifts to derive the spatial correlation length and the redshift distributions for each object class. At K s < 22, we find r γ/1.8 0 = 7.0 ± 0.5h -1 Mpc for the passive BzK candidates and 4.7 ± 0.8 h -1 Mpc for the star-forming BzK galaxies. Our pBzK galaxies have an average photometric redshift of zp ~ 1.4, in approximate agreement with the limited spectroscopic information currently available. The stacked K s image will be made publicly available from IRSA. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National

  14. Imaging and spectroscopic observations of a strange elliptical bubble in the northern arm of the spiral galaxy NGC 6946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, Yuri N.; Moiseev, Alexei V.

    2016-09-01

    NGC 6946, known as the Fireworks galaxy because of its high supernova rate and high star formation, is embedded in a very extended H I halo. Its northern spiral arm is well detached from the galactic main body. We found that this arm contains a large (˜300 pc in size) Red Ellipse, named according to a strong contamination of the Hα emission line on its optical images. The ellipse is accompanied by a short parallel arc and a few others still smaller and less regular; a bright star cluster is seen inside these features. The complicated combination of arcs seems to be unique; it is only a bit similar to some SNRs. However, the long-slit spectral data obtained with the Russian 6-m telescope did not confirm the origin of the nebula as a result of a single SN outburst. The emission-line spectrum corresponds to the photoionization by young hot stars with a small contribution of shock ionization. The most likely explanation of the Red Ellipse is a superbubble created by a collective feedback of massive stars in the star cluster located in the NE side of the Red Ellipse. However, the very regular elliptical shape of the nebulae seems strange.

  15. Comparison of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich measurements from Planck and from the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager for 99 galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrott, Y. C.; Olamaie, M.; Rumsey, C.; Brown, M. L.; Feroz, F.; Grainge, K. J. B.; Hobson, M. P.; Lasenby, A. N.; MacTavish, C. J.; Pooley, G. G.; Saunders, R. D. E.; Schammel, M. P.; Scott, P. F.; Shimwell, T. W.; Titterington, D. J.; Waldram, E. M.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aussel, H.; Barrena, R.; Bikmaev, I.; Böhringer, H.; Burenin, R.; Carvalho, P.; Chon, G.; Comis, B.; Dahle, H.; Democles, J.; Douspis, M.; Harrison, D.; Hempel, A.; Hurier, G.; Khamitov, I.; Kneissl, R.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Melin, J.-B.; Pointecouteau, E.; Pratt, G. W.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Stolyarov, V.; Sutton, D.

    2015-08-01

    We present observations and analysis of a sample of 123 galaxy clusters from the 2013 Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich sources with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI), a ground-based radio interferometer. AMI provides an independent measurement with higher angular resolution, 3 arcmin compared to the Planck beams of 5-10 arcmin. The AMI observations thus provide validation of the cluster detections, improved positional estimates, and a consistency check on the fitted size (θs) and flux (Ytot) parameters in the generalised Navarro, Frenk and White (GNFW) model. We detect 99 of the clusters. We use the AMI positional estimates to check the positional estimates and error-bars produced by the Planck algorithms PowellSnakes and MMF3. We find that Ytot values as measured by AMI are biased downwards with respect to the Planck constraints, especially for high Planck-S/N clusters. We perform simulations to show that this can be explained by deviation from the universal pressure profile shape used to model the clusters. We show that AMI data can constrain the α and β parameters describing the shape of the profile in the GNFW model for individual clusters provided careful attention is paid to the degeneracies between parameters, but one requires information on a wider range of angular scales than are present in AMI data alone to correctly constrain all parameters simultaneously. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. New insights into the star formation histories of candidate intermediate-age early-type galaxies from K'-band imaging of globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Iskren Y.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Puzia, Thomas H.

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the age and metallicity distributions of bright globular clusters (GCs) in the candidate intermediate-age early-type galaxies NGC 3610, 584 and 3377 using a combination of new Gemini's Near InfraRed Imager and Spectrometer K'-band imaging and existing optical VI photometry from Hubble Space Telescope data. The V-I versus I-K' colour-colour diagram is found to break the age-metallicity degeneracy present in optical colours and spectroscopy, as I-K' primarily measures a population's metallicity. In addition, it is relatively insensitive to the effect of hot horizontal branch (HB) stars that are known to be present in massive old GCs. By interpolation between simple stellar population model tracks, we derive photometric cluster ages, metallicities and masses. In general, we find that 'metal-poor' GCs with [Z/H] ≲-0.7 dex are older than more metal rich GCs. For the most massive GCs (?) in NGC 3610 with available spectroscopic data, the photometric ages are older by ˜2 Gyr, and this difference is more pronounced for the metal-poor GCs. However, the photometric and spectroscopic metallicities are in good agreement. We suggest that this indicates the presence of a hot HB in these massive clusters, which renders spectroscopic ages from Balmer line strengths to be underestimated. To support this suggestion, we show that all Galactic GCs with ? feature hot HBs, except 47 Tuc. Using a recent observational relation between the luminosity of the most massive GC and the galaxies' star formation rate (SFR) at a given age, we find that the galaxies' peak SFR was attained at the epoch of the formation of the oldest (metal-poor) GCs. The age and [Z/H] distributions of the metal-rich GCs are broad, indicating prolonged galaxy star formation histories. The peak ages of the metal-rich GCs in the sample galaxies NGC 3610, 584 and 3377 are 3.7, 5.9 and 8.9 Gyr, respectively. The peak value of the age and metallicity distributions of the GCs is correlated with the host

  17. SINS/zC-SINF Survey of z ˜ 2 Galaxy Kinematics: Rest-frame Morphology, Structure, and Colors from Near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacchella, S.; Lang, P.; Carollo, C. M.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Renzini, A.; Shapley, A. E.; Wuyts, S.; Cresci, G.; Genzel, R.; Lilly, S. J.; Mancini, C.; Newman, S. F.; Tacconi, L. J.; Zamorani, G.; Davies, R. I.; Kurk, J.; Pozzetti, L.

    2015-04-01

    We present the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) J- and H-band imaging for 29 galaxies on the star-forming main sequence at z ˜ 2, which have adaptive optics Very Large Telescope SINFONI integral field spectroscopy from our SINS/zC-SINF program. The SINFONI Hα data resolve the ongoing star formation and the ionized gas kinematics on scales of 1-2 kpc; the near-IR images trace the galaxies’ rest-frame optical morphologies and distributions of stellar mass in old stellar populations at a similar resolution. The global light profiles of most galaxies show disk-like properties well described by a single Sérsic profile with n˜ 1, with only ˜ 15% requiring a high n\\gt 3 Sérsic index, all more massive than {{10}10} {{M}⊙ }. In bulge+disk fits, about 40% of galaxies have a measurable bulge component in the light profiles, with ˜ 15% showing a substantial bulge-to-total ratio (B/T) B/T≳ 0.3. This is a lower limit to the frequency of z ˜ 2 massive galaxies with a developed bulge component in stellar mass because it could be hidden by dust and/or outshined by a thick actively star-forming disk component. The galaxies’ rest-optical half-light radii range between 1 and 7 kpc, with a median of 2.1 kpc, and lie slightly above the size-mass relation at these epochs reported in the literature. This is attributed to differences in sample selection and definitions of size and/or mass measurements. The {{(u-g)}rest} color gradient and scatter within individual z ˜ 2 massive galaxies with ≳ {{10}11} {{M}⊙ } are as high as in z = 0 low-mass, late-type galaxies and are consistent with the high star formation rates of massive z ˜ 2 galaxies being sustained at large galactocentric distances. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  18. HUBBLE REVEALS 'BACKWARDS' SPIRAL GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers have found a spiral galaxy that may be spinning to the beat of a different cosmic drummer. To the surprise of astronomers, the galaxy, called NGC 4622, appears to be rotating in the opposite direction to what they expected. Pictures by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope helped astronomers determine that the galaxy may be spinning clockwise by showing which side of the galaxy is closer to Earth. A Hubble telescope photo of the oddball galaxy is this month's Hubble Heritage offering. The image shows NGC 4622 and its outer pair of winding arms full of new stars [shown in blue]. Astronomers are puzzled by the clockwise rotation because of the direction the outer spiral arms are pointing. Most spiral galaxies have arms of gas and stars that trail behind as they turn. But this galaxy has two 'leading' outer arms that point toward the direction of the galaxy's clockwise rotation. To add to the conundrum, NGC 4622 also has a 'trailing' inner arm that is wrapped around the galaxy in the opposite direction it is rotating. Based on galaxy simulations, a team of astronomers had expected that the galaxy was turning counterclockwise. NGC 4622 is a rare example of a spiral galaxy with arms pointing in opposite directions. What caused this galaxy to behave differently from most galaxies? Astronomers suspect that NGC 4622 interacted with another galaxy. Its two outer arms are lopsided, meaning that something disturbed it. The new Hubble image suggests that NGC 4622 consumed a small companion galaxy. The galaxy's core provides new evidence for a merger between NGC 4622 and a smaller galaxy. This information could be the key to understanding the unusual leading arms. Galaxies, which consist of stars, gas, and dust, rotate very slowly. Our Sun, one of many stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, completes a circuit around the Milky Way every 250 million years. NGC 4622 resides 111 million light-years away in the constellation Centaurus. The pictures were taken in May 2001 with Hubble

  19. MULTIPLE GALAXY COLLISIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Here is a sampling of 15 ultraluminous infrared galaxies viewed by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Hubble's sharp vision reveals more complexity within these galaxies, which astronomers are interpreting as evidence of a multiple-galaxy pileup. These images, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are part of a three-year study of 123 galaxies within 3 billion light-years of Earth. The study was conducted in 1996, 1997, and 1999. False colors were assigned to these photos to enhance fine details within these coalescing galaxies. Credits: NASA, Kirk Borne (Raytheon and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.), Luis Colina (Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Spain), and Howard Bushouse and Ray Lucas (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.)

  20. Gaia16asc, Gaia16ase, Gaia16asj and Gaia16ask candidate supernovae near galaxies confirmed by Mercator/Maia imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Semaan, T.; Roelens, M.; Palaversa, L.; Mowlavi, N.; Eyer, L.

    2016-07-01

    We report confirmation of Gaia Science Alerts transients Gaia16asc, Gaia16ase, Gaia16asj and Gaia16ask. Images were obtained in G and R bands of the Maia instrument mounted to the Flemish 1.2m Mercator telescope at Roque de los Muchachos observatory, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain, on 2016 July 02 - 04. These new sources are supernovae candidates near galaxies and they are not visible in archival 2MASS and DSS images: Gaia16asc, Gaia16ase, Gaia16asj and Gaia16ask.

  1. Gaia16aso, Gaia16asq, Gaia16asu and Gaia16atb candidate supernovae near galaxies confirmed by Mercator/Maia imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Roelens, M.; Semaan, T.; Palaversa, L.; Mowlavi, N.; Eyer, L.

    2016-07-01

    We report confirmation of Gaia Science Alerts transients Gaia16aso, Gaia16asq, Gaia16asu and Gaia16atb. Images were obtained in G and R bands of the Maia instrument mounted to the Flemish 1.2m Mercator telescope at Roque de los Muchachos observatory, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain, on 2016 July 04 - 05. These new sources are supernovae candidates near galaxies and they are not visible in archival 2MASS and DSS images: Gaia16aso, Gaia16asq, Gaia16asu and Gaia16atb.

  2. Jets and Outflows in Radio Galaxies: Implications for AGN Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torresi, Eleonora; Grandi, Paola; Costantini, Elisa; Palumbo, Giorgio G. C.

    One of the main debated astrophysical problems is the role of the AGN feedback in galaxy formation. It is known that massive black holes have a profound effect on the formation and evolution of galaxies, but how black holes and galaxies communicate is still an unsolved problem. For Radio Galaxies, feedback studies have mainly focused on jet/cavity systems in the most massive and X-ray luminous galaxy clusters. The recent high-resolution detection of warm absorbers in some Broad Line Radio Galaxies allow us to investigate the interplay between the nuclear engine and the surrounding medium from a different perspective. We report on the detection of warm absorbers in two Broad Line Radio Galaxies, 3C 382 and 3C 390.3, and discuss the physical and energetic properties of the absorbing gas. Finally, we attempt a comparison between radio-loud and radio-quiet outflows.

  3. The Population One Core of the Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Michael G.; Allen, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Spectral imaging in the near-infrared of the central parsec of the Galaxy has revealed that a population of massive young stars resides in the core of our Galaxy. We suggest it has undergone a mild starburst.

  4. The Relative Kinematics of Galaxy Emission and Multiple Gas Phases in z~0.5 Extended Galaxy Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, Christopher

    2010-09-01

    Evidence abounds from quasar absorption line data that the extended gaseous halos of galaxies comprise multiple phases {densities, temperatures, ionization conditions}. Developing a comprehensive and deeper understanding of the origin and persistence of extended galaxy halos, and their role in galaxy evolution, requires that these multiple phases be observed and analyzed. However, such studies that incorporate the host galaxies are virtually non-existent. The new COS instrument opens a new window in which the forest of FUV lines arising in neutral, low, AND high ionization halo gas can be probed with high resolution and sensitivity for multiple chemical species. For intermediate redshift galaxies, these lines are free of Ly-alpha forest contamination. We propose to obtain G160M COS/FUV high resolution spectra of the two quasars Q0454-220 {J0456-2159} and Q1038+064 {4c 06.41} in order to measure the neutral hydrogen Ly-beta, gamma, and delta transitions and the OVI 1031,1038 doublet and CII 1036 and CIII 977 transitions {as well as a few others that fall on the spectral format} in three intervening z 0.45 intervening gaseous halos. We augment the proposed observations with a similar pending COS spectrum {scheduled May 2010, PID 11667, PI Churchill} of the quasar TON 153, which will provide the multiphase absorption kinematics for two additional gaseous halos at z 0.67. The proposed observations will bring our final sample size to five.For these five systems, we have quantified the host galaxy morphologies {WFCP-2/HST images}, measured the galaxy emission lines and rotation curves {ESI/Keck spectra}, and analyzed the MgII 2796,2803 and FeII multiplet absorption {HIRES/Keck spectra}. Our goal is to undertake a comprehensive analysis of the multiphase physical conditions in these five galaxy-absorber pairs. We aim to perform the first ever quantitative comparison of the relative relationships between neutral, low, and high ionization absorbing halo gas kinematics with

  5. Recent Galaxy Mergers and Residual Star Formation of Red Sequence Galaxies in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Ree, Chang H.; Jaffé, Yara; Demarco, Ricardo; Treister, Ezequiel

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ultraviolet (UV) properties of optical red sequence galaxies in four rich Abell clusters at z≤slant 0.1. In particular, we tried to find a hint of merger-induced recent star formation (RSF) in red sequence galaxies. Using the NUV - r\\prime colors of the galaxies, RSF fractions were derived based on various criteria for post-merger galaxies and normal galaxies. Following k-correction, about 36% of the post-merger galaxies were classified as RSF galaxies with a conservative criterion (NUV - r\\prime ≤slant 5), and that number was doubled (∼72%) when using a generous criterion (NUV - r\\prime ≤slant 5.4). The trend was the same when we restricted the sample to galaxies within 0.5 × R 200. Post-merger galaxies with strong UV emission showed more violent, asymmetric features in the deep optical images. The RSF fractions did not show any trend along the clustocentric distance within R 200. We performed a Dressler–Shectman test to check whether the RSF galaxies had any correlation with the substructures in the galaxy clusters. Within R 200 of each cluster, the RSF galaxies did not appear to be preferentially related to the clusters’ substructures. Our results suggested that only 30% of RSF red sequence galaxies show morphological hints of recent galaxy mergers. This implies that internal processes (e.g., stellar mass loss or hot gas cooling) for the supply of cold gas to early-type galaxies may play a significant role in the residual star formation of early-type galaxies at a recent epoch.

  6. Recent Galaxy Mergers and Residual Star Formation of Red Sequence Galaxies in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Ree, Chang H.; Jaffé, Yara; Demarco, Ricardo; Treister, Ezequiel

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ultraviolet (UV) properties of optical red sequence galaxies in four rich Abell clusters at z≤slant 0.1. In particular, we tried to find a hint of merger-induced recent star formation (RSF) in red sequence galaxies. Using the NUV - r\\prime colors of the galaxies, RSF fractions were derived based on various criteria for post-merger galaxies and normal galaxies. Following k-correction, about 36% of the post-merger galaxies were classified as RSF galaxies with a conservative criterion (NUV - r\\prime ≤slant 5), and that number was doubled (˜72%) when using a generous criterion (NUV - r\\prime ≤slant 5.4). The trend was the same when we restricted the sample to galaxies within 0.5 × R 200. Post-merger galaxies with strong UV emission showed more violent, asymmetric features in the deep optical images. The RSF fractions did not show any trend along the clustocentric distance within R 200. We performed a Dressler–Shectman test to check whether the RSF galaxies had any correlation with the substructures in the galaxy clusters. Within R 200 of each cluster, the RSF galaxies did not appear to be preferentially related to the clusters’ substructures. Our results suggested that only 30% of RSF red sequence galaxies show morphological hints of recent galaxy mergers. This implies that internal processes (e.g., stellar mass loss or hot gas cooling) for the supply of cold gas to early-type galaxies may play a significant role in the residual star formation of early-type galaxies at a recent epoch.

  7. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

    1995-05-02

    A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  8. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.; Wicks, George G.; Enz, Glenn L.

    1995-01-01

    A hydrogen absorbing composition. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  9. A Population of Weak Metal-Line Absorbers Surrounding the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Philipp; Charlton, Jane C.; Fangano, Alessio P. M.; Bekhti, Nadya Ben; Masiero, Joseph R.

    2009-04-01

    We report on the detection of a population of weak metal-line absorbers in the halo or nearby intergalactic environment of the Milky Way. Using high-resolution ultraviolet absorption-line spectra of bright quasars (QSO) obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), along six sight lines we have observed unsaturated, narrow absorption in O I and Si II, together with mildly saturated C II absorption at high radial velocities (|v LSR| = 100-320 km s-1). The measured O I column densities lie in the range N(O I) < 2 × 1014 cm-2 implying that these structures represent Lyman limit Systems and sub-Lyman limit System with H I column densities between 1016 and 3 × 1018 cm-2, thus below the detection limits of current 21 cm all-sky surveys of high-velocity clouds (HVCs). The absorbers apparently are not directly associated with any of the large high column density HVC complexes, but rather represent isolated, partly neutral gas clumps embedded in a more tenuous, ionized gaseous medium situated in the halo or nearby intergalactic environment of the Galaxy. Photoionization modeling of the observed low ion ratios suggests typical hydrogen volume densities of n H > 0.02 cm-3 and characteristic thicknesses of a several parsec down to subparsec scales. For three absorbers, metallicities are constrained in the range of 0.1-1.0 solar, implying that these gaseous structures may have multiple origins inside and outside the Milky Way. Using supplementary optical absorption-line data, we find for two other absorbers Ca II/O I column-density ratios that correspond to solar Ca/O abundance ratios. This finding indicates that these clouds do not contain significant amounts of dust. This population of low column density gas clumps in the circumgalactic environment of the Milky Way is indicative of the various processes that contribute to the circulation of neutral gas in the extended halos of spiral galaxies. These processes include the accretion of gas from the

  10. Gas in void galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreckel, Kathryn Joyce

    Void galaxies, residing within the deepest underdensities of the Cosmic Web, present an ideal population for the study of galaxy formation and evolution in an environment undisturbed by the complex processes modifying galaxies in clusters and groups, and provide an observational test for theories of cosmological structure formation. We investigate the neutral hydrogen properties (i.e. content, morphology, kinematics) of void galaxies, both individually and systematically, using a combination of observations and simulations, to form a more complete understanding of the nature of these systems. We investigate in detail the H I morphology and kinematics of two void galaxies. One is an isolated polar disk galaxy in a diffuse cosmological wall situated between two voids. The considerable gas mass and apparent lack of stars in the polar disk, coupled with the general underdensity of the environment, supports recent theories of cold flow accretion as an alternate formation mechanism for polar disk galaxies. We also examine KK 246, the only confirmed galaxy located within the nearby Tully Void. It is a dwarf galaxy with an extremely extended H I disk and signs of an H I cloud with anomalous velocity. It also exhibits clear misalignment between the kinematical major and minor axes, and a general misalignment between the H I and optical major axes. The relative isolation and extreme underdense environment make these both very interesting cases for examining the role of gas accretion in galaxy evolution. To study void galaxies as a population, we have carefully selected a sample of 60 galaxies that reside in the deepest underdensities of geometrically identified voids within the SDSS. We have imaged this new Void Galaxy Survey in H I at the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope with a typical resolution of 8 kpc, probing a volume of 1.2 Mpc and 12,000 km s^-1 surrounding each galaxy. We reach H I mass limits of 2 x 10^8 M_sun and column density sensitivities of 5 x 10^19 cm^-2

  11. A Bayesian Method For Finding Galaxies That Cause Quasar Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Emileigh Suzanne; Laubner, David Andrew; Scott, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of candidate absorber-galaxy pairs for 39 low redshift quasar sightlines (0.06 < z < 0.85) using a statistical approach to match absorbers with galaxies near the quasar lines of sight. Of the 75 quasars observed with HST/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) and archived on the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST), 39 overlap with the footprint of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We downloaded the COS linelists for these quasar spectra from MAST and queried the SDSS DR12 database for photometric data on all galaxies within 1 Mpc of each of these quasar lines of sight. We calculated photometric redshifts for all the SDSS galaxies using the Bayesian Photometric Redshift code. We used all these absorber and galaxy data as input into an absorber-galaxy matching code which also employs a Bayesian scheme, along with known statistics of the intergalactic medium and circumgalactic media of galaxies, for finding the most probable galaxy match for each absorber. We compare our candidate absorber-galaxy matches to existing studies in the literature and explore trends in the absorber and galaxy properties among the matched and non-matched populations. This method of matching absorbers and galaxies can be used to find targets for follow up spectroscopic studies.

  12. Resolved H I imaging of a population of massive H I-rich galaxies with suppressed star formation

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonias, Jenna J.; Schiminovich, David; Catinella, Barbara; Heckman, Timothy M.; Moran, Sean M.

    2014-07-20

    Despite the existence of well-defined relationships between cold gas and star formation, there is evidence that some galaxies contain large amounts of H I that do not form stars efficiently. By systematically assessing the link between H I and star formation within a sample of galaxies with extremely high H I masses (log M{sub H{sub I}}/M{sub ☉} > 10), we uncover a population of galaxies with an unexpected combination of high H I masses and low specific star formation rates that exists primarily at stellar masses greater than log M{sub *}/M{sub ☉} ∼ 10.5. We obtained H I maps of 20 galaxies in this population to understand the distribution of the H I and the physical conditions in the galaxies that could be suppressing star formation in the presence of large quantities of H I. We find that all of the galaxies we observed have low H I surface densities in the range in which inefficient star formation is common. The low H I surface densities are likely the main cause of the low specific star formation rates, but there is also some evidence that active galactic nuclei or bulges contribute to the suppression of star formation. The sample's agreement with the global star formation law highlights its usefulness as a tool for understanding galaxies that do not always follow expected relationships.

  13. Colliding Galaxies: Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-10-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope looks deep within the violent center where the two Antennae Galaxies were merging. The Hubble's high resolution and sensitivity reveals the birth of young star clusters formed in the collision. New Hubble images of young star clusters help investigators put the evolutionary sequence into the right order. The Hubble Space Telescope images are: (1) zoom into the antennae galaxies; (2) galaxy merger evolution sequence; (3) the formation of the antennae pair; and (4) artist's conception of the collision of Milky-Way Galaxy with the Andromeda.

  14. HIghMass-high H I mass, H I-rich galaxies at z ∼ 0 sample definition, optical and Hα imaging, and star formation properties

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shan; Matsushita, Satoki; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Jones, Michael G.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Brinchmann, Jarle; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Hunt, Leslie K.; Masters, Karen L.; Saintonge, Amelie; Spekkens, Kristine

    2014-09-20

    We present first results of the study of a set of exceptional H I sources identified in the 40% ALFALFA extragalactic H I survey catalog α.40 as both being H I massive (M{sub HI}>10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}) and having high gas fractions for their stellar masses: the HIghMass galaxy sample. We analyze UV- and optical-broadband and Hα images to understand the nature of their relatively underluminous disks in optical and to test whether their high gas fractions can be tracked to higher dark matter halo spin parameters or late gas accretion. Estimates of their star formation rates (SFRs) based on spectral energy distribution fitting agree within uncertainties with the Hα luminosity inferred current massive SFRs. The H II region luminosity functions, parameterized as dN/dlog L∝L {sup α}, have standard slopes at the luminous end (α ∼ –1). The global SFRs demonstrate that the HIghMass galaxies exhibit active ongoing star formation (SF) with moderate SF efficiency but, relative to normal spirals, a lower integrated SFR in the past. Because the SF activity in these systems is spread throughout their extended disks, they have overall lower SFR surface densities and lower surface brightness in the optical bands. Relative to normal disk galaxies, the majority of HIghMass galaxies have higher Hα equivalent widths and are bluer in their outer disks, implying an inside-out disk growth scenario. Downbending double exponential disks are more frequent than upbending disks among the gas-rich galaxies, suggesting that SF thresholds exist in the downbending disks, probably as a result of concentrated gas distribution.

  15. INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY AND MULTI-WAVELENGTH IMAGING OF THE NEARBY SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 5668 : AN UNUSUAL FLATTENING IN METALLICITY GRADIENT

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Gallego, J.; Zamorano, J.; Sanchez, S. F.

    2012-07-20

    We present an analysis of the full bidimensional optical spectral cube of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5668, observed with the Pmas fiber PAcK Integral Field Unit (IFU) at the Calar Alto observatory 3.5 m telescope. We make use of broadband imaging to provide further constraints on the evolutionary history of the galaxy. This data set will allow us to improve our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the evolution of disks. We investigated the properties of 62 H II regions and concentric rings in NGC 5668 and derived maps in ionized-gas attenuation and chemical (oxygen) abundances. We find that while inward of r {approx}36'' {approx} 4.4 kpc {approx} 0.36 (D{sub 25}/2) the derived O/H ratio follows the radial gradient typical of spiral galaxies, the abundance gradient beyond r {approx} 36'' flattens out. The analysis of the multi-wavelength surface brightness profiles of NGC 5668 is performed by fitting these profiles with those predicted by chemo-spectrophotometric evolutionary models of galaxy disks. From this, we infer a spin and circular velocity of {lambda} = 0.053 and v{sub c} = 167 km s{sup -1}, respectively. The metallicity gradient and rotation curve predicted by this best-fitting galaxy model nicely match the values derived from the IFU observations, especially within r {approx}36''. The same is true for the colors despite some small offsets and a reddening in the bluest colors beyond that radius. On the other hand, deviations of some of these properties in the outer disk indicate that a secondary mechanism, possibly gas transfer induced by the presence of a young bar, must have played a role in shaping the recent chemical and star formation histories of NGC 5668.

  16. Time resolved images from the center of the Galaxy appear to counter General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdye, E. H., Jr.

    2007-02-01

    Intense observations of the galactic center since 1992 have revealed the presence of a supermassive object located there, some 26 000 light years from Earth. The mass of the galactic center was determined using time resolved astrometry over a time span of 13 years, from 1992 to present. The observations clearly show that the stars in the immediate vicinity of the supermassive galactic center, denoted as Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), move along purely Keplerian orbits around Str A*. Observation of the rapidly moving stars permitted astrophysicists to determine a mass for the galactic center of around 3.6 million solar masses. Time resolved images of the Keplerian motions of these stars has exhibited to date no evidence of distortions in the images due to gravitational light bending effects, as predicted by General Relativity. In this paper, a well known tool commonly used by astrophysicists for estimating the effect of gravitation on light rays was examined. The results reveal flaws in the understanding of fundamental principles in mathematical physics applied to gravitational effects on rays of light, as predicted by General Relativity, at the site of a point-like gravitating masses such as the galactic center mass. Application of the Gauss Law to point-like gravitating masses shows that a requirement for the colinear alignment of the light source, the lensing and the observer is not necessary for an observation of gravitational lensing as predicted by General Relativity.

  17. An X-ray image of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. S.; Elvis, M.; Lawrence, A.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    1992-01-01

    An image of NGC 1068 with 4-5 arcsec obtained with the High Resolution Imager on the Rosat X-ray Observatory in the energy band 0.1-2.4 keV is presented and discussed. The map reveals an unresolved nuclear source, extended (about 1.5 kpc) emission around the nucleus, and extended (about 13 kpc) emission from the starburst disk. The extended circumnuclear emission aligns toward the NE, the same direction as found for the resolved emission of the active nucleus in several other wavebands. Thermal emission from a hot wind is argued to be the source of the steep-spectrum, nuclear, and circumnuclear emission. The disk of NGC 1068 has ratios of soft X-ray to B band and soft X-ray to 60-micron luminosities which are similar to those found for other starburst systems. The X-ray spectrum of the starburst disk is harder than that of the nuclear emission. By adopting a plausible spectrum and extrapolating the present measured flux, it is concluded that the starburst disk contributes most of the hard component seen in the 2-10 keV band.

  18. LMT imaging of the Extended Groth Strip: a search for the high-redshift tail of the sub-mm galaxy population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretxaga, Itziar

    2015-08-01

    The combination of short and long-wavelength deep (sub-)mm surveys can effectively be used to identify high-redshift sub-millimeter galaxies (z>4). Having star formation rates in excess of 500 Msun/yr, these bright (sub-)mm sources have been identified with the progenitors of massive elliptical galaxies undergoing rapid growth. With this purpose in mind, we are surveying a 20 sq. arcmin field within the Extended Groth Strip with the 1.1mm AzTEC camera mounted at the Large Millimeter Telescope that overlaps with the deep 450/850um SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey and the CANDELS deep NIR imaging. The improved beamsize of the LMT (8”) over previous surveys aids the identification of the most prominent optical/IR counterparts. We discuss the high-redshift candidates found.

  19. How absorption selected galaxies trace the general high-redshift galaxy population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Lise

    2015-08-01

    Strong absorption lines seen in quasar spectra arise when the lines of sight to the quasars intersect intervening galaxies. The associated metal absorption lines from the strongest absorption lines, the damped Lyman alpha absorbers (DLAs), allow us to trace the metallicity of galaxies back to redshifts z>5. Typical metallicities range from 0.1-100% solar metallicities with a huge scatter at any given redshift. Understanding the nature of galaxies that host DLAs is one strategy to probe the early phase and origin of stars in the outskirts of present-day galaxy disks.The search for emission from the elusive high-redshift DLA galaxies has reached a mature state now that we have determined how to best identify the absorbing galaxies. From a growing number of emission-line detections from DLA galaxies at redshifts ranging between 0.1 and 3, we can analyse galaxies in both absorption and emission, and probe the gas-phase metallicities in the outskirts and halos of the galaxies.By combining information for galaxies seen in emission and absorption, I will show that there is a relation between DLA metallicities and the host galaxy luminosities similar to the well-known the mass-metallicity relation for luminosity selected galaxies. This implies that DLA galaxies are drawn from the general population of low- to intermediate mass galaxies. We can determine a metallicity gradient in the extended halo of the galaxies out to ~40 kpc, and this allows us to reproduce observed galaxy correlation functions derived from conventional samples of luminosity selected galaxies.

  20. Automated galaxy recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappaport, Barry; Anderson, Kurt

    Previous approaches to automated image processing have used both deterministic and nondeterministic techniques. These have not used any form of conceptual learning nor have they employed artificial intelligence techniques. Addition of such techniques to the task of image processing may significantly enhance the efficiencies and accuracies of the recognition and classification processes. In our application, the objects to be recognized and classified are galaxies.

  1. An image-based skeletal model for the ICRP reference adult male-specific absorbed fractions for neutron-generated recoil protons.

    PubMed

    Jokisch, D W; Rajon, D A; Bahadori, A A; Bolch, W E

    2011-11-01

    Recoiling hydrogen nuclei are a principle mechanism for energy deposition from incident neutrons. For neutrons incident on the human skeleton, the small sizes of two contrasting media (trabecular bone and marrow) present unique problems due to a lack of charged-particle (protons) equilibrium. Specific absorbed fractions have been computed for protons originating in the human skeletal tissues for use in computing neutron dose response functions. The proton specific absorbed fractions were computed using a pathlength-based range-energy calculation in trabecular skeletal samples of a 40 year old male cadaver. PMID:21983482

  2. Coma cluster of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Atlas Image mosaic, covering 34' x 34' on the sky, of the Coma cluster, aka Abell 1656. This is a particularly rich cluster of individual galaxies (over 1000 members), most prominently the two giant ellipticals, NGC 4874 (right) and NGC 4889 (left). The remaining members are mostly smaller ellipticals, but spiral galaxies are also evident in the 2MASS image. The cluster is seen toward the constellation Coma Berenices, but is actually at a distance of about 100 Mpc (330 million light years, or a redshift of 0.023) from us. At this distance, the cluster is in what is known as the 'Hubble flow,' or the overall expansion of the Universe. As such, astronomers can measure the Hubble Constant, or the universal expansion rate, based on the distance to this cluster. Large, rich clusters, such as Coma, allow astronomers to measure the 'missing mass,' i.e., the matter in the cluster that we cannot see, since it gravitationally influences the motions of the member galaxies within the cluster. The near-infrared maps the overall luminous mass content of the member galaxies, since the light at these wavelengths is dominated by the more numerous older stellar populations. Galaxies, as seen by 2MASS, look fairly smooth and homogeneous, as can be seen from the Hubble 'tuning fork' diagram of near-infrared galaxy morphology. Image mosaic by S. Van Dyk (IPAC).

  3. Morphological evolution of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.; Heap, Sara R.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Hill, Robert S.; Smith, Eric P.

    1997-05-01

    Recent studies of the Hubble Deep Field (Abraham et al. 1996) [1] and Medium Deep Survey (Driver, Windhorst & Griffiths 1995) [6] find that the frequency of irregular/peculiar/merger systems rises with increasing redshift. However, this finding must be carefully interpreted in light of UV images of low-redshift galaxies obtained by the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (Stecher et al. 1992) [9]. These UV images imply that K-correction effects may be at least partially responsible for the apparent increase in Irr galaxies with redshift. To assess the degree to which there is an overabundance of Irregular galaxies (relative to the present epoch), we must understand the degree to which the K-correction biases morphological studies. We demonstrate the importance of the morphological K-correction to the classification schemes used in the HDF. We find that high-redshift spiral galaxies are misclassified as Irr galaxies, while Elliptical/S0 galaxies, should not be affected substantially. We have been granted 40 orbits in Cycle 7 with STIS to place these conclusions on a statistical basis.

  4. The HI Environment of Nearby Lyman-alpha Absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanGorkom, J. H.; Carilli, C. L.; Stocke, John T.; Perlman, Eric S.; Shull, J. Michael

    1996-01-01

    We present the results of a VLA and WSRT search for H I emission from the vicinity of seven nearby clouds, which were observed in Ly-alpha absorption with HST toward Mrk 335, Mrk 501, and PKS 2155-304. Around the absorbers, we searched a volume of 4O' x 40' x 1000 km/s; for one of the absorbers we probed a velocity range of only 600 km/s. The H I mass sensitivity (5 sigma) very close to the lines of sight varies from 5 x 10(exp 6) solar mass at best to 5 x 10(exp 8) solar mass at worst. We detected H I emission in the vicinity of four out of seven absorbers. The closest galaxy we find to the absorbers is a small dwarf galaxy at a projected distance of 68 h(exp -1) kpc from the sight line toward Mrk 335. This optically uncataloged galaxy has the same velocity (V = 1970 km/s) as one of the absorbers, is fainter than the SMC, and has an H I mass of only 4 x 10(exp 7) solar mass. We found a somewhat more luminous galaxy at exactly the velocity (V = 5100 km/s) of one of the absorbers toward PKS 2155-304 at a projected distance of 230 h(exp -1) kpc from the sight line. Two other, stronger absorbers toward PKS 2155-304 at V approx. 17,000 km/s appear to be associated with a loose group of three bright spiral galaxies, at projected distances of 300 to 600 h(exp -1) kpc. These results support the conclusions emerging from optical searches that most nearby Ly-alpha forest clouds trace the large-scale structures outlined by the optically luminous galaxies, although this is still based on small-number statistics. We do not find any evidence from the H I distribution or kinematics that there is a physical association between an absorber and its closest galaxy. While the absorbing clouds are at the systemic velocity of the galaxies, the H I extent of the galaxies is fairly typical, and at least an order of magnitude smaller than the projected distance to the sight line at which the absorbers are seen. On the other hand, we also do not find evidence against such a connection. In

  5. Metal-line absorption at Z(sub abs) approximately Z(sub em) from associated galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellingson, E.; Yee, H. K. C.; Bechtold, Jill; Dobrzycki, Adam

    1994-01-01

    For a preliminary study of whether C IV absorption at Z(sub abs) approximately Z(sub em) is related to associated galaxy companions, we have collected data from a sample of 10 quasars with 0.15 less than z less than 0.65 for which high-resolution optical and UV spectroscopy is available from the literature, and for which we have deep optical images and limited spectroscopy. We also present new optical spectra for two of our samples. Four of these quasars have associated C IV absorption systems. In thes four fields, there are eight galaxies with M(sub r) less than -19.0 mag within 35 kpc of the quasar (projected distance, assuming they are at the quasar redshift), which may be candidates for the associated C IV absorption. This observed density of galaxies near quasars with associated C IV absorption is significantly greater than that for a control sample of quasars chosen from the literature. This result suggests that galaxies near the quasar line of sight may be linked with associated C IV absorption. None of these quasars show associated Mg II absorption, despite the presence of galaxies very near the line of sight, suggesting a Mg II 'proximity effect,' where ionizing flux from the quasar destroys the Mg(+) from at least the outer parts of the galaxies. Three quasars are located in rich galaxy clusters, but none of these quasars are found to have associated C IV absorption. This suggests that galaxies in rich clusters associated with quasars are less likely to be metal-line absorbers. It is plausible that the extended galaxy halos which may be responsible for the absorptions are stripped from galaxies in these dense environments. While it seems that at Z approximately 0.6 rich clusters do not cause them, associated C IV absorption systems at higher redshift may be explained by associated clusters if there has been evolution in the properties of galaxy halos in dense environments.

  6. Modelling Absorbent Phenomena of Absorbent Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayeb, S.; Ladhari, N.; Ben Hassen, M.; Sakli, F.

    Absorption, retention and strike through time, as evaluating criteria of absorbent structures quality were studied. Determination of influent parameters on these criteria were realized by using the design method of experimental sets. In this study, the studied parameters are: Super absorbent polymer (SAP)/fluff ratio, compression and the porosity of the non woven used as a cover stock. Absorption capacity and retention are mostly influenced by SAP/fluff ratio. However, strike through time is affected by compression. Thus, a modelling of these characteristics in function of the important parameter was established.

  7. Spiral Galaxies Stripped Bare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    Six spectacular spiral galaxies are seen in a clear new light in images from ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. The pictures were taken in infrared light, using the impressive power of the HAWK-I camera, and will help astronomers understand how the remarkable spiral patterns in galaxies form and evolve. HAWK-I [1] is one of the newest and most powerful cameras on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It is sensitive to infrared light, which means that much of the obscuring dust in the galaxies' spiral arms becomes transparent to its detectors. Compared to the earlier, and still much-used, VLT infrared camera ISAAC, HAWK-I has sixteen times as many pixels to cover a much larger area of sky in one shot and, by using newer technology than ISAAC, it has a greater sensitivity to faint infrared radiation [2]. Because HAWK-I can study galaxies stripped bare of the confusing effects of dust and glowing gas it is ideal for studying the vast numbers of stars that make up spiral arms. The six galaxies are part of a study of spiral structure led by Preben Grosbøl at ESO. These data were acquired to help understand the complex and subtle ways in which the stars in these systems form into such perfect spiral patterns. The first image shows NGC 5247, a spiral galaxy dominated by two huge arms, located 60-70 million light-years away. The galaxy lies face-on towards Earth, thus providing an excellent view of its pinwheel structure. It lies in the zodiacal constellation of Virgo (the Maiden). The galaxy in the second image is Messier 100, also known as NGC 4321, which was discovered in the 18th century. It is a fine example of a "grand design" spiral galaxy - a class of galaxies with very prominent and well-defined spiral arms. About 55 million light-years from Earth, Messier 100 is part of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies and lies in the constellation of Coma Berenices (Berenice's Hair, named after the ancient Egyptian queen Berenice II). The third

  8. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Guillen, Donna P.; Longhurst, Glen R.; Porter, Douglas L.; Parry, James R.

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  9. Externally tuned vibration absorber

    DOEpatents

    Vincent, Ronald J.

    1987-09-22

    A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

  10. Weighing the Giants - I. Weak-lensing masses for 51 massive galaxy clusters: project overview, data analysis methods and cluster images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Linden, Anja; Allen, Mark T.; Applegate, Douglas E.; Kelly, Patrick L.; Allen, Steven W.; Ebeling, Harald; Burchat, Patricia R.; Burke, David L.; Donovan, David; Morris, R. Glenn; Blandford, Roger; Erben, Thomas; Mantz, Adam

    2014-03-01

    This is the first in a series of papers in which we measure accurate weak-lensing masses for 51 of the most X-ray luminous galaxy clusters known at redshifts 0.15 ≲ zCl ≲ 0.7, in order to calibrate X-ray and other mass proxies for cosmological cluster experiments. The primary aim is to improve the absolute mass calibration of cluster observables, currently the dominant systematic uncertainty for cluster count experiments. Key elements of this work are the rigorous quantification of systematic uncertainties, high-quality data reduction and photometric calibration, and the `blind' nature of the analysis to avoid confirmation bias. Our target clusters are drawn from X-ray catalogues based on the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, and provide a versatile calibration sample for many aspects of cluster cosmology. We have acquired wide-field, high-quality imaging using the Subaru Telescope and Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope for all 51 clusters, in at least three bands per cluster. For a subset of 27 clusters, we have data in at least five bands, allowing accurate photometric redshift estimates of lensed galaxies. In this paper, we describe the cluster sample and observations, and detail the processing of the SuprimeCam data to yield high-quality images suitable for robust weak-lensing shape measurements and precision photometry. For each cluster, we present wide-field three-colour optical images and maps of the weak-lensing mass distribution, the optical light distribution and the X-ray emission. These provide insights into the large-scale structure in which the clusters are embedded. We measure the offsets between X-ray flux centroids and the brightest cluster galaxies in the clusters, finding these to be small in general, with a median of 20 kpc. For offsets ≲100 kpc, weak-lensing mass measurements centred on the brightest cluster galaxies agree well with values determined relative to the X-ray centroids; miscentring is therefore not a significant source of systematic

  11. The Structure of Nuclear Star Clusters in Nearby Late-type Spiral Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Daniel J.; Barth, Aaron J.; Seth, Anil C.; den Brok, Mark; Cappellari, Michele; Greene, Jenny E.; Ho, Luis C.; Neumayer, Nadine

    2015-05-01

    We obtained Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging of a sample of ten of the nearest and brightest nuclear clusters (NCs) residing in late-type spiral galaxies, in seven bands that span the near-UV to the near-IR. Structural properties of the clusters were measured by fitting two-dimensional surface brightness profiles to the images using GALFIT. The clusters exhibit a wide range of structural properties, with F814W absolute magnitudes that range from ‑11.2 to ‑15.1 mag and F814W effective radii that range from 1.4 to 8.3 pc. For 6 of the 10 clusters in our sample, we find changes in the effective radius with wavelength, suggesting radially varying stellar populations. In four of the objects, the effective radius increases with wavelength, indicating the presence of a younger population that is more concentrated than the bulk of the stars in the cluster. However, we find a general decrease in effective radius with wavelength in two of the objects in our sample, which may indicate extended, circumnuclear star formation. We also find a general trend of increasing roundness of the clusters at longer wavelengths, as well as a correlation between the axis ratios of the NCs and their host galaxies. These observations indicate that blue disks aligned with the host galaxy plane are a common feature of NCs in late-type galaxies, but are difficult to detect in galaxies that are close to face-on. In color–color diagrams spanning the near-UV through the near-IR, most of the clusters lie far from single-burst evolutionary tracks, showing evidence for multi-age populations. Most of the clusters have integrated colors consistent with a mix of an old population (>1 Gyr) and a young population (∼100–300 Myr). The wide wavelength coverage of our data provides a sensitivity to populations with a mix of ages that would not be possible to achieve with imaging in optical bands only. The surface brightness profiles presented in this work will be used for future

  12. GALAXIES: SNAPSHOTS IN TIME

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This sequence of NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of remote galaxies offers tantalizing initial clues to the evolution of galaxies in the universe. [far left column] These are traditional spiral and elliptical-shaped galaxies that make up the two basic classes of island star cities that inhabit the universe we see in our current epoch (14 billion years after the birth of the universe in the Big Bang). Elliptical galaxies contain older stars, while spirals have vigorous ongoing star formation in their dusty, pancake-shaped disks. Our Milky Way galaxy is a typical spiral, or disk-shaped galaxy, on the periphery of the great Virgo cluster. Both galaxies in this column are a few tens of millions of light-years away, and therefore represent our current stage of the universe s evolution. [center left column] These galaxies existed in a rich cluster when the universe was approximately two-thirds its present age. Elliptical galaxies (top) appear fully evolved because they resemble today's descendants. By contrast, some spirals have a frothier appearance, with loosely shaped arms of young star formation. The spiral population appears more disrupted due to a variety of possible dynamical effects that result from dwelling in a dense cluster. [center right column] Distinctive spiral structure appears more vague and disrupted in galaxies that existed when the universe was nearly one-third its present age. These objects do not have the symmetry of current day spirals and contain irregular lumps of starburst activity. However, even this far back toward the beginning of time, the elliptical galaxy (top) is still clearly recognizable. However, the distinction between ellipticals and spirals grows less certain with increasing distance. [far right column] These extremely remote, primeval objects existed with the universe was nearly one-tenth its current age. The distinction between spiral and elliptical galaxies may well disappear at this early epoch. However, the object in

  13. Testing the origin of the CMB large-angle correlation deficit with a galaxy imaging survey

    SciTech Connect

    Hearin, Andrew P.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Gibelyou, Cameron E-mail: gibelyou@umich.edu

    2011-10-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature distribution measured by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) exhibits anomalously low correlation at large angles. Quantifying the degree to which this feature in the temperature data is in conflict with standard ΛCDM cosmology is somewhat ambiguous because of the a posteriori nature of the observation. One physical mechanism that has been proposed as a possible explanation for the deficit in the large-angle temperature correlations is a suppression of primordial power on ∼ Gpc scales. To distinguish whether the anomaly is a signal of new physics, such as suppressed primordial power, it would be invaluable to perform experimental tests of the authenticity of this signal in data sets which are independent of the WMAP temperature measurements or even other CMB measurements. We explore the possibility of testing models of power suppression with large-scale structure observations, and compare the ability of planned photometric and spectroscopic surveys to constrain the power spectrum. Of the surveys planned for the next decade, a spectroscopic redshift survey such as BigBOSS will have a greater number of radial modes available for study, but we find that this advantage is outweighed by the greater surface density of high-redshift sources that will be observed by photometric surveys such as LSST or Euclid. We also find that the ability to constrain primordial power suppression is insensitive to the precision of the calibration of photometric redshifts. We conclude that very-wide-area imaging surveys have the potential to probe viable models for the missing power but that it will be difficult to use such surveys to conclusively rule out primordial power suppression as the mechanism behind the observed anomaly.

  14. HST/NICMOS IMAGING OF BRIGHT HIGH-REDSHIFT 24 {mu}m SELECTED GALAXIES: MERGING PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zamojski, Michel; Yan Lin; Dasyra, Kalliopi; Surace, Jason; Helou, George; Sajina, Anna; Heckman, Tim

    2011-04-01

    We present new results on the physical nature of infrared-luminous sources at 0.5 < z < 2.8 as revealed by HST/NICMOS imaging and Infrared Spectrograph mid-infrared spectroscopy. Our sample consists of 134 galaxies selected at 24 {mu}m with a flux of S(24 {mu}m)>0.9 mJy. We find many ({approx}60%) of our sources to possess an important bulge and/or central point source component, most of which reveal additional underlying structures after subtraction of a best-fit Sersic (or Sersic+PSF) profile. Based on visual inspection of the NIC2 images and their residuals, we estimate that {approx}80% of all our sources are mergers. We calculate lower and upper limits on the merger fraction to be 62% and 91%, respectively. At z < 1.5, we observe objects in early (pre-coalescence) merging stages to be mostly disk and star formation dominated, while we find mergers to be mainly bulge dominated and active galactic nucleus (AGN)-starburst composites during coalescence and then AGN dominated in late stages. This is analogous to what is observed in local ULIRGs. At z {>=} 1.5, we find a dramatic rise in the number of objects in pre-coalescence phases of merging, despite an increase in the preponderance of AGN signatures in their mid-IR spectra and luminosities above 10{sup 12.5} L{sub sun}. We further find the majority of mergers at those redshifts to retain a disk-dominated profile during coalescence. We conclude that, albeit still driven by mergers, these high-z ULIRGs are substantially different in nature from their local counterparts and speculate that this is likely due to their higher gas content. Finally, we observe obscured ({tau}{sub 9.7{mu}m}>3.36) quasars to live in faint and compact hosts and show that these are likely high-redshift analogs of local dense-core mergers. We find late-stage mergers to possess predominantly unobscured AGN spectra, but do not observe other morphological classes to carry any specific combination of {tau}{sub 9.7{mu}m} and polycyclic aromatic

  15. The Secret Lives of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The ground-based image in visible light locates the hub imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope. This barred galaxy feeds material into its hub, igniting star birth. The Hubble NICMOS instrument penetrates beneath the dust to reveal clusters of young stars. Footage shows ground-based, WFPC2, and NICMOS images of NGS 1365. An animation of a large spiral galaxy zooms from the edge to the galactic bulge.

  16. Kinematics of Baryons Cycling Through Galaxy Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Nikole M.

    2015-01-01

    In a modern view of galaxy evolution, the baryon cycle is key to understanding the observed global properties of galaxies. Red galaxies passively evolve due to quenching of their star formation, whereas blue galaxies actively evolve, presumably due to a replenishing gas supply. Signatures of the baryon cycle such as IGM accretion, minor mergers, and stellar-driven outflows and fountains are best probed in gaseous halos, i.e., the circumgalactic medium (CGM). We study the spatial and kinematic distribution of the low-ionization metal-enriched CGM with QSO absorption lines for a population of 182 galaxies in the MgII Absorber-Galaxy Catalog (MAGIICAT). We present our findings detailing how the extent and patchiness of the CGM depends on MgII absorption strength, and galaxy luminosity and color. For the first time, we placed the kinematics of 39 MgII absorbers with high-resolution spectra in the context of their host galaxy color, redshift, and orientation. By examining the velocity dispersions of absorbers, we find possible effects of quenching on red galaxies where the velocity dispersions decrease over 2 Gyrs time and are smaller at larger radii. The velocity dispersions for blue galaxies remain constant over time and radius and possibly indicate a sustained flow of baryons feeding star formation. Blue, face-on galaxies probed along the minor axis show the largest velocity dispersions to very high significance. This result provides the strongest direct evidence to date for galactic-scale outflows which, for this orientation, are pointing nearly towards the observer. We discuss how our results place observational constraints on simulations which are just now beginning to accurately model the baryon cycle and its role in galaxy evolution.

  17. imaging of the Herschel Reference Survey. The star formation properties of a volume-limited, K-band-selected sample of nearby late-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.; Fossati, M.; Gavazzi, G.; Ciesla, L.; Buat, V.; Boissier, S.; Hughes, T. M.

    2015-07-01

    We present new Hα+[NII] imaging data of late-type galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey aimed at studying the star formation properties of a K-band-selected, volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies. The Hα+[NII] data are corrected for [NII] contamination and dust attenuation using different recipes based on the Balmer decrement and the 24 μm luminosities. We show that the Hα luminosities derived with different corrections give consistent results only whenever the uncertainty on the estimate of the Balmer decrement is σ [C(Hβ)] ≤ 0.1. We used these data to derive the star formation rate of the late-type galaxies of the sample and compare these estimates to those determined using independent monochromatic tracers (far-UV, radio continuum) or the output of spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting codes. This comparison suggests that the 24 μm based dust extinction correction for the Hα data might not be universal and that it should be used with caution in all objects with a low star formation activity, where dust heating can be dominated by the old stellar population. Furthermore, because of the sudden truncation of the star formation activity of cluster galaxies occurring after their interaction with the surrounding environment, the stationarity conditions required to transform monochromatic fluxes into star formation rates might not always be satisfied in tracers other than the Hα luminosity. In a similar way, the parametrisation of the star formation history generally used in SED fitting codes might not be adequate for these recently interacting systems. We then use the derived star formation rates to study the star formation rate luminosity distribution and the typical scaling relations of the late-type galaxies of the HRS. We observe a systematic decrease of the specific star formation rate with increasing stellar mass, stellar mass surface density, and metallicity. We also observe an increase of the asymmetry and smoothness parameters measured

  18. Where do Galaxies End?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, J. Michael

    2014-04-01

    Our current view of galaxies considers them as systems of stars and gas embedded in extended halos of dark matter, much of it formed by the infall of smaller systems at earlier times. The true extent of a galaxy remains poorly determined, with the "virial radius" (R vir) providing a characteristic separation between collapsed structures in dynamical equilibrium and external infalling matter. Other physical estimates of the extent of gravitational influence include the gravitational radius, gas accretion radius, and "galactopause" arising from outflows that stall at 100-200 kpc over a range of outflow parameters and confining gas pressures. Physical criteria are proposed to define bound structures, including a more realistic definition of R vir(M *, Mh , za ) for stellar mass M * and halo mass Mh , half of which formed at "assembly redshifts" ranging from za ≈ 0.7-1.3. We estimate the extent of bound gas and dark matter around L* galaxies to be ~200 kpc. The new virial radii, with mean langR virrang ≈ 200 kpc, are 40%-50% smaller than values estimated in recent Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph detections of H I and O VI absorbers around galaxies. In the new formalism, the Milky Way stellar mass, log M * = 10.7 ± 0.1, would correspond to R_vir = 153^{+25}_{-16} kpc for half-mass halo assembly at za = 1.06 ± 0.03. The frequency per unit redshift of low-redshift O VI absorption lines in QSO spectra suggests absorber sizes ~150 kpc when related to intervening 0.1L* galaxies. This formalism is intended to clarify semantic differences arising from observations of extended gas in galactic halos, circumgalactic medium (CGM), and filaments of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Astronomers should refer to bound gas in the galactic halo or CGM, and unbound gas at the CGM-IGM interface, on its way into the IGM.

  19. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Smolik, Galen R.

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  20. The contribution of high-redshift galaxies to cosmic reionization: new results from deep WFC3 imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunker, Andrew J.; Wilkins, Stephen; Ellis, Richard S.; Stark, Daniel P.; Lorenzoni, Silvio; Chiu, Kuenley; Lacy, Mark; Jarvis, Matt J.; Hickey, Samantha

    2010-12-01

    We have searched for star-forming galaxies at z ~ 7-10 by applying the Lyman-break technique to newly released Y-, J- and H-band images (1.1, 1.25 and 1.6μm) from Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope. By comparing these images of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) z'-band (0.85μm) images, we identify objects with red colours, (z' - Y)AB > 1.3, consistent with the Lyman α forest absorption at z ~ 6.7-8.8. We identify 12 of these z'-drops down to a limiting magnitude YAB < 28.5 (equivalent to a star formation rate of 1.3Msolaryr-1 at z = 7.1), all of which are undetected in the other ACS filters. We use the WFC3 J-band image to eliminate contaminant low-mass Galactic stars, which typically have redder colours than z ~ 7 galaxies. One of our z'-drops is probably a T-dwarf star. The z ~ 7z'-drops appear to have much bluer spectral slopes than Lyman-break galaxies at lower redshift. Our brightest z'-drop is not present in the NICMOS J-band image of the same field taken 5 years before, and is a possible transient object. From the 10 remaining z ~ 7 candidates we determine a lower limit on the star formation rate density of 0.0017Msolaryr-1Mpc-3 for a Salpeter initial mass function, which rises to 0.0025-0.004Msolaryr-1Mpc-3 after correction for luminosity bias. The star formation rate density is a factor of ~10 less than that of Lyman-break galaxies at z = 3-4, and is about half the value at z ~ 6. We also present the discovery of seven Y-drop objects with (Y - J)AB > 1.0 and JAB < 28.5 which are candidate star-forming galaxies at higher redshifts (z ~ 8-9). We find no robust J-drop candidates at z ~ 10. While based on a single deep field, our results suggest that this star formation rate density would produce insufficient Lyman continuum photons to reionize the Universe unless the escape fraction of these photons is extremely high (fesc > 0.5), and the clumping factor of the Universe is low. Even then, we need

  1. Global Hot Gas in and around the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. Daniel

    2009-08-01

    The hot interstellar medium traces the stellar feedback and its role in regulating the eco-system of the Galaxy. I review recent progress in understanding the medium, based largely on X-ray absorption line spectroscopy, complemented by X-ray emission and far-UV O VI absorption measurements. These observations enable us for the first time to characterize the global spatial, thermal, chemical, and kinematic properties of the medium. The results are generally consistent with what have been inferred from X-ray imaging of nearby galaxies similar to the Galaxy. It is clear that diffuse soft X-ray emitting/absorbing gas with a characteristic temperature of ~106 K resides primarily in and around the Galactic disk and bulge. In the solar neighborhood, for example, this gas has a characteristic vertical scale height of ~1 kpc. This conclusion does not exclude the presence of a larger-scale, probably much hotter, and lower density circum-Galactic hot medium, which is required to explain observations of various high-velocity clouds. This hot medium may be a natural product of the stellar feedback in the context of the galaxy formation and evolution.

  2. A STARBURSTING PROTO-CLUSTER IN MAKING ASSOCIATED WITH A RADIO GALAXY AT z = 2.53 DISCOVERED BY H{alpha} IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Masao; Kodama, Tadayuki; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Koyama, Yusei; Tanaka, Ichi

    2012-09-20

    We report a discovery of a proto-cluster in vigorous assembly and hosting strong star-forming activities, associated with a radio galaxy USS 1558-003 at z = 2.53, as traced by wide-field narrow-band H{alpha} imaging with MOIRCS on the Subaru Telescope. We find 68 H{alpha} emitters with dust-uncorrected star formation rates (SFRs) down to 8.6 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Their spatial distribution indicates that there are three prominent clumps of H{alpha} emitters: one surrounding the radio galaxy, the second located at {approx}1.5 Mpc away to the southwest, and the third located between the two. These contiguous three systems are very likely to merge together in the near future and may grow to a single more massive cluster at a later time. While most H{alpha} emitters reside in the 'blue cloud' on the color-magnitude diagram, some emitters have very red colors with J - K{sub s} > 1.38(AB). Interestingly, such red H{alpha} emitters are located toward the faint end of the red sequence, and they tend to be located in high density clumps. We do not see any statistically significant difference in the distributions of individual SFRs or stellar masses of the H{alpha} emitters between the dense clumps and the other regions, suggesting that this is one of the notable sites where the progenitors of massive galaxies in the present-day clusters were in their vigorous formation phase. Finally, we find that H{alpha} emission of the radio galaxy is fairly extended spatially over {approx}4.''5. However, it is not as widespread as its Ly{alpha} halo, meaning that the Ly{alpha} emission is indeed severely extended by resonant scattering.

  3. Subaru adaptive-optics high-spatial-resolution infrared K- and L'-band imaging search for deeply buried dual AGNs in merging galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Saito, Yuriko

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of infrared K- (2.2 μm) and L'-band (3.8 μm) high-spatial-resolution (<0.''2) imaging observations of nearby gas- and dust-rich infrared luminous merging galaxies, assisted by the adaptive optics system on the Subaru 8.2 m telescope. We investigate the presence and frequency of red K – L' compact sources, which are sensitive indicators of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), including AGNs that are deeply buried in gas and dust. We observed 29 merging systems and confirmed at least one AGN in all but one system. However, luminous dual AGNs were detected in only four of the 29 systems (∼14%), despite our method's being sensitive to buried AGNs. For multiple nuclei sources, we compared the estimated AGN luminosities with supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses inferred from large-aperture K-band stellar emission photometry in individual nuclei. We found that mass accretion rates onto SMBHs are significantly different among multiple SMBHs, such that larger-mass SMBHs generally show higher mass accretion rates when normalized to SMBH mass. Our results suggest that non-synchronous mass accretion onto SMBHs in gas- and dust-rich infrared luminous merging galaxies hampers the observational detection of kiloparsec-scale multiple active SMBHs. This could explain the significantly smaller detection fraction of kiloparsec-scale dual AGNs when compared with the number expected from simple theoretical predictions. Our results also indicate that mass accretion onto SMBHs is dominated by local conditions, rather than by global galaxy properties, reinforcing the importance of observations to our understanding of how multiple SMBHs are activated and acquire mass in gas- and dust-rich merging galaxies.

  4. Seeing Baby Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Visible/DSS Click on image for larger version Ultraviolet/GALEX Click on image for larger version Poster Version Click on image for larger version

    The unique ultraviolet vision of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer reveals, for the first time, dwarf galaxies forming out of nothing more than pristine gas likely leftover from the early universe. Dwarf galaxies are relatively small collections of stars that often orbit around larger galaxies like our Milky Way.

    The forming dwarf galaxies shine in the far ultraviolet spectrum, rendered as blue in the call-out on the right hand side of this image. Near ultraviolet light, also obtained by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, is displayed in green, and visible light from the blue part of the spectrum here is represented by red. The clumps (in circles) are distinctively blue, indicating they are primarily detected in far ultraviolet light.

    The faint blue overlay traces the outline of the Leo Ring, a huge cloud of hydrogen and helium that orbits around two massive galaxies in the constellation Leo (left panel). The cloud is thought likely to be a primordial object, an ancient remnant of material that has remained relatively unchanged since the very earliest days of the universe. Identified about 25 years ago by radio waves, the ring cannot be seen in visible light.

    Only a portion of the Leo Ring has been imaged in the ultraviolet, but this section contains the telltale ultraviolet signature of recent massive star formation within this ring of pristine gas. Astronomers have previously only seen dwarf galaxies form out of gas that has already been cycled through a galaxy and enriched with metals elements heavier than helium produced as stars evolve.

    The visible data come from the Digitized Sky Survey of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md. The

  5. A MINUET OF GALAXIES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This troupe of four galaxies, known as Hickson Compact Group 87 (HCG 87), is performing an intricate dance orchestrated by the mutual gravitational forces acting between them. The dance is a slow, graceful minuet, occurring over a time span of hundreds of millions of years. The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 on NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) provides a striking improvement in resolution over previous ground-based imaging. In particular, this image reveals complex details in the dust lanes of the group's largest galaxy member (HCG 87a), which is actually disk-shaped, but tilted so that we see it nearly edge-on. Both 87a and its elliptically shaped nearest neighbor (87b) have active galactic nuclei which are believed to harbor black holes that are consuming gas. A third group member, the nearby spiral galaxy 87c, may be undergoing a burst of active star formation. Gas flows within galaxies can be intensified by the gravitational tidal forces between interacting galaxies. So interactions can provide fresh fuel for both active nuclei and starburst phenomena. These three galaxies are so close to each other that gravitational forces disrupt their structure and alter their evolution. From the analysis of its spectra, the small spiral near the center of the group could either be a fourth member or perhaps an unrelated background object. The HST image was made by combining images taken in four different color filters in order to create a three-color picture. Regions of active star formation are blue (hot stars) and also pinkish if hot hydrogen gas is present. The complex dark bands across the large edge-on disk galaxy are due to interstellar dust silhouetted against the galaxy's background starlight. A faint tidal bridge of stars can be seen between the edge-on and elliptical galaxies. HCG 87 was selected for Hubble imaging by members of the public who visited the Hubble Heritage website (http://heritage.stsci.edu) during the month of May and registered their votes

  6. Uncovering blue diffuse dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Bethan L.; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel P.; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2015-04-01

    Extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies are known to be very rare, despite the large numbers of low-mass galaxies predicted by the local galaxy luminosity function. This paper presents a subsample of galaxies that were selected via a morphology-based search on Sloan Digital Sky Survey images with the aim of finding these elusive XMP galaxies. By using the recently discovered XMP galaxy, Leo P, as a guide, we obtained a collection of faint, blue systems, each with isolated H II regions embedded in a diffuse continuum, that have remained optically undetected until now. Here we show the first results from optical spectroscopic follow-up observations of 12 of ˜100 of these blue diffuse dwarf (BDD) galaxies yielded by our search algorithm. Oxygen abundances were obtained via the direct method for eight galaxies, and found to be in the range 7.45 < 12 + log (O/H) < 8.0, with two galaxies being classified as XMPs. All BDDs were found to currently have a young star-forming population (<10 Myr) and relatively high ionization parameters of their H II regions. Despite their low luminosities (-11 ≲ MB ≲ -18) and low surface brightnesses (˜23-25 mag arcsec-2), the galaxies were found to be actively star forming, with current star formation rates between 0.0003 and 0.078 M⊙ yr-1. From our current subsample, BDD galaxies appear to be a population of non-quiescent dwarf irregular galaxies, or the diffuse counterparts to blue compact galaxies and as such may bridge the gap between these two populations. Our search algorithm demonstrates that morphology-based searches are successful in uncovering more diffuse metal-poor star-forming galaxies, which traditional emission-line-based searches overlook.

  7. Weak lensing by galaxy troughs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruen, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Galaxy troughs, i.e. underdensities in the projected galaxy field, are a weak lensing probe of the low density Universe with high signal-to-noise ratio. I present measurements of the radial distortion of background galaxy images and the de-magnification of the CMB by troughs constructed from Dark Energy Survey and Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy catalogs. With high statistical significance and a relatively robust modeling, these probe gravity in regimes of density and scale difficult to access for conventional statistics.

  8. The Assembly of Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponman, Trevor

    2001-09-01

    The most interesting phase in the evolution of a galaxy group is the virialisation stage, at which the infall velocities of the galaxies are randomised and the interstellar gas compressed and heated. The violently fluctuating environment experienced by galaxies during this phase may have long-lasting effects on their properties. Such virialising groups appear to be quite rare, since the phase is transient, but we have identified three strong candidates from an extensive study of groups with ROSAT. We propose to obtain high quality spectral images of these with ACIS in order to study the way in which the intergalactic medium is heated, and the effects of strong interactions on galaxy properties.

  9. Properties of Galaxies Detected in Emission and Absorption with Background Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, Lorrie Ann

    The question of how galaxies evolve is a difficult one to answer. By studying galaxies hosting Damped (DLA) and sub-Damped Lyman-alpha (sub-DLA) systems, we hope to shed some light on the subject. DLA and sub-DLA systems contain the vast majority of neutral gas in the universe, making them ideal candidates for studies of primordial gas. However, it is unclear how these absorption systems relate to present day galaxies. Observations of these systems detected through absorption in background quasar spectra indicate the DLAs are metal poor and slowly evolving while their counterparts, the sub-DLAs, are highly enriched. In order to determine the relationship between galaxies detected in absorption and normal galaxies, we compile a sample of low redshift quasar galaxy pairs (QGP) detected in emission in quasar spectra. These emission detected galaxies are searched for absorption features that may indicate a connection to higher redshift galaxy absorption systems, including DLAs and sub-DLAs. While the roles of spectroscopy and imaging play equal parts in determining characteristics of these systems, focus here is placed on the broad-band imaging aspect, used to locate absorption host galaxies and determine their photometric properties. These properties can then be compared to the known properties of galaxies at other epochs. The role of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has been paramount in this study. Presented here are two sets of data: high metallicity DLA and sub-DLA absorption systems at z > 0.4 and quasar-galaxy pairs selected in emission from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at z < 0.4. Results show that the z < 0.4 sample has low star formation rate values and a high degree of reddening which is in good agreement with higher redshift samples of quasar absorbers and our z > 0.4 sample of DLAs and sub-DLAs. Morphologically, those galaxies selected by emission naturally tend to be late-type, while our sample of DLAs and sub-DLAs appears to be primarily early-type.

  10. The 8 O'Clock Arc: A Serendipitous Discovery of a Strongly Lensed Lyman Break Galaxy in the SDSS DR4 Imaging Data

    SciTech Connect

    Allam, Sahar S.; Tucker, Douglas L.; Lin, Huan; Diehl, H.Thomas; Annis, James; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

    2006-11-01

    We report on the serendipitous discovery of the brightest Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG) currently known, a galaxy at z = 2.73 that is being strongly lensed by the z = 0.38 Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) SDSS J002240.91+143110.4. The arc of this gravitational lens system, which we have dubbed the ''8 o'clock arc'' due to its time of discovery, was initially identified in the imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4 (SDSS DR4); followup observations on the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) 3.5m telescope at Apache Point Observatory confirmed the lensing nature of this system and led to the identification of the arc's spectrum as that of an LBG. The arc has a spectrum and a redshift remarkably similar to those of the previous record-holder for brightest LBG (MS 1512-cB58, a.k.a ''cB58''), but, with an estimated total magnitude of (g,r,i) = (20.0,19.2,19.0) and surface brightness of ({mu}{sub g}, {mu}{sub r}, {mu}{sub i}) = (23.3, 22.5, 22.3) mag arcsec{sup -2}, the 8 o'clock arc is thrice as bright. The 8 o'clock arc, which consists of three lensed images of the LBG, is 162{sup o}(9.6'') long and has a length-to-width ratio of 6:1. A fourth image of the LBG--a counter-image--can also be identified in the ARC 3.5m g-band images. A simple lens model for the system assuming a singular isothermal ellipsoid potential yields an Einstein radius of {theta}{sub Ein} = 2.91'' {+-} 0.14'', a total mass for the lensing LRG (within the 10.6 {+-} 0.5 h{sup -1} kpc enclosed by the lensed images) of 1.04 x 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}}, and a magnification factor for the LBG of 12.3{sub -3.6}{sup +15}. The LBG itself is intrinsically quite luminous ({approx} 6 x L{sub *}) and shows indications of massive recent star formation, perhaps as high as 160 h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}} yr{sup -1}.

  11. Galaxies on Top of Quasars: Probing Dwarf Galaxies in the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, Lorrie; York, D. G.; Noterdaeme, P.; Srianand, R.; Bowen, D. V.; Khare, P.; Bishof, M.; Whichard, Z.; Kulkarni, V. P.

    2013-07-01

    Absorption lines from galaxies at intervening redshifts in quasar spectra are sensitive probes of metals and gas that are otherwise invisible due to distance or low surface brightness. However, in order to determine the environments these absorption lines arise in, we must detect these galaxies in emission as well. Galaxies on top of quasars (GOTOQs) are low-z galaxies found intervening with background quasars in the SDSS. These galaxies have been flagged for their narrow galactic emission lines present in quasar spectra in the SDSS. Typically, the low-z nature of these galaxies allows them to be easily detected in SDSS imaging. However, a number of GOTOQs (about 10%), despite being detected in spectral emission, are NOT seen in SDSS imaging. This implies that these may be dark galaxies, dwarf galaxies, or similarly low surface brightness galaxies. Additionally, about 25% of those detected in imaging are dwarf galaxies according to their L* values. Dwarf galaxies have long been underrepresented in observations compared to theory and are known to have large extents in dark matter. Given their prevalence here in our sample we must ask what role they play in quasar absorption line systems (QSOALS). Recent detections of 21-cm galaxies with few stars imply that aborted star formation in dark matter sub halos may produce QSOALS. Thus, this sub sample of galaxies offers a unique technique for probing dark and dwarf galaxies. The sample and its properties will be discussed, including star formation rates and dust estimates, as well as prospects for the future.

  12. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  13. Arithmetic with X-ray images of galaxy clusters: effective equation of state for small-scale perturbations in the ICM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churazov, E.; Arevalo, P.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Schekochihin, A.; Vikhlinin, A.; Zhuravleva, I.

    2016-08-01

    We discuss a novel technique of manipulating X-ray images of galaxy clusters to reveal the nature of small-scale density/temperature perturbations in the intra cluster medium (ICM). As we show, this technique can be used to differentiate between sound waves and isobaric perturbations in Chandra images of the Perseus and M87/Virgo clusters. The comparison of the manipulated images with the radio data and with the results of detailed spectral analysis shows that this approach successfully classifies the types of perturbations and helps to reveal their nature. For the central regions (5-100 kpc) of the M87 and Perseus clusters this analysis suggests that observed images are dominated by isobaric perturbations, followed by perturbations caused by bubbles of relativistic plasma and weak shocks. Such a hierarchy is best explained in a "slow" AGN feedback scenario, when much of the mechanical energy output of a central black hole is captured by the bubble enthalpy that is gradually released during buoyant rise of the bubbles. The "image arithmetic" works best for prominent structure and for datasets with excellent statistics, visualizing the perturbations with a given effective equation of state. The same approach can be extended to faint perturbations via cross-spectrum analysis of surface brightness fluctuations in X-ray images in different energy bands.

  14. Metal shearing energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, R. J.; Wittrock, E. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A metal shearing energy absorber is described. The absorber is composed of a flat thin strip of metal which is pulled through a slot in a cutter member of a metal, harder than the metal of the strip. The slot's length, in the direction perpendicular to the pull direction, is less than the strip's width so that as the strip is pulled through the slot, its edges are sheared off, thereby absorbing some of the pulling energy. In one embodiment the cutter member is a flat plate of steel, while in another embodiment the cutter member is U-shaped with the slot at its base.

  15. Lipid-absorbing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Wallace, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    The removal of bile acids and cholesterol by polymeric absorption is discussed in terms of micelle-polymer interaction. The results obtained with a polymer composed of 75 parts PEO and 25 parts PB plus curing ingredients show an absorption of 305 to 309%, based on original polymer weight. Particle size effects on absorption rate are analyzed. It is concluded that crosslinked polyethylene oxide polymers will absorb water, crosslinked polybutadiene polymers will absorb lipids; neither polymer will absorb appreciable amounts of lipids from micellar solutions of lipids in water.

  16. Evidence for Tides and Interactions in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conselice, C. J.; Gallagher, J. S.

    1997-12-01

    We present preliminary results of a search for tidally distorted, or interacting galaxies in the galaxy clusters: Abell 2199, AWM 5, AWM 3, the Coma and Perseus clusters. This is part of a large study to determine the nature of small-scale structure in galaxy clusters of various morphologies. Our B and R band observations were made with the CCD imager on the WIYN 3.5-m telescope, and typically have an angular resolution of 1 arcsec or better. We are able to classify all of the observed structures into seven different types. These include: Galaxy Interactions, Multiple Galaxies, Tailed Galaxies, Dwarf Galaxy Groups, Galaxy Aggregates, Distorted Galaxies, and Line Galaxies. We present examples of objects in these categories and conclude that interactions that perturb individual galaxies are common in clusters of galaxies, despite the high relative random velocities between cluster members.

  17. Galaxy 'Hunting' Made Easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    Galaxies found under the Glare of Cosmic Flashlights Astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope have discovered in a single pass about a dozen otherwise invisible galaxies halfway across the Universe. The discovery, based on a technique that exploits a first-class instrument, represents a major breakthrough in the field of galaxy 'hunting'. ESO PR Photo 40a/07 ESO PR Photo 40a/07 Newly Found Galaxies (SINFONI/VLT) The team of astronomers led by Nicolas Bouché have used quasars to find these galaxies. Quasars are very distant objects of extreme brilliance, which are used as cosmic beacons that reveal galaxies lying between the quasar and us. The galaxy's presence is revealed by a 'dip' in the spectrum of the quasar - caused by the absorption of light at a specific wavelength. The team used huge catalogues of quasars, the so-called SDSS and 2QZ catalogues, to select quasars with dips. The next step was then to observe the patches of the sky around these quasars in search for the foreground galaxies from the time the Universe was about 6 billion years old, almost half of its current age. "The difficulty in actually spotting and seeing these galaxies stems from the fact that the glare of the quasar is too strong compared to the dim light of the galaxy," says Bouché. This is where observations taken with SINFONI on ESO's VLT made the difference. SINFONI is an infrared 'integral field spectrometer' that simultaneously delivers very sharp images and highly resolved colour information (spectra) of an object on the sky. ESO PR Photo 32e/07 ESO PR Photo 40b/07 Chasing 'Hidden' Galaxies (Artist's Impression) With this special technique, which untangles the light of the galaxy from the quasar light, the team detected 14 galaxies out of the 20 pre-selected quasar patches of sky, a hefty 70% success rate. "This high detection rate alone is a very exciting result," says Bouché. "But, these are not just ordinary galaxies: they are most notable ones, actively forming a lot of

  18. "Smart" Electromechanical Shock Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Lebarian; Glenn, Dean C.; Carroll, Monty B.

    1989-01-01

    Shock-absorbing apparatus includes electromechanical actuator and digital feedback control circuitry rather than springs and hydraulic damping as in conventional shock absorbers. Device not subject to leakage and requires little or no maintenance. Attenuator parameters adjusted in response to sensory feedback and predictive algorithms to obtain desired damping characteristic. Device programmed to decelerate slowly approaching vehicle or other large object according to prescribed damping characteristic.

  19. Iron Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Liping; Lany, Stephan; Kykyneshi, Robert; Jieratum, Vorranutch; Ravichandran, Ram; Pelatt, Brian; Altschul, Emmeline; Platt, Heather A. S.; Wager, John F.; Keszler, Douglas A.; Zunger, Alex

    2011-08-10

    An integrated computational and experimental study of FeS₂ pyrite reveals that phase coexistence is an important factor limiting performance as a thin-film solar absorber. This phase coexistence is suppressed with the ternary materials Fe₂SiS₄ and Fe₂GeS₄, which also exhibit higher band gaps than FeS₂. Thus, the ternaries provide a new entry point for development of thin-film absorbers and high-efficiency photovoltaics.

  20. Rebuilding Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    occurring in less than 1,000 million years, the existence of such a large fraction of these LIRGs in the past Universe has important consequences on the total stellar formation rate. As François Hammer (Paris Observatory, France), leader of the team, states: "We are thus led to the conclusion that during the time span from roughly 8,000 million to 4,000 million years ago, intermediate mass galaxies converted about half of their total mass into stars. Moreover, this star formation must have taken place in very intense bursts when galaxies were emitting huge amount of infrared radiation and appeared as LIRGs." Another result could be secured using the spectra obtained with the Very Large Telescope: the astronomers measured the chemical abundances in several of the observed galaxies (PR Photo 02a/05). They find that galaxies with large redshifts show oxygen abundances two times lower than present-day spirals. As it is stars which produce oxygen in a galaxy, this again gives support to the fact that these galaxies have been actively forming stars in the period between 8,000 and 4,000 million years ago. And because it is believed that galaxy collisions and mergers play an important role in triggering such phases of enhanced star-forming activity, these observations indicate that galaxy merging still occurred frequently less than 8,000 million years ago. Spiral Rebuilding ESO PR Photo 02b/05 ESO PR Photo 02b/05 The Spiral Rebuilding Scenario [Preview - JPEG: 471 x 400 pix - 80k] [Normal - JPEG: 941 x 800 pix - 207k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 02b/05: Schematic representation of the newly proposed scenario of "spiral galaxy rebuilding": galaxies collide (1), then merge (2), inducing a burst of stellar formation activity. After the merging, the gas and the stars fall towards the centre in a very compact structure (3). Part of the gas which did not fall back initially, gradually rebuilds a disc around the compact structure, making a new spiral galaxy (4 and 5). The images are pictures

  1. Edge-on Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has imaged an unusual edge-on galaxy, revealing remarkable details of its warped dusty disc and showing how colliding galaxies trigger the birth of new stars.

    The image, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), is online at http://heritage.stsci.edu and http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc. The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. During observations of the galaxy, the camera passed a milestone, taking its 100,000th image since shuttle astronauts installed it in Hubble in 1993.

    The dust and spiral arms of normal spiral galaxies, like our Milky Way, look flat when seen edge- on. The new image of the galaxy ESO 510-G13 shows an unusual twisted disc structure, first seen in ground-based photographs taken at the European Southern Observatory in Chile. ESO 510-G13 lies in the southern constellation Hydra, some 150 million light-years from Earth. Details of the galaxy's structure are visible because interstellar dust clouds that trace its disc are silhouetted from behind by light from the galaxy's bright, smooth central bulge.

    The strong warping of the disc indicates that ESO 510-G13 has recently collided with a nearby galaxy and is in the process of swallowing it. Gravitational forces distort galaxies as their stars, gas, and dust merge over millions of years. When the disturbances die out, ESO 510-G13 will be a single galaxy.

    The galaxy's outer regions, especially on the right side of the image, show dark dust and bright clouds of blue stars. This indicates that hot, young stars are forming in the twisted disc. Astronomers believe star formation may be triggered when galaxies collide and their interstellar clouds are compressed.

    The Hubble Heritage Team used WFPC2 to observe ESO 510-G13 in April 2001. Pictures obtained through blue, green, and red filters were combined to make this color-composite image, which emphasizes the contrast between the dusty

  2. Triple Scoop from Galaxy Hunter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3

    Silver Dollar Galaxy: NGC 253 (figure 1) Located 10 million light-years away in the southern constellation Sculptor, the Silver Dollar galaxy, or NGC 253, is one of the brightest spiral galaxies in the night sky. In this edge-on view from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer, the wisps of blue represent relatively dustless areas of the galaxy that are actively forming stars. Areas of the galaxy with a soft golden glow indicate regions where the far-ultraviolet is heavily obscured by dust particles.

    Gravitational Dance: NGC 1512 and NGC 1510 (figure 2) In this image, the wide ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer show spiral galaxy NGC 1512 sitting slightly northwest of elliptical galaxy NGC 1510. The two galaxies are currently separated by a mere 68,000 light-years, leading many astronomers to suspect that a close encounter is currently in progress.

    The overlapping of two tightly wound spiral arm segments makes up the light blue inner ring of NGC 1512. Meanwhile, the galaxy's outer spiral arm is being distorted by strong gravitational interactions with NGC 1510.

    Galaxy Trio: NGC 5566, NGC 5560, and NGC 5569 (figure 3) NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows a triplet of galaxies in the Virgo cluster: NGC 5560 (top galaxy), NGC 5566 (middle galaxy), and NGC 5569 (bottom galaxy).

    The inner ring in NGC 5566 is formed by two nearly overlapping bright arms, which themselves spring from the ends of a central bar. The bar is not visible in ultraviolet because it consists of older stars or low mass stars that do not emit energy at ultraviolet wavelengths. The outer disk of NGC 5566 appears warped, and the disk of NGC 5560 is clearly disturbed. Unlike its galactic neighbors, the disk of NGC 5569 does not appear to have been distorted by any passing

  3. The column density distribution of hard X-ray radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panessa, F.; Bassani, L.; Landi, R.; Bazzano, A.; Dallacasa, D.; La Franca, F.; Malizia, A.; Venturi, T.; Ubertini, P.

    2016-09-01

    In order to investigate the role of absorption in active galactic nuclei (AGN) with jets, we have studied the column density distribution of a hard X-ray selected sample of radio galaxies, derived from the INTEGRAL/Imager on Board the Integral Satellite (IBIS) and Swift/The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) AGN catalogues (˜7-10 per cent of the total AGN population). The 64 radio galaxies have a typical FR II radio morphology and are characterized by high 20-100 keV luminosities (from 1042 to 1046 erg s-1) and high Eddington ratios (log LBol/LEdd typically larger than ˜0.01). The observed fraction of absorbed AGN (NH > 1022 cm-2) is around 40 per cent among the total sample, and ˜75 per cent among type 2 AGN. The majority of obscured AGN are narrow-line objects, while unobscured AGN are broad-line objects, obeying to the zeroth-order predictions of unified models. A significant anti-correlation between the radio core dominance parameter and the X-ray column density is found. The observed fraction of Compton thick AGN is ˜2-3 per cent, in comparison with the 5-7 per cent found in radio-quiet hard X-ray selected AGN. We have estimated the absorption and Compton thick fractions in a hard X-ray sample containing both radio galaxies and non-radio galaxies and therefore affected by the same selection biases. No statistical significant difference was found in the absorption properties of radio galaxies and non-radio galaxies sample. In particular, the Compton thick objects are likely missing in both samples and the fraction of obscured radio galaxies appears to decrease with luminosity as observed in hard X-ray non-radio galaxies.

  4. OT1_mpage_1: Star Formation in X-ray Absorbed QSOs through cosmic time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, M.

    2010-07-01

    The nature of the connection between the growth of a black hole via accretion and that of its host galaxy bulge via star formation remains a fundamental question in galaxy evolution. SCUBA/850micron observations of matched samples of high redshift X-ray absorbed and unabsorbed QSOs demonstrated that the X-ray absorbed QSO were far more likely to be detected suggesting that their host galaxies had very high star formation rates. This result implies that the z~2 X-ray absorbed QSO population are undergoing the transition from the main star forming phase and the QSO phase of a massive galaxy. Follow-up X-ray observations of the absorbed X-ray QSOs found that the X-ray absorption is due to an outflowing, ionized wind which is potentially the feedback invoked by theorists to terminate star formation in the host galaxy. However, no QSOs from the samples, X-ray absorbed or unabsorbed, were detected with SCUBA below z=1.5. We propose SPIRE and PACS observations of a sample of 10 X-ray absorbed QSOs in the 1galaxies as well as their locus within the luminous infrared galaxy population at these redshifts. Our sample is selected such that it will enable us to probe the transition between the star-formation and QSO phases of massive galaxies to lower redshifts than previously and hence allow us to assess the differences (if any) in the relationship between accretion and star formation in massive galaxies as a function of cosmic epoch.

  5. Harnessing High Redshift Beacons: IRS Spectra of Lensed Lyman Break Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siana, Brian; Coppin, Kristen; Ebeling, Harald; Edge, Alastair; Ellis, Richard; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Pettini, Max; Richard, Johan; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Teplitz, Harry

    2007-05-01

    Star-formation at high redshift occurs in two types of galaxies: dusty Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) and UV-bright Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs). In both populations dust absorbs most of the ultraviolet (UV) light from young stars and re-emits the energy in the infrared (IR). Therefore, detailed studies of the dust and the infrared SEDs of these galaxies are critical for understanding these important evolutionary stages in galaxy formation. ULIRGs at z ~ 2-3 are luminous enough for both submm detection and Spitzer IRS spectroscopy, so much has been learned recently about their interstellar medium and IR SEDs. LBGs are too faint to be detected with submm imaging or IRS spectroscopy so little can be discovered about their dust content and IR SEDs prior to JWST and ALMA. Fortunately, there exist a few rare examples of LBGs which are strongly lensed by a foreground cluster or galaxy, and are magnified by factors of 10-30. We can therefore study in detail the infrared properties of this otherwise inaccessible population. Our group will obtain (in an approved Cycle-3 program) IRS spectroscopy of the most famous LBG, cB58, but it is clearly dangerous to draw wide-ranging conclusions about the LBG population based on this single object. We therefore propose for a detailed Spitzer study of the only other known bright lensed LBGs: the 'Cosmic Eye' and the '8-O'clock Arc'. The requested program uses IRS spectroscopy, IRS Peak-Up 16 micron, MIPS 70 micron, and IRAC imaging to fully characterize the gas and dust in the ISM of these galaxies and determine the shape of the IR SEDs. Together, the three lensed sources span the full range of star-formation rates and dust attenuation levels observed in LBGs. Therefore, we can correlate these properties with the infrared SEDs and emission-line properties (PAHs) and apply the correlations when examining the entire LBG population.

  6. Radio Galaxy Zoo: host galaxies and radio morphologies derived from visual inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfield, J. K.; Wong, O. I.; Willett, K. W.; Norris, R. P.; Rudnick, L.; Shabala, S. S.; Simmons, B. D.; Snyder, C.; Garon, A.; Seymour, N.; Middelberg, E.; Andernach, H.; Lintott, C. J.; Jacob, K.; Kapińska, A. D.; Mao, M. Y.; Masters, K. L.; Jarvis, M. J.; Schawinski, K.; Paget, E.; Simpson, R.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Bamford, S.; Burchell, T.; Chow, K. E.; Cotter, G.; Fortson, L.; Heywood, I.; Jones, T. W.; Kaviraj, S.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Maksym, W. P.; Polsterer, K.; Borden, K.; Hollow, R. P.; Whyte, L.

    2015-11-01

    We present results from the first 12 months of operation of Radio Galaxy Zoo, which upon completion will enable visual inspection of over 170 000 radio sources to determine the host galaxy of the radio emission and the radio morphology. Radio Galaxy Zoo uses 1.4 GHz radio images from both the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST) and the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) in combination with mid-infrared images at 3.4 μm from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and at 3.6 μm from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We present the early analysis of the WISE mid-infrared colours of the host galaxies. For images in which there is >75 per cent consensus among the Radio Galaxy Zoo cross-identifications, the project participants are as effective as the science experts at identifying the host galaxies. The majority of the identified host galaxies reside in the mid-infrared colour space dominated by elliptical galaxies, quasi-stellar objects and luminous infrared radio galaxies. We also find a distinct population of Radio Galaxy Zoo host galaxies residing in a redder mid-infrared colour space consisting of star-forming galaxies and/or dust-enhanced non-star-forming galaxies consistent with a scenario of merger-driven active galactic nuclei (AGN) formation. The completion of the full Radio Galaxy Zoo project will measure the relative populations of these hosts as a function of radio morphology and power while providing an avenue for the identification of rare and extreme radio structures. Currently, we are investigating candidates for radio galaxies with extreme morphologies, such as giant radio galaxies, late-type host galaxies with extended radio emission and hybrid morphology radio sources.

  7. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; Eisenhardt, P.; Fowler, J.; Koribalski, B.; Lake, S.; Neill, James D.; Seibert, M.; Stanford, S.; Wright, E.

    2012-01-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  8. On the connection between the metal-enriched intergalactic medium and galaxies: an O VI-galaxy cross-correlation study at z < 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Charles W.; Morris, Simon L.; Tejos, Nicolas; Crighton, Neil H. M.; Perry, Robert; Fumagalli, Michele; Bielby, Rich; Theuns, Tom; Schaye, Joop; Shanks, Tom; Liske, Jochen; Gunawardhana, Madusha L. P.; Bartle, Stephanie

    2016-07-01

    We present new results on the auto- and cross-correlation functions of galaxies and O VI absorbers in a ˜18 Gpc3 comoving volume at z < 1. We use a sample of 51 296 galaxies and 140 O VI absorbers in the column density range 13 ≲ log N ≲ 15 to measure two-point correlation functions in the two dimensions transverse and orthogonal to the line of sight ξ(r⊥, r∥). We furthermore infer the corresponding `real-space' correlation functions, ξ(r), by projecting ξ(r⊥, r∥) along r∥, and assuming a power-law form, ξ(r) = (r/r0)-γ. Comparing the results from the absorber-galaxy cross-correlation function, ξag, the galaxy autocorrelation function, ξgg, and the absorber autocorrelation function, ξaa, we constrain the statistical connection between galaxies and the metal-enriched intergalactic medium as a function of star formation activity. We also compare these results to predictions from the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation and find a reasonable agreement. We find that: (i) O VI absorbers show very little velocity dispersion with respect to galaxies on ˜ Mpc scales, likely ≲100 km s-1; (ii) O VI absorbers are less clustered, and potentially more extended around galaxies than galaxies are around themselves; (iii) on ≳100 kpc scales, the likelihood of finding O VI absorbers around star-forming galaxies is similar to the likelihood of finding O VI absorbers around non-star-forming galaxies; and (iv) O VI absorbers are either not ubiquitous to galaxies in our sample, or their distribution around them is patchy on scales ≳100 kpc (or both), at least for the column densities at which most are currently detected.

  9. Galaxy masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courteau, Stéphane; Cappellari, Michele; de Jong, Roelof S.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Emsellem, Eric; Hoekstra, Henk; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Mamon, Gary A.; Maraston, Claudia; Treu, Tommaso; Widrow, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy masses play a fundamental role in our understanding of structure formation models. This review addresses the variety and reliability of mass estimators that pertain to stars, gas, and dark matter. The different sections on masses from stellar populations, dynamical masses of gas-rich and gas-poor galaxies, with some attention paid to our Milky Way, and masses from weak and strong lensing methods all provide review material on galaxy masses in a self-consistent manner.

  10. HST/VLA Imaging of a Possible Tidal Dwarf Galaxy in the Southern Arm of the Antennae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saviane, I.; Rich, R. M.; Hibbard, J. E.

    2000-12-01

    We present photometry of the star formation regions in a possible dwarf spheroidal galaxy at the end of the Southwest tail of NGC 4038/9 (the ``Antennae''). This object probably formed in situ from gas ejected during the merger, and may evolved to be a gravitationally bound, free floating galaxy. Our photometry obtained using WFPC2 on board HST reaches to V=28 and clearly shows evidence for young (few Myr old) stellar populations, with OB stars but no obvious massive star clusters. We compare the location of the star forming regions with HI observed at the VLA. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract No. NAS5-26555. Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant number GO-6669 from the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  11. Warm Absorber Diagnostics of AGN Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallman, Timothy

    Warm absorbers and related phenomena are observable manifestations of outflows or winds from active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have great potential value. Understanding AGN outflows is important for explaining the mass budgets of the central accreting black hole, and also for understanding feedback and the apparent co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. In the X-ray band warm absorbers are observed as photoelectric absorption and resonance line scattering features in the 0.5-10 keV energy band; the UV band also shows resonance line absorption. Warm absorbers are common in low luminosity AGN and they have been extensively studied observationally. They may play an important role in AGN feedback, regulating the net accretion onto the black hole and providing mechanical energy to the surroundings. However, fundamental properties of the warm absorbers are not known: What is the mechanism which drives the outflow?; what is the gas density in the flow and the geometrical distribution of the outflow?; what is the explanation for the apparent relation between warm absorbers and the surprising quasi-relativistic 'ultrafast outflows' (UFOs)? We propose a focused set of model calculations that are aimed at synthesizing observable properties of warm absorber flows and associated quantities. These will be used to explore various scenarios for warm absorber dynamics in order to answer the questions in the previous paragraph. The guiding principle will be to examine as wide a range as possible of warm absorber driving mechanisms, geometry and other properties, but with as careful consideration as possible to physical consistency. We will build on our previous work, which was a systematic campaign for testing important class of scenarios for driving the outflows. We have developed a set of tools that are unique and well suited for dynamical calculations including radiation in this context. We also have state-of-the-art tools for generating synthetic spectra, which are

  12. Starburst galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weedman, Daniel W.

    1987-01-01

    The infrared properties of star-forming galaxies, primarily as determined by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), are compared to X-ray, optical, and radio properties. Luminosity functions are reviewed and combined with those derived from optically discovered samples using 487 Markarian galaxies with redshifts and published IRAS 60 micron fluxes, and 1074 such galaxies in the Center for Astrophysics redshift survey. It is found that the majority of infrared galaxies which could be detected are low luminosity sources already known from the optical samples, but non-infrared surveys have found only a very small fraction of the highest luminosity sources. Distributions of infrared to optical fluxes and available spectra indicate that the majority of IRAS-selected galaxies are starburst galaxies. Having a census of starburst galaxies and associated dust allow severl important global calculations. The source counts are predicted as a function of flux limits for both infrared and radio fluxes. These galaxies are found to be important radio sources at faint flux limits. Taking the integrated flux to z = 3 indicates that such galaxies are a significant component of the diffuse X-ray background, and could be the the dominant component depending on the nature of the X-ray spectra and source evolution.

  13. Intermediate-redshift galaxy halos - Results from QSO absorption lines

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzetta, K.M.; Bowen, D. Royal Greenwich Observatory, Cambridge )

    1990-07-01

    For a sample of Mg II-selected QSO absorption-line systems for which the absorbing galaxies have been successfully identified, the rest-frame equivalent widths of the Mg II 2796-A absorption lines are examined as a function of the known impact parameters between the background QSOs and the absorbing galaxies. There appears to exist a relationship between the equivalent widths and the impact parameters, in the sense that larger equivalent widths occur at smaller impact parameters. No trend of the doublet ratio is found with impact parameter, and neither the equivalent widths nor the doublet ratios are correlated with the absolute luminosities or redshifts of the absorbing galaxies. These results apparently indicate that the main factor that determines the equivalent width of a particular absorption system is the impact parameter between the background QSO and the absorbing galaxy. 32 refs.

  14. The Structure and Stellar Populations of Nuclear Star Clusters in Late-type Spiral Galaxies From HST/WFC3 Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Daniel; Barth, Aaron J.; Seth, Anil; den Brok, Mark; Cappelari, Michele; Greene, Jenny E.; Ho, Luis C.; Neumayer, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Luminous, compact stellar systems known as nuclear clusters (NCs) are commonly found in the centers of galaxies across the entire Hubble sequence. We present a detailed analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) structure of of ten of the nearest and brightest NCs residing in late-type spiral galaxies, using imaging data from Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 in seven bands that span the near-ultraviolet to the near-infrared. The intrinsic shapes and sizes of the NCs, disentangled from the effects of point spread function (PSF) blurring, were measured by fitting PSF convolved, 2D surface brightness profiles to each image using GALFIT. The clusters exhibit a wide range of structural properties, with F814W absolute magnitudes that range from -11.2 mag to -15.1 mag and F814W effective radii that range from 1.4 to 8.3 pc. For six of the ten NCs in our sample, we find changes in the effective radius with wavelength, which suggests that many NCs contain radially varying stellar populations. We also find a general trend of increasing roundness of the NCs at longer wavelengths, suggesting that the youngest stars in NCs typically form in disks.The stellar populations of the clusters were studied by comparing their observed colors to simple stellar population (SSP) models. In color-color diagrams spanning the near-UV through the near-IR, most of the clusters lie far from single-burst evolutionary tracks, showing evidence for complex star formation histories. Most of the NCs have integrated colors consistent with the presence of both an old population (> 1 Gyr) and a young population (˜100-300 Myr). The wide wavelength coverage of our data provides a sensitivity to populations with a mix of ages that would not be possible to achieve with imaging in optical bands only.

  15. Midsummer's Dream Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-08-01

    How does the Galaxy in which we live look like? It is almost certain that we will never be able to send a probe out of our Milky Way to take a snapshot, in the same way as the first satellites could do to give us striking images of planet Earth. But astronomers do not need this to imagine what our bigger home resembles. And they have a pretty good idea of it. The Milky Way with its several hundreds of billion stars is thought to be a relatively flat disc - 100,000 light-year across [1] - with a central bulge lying in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius (The Archer) and six spiral arms. The Milky Way has most probably also a central bar made of young, bright stars. If we can't take pictures of the Milky Way, we may photograph others galaxies which astronomers think look similar to it. The two galaxies presented here are just two magnificient examples of barred spiral galaxies. One - Messier 83 - is seen face-on, and the other - NGC 4565 - appears edge-on. Together, they give us a nice idea of how the Milky Way may appear from outer space. These images are based on data obtained with the twin FORS1 and FORS2 (FOcal Reducer and Spectrograph) instruments attached to two ESO's 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of the Very Large Telescope Array located on Cerro Paranal. The data were extracted from the ESO Science Archive Facility, which contains approximately 50 Terabytes [2] of scientific data and is, since April 1, 2005, open to the worldwide community. These invaluable data have already led to the publication of more than 1000 scientific papers. They also contains many nice examples of beautiful astronomical objects which could be the theme of as many midsummer's dreams. NGC 4565 The first galaxy pictured here is NGC 4565 [3], which for obvious reasons is also called the Needle Galaxy. First spotted in 1785 by Uranus' discoverer, Sir William Herschel (1738-1822), this is one of the most famous example of an edge-on spiral galaxy and is located some 30 million light

  16. Ionization processes in a local analogue of distant clumpy galaxies: VLT MUSE IFU spectroscopy and FORS deep images of the TDG NGC 5291N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fensch, J.; Duc, P.-A.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Boquien, M.; Zackrisson, E.

    2016-01-01

    Context. We present Integral Field Unit (IFU) observations with MUSE and deep imaging with FORS of a dwarf galaxy recently formed within the giant collisional HI ring surrounding NGC 5291. This Tidal Dwarf Galaxy (TDG) -like object has the characteristics of typical z = 1-2 gas-rich spiral galaxies: a high gas fraction, a rather turbulent clumpy interstellar medium, the absence of an old stellar population, and a moderate metallicity and star formation efficiency. Aims: The MUSE spectra allow us to determine the physical conditions within the various complex substructures revealed by the deep optical images and to scrutinize the ionization processes at play in this specific medium at unprecedented spatial resolution. Methods: Starburst age, extinction, and metallicity maps of the TDG and the surrounding regions were determined using the strong emission lines Hβ, [OIII], [OI], [NII], Hα, and [SII] combined with empirical diagnostics. Different ionization mechanisms were distinguished using BPT-like diagrams and shock plus photoionization models. Results: In general, the physical conditions within the star-forming regions are homogeneous, in particular with a uniform half-solar oxygen abundance. On small scales, the derived extinction map shows narrow dust lanes. Regions with atypically strong [OI] emission line immediately surround the TDG. The [OI]/ Hα ratio cannot be easily accounted for by the photoionization by young stars or shock models. At greater distances from the main star-foming clumps, a faint diffuse blue continuum emission is observed, both with the deep FORS images and the MUSE data. It does not have a clear counterpart in the UV regime probed by GALEX. A stacked spectrum towards this region does not exhibit any emission line, excluding faint levels of star formation, or stellar absorption lines that might have revealed the presence of old stars. Several hypotheses are discussed for the origin of these intriguing features. Based on observations

  17. Gravitational lens models based on submillimeter array imaging of Herschel -selected strongly lensed sub-millimeter galaxies at z > 1.5

    SciTech Connect

    Bussmann, R. S.; Gurwell, M. A.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Amber, S.; Calanog, J.; De Bernardis, F.; Wardlow, J.; Dannerbauer, H.; Harris, A. I.; Krips, M.; Lapi, A.; Maiolino, R.; Omont, A.; Riechers, D.; Baker, A. J.; Birkinshaw, M.; Bock, J.; and others

    2013-12-10

    Strong gravitational lenses are now being routinely discovered in wide-field surveys at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths. We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) high-spatial resolution imaging and Gemini-South and Multiple Mirror Telescope optical spectroscopy of strong lens candidates discovered in the two widest extragalactic surveys conducted by the Herschel Space Observatory: the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). From a sample of 30 Herschel sources with S {sub 500} > 100 mJy, 21 are strongly lensed (i.e., multiply imaged), 4 are moderately lensed (i.e., singly imaged), and the remainder require additional data to determine their lensing status. We apply a visibility-plane lens modeling technique to the SMA data to recover information about the masses of the lenses as well as the intrinsic (i.e., unlensed) sizes (r {sub half}) and far-infrared luminosities (L {sub FIR}) of the lensed submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). The sample of lenses comprises primarily isolated massive galaxies, but includes some groups and clusters as well. Several of the lenses are located at z {sub lens} > 0.7, a redshift regime that is inaccessible to lens searches based on Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopy. The lensed SMGs are amplified by factors that are significantly below statistical model predictions given the 500 μm flux densities of our sample. We speculate that this may reflect a deficiency in our understanding of the intrinsic sizes and luminosities of the brightest SMGs. The lensed SMGs span nearly one decade in L {sub FIR} (median L {sub FIR} = 7.9 × 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}) and two decades in FIR luminosity surface density (median Σ{sub FIR} = 6.0 × 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉} kpc{sup –2}). The strong lenses in this sample and others identified via (sub-)mm surveys will provide a wealth of information regarding the astrophysics of galaxy formation and evolution over a wide range in redshift.

  18. Structural Properties of Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taehyun; Gadotti, D. A.; Sheth, K.; Lee, M.; S4G Team

    2014-01-01

    We have performed two-dimensional multicomponent decomposition of 144 local barred spiral galaxies using 3.6 micron images from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. Our model fit includes up to four components (bulge, disk, bar, and a point source) and, most importantly, takes into account disk breaks. We present that ignoring the disk break and using a single disk scale length in the model fit for Type II (down- bending) disk galaxies can lead to differences of 40% in the disk scale length, 10% in bulge-to-total luminosity ratio (B/T), and 25% in bar-to-total luminosity ratios. We show that for galaxies with B/T > 0.1, the break radius to bar radius, r_br/R_bar, varies between 1 and 3, but as a function of B/T the ratio remains roughly constant. This suggests that in bulge-dominated galaxies the disk break is likely related to the outer Lindblad Resonance (OLR) of the bar, and thus the OLR also moves outwards at the same rate as the bar grows. For galaxies with B/T < 0.1, r_br/R_bar, spans a wide range from 1 to 6. This suggests that the mechanism that produces the break in these galaxies may be different from that in galaxies with more massive bulges. Consistent with previous studies, we conclude that disk breaks in galaxies with small bulges may originate from bar resonances that may be also coupled with the spiral arms, or be related to star formation thresholds. We quantifiy shapes of bar radial surface brightness profiles by measuring their Sersic indices and show that bars in higher B/T galaxies have flatter radial surface brightness profile than bulgeless galaxies do. In particular, bulgeless galaxies mostly have bars with steep profiles. We show that the normalized bar length is correlated with B/T, which is consistent with bars growing longer with time.

  19. The role of black holes in galaxy formation and evolution.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, A; Faber, S M; Binney, J; Dekel, A; Kormendy, J; Mushotzky, R; Babul, A; Best, P N; Brüggen, M; Fabian, A C; Frenk, C S; Khalatyan, A; Netzer, H; Mahdavi, A; Silk, J; Steinmetz, M; Wisotzki, L

    2009-07-01

    Virtually all massive galaxies, including our own, host central black holes ranging in mass from millions to billions of solar masses. The growth of these black holes releases vast amounts of energy that powers quasars and other weaker active galactic nuclei. A tiny fraction of this energy, if absorbed by the host galaxy, could halt star formation by heating and ejecting ambient gas. A central question in galaxy evolution is the degree to which this process has caused the decline of star formation in large elliptical galaxies, which typically have little cold gas and few young stars, unlike spiral galaxies. PMID:19587763

  20. Validating a dark galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disney, Michael

    2005-07-01

    VIRGOHI21 is an object detected in the Virgo Cluster HI survey of Davies et al {2004}, with a velocity width typical of a disc galaxy {220 km/s} but which does not appear to have an optical counterpart down to a surface brightness level of 27.5 B mag/sq. arcsec. Altogether, it is the best ever candidate for a Dark Galaxy. We propose to image this object with the ACS through the F814W filter for 9 orbits to see if this object contains a population of individually very faint stars which would be missed by ground-based telescopes.

  1. The Araucaria Project: The Distances to the NGC 247 and WLM Galaxies From Cepheid Variables Discovered in a Wide-Field Imaging Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, A.; Gieren, W.; Pietrzynski, G.

    2009-05-01

    Two different and extensive wide-field imaging surveys for Cepheid variables have been made in the Sculptor Group galaxy NGC 247 and in the Local Group Irregular galaxy WLM. We present the principal results obtained in this surveys in the context of the Araucaria project. We have discovered 60 Cepheids in WLM and 24 Cepheids in NGC 247. Our data define tight period-luminosity relations in V, I and the reddening-free Wesenheit magnitude W_I which are all extremely well fit by the corresponding slopes of the LMC Cepheid PL relation, suggesting no change of the PL relation slope down to a Cepheid metal abundance of about -1.0 dex, in agreement with other recent studies. We derive a true distance modulus to NGC 247 of 27.80+/-0.09 (r) +/-0.06 (s) mag from our data, in good agreement with the earlier 27.9+/-0.1 mag determination of Davidge (2006, ApJ, 641, 822) from TRGB I band magnitude. The true distance modulus to WLM derived from our data was 25.144+/-0.03 (r) +/-0.07 (s), in good agreement with the earlier 24.92+/-0.21determination of Lee, Freedman, & Madore (1993, ApJ, 417, 553) from Cepheid variables. Aditional information is available in The Araucaria Project homepage (http://ezzelino.ifa.hawaii.edu/ bresolin/Araucaria/index.html) and in the series of papers entitled: The Araucaria Project.

  2. Unidirectional perfect absorber.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Wang, P; Song, Z

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices. PMID:27615125

  3. The Most Luminous Object in the Universe: Shrouded Quasar or Proto-Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, Timothy M.

    1999-01-01

    We have used ASCA to observe the IRAS source FSC 10214+4724, which is identified with a galaxy at a redshift of 2.286. When first discovered, it was believed to be the most luminous object in the universe. Subsequent HST images have established that it is gravitationally-lensed by a foreground cluster. It is still a very powerful object, but not extraordinarily so. Observations at other wavebands have not established whether it is a dust-shrouded quasar or a young, massive galaxy in the process of formation. Since quasars are strong emitters of hard X-rays, while proto-galaxies would not be, and since the opacity of gas and dust is relatively small in the energy regime probed by ASCA (3 to 30 keV in the galaxy rest frame), we undertook these observations to search for a heavily shrouded quasar that might be invisible at lower energies. However, the observations did not detect any emission from this object. This either means that the galaxy is in fact powered by a starburst or that the putative quasar is located behind a very high column density of absorbing gas (N_H > 10(exp 25)/sq cm), so that not even hard X-rays are transmitted. A hidden quasar should be visible in reflected light in X-ray data of higher sensitivity. Observations with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory or ESA's XMM are required to settle the matter. No publication resulted from our null result.

  4. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher; Barlow, Thomas; Barnhart, William; Bianchi, Luciana; Blakkolb, Brian K.; Bruno, Dominique; Bushman, Joseph; Byun, Yong-Ik; Chiville, Michael; Conrow, Timothy; Cooke, Brian; Donas, Jose; Fanson, James L.; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Grange, Robert; Griffiths, David; Heckman, Timothy; Lee, James; Jelinsky, Patrick N.; Kim, Sug-Whan; Lee, Siu-Chun; Lee, Young-Wook; Liu, Dankai; Madore, Barry F.; Malina, Roger; Mazer, Alan; McLean, Ryan; Milliard, Bruno; Mitchell, William; Morais, Marco; Morrissey, Patrick F.; Neff, Susan G.; Raison, Frederic; Randall, David; Rich, Michael; Schiminovich, David; Schmitigal, Wes; Sen, Amit; Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Small, Todd; Stock, Joseph M.; Surber, Frank; Szalay, Alexander; Vaughan, Arthur H.; Weigand, Timothy; Welsh, Barry Y.; Wu, Patrick; Wyder, Ted; Xu, C. Kevin; Zsoldas, Jennifer

    2003-02-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), a NASA Small Explorer Mission planned for launch in Fall 2002, will perform the first Space Ultraviolet sky survey. Five imaging surveys in each of two bands (1350-1750Å and 1750-2800Å) will range from an all-sky survey (limit mAB~20-21) to an ultra-deep survey of 4 square degrees (limit mAB~26). Three spectroscopic grism surveys (R=100-300) will be performed with various depths (mAB~20-25) and sky coverage (100 to 2 square degrees) over the 1350-2800Å band. The instrument includes a 50 cm modified Ritchey-Chrétien telescope, a dichroic beam splitter and astigmatism corrector, two large sealed tube microchannel plate detectors to simultaneously cover the two bands and the 1.2 degree field of view. A rotating wheel provides either imaging or grism spectroscopy with transmitting optics. We will use the measured UV properties of local galaxies, along with corollary observations, to calibrate the UV-global star formation rate relationship in galaxies. We will apply this calibration to distant galaxies discovered in the deep imaging and spectroscopic surveys to map the history of star formation in the universe over the red shift range zero to two. The GALEX mission will include an Associate Investigator program for additional observations and supporting data analysis. This will support a wide variety of investigations made possible by the first UV sky survey.

  5. Searches for High Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, R.

    In recent years, the technique of Lyman break imaging has proven very effective at identifying large numbers of galaxies at high redshifts through deep multicolour imaging (Steidel et al 1996b; Steidel et al 1999). The combination of an intrinsic break in the spectra of star-forming galaxies below the rest-frame wavelength of Lyman-alpha and attenuation by intervening HI systems on the line of sight to high redshifts makes for a pronounced drop in the flux of high redshift galaxies between 912 Å and 1216 Å in the rest-frame. At redshifts z> 3, the break is shifted sufficiently far into the optical window accessible to ground-based telescopes for galaxies at such redshift to be distinguished from the foreground galaxy population through photometry alone. Through modelling of the expected colours of a wide range of galaxy types, ages and redshifts, taking into account the effects of reddening (Calzetti, Kinney and Storchi-Bergmann 1994) and intergalactic attenuation (Madau 1995), we assess the likely colours of high redshift galaxies and determine the redshift ranges most effectively probed by the imaging filters. We obtain multicolour imaging of the fields of four high redshift radio galaxies, covering around 40 arcmin2 in each, allowing us to attempt to find ordinary galaxies at similar redshifts to the central radio galaxies through photometric colour selection techniques. Some idea as to the effectiveness comes through additional colour and morphological information obtained from high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images and from data taken in the near infra-red. While we do not have spectroscopic evidence for the redshifts of our candidates, given the available evidence we conclude that the number densities of Lyman break galaxies in the radio galaxy fields are in broad agreement with the data of Steidel et al (1999). Finally, we assess the prospects for future studies of the high redshift Universe, in particular the potential of the Oxford Deep Wide Field

  6. HUBBLE'S INFRARED GALAXY GALLERY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers have used the NASA Hubble Space Telescope to produce an infrared 'photo essay' of spiral galaxies. By penetrating the dust clouds swirling around the centers of these galaxies, the telescope's infrared vision is offering fresh views of star birth. These six images, taken with the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer, showcase different views of spiral galaxies, from a face-on image of an entire galaxy to a close-up of a core. The top row shows spirals at diverse angles, from face-on, (left); to slightly tilted, (center); to edge-on, (right). The bottom row shows close-ups of the hubs of three galaxies. In these images, red corresponds to glowing hydrogen, the raw material for star birth. The red knots outlining the curving spiral arms in NGC 5653 and NGC 3593, for example, pinpoint rich star-forming regions where the surrounding hydrogen gas is heated by intense ultraviolet radiation from young, massive stars. In visible light, many of these regions can be hidden from view by the clouds of gas and dust in which they were born. The glowing hydrogen found inside the cores of these galaxies, as in NGC 6946, may be due to star birth; radiation from active galactic nuclei (AGN), which are powered by massive black holes; or a combination of both. White is light from middle-age stars. Clusters of stars appear as white dots, as in NGC 2903. The galaxy cores are mostly white because of their dense concentration of stars. The dark material seen in these images is dust. These galaxies are part of a Hubble census of about 100 spiral galaxies. Astronomers at Space Telescope Science Institute took these images to fill gaps in the scheduling of a campaign using the NICMOS-3 camera. The data were non-proprietary, and were made available to the entire astronomical community. Filters: Three filters were used: red, blue, and green. Red represents emission at the Paschen Alpha line (light from glowing hydrogen) at a wavelength of 1.87 microns. Blue shows the

  7. Multiple-layer Radiation Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Robert M. L.; Baker, Bonnie Sue

    A structure is discussed for absorbing incident radiation, either electromagnetic (EM) or sound. Such a surface structure is needed, for example, in a highly sensitive high-frequency gravitational wave or HFGW detector such as the Li-Baker. The multi-layer absorber, which is discussed, is constructed with metamaterial [MM] layer or layers on top. This MM is configured for a specific EM or sound radiation frequency band, which absorbs incident EM or sound radiation without reflection. Below these top MM layers is a substrate of conventional EM-radiation absorbing or acoustical absorbing reflective material, such as an array of pyramidal foam absorbers. Incident radiation is partially absorbed by the MM layer or layers, and then it is more absorbed by the lower absorbing and reflecting substrate. The remaining reflected radiation is even further absorbed by the MM layers on its "way out_ so that essentially all of the incident radiation is absorbed _ a nearly perfect black-body absorber. In a HFGW detector a substrate, such as foam absorbers, may outgas into a high vacuum and reduce the capability of the vacuum-producing equipment, however, the layers above this lowest substrate will seal the absorbing and reflecting substrate from any external vacuum. The layers also serve to seal the absorbing material against air or water flow past the surfaces of aircraft, watercraft or submarines. Other applications for such a multiple-level radiation absorber include stealth aircraft, missiles and submarines.

  8. Closing in on a Short-Hard Burst Progenitor: Constraints From Early-Time Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy of a Possible Host Galaxy of GRB 050509b

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, Joshua S.; Prochaska, J.X.; Pooley, D.; Blake, C.W.; Foley, R.J.; Jha, S.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Granot, J.; Filippenko, A.V.; Sigurdsson, S.; Barth, A.J.; Chen, H.-W.; Cooper, M.C.; Falco, E.E.; Gal, R.R.; Gerke, B.F.; Gladders, M.D.; Greene, J.E.; Hennanwi, J.; Ho, L.C.; Hurley, K.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /Lick Observ. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /UC, Irvine /MIT, MKI /UC, Davis /UC, Berkeley /Carnegie Inst. Observ. /UC, Berkeley, Space Sci. Dept. /Michigan U. /LBL, Berkeley /Spitzer Space Telescope

    2005-06-07

    The localization of the short-duration, hard-spectrum gamma-ray burst GRB050509b by the Swift satellite was a watershed event. Never before had a member of this mysterious subclass of classic GRBs been rapidly and precisely positioned in a sky accessible to the bevy of ground-based follow-up facilities. Thanks to the nearly immediate relay of the GRB position by Swift, we began imaging the GRB field 8 minutes after the burst and have continued during the 8 days since. Though the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) discovered an X-ray afterglow of GRB050509b, the first ever of a short-hard burst, thus far no convincing optical/infrared candidate afterglow or supernova has been found for the object. We present a re-analysis of the XRT afterglow and find an absolute position of R.A. = 12h36m13.59s, Decl. = +28{sup o}59'04.9'' (J2000), with a 1{sigma} uncertainty of 3.68'' in R.A., 3.52'' in Decl.; this is about 4'' to the west of the XRT position reported previously. Close to this position is a bright elliptical galaxy with redshift z = 0.2248 {+-} 0.0002, about 1' from the center of a rich cluster of galaxies. This cluster has detectable diffuse emission, with a temperature of kT = 5.25{sub -1.68}{sup +3.36} keV. We also find several ({approx}11) much fainter galaxies consistent with the XRT position from deep Keck imaging and have obtained Gemini spectra of several of these sources. Nevertheless we argue, based on positional coincidences, that the GRB and the bright elliptical are likely to be physically related. We thus have discovered reasonable evidence that at least some short-duration, hard-spectra GRBs are at cosmological distances. We also explore the connection of the properties of the burst and the afterglow, finding that GRB050509b was underluminous in both of these relative to long-duration GRBs. However, we also demonstrate that the ratio of the blast-wave energy to the {gamma}-ray energy is consistent with that of long-duration GRBs. We thus find plausible

  9. On the connection between the metal-enriched intergalactic medium and galaxies: an O VI-galaxy cross-correlation study at z < 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Charles W.; Morris, Simon L.; Tejos, Nicolas; Crighton, Neil H. M.; Perry, Robert; Fumagalli, Michele; Bielby, Rich; Theuns, Tom; Schaye, Joop; Shanks, Tom; Liske, Jochen; Gunawardhana, Madusha L. P.; Bartle, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    We present new results on the auto- and cross-correlation functions of galaxies and O VI absorbers in a ˜18~Gpc3 comoving volume at z < 1. We use a sample of 51 296 galaxies and 140 O VIabsorbers in the column density range 13 ≲ log N ≲ 15 to measure two-point correlation functions in the two dimensions transverse and orthogonal to the line-of-sight ξ(r⊥, r∥). We furthermore infer the corresponding `real-space' correlation functions, ξ(r), by projecting ξ(r⊥, r∥) along r∥, and assuming a power-law form, ξ(r) = (r/r0)-γ. Comparing the results from the absorber-galaxy cross-correlation function, ξag, the galaxy auto-correlation function, ξgg, and the absorber auto-correlation function, ξaa, we constrain the statistical connection between galaxies and the metal-enriched intergalactic medium as a function of star-formation activity. We also compare these results to predictions from the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation and find a reasonable agreement. We find that: (i) O VI absorbers show very little velocity dispersion with respect to galaxies on ˜ Mpc scales, likely ≲ 100 km s-1; (ii) O VI absorbers are less clustered, and potentially more extended around galaxies than galaxies are around themselves; (iii) On ≳ 100 kpc scales, the likelihood of finding O VI absorbers around star-forming galaxies is similar to the likelihood of finding O VI absorbers around non star-forming galaxies; and (iv) O VI absorbers are either not ubiquitous to galaxies in our sample, or their distribution around them is patchy on scales ≳ 100 kpc (or both), at least for the column densities at which most are currently detected.

  10. FRACTAL DIMENSION OF GALAXY ISOPHOTES

    SciTech Connect

    Thanki, Sandip; Rhee, George; Lepp, Stephen E-mail: grhee@physics.unlv.edu

    2009-09-15

    In this paper we investigate the use of the fractal dimension of galaxy isophotes in galaxy classification. We have applied two different methods for determining fractal dimensions to the isophotes of elliptical and spiral galaxies derived from CCD images. We conclude that fractal dimension alone is not a reliable tool but that combined with other parameters in a neural net algorithm the fractal dimension could be of use. In particular, we have used three parameters to segregate the ellipticals and lenticulars from the spiral galaxies in our sample. These three parameters are the correlation fractal dimension D {sub corr}, the difference between the correlation fractal dimension and the capacity fractal dimension D {sub corr} - D {sub cap}, and, thirdly, the B - V color of the galaxy.

  11. Hubble Imaging of the Ionizing Radiation from a Star-forming Galaxy at Z=3.2 with fesc>50%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanzella, E.; de Barros, S.; Vasei, K.; Alavi, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Siana, B.; Grazian, A.; Hasinger, G.; Suh, H.; Cappelluti, N.; Vito, F.; Amorin, R.; Balestra, I.; Brusa, M.; Calura, F.; Castellano, M.; Comastri, A.; Fontana, A.; Gilli, R.; Mignoli, M.; Pentericci, L.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.

    2016-07-01

    Star-forming galaxies are considered to be the leading candidate sources dominating cosmic reionization at z\\gt 7: the search for analogs at moderate redshift showing Lyman continuum (LyC) leakage is currently an active line of research. We have observed a star-forming galaxy at z = 3.2 with Hubble/WFC3 in the F336W filter, corresponding to the 730–890 Å rest-frame, and detected LyC emission. This galaxy is very compact and also has a large Oxygen ratio [{{O}} {{III}}]λ 5007/[{{O}} {{II}}]λ 3727 (≳ 10). No nuclear activity is revealed from optical/near-infrared spectroscopy and deep multi-band photometry (including the 6 Ms X-ray Chandra observations). The measured escape fraction of ionizing radiation spans the range 50%–100%, depending on the intergalactic medium (IGM) attenuation. The LyC emission is measured at {m}{{F}336{{W}}}=27.57+/- 0.11 (with signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) = 10) and is spatially unresolved, with an effective radius of {R}e\\lt 200 pc. Predictions from photoionization and radiative transfer models are in line with the properties reported here, indicating that stellar winds and supernova explosions in a nucleated star-forming region can blow cavities generating density-bounded conditions compatible to optically thin media. Irrespective of the nature of the ionizing radiation, spectral signatures of these sources over the entire electromagnetic spectrum are of central importance for their identification during the epoch of reionization when the LyC is unobservable. Intriguingly, the Spitzer/IRAC photometric signature of intense rest-frame optical emissions ([O iii]λλ4959,5007 + Hβ) recently observed at z≃ 7.5{--}8.5 is similar to what is observed in this galaxy. Only the James Webb Space Telescope will measure optical line ratios at z\\gt 7, allowing a direct comparison with the lower-redshift LyC emitters, such as that reported here. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space

  12. DEEP SPITZER 24 {mu}m COSMOS IMAGING. I. THE EVOLUTION OF LUMINOUS DUSTY GALAXIES-CONFRONTING THE MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Le Floc'h, Emeric; Ilbert, Olivier; Riguccini, Laurie; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Sanders, David; Aussel, Herve; Feruglio, Chiara; Frayer, David T.; Salvato, Mara; Capak, Peter; Scoville, Nick; Arnouts, Stephane; Surace, Jason; Sheth, Kartik; Yan Lin; Rodighiero, Giulia; Heinis, Sebastien; McCracken, Henry Joy; Thompson, David; Koekemoer, Anton

    2009-09-20

    We present the first results obtained from the identification of {approx}30,000 sources in the Spitzer/24 {mu}m observations of the COSMOS field at S{sub 24{mu}m} {approx}> 80 {mu}Jy. Using accurate photometric redshifts ({sigma} {sub z} {approx} 0.12 at z {approx} 2 for 24 {mu}m sources with i {sup +} {approx}< 25 mag AB) and simple extrapolations of the number counts at faint fluxes, we resolve with unprecedented detail the buildup of the mid-infrared background across cosmic ages. We find that {approx}50% and {approx}80% of the 24 {mu}m background intensity originate from galaxies at z {approx}< 1 and z {approx}< 2, respectively, supporting the scenario where highly obscured sources at very high redshifts (z {approx}> 2) contribute only marginally to the cosmic infrared background. Assuming flux-limited selections at optical wavelengths, we also find that the fraction of i {sup +}-band sources with 24 {mu}m detection strongly increases up to z {approx} 2 as a consequence of the rapid evolution that star-forming galaxies have undergone with look-back time. Nonetheless, this rising trend shows a clear break at z {approx} 1.3, probably due to k-correction effects implied by the complexity of spectral energy distributions in the mid-infrared. Finally, we compare our results with the predictions from different models of galaxy formation. We note that semianalytical formalisms currently fail to reproduce the redshift distributions observed at 24 {mu}m. Furthermore, the simulated galaxies at S {sub 24{mu}m} > 80 {mu}Jy exhibit R-K colors much bluer than observed and the predicted K-band fluxes are systematically underestimated at z {approx}> 0.5. Unless these discrepancies mainly result from an incorrect treatment of extinction in the models they may reflect an underestimate of the predicted density of high-redshift massive sources with strong ongoing star formation, which would point to more fundamental processes and/or parameters (e.g., initial mass function

  13. HUBBLE'S 100,000TH EXPOSURE CAPTURES IMAGE OF DISTANT QUASAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope achieved its 100,000th exposure June 22 with a snapshot of a quasar that is about 9 billion light-years from Earth. The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 clicked this image of the quasar, the bright object in the center of the photo. The fainter object just above it is an elliptical galaxy. Although the two objects appear to be close to each other, they are actually separated by about 2 billion light-years. Located about 7 billion light-years away, the galaxy is almost directly in front of the quasar. Astronomer Charles Steidel of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., indirectly discovered the galaxy when he examined the quasar's light, which contained information about the galaxy's chemical composition. The reason, Steidel found, was that the galaxy was absorbing the light at certain frequencies. The astronomer is examining other background quasars to determine which kinds of galaxies absorb light at the same frequencies. Steidel also was somewhat surprised to discover that the galaxy is an elliptical, rather than a spiral. Elliptical galaxies are generally believed to contain very little gas. However, this elliptical has a gaseous 'halo' and contains no visible stars. Part of the halo is directly in front of the quasar. The bright object to the right of the quasar is a foreground star. The quasar and star are separated by billions of light-years. The quasar looks as bright as the star because it produces a tremendous amount of light from a compact source. The 'disturbed-looking' double spiral galaxy above the quasar also is in the foreground. Credit: Charles Steidel (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA) and NASA. Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from ftp.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  14. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Shaber, Eric L.; DuPont, John N.; Robino, Charles V.; Williams, David B.

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  15. Nuclear sources in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, M.

    In the local Universe most massive black holes at the centers of galaxies are not luminous quasars. Is this because (1) they are starved of gas, (2) they accrete without emitting radiation, (3) they refuse to eat, ejecting the incoming material, or (4) they are storing up matter in an accretion disk to feast later?With Chandra ACIS we have imaged a pilot sample of 6 nearby (D 30 Mpc) elliptical galaxies chosen to be especially quiescent based on the careful optical spectroscopy of Ho, measured black hole masses (Mbh > 10(7)Msol), and with existing X-ray upper limits (Lx 10(40)erg/s) implying far sub-Eddington accretion. In these galaxies we can measure, or limit, the diffuse hot interstellar medium, and so constrain the Bondi accretion rate.Faint X-ray emission is detected at or around the nucleus in each galaxy. The morphology of these weak X-ray sources is complex. The X-ray colors of the sources can be determined, and a moderate quality spectrum for one was obtained. We discuss these results against the possible explanations of black hole quiescence.On the other hand, a few percent of all galaxies shows evidence for nuclear activity and a brief review of the high energy emission from Active Galactic Nuclei is given.

  16. Perfect terahertz absorber using fishnet based metafilm

    SciTech Connect

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Shchegolkov, Dmitry Yu; Chen, Houtong; Taylor, Antoinette; Smirnova, E I; O' Hara, John F

    2009-01-01

    We present a perfect terahertz (THz) absorber working for a broad-angle of incidence. The two fold symmetry of rectangular fishnet structure allows either complete absorption or mirror like reflection depending on the polarization of incident the THz beam. Metamaterials enable the ability to control the electromagnetic wave in a unique fashion by designing the permittivity or permeability of composite materials with desired values. Although the initial idea of metamaterials was to obtain a negative index medium, however, the evolution of metamaterials (MMs) offers a variety of practically applicable devices for controlling electromagnetic wave such as tunable filters, modulators, phase shifters, compact antenna, absorbers, etc. Terahertz regime, a crucial domain of the electromagnetic wave, is suffering from the scarcity of the efficient devices and might take the advantage of metamaterials. Here, we demonstrate design, fabrication, and characterization of a terahertz absorber based on a simple fishnet metallic film separated from a ground mirror plane by a dielectric spacer. Such absorbers are in particular important for bolometric terahertz detectors, high sensitivity imaging, and terahertz anechoic chambers. Recently, split-ring-resonators (SRR) have been employed for metamaterial-based absorbers at microwave and THz frequencies. The experimental demonstration reveals that such absorbers have absorptivity close to unity at resonance f