Sample records for absorption band intensities

  1. Measurement of intensities of bands in the electronic absorption spectrum of chlorine dioxide

    E-print Network

    Rapp, Thomas Louis

    1955-01-01

    are listed together with tne predictions made by vibrational analysis. 23 CALCULATION GF hlOLAH EXTINCTION COEFFICIENTS ' In order to determine 2', e&+~& for a given band, we refer to Table I. This table is a summary of data taken from one photographic...

  2. The Rovibrational Intensities of Five Absorption Bands of (12)C(16)O2 Between 5218 and 5349/cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, Lawrence P.; Brown, Linda R.; Chackerian, Charles, Jr.; Freedman, Richard S.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Absolute line intensities, band intensities, and Herman-Wallis parameters were measured for the (01(sup 1)2)(sub I) from (00(sup 0)0)(sub I) perpendicular band of (12)C(16)O2 centered at 5315/cm, along with the three nearby associated hot bands: (10(sup 0)2)(sub II) from (01(sup 1)0)(sub I) at 5248/cm, (02(sup 2))(sub I) from (01(sup 1)0)(sub I) at 5291/cm, and (10(sup 0)2)(sub I) from (01(sup 1)0)(sub I) at 5349/cm. The nearby parallel hot band (30(sup 0))(sub I) from (10(sup 0)0)(sub II) at 5218/cm was also included in this study.

  3. Intensity formulas for triplet bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budo, A.

    1982-01-01

    Previous work in this area is surveyed and the mathematics involved in determining the quantitative intensity measurements in triplet bands is presented. Explicit expressions for the intensity distribution in the branches of the 3 Sigma-3 Pi and 1 Sigma-3Pi bands valid for all values of the coupling constant Y of the 3 Pi terms are given. The intensity distribution calculated according to the formulas given is compared with measurements of PH, 3 Pi-3 Sigma. Good quantitative agreement is obtained.

  4. Resonance Raman intensity analysis of the excited state proton transfer dynamics of 2-nitrophenol in the charge-transfer band absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Qiong; Wang, Hui-Gang; Zhang, Shu-Qiang; Pei, Ke-Mei; Zheng, Xuming; Lee Phillips, David

    2006-12-01

    Resonance Raman spectra were obtained for 2-nitrophenol in cyclohexane solution with excitation wavelengths in resonance with the charge-transfer (CT) proton transfer band absorption. These spectra indicate that the Franck-Condon region photodissociation dynamics have multidimensional character with motion along more than 15 normal modes: the nominal CCH bend+CC stretch ?12 (1326cm-1), the nominal CCC bend ?23 (564cm-1), the nominal CO stretch+NO stretch+CC stretch ?14 (1250cm-1), the nominal CCH bend+CC stretch+COH bend ?15 (1190cm-1); the nominal CCH bend+CC stretch ?17 (1134cm-1), the nominal CCC bend+CC stretch ?22 (669cm-1), the nominal CCN bend ?27 (290cm-1), the nominal NO2 bend+CC stretch ?21 (820cm-1), the nominal CCO bend+CNO bend ?25 (428cm-1), the nominal CC stretch ?7 (1590cm-1), the nominal NO stretch ?8 (1538cm-1), the nominal CCC bend+NO2 bend ?20 (870cm-1), the nominal CC stretch ?6 (1617cm-1), the nominal COH bend+CC stretch ?11 (1382cm-1), nominal CCH bend+CC stretch ?9 (1472cm-1). A preliminary resonance Raman intensity analysis was done and the results for 2-nitrophenol were compared to previously reported results for nitrobenzene, p-nitroaniline, and 2-hydroxyacetophenone. The authors briefly discuss the differences and similarities in the CT-band absorption excitation of 2-nitrophenol relative to those of nitrobenzene, p-nitroaniline, and 2-hydroxyacetophenone.

  5. Resonance Raman intensity analysis of the excited state proton transfer dynamics of 2-nitrophenol in the charge-transfer band absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yaqiong; Wang Huigang; Zhang Shuqiang; Pei Kemei; Zheng Xuming; Lee Phillips, David [Department of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of ATMMT (MOE), Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-12-07

    Resonance Raman spectra were obtained for 2-nitrophenol in cyclohexane solution with excitation wavelengths in resonance with the charge-transfer (CT) proton transfer band absorption. These spectra indicate that the Franck-Condon region photodissociation dynamics have multidimensional character with motion along more than 15 normal modes: the nominal CCH bend+CC stretch {nu}{sub 12} (1326 cm{sup -1}), the nominal CCC bend {nu}{sub 23} (564 cm{sup -1}), the nominal CO stretch+NO stretch+CC stretch {nu}{sub 14} (1250 cm{sup -1}), the nominal CCH bend+CC stretch+COH bend {nu}{sub 15} (1190 cm{sup -1}); the nominal CCH bend+CC stretch {nu}{sub 17} (1134 cm{sup -1}), the nominal CCC bend+CC stretch {nu}{sub 22} (669 cm{sup -1}), the nominal CCN bend {nu}{sub 27} (290 cm{sup -1}), the nominal NO{sub 2} bend+CC stretch {nu}{sub 21} (820 cm{sup -1}), the nominal CCO bend+CNO bend {nu}{sub 25} (428 cm{sup -1}), the nominal CC stretch {nu}{sub 7} (1590 cm{sup -1}), the nominal NO stretch {nu}{sub 8} (1538 cm{sup -1}), the nominal CCC bend+NO{sub 2} bend {nu}{sub 20} (870 cm{sup -1}), the nominal CC stretch {nu}{sub 6} (1617 cm{sup -1}), the nominal COH bend+CC stretch {nu}{sub 11} (1382 cm{sup -1}), nominal CCH bend+CC stretch {nu}{sub 9} (1472 cm{sup -1}). A preliminary resonance Raman intensity analysis was done and the results for 2-nitrophenol were compared to previously reported results for nitrobenzene, p-nitroaniline, and 2-hydroxyacetophenone. The authors briefly discuss the differences and similarities in the CT-band absorption excitation of 2-nitrophenol relative to those of nitrobenzene, p-nitroaniline, and 2-hydroxyacetophenone.

  6. The Rovibrational Intensities of the (40 deg 1) and (00 deg 0) Pentad Absorption Bands of 12C16O2 Between 7284 and 7921 cm(exp-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, L. P.; Chackerian, C., Jr.; Spencer, N.; Brown, L. R.; Wattson, R. B.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the major constituent of the atmospheres of both Mars and Venus. Correct interpretations of spectra of these atmospheres require accurate knowledge of a substantial number of absorption bands of this gas. This is especially true for Venus; many weak CO2 bands that are insignificant in the earth's atmosphere are prominent absorbers in Venus' hot, dense lower atmosphere. Yet, recent near-infrared spectra of Venus' nightside have discovered emission windows, which occur between CO2 absorption bands, at 4040-4550 cm(exp-1), 5700-5900 cm(exp-1), and several smaller ones between 7500 and 9400 cm(exp-1). This radiation is due to thermal emission from Venus' lower atmosphere, diminished by scattering and absorption within the sulfuric acid clouds on its way to space. Simulations of these data with radiative transfer models can provide improved information on the abundances of a number of constituents of the lower atmosphere (e.g. H2O, CO, HDO, HCl, HF, and OCS) and the optical properties of the clouds, whose spatial variation modulates the brightness of the emissions. However, the accuracy of these retrievals has been limited by insufficient knowledge of the opacity of some of the gas species, including CO2, at the large pathlengths and high temperatures and pressures that exist on Venus. In particular, modeling the emission spectrum did not produce a good fit for the emission window centered at 7830 cm(exp-1). In an ongoing effort to assist analyses of these Venus spectra, we have been making laboratory intensity measurements of several weak bands of CO2 which are significant absorbers in these Venus emission windows. The CO2 bands that are prominent in the 7830 cm(exp-1) region belong to the vibrational sequence 4v1+v3 and associated hot bands. Only 2 of the 5 bands of this sequence have been previously measured. Modeling Venus' emission spectrum in the 7830 cm(exp-1) region had to rely on calculated intensity values for the weak ground state band at 7921 cm-1 and the associated hot bands. Since the calculated intensities of ground state bands are known to have significant uncertainties, we decided to measure this (40 deg 1)I (left arrow) (00 deg 0) band with the Ames 25 meter multiple reflection absorption cell and Fourier transform spectrometer. We also measured the (40 deg 1) (sub IV) (left arrow) (00 deg 0) band at 7460 cm(exp-1), which also had not been previously measured. These measurements are reported in this article, and we also give our reanalysis of the prior measurements of the (40 deg 1) (sub III) (left arrow) (00 deg 0) bands. These measurements provide the basis for improving calculated intensities for related hot bands as well as simulations of Venus' spectrum.

  7. Atmospheric Solar Heating in Minor Absorption Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah

    1998-01-01

    Solar radiation is the primary source of energy driving atmospheric and oceanic circulations. Concerned with the huge computing time required for computing radiative transfer in weather and climate models, solar heating in minor absorption bands has often been neglected. The individual contributions of these minor bands to the atmospheric heating is small, but collectively they are not negligible. The solar heating in minor bands includes the absorption due to water vapor in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) spectral region from 14284/cm to 25000/cm, the ozone absorption and Rayleigh scattering in the near infrared, as well as the O2 and CO2 absorption in a number of weak bands. Detailed high spectral- and angular-resolution calculations show that the total effect of these minor absorption is to enhance the atmospheric solar heating by approximately 10%. Depending upon the strength of the absorption and the overlapping among gaseous absorption, different approaches are applied to parameterize these minor absorption. The parameterizations are accurate and require little extra time for computing radiative fluxes. They have been efficiently implemented in the various atmospheric models at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, including cloud ensemble, mesoscale, and climate models.

  8. Photonic band-edge-induced enhancement in absorption and emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummer, Karikkuzhi Variyath; Vijaya, Ramarao

    2015-01-01

    An enhancement in photonic band-edge-induced absorption and emission from rhodamine-B dye doped polystyrene pseudo gap photonic crystals is studied. The band-edge-induced enhancement in absorption is achieved by selecting the incident angle of the excitation beam so that the absorption spectrum of the emitter overlaps the photonic band edge. The band-edge-induced enhancement in emission, on the other hand, is possible with and without an enhancement in band-edge-induced absorption, depending on the collection angle of emission. Through a simple set of measurements with suitably chosen angles for excitation and emission, we achieve a maximum enhancement of 70% in emission intensity with band-edge-induced effects over and above the intrinsic emission in the case of self-assembled opals. This is a comprehensive effort to interpret tunable lasing in opals as well as to predict the wavelength of lasing arising as a result of band-edge-induced distributed feedback effects.

  9. Measurement of the sound absorption coefficient of materials with a new sound intensity technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelo Farina; Anna Torelli

    The paper presents a completely new measurement technique of the sound absorption properties of materials, based on the measurements of active intensity and sound energy density. It allows one to measure the absorption coefficient with a wide band excitation, to use frequency bands of any width and to make measurements both inside a tube or in situ. The intensity technique

  10. Relationship between Absorption Intensity and Fluorescence Lifetime of Molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Strickler; Robert A. Berg

    1962-01-01

    The equations usually given relating fluorescence lifetime to absorption intensity are strictly applicable only to atomic systems, whose transitions are sharp lines. This paper gives the derivation of a modified formula 1??0=2.880×10?9n2??˜f?3?Av?1(gl?gu)&egr;dln?˜, which should be valid for broad molecular bands when the transition is strongly allowed.Lifetimes calculated by this formula have been compared with measured lifetimes for a number of

  11. Absorption band Q model for the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Given, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Attenuation in solids and liquids, as measured by the quality factor Q, is typically frequency dependent. In seismology, however, Q is usually assumed to be independent of frequency. Body wave, surface wave, and normal mode data are used to place constraints on the frequency dependence of Q in the mantle. Specific features of the absorption band model are: low-Q in the seismic band at both the top and the base of the mantle, low-Q for long-period body waves in the outer core, an inner core Q sub s that increases with period, and low Q sub p/Q sub s at short periods in the middle mantle.

  12. Raman band intensities of tellurite glasses.

    PubMed

    Plotnichenko, V G; Sokolov, V O; Koltashev, V V; Dianov, E M; Grishin, I A; Churbanov, M F

    2005-05-15

    Raman spectra of TeO2-based glasses doped with WO3, ZnO, GeO2, TiO2, MoO3, and Sb2O3 are measured. The intensity of bands in the Raman spectra of MoO3-TeO2 and MoO3-WO3-TeO2 glasses is shown to be 80-95 times higher than that for silica glass. It is shown that these glasses can be considered as one of the most promising materials for Raman fiber amplifiers. PMID:15943298

  13. A listing of wavenumbers and intensities of carbon dioxide absorption lines between 12 and 20 micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drayson, S. R.

    1973-01-01

    A listing is given of the wavenumber, intensities at 300, 275, 250, 225, 200 and 175 k and energy of the lower state of CO2 absorption lines between 12 and 20 microns. They are ordered by wave-number and include 19 bands of C-12(O-16)2, 4 bands of C-13(O-16)2, 2 bands of C-12-O-16-O-18 and 1 band of C-12-O-16-O-17. The vibrational and rotational constants and the band intensities used to calculate the line parameters are tabulated.

  14. Saturable absorption of intense hard X-rays in iron.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Hitoki; Inubushi, Yuichi; Yabashi, Makina; Katayama, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Mimura, Hidekazu; Kitamura, Hikaru

    2014-01-01

    In 1913, Maurice de Broglie discovered the presence of X-ray absorption bands of silver and bromine in photographic emulsion. Over the following century, X-ray absorption spectroscopy was established as a standard basis for element analysis, and further applied to advanced investigation of the structures and electronic states of complex materials. Here we show the first observation of an X-ray-induced change of absorption spectra of the iron K-edge for 7.1-keV ultra-brilliant X-ray free-electron laser pulses with an extreme intensity of 10(20)?W?cm(-2). The highly excited state yields a shift of the absorption edge and an increase of transparency by a factor of 10 with an improvement of the phase front of the transmitted X-rays. This finding, the saturable absorption of hard X-rays, opens a promising path for future innovations of X-ray science by enabling novel attosecond active optics, such as lasing and dynamical spatiotemporal control of X-rays. PMID:25270525

  15. Saturable absorption of intense hard X-rays in iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Hitoki; Inubushi, Yuichi; Yabashi, Makina; Katayama, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Mimura, Hidekazu; Kitamura, Hikaru

    2014-10-01

    In 1913, Maurice de Broglie discovered the presence of X-ray absorption bands of silver and bromine in photographic emulsion. Over the following century, X-ray absorption spectroscopy was established as a standard basis for element analysis, and further applied to advanced investigation of the structures and electronic states of complex materials. Here we show the first observation of an X-ray-induced change of absorption spectra of the iron K-edge for 7.1-keV ultra-brilliant X-ray free-electron laser pulses with an extreme intensity of 1020?W?cm?2. The highly excited state yields a shift of the absorption edge and an increase of transparency by a factor of 10 with an improvement of the phase front of the transmitted X-rays. This finding, the saturable absorption of hard X-rays, opens a promising path for future innovations of X-ray science by enabling novel attosecond active optics, such as lasing and dynamical spatiotemporal control of X-rays.

  16. Spectral shape of intense exciton absorption in oligothiophene crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulig, Waldemar; Petelenz, Piotr

    2009-03-01

    The peculiar shape of c -polarized absorption spectra of crystalline oligothiophenes is attributed to the coupling between the intense upper Davydov component originating from the lowest molecular excitation and the continuum of unbound exciton-phonon states deriving from excitons off the center of the exciton Brillouin zone. This formulation is the energy-domain description of the first step of intraband exciton relaxation and, in analogy to intramolecular radiationless transitions, is couched in terms of the configuration interaction between the discrete state and the one-phonon continuum, using an exact theory originally developed by Fano. The experimental absorption shapes for individual oligothiophenes and the spectral changes along the series are very well reproduced within a unified treatment, providing a plausible explanation in terms of the interplay between the trends imposed by the changes of the exciton band width and of the effective vibronic coupling constant, with the latter parameter obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations.

  17. Giant infrared absorption bands of electrons and holes in conjugated molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamadar, Matibur; Asaoka, Sadayuki; Grills, David C.; Miller, John R.

    2013-11-01

    Infrared (IR) absorption bands often convey identifying information about molecules, but are usually weak, having molar absorption coefficients <200?M-1?cm-1. Here we report observation of radical anions and cations of conjugated oligomers and polymers of fluorene and thiophene that possess intense mid-infrared absorption coefficients as large as 50,000?M-1?cm-1, perhaps the largest known for molecular species. For anions of fluorene oligomers, Fn, n=2-4, IR intensities increase almost linearly with n, but with a slope much larger than one, indicating that the absorptions are not extensive properties. Large intensities seem to arise from a mechanism known for charged solitons and polarons in conjugated polymers. In this mechanism, vibrations of ungerade symmetry drive substantial displacements of charge, creating the large dipole derivatives responsible for intense IR absorption. Both experiments and calculations find that pairing with counter-ions attenuates IR band intensities. The IR bands may be diagnostic for bound ion pairs and their escape to form free ions.

  18. Laboratory Measurements of the 940, 1130, and 1370 nm Water Vapor Absorption Band Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, Lawrence P.; Gore, Warren J.; Pilewskie, P.; Freedman, R. S.; Chackerian, C., Jr.; Varanasi, P.

    2001-01-01

    We have used the solar spectral flux radiometer (SSFR) flight instrument with the Ames 25 meter base-path White cell to obtain about 20 moderate resolution (8 nm) pure water vapor spectra from 650 to 1650 nm, with absorbing paths from 806 to 1506 meters and pressures up to 14 torr. We also obtained a set at 806 meters with several different air-broadening pressures. Model simulations were made for the 940, 1130, and 1370 nm absorption bands for some of these laboratory conditions using the Rothman, et al HITRAN-2000 linelist. This new compilation of HITRAN includes new intensity measurements for the 940 nm region. We compared simulations for our spectra of this band using HITRAN-2000 with simulations using the prior HITRAN-1996. The simulations of the 1130 nm band show about 10% less absorption than we measured. There is some evidence that the total intensity of this band is about 38% stronger than the sum of the HITRAN line intensities in this region. In our laboratory conditions the absorption depends approximately on the square root of the intensity. Thus, our measurements agree that the band is stronger than tabulated in HITRAN, but by about 20%, substantially less than the published value. Significant differences have been shown between Doppler-limited resolution spectra of the 1370 nm band obtained at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and HITRAN simulations. Additional new intensity measurements in this region are continuing to be made. We expect the simulations of our SSFR lab data of this band will show the relative importance of improving the HITRAN line intensities of this band for atmospheric measurements.

  19. Interpretation of Absorption Bands in Airborne Hyperspectral Radiance Data

    PubMed Central

    Szekielda, Karl H.; Bowles, Jeffrey H.; Gillis, David B.; Miller, W. David

    2009-01-01

    It is demonstrated that hyperspectral imagery can be used, without atmospheric correction, to determine the presence of accessory phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters using derivative techniques. However, care must be taken not to confuse other absorptions for those caused by the presence of pigments. Atmospheric correction, usually the first step to making products from hyperspectral data, may not completely remove Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption bands and these absorptions may interfere with identification of phytoplankton accessory pigments. Furthermore, the ability to resolve absorption bands depends on the spectral resolution of the spectrometer, which for a fixed spectral range also determines the number of observed bands. Based on this information, a study was undertaken to determine under what circumstances a hyperspectral sensor may determine the presence of pigments. As part of the study a hyperspectral imager was used to take high spectral resolution data over two different water masses. In order to avoid the problems associated with atmospheric correction this data was analyzed as radiance data without atmospheric correction. Here, the purpose was to identify spectral regions that might be diagnostic for photosynthetic pigments. Two well proven techniques were used to aid in absorption band recognition, the continuum removal of the spectra and the fourth derivative. The findings in this study suggest that interpretation of absorption bands in remote sensing data, whether atmospherically corrected or not, have to be carefully reviewed when they are interpreted in terms of photosynthetic pigments. PMID:22574053

  20. Absorption Bands Near 3 Micrometers in Diffuse Reflectance Spectra of Carbonaceous Chondrites: Comparison with Ceres and Pallas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Miyamoto, M.

    1996-03-01

    Absorption features of 3 micron hydration bands of carbonaceous (C) chondrites were compared with those of C-type asteroids, Ceres and Pallas, to study the amount of hydrous minerals on their surfaces. The intensity of the 3 micron band of Pallas is similar to those of thermally metamorphosed C chondrites. This suggests the possibility that Pallas underwent thermal metamorphism. The intensity of the 3 micron band of Ceres is not similar to those of C chondrites measured.

  1. Spectroscopic investigation of amber color silicate glasses and factors affecting the amber related absorption bands.

    PubMed

    Morsi, Morsi M; El-Sherbiny, Samya I; Mohamed, Karam M

    2015-06-15

    The effects of carbon, Fe2O3 and Na2SO4 contents on the amber color of glass with composition (wt%) 64.3 SiO2, 25.7 CaO, 10 Na2O were studied. The effect of some additives that could be found in glass batch or cullets on the amber related absorption band(s) was also studied. An amber related absorption band due to the chromophore Fe(3+)O3S(2-) was recorded at 420nm with shoulder at 440nm. A second amber related band recorded at 474nm with shoulder at 483nm was assigned to FeS. Increasing melting time at 1400°C up to 6h caused fainting of the amber color, decreases the intensities of the amber related bands and shifted the first band to 406nm. Addition of ZnO, Cu2O and NaNO3 to the glass produced decolorizing effect and vanishing of the amber related bands. The effects of melting time and these additives were explained on the bases of destruction the amber chromophore and its conversion into Fe(3+) in tetrahedral sites or ZnS. Addition of Se intensifies the amber related bands and may cause dark coloration due to the formation of Se° and polyselenide. Amber color can be monitored through measuring the absorption in the range 406-420nm. PMID:25795612

  2. Universal EUV in-band intensity detector

    DOEpatents

    Berger, Kurt W.

    2004-08-24

    Extreme ultraviolet light is detected using a universal in-band detector for detecting extreme ultraviolet radiation that includes: (a) an EUV sensitive photodiode having a diode active area that generates a current responsive to EUV radiation; (b) one or more mirrors that reflects EUV radiation having a defined wavelength(s) to the diode active area; and (c) a mask defining a pinhole that is positioned above the diode active area, wherein EUV radiation passing through the pinhole is restricted substantially to illuminating the diode active area.

  3. The effective air absorption coefficient for predicting reverberation time in full octave bands.

    PubMed

    Wenmaekers, R H C; Hak, C C J M; Hornikx, M C J

    2014-12-01

    A substantial amount of research has been devoted to producing a calculation model for air absorption for pure tones. However, most statistical and geometrical room acoustic prediction models calculate the reverberation time in full octave bands in accordance with ISO 3382-1 (International Organization for Standardization, 2009). So far, the available methods that allow calculation of air absorption in octave bands have not been investigated for room acoustic applications. In this paper, the effect of air absorption on octave band reverberation time calculations is investigated based on calculations. It is found that the approximation method, as described in the standard ANSI S1.26 (American National Standards Institute, 1995), fails to estimate accurate decay curves for full octave bands. In this paper, a method is used to calculate the energy decay curve in rooms based on a summation of pure tones within the band. From this decay curve, which is found to be slightly concave upwards, T20 and T30 can be determined. For different conditions, an effective intensity attenuation coefficient mB ;eff for the full octave bands has been calculated. This mB ;eff can be used for reverberation time calculations, if results are to be compared with T20 or T30 measurements. Also, guidelines are given for the air absorption correction of decay curves, measured in a scale model. PMID:25480055

  4. Infrared absorption spectroscopy of the CO2–Ar complex in the 2376 cm?1 combination band region: The intermolecular bend

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. W. Sharpe; D. Reifschneider; C. Wittig; R. A. Beaudet

    1991-01-01

    The rovibrational absorption spectrum of CO2–Ar has been recorded in the 2376 cm?1 region by using a pulsed, slit nozzle expansion and tunable IR diode laser. The spectrum is ascribed to the 410510 combination band, where ?4 corresponds to the asymmetric stretch of the CO2 moiety and ?5 is the intermolecular bend. This combination band is ?102 times less intense

  5. The Effects of Absorption and Self-Absorption Quenching on Fluorescent Intensities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Giles

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment that shows that fluorescence emission intensities are significantly modified by absorption processes and that these effects can be eliminated by positioning the sample cell such that the interrogation region corresponds to the corner of the cell. (MLH)

  6. Resonant absorption and not-so-resonant absorption in short, intense laser irradiated plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Z. Y.; Zhuo, H. B.; Ma, Y. Y.; Yang, X. H.; Yu, T. P.; Zou, D. B.; Yin, Y.; Shao, F. Q. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)] [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Yu, W.; Luan, S. X. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)] [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhou, C. T. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China) [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Peng, X. J. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)] [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2013-07-15

    An analytical model for laser-plasma interaction during the oblique incidence by an ultrashort ultraintense p-polarized laser on a solid-density plasma is proposed. Both the resonant absorption and not-so-resonant absorption are self-consistently included. Different from the previous theoretical works, the physics of resonant absorption is found to be valid in more general conditions as the steepening of the electron density profile is considered. Even for a relativistic intensity laser, resonant absorption can still exist under certain plasma scale length. For shorter plasma scale length or higher laser intensity, the not-so-resonant absorption tends to be dominant, since the electron density is steepened to a critical level by the ponderomotive force. The laser energy absorption rates for both mechanisms are discussed in detail, and the difference and transition between these two mechanisms are presented.

  7. Isothermal annealing of a 620 nm optical absorption band in Brazilian topaz crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isotani, Sadao; Matsuoka, Masao; Albuquerque, Antonio Roberto Pereira Leite

    2013-04-01

    Isothermal decay behaviors, observed at 515, 523, 562, and 693 K, for an optical absorption band at 620 nm in gamma-irradiated Brazilian blue topaz were analyzed using a kinetic model consisting of O- bound small polarons adjacent to recombination centers (electron traps). The kinetic equations obtained on the basis of this model were solved using the method of Runge-Kutta and the fit parameters describing these defects were determined with a grid optimization method. Two activation energies of 0.52±0.08 and 0.88±0.13 eV, corresponding to two different structural configurations of the O- polarons, explained well the isothermal decay curves using first-order kinetics expected from the kinetic model. On the other hand, thermoluminescence (TL) emission spectra measured at various temperatures showed a single band at 400 nm in the temperature range of 373-553 K in which the 620 nm optical absorption band decreased in intensity. Monochromatic TL glow curve data at 400 nm extracted from the TL emission spectra observed were found to be explained reasonably by using the knowledge obtained from the isothermal decay analysis. This suggests that two different structural configurations of O- polarons are responsible for the 620 nm optical absorption band and that the thermal annealing of the polarons causes the 400 nm TL emission band.

  8. Two-Photon Absorption by H2 Molecules: Origin of the 2175A Astronomical Band?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, Peter P.; Glownia, James H.

    2007-04-01

    The near UV spectra of OB stars are often dominated by a broad extinction band peaking at 2175A. Forty years after its discovery, the origin of this band remains unknown, although it is usually attributed to linear scattering or linear absorption by interstellar dust particles. Here we report that two-photon absorption by H2 molecules in gaseous clouds enveloping OB stars should lead to a strong band peaking near 2175A. We first show that if the product of the H2 density in the gaseous cloud times the emitted stellar VUV flux is sufficiently great, the threshold for stimulated Rayleigh scattering will be exceeded, resulting in the generation of intense, monochromatic VUV light at the rest frame frequencies of H2 B- and C-state resonance lines originating from levels J''=0 and J''=1 of X0. This coherently generated light must necessarily propagate radially inwards towards the photosphere of the illuminating OB star, and therefore cannot be detected externally. However, this same light effectively constitutes intense ``first step'' monochromatic radiation that should induce continuum photons emitted by the OB star near 2175A to be strongly absorbed as ``second steps'' in resonantly-enhanced H2 two-photon transitions to two well known doubly-excited dissociative states of H2. Archival UV and VUV spectra of 185 OB stars strongly support our nonlinear model for the 2175A band.

  9. Absorption of ultrashort intense lasers in laser–solid interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Weng, Su-Ming; Yu, Lu-Le; Wang, Wei-Min; Cui, Yun-Qian; Chen, Min; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of ultrashort high intensity laser pulses, laser absorption during the laser–solid interactions has received significant attention over the last two decades since it is related to a variety of applications of high intensity lasers, including the hot electron production for fast ignition of fusion targets, table-top bright X-ray and gamma-ray sources, ion acceleration, compact neutron sources, and generally the creation of high energy density matters. Normally, some absorption mechanisms found for nanosecond long laser pulses also appear for ultrashort laser pulses. The peculiar aspects with ultrashort laser pulses are that their absorption depends significantly on the preplasma condition and the initial target structures. Meanwhile, relativistic nonlinearity and ponderomotive force associated with the laser pulses lead to new mechanisms or phenomena, which are usually not found with nanosecond long pulses. In this paper, we present an overview of the recent progress on the major absorption mechanisms in intense laser–solid interactions, where emphasis is paid to our related theory and simulation studies. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CBA01504) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11421064, 11129503, 11374209, and 11374210).

  10. Uncertainties of the Intensity of the 1130 nm Band of Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, L. P.; Pilewskie, P.; Gore, W. J.; Chackerian, C., Jr.; Varanasi, P.; Bergstrom, R.; Freedman, R. S.

    2001-01-01

    Belmiloud, et al have recently suggested that the HITRAN line intensities in the 1130 nm water vapor band are much too weak. Giver, et at corrected unit conversion errors to make the HITRAN intensities compatible with the original measurements of Mandin, et al, but Belmiloud, et al believe that many of those line intensity measurements were too weak, and they propose the total intensity of the 1130 nm water vapor band is 38% stronger than the sum of the HITRAN line intensities in this region. We have made independent assessments of this proposal using 2 spectra obtained with the Ames 25 meter base path White cell. The first was made using the moderate resolution (8 nm) solar spectral flux radiometer (SSFR) flight instrument with a White cell absorbing path of 506 meters and 10 torr water vapor pressure. Modeling this spectrum using the HITRAN linelist gives a reasonable match, and the model is not compatible when the HITRAN line intensities are increased by 38%. The second spectrum was obtained with a White cell path of 1106 meters and 12 torr water vapor pressure, using a Bomem FTIR with near Doppler width resolution. This spectrum is useful for measuring intensities of isolated weak lines to compare with the measurements of Mandin, et al. Unfortunately, as Belmiloud et al point out, at these conditions the strong lines are much too saturated for good intensity measurements. Our measurements of the weak lines are in reasonable agreement with those of Mandin, et al. Neither of our spectra supports the proposal of Belmiloud et al for a general 38% increase of the absorption intensity in the 1130 nm water vapor band.

  11. Infrared band intensities in ammonium hydroxide and ammonium salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sethna, P. P.; Downing, H. D.; Pinkley, L. W.; Williams, D.

    1978-01-01

    We have applied Kramers-Kronig analysis to reflection spectra to determine the optical constants of ammonium hydroxide and of aqueous solutions of ammonium chloride and bromide. From considerations of the absorption indices k(nu) we conclude that ammonium hydroxide consists of a solution of NH3 in water, in which NH3 molecules are hydrogen bonded to neighboring water molecules. The spectrum of ammonium hydroxide differs from the spectra of ammonium salts, in which bands characteristic of NH4(+) ions are prominent. The existence of ammonium hydroxide as an aerosol in planetary atmospheres is briefly discussed

  12. A measurement of the relative intensities of some vibronic bands

    E-print Network

    Loyd, Coleman Monroe

    1955-01-01

    values in Table VIII and Table IX, Previous values in tho literature are those by Johnston and Urey and the theoretical values obtained by Ward . Figure 9 1 8 is a curve for the values fran Table X together with Ward's theoretical curve. Ward's values... have been scaled to give his sax1am value the value obtained by' the present work, Johnston and Urey estinated the peak absorption te be at a which agrees closely with the present work. Had Johnston and Uroy taken into account underlying bands...

  13. Infrared cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene: Temperature-dependent studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Alrefae, Majed; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Propylene, a by-product of biomass burning, thermal cracking of hydrocarbons and incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is a ubiquitous molecule found in the environment and atmosphere. Accurate infrared (IR) cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene are essential for quantitative measurements and atmospheric modeling. We measured absolute IR cross-sections of propylene using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy over the wavenumber range of 400-6500 cm-1 and at gas temperatures between 296 and 460 K. We recorded these spectra at spectral resolutions ranging from 0.08 to 0.5 cm-1 and measured the integrated band intensities for a number of vibrational bands in certain spectral regions. We then compared the integrated band intensities measured at room temperature with values derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) databases. Our results agreed well with the results reported in the two databases with a maximum deviation of about 4%. The peak cross-sections for the primary bands decreased by about 20-54% when the temperature increased from 296 to 460 K. Moreover, we determined the integrated band intensities as a function of temperature for certain features in various spectral regions; we found no significant temperature dependence over the range of temperatures considered here. We also studied the effect of temperature on absorption cross-section using a Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) laser system. We compared the DFG results with those obtained from the FTIR study at certain wavenumbers over the 2850-2975 cm-1 range and found a reasonable agreement with less than 10% discrepancy.

  14. Intense high-pressure sequence-band CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Feldman, B J; Fisher, R A; Pollock, C R; Simons, S W; Tercovich, R G

    1978-01-01

    We have obtained temporally smooth, single-line megawatt output from the (0,0 degrees,2) --> [(1,0 degrees,1), (0,2 degrees,1)]1 sequence band in an 1800-Torr CO2 double-discharge laser. These lines were first observed by Reid and Siemsen in a low-pressure discharge at subwatt power outputs [Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 250 (1976)]. The intense 10-gm region laser transitions reported here may be useful for selective molecular excitation, for nonlinear optics experiments where wavelengths of the usual C02 transitions are inappropriate, and for long-path atmospheric transmission. PMID:19680391

  15. Wavelength dependent resonance Raman band intensity of broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy of malachite green in ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Qiongyan; He, Yuhan; Xu, Mei; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Zhaohui

    2015-03-01

    Resonance broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy of malachite green in ethanol has been performed. With a tuning picosecond visible laser source and a broadband Raman probe, the Raman gain and loss spectra have been measured simultaneously. By scanning the Raman pump across the first absorption band of the molecule, we found that the resonant Raman bands could be only seen when the pump laser tuned in the range of the red edge of the S1?S0 transition. Dispersive lineshapes of resonant Raman bands have been observed in the Raman loss spectra, while the line shape is normal (same as spontaneous Raman) in the Raman gain spectra. Although, the resonant bands in the loss spectrum are usually stronger than that in the gain spectrum, the band intensities of both loss and gain linearly increase with the pump energy. The relative magnitude of each corresponding resonant band in the Raman loss and gain varies with the pump wavelength. Mode specified Raman excitation profiles have been obtained through broadband stimulated Raman measurement.

  16. Wavelength dependent resonance Raman band intensity of broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy of malachite green in ethanol.

    PubMed

    Cen, Qiongyan; He, Yuhan; Xu, Mei; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Zhaohui

    2015-03-21

    Resonance broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy of malachite green in ethanol has been performed. With a tuning picosecond visible laser source and a broadband Raman probe, the Raman gain and loss spectra have been measured simultaneously. By scanning the Raman pump across the first absorption band of the molecule, we found that the resonant Raman bands could be only seen when the pump laser tuned in the range of the red edge of the S1?S0 transition. Dispersive lineshapes of resonant Raman bands have been observed in the Raman loss spectra, while the line shape is normal (same as spontaneous Raman) in the Raman gain spectra. Although, the resonant bands in the loss spectrum are usually stronger than that in the gain spectrum, the band intensities of both loss and gain linearly increase with the pump energy. The relative magnitude of each corresponding resonant band in the Raman loss and gain varies with the pump wavelength. Mode specified Raman excitation profiles have been obtained through broadband stimulated Raman measurement. PMID:25796242

  17. Triple-band perfect metamaterial absorption, based on single cut-wire bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Y. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Hwang, J. S.; Rhee, J. Y.; Kim, K. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Cheong, H.; Chen, L. Y.; Lee, Y. P.

    2015-02-01

    In general metamaterial perfect absorber, the single meta-pattern makes the single absorption band. Therefore, the multi-absorption bands need the corresponding kinds of meta-patterns. Here, we introduce the triple-band metamaterial perfect absorber utilizing only single kind of pattern. We also demonstrate the absorption mechanism of the triple perfect absorption. The first and the second absorption bands were induced by the fundamental magnetic resonance of the major and the minor axes, respectively, of cut-wire bar. The third peak was caused by the third-harmonic magnetic resonance of the major axis. Additionally, the unexpected third band was formed, which was the overlapping of the third absorption peak with another absorption peak, which was made by pairs of antiparallel currents parallel or antiparallel to the incident electromagnetic wave.

  18. Infrared line intensity measurements in the v = 0-1 band of the ClO radical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.; Howard, Carleton J.; Hammer, Philip D.; Goldman, Aaron

    1989-01-01

    Integrated line intensity measurements in the ClO-radical fundamental vibrational v = 0-1 band were carried out using a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer coupled to a long-path-length absorption cell. The results of a series of measurements designed to minimize systematic errors, yielded a value of the fundamental IR band intensity of the ClO-radical equal to 9.68 + or - 1.45/sq cm per atm at 296 K. This result is consistent with all the earlier published results, with the exception of measurements reported by Kostiuk et al. (1986) and Lang et al. (1988).

  19. Measurements of the absorption line strength of hydroperoxyl radical in the ?3 band using a continuous wave quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yosuke; Tonokura, Kenichi

    2012-01-12

    Mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy has been applied to the detection of the hydroperoxyl (HO(2)) radical in pulsed laser photolysis combined with a laser absorption kinetics reactor. Transitions of the ?(3) vibrational band assigned to the O-O stretch mode were probed with a thermoelectrically cooled, continuous wave mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL). The HO(2) radicals were generated with the photolysis of Cl(2)/CH(3)OH/O(2) mixtures at 355 nm. The absorption cross section at each pressure was determined by three methods at 1065.203 cm(-1) for the F(1), 13(1,13) ? 14(1,14) transition in the ?(3) band. From these values, the absolute absorption cross section at zero pressure was estimated. The relative line strengths of other absorptions in the feasible emitting frequency range of the QCL from 1061.17 to 1065.28 cm(-1) were also measured, and agreed with values reproduced from the HITRAN database. The ?(3) band absorption strength was estimated from the analytically obtained absolute absorption cross section and the calculated relative intensity by spectrum simulation, to be 21.4 ± 4.2 km mol(-1), which shows an agreement with results of quantum chemical calculations. PMID:22148191

  20. Ultrafast absorption of intense x rays by nitrogen molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Buth, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); PULSE Institute for Ultrafast Energy Science, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Liu Jicai [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Mathematics and Physics, North China Electric Power University, 102206 Beijing (China); Chen, Mau Hsiung [Physics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Cryan, James P. [PULSE Institute for Ultrafast Energy Science, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Fang Li; Hoener, Matthias; Berrah, Nora [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49008 (United States); Glownia, James M. [PULSE Institute for Ultrafast Energy Science, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Coffee, Ryan N. [PULSE Institute for Ultrafast Energy Science, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2012-06-07

    We devise a theoretical description for the response of nitrogen molecules (N{sub 2}) to ultrashort and intense x rays from the free electron laser Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). We set out from a rate-equation description for the x-ray absorption by a nitrogen atom. The equations are formulated using all one-x-ray-photon absorption cross sections and the Auger and radiative decay widths of multiply-ionized nitrogen atoms. Cross sections are obtained with a one-electron theory and decay widths are determined from ab initio computations using the Dirac-Hartree-Slater (DHS) method. We also calculate all binding and transition energies of nitrogen atoms in all charge states with the DHS method as the difference of two self-consistent field (SCF) calculations ({Delta}SCF method). To describe the interaction with N{sub 2}, a detailed investigation of intense x-ray-induced ionization and molecular fragmentation are carried out. As a figure of merit, we calculate ion yields and the average charge state measured in recent experiments at the LCLS. We use a series of phenomenological models of increasing sophistication to unravel the mechanisms of the interaction of x rays with N{sub 2}: a single atom, a symmetric-sharing model, and a fragmentation-matrix model are developed. The role of the formation and decay of single and double core holes, the metastable states of N{sub 2}{sup 2+}, and molecular fragmentation are explained.

  1. Study of Time-Delay Four-Wave Mixing with Incoherent Light in Absorption Bands II:. Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruihua; Mi, Xin; Zhou, Haitian; Jiang, Qian; Ye, Peixian

    A series of experiments of time-delay four-wave mixing with incoherent light (TDFWM-IL) in absorption bands of ruby and dye molecules at 300 K-20 K are reported, which demonstrate that two-level theory fails in the interpretation of the results, and that our multilevel theory of TDFWM-IL should be applied. The following experimental results are emphasized: the normalized delay-time dependences of the signal intensity IS (?) are not dependent on the sample temperature from 80 K to 300 K for the pump-beam wavelengths not closed to the zero-phonon line or the absorption edge as the power spectrum S0(?) of the incoherent light source kept invariable; at low temperature of 20 K, IS(?) is modulated periodically with a period equal to the interval of two adjacent vibrational transitions in the absorption band 4T2 of ruby, as predicted by the multilevel theory. The experiments performed at the zero-phonon line of ruby and at the absorption edge of Cresyl Violet in PMMA demonstrate that the effective two-level model is suitable to approximately analyze not only the experimental results of TDFWM-IL in the unresolved continuous absorption bands with homogeneous broadening, but also the effects of inhomogeneous broadening on the behavior of TDFWM-IL in these bands. Additionally, some data of the subpicosecond dephasing processes of these materials are also obtained for the first time.

  2. Water Channel of Horseradish Peroxidase Studied by the Charge-Transfer Absorption Band of Ferric Heme

    E-print Network

    Sharp, Kim

    Water Channel of Horseradish Peroxidase Studied by the Charge-Transfer Absorption Band of Ferric The heme of horseradish peroxidase is buried in the protein, but a channel from the protein surface connects the aqueous solution to the heme site. Ferric horseradish peroxidase has an absorption band at 640

  3. Zeeman Effect of the A Absorption Bands in Tl and Pb-Doped Alkali Halides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryumyo Onaka; Teruhiko Mabuchi; Akira Yoshikawa

    1967-01-01

    Zeeman effects of the A absorption bands in KBr:Tl, KI:Tl, KCl:Pb and KBr:Pb are studied by means of circular dichroism, and g-factors of the excited states relevant to these absorption bands are found to be 0.6˜0.8.

  4. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER: Individual induced absorption bands in MgF2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, A. P.; Sergeev, P. B.

    2008-03-01

    The absorption spectra of MgF2 samples exposed to an electron beam and laser radiation at 248, 308, and 372 nm are investigated. Fourteen individual absorption bands are separated in the spectra. The parameters of the eight spectra of them are obtained for the first time. The separated bands are assigned to the intrinsic defects of the MgF2 crystal.

  5. Quantitative comparisons of absorption cross-section spectra and integrated intensities of HFC-143a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bris, Karine; Graham, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The integrated absorption cross-sections of HFC-143a (CH3CF3) differ substantially in the literature. This leads to an important uncertainty on the value of the radiative efficiency of this molecule. The ambiguity on the absorption cross-sections of HFC-143a is highlighted by the existence of two significantly different datasets in the HITRAN database. To solve the issue, we performed high-resolution Fourier transform infrared laboratory measurements of HFC-13a and compared the spectra with the two HITRAN datasets and with the data from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The experimental methods and data analysis techniques are examined and typical sources of errors are discussed. The integrated intensities of the main bands are compared to other literature values. It was found that the integrated absorption cross-section values in the highest range - around 13.8 ×10-17 cm .molecule-1 in the 570-1500 cm-1 spectral band - show the most consistency between authors.

  6. Effect of treatment temperature on the intensity of the vibrational band of the SiO bonds in passivating films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. N. Ivanova; A. N. Latyshev; V. F. Synorov; L. E. Erokhina; M. P. Ogurtsova

    1970-01-01

    The protective properties of the films are affected strongly by these changes, so it is important to have a convenient method for monitoring the stoichiometric composition. Such a method can be based on measurement of the absorption band of the Si-O bond, which is at 9.3\\/~ for SiO 2 and near 10 # for silicon monoxide [3]. The intensity of

  7. Measurements of small signal absorption at high temperature for the 001-100 band of CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    In the experiments an absorption cell was irradiated by a polarized CW CO2-N2-He laser. By changing the length of the laser cavity, it was possible to obtain stable oscillations on the five lines P12 through P20 in the 10.4-micron band. The power output was slightly under 10 W. Intensity measurements of the incident and the transmitted beam were conducted when the cell was filled with a nonabsorbing calibrating gas (nitrogen) and with the test gas (carbon dioxide). Data for the absorption coefficient in the temperature range from 300 K to about 600 K are presented in graphs.

  8. Absolute local mode vibrational band intensities of AsH 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jing-Jing; He, Sheng-Gui; Ding, Yun; Hao, Lu-Yuan; Wang, Xiang-Huai; Hu, Shui-Ming; Zhu, Qing-Shi

    2002-02-01

    The local mode vibrational absolute band intensities of AsH 3 molecule were studied experimentally and theoretically. The stretching vibrational band intensities of AsH 3 were derived from the infrared spectra recorded by a Bruker IFS 120 HR Fourier transform spectrometer. A three-dimensional As-H stretching dipole moment surface (DMS) was calculated by the density functional theory method. The DMS was used to calculate the absolute band intensities, which agreed well with the observed values. The inter-bond coupling terms in the DMS expansion are found to be essential in reproducing overtone and combination band intensities in the high-energy regions.

  9. Measurement of the absorption coefficient of acoustical materials using the sound intensity method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwal, Mahabir S.; Crocker, Malcolm J.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the possibility of using the two-microphone sound intensity technique to measure the normal incidence and the random incidence sound absorption coefficient was investigated. The normal incidence absorption coefficient was determined by measuring the intensity incidence on the sample and the intensity reflected by the sample placed in an anechoic chamber. The random incidence absorption coefficient was determined by measuring the intensity incident on the sample and the intensity reflected by the sample placed in a reverberation chamber. Absorption coefficient results obtained by the sound intensity technique were compared with standard techniques, namely the reverberation chamber and the standing wave tube. The major advantages of using the sound intensity technique are that it permits 'in situ' measurements and the absorption coefficient for a large range of frequencies can be obtained from a single measurement.

  10. C{sub 2} swan band emission intensity as a function of C{sub 2} density.

    SciTech Connect

    Goyette, A. N.; Lawler, J. E.; Anderson, L. W.; Gruen, D. M.; McCauley, T. G.; Zhou, D.; Krauss, A. R.; Univ. of Wisconsin

    1998-05-01

    We report the systematic comparison of the optical emission intensity of the d {sup 3}{Pi} {yields} a {sup 3}{Pi} (0, 0) vibrational band of the C{sub 2} Swan system with the absolute C{sub 2} concentration in Ar/H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and Ar/H{sub 2}/C{sub 60} microwave plasmas used in the deposition of nanocrystalline diamond. The absolute C{sub 2} concentration is obtained using white-light absorption spectroscopy. Emission intensity correlates linearly with C{sub 2} density for variations of several plasma parameters and across two decades of species concentration. Although optical emission intensity generally is not an accurate quantitative diagnostic for gas phase species concentrations, these results confirm the reliability of the (0,0) Swan band for relative determination of C{sub 2} density with high sensitivity under conditions used for hydrogen-deficient plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of diamond.

  11. a Comprehensive Intensity Study of the ?_4 Torsional Band of Ethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norooz Oliaee, Jalal; Moazzen-Ahmadi, Nasser; Ozier, Irving; Sung, Keeyoon; Crawford, Timothy J.; Brown, Linda; Wishnow, Edward H.; Devi, V. Malathy

    2014-06-01

    The torsional spectrum of C_2H_6 has been investigated from 220 to 330 cm-1 to measure the intensity of the fundamental and the first torsional hot band needed for atmospheric studies of Titan. Several spectra were measured at resolutions of 0.01 and 0.02 cm-1 using the JPL Bruker IFS-125 coupled to a coolable multi-pass absorption cell originally developed at University of British Columbia. Spectra were recorded at several temperatures from 293 K to 166 K, with the lower temperatures relevant to the stratosphere of Titan. Because this spectrum is very weak, a long absorption path of 52 m was used along with substantial sample pressures from 35 to 255 Torr. Intensities were analysed using a quantum mechanical model reported previously. The torsional fundamental of C_2H_6 is observed in the CIRS spectra of Titan. Line parameters for the torsional bands are required for accurate characterization of spectral features of Titan's far-infrared region. The current study should lead to a better understanding of the methane cycle in planetary atmospheres and permit the identification of the other molecular features in the CIRS data. E. H. Wishnow, A. Leung, and H. P. Gush, Rev. Sci. Instr., 70, 23 (1999). N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, A.R.W. McKellar, J.W.C. Johns, and I.Ozier, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 3981 (1992). Research described in this paper was performed, in part, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contracts and cooperative agreements with the NASA.The data were obtained using NASA's OPR Grant awarded to the College of William and Mary. The research conducted at the University of Calgary is supported by the Canadian Space Agency.

  12. a Theoretical Model for Wide-Band Infrared-Absorption Molecular Spectra at any Pressure: Fiction or Reality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldyreva, Jeanna; Vander Auwera, Jean

    2014-06-01

    Various atmospheric applications require modeling of infrared absorption by the main atmospheric species in wide ranges of frequencies, pressures and temperatures. For different pressure regimes, different mechanisms are responsible for the observed intensities of vibration-rotation line manifolds, and the structure of the bands changes drastically when going from low to high densities. Therefore, no universal theoretical model exists presently to interpret simultaneously collapsed band-shapes observed at very high pressures and isolated-line shapes recorded in sub-atmospheric regimes. Using CO_2 absorption spectra as an example, we introduce some improvements in the non-Markovian Energy-Corrected Sudden model, developed for high-density spectra of arbitrary tensorial rank and generalized recently to parallel and perpendicular infrared absorption bands, and test the applicability of this approach for the case of nearly Doppler pressure regime via comparisons with recently recorded experimental intensities. J.V. Buldyreva and L. Bonamy, Phys. Rev. A 60(1), 370-376 (1999). J. Buldyreva and L. Daneshvar, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 164107 (2013). L. Daneshvar, T. Földes, J. Buldyreva, J. Vander Auwera, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2014 (to be submitted).

  13. Position and Confidence Limits of an Extremum: The Determination of the Absorption Maximum in Wide Bands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbronner, Edgar

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the determination of the position of the absorption maximum in wide bands as well as the confidence limits for such calculations. A simple method, suited for pocket calculators, for the numerical evaluation of these calculations is presented. (BB)

  14. Precise Determination of the Absorption Maximum in Wide Bands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Karl-Hugo; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A precise method of determining absorption maxima where Gaussian functions occur is described. The method is based on a logarithmic transformation of the Gaussian equation and is suited for a mini-computer. (MR)

  15. Wide-band perfect optical absorption and photo-thermal effect for three-tier nanogate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, G. W.; Ding, P.; Wang, J. Q.; Liang, E. J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper designed a perfect optical absorber based on three-tier gate nanostructure, which shows a wide-band perfect absorption in the wavelength range of 200-560 nm as a transverse wave incidents to the nanostructure with the incident angle 35°< ?< 65°. When ? = 45°, a wide absorption band with the absorption rate more than 94% is observed, with the maximum of absorption rate reaching 99.3% at the wavelength of 430 nm. We also analyze the thermal characteristics of the perfect absorber. The band ranging from 560 nm to 1200 nm presents an increasing absorption rate with the increase of temperature. The calculation results of multi-physics analysis indicate that different cooling method causes different temperature distribution for the perfect absorber. This three-tier gate perfect absorber may find applications on broadband visible detectors, microbolometer and thermal imaging.

  16. Intensity dependence of inverse bremsstrahlung absorption in an inhomogeneous standing wave

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Faehl; N. F. Roderick

    1978-01-01

    Using both a simple analytic model and exact one-dimensional calculations, the intensity dependence of inverse bremsstrahlung absorption in a nonuniform standing wave in a plasma is investigated. The heuristic model for intensity corrections to the absorption coefficient is extrapolated to Airy-like field distributions. The numerical calculations simultaneously solve Maxwell's equations with the ion and electron fluid equations on the electromagnetic

  17. Atmospheric absorption of high frequency noise and application to fractional-octave bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, F. D.; Bass, H. E.

    1977-01-01

    Pure tone sound absorption coefficients were measured at 1/12 octave intervals from 4 to 100 KHz at 5.5K temperature intervals between 255.4 and 310.9 K and at 10 percent relative humidity increments between 0 percent and saturation in a large cylindrical tube (i.d., 25.4 cm; length, 4.8 m). Special solid-dielectric capacitance transducers, one to generate bursts of sound waves and one to terminate the sound path and detect the tone bursts, were constructed to fit inside the tube. The absorption was measured by varying the transmitter receiver separation from 1 to 4 m and observing the decay of multiple reflections or change in amplitude of the first received burst. The resulting absorption was compared with that from a proposed procedure for computing sound absorption in still air. Absorption of bands of noise was numerically computed by using the pure tone results. The results depended on spectrum shape, on filter type, and nonlinearly on propagation distance. For some of the cases considered, comparison with the extrapolation of ARP-866A showed a difference as large as a factor of 2. However, for many cases, the absorption for a finite band was nearly equal to the pure tone absorption at the center frequency of the band. A recommended prediction procedure is described for 1/3 octave band absorption coefficients.

  18. Vibrational coherence in Azurin with impulsive excitation of the LMCT absorption band

    E-print Network

    Tuscia, Università Degli Studi Della

    by exciting the strong ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (LMCT) band of blue copper proteins [12­14], including the excitation of the ligand-to-metal charge-transfer absorption band, is modulated by well visible oscillations perspectives of these systems in the frontier field of biosensors and biomolecular electronics [2

  19. Origin of the Absorption Band at 1,550 cm.-1 in Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lenormant; E. R. Blout

    1953-01-01

    THE infra-red spectra of proteins and polypeptides show strong absorption bands around 1,650 cm.-1 and 1,550 cm.-1 related to the peptide group. The 1,650 cm.-1 band has been associated with the C = O stretching motions and the 1,550 cm.-1 band has been assumed by some investigators to be an N-H deformation frequency of the monosubstituted amide (peptide) group1. Examination

  20. HAC: Band Gap, Photoluminescence, and Optical/Near-Infrared Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, Adolf N.; Ryutov, Dimitri; Furton, Douglas G.

    1996-01-01

    We report results of laboratory measurements which illustrate the wide range of physical properties found among hydrogenated amorphous carbon (HAC) solids. Within this range, HAC can match quantitatively the astronomical phenomena ascribed to carbonaceous coatings on interstellar grains. We find the optical band gap of HAC to be well correlated with other physical properties of HAC of astronomical interest, and conclude that interstellar HAC must be fairly hydrogen-rich with a band gap of E(sub g) is approx. greater than 2.0 eV.

  1. Measurement of the absorption coefficient using the sound-intensity technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwal, M.; Bernhard, R.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of using the sound intensity technique to measure the absorption coefficient of a material is investigated. This technique measures the absorption coefficient by measuring the intensity incident on the sample and the net intensity reflected by the sample. Results obtained by this technique are compared with the standard techniques of measuring the change in the reverberation time and the standing wave ratio in a tube, thereby, calculating the random incident and the normal incident adsorption coefficient.

  2. High-temperature terahertz absorption band in rare-earth gallium garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Masaki; Matsui, Hiroaki; Seki, Munetoshi; Yamahara, Hiroyasu; Tabata, Hitoshi

    2015-02-01

    In addition to the absorption due to known optical phonons, we found a temperature-dependent absorption band at 2 THz in garnet-type H o3G a5O12 , at temperatures in the range of 450-540 K. The optical and electrical properties reveal that the absorption band at 2 THz is not produced by mechanisms related to soft phonons, rattling phonons, impurities, or charge density waves, but rather to polaron conduction. Our analysis of the scattering rates and optical mobility shows that electron transport via the intermediate polaron is significant in this absorption band. Electrical measurements also support the existence of polarons in H o3G a5O12 . This paper facilitates a method to investigate charge carrier transport from an optical point of view using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, which we demonstrate using H o3G a5O12 .

  3. Evidence for sulphur implantation in Europa's UV absorption band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, A. L.; Nelson, R. M.; Matson, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The UV spectral characteristics of the Galilean satellites are investigated (using data from the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spacecraft) as a function of the orbital position, large-scale areal variability, and temporal dynamics. The discovery of an absorption feature at 280 nm in Europa's reflection spectrum is reported and observations show that the absorption is strongest on the trailing hemisphere (central longitude 270 degrees). The feature resembles SO2 and seems to result from S-O bond formation between deeply implanted sulphur atoms and the adjacent damaged water-ice-lattice. The sulphur supposedly comes from energetic (hundreds of keV) sulphur ions that are present in the Jovian magnetosphere. An appropriate equilibrium condition can be found to match the observed spectral data if sputtering erosion occurs at no greater than approximately 20 meters per one billion years.

  4. ASSIGNMENT OF 5069 A DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BAND TO HC{sub 4}H{sup +}: DISAGREEMENT WITH LABORATORY ABSORPTION BAND

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, J. P.; Chakrabarty, S.; Mazzotti, F. J.; Rice, C. A.; Dietsche, R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 80, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Walker, G. A. H. [1234 Hewlett Place, Victoria, BC V8S 4P7 (Canada); Bohlender, D. A., E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2011-03-10

    Krelowski et al. have reported a weak, diffuse interstellar band (DIB) at 5069 A which appears to match in both mid-wavelength and width the A {sup 2}{Pi}{sub u}-X {sup 2}{Pi}{sub g} gas-phase origin absorption band of HC{sub 4}H{sup +}. Here, we present laboratory rotational profiles at low temperatures which are then compared with the 5069 A DIB using {approx}0.1 and 0.3 A line widths based on a realistic line-of-sight interstellar velocity dispersion. Neither the band shape nor the wavelength of the maximum absorption match, which makes the association of the 5069 A DIB with HC{sub 4}H{sup +} unlikely. The magnetic dipole transition X {sup 2}{Pi}{sub g} {Omega} = 1/2{yields}X {sup 2}{Pi}{sub g} {Omega} = 3/2 within the ground electronic state which competes with collisional excitation is also considered. In addition, we present the laboratory gas-phase spectrum of the A {sup 2}{Pi}{sub u}-X {sup 2}{Pi}{sub g} transition of HC{sub 4}H{sup +} measured at 25 K in an ion trap and identify further absorption bands at shorter wavelengths for comparison with future DIB data.

  5. Investigation of locally resonant absorption and factors affecting the absorption band of a phononic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Meng; Jiang, Heng; Feng, Yafei; Wang, Yuren

    2014-12-01

    We experimentally and theoretically investigated the mechanisms of acoustic absorption in phononic glass to optimize its properties. First, we experimentally studied its locally resonant absorption mechanism. From these results, we attributed its strong sound attenuation to its locally resonant units and its broadband absorption to its networked structure. These experiments also indicated that the porosity and thickness of the phononic glass must be tuned to achieve the best sound absorption at given frequencies. Then, using lumped-mass methods, we studied how the absorption bandgaps of the phononic glass were affected by various factors, including the porosity and the properties of the coating materials. These calculations gave optimal ranges for selecting the porosity, modulus of the coating material, and ratio of the compliant coating to the stiff matrix to achieve absorption bandgaps in the range of 6-30 kHz. This paper provides guidelines for designing phononic glasses with proper structures and component materials to work in specific frequency ranges.

  6. Self-broadening and -shifting of very intense lines of the 1?0 band of 12C16O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, N. H.; Landsheere, X.; Pangui, E.; Morales, S. B.; Tran, H.; Hartmann, J.-M.

    2014-12-01

    Absorption spectra of pure 12C16O have been recorded, at room temperature and for various pressures, in the very intense 1?0 band. This was made using a high-resolution (0.005 cm-1) Fourier transform spectrometer together with a specially designed cell that enables one to adapt the optical path from a few ?m up to several mm. Thanks to the latter, absorption by extremely intense lines is measured for the first time under adapted (non saturating transmission) absorbance conditions, even for a pure gas pressure near 1 atm. The recorded spectra, obtained for a path length of about 130 ?m, have been adjusted using Voigt line-shapes in order to retrieve the unperturbed line positions, and the self-broadening and -shifting parameters induced by pressure for the P(20) to R(19) lines. Our results for the line widths confirm the expected very small and undetected influence of vibration on the broadening and demonstrate the inaccuracy of previous high-resolution measurements made under extremely strong absorption conditions. Similarly, our study provides the first accurate self-induced line shifts for the 1?0 band.

  7. Construct and concurrent validation of a new resistance intensity scale for exercise with thera-band® elastic bands.

    PubMed

    Colado, Juan C; Garcia-Masso, Xavier; Triplett, N Travis; Calatayud, Joaquin; Flandez, Jorge; Behm, David; Rogers, Michael E

    2014-12-01

    The construct and concurrent validity of the Thera-Band Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Exercise with elastic bands (EB) was examined. Twenty subjects performed two separate sets of 15 repetitions of both frontal and lateral raise exercise over two sessions. The criterion variables were myoelectric activity and heart rate. One set was performed with an elastic band grip width that permitted 15 maximum repetitions in the selected exercise, and another set was performed with a grip width 50% more than the 15RM grip. Following the final repetition of each set, active muscle (AM) and overall body (O) ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected from the Thera-Band® resistance exercise scale and the OMNI-Resistance Exercise Scale of perceived exertion with Thera-Band® resistance bands (OMNI-RES EB). Construct validity was established by correlating the RPE from the OMNI-RES EB with the Thera-Band RPE scale using regression analysis. The results showed significant differences (p ? 0.05) in myoelectric activity, heart rate, and RPE scores between the low- and high-intensity sets. The intraclass correlation coefficient for active muscles and overall RPE scale scores was 0.67 and 0.58, respectively. There was a positive linear relationship between the RPE from the OMNI-RES EB and the Thera-Band scale. Validity coefficients for the RPE AM were r(2) = 0.87 and ranged from r(2) = 0.76 to 0.85 for the RPE O. Therefore, the Thera-Band Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Exercise can be used for monitoring elastic band exercise intensity. This would allow the training dosage to be better controlled within and between sessions. Moreover, the construct and concurrent validity indicates that the OMNI-RES EB measures similar properties of exertion as the Thera-Band RPE scale during elastic resistance exercise. Key pointsThis new resistance intensity scale is an appropriate and valid tool for assessing perceived exertion during strength training with elastic bands.This scale can be used without reducing the accuracy of the dosage prescribed during training/rehabilitation sessions and while carrying out medium and/or long-term periodization programs or therapeutic interventions.Populations with specific physical or physiological needs could have access to an easy-to-use resource that allows them to carry out their training/rehabilitation programs with greater efficacy and without any risk to health. PMID:25435767

  8. Construct and Concurrent Validation of a New Resistance Intensity Scale for Exercise with Thera-Band® Elastic Bands

    PubMed Central

    Colado, Juan C.; Garcia-Masso, Xavier; Triplett, N. Travis; Calatayud, Joaquin; Flandez, Jorge; Behm, David; Rogers, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    The construct and concurrent validity of the Thera-Band Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Exercise with elastic bands (EB) was examined. Twenty subjects performed two separate sets of 15 repetitions of both frontal and lateral raise exercise over two sessions. The criterion variables were myoelectric activity and heart rate. One set was performed with an elastic band grip width that permitted 15 maximum repetitions in the selected exercise, and another set was performed with a grip width 50% more than the 15RM grip. Following the final repetition of each set, active muscle (AM) and overall body (O) ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected from the Thera-Band® resistance exercise scale and the OMNI-Resistance Exercise Scale of perceived exertion with Thera-Band® resistance bands (OMNI-RES EB). Construct validity was established by correlating the RPE from the OMNI-RES EB with the Thera-Band RPE scale using regression analysis. The results showed significant differences (p ? 0.05) in myoelectric activity, heart rate, and RPE scores between the low- and high-intensity sets. The intraclass correlation coefficient for active muscles and overall RPE scale scores was 0.67 and 0.58, respectively. There was a positive linear relationship between the RPE from the OMNI-RES EB and the Thera-Band scale. Validity coefficients for the RPE AM were r2 = 0.87 and ranged from r2 = 0.76 to 0.85 for the RPE O. Therefore, the Thera-Band Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Exercise can be used for monitoring elastic band exercise intensity. This would allow the training dosage to be better controlled within and between sessions. Moreover, the construct and concurrent validity indicates that the OMNI-RES EB measures similar properties of exertion as the Thera-Band RPE scale during elastic resistance exercise. Key points This new resistance intensity scale is an appropriate and valid tool for assessing perceived exertion during strength training with elastic bands. This scale can be used without reducing the accuracy of the dosage prescribed during training/rehabilitation sessions and while carrying out medium and/or long-term periodization programs or therapeutic interventions. Populations with specific physical or physiological needs could have access to an easy-to-use resource that allows them to carry out their training/rehabilitation programs with greater efficacy and without any risk to health. PMID:25435767

  9. Electronic States and Band Spectrum Structure in Diatomic Molecules. IV. Hund's Theory; Second Positive Nitrogen and Swan Bands; Alternating Intensities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. Mulliken

    1927-01-01

    After a brief review of Hund's theory of molecular electronic states and band spectra, and a discussion of intensity relations and selection principles in terms of the correspondence principle, it is shown that practically all the available evidence, as embodied in previous papers of this series and elsewhere, is in agreement with the theory. The occurrence of rho-type S terms

  10. Tone-burst technique measures high-intensity sound absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. G.; Van Houten, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    Tone-burst technique, in which narrow-bandwidth, short-duration sonic pulse is propagated down a standing-wave tube, measures sound absorbing capacity of materials used in jet engine noise abatement. Technique eliminates effects of tube losses and yields normal-incidence absorption coefficient of specimen.

  11. Photochemical investigation of the IR absorption bands of molecular oxygen in organic and aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Krasnovsky, A A; Kozlov, A S; Roumbal, Ya V

    2012-06-01

    It is shown that the weak IR absorption bands corresponding to the forbidden triplet-singlet transitions in oxygen molecules can be reliably studied in air-saturated solvents under ambient conditions using measurements of the photooxygenation rates of singlet oxygen traps (1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran or uric acid) upon direct excitation of oxygen molecules by IR diode lasers. The best results were obtained from comparison of the oxygenation rates upon direct and photosensitized singlet oxygen excitation. In the present paper, this method was applied to estimation of the absorbance (A(ox)) and molar absorption coefficients (?(ox)) corresponding to the oxygen absorption bands at 765 and 1273 nm in carbon tetrachloride, acetone, alcohols and water. In carbon tetrachloride, the band at 1073 nm was also investigated. Correlation of the obtained data with the luminescence spectra and radiative rate constants of singlet oxygen, contribution of oxygen dimols and biological significance of the studied effects are discussed. PMID:22307051

  12. Fourier transform intracavity laser absorption spectra of the 6 nu 1 band of CHD3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Domingo; A. del Olmo; R. Escribano; D. Bermejo; J. M. Orza

    1992-01-01

    Absorption spectra in the 16 100–16 320 cm?1 region have been recorded for gaseous CHD3 at room temperature with 0.12 cm?1 resolution using a Fourier transform intracavity laser absorption technique. Two bands belonging to the N=6 polyad, 61 (6?1) and 62 (5?1+2?5), were identified and a rotational analysis for 61 including transitions up to J=13, verified by means of ground-state

  13. Intensity dependence of the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption coefficient in hot plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. P. Hughes; M. B. Nicholson-Florence

    1968-01-01

    The net absorption coefficient allowing for stimulated emission is derived for intense light in a hot non-relativistic plasma, using a semi-classical approach, which takes into account the non-Maxwellian velocity distribution caused by the strong electric field of the radiation but considers only absorption and emission processes involving a single incident photon. The absorption coefficient is found to vary inversely as

  14. Rotational profiles of molecular absorption bands in astrophysically relevant conditions: ab-initio approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuliano Malloci; Giacomo Mulas; Giancarlo Cappellini; Guido Satta; Ignazio Porceddu; Piero Benvenuti

    2004-01-01

    A theoretical study of rotational profiles of molecular absorption bands is essential for direct comparison with observations of diffuse interstellar bands. Applications using gaussian quantum-chemical approach within DFT are presented. Structural and vibrational properties of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ovalene cation (C32H14+) are obtained. We discuss the expected profile of the first electronic transition of such molecule, obtained with a

  15. Correlated pulsations in auroral light intensity and narrow band VLF emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Hansen; M. W. J. Scourfield; J. P. S. Rash

    1986-01-01

    Observations at Sanae, Antarctica of pulsating aurora with a low light level TV system have been combined with simultaneous records of narrow band VLF emissions. Both auroral light and VLF intensities display a significant peak at 1.3±0.3 Hz in the power spectrum. The peaks in the auroral light intensity variations lead those in the VLF by times between zero and

  16. Use of infra-red and Raman absolute band intensities in force-constant calculations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Escribano; G. Del Río; J. M. Orza

    1977-01-01

    A parallel treatment for infra-red and Raman absolute band intensities in terms of the derivatives of the dipole moment and polarizability with respect to the normal coordinates is presented, and the introduction of intensity data into force-constant calculations is discussed. A method is given for calculating the rotational corrections to the derivatives of the dipole moment and the polarizability with

  17. Infrared band absorptance correlations and applications to nongray radiation. [mathematical models of absorption spectra for nongray atmospheres in order to study air pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Manian, S. V. S.

    1976-01-01

    Various mathematical models for infrared radiation absorption spectra for atmospheric gases are reviewed, and continuous correlations for the total absorptance of a wide band are presented. Different band absorptance correlations were employed in two physically realistic problems (radiative transfer in gases with internal heat source, and heat transfer in laminar flow of absorbing-emitting gases between parallel plates) to study their influence on final radiative transfer results. This information will be applied to the study of atmospheric pollutants by infrared radiation measurement.

  18. Fully Polarimetric Differential Intensity W-band Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Kelly, James F.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Lechelt, Wayne M.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2013-05-31

    We present a novel architecture based upon a Dicke-switched heterodyne radiometer architecture employing two identical input sections consisting of horn and orthomode transducer to detect the difference between the H and V polarization states of two separate object patches imaged by the radiometer. We have constructed and described previously a fully polarimetric W-band passive millimeter wave imager constructed to study the phenomenology of anomaly detection using polarimetric image exploitation of the Stokes images. The heterodyne radiometer used a PIN diode switch between the input millimeter wave energy and that of a reference load in order to eliminate the effects of component drifts and reduce the effects of 1/f noise. The differential approach differs from our previous work by comparing H and V polarization states detected by each of the two input horns instead of a reference load to form signals delta H and delta V from closely adjacent paired object patches. This novel imaging approach reduces common mode noise and enhances detection of small changes between the H and V polarization states of two object patches, now given as difference terms of the fully polarimetric radiometer. We present the theory of operation, initial proof of concept experimental results, and extension of the differential radiometer to a system with a binocular fore optics that allow adjustment of the convergence or shear of the object patches viewed by the differential polarimetric imager.

  19. Diversity in the Visible-NIR Absorption Band Characteristics of Lunar and Asteroidal Plagioclase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiroi, T.; Kaiden, H.; Misawa, K.; Kojima, H.; Uemoto, K.; Ohtake, M.; Arai, T.; Sasaki, S.; Takeda, H.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Studying the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectral properties of plagioclase has been challenging because of the difficulty in obtaining good plagioclase separates from pristine planetary materials such as meteorites and returned lunar samples. After an early study indicated that the 1.25 m band position of plagioclase spectrum might be correlated with the molar percentage of anorthite (An#) [1], there have been few studies which dealt with the band center behavior. In this study, the VNIR absorption band parameters of plagioclase samples have been derived using the modified Gaussian model (MGM) [2] following a pioneering study by [3].

  20. The effects of self-absorption and detection geometry on fluorescence intensity and decay lifetime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Francois Cormier; Michel Fortin; Julie Frechette; Isabelle Noiseux; Marcia L. Vernon; William Long

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of the effect of the geometry of illumination and collection in fluorescent media, which exhibit self-absorption at sufficiently high concentrations. In order to derive a relation between the incident excitation intensity and the fluorescence emission intensity, we consider the series of paths and transformations that light takes between the source and the detector. The

  1. Estimation of signal and noise for a differential absorption lidar in the mid-infrared band

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Reghunath; Naveen Kumar Verma; Yogesh Kumar

    2006-01-01

    The strength of backscattered signals for a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system operating in the mid infrared band is estimated for the cases of (i) back scattering from topographic targets and (ii) Mie scattering from the aerosols. The estimation is based on the following input parameters : (a) the energy of the lidar transmitted pulses is 20 mJ with pulse

  2. Imaging Breathing Rate in the CO2 Absorption Band Department of Computer Science

    E-print Network

    Imaging Breathing Rate in the CO2 Absorption Band Jin Fei Department of Computer Science University have developed one more non-contact method to measure human breathing rate. We have retrofitted our Mid on the radiation information within the breath flow region, we get the mean dynamic thermal signal. This signal

  3. Measurement of intense coherent synchrotron radiation at frequencies around 0.1 THz using the compact S-band linac

    SciTech Connect

    Sei, Norihiro; Kuroda, Ryunosuke; Yasumoto, Masato; Toyokawa, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Koike, Masaki; Yamada, Kawakatsu [Research Institute of Instrumentation Frontier, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2008-12-01

    We measured intense radiation from an electron bunch in a millimeter wave region using the compact S-band linac. The dependence of the radiation on the electron-bunch charge was measured with an rf detector system at frequencies around 0.1 THz and was confirmed to be a coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). The total power of the horizontally and vertically polarized CSRs, which were extracted through the Z-cut quartz window within 1 ns, was calculated to be about 88 and 30 nJ/pulse, excluding the absorption by the window. The two-dimensional distribution of the vertically polarized CSR was measured at a distance of about 0.7 m from the radiation point. The CSR distribution was comparatively uniform in the horizontal plane. Intense CSR, which was reflected in the vacuum chamber, was extracted with a delay of about 6 ns. This suggests that measurement of temporal structure is needed for CSR applications.

  4. Energetics, structures, vibrational frequencies, vibrational absorption, vibrational circular dichroism and Raman intensities of Leuenkephalin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K J Jalkanen

    2003-01-01

    Here we present several low energy conformers of Leu-enkephalin (LeuE) calculated with the density functional theory using the Becke 3LYP hybrid functional and the 6-31G* basis set. The structures, conformational energies, vibrational frequencies, vibrational absorption (VA) intensities, vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) intensities and Raman scattering intensities are reported for the conformers of LeuE which are expected to be populated at

  5. The aggregation effect on the absorption band shift of disperse red-13 attached on the surface of silica spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kwang-Sun

    2013-12-01

    Optical properties of disperse red-13 (DR-13) attached on the surface of the silica spheres have been investigated. Two step synthetic processes have been used to attach the DR-13 on the surface of the silica spheres. The first step is a urethane bond formation between a DR-13 (OH) and a 3-isocyanatopropyl triethoxysilane (ICPTES, NCO) in pyridine at 50 °C. The second step is the hydrolysis and condensation reactions between the resulting compound of the first step reaction (ICPDR) and the silica spheres (ICPDRSS). The absence of a characteristic absorption peak at 2270 cm-1 representing the NCO asymmetric stretching vibration and the existence of a new absorption peat at 1700 cm-1 corresponding the CO stretching vibration indicate the urethane bond formation. The absorption intensity of the DR-13 in methanol, ethanol and 2-propanol linearly increased with the increase of the amount of the DR-13. The ICPDRSS has weak brownish color when it is dried. The field emission scanning electron microscope shows the aggregated ICPDR on the surface of the silica spheres. The average diameter of the spheres is approximately 380 nm. The color of the ICPDRSS changed to intense red when it was wetted in methanol, ethanol and 2-propanol. The absorption peak of the dried ICPDRSS film is at 475 nm. The stopband appears at 788 nm and disappears when the methanol is filled between the spheres due to the low refractive index contrast. New absorption band appears at 718 nm when the methanol is absorbed due to the large aggregation of the ICPDR on the surface of the spheres.

  6. Signatures of a conical intersection in photofragment distributions and absorption spectra: Photodissociation in the Hartley band of ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu.

    2014-08-01

    Photodissociation of ozone in the near UV is studied quantum mechanically in two excited electronic states coupled at a conical intersection located outside the Franck-Condon zone. The calculations, performed using recent ab initio PESs, provide an accurate description of the photodissociation dynamics across the Hartley/Huggins absorption bands. The observed photofragment distributions are reproduced in the two electronic dissociation channels. The room temperature absorption spectrum, constructed as a Boltzmann average of many absorption spectra of rotationally excited parent ozone, agrees with experiment in terms of widths and intensities of diffuse structures. The exit channel conical intersection contributes to the coherent broadening of the absorption spectrum and directly affects the product vibrational and translational distributions. The photon energy dependences of these distributions are strikingly different for fragments created along the adiabatic and the diabatic paths through the intersection. They can be used to reverse engineer the most probable geometry of the non-adiabatic transition. The angular distributions, quantified in terms of the anisotropy parameter ?, are substantially different in the two channels due to a strong anticorrelation between ? and the rotational angular momentum of the fragment O2.

  7. Analysis of wavelength-dependent photoisomerization quantum yields in bilirubins by fitting two exciton absorption bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoni, M.; Agati, G.; Troup, G. J.; Pratesi, R.

    2003-09-01

    The absorption spectra of bilirubins were deconvoluted by two Gaussian curves of equal width representing the exciton bands of the non-degenerate molecular system. The two bands were used to study the wavelength dependence of the (4Z, 15Z) rightarrow (4Z, 15E) configurational photoisomerization quantum yield of the bichromophoric bilirubin-IXalpha (BR-IX), the intrinsically asymmetric bile pigment associated with jaundice and the symmetrically substituted bilirubins (bilirubin-IIIalpha and mesobilirubin-XIIIalpha), when they are irradiated in aqueous solution bound to human serum albumin (HSA). The same study was performed for BR-IX in ammoniacal methanol solution (NH4OH/MeOH). The quantum yields of the configurational photoprocesses were fitted with a combination function of the two Gaussian bands normalized to the total absorption, using the proportionality coefficients and a scaling factor as parameters. The decrease of the (4Z, 15Z) rightarrow (4Z, 15E) quantum yield with increasing wavelength, which occurs for wavelengths longer than the most probable Franck-Condon transition of the molecule, did not result in a unique function of the exciton absorptions. In particular we found two ranges corresponding to different exciton interactions with different proportionality coefficients and scaling factors. The wavelength-dependent photoisomerization of bilirubins was described as an abrupt change in quantum yield as soon as the resulting excitation was strongly localized in each chromophore. The change was correlated to a variation of the interaction between the two chromophores when the short-wavelength exciton absorption became vanishingly small. With the help of the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of BR-IX in HSA, a small band was resolved in the bilirubin absorption spectrum, delivering part of the energy required for the (4Z, 15Z) rightarrow (4Z, 15E) photoisomerization of the molecule.

  8. Novel Cross-Band Relative Absorption (CoBRA) technique For Measuring Atmospheric Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, N. S.; Pliutau, D.

    2013-12-01

    We describe a methodology called Cross-Band Relative Absorption (CoBRA) we have implemented to significantly reduce interferences due to variations in atmospheric temperature and pressure in molecular mixing ration measurements [1-4]. The interference reduction is achieved through automatic compensation based on selecting spectral line pairs exhibiting similar evolution behavior under varying atmospheric conditions. The method is applicable to a wide range of molecules including CO2 and CH4 which can be matched with O2 or any other well-mixed atmospheric molecule. Such matching results in automatic simultaneous adjustments of the spectral line shapes at all times with a high precision under varying atmospheric conditions of temperature and pressure. We present the results of our selected CoBRA analysis based on line-by-line calculations and the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset including more recent evaluation of the error contributions due to water vapor interference effects. References: 1) N. S. Prasad, D. Pliutau, 'Cross-band relative absorption technique for the measurement of molecular mixing ratios.', Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 11, pp. 13279-13292 (2013) 2) D. Pliutau and N. S. Prasad, "Cross-band Relative Absorption Technique for Molecular Mixing Ratio Determination," in CLEO: 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CW3L.4. 3) Denis Pliutau; Narasimha S. Prasad; 'Semi-empirical validation of the cross-band relative absorption technique for the measurement of molecular mixing ratios',.Proc. SPIE 8731, Laser Radar Technology and Applications XVIII, 87310L (May 20, 2013); doi:10.1117/12.2016661. 4) Denis Pliutau,; Narasimha S. Prasad; 'Comparative analysis of alternative spectral bands of CO2 and O2 for the sensing of CO2 mixing ratios' Proc. SPIE 8718, Advanced Environmental, Chemical, and Biological Sensing Technologies X, 87180L (May 31, 2013); doi:10.1117/12.2016337.

  9. Quantum oscillations of plasma absorption intensity in electron-hole droplets in germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaiats, V. A.; Kononenko, V. L.; Murzin, V. N.

    An experimental study of infrared radiation absorption intensity in the plasma resonance region of electron-hole droplets in germanium is presented. The study was carried out at a temperature of 1.5 K at magnetic field strengths up to 40 kOe for three magnetic field orientations, /100/, /110/, and /111/. Periodic variations of absorption intensity observed at 5-25 kOe are found to be associated with quantum oscillations of the thermodynamic properties of electron-hole droplets, particularly the equilibrium density of particles in the plasma. In addition, changes of resonant absorption intensity in the droplets are associated with changes of the total number of carriers in the condensed phase; these latter changes are related to oscillations of carrier lifetime in the electron-hole droplets.

  10. Intensity and Self-Broadening Measurements of the 01(exp 1)21-00(exp 0)01 CO2 Perpendicular Band at 5315/cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, Lawrence P.; Chackerian, Charles, Jr.; Spencer, Mark N.; Brown, Linda R.; Wattson, Richard B.; Gore, Warren I. Y. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The near-infrared thermal emission windows in the spectrum of the night-side of Venus have stimulated new determinations of the intensities of weak CO2 bands which are prominent absorption features in Venus spectra. Parameters for many unmeasured bands have been recomputed for the HITRAN compilation using direct numerical diagonalization (DND) [Wattson and Rothman, J.Q.S.R.T. 48, 763 (1992)]. To assess these HITRAN values, we have been measuring several of these bands on spectra which were obtained using the Kitt Peak McMath FTS and 6-meter White cell. Last year we presented preliminary intensity measurements of the 01(exp 1)21-00(exp 0)01 perpendicular band and 4 associated hot bands, Five additional McMath FTS spectra have now been obtained covering the region 3800 to 8400/cm. This permits us to finalize our intensity measurements, and to make an assessment of their uncertainties. We anticipate that these measured values will help improve further DND calculations of many weak unmeasureable bands. In addition, self-broadening parameters were determined for some lines of the 01(exp 1)21-00(exp 0)01 perpendicular band on spectra obtained with 65 and 80 torr of CO2. Because of the large spectral range, these measurements could be compared directly to self-broadening parameters of corresponding parallel. band lines measured on the same spectra. This procedure eliminates several possible sources of systematic errors that are important when attempting to determine whether or not corresponding rotational lines in different overtone-combination bands have significant differences. Our measurements thus far have found self-broadening parameters for the 01(exp 1)21-00(exp 0)01 perpendicular band to be slightly larger than similar measurements for the 30(exp 0)14-00(exp 0)01 parallel band at 6076/cm.

  11. Absorption of Narrow-Gap HgCdTe Near the Band Edge Including Nonparabolicity and the Urbach Tail

    E-print Network

    Flatte, Michael E.

    Absorption of Narrow-Gap HgCdTe Near the Band Edge Including Nonparabolicity and the Urbach Tail, USA. 6.--e-mail: yonchang@uic.edu An analytical model describing the absorption behavior of Hg1-x. This model smoothly fits experimental absorption coefficients over energies ranging from the Urbach tail

  12. Phase Angle Effects on 3-micron Absorption Band on Ceres: Implications for Dawn Mission

    E-print Network

    Takir, Driss; Sanchez, Juan A; Corre, Lucille Le; Hardersen, Paul S; Nathues, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Phase angle-induced spectral effects are important to characterize since they affect spectral band parameters such as band depth and band center, and therefore skew mineralogical interpretations of planetary bodies via reflectance spectroscopy. Dwarf planet (1) Ceres is the next target of NASA's Dawn mission, which is expected to arrive in March 2015. The visible and near-infrared mapping spectrometer (VIR) onboard Dawn has the spatial and spectral range to characterize the surface between 0.25-5.0 microns. Ceres has an absorption feature at 3.0 microns due to hydroxyl- and/or water-bearing minerals (e.g. Lebofsky et al. 1981, Rivkin et al. 2003). We analyzed phase angle-induced spectral effects on the 3-micron absorption band on Ceres using spectra measured with the long-wavelength cross-dispersed (LXD: 1.9-4.2 microns) mode of the SpeX spectrograph/imager at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Ceres LXD spectra were measured at different phase angles ranging from 0.7o to 22o. We found that the band...

  13. Is a pyrene-like molecular ion the cause of the 4,430-angstroms diffuse interstellar absorption band?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, F.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    The diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs), ubiquitous absorption features in astronomical spectra, have been known since early this century and now number more than a hundred. Ranging from 4,400 angstroms to the near infrared, they differ markedly in depth, width and shape, making the concept of a single carrier unlikely. Whether they are due to gas or grains is not settled, but recent results suggest that the DIB carriers are quite separate from the grains that cause visual extinction. Among molecular candidates the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been proposed as the possible carriers of some of the DIBs, and we present here laboratory measurements of the optical spectrum of the pyrene cation C16H10+ in neon and argon matrices. The strongest absorption feature falls at 4,435 +/- 5 angstroms in the argon matrix and 4,395 +/- 5 angstroms in the neon matrix, both close to the strong 4,430-angstroms DIB. If this or a related pyrene-like species is responsible for this particular band, it must account for 0.2% of all cosmic carbon. The ion also shows an intense but puzzling broad continuum, extending from the ultraviolet to the visible, similar to what is seen in the naphthalene cation and perhaps therefore a common feature of all PAH cations. This may provide an explanation of how PAHs convert a large fraction of interstellar radiation from ultraviolet and visible wavelengths down to the infrared.

  14. Is a pyrene-like molecular ion the cause of the 4,430-angstroms diffuse interstellar absorption band?

    PubMed

    Salama, F; Allamandola, L J

    1992-07-01

    The diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs), ubiquitous absorption features in astronomical spectra, have been known since early this century and now number more than a hundred. Ranging from 4,400 angstroms to the near infrared, they differ markedly in depth, width and shape, making the concept of a single carrier unlikely. Whether they are due to gas or grains is not settled, but recent results suggest that the DIB carriers are quite separate from the grains that cause visual extinction. Among molecular candidates the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been proposed as the possible carriers of some of the DIBs, and we present here laboratory measurements of the optical spectrum of the pyrene cation C16H10+ in neon and argon matrices. The strongest absorption feature falls at 4,435 +/- 5 angstroms in the argon matrix and 4,395 +/- 5 angstroms in the neon matrix, both close to the strong 4,430-angstroms DIB. If this or a related pyrene-like species is responsible for this particular band, it must account for 0.2% of all cosmic carbon. The ion also shows an intense but puzzling broad continuum, extending from the ultraviolet to the visible, similar to what is seen in the naphthalene cation and perhaps therefore a common feature of all PAH cations. This may provide an explanation of how PAHs convert a large fraction of interstellar radiation from ultraviolet and visible wavelengths down to the infrared. PMID:11536498

  15. Rotational profiles of molecular absorption bands in astrophysically relevant conditions: ab-initio approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloci, G.; Mulas, G.; Cappellini, G.; Satta, G.; Porceddu, I.; Benvenuti, P.

    2004-05-01

    A theoretical study of rotational profiles of molecular absorption bands is essential for direct comparison with observations of diffuse interstellar bands. Applications using a Gaussian quantum-chemical approach within density functional theory are presented. Structural and vibrational properties of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ovalene cation (C32H14+) are obtained. We discuss the expected profile of the first electronic transition of such molecule, obtained with a Monte Carlo model of its rotation in the physical conditions of low temperatures and absence of collisions which are characteristic of the interstellar medium.

  16. Rotational Profiles of Molecular Absorption Bands in Astrophysically Relevant Conditions: Ab-Initio Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Malloci, Giuliano; Mulas, Giacomo; Cappellini, Giancarlo; Satta, Guido; Porceddu, Ignazio; Benvenuti, Piero

    2004-05-01

    A theoretical study of rotational profiles of molecular absorption bands is essential for direct comparison with observations of diffuse interstellar bands. Applications using gaussian quantum-chemical approach within DFT are presented. Structural and vibrational properties of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ovalene cation (C32H14+) are obtained. We discuss the expected profile of the first electronic transition of such molecule, obtained with a Monte Carlo model of its rotation in the physical conditions of low temperatures and absence of collisions which are characteristic of the interstellar medium (ISM).

  17. Parallel LC circuit model for multi-band absorption and preliminary design of radiative cooling.

    PubMed

    Feng, Rui; Qiu, Jun; Liu, Linhua; Ding, Weiqiang; Chen, Lixue

    2014-12-15

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of multi-band absorption by exciting magnetic polaritons in the infrared region. According to the independent properties of the magnetic polaritons, we propose a parallel inductance and capacitance(PLC) circuit model to explain and predict the multi-band resonant absorption peaks, which is fully validated by using the multi-sized structure with identical dielectric spacing layer and the multilayer structure with the same strip width. More importantly, we present the application of the PLC circuit model to preliminarily design a radiative cooling structure realized by merging several close peaks together. This omnidirectional and polarization insensitive structure is a good candidate for radiative cooling application. PMID:25607485

  18. An alternative model for photodynamic therapy of cancers: Hot-band absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Chen, Jiyao

    2013-12-01

    The sulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPcS), a photosensitizer for photodynamic cancer therapy (PDT), has an absorption tail in the near-infrared region (700-900 nm) which is so-called hot band absorption (HBA). With the HBA of 800 nm, the up-conversion excitation of AlPcS was achieved followed by the anti-Stocks emission (688 nm band) and singlet oxygen production. The HBA PDT of AlPcS seriously damaged the KB and HeLa cancer cells, with a typical light dose dependent mode. Particularly, the in vitro experiments with the AlPcS shielding solutions further showed that the HBA PDT can overcome a self-shielding effect benefiting the PDT applications.

  19. Three-dimensional wave packet studies of ozone photodissociation in the Hartley band: Converged autocorrelation functions and absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, N.; Billing, G. D.

    1994-08-01

    We report fully converged autocorrelation functions governing the photodissociation of ozone in the Hartley band, by an exact solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. A local-mode representation employing hyperspherical coordinates has been used for describing the dynamics. Two different potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been employed in the present investigation, and the results showed sensitivity to the choice of the PES. Our converged calculation for J=0 on the Sheppard-Walker PES near quantitatively reproduced the characteristic recurrence features in the autocorrelation function obtained by Johnson and Kinsey from the experimental spectrum of Freeman et al. This is in contrast to previously reported three-dimensional calculations which showed a factor of 10 higher recurrence intensities compared to the experimentally derived one. The absorption spectrum, obtained as the Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function, is in excellent agreement with the experimental spectrum and exhibits the unique features seen on top of the experimental spectrum, which has caused considerable theoretical interest over recent years. Calculations on the Yamashita-Morokuma surface showed a factor of 5 higher intensity for the recurrence features, in agreement with existing three-dimensional calculations. The effect of J on the autocorrelation function has also been investigated by carrying out a calculation for J=10 and invoking a planar approximation. The J effect became noticeable only at a later time (t?150 fs) of the dissociation process and its effect on the absorption spectrum was found to be only marginal.

  20. Is a pyrene-like molecular ion the cause of the 4,430-A diffuse interstellar absorption band?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, F.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    The diffuse interstellar band (DIB) absorption features of astronomical spectra are suggested by recent results to be separable from the grains that cause visual extinction. Attention is presently given to laboratory measurements of the optical spectrum of the pyrene cation C16H10(+), which is one of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecular candidates proposed as carriers for DIBs. This ion exhibits an intense but strangely broad continuum similar to that of the naphthalene cation, so that this may be a common feature of all PAH cations and the basis of an explanation for PAHs' converting of an interstellar radiation fraction as large as that from the UV and visible range down to the IR.

  1. Optical Absorption and Modification of Band Edges in Irradiated GaP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Tamio; Nakanishi, Yoshishige; Wada, Takao

    1982-11-01

    GaP crystals were irradiated by 10 MeV electrons to a maximum dose of 3.5× 1019 electrons/cm2 or by fast neutrons to investigate the effects of radiation-induced defects on the band edges. The “below-gap” and “near-edge” absorptions of the irradiated GaP increase with the electron or neutron dose. The optical gap shrinkage between the parabolic bands is directly proportional to the 2/3 power of the radiation defect density. The photoconduction gap was obtained as the onset of transitions between delocalized states from the photoconduction spectra. The defectinduced photoconduction gap shrinkage is (20± 5) meV, while the optical gap shrinkage is ˜67 meV for a dose ?{=}1× 1017 electrons/cm2. Thus the deeper states of about 2/3 of the parabolic bands penetrating into the original gap by the defects are localized.

  2. Set of new radiation-induced IR absorption bands in the neutron-irradiate FZ-Si crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Qi Mingwei; Shi Tiansheng; Bai Guoren; Xie Leiming; Cai Peixin; Gao Jijin; Li Shiling

    1986-10-01

    In the neutron-irradiated N-type FZ crystal, a set of new radiation-induced IR absorption bands are observed at the low-frequency side of the 2770 cm/sup -1/ band related to the divacancy. These bands have not been previously reported in the literature. The properties and the annealing behavior of this set of IR bands are investigated and presented.

  3. A Group Increment Scheme for Infrared Absorption Intensities of Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kokkila, Sara I.; Bera, Partha P.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    A molecule's absorption in the atmospheric infrared (IR) window (IRW) is an indicator of its efficiency as a greenhouse gas. A model for estimating the absorption of a fluorinated molecule within the IRW was developed to assess its radiative impact. This model will be useful in comparing different hydrofluorocarbons and hydrofluoroethers contribution to global warming. The absorption of radiation by greenhouse gases, in particular hydrofluoroethers and hydrofluorocarbons, was investigated using ab initio quantum mechanical methods. Least squares regression techniques were used to create a model based on this data. The placement and number of fluorines in the molecule were found to affect the absorption in the IR window and were incorporated into the model. Several group increment models are discussed. An additive model based on one-carbon groups is found to work satisfactorily in predicting the ab initio calculated vibrational intensities.

  4. Representative wavelengths absorption parameterization applied to satellite channels and spectral bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasteiger, J.; Emde, C.; Mayer, B.; Buras, R.; Buehler, S. A.; Lemke, O.

    2014-11-01

    Accurate modeling of wavelength-integrated radiative quantities, e.g. integrated over a spectral band or an instrument channel response function, requires computations for a large number of wavelengths if the radiation is affected by gas absorption which typically comprises a complex line structure. In order to increase computational speed of modeling radiation in the Earth's atmosphere, we parameterized wavelength-integrals as weighted means over representative wavelengths. We parameterized spectral bands of different widths (1 cm-1, 5 cm-1, and 15 cm-1) in the solar and thermal spectral range, as well as a number of instrument channels on the ADEOS, ALOS, EarthCARE, Envisat, ERS, Landsat, MSG, PARASOL, Proba, Sentinel, Seosat, and SPOT satellites. A root mean square relative deviation lower than 1% from a “training data set” was selected as the accuracy threshold for the parameterization of each band and channel. The training data set included high spectral resolution calculations of radiances at the top of atmosphere for a set of highly variable atmospheric states including clouds and aerosols. The gas absorption was calculated from the HITRAN 2004 spectroscopic data set and state-of-the-art continuum models using the ARTS radiative transfer model. Three representative wavelengths were required on average to fulfill the accuracy threshold. We implemented the parameterized spectral bands and satellite channels in the uvspec radiative transfer model which is part of the libRadtran software package. The parameterization data files, including the representative wavelengths and weights as well as lookup tables of absorption cross sections of various gases, are provided at the libRadtran webpage. In the paper we describe the parameterization approach and its application. We validate the approach by comparing modeling results of parameterized bands and channels with results from high spectral resolution calculations for atmospheric states that were not part of the training data set. Irradiances are not only compared at the top of atmosphere but also at the surface for which this parameterization approach was not optimized. It is found that the parameterized bands and channels provide a good compromise between computation time requirements and uncertainty for typical radiative transfer problems. In particular for satellite radiometer simulations the computation time requirement and the parameterization uncertainty is low. Band-integrated irradiances at any level as well as heating and cooling rates below 20 km can also be modeled with low uncertainty.

  5. Unusual Band-Edge Photoluminescence Intensity Emitted by Cu-Diffused Silicon Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Minoru; Murakami, Susumu

    2010-06-01

    Band-edge photoluminescence (BDE-PL) intensities of Czochralski (Cz) and float-zone (FZ)-grown silicon crystals diffused with Cu were observed from room temperature (RT) to 4.2 K. In contrast to the behavior of ordinary transition metals, unexpected enhancements of the BDE-PL intensities of both Cz and FZ samples were observed at RT in an appropriate Cu concentration range. For the observation temperature of 77 K, however, while the BDE-PL intensity of the Cz sample increased following the same trend as that observed at RT, the intensity of the FZ sample abruptly decreased given the same Cu concentration range as that of the Cz sample. The marked difference in the BDE-PL intensities between Cz and FZ samples was also observed with the change in the diffusion temperature of Cu. These unusual BDE-PL intensities were well explained on the basis of two competitive actions of Cu: the intensity enhancement due to surface passivation by Cu and the intensity reduction caused by a deep-level Cu center formed in the bulk.

  6. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER: Collisionless absorption of intense laser radiation in nanoplasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaretsky, D. F.; Korneev, Philipp A.; Popruzhenko, Sergei V.

    2007-06-01

    The rate of linear collisionless absorption of an electromagnetic radiation in a nanoplasma — classical electron gas localised in a heated ionised nanosystem (thin film or cluster) irradiated by an intense femtosecond laser pulse — is calculated. The absorption is caused by the inelastic electron scattering from the self-consistent potential of the system in the presence of a laser field. The effect proves to be appreciable because of a small size of the systems. General expressions are obtained for the absorption rate as a function of the parameters of the single-particle self-consistent potential and electron distribution function in the regime linear in field. For the simplest cases, where the self-consistent field is created by an infinitely deep well or an infinite charged plane, closed analytic expressions are obtained for the absorption rate. Estimates presented in the paper demonstrate that, over a wide range of the parameters of laser pulses and nanostructures, the collisionless mechanism of heating electron subsystem can be dominant. The possibility of experimental observation of the collisionless absorption of intense laser radiation in nanoplasma is also discussed.

  7. OH- absorption band in LiTaO{3} with varied composition and hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, L.; Yan, W.; Kong, Y.

    2007-10-01

    OH- absorption bands of lithium tantalate crystals have been measured at room temperature, and the bands shape depending on the crystal composition has been observed. OH- absorption bands are fitted with three Lorentzian peaks by varying position, halfwidth, and area. Nearly constant peak positions (3461, 3475 and 3486 cm-1) for all samples are obtained. Hydrogenation is also performed to the crystals and its influence on the decomposed peaks (position, halfwidth and area) is investigated. The results show the fitting parameters of peaks have different values for crystals with different hydrogen concentration, which is interpreted by the different sites occupied by H+ in terms of the modified model about the location of Li-vacancy in the lattice. Additionally, it is shown that the halfwidth of peak at 3461 cm-1 remain unchanged regardless of hydrogen concentration, which make this parameter more suitable than other ones to determine the composition of LiTaO{3} crystals. The quantitative relationship between the halfwidth of peak at 3461 cm-1 and the crystal composition is also presented.

  8. Sharp, temperature dependent OH\\/OD IR-absorption bands in nearly stoichiometric (VTE) LiNbO 3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Grone; S. Kapphan

    1995-01-01

    In comparison with congruent LiNbO3 the OH\\/OD IR-absorption bands in the bulk of nearly stoichiometric LiNbO3 (prepared by the VTE technique) are about an order of magnitude narrower at room temperature and show a further narrowing to low temperatures. The fundamental stretching absorption band of OH, polarized completely perpendicular to the ferroelectric z-axis (RT at 3465.9 cm?1, FWHM = 3.25cm?1),

  9. A new representation of the absorption by the CO2 15-microns band for a Martian general circulation model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederic Hourdin

    1992-01-01

    A model for absorption by the CO2 15-microns band has been adapted from the Morcrette et al. (1986) terrestrial wide-band model for use in a general circulation model of the Martian atmosphere. The absorption model is validated by comparison with exact line-by-line integrations for a set of atmospheric profiles characteristic of Martian conditions. The Doppler effect is included in a

  10. Sub and Super-Luminal Propagation of Intense Pulses in Media with Saturated and Reverse Absorption

    E-print Network

    G. S. Agarwal; T. N. Dey

    2003-07-30

    We develop models for the propagation of intense pulses in solid state media which can have either saturated absorption or exhibit reverse absorption . We show that the experiments of Bigelow {\\it et al.}[Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 90}, 113903 (2003); Science {\\bf 301}, 200 (2003).] on subluminal propagation in Ruby and superluminal propagation in Alexandrite are well explained by modelling them as three level and four level systems coupled to Maxwell equations. We present results well beyond the traditional pump-probe approach.

  11. Sub- and Superluminal Propagation of Intense Pulses in Media with Saturated and Reverse Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, G. S.; Dey, Tarak Nath

    2004-05-01

    We develop models for the propagation of intense pulses in solid state media which can have either saturated absorption or reverse absorption. We model subluminal propagation in ruby and superluminal propagation in alexandrite as three and four level systems, respectively, coupled to Maxwell's equations. We present results well beyond the traditional pump-probe approach and explain the experiments of Bigelow et al. [

    Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-9007 90, 113903 (2003); 10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.113903
    ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 301, 200 (2003)
    ] on solid state materials.

  12. Sub and Super-Luminal Propagation of Intense Pulses in Media with Saturated and Reverse Absorption

    E-print Network

    Agarwal, G S

    2004-01-01

    We develop models for the propagation of intense pulses in solid state media which can have either saturated absorption or exhibit reverse absorption . We show that the experiments of Bigelow {\\it et al.}[Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 90}, 113903 (2003); Science {\\bf 301}, 200 (2003).] on subluminal propagation in Ruby and superluminal propagation in Alexandrite are well explained by modelling them as three level and four level systems coupled to Maxwell equations. We present results well beyond the traditional pump-probe approach.

  13. Dual band microwave ferromagnetic resonance absorption in annealed cobalt nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Lixin; Meng, Siqin; Shi, Yunzhou; Zhang, Yao; Yue, Zhenxing; Li, Longtu

    2014-11-01

    In this letter, we present a dual band microwave absorption phenomenon in 60 nm diameter Co ferromagnetic nanowire arrays annealed at 500 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. The frequency dependent microwave response of the wires is obtained for applied field parallel to the nanowire axis, below 4 kOe and above saturation magnetization up to 8 kOe, in steps of 1 kOe. For applied magnetic fields above saturation magnetization, two sets of absorption peaks are observed, while below saturation, only one single peak is obtained. Combining structural characterization and ferromagnetic resonance measurements, it is proven that the two ferromagnetic resonance peaks are associated with a coexistence of two kinds of nanopillars with different crystal structure in annealed nanowires, one for nanopillars with hexagonal close packed structure at higher ferromagnetic resonance frequency, and the other with face center cubic structure.

  14. Photodoping and enhanced visible light absorption in single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with a wide band gap oligomer.

    PubMed

    Bunes, Benjamin R; Xu, Miao; Zhang, Yaqiong; Gross, Dustin E; Saha, Avishek; Jacobs, Daniel L; Yang, Xiaomei; Moore, Jeffrey S; Zang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes feature excellent electronic properties but narrow absorption bands limit their utility in certain optoelectronic devices, including photovoltaic cells. Here, the addition of a wide-bandgap gap oligomer enhances light absorption in the visible spectrum. Furthermore, the oligomer interacts with the carbon nanotube through a peculiar charge transfer, which provides insight into Type II heterojunctions. PMID:25367178

  15. Laser measurements of ozone absorption cross sections in the Chappuis band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Stuart M.; Mauersberger, Konrad

    1992-01-01

    A sensitive spectrometer has been developed that exploits several He-Ne laser transitions in the visible for precise, high resolution measurements of Chappuis band ozone absorption cross sections at room temperature. An overall uncertainty of better than one percent has been achieved through a combination of transducer calibrations and an experimental technique that unambiguously determines the impurity content of each ozone sample. Results compare favorably with those from most previous analyses in the visible range, though some are obviously lower than this consensus due probably to errors in ozone density measurements.

  16. Theoretical modeling of low-energy electronic absorption bands in reduced cobaloximes.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Dempsey, Jillian L; Gray, Harry B; Fujita, Etsuko; Muckerman, James T; Fontecave, Marc; Artero, Vincent; Arantes, Guilherme M; Field, Martin J

    2014-10-01

    The reduced Co(I) states of cobaloximes are powerful nucleophiles that play an important role in the hydrogen-evolving catalytic activity of these species. In this work we analyze the low-energy electronic absorption bands of two cobaloxime systems experimentally and use a variety of density functional theory and molecular orbital ab initio quantum chemical approaches. Overall we find a reasonable qualitative understanding of the electronic excitation spectra of these compounds but show that obtaining quantitative results remains a challenging task. PMID:25113847

  17. The Fundamental Quadrupole Band of (14)N2: Line Positions from High-Resolution Stratospheric Solar Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Zander, R.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Grunson, M. R.; Farmer, C. B.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to report accurate measurements of the positions of O- and S-branch lines of the (1-0) vibration-rotation quadrupole band of molecular nitrogen ((14)N2) and improved Dunham coefficients derived from a simultaneous least-squares analysis of these measurements and selected infrared and far infrared data taken from the literature. The new measurements have been derived from stratospheric solar occultation spectra recorded with Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) instruments operated at unapodized spectral resolutions of 0.002 and 0.01 /cm. The motivation for the present investigation is the need for improved N2 line parameters for use in IR atmospheric remote sensing investigations. The S branch of the N2 (1-0) quadrupole band is ideal for calibrating the line-of-sight airmasses of atmospheric spectra since the strongest lines are well placed in an atmospheric window, their absorption is relatively insensitive to temperature and is moderately strong (typical line center depths of 10 to 50% in high-resolution ground-based solar spectra and in lower stratospheric solar occultation spectra), and the volume mixing ratio of nitrogen is constant in the atmosphere and well known. However, a recent investigation has'shown the need to improve the accuracies of the N2 fine positions, intensities, air-broadened half-widths, and their temperature dependences to fully exploit this calibration capability (1). The present investigation addresses the problem of improving the accuracy of the N2 line positions.

  18. Correlation of two diamagnetic bands of the magnetic circular dichroism of the optical absorption with EL20 in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wietzke, K. H.; Koschnick, F. K.; Krambrock, K.

    1997-10-01

    In a previous investigation, a diamagnetic band of the magnetic circular dichroism of the optical absorption (MCDA) in semi-insulating GaAs centered at 1.19 eV was observed and attributed to the neutral diamagnetic charge state of EL2, EL20. In this letter, we show a direct correlation between the signal intensities of two diamagnetic MCDA bands located at 0.93 and 1.19 eV and the concentration of neutral diamagnetic EL20 centers in different GaAs samples. A calibration factor is presented for the absolute MCDA intensities. This opens up the possibility of measuring the concentrations of EL20 and EL2+ using the same technique.

  19. Red-shift law of intense laser-induced electro-absorption in solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hong-Xiang; Zu, Hao-Yue; Wu, Shao-Yi; Sun, Kai; Zu, Xiao-Tao

    2014-02-01

    A theoretical study on the red-shift of laser-induced electro-absorption is presented. It is found that laser-induced red-shift scales with the cube root of the pump laser intensity in the optical tunneling regime and has an obvious deviation from this scale in the multi-photon regime. Our results show that in the optical tunneling regime, the laser-induced red shift has the same law as that in the direct current (DC) approximation. Though the scales are the same in the optical tunneling regime, the physical pictures in the two cases are quite different. The electro-absorption in the DC case is a tunneling-assisted transition process, while the laser-induced electro-absorption is a mixed multi-photon process.

  20. A constant intensity technique to improve the performances of devices based on direct absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montori, A.; De Pas, M.; Giuntini, M.; Siciliani De Cumis, M.; Viciani, S.; D'Amato, F.

    2015-03-01

    Abstract We describe an all-in-fibre apparatus for Constant Intensity Direct Absorption Spectroscopy (CIDAS) for gas concentration measurements which keeps the power of a diode laser constant along the frequency sweep. The reduction of the large variation of the laser power, connected to the frequency scan, enhances the ability of detecting small variations in a background signal, resulting in an increase of the sensitivity with respect to standard direct absorption techniques. Moreover, CIDAS allows for a real-time observation of the absorption signals without any kind of post-detection processing. The apparatus has been tested with carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), around 1.57 and 1.65 ?m, respectively.

  1. Collision-induced absorption of the first overtone bands of hydrogen and deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Kharma, Mahmoud Hasan

    Enhancement spectra of the collision-induced absorption (CIA) of H 2 in its first overtone region 7500 - 9500 cm-1 in binary mixtures H2 - N2 and H2 - CO were studied at 298 K for base densities of H2 in the range 89 - 145 amagat and for partial densities of N2 and CO in the range 19 - 392 amagat. The observed spectra consist of the quadrupolar double transitions: Q 2(J) (H2) + S0(J), O0(J) and Q0(J) (N 2/CO), O2(J) (H2) + Q0( J) (N2/CO) and S2(J) (H 2) + Q0(J) (N2/CO) with J = 0 to 4 for H2 and J = 1 to 25 for N2/CO. Enhancement absorption profiles of H2-N 2 and H2-CO were modelled by a total of 434 components of quadrupolar double transitions. The observed spectra agree with theoretical spectra and confirm that the isotropic overlap induction is absent in the 2 - 0 band of H2 unlike in the CIA spectra of the fundamental band of H2. The present analysis also confirms that there is no contribution from the electric dipole of CO to the induction mechanism in H2 - CO mixtures. CIA spectra in the first overtone region from 5250 to 7250 cm -1 of pure D2 were studied at 77, 201 and 298 K. The observed spectra were modelled by a total of 92, 214 and 267 components of double vibrational transitions respectively. Enhancement spectra of the CIA in the first overtone region 5000 to 7000 cm-1 of D2 in D2 - N2 were studied at 298 K for a base density of D2 of 73 amagat and for partial densities of N2 in the range 150 - 370 amagat. The observed spectra were modelled with a total of 1176 components of double vibrational transitions. Enhancement spectra of the CIA in the first overtone region 5500 to 6750 cm-1 of D2 in the D 2-Ar, D2-Kr and D2-Xe binary mixtures were studied at room temperature for base densities of D2 in the range 55 to 251 amagat and for partial densities of Ar, Kr and Xe in the range 46 to 384 amagat. The observed spectra consist of the following quadrupolar transitions: O2(3), O2(2), Q2 (J), J = 1 to 5 and S2(J), J = 0 to 5 of D2. The observed spectra confirm that the isotropic overlap interaction does not contribute to the absorption of the first overtone band, unlike in the CIA spectra of the fundamental band. The binary and ternary absorption coefficients were determined from the integrated absorption coefficients of the band. Profile analysis of the observed spectra was carried out using the Birnbaum-Cohen line shape function for each component of the band and the characteristic half-width parameters delta1 and delta 2 for the transitions were determined.

  2. ABSORPTION AND PHOTOIONIZATION CROSS SECTIONS OF COâ, CO, Ar, AND He AT INTENSE SOLAR EMISSION LINES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Cairns; James A. R. Samson

    1965-01-01

    Photoionization and total absorption cross sections have been measured for CO.., CO, Ar, and I-Ie at the wavelengths in the region 1040 A to 300 A which correspond to intense solar emission lines. The wavelength resolution, determined from the measured width of each of the spectral lines generated within the light sources, was in the range 0.04 to 0.1 A.

  3. The effect of metal binding on the characteristic infrared band intensities of ligands of biological interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudev, Todor; Lim, Carmay

    2012-02-01

    Since ˜40% of all proteins contain metal ions that perform a wide variety of functions indispensable for life processes, a plethora of experimental and theoretical methods have probed the interactions between metal ions and protein residues. Notably, previous studies have focused on how metal binding affects the protein ligands' vibrational frequencies, but not the corresponding intensities (to the best of our knowledge), even though the latter are generally much more sensitive to structural and environmental alterations than the former. Hence, we have systematically evaluated how metal binding affects not only the protein ligands' vibrational frequencies, but also the corresponding intensities and how these IR parameters depend on properties of the metal and its host ligand using density functional calculations. The results reveal that for a given protein ligand, the IR intensities, particularly those corresponding to bands without vibrational mode mixing, are quite sensitive to metal binding, and their changes are dictated by the metal's charge-accepting ability and the ligand's denticity. The results suggest that IR band intensities, along with vibrational frequencies, may be used to help interpret the IR spectra of protein binding sites in the metal-free and metal-bound states.

  4. Absolute Rovibrational Intensities for the Chi(sup 1)Sigma(sup +) v=3 <-- 0 Band of (12)C(16)O Obtained with Kitt Peak and BOMEM FTS Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chackerian, Charles, Jr.; Kshirsagar, R. J.; Giver, L. P.; Brown, L. R.; Condon, Estelle P. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This work was initiated to compare absolute line intensities retrieved with the Kitt Peak FTS (Fourier Transform Spectrometer) and Ames BOMEM FTS. Since thermal contaminations can be a problem using the BOMEM instrument if proper precautions are not taken it was thought that measurements done at 6300 per cm would more easily result in satisfactory intercomparisons. Very recent measurements of the CO 3 <-- 0 band fine intensities confirms results reported here that the intensities listed in HITRAN (High Resolution Molecular Absorption Database) for this band are on the order of six to seven percent too low. All of the infrared intensities in the current HITRAN tabulation are based on the electric dipole moment function reported fifteen years ago. The latter in turn was partly based on intensities for the 3 <-- 0 band reported thirty years ago. We have, therefore, redetermined the electric dipole moment function of ground electronic state CO.

  5. Nanosecond light induced, thermally tunable transient dual absorption bands in a-Ge5As30Se65 thin film

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Pritam; Saxena, Tarun; Jain, H.; Adarsh, K. V.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we report the first observation of nanosecond laser induced transient dual absorption bands, one in the bandgap (TA1) and another in the sub-bandgap (TA2) regions of a-Ge5As30Se65 thin films. Strikingly, these bands are thermally tunable and exhibit a unique contrasting characteristic: the magnitude of TA1 decreases while that of TA2 increases with increasing temperature. Further, the decay kinetics of these bands is strongly influenced by the temperature, which signifies a strong temperature dependent exciton recombination mechanism. The induced absorption shows quadratic and the decay time constant shows linear dependence on the laser beam fluence. PMID:25300520

  6. Absorption coefficients for the 6190-A CH4 band between 290 and 100 K with application to Uranus' atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Wm. Hayden; Conner, Charles P.; Baines, Kevin H.

    1990-01-01

    A novel laser intracavity photoacoustic spectroscopy method allowing high sample control accuracy due to the small sample volume required has been used to obtain absorption coefficients for the CH4 6190 A band as a function of temperature, from 290 to 100 K. The peak absorption coefficient is found to increase from 0.6 to 1.0/cm, and to be accompanied by significant band shape changes. When used to further constrain the Baines and Bergstrahl (1986) standard model of the Uranus atmosphere, the low-temperature data yield an excellent fit to the bandshape near the 6190 A band's minimum.

  7. Absorption coefficients for the 6190-A CH sub 4 band between 290 and 100 K with application to Uranus' atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, WM.H.; Conner, C.P.; Baines, K.H. (Washington Univ., Saint Louis, MO (USA) JPL, Pasadena, CA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    A novel laser intracavity photoacoustic spectroscopy method allowing high sample control accuracy due to the small sample volume required has been used to obtain absorption coefficients for the CH{sub 4} 6190 A band as a function of temperature, from 290 to 100 K. The peak absorption coefficient is found to increase from 0.6 to 1.0/cm, and to be accompanied by significant band shape changes. When used to further constrain the Baines and Bergstrahl (1986) standard model of the Uranus atmosphere, the low-temperature data yield an excellent fit to the bandshape near the 6190 A band's minimum. 18 refs.

  8. Remote sensing of solar-stimulated phytoplankton chlorophyll fluorescence by differential absorption in the oxygen B-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, Robert; Deschamps, Pierre-Yves; Dubuisson, Philippe

    2008-12-01

    A new methodology is proposed to estimate from space the solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence of natural waters. The methodology exploits absorption in the oxygen B-band around 687 nm, located near the peak of fluorescence emission at 685 nm. Inside the oxygen absorption lines, the fluorescence signal enhances the reflected solar radiance. By using a pair of spectral bands inside and outside the absorption region, or more generally spectral bands for which oxygen absorption is sufficiently different, the emitted contribution to the measured radiance can be extracted. Feasibility is demonstrated and retrieval accuracy quantified through simulations of the top-of-atmosphere reflectance by a radiation transfer code that fully accounts for multiple scattering and interactions between scattering and absorption. The differential absorption method works well from just above the surface. Pairs of spectral bands centered on the same wavelength provide the best results. Using spectral bands of 686.8-688.3 nm and 683.1-692.0 nm, the expected accuracy on fluorescence retrievals is <10% for chlorophyll concentrations above 1 mgm-3. Performance is degraded from space, due to the influence of aerosol vertical structure on the oxygen transmittance associated with path reflectance. In this case, knowledge of aerosol reflectance and optical thickness is required, but assuming an average aerosol vertical distribution yields reasonable results. In comparison with the standard baseline technique, significant improvements in retrieval accuracy are expected in Case II waters, especially in the presence of sediments.

  9. Remote sensing of solar-stimulated phytoplankton chlorophyll fluorescence by differential absorption in the oxygen B-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, Robert; Deschamps, Pierre-Yves; Dubuisson, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    A new methodology is proposed to estimate from space the solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence of natural waters. The methodology exploits absorption in the oxygen B-band around 687 nm, located near the peak of fluorescence emission at 685 nm. Inside the oxygen absorption lines, the fluorescence signal enhances the reflected solar radiance. By using a pair of spectral bands inside and outside the absorption region, or more generally spectral bands for which oxygen absorption is sufficiently different, the emitted contribution to the measured radiance can be extracted. Feasibility is demonstrated and retrieval accuracy quantified through simulations of the top-of-atmosphere reflectance by a radiation transfer code that fully accounts for multiple scattering and interactions between scattering and absorption. The differential absorption method works well from just above the surface. Pairs of spectral bands centered on the same wavelength provide the best results. Using spectral bands of 686.8-688.3 nm and 683.1-692.0 nm, the expected accuracy on fluorescence retrievals is <10% for chlorophyll concentrations above 1 mgm-3. Performance is degraded from space, due to the influence of aerosol vertical structure on the oxygen transmittance associated with path reflectance. In this case, knowledge of aerosol reflectance and optical thickness is required, but assuming an average aerosol vertical distribution yields reasonable results. In comparison with the standard baseline technique, significant improvements in retrieval accuracy are expected in Case II waters, especially in the presence of sediments.

  10. Exploration of faint absorption bands in the reflectance spectra of the asteroids by method of optimal smoothing: Vestoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestopalov, D. I.; McFadden, L. A.; Golubeva, L. F.

    2007-04-01

    An optimization method of smoothing noisy spectra was developed to investigate faint absorption bands in the visual spectral region of reflectance spectra of asteroids and the compositional information derived from their analysis. The smoothing algorithm is called "optimal" because the algorithm determines the best running box size to separate weak absorption bands from the noise. The method is tested for its sensitivity to identifying false features in the smoothed spectrum, and its correctness of forecasting real absorption bands was tested with artificial spectra simulating asteroid reflectance spectra. After validating the method we optimally smoothed 22 vestoid spectra from SMASS1 [Xu, Sh., Binzel, R.P., Burbine, T.H., Bus, S.J., 1995. Icarus 115, 1-35]. We show that the resulting bands are not telluric features. Interpretation of the absorption bands in the asteroid spectra was based on the spectral properties of both terrestrial and meteorite pyroxenes. The bands located near 480, 505, 530, and 550 nm we assigned to spin-forbidden crystal field bands of ferrous iron, whereas the bands near 570, 600, and 650 nm are attributed to the crystal field bands of trivalent chromium and/or ferric iron in low-calcium pyroxenes on the asteroids' surface. While not measured by microprobe analysis, Fe 3+ site occupancy can be measured with Mössbauer spectroscopy, and is seen in trace amounts in pyroxenes. We believe that trace amounts of Fe 3+ on vestoid surfaces may be due to oxidation from impacts by icy bodies. If that is the case, they should be ubiquitous in the asteroid belt wherever pyroxene absorptions are found. Pyroxene composition of four asteroids of our set is determined from the band position of absorptions at 505 and 1000 nm, implying that there can be orthopyroxenes in all range of ferruginosity on the vestoid surfaces. For the present we cannot unambiguously interpret of the faint absorption bands that are seen in the spectra of 4005 Dyagilev, 4038 Kristina, 4147 Lennon, and 5143 Heracles. Probably there are other spectrally active materials along with pyroxenes on the surfaces of these asteroids.

  11. Measurements of Band Intensities, Herman-Wallis Parameters, and Self-Broadening Line-Widths of the 30011 - 00001 and 30014 - 00001 Bands of CO2 at 6503 cm(exp -1) and 6076 cm(exp -1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, L. P.; Brown, L. R.; Wattson, R. B.; Spencer, M. N.; Chackerian, C., Jr.; Strawa, Anthony W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Rotationless band intensities and Herman-Wallis parameters are listed in HITRAN tabulations for several hundred CO2 overtone-combination bands. These parameters are based on laboratory measurements when available, and on DND calculations for the unmeasured bands. The DND calculations for the Fermi interacting nv(sub 1) + v(sub 3) polyads show the a(sub 2) Herman-Wallis parameter varying smoothly from a negative value for the first member of the polyad to a positive value for the final member. Measurements of the v(sub 1) + v(sub 3) dyad are consistent with the DND calculations for the a(sub 2) parameter, as are our recent measurements of the 4v(sub 1) + v(sub 3) pentad. However, the measurement-based values in the HITRAN tables for the 2v(sub 1) + v(sub 3) triad and the 3v(sub 1) + v(sub 3) tetrad do not support the DND calculated values for the a(sub 2) parameters. We therefore decided to make new measurements to improve some of these intensity parameters. With the McMath FTS at Kitt Peak National Observatory/National Solar Observatory we recorded several spectra of the. 4000 to 8000 cm(exp -1) region of pure CO2 at 0.011 cm(exp -1) resolution using the 6 meter White absorption cell. The signal/noise and absorbance of the first and fourth bands of the 3v(sub 1) + v(sub 3) tetrad of C-12O-16 were ideal on these spectra for measuring line intensities and broadening widths. Our selfbroadening results agree with the HITRAN parameterization, while our measurements of the rotationless band intensities are about 15% less than the HITRAN values. We find a negative value of a(sub 2) for the 30011-00001 band and a positive value for the 30014-00001 band, whereas the HITRAN values of a(sub 2) are positive for all four tetrad bands. Our a(sub 1) and a(sub 2) Herman-Wallis parameters are closer to DND calculated values than the 1992 HITRAN values for both the 30011-00001 and the 30014-00001 band.

  12. Line Positions and Intensities for the ?12 Band of 13C12CH_6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Sung, Keeyoon; Crawford, Timothy J.; Mantz, Arlan; Smith, Mary Ann H.

    2014-06-01

    High-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of mono-substituted 13C-ethane (13C12CH_6) in the 12.2 ?m region were recorded with a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer. The spectra were obtained for four sample pressures at three different temperatures between 130 and 208 K using a 99% 13C-enriched ethane sample contained in a 20.38-cm long coolable absorption cell. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting technique was used to fit the same intervals in the four spectra simultaneously to determine line positions and intensities. Similar to our previous analyses of 12C_2H_6 spectra in this same region, constraints were applied to accurately fit each pair of doublet components arising from torsional Coriolis interaction of the excited ?12 = 1 state with the nearby torsional ?_6 = 3 state. Line intensities corresponding to each spectrum temperature (130 K, 178 K and 208 K) are reported for 1660 ?12 absorption lines for which the assignments are known, and integrated intensities are estimated as the summation of the measured values. The measured line positions and intensities (re-scaled to 296 K) are compared with values in recent editions of spectroscopic databases. K. Sung, A. W. Mantz, L. R. Brown, et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc., 162 (2010) 124-134. D. C. Benner, C. P. Rinsland, V. Malathy Devi, M. A. H. Smith and D. Atkins, JQSRT, 53 (1995) 705-721. V. Malathy Devi, C. P. Rinsland, D. Chris Benner, et al., JQSRT, 111 (2010) 1234-1251 V. Malathy Devi, D. Chris Benner, C. P. Rinsland, et al., JQSRT, 111 (2010) 2481-2504. Research described in this paper was performed at Connecticut College, the College of William and Mary, NASA Langley Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contracts and cooperative agreements with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  13. Non-uniform sound intensity distributions when measuring absorption coefficients in reverberation chambers using a phased beam tracing.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2010-06-01

    Measured absorption coefficients in reverberation chambers often differ from theoretical random incidence absorption coefficients, because ideal assumptions for the theoretical random incidence absorption coefficient are not fulfilled during measurements in actual reverberation chambers. Therefore sound intensity distributions on absorber under measurement conditions have been simulated using a phased beam tracing, and used as correction functions for reducing discrepancies between the measured and theoretical absorption coefficients. Two reverberation rooms were investigated by assuming that a test specimen was attached to a vertical surface and the floor. The frequency-dependent sound intensity distributions on absorbers were found to be affected by the reverberation chamber geometry and dimensions, the absorption capability of the specimen, and the placement of the specimen. High frequency intensity distributions above 1 kHz were similar for all studied cases, but some variations in low frequency intensity distributions were observed. If the non-uniform intensity distribution and a finite size effect are taken into account for correcting the theoretical absorption coefficients, a good agreement is found between corrected and measured statistical absorption coefficients. The non-uniform sound intensity can account for the discrepancy at high frequencies. PMID:20550256

  14. Compensation for Spherical Geometric and Absorption Effects on Lower Thermospheric Emission Intensities Derived from High Earth Orbit Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, W.; Germany, G. A.; Richards, P. G.; Parks, G. K.; Brittnacher, M.; Spann, J. F., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Remote sensing of the atmosphere from high earth orbit is very attractive due to the large field of view obtained and a true global perspective. This viewpoint is complicated by earth curvature effects so that slant path enhancement and absorption effects, small from low earth orbit, become dominant even at small nadir view angles. The effect is further complicated by the large range of local times and solar zenith angles in a single image leading to a modulation of the image intensity by a significant portion of the diurnal height variation of the absorbing layer. The latter effect is significant in particular for mesospheric, stratospheric and auroral emissions due to their depth in the atmosphere. As a particular case, the emissions from atomic oxygen (130.4 and 135.6 nm) and molecular nitrogen (two LBH bands, LBHS from 140 to 160 nm and LBHL from 160 to 180 nm) as viewed from the Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) are examined. The LBH emissions are of particular interest since LBHS has significant 02 absorption while LBHL does not, In the case of auroral emissions this differential absorption, well examined in the nadir, gives information about the height of the emission and therefore the energy of the precipitating particles. Using simulations of the viewing geometry and images from the UVI we examine these effects and obtain correction factors to adjust to the nadir case with a significant improvement of the derived characteristic energy. There is a surprisingly large effect on the images from the 02 diurnal layer height changes. An empirical compensation to the nadir case is explored based on the local nadir and local zenith angles for each portion of the image. These compensations are demonstrated as applied to the above emissions in both auroral and dayglow images and compared to models. The extension of these findings to other instruments, emissions and spectral regions is examined.

  15. Collision-induced absorption by D2 pairs in the first overtone band at 77, 201 and 298 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Kharma, M.; Gillard, P. G.; Reddy, S. P.

    2006-01-01

    Collision induced absorption (CIA) spectra of pure D2 in the first overtone region from 5250 to 7250 cm^{-1}, recorded at 77, 201 and 298 K, have been analyzed. The observed spectra at 77, 201 and 298 K were modelled by a total of 92, 214 and 267 components respectively of double vibrational transitions at room temperature of the type X2(J)+X0(J) and X1(J)+X1(J), where X is O, Q or S transitions. Profile analyses of the spectra were carried out using the Birnbaum-Cohen line-shape function for the individual components of the band, and characteristic line shape parameters were determined from the analysis. The observed and calculated profiles agree well over the whole overtone band, and the agreement is better than 97% in the three cases studied. Binary and ternary absorption coefficients were determined from the integrated absorption of the band.

  16. VARIABILITY OF WATER AND OXYGEN ABSORPTION BANDS IN THE DISK-INTEGRATED SPECTRA OF EARTH

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yuka; Suto, Yasushi [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Turner, Edwin L., E-mail: yuka.fujii@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We study the variability of major atmospheric absorption features in the disk-integrated spectra of Earth with future application to Earth-analogs in mind, concentrating on the diurnal timescale. We first analyze observations of Earth provided by the EPOXI mission, and find 5%-20% fractional variation of the absorption depths of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} bands, two molecules that have major signatures in the observed range. From a correlation analysis with the cloud map data from the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS), we find that their variation pattern is primarily due to the uneven cloud cover distribution. In order to account for the observed variation quantitatively, we consider a simple opaque cloud model, which assumes that the clouds totally block the spectral influence of the atmosphere below the cloud layer, equivalent to assuming that the incident light is completely scattered at the cloud top level. The model is reasonably successful, and reproduces the EPOXI data from the pixel-level EOS cloud/water vapor data. A difference in the diurnal variability patterns of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} bands is ascribed to the differing vertical and horizontal distribution of those molecular species in the atmosphere. On Earth, the inhomogeneous distribution of atmospheric water vapor is due to the existence of its exchange with liquid and solid phases of H{sub 2}O on the planet's surface on a timescale short compared with atmospheric mixing times. If such differences in variability patterns were detected in spectra of Earth-analogs, it would provide the information on the inhomogeneous composition of their atmospheres.

  17. Variability of Water and Oxygen Absorption Bands in the Disk-Integrated Spectra of the Earth

    E-print Network

    Fujii, Yuka; Suto, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    We study the variability of major atmospheric absorption features in the disk-integrated spectra of the Earth with future application to Earth-analogs in mind, concentrating on the diurnal timescale. We first analyze observations of the Earth provided by the EPOXI mission, and find 5-20% fractional variation of the absorption depths of H2O and O2 bands, two molecules that have major signatures in the observed range. From a correlation analysis with the cloud map data from the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS), we find that their variation pattern is primarily due to the uneven cloud cover distribution. In order to account for the observed variation quantitatively, we consider a simple opaque cloud model, which assumes that the clouds totally block the spectral influence of the atmosphere below the cloud layer, equivalent to assuming that the incident light is completely scattered at the cloud top level. The model is reasonably successful, and reproduces the EPOXI data from the pixel-level EOS cloud/water vapor ...

  18. Total ozone and aerosol optical depths inferred from radiometric measurements in the Chappuis absorption band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flittner, D. E.; Herman, B. M.; Thome, K. J.; Simpson, J. M.; Reagan, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    A second-derivative smoothing technique, commonly used in inversion work, is applied to the problem of inferring total columnar ozone amounts and aerosol optical depths. The application is unique in that the unknowns may be solved for directly without employing standard inversion methods. It is shown, however, that by employing inversion constraints, better solutions are normally obtained. The method is quite versatile and able to deal with varying total ozone and various aerosol size distributions. The technique is applied first in simulation, then to 119 days of measurements taken in Tucson, Arizona, that are compared to TOMS values for the same dates. The technique is also applied to two measurements taken at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, for which Dobson ozone values are available in addition to the TOMS values, and the results agree to within 15 percent. It is also shown through simulations that additional information can be obtained from measurements outside the Chappuis band. This approach reduces the bias and spread of the estimated total ozone and is unique in that it uses measurements from both the Chappuis and Huggins absorption bands.

  19. Rotation-tunneling analysis of the origin band in the tropolone pi(*)<--pi absorption system.

    PubMed

    Bracamonte, Alfredo E; Vaccaro, Patrick H

    2004-03-01

    The tunneling-split origin band of the tropolone A (1)B(2)-X (1)A(1) (pi(*)<--pi) absorption system was interrogated under ambient, bulk-gas conditions by exploiting high-resolution degenerate four-wave mixing techniques. The inherent complexity of this spectral region was alleviated by performing polarization-resolved measurements, with judicious selection of transverse characteristics for the incident and detected electromagnetic fields enabling rovibronic transitions to be discriminated according to their attendant changes in rotational angular momentum, DeltaJ. Quantitative simulation of recorded data sets showed the vibrationless level of the electronically excited state to be bifurcated by Delta(0) (A)=19.846(25) cm(-1), representing a factor of 20 increase in proton-transfer efficiency over the corresponding level of the ground electronic state. Spectroscopic parameters extracted for the 0(+) and 0(-) manifolds of A (1)B(2) tropolone yield unexpectedly large values of the inertial defect, DeltaI(0(+) ) (A)=-0.802(86) amu A(2) and DeltaI(0(-) ) (A)=-0.882(89) amu A(2), strongly suggesting that a loss of molecular planarity accompanies the pi(*)<--pi electron promotion. These results, as well as complementary information deduced for interloping hot-band resonances, are discussed in terms of the unique structural and dynamical properties exhibited by tropolone and related proton-transfer species. PMID:15267323

  20. Self-absorption theory applied to rocket measurements of the nitric oxide (1, 0) gamma band in the daytime thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eparvier, F. G.; Barth, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of the UV fluorescent emissions of the NO (1, 0) and (0, 1) gamma bands in the lower-thermospheric dayglow, made with a sounding rocket launched on March 7, 1989 from Poker Flat, Alaska, were analyzed. The resonant (1, 0) gamma band was found to be attenuated below an altitude of about 120 km. A self-absorption model based on Holstein transmission functions was developed for the resonant (1, 0) gamma band under varying conditions of slant column density and temperature and was applied for the conditions of the rocket flight. The results of the model agreed with the measured attenuation of the band, indicating the necessity of including self-absorption theory in the analysis of satellite and rocket limb data of NO.

  1. Compositional dependence of molar absorptivities of near-infrared OH and H 2O bands in rhyolitic to basaltic glasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Ohlhorst; Harald Behrens; François Holtz

    2001-01-01

    Molar absorption coefficients (molar absorptivities) of the near infrared combination bands at 4500 and 5200 cm?1 assigned to OH groups and H2O molecules, respectively, were determined for glasses of dacitic, andesitic and basaltic compositions. Total water contents (range 1.5–6.3 wt.%) of the samples used in the calibration were determined by pyrolysis and subsequent Karl–Fischer Titration. Different combinations of baseline types

  2. Absorption band oscillator strengths of N2 transitions between 95.8 and 99.4 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, G.; Smith, Peter L.; Huber, K. P.; Yoshino, K.; Stevens, M. H.; Ito, K.

    1992-01-01

    Molecular nitrogen plays a central role in the energetics of the earth's upper atmosphere and is the major constituent of the atmospheres of the planetary satellites Titan and Triton. This paper reports a new set of absorption oscillator strengths measured at higher resolution for seven bands in the 95.8-99.4 nm region. The results are compared with earlier, lower resolution absorption measurements, electron scattering measurements, and calculations based on a deperturbation analysis of the excited states.

  3. Ultraviolet absorption bands of ionic compound clusters: Onset of crystalline structures in [Csn + 1In] + , n=1-13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiuling Li; Robert L. Whetten

    1993-01-01

    Starting from the large photofragmentation cross sections recently reported for mass-selected alkali–halide cluster and nanocrystal beams [X. Li, R. D. Beck, and R. L. Whetten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3420 (1992)], we have obtained optical absorption spectra for ionic compound clusters in the ultraviolet charge-transfer bands. The smaller members of the CsI series, 3absorption edges in the

  4. Nonlinear optical absorption in crystals with deep impurities: I. Probabilities of two-center phototransitions between band and impurity states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlin, E. Yu.; Levitskii, R. S.; Ivanov, A. V.; Eliseev, K. A.

    2015-02-01

    A new model of photogeneration of nonequilibrium electron-hole pairs in crystal with deep impurities is proposed. The probabilities of two-center transitions between band and impurity states with simultaneous absorption of photon and energy transfer between electrons interacting in accordance with the Coulomb law are calculated within the second-order perturbation theory. The two-band zero-range potential model is used to describe deep-impurity states.

  5. Non-linear Absorption and Ionization of Gases by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionin, Andrei A.; Kudryashov, Sergei I.; Ponomarev, Yurii N.; Seleznev, Leonid V.; Sinitsyn, Dmitry V.; Tikhomirov, B. A.

    2010-10-01

    Recent experiments on applications of high-intensity femtosecond pulses for studying multi-photon and tunnel ionization of different gases, including air, are discussed. Mechanisms of non-linear absorption and ionization of pure atomic argon and molecular nitrogen gases by UV femtosecond laser pulses were studied using photogalvanic and photoacoustic technique. The effect of the intermediate Rydberg resonance, its dynamic Stark perturbation and ponderomotive up-shift of the first ionization potential of argon atoms and nitrogen molecules by the intense laser pulses has been revealed by observing an increase of a power slope of ion yield from three to four at increasing laser intensity. The photoacoustic technique was also applied for studying the effect of tunnel ionization of air by IR femtosecond laser pulses with sub-critical peak power in the range of intensity ˜0.5-20 PW/cm2. Saturation of ultrasonic signals at near-atomic laser fields, which is well described by ADK model, is observed.

  6. Absolute integrated intensity and individual line parameters for the 6.2-micron band of NO2. [in solar spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Bonomo, F. S.; Williams, W. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Snider, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute integrated intensity of the 6.2-micron band of NO2 at 40 C was determined from quantitative spectra at about 10 per cm resolution by the spectral band model technique. A value of 1430 plus or minus 300 per sq cm per atm was obtained. Individual line parameters, positions, intensities, and ground-state energies were derived, and line-by-line calculations were compared with the band model results and with the quantitative spectra obtained at about 0.5 per cm resolution.

  7. Theoretical study of firefly luciferin pKa values--relative absorption intensity in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Hiyama, Miyabi; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Yamada, Kenta; Koga, Nobuaki

    2013-01-01

    Ground-state vibrational analyses of firefly luciferin and its conjugate acids and bases are performed. The Gibbs free energies obtained from these analyses are used to estimate pKa values for phenolic hydroxy and carboxy groups and the N-H(+) bond in the N-protonated thiazoline or benzothiazole ring of firefly luciferin. The theoretical pKa values are corrected using the experimental values. The concentrations of these chemical species in solutions with different pH values are estimated from their corrected pKa values, and the pH dependence of their relative absorption intensities is elucidated. With the results obtained we assign the experimental spectra unequivocally. Especially, the small peak near 400 nm at pH 1-2 in experimental absorption spectra is clarified to be due to the excitation of carboxylate anion with N-protonated thiazoline ring of firefly luciferin. Our results show that the pKa values of chemical species, which are contained in the aqueous solutions, are effective to assign experimental absorption spectra. PMID:23360188

  8. Electric quadrupole transitions and collision-induced absorption in the region of the first overtone band of H2 near 1.25 ?m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassi, Samir; Campargue, Alain

    2014-06-01

    The Q(1)-Q(4) electric quadrupole transitions of the first overtone band of H2 have been recorded for six pressure values up to 640 Torr, by CW-Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy near 8000 cm-1. The noise equivalent absorption of the spectra is on the order of ?min ? 5 × 10-12 cm-1. Line intensities derived from a profile fit accounting for Dicke narrowing effects, range from 1.0 × 10-29 to 2.6 × 10-27 cm/molecule for the Q(4) and Q(1) line, respectively. The claimed absolute uncertainty on the derived line positions and on the line strengths are of the order of 0.001 cm-1 and 1%, respectively. The pressure line shifts of the four lines were derived allowing for an accurate determination of the position at zero pressure limit. The obtained positions and intensities agree within the experimental uncertainty with the most recent theoretical calculations including non-adiabatic, relativistic and quantum electrodynamical effects. The present frequency determinations confirm the high accuracy of these calculations. From the pressure dependence of the baseline of the CRDS spectra, the self continuum cross section of the collision induced absorption band of H2 is determined in the vicinity of the Q(1) line. The derived cross section is found in good agreement with recent theoretical values.

  9. Conduction-band electronic states of YbInCu4 studied by photoemission and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsumi, Yuki; Sato, Hitoshi; Kurihara, Hidenao; Maso, Hiroyuki; Hiraoka, Koichi; Kojima, Kenichi; Tobimatsu, Komei; Ohkochi, Takuo; Fujimori, Shin-Ichi; Takeda, Yukiharu; Saitoh, Yuji; Mimura, Kojiro; Ueda, Shigenori; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Oguchi, Tamio; Shimada, Kenya; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki

    2011-09-01

    We have studied conduction-band (CB) electronic states of a typical valence-transition compound YbInCu4 by means of temperature-dependent hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HX-PES) of the Cu 2p3/2 and In 3d5/2 core states taken at h?=5.95 keV, soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of the Cu 2p3/2 core absorption region around h?˜935 eV, and soft x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (SX-PES) of the valence band at the Cu 2p3/2 absorption edge of h?=933.0 eV. With decreasing temperature below the valence transition at TV=42 K, we have found that (1) the Cu 2p3/2 and In 3d5/2 peaks in the HX-PES spectra exhibit the energy shift toward the lower binding-energy side by ˜40 and ˜30 meV, respectively, (2) an energy position of the Cu 2p3/2 main absorption peak in the XAS spectrum is shifted toward higher photon-energy side by ˜100 meV, with an appearance of a shoulder structure below the Cu 2p3/2 main absorption peak, and (3) an intensity of the Cu L3VV Auger spectrum is abruptly enhanced. These experimental results suggest that the Fermi level of the CB-derived density of states is shifted toward the lower binding-energy side. We have described the valence transition in YbInCu4 in terms of the charge transfer from the CB to Yb 4f states.

  10. Conduction-band electronic states of YbInCu{sub 4} studied by photoemission and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Utsumi, Yuki; Kurihara, Hidenao; Maso, Hiroyuki; Tobimatsu, Komei [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Sato, Hitoshi; Shimada, Kenya; Namatame, Hirofumi [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Hiraoka, Koichi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kojima, Kenichi [Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Ohkochi, Takuo; Fujimori, Shin-ichi; Takeda, Yukiharu; Saitoh, Yuji [Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Mimura, Kojiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Ueda, Shigenori; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kobayashi, Keisuke [NIMS Beamline Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Oguchi, Tamio [ISIR, Osaka University, Ibaraki 567-0047 (Japan); Taniguchi, Masaki [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    We have studied conduction-band (CB) electronic states of a typical valence-transition compound YbInCu{sub 4} by means of temperature-dependent hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HX-PES) of the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} and In 3d{sub 5/2} core states taken at h{nu}=5.95 keV, soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} core absorption region around h{nu}{approx}935 eV, and soft x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (SX-PES) of the valence band at the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} absorption edge of h{nu}=933.0 eV. With decreasing temperature below the valence transition at T{sub V}=42 K, we have found that (1) the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} and In 3d{sub 5/2} peaks in the HX-PES spectra exhibit the energy shift toward the lower binding-energy side by {approx}40 and {approx}30 meV, respectively, (2) an energy position of the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} main absorption peak in the XAS spectrum is shifted toward higher photon-energy side by {approx}100 meV, with an appearance of a shoulder structure below the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} main absorption peak, and (3) an intensity of the Cu L{sub 3}VV Auger spectrum is abruptly enhanced. These experimental results suggest that the Fermi level of the CB-derived density of states is shifted toward the lower binding-energy side. We have described the valence transition in YbInCu{sub 4} in terms of the charge transfer from the CB to Yb 4f states.

  11. Photonic band gap structures of obliquely incident electromagnetic wave propagation in a one-dimension absorptive plasma photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Bin [Department of Physical Science and Technology, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2009-04-15

    The photonic band gap structures of obliquely incident electromagnetic waves propagating in a one-dimension plasma photonic crystal with collision have been studied on the basis of electromagnetic theory and transfer matrix approach. The dispersion relations for both the transverse electric wave case and the transverse magnetic wave case are deduced. And the photonic band gap structures, with their function dependence on the microplasma layer density, microplasma width, collision frequency, background material dielectric constant, and incident angle, are computed. The results show that there exist two photonic band gap structures in an adsorptive plasma photonic crystal: one is a normal photonic band gap structure and the other is an absorption photonic band gap structure. Parameter dependence of the effects is calculated and discussed.

  12. Determining Limits on the Intensity of the O2 0-0 Atmospheric Band Emission in the Venus Nightglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slanger, T. G.; Migliorini, A.; Gray, C.

    2011-12-01

    Recombination of oxygen atoms is the source of excited O2 states in the nighttime mesospheres of the terrestrial planets - Venus, Earth, and Mars. Emission in the O2 Atmospheric 0-0 band at 762 nm is one of the strongest features in the terrestrial visible/near-IR spectral region, with a typical intensity of 5 kR, although this emission does not reach the ground due to self-absorption. We inquire as to what intensity is expected at Venus, although there are no published spectra for either Venus or Mars in this spectral region. A recent estimated upper limit of 200 R for Venus has been given [Krasnopolsky, 2011]. The calculation requires knowledge of the temperature-dependent rate coefficients for three-body oxygen atom recombination in CO2 and for O2(b, v = 0) removal by CO2, as well as an estimate for the fraction of stabilized excited O2 molecules that reach b(v = 0). The resultant nadir intensity depends on [O(3P)]2, and for a value of [O(3P)] = 1.5 × 1011 cm-3, the 95-km intensity is of the order of 2 R, probably accurate to within a factor of two. Such a value is consistent with the lack of detection in recent Venus Express VIRTIS spectra, which include the 762 nm region. Measurements of the Venus nightglow with the 3.5-m telescope at Apache Point Observatory in December, 2010 also show no 762 nm emission, where in principle the 0.03 nm Doppler shift in the emission due to the relative velocities of Earth and Venus could have made observation possible. The principal differences between the Venus and Earth cases are (1) quenching of O2(b, v = 0) is more than two orders of magnitude faster by CO2 than by N2 (the terrestrial quencher) and (2) the densities in the ~95 km mesospheric nightglow region are two orders of magnitude higher at Venus. TGS acknowledge support for this work from the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program, Grant NNX08A0276. AM acknowledges ASI for support. Krasnopolsky, V.A., Planet. Space Sci. 59, 754-766, 2011.

  13. Photodissociation dynamics and emission spectroscopy of H2S in its first absorption band - A time dependent quantum mechanical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard N. Dixon; C. Clay Marston; Gabriel G. Balint-Kurti

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical study of the photodissociation dynamics of H2S in its first absorption band is presented. The potential energy surfaces underlying the dynamics of the breakup process have been modeled so as to reproduce the principal features of all the available experimental data. The modeling is performed using time dependent quantum dynamical methods and involves the exact numerical solution of

  14. PHOTOLUMINESCENT SIGNATURE OF ABSORBING MEDIUM WITH DEEP LEVELS BASED UPON ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS DERIVED FROM PARABOLIC-BAND APPROXIMATIONS

    E-print Network

    Honsberg, Christiana

    PHOTOLUMINESCENT SIGNATURE OF ABSORBING MEDIUM WITH DEEP LEVELS BASED UPON ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS@physics.usyd.edu.au ABSTRACT: This paper presents theoretical photoluminescent spectra of absorbing media each with valid consequences of multi-gap absorbers whose quantum states form parabolic bands. Photoluminescence spectroscopy

  15. Intensities, broadening and narrowing parameters in the ?3 band of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-12-01

    The P-branch of methane?s ?3 band is probed to carry out an extensive study of the 2905-2908 cm-1 infrared spectral region. Absolute line intensities as well as N2-, O2-, H2-, He-, Ar- and CO2-broadening coefficients are determined for nine transitions at room temperature. Narrowing parameters due to the Dicke effect have also been investigated. A narrow emission line-width (~0.0001 cm-1) difference-frequency-generation (DFG) laser system is used as the tunable light source. To retrieve the CH4 spectroscopic parameters, Voigt and Galatry profiles were used to simulate the measured line shape of the individual transitions.

  16. High resolution absorption cross-sections and band oscillator strengths of the Schumann-Runge bands of oxygen at 79 K

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yoshino; D. E. Freeman; J. R. Esmond; W. H. Parkinson

    1987-01-01

    Cross sections of O2 at 79 K have been obtained from photoabsorption measurements at various pressures throughout the wavelength region 179.3-198.0 nm with a 6.65-m photoelectric scanning spectrometer equipped with a 2400-lines\\/mm grating and having an instrumental width (FWHM) of 0.0013 nm. The measured absorption cross sections of the Schumann-Runge bands (12,0) through (2,0) are independent of the instrumental width.

  17. Collisionless absorption, hot electron generation, and energy scaling in intense laser-target interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liseykina, T.; Mulser, P.; Murakami, M.

    2015-03-01

    Among the various attempts to understand collisionless absorption of intense and superintense ultrashort laser pulses, a whole variety of models and hypotheses has been invented to describe the laser beam target interaction. In terms of basic physics, collisionless absorption is understood now as the interplay of the oscillating laser field with the space charge field produced by it in the plasma. A first approach to this idea is realized in Brunel's model the essence of which consists in the formation of an oscillating charge cloud in the vacuum in front of the target, therefore frequently addressed by the vague term "vacuum heating." The investigation of statistical ensembles of orbits shows that the absorption process is localized at the ion-vacuum interface and in the skin layer: Single electrons enter into resonance with the laser field thereby undergoing a phase shift which causes orbit crossing and braking of Brunel's laminar flow. This anharmonic resonance acts like an attractor for the electrons and leads to the formation of a Maxwellian tail in the electron energy spectrum. Most remarkable results of our investigations are the Brunel like spectral hot electron distribution at the relativistic threshold, the minimum of absorption at I ? 2 ? ( 0.3 - 1.2 ) × 10 21 Wcm - 2 ? m 2 in the plasma target with the electron density of n e ? 2 ˜ 10 23 cm - 3 ? m 2 , the drastic reduction of the number of hot electrons in this domain and their reappearance in the highly relativistic domain, and strong coupling, beyond expectation, of the fast electron jets with the return current through Cherenkov emission of plasmons. The hot electron energy scaling shows a strong dependence on intensity in the moderately relativistic domain I ? 2 ? ( 10 18 - 10 20 ) Wcm - 2 ? m 2 , a scaling in vague accordance with current published estimates in the range I ? 2 ? ( 0.14 - 3.5 ) × 10 21 Wcm - 2 ? m 2 , and again a distinct power increase beyond I = 3.5 × 10 21 Wcm - 2 ? m 2 . The low energy electrons penetrate normally to the target surface, the energetic electrons propagate in laser beam direction.

  18. Accurate measurements of ozone absorption cross-sections in the Hartley band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viallon, J.; Lee, S.; Moussay, P.; Tworek, K.; Petersen, M.; Wielgosz, R. I.

    2015-03-01

    Ozone plays a crucial role in tropospheric chemistry, is the third largest contributor to greenhouse radiative forcing after carbon dioxide and methane and also a toxic air pollutant affecting human health and agriculture. Long-term measurements of tropospheric ozone have been performed globally for more than 30 years with UV photometers, all relying on the absorption of ozone at the 253.65 nm line of mercury. We have re-determined this cross-section and report a value of 11.27 x 10-18 cm2 molecule-1 with an expanded relative uncertainty of 0.86% (coverage factor k= 2). This is lower than the conventional value currently in use and measured by Hearn (1961) with a relative difference of 1.8%, with the consequence that historically reported ozone concentrations should be increased by 1.8%. In order to perform the new measurements of cross-sections with reduced uncertainties, a system was set up to generate pure ozone in the gas phase together with an optical system based on a UV laser with lines in the Hartley band, including accurate path length measurement of the absorption cell and a careful evaluation of possible impurities in the ozone sample by mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. This resulted in new measurements of absolute values of ozone absorption cross-sections of 9.48 x 10-18, 10.44 x 10-18 and 11.07 x 10-18 cm2 molecule-1, with relative expanded uncertainties better than 0.7%, for the wavelengths (in vacuum) of 244.06, 248.32, and 257.34 nm respectively. The cross-section at the 253.65 nm line of mercury was determined by comparisons using a Standard Reference Photometer equipped with a mercury lamp as the light source. The newly reported value should be used in the future to obtain the most accurate measurements of ozone concentration, which are in closer agreement with non-UV-photometry based methods such as the gas phase titration of ozone with nitrogen monoxide.

  19. Accurate laser measurements of ozone absorption cross-sections in the Hartley band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viallon, J.; Lee, S.; Moussay, P.; Tworek, K.; Petersen, M.; Wielgosz, R. I.

    2014-08-01

    Ozone plays a crucial role in tropospheric chemistry, is the third largest contributor to greenhouse radiative forcing after carbon dioxide and methane and also a toxic air pollutant affecting human health and agriculture. Long-term measurements of tropospheric ozone have been performed globally for more than 30 years with UV photometers, all relying on the absorption of ozone at the 253.65 nm line of mercury. We have re-determined this cross-section and report a value of 11.27 × 10-18 cm2 molecule-1 with an expanded relative uncertainty of 0.84 %. This is lower than the conventional value currently in use and measured by Hearn in 1961 with a relative difference of 1.8%, with the consequence that historically reported ozone concentrations should be increased by 1.8%. In order to perform the new measurements of cross sections with reduced uncertainties, a system to generate pure ozone in the gas phase together with an optical system based on a UV laser with lines in the Hartley band, including accurate path length measurement of the absorption cell and a careful evaluation of possible impurities in the ozone sample by mass spectrometry and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy was setup. This resulted in new measurements of absolute values of ozone absorption cross sections of 9.48 × 10-18, 10.44 × 10-18, and 11.07 × 10-18 cm2 molecule-1, with relative expanded uncertainties better than 0.6%, for the wavelengths (in vacuum) of 244.062, 248.32, and 257.34 nm respectively. The cross-section at the 253.65 nm line of mercury was determined by comparisons using a Standard Reference Photometer equipped with a mercury lamp as the light source. The newly reported value should be used in the future to obtain the most accurate measurements of ozone concentration, which are in closer agreement with non UV photometry based methods such as the gas phase titration of ozone with nitrogen monoxide.

  20. Extraordinary terahertz absorption bands observed in micro/nanostructured Au/polystyrene sphere arrays

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy is carried out for micro/nanostructured periodic Au/dielectric sphere arrays on Si substrate. We find that the metal-insulator transition can be achieved in THz bandwidth via varying sample parameters such as the thickness of the Au shell and the diameter of the Au/dielectric sphere. The Au/polystyrene sphere arrays do not show metallic THz response when the Au shell thickness is larger than 10 nm and the sphere diameter is smaller than 500 nm. This effect is in sharp contrast to the observations in flat Au films on Si substrate. Interestingly, the Au/polystyrene sphere arrays with a 5-nm-thick Au shell show extraordinary THz absorption bands or metallic optical conductance when the diameter of the sphere is larger than 200 nm. This effect is related to the quantum confinement effect in which the electrons in the structure are trapped in the sphere potential well of the gold shell. PMID:23190688

  1. Transient reduction of tinnitus intensity is marked by concomitant reductions of delta band power

    PubMed Central

    Kahlbrock, Nina; Weisz, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    Background Tinnitus is an auditory phantom phenomenon characterized by the sensation of sounds without objectively identifiable sound sources. To date, its causes are not well understood. Previous research found altered patterns of spontaneous brain activity in chronic tinnitus sufferers compared to healthy controls, yet it is unknown whether these abnormal oscillatory patterns are causally related to the tinnitus sensation. Partial support for this notion comes from a neurofeedback approach developed by our group, in which significant reductions in tinnitus loudness could be achieved in patients who successfully normalized their patterns of spontaneous brain activity. The current work attempts to complement these studies by scrutinizing how modulations of tinnitus intensity alter ongoing oscillatory activity. Results In the present study the relation between tinnitus sensation and spontaneous brain activity was investigated using residual inhibition (RI) to reduce tinnitus intensity and source-space projected magnetencephalographic (MEG) data to index brain activity. RI is the sustained reduction (criteria: 50% for at least 30 s) in tinnitus loudness after cessation of a tonal tinnitus masker. A pilot study (n = 38) identified 10 patients who showed RI. A significant reduction of power in the delta (1.3–4.0 Hz) frequency band was observed in temporal regions during RI (p ? 0.001). Conclusion The current results suggest that changes of tinnitus intensity induced by RI are mediated by alterations in the pathological patterns of spontaneous brain activity, specifically a reduction of delta activity. Delta activity is a characteristic oscillatory activity generated by deafferented/deprived neuronal networks. This implies that RI effects might reflect the transient reestablishment of balance between excitatory and inhibitory neuronal assemblies, via reafferentation, that have been perturbed (in most tinnitus individuals) by hearing damage. As enhancements have been reported in the delta frequency band for tinnitus at rest, this result conforms to our assumption that a normalization of oscillatory properties of cortical networks is a prerequisite for attenuating the tinnitus sensation. For RI to have therapeutic significance however, this normalization would have to be stabilized. PMID:18199318

  2. Absorption of intense microwaves and ion acoustic turbulence due to heat transport

    SciTech Connect

    De Groot, J.S.; Liu, J.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States); Matte, J.P. [INRS-Energie (Canada)] [and others

    1994-02-04

    Measurements and calculations of the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption of intense microwaves are presented. The isotropic component of the electron distribution becomes flat-topped in agreement with detailed Fokker-Planck calculations. The plasma heating is reduced due to the flat-topped distributions in agreement with calculations. The calculations show that the heat flux at high microwave powers is very large, q{sub max} {approx} 0.3 n{sub e}v{sub e}T{sub e}. A new particle model to, calculate the heat transport inhibition due to ion acoustic turbulence in ICF plasmas is also presented. One-dimensional PIC calculations of ion acoustic turbulence excited due to heat transport are presented. The 2-D PIC code is presently being used to perform calculations of heat flux inhibition due to ion acoustic turbulence.

  3. Axial segregation in high intensity discharge lamps measured by laser absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Flikweert, A.J.; Nimalasuriya, T.; Groothuis, C.H.J.M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Stoffels, W.W. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2005-10-01

    High intensity discharge lamps have a high efficiency. These lamps contain rare-earth additives (in our case dysprosium iodide) which radiate very efficiently. A problem is color separation in the lamp because of axial segregation of the rare-earth additives, caused by diffusion and convection. Here two-dimensional atomic dysprosium density profiles are measured by means of laser absorption spectroscopy; the order of magnitude of the density is 10{sup 22} m{sup -3}. The radially resolved atomic density measurements show a hollow density profile. In the outer parts of the lamp molecules dominate, while the center is depleted of dysprosium atoms due to ionization. From the axial profiles the segregation parameter is determined. It is shown that the lamp operates on the right-hand side of the Fischer curve [J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2954 (1976)], i.e., a larger convection leads to less segregation.

  4. Influence of ion mass on laser-energy absorption and synchrotron radiation at ultrahigh laser intensities.

    PubMed

    Capdessus, R; d'Humières, E; Tikhonchuk, V T

    2013-05-24

    The role of ions in the energy absorption of a short and ultraintense laser pulse and in the synchrotron radiation generated by accelerated electrons is revisited. For laser intensities above 10(22) W/cm(2) and plasma densities more than 10 times the critical density, the ion-to-electron mass ratio strongly affects the energy repartition between the electrons, ions, and radiation. This phenomenon is studied with a one-dimensional relativistic particle-in-cell code, taking into account the radiation reaction force. The choice of the ion mass strongly affects the energy and angular distribution of the photon emission and the electron energy distribution. This effect may be important for laboratory modeling of radiation dominated relativistic astrophysical events. It can be verified in experiments with solid hydrogen targets. PMID:23745889

  5. Influence of Ion Mass on Laser-Energy Absorption and Synchrotron Radiation at Ultrahigh Laser Intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capdessus, R.; d'Humières, E.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2013-05-01

    The role of ions in the energy absorption of a short and ultraintense laser pulse and in the synchrotron radiation generated by accelerated electrons is revisited. For laser intensities above 1022W/cm2 and plasma densities more than 10 times the critical density, the ion-to-electron mass ratio strongly affects the energy repartition between the electrons, ions, and radiation. This phenomenon is studied with a one-dimensional relativistic particle-in-cell code, taking into account the radiation reaction force. The choice of the ion mass strongly affects the energy and angular distribution of the photon emission and the electron energy distribution. This effect may be important for laboratory modeling of radiation dominated relativistic astrophysical events. It can be verified in experiments with solid hydrogen targets.

  6. An investigation of the near-infrared collision induced absorption bands of oxygen with SCIAMACHY solar occultation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Muñoz, A.; Bramstedt, K.

    2012-08-01

    The present work investigates the Collision Induced Absorption (CIA) bands of oxygen that occur at 1065 and 1270 nm from solar occultation data obtained with the space-borne spectrometer SCIAMACHY. The effort is motivated by the interest in these two strong CIA bands in atmospheric research and the paucity of data on them under realistic atmospheric conditions. The observing geometry provides long integration paths and in turn easily measurable absorption signals. Our analysis method relies on the accurate separation of the CIA band signature from the rest of the continuum and structured components over selected spectral intervals. We show that the shapes of the two CIA bands seem well described by specific laboratory determinations over a broad range of tropospheric and low-stratospheric conditions. By analyzing a full month of solar occultation data we find that the ratio of peak binary cross sections in air, ?1270nmpeak/?1065nmpeak, is ?4 and seemingly independent of tangent height from 6 to 18 km. We tentatively estimate the absolute binary cross sections and compare them to existent measurements. A better characterization of the near-infrared CIA bands of oxygen should facilitate their implementation in remote sensing applications in the way it is often done with the CIA bands that occur in the visible.

  7. Structural factors which control the position of the Q(y) absorption band of bacteriochlorophyll a in purple bacterial antenna complexes.

    PubMed

    Cogdell, R J; Howard, T D; Isaacs, N W; McLuskey, K; Gardiner, A T

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a concise review of the structural factors which control the energy of the Q(y) absorption band of bacteriochlorophyll a in purple bacterial antenna complexes. The energy of these Q(y) absorption bands is important for excitation energy transfer within the bacterial photosynthetic unit. PMID:16228551

  8. Intensity and vibrational temperature measurements of bands of the DX and FX system of LaO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Behere; J. B. Bhartiya

    1993-01-01

    The ultraviolet spectrum of LaO has been photographed with a 10.6 m concave grating spectrograph. Intensities of bands of the 1-0 sequence of the D2Sigma-X2Sigma system and 0-0 sequence of the F2Sigma-X2Sigma system were measured. FC factors, r¯-centroids and effective vibrational temperatures were calculated. Variations of the electronic transition moments with internuclear separation have been studied. Band strengths are reported.

  9. Airborne imaging spectrometer data of the Ruby Mountains, Montana: Mineral discrimination using relative absorption band-depth images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Brickey, D.W.; Rowan, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometer data collected in the near-infrared (1.2-2.4 ??m) wavelength range were used to study the spectral expression of metamorphic minerals and rocks in the Ruby Mountains of southwestern Montana. The data were analyzed by using a new data enhancement procedure-the construction of relative absorption band-depth (RBD) images. RBD images, like bandratio images, are designed to detect diagnostic mineral absorption features, while minimizing reflectance variations related to topographic slope and albedo differences. To produce an RBD image, several data channels near an absorption band shoulder are summed and then divided by the sum of several channels located near the band minimum. RBD images are both highly specific and sensitive to the presence of particular mineral absorption features. Further, the technique does not distort or subdue spectral features as sometimes occurs when using other data normalization methods. By using RBD images, a number of rock and soil units were distinguished in the Ruby Mountains including weathered quartz - feldspar pegmatites, marbles of several compositions, and soils developed over poorly exposed mica schists. The RBD technique is especially well suited for detecting weak near-infrared spectral features produced by soils, which may permit improved mapping of subtle lithologic and structural details in semiarid terrains. The observation of soils rich in talc, an important industrial commodity in the study area, also indicates that RBD images may be useful for mineral exploration. ?? 1989.

  10. Integrated band intensities of 1,1,1-trichlorotrifluoroethane, CFC113a, and 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, CFC113

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olliff, Marilyn; Fischer, Gad

    1992-02-01

    The integrated band intensities of 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, CFC113, and 1,1,1-trichlorotrifluoroethane, CFC113a, have been measured, the latter for the first time. The former are in reasonable agreement with the reported results of V ARANASI and C HUDAMANI [ J. Geophys. Res.93, 1666 (1988)]. The total integrated intensities in the range 1300 to 700 cm -1 are, respectively, 3218 and 3138 atm -1 cm -2. Attention is drawn to possible significant sources of error deriving from choices of band shape.

  11. Linking visible absorption bands and far-IR emission features trough MonteCarlo simulations: a quantitative test of the PAHs DIBs-UIBs hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloci, Giuliano; Mulas, Giacomo; Benvenuti, Piero

    One important aspect which is seldom emphasized on the so-called ``strong'' Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) hypothesis is that the failure to identify the vibronic absorption bands of PAH cations and/or radicals in the visible would cast strong doubts on the applicability of the PAH model for the UIBs and on their alleged presence in the ISM at all. In order to quantitatively assess this link between DIBs and UIBs, we modeled the interaction of a big, isolated PAH molecule with the interstellar radiation field, which in the PAH model is supposed to govern both the intensities of the UIBs and the spectral profile of its vibronic absorption bands, as given by its rotational envelope. We used a MonteCarlo approach, tailored on the properties of a specific molecule and on the interstellar environment it is embedded in. As a ``proof of concept'' case, we considered the cation of a middle sized PAH, namely the ovalene molecule (C32H14+): we obtained the expected rotational profile of its first allowed electronic transition D0 to D2, which falls at about 9700Å, as a function of a grid of widely different ambient radiation fields. Our results, which can be expected to hold for other similar PAHs, show that the band profiles are remarkably insensitive to both the ambient conditions and the assumed values of some key molecular parameters. This provides a sound quantitative foundation to the hypothesis of PAHs as DIB carriers, since the profile invariance with respect to diverse physical environments is one of the most prominent observed DIB properties. We also obtained a quantitative relation between the modeled ``DIB'' and the far infrared emission bands, both of which are a peculiar fingerprint of each and every specific molecule. This result provides a very powerful criterion for the identification of specific PAHs, both in the presently available ISO data and in those of the forthcoming SIRTF mission.

  12. A new computation of the infrared absorption by H2 pairs in the fundamental band at temperatures from 600 to 5000 K. [in stellar atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borysow, Aleksandra; Frommhold, Lothar

    1990-01-01

    A new computation of the absorption spectrum of H2 pairs in the fundamental band is given for temperatures from 600 to 5000 K. It is based on advanced interaction potentials and recent induced dipole components which were shown to be consistent with the existing laboratory measurements of low-temperature absorption spectra. The absorption is greater by factors of 2-3 than previous estimates and show a different band profile at the higher temperatures.

  13. Probing the Band Structure of Mono, Bi and Tri-layer Graphene by Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kin Fai Mak; Matthew Sfeir; Yang Wu; Chun Hung Lui; Janina Maultzsch; Sami Rosenblatt; Mark Hybertsen; Tony Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Absorption spectra in the infrared range (0.3 -- 1 eV) were measured for large-area, single-crystal mono-, bi- and tri-layer graphene samples produced by mechanical exfoliation of graphite. A constant absorption independent of photon energy was observed for monolayer samples. For the bi-layer, a strong absorption peak was seen at 0.37eV. The absorption spectrum of tri-layer graphene was found to be

  14. The absorption coefficient of the liquid N2 2.15-micron band and application to Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundy, William M.; Fink, Uwe

    1991-01-01

    The present measurements of the temperature dependence exhibited by the liquid N2 2.15-micron 2-0 collision-induced band's absorption coefficient and integrated absorption show the latter to be smaller than that of the N2 gas, and to decrease with decreasing temperature. Extrapolating this behavior to Triton's nominal surface temperature yields a new estimate of the N2-ice grain size on the Triton south polar cap; a mean N2 grain size of 0.7-3.0 cm is consistent with grain growth rate calculation results.

  15. Band edge absorption in CdxHg1- xTe grown by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxey, C. D.; Capper, P.; Easton, B. C.; Whiffin, P. A. C.

    The first absorption coefficient spectra determined in the region of the fundamental band edge of metal-organic vapour phase grown CdxHg1- xTe (CMT) with x between 0.2 and 0.3 are presented. Analysis of these spectra shows that the optical band edge correlates with ? e, between 1000-2000 cm-1. Using these spectra the form of the absorbance curve of uniform CMT can be generated, which when compared with experimental data can be used to obtain a qualitative assessment of the depth uniformity of epitaxial layers.

  16. Evidence for strange stars from joint observation of harmonic absorption bands and of redshift

    E-print Network

    Manjari Bagchi; Subharthi Ray; Mira Dey; Jishnu Dey

    2006-02-15

    From recent reports on terrestrial heavy ion collision experiments it appears that one may not obtain information about the existence of asymptotic freedom (AF) and chiral symmetry restoration (CSR) for quarks of QCD at high density. This information may still be obtained from compact stars - if they are made up of strange quark matter. Very high gravitational redshift lines (GRL), seen from some compact stars, seem to suggest high ratios of mass and radius (M/R) for them. This is suggestive of strange stars (SS) and can in fact be fitted very well with SQM equation of state deduced with built in AF and CSR. In some other stars broad absorption bands appear at about ~ 0.3 keV and multiples thereof, that may fit in very well with resonance with harmonic compressional breathing mode frequencies of these SS. Emission at these frequencies are also observed in six stars. If these two features of large GRL and BAB were observed together in a single star, it would strengthen the possibility for the existence of SS in nature and would vindicate the current dogma of AF and CSR that we believe in QCD. Recently, in 4U 1700-24, both features appear to be detected, which may well be interpreted as observation of SS - although the group that analyzed the data did not observe this possibility. We predict that if the shifted lines, that has been observed, are from neon with GRL shift z = 0.4 - then the compact object emitting it is a SS of mass 1.2 M_sun and radius 7 km. In addition the fit to the spectrum leaves a residual with broad dips at 0.35 keV and multiples thereof, as in 1E1207-5209 which is again suggestive of SS.

  17. Thin-walled boron nitride microtubes exhibiting intense band-edge UV emission at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yang; Bando, Yoshio; Tang, Chengchun; Zhi, Chunyi; Terao, Takeshi; Dierre, Benjamin; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Golberg, Dmitri

    2009-02-01

    Boron nitride (BN) microtubes were synthesized in a vertical induction furnace using Li2CO3 and B reactants. Their structures and morphologies were investigated using x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The microtubes have diameters of 1-3 µm, lengths of up to hundreds of micrometers, and well-structured ultrathin walls only ~50 nm thick. A mechanism combining the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) and template self-sacrificing processes is proposed to explain the formation of these novel one-dimensional microstructures, in which the Li2O-B2O3 eutectic reaction plays an important role. Cathodoluminescence studies show that even at room temperature the thin-walled BN microtubes can possess an intense band-edge emission at ~216.5 nm, which is distinct compared with other BN nanostructures. The study suggests that the thin-walled BN microtubes should be promising for constructing compact deep UV devices and find potential applications in microreactors and microfluidic and drug delivery systems.

  18. On the Origin of Heme Absorption Band Shifts and Associated Protein Structural Relaxation in

    E-print Network

    Boxer, Steven G.

    - function relationships. Evidence is presented that the Soret band shift does not depend primarily ligand L in H93G(L), the magnitude and time evolution of the Soret band shift in a viscous buffer on the nanosecond time scale are hardly perturbed in all cases studied. Comparison of the Soret band and charge

  19. Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer (TAGS) Intensity Distributions from INL's Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Center

    DOE Data Explorer

    Greenwood, R.E.

    A 252Cf fission-product source and the INL on-line isotope separator were used to supply isotope-separated fission-product nuclides to a total absorption -ray spectrometer. This spectrometer consisted of a large (25.4-cm diameter x 30.5-cm long) NaI(Tl) detector with a 20.3-cm deep axial well in which is placed a 300-mm2 x 1.0-mm Si detector. The spectra from the NaI(Tl) detector are collected both in the singles mode and in coincidence with the B-events detected in the Si detector. Ideally, this detector would sum all the energy of the B- rays in each cascade following the population of daughter level by B- decay, so that the event could be directly associated with a particular daughter level. However, there are losses of energy from attenuation of the rays before they reach the detector, transmission of rays through the detector, escape of secondary photons from Compton scattering, escape of rays through the detector well, internal conversion, etc., and the measured spectra are thus more complicated than the ideal case and the analysis is more complex. Analysis methods have been developed to simulate all of these processes and thus provide a direct measure of the B- intensity distribution as a function of the excitation energy in the daughter nucleus. These data yield more accurate information on the B- distribution than conventional decay-scheme studies for complex decay schemes with large decay energies, because in the latter there are generally many unobserved and observed but unplaced rays. The TAGS data have been analyzed and published [R. E. Greenwood et al., Nucl Instr. and metho. A390(1997)] for 40 fission product-nuclides to determine the B- intensity distributions. [Copied from the TAGS page at http://www.inl.gov/gammaray/spectrometry/tags.shtml]. Those values are listed on this page for quick reference.

  20. Absorption

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (CSUF; )

    2002-09-26

    The process of absorption is a cellular process (microscopic). Absorption cells line the stomach and intestine walls and allow small nutrients (broken down from the food we eat) to pass through and into our blood. The process of absorption is much like a leaking balloon filled with water. The balloon is the stomach or intestine, the tiny holes are the absorption cells, and the water is nutrients leaving.

  1. Resonance Raman study of short-time photodissociation dynamics of the charge-transfer band absorption of nitrobenzene in cyclohexane solution.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xin-Ming; Zhang, Shu-Qiang; Zheng, Xuming; Phillips, David Lee

    2005-04-01

    Resonance Raman spectra were obtained for nitrobenzene in cyclohexane solution with excitation wavelengths in resonance with the charge-transfer (CT) band absorption spectrum. These spectra indicate that the Franck-Condon region photodissociation dynamics have multidimensional character with motion mainly along the nominal NO2 symmetric stretch mode (nu 11), the nominal benzene ring stretch mode (nu 7), accompanied by a moderate degree of motion along the nominal ONO symmetry bend/benzene ring stretch mode (nu 23), the nominal C-N stretch/benzene ring breathing mode (nu 16), the nominal CCC bending mode (nu 20) and the nominal CCH in-plane bending mode (nu 14). A preliminary resonance Raman intensity analysis was done and the results for nitrobenzene were compared to previously reported results for several nitroalkanes. PMID:16833633

  2. The C2H, C2, and CN electronic absorption bands in the carbon star HD 19557

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. H.; Bregman, J. D.; Cooper, D. M.; Goorvitch, D.; Langhoff, S. R.; Witteborn, F. C.

    1983-01-01

    Infrared spectrophotometry of the R-type carbon star HD 19557 is presented. Two unusual spectroscopic features are seen: a 3.1 micron band is lacking and a 2.8 micron band is present. Identifications are proposed for three previously unreported stellar absorption bands with electronic sequences of C2, CN, and C2H. The latter is proposed to be responsible for the 2.8 micron feature. The atmospheric structure of the star is studied with synthetic spectra, and an effective temperature between 2600 K and 3000 K is suggested. No SiC emission is seen at 11.3 microns, indicating that grain formation is not a viable process around the star. The lack of dust in R stars may suggest a salient difference between R and N types.

  3. Time-Resolved IR-Absorption Spectroscopy of Hot-Electron Dynamics in Satellite and Upper Conduction Bands in GaP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavicchia, M. A.; Alfano, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    The relaxation dynamics of hot electrons in the X6 and X7 satellite and upper conduction bands in GaP was directly measured by femtosecond UV-pump-IR-probe absorption spectroscopy. From a fit to the induced IR-absorption spectra the dominant scattering mechanism giving rise to the absorption at early delay times was determined to be intervalley scattering of electrons out of the X7 upper conduction-band valley. For long delay times the dominant scattering mechanism is electron-hole scattering. Electron transport dynamics of the upper conduction band of GaP has been time resolved.

  4. Nonadiabatic approach for resonant molecular multiphoton absorption processes in intense infrared laser fields

    E-print Network

    Ho, Tak-San; Chu, Shih-I

    1983-07-14

    rot B XaOt 17 + U a"'J-E:8 Xii", u = L.J ",a' X6Ot' u • a'~ (30) Since all the P bands possess the same QVE structure to within a phase factor, only one P band needs to be considered. For convenience we shall choose the P = 0 band below...

  5. Ground-based Photon Path Measurements from Solar Absorption Spectra of the O2 A-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Z.; Wennberg, P. O.; Cageao, R. P.; Pongetti, T. J.; Toon, G. C.; Sander, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution solar absorption spectra obtained from Table Mountain Facility (TMF, 34.38degN, 117.68degW, 2286 m elevation) have been analyzed in the region of the O2 A-band. The photon paths of direct sunlight in clear sky cases are retrieved from the O2 absorption lines and compared with ray-tracing calculations based on the solar zenith angle and surface pressure. At a given zenith angle, the ratios of retrieved to geometrically derived photon paths are highly precise (approx.0.2%), but they vary as the zenith angle changes. This is because current models of the spectral lineshape in this band do not properly account for the significant absorption that exists far from the centers of saturated lines. For example, use of a Voigt function with Lorentzian far wings results in an error in the retrieved photon path of as much as 5%, highly correlated with solar zenith angle. Adopting a super-Lorentz function reduces, but does not completely eliminate this problem. New lab measurements of the lineshape are required to make further progress.

  6. Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy of the v4 (a,) fundamenUal and associated vi, (G,) hot band of CT: Evidence fo.r alternating rigidity

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy of the v4 (a,) fundamenUal and associated vi, (G,) hot band repulsiveoverlapof the f and - lobesof the (valence) wave function, Brown and Lips- comb6have calculated bending

  7. Semi-Empirical Validation of the Cross-Band Relative Absorption Technique for the Measurement of Molecular Mixing Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pliutau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S

    2013-01-01

    Studies were performed to carry out semi-empirical validation of a new measurement approach we propose for molecular mixing ratios determination. The approach is based on relative measurements in bands of O2 and other molecules and as such may be best described as cross band relative absorption (CoBRA). . The current validation studies rely upon well verified and established theoretical and experimental databases, satellite data assimilations and modeling codes such as HITRAN, line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM), and the modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA). The approach holds promise for atmospheric mixing ratio measurements of CO2 and a variety of other molecules currently under investigation for several future satellite lidar missions. One of the advantages of the method is a significant reduction of the temperature sensitivity uncertainties which is illustrated with application to the ASCENDS mission for the measurement of CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2). Additional advantages of the method include the possibility to closely match cross-band weighting function combinations which is harder to achieve using conventional differential absorption techniques and the potential for additional corrections for water vapor and other interferences without using the data from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models.

  8. Wideband enhancement of infrared absorption in a direct band-gap semiconductor by using nonabsorptive pyramids

    E-print Network

    Dai, Weitao

    Efficient trapping of the light in a photon absorber or a photodetector can improve its performance and reduce its cost. In this paper we investigate two designs for light-trapping in application to infrared absorption. ...

  9. Modeling of intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser absorption spectrometer systems for atmospheric CO(2) column measurements.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bing; Ismail, Syed; Wallace Harrison, F; Browell, Edward V; Nehrir, Amin R; Dobler, Jeremy; Moore, Berrien; Refaat, Tamer; Kooi, Susan A

    2013-10-10

    The focus of this study is to model and validate the performance of intensity-modulated continuous-wave (IM-CW) CO(2) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) systems and their CO(2) column measurements from airborne and satellite platforms. The model accounts for all fundamental physics of the instruments and their related CO(2) measurement environments, and the modeling results are presented statistically from simulation ensembles that include noise sources and uncertainties related to the LAS instruments and the measurement environments. The characteristics of simulated LAS systems are based on existing technologies and their implementation in existing systems. The modeled instruments are specifically assumed to be IM-CW LAS systems such as the Exelis' airborne multifunctional fiber laser lidar (MFLL) operating in the 1.57 ?m CO(2) absorption band. Atmospheric effects due to variations in CO(2), solar radiation, and thin clouds, are also included in the model. Model results are shown to agree well with LAS atmospheric CO(2) measurement performance. For example, the relative bias errors of both MFLL simulated and measured CO(2) differential optical depths were found to agree to within a few tenths of a percent when compared to the in situ observations from the flight of 3 August 2011 over Railroad Valley (RRV), Nevada, during the summer 2011 flight campaign. In addition, the horizontal variations in the model CO(2) differential optical depths were also found to be consistent with those from MFLL measurements. In general, the modeled and measured signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the CO(2) column differential optical depths (?d) agreed to within about 30%. Model simulations of a spaceborne IM-CW LAS system in a 390 km dawn/dusk orbit for CO(2) column measurements showed that with a total of 42 W of transmitted power for one offline and two different sideline channels (placed at different locations on the side of the CO(2) absorption line), the accuracy of the ?d measurements for surfaces similar to the playa of RRV, Nevada, will be better than 0.1% for 10 s averages. For other types of surfaces such as low-reflectivity snow and ice surfaces, the precision and bias errors will be within 0.23% and 0.1%, respectively. Including thin clouds with optical depths up to 1, the SNR of the ?d measurements with 0.1 s integration period for surfaces similar to the playa of RRV, Nevada, will be greater than 94 and 65 for sideline positions placed +3 and +10??pm, respectively, from the CO(2) line center at 1571.112 nm. The CO(2) column bias errors introduced by the thin clouds are ?0.1% for cloud optical depth ?0.4, but they could reach ?0.5% for more optically thick clouds with optical depths up to 1. When the cloud and surface altitudes and scattering amplitudes are obtained from matched filter analysis, the cloud bias errors can be further reduced. These results indicate that the IM-CW LAS instrument approach when implemented in a dawn/dusk orbit can make accurate CO(2) column measurements from space with preferential weighting across the mid to lower troposphere in support of a future ASCENDS mission. PMID:24217721

  10. Two 0-0 bands in the 3700-A (pi* <-- n) absorption of pyridazine?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. Ransom; K. K. Innes

    1978-01-01

    Four type-C bands of the 3700-Å, A~1B1-X~1A1 transition of pyridazine (1,2-diazine) have been subjected to rotational contour analysis. Two equally good computer simulations of the 0-0 band (26 648 cm-1) differ only by an interchange of direction of the axes of largest and intermediate moments of inertia of the excited state. Either solution implies that the effect of electronic excitation

  11. Extracting interstellar diffuse absorption bands from cool star spectra. Application to bulge clump giants in Baade's window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.-C.; Lallement, R.; Babusiaux, C.; Puspitarini, L.; Bonifacio, P.; Hill, V.

    2013-02-01

    Aims: Interstellar (IS) absorption lines or diffuse bands are usually extracted from early-type star spectra because they are characterized by smooth continua. However, this introduces a strong limitation on the number of available targets, and reduces potential studies of the IS matter and the use of absorptions for cloud mapping. Methods: We have developed a new and automated fitting method appropriate to interstellar (IS) absorptions in the spectra of cool stars that possess stellar atmospheric parameters. We applied this method to the extraction of three diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in high resolution VLT FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectra of red-clump stars from the bulge. By combining all stellar synthetic spectra, HITRAN-LBLRTM atmospheric transmission spectra and diffuse band empirical absorption profiles, we determined the 6196.0, 6204.5, and 6283.8 Å DIB strength toward the 219 target stars and discuss the sources of uncertainties. To test the sensitivity of the DIB extraction, we compared all three results and compared the DIB equivalent widths (EWs) with the reddening derived from an independent extinction map based on OGLE photometric data. We also derived the three independent color excess estimates based on the DIB strengths and average linear correlation coefficients previously established in the solar neighborhood and compared with the OGLE photometric results. Results: Most stellar spectra could be reproduced well by the composite stellar, atmospheric, and IS models. Measurement uncertainties on the EWs are smaller for the broad and strong 6283.8 Å DIB, and are in the range 10-15%. Uncertainties on the two narrow and weaker DIBs are larger, as expected, and found to be highly variable from one target to the next. They strongly depend on the star's radial velocity. DIB-DIB correlations among the three bands demonstrate that a meaningful signal is extracted. For the 6284 and 6204 Å DIBs, the star-to-star variability of the EW also reflects features of the OGLE extinction map. The three independent extinction estimates deduced from the EWs and solar neighborhood correlation coefficients agree with each other within 20%, a value which probably reflects that they belong to different families. The estimated average color excess is also compatible with the photometric determination. Conclusions: This work demonstrates the feasibility of the method of ISM DIB extraction in cool star spectra, based on synthetic spectra. It confirms that DIB measurements and local DIB-extinction calibrations can provide rough, first-order estimates of the towards distant targets.

  12. Correlations for photocatalytic activity and spectral features of the absorption band edge of TiO 2 modified by thiourea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Nadtochenko; N. Denisov; A. Gorenberg; Yu. Kozlov; P. Chubukov; J. A. Rengifo; C. Pulgarin; J. Kiwi

    2009-01-01

    Doping of nanocrystalline TiO2 powders with sizes ranging from 9.5nm up to 19.1nm was carried out with thiourea (TU) to introduce the C, N and S-species into the TiO2. The crystal size was determined by X-ray diffraction. Doped-TiO2 particles were colored while the undoped TiO2 was white. The edge of the absorption band edge was analyzed to describe the TiO2

  13. Simulations of the absorption band of the D-state of Hg 2 in rare gas matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, C. R.; Fernández-Alberti, S.; Echave, J.; Helbing, J.; Chergui, M.

    2003-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics simulations of the absorption spectra of the Hg 2 molecule in solid neon, argon, and xenon. The simulations were performed using classical molecular dynamics (MD) and a diatomic-in-molecules (DIM) treatment of the mixing of the different states of Hg 2 induced by the environment. The experimental relative shifts of the X0 g+-D1 u transition band are qualitatively well reproduced. The origin of these shifts is identified as the result of two combined factors: the effect of the host onto the Hg-Hg equilibrium distances and the different interaction of each matrix with the Hg 2 electronic states.

  14. Hydration of the hydrogen ion in aqueous solutions from intensity of the OD band of HDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawada, K.; Dryjañski, P.

    2001-01-01

    The OD band of HDO has been studied in partly deuterated aqueous solutions of acids: hydrochloric, sulfuric, nitric, trifluoroacetic, and perchloric. Composition of the hydrogen ion is determined. Observations are made on hydration of the perchlorate and trifluoroacetate ions.

  15. Resonance Raman and density functional theory investigation of the photodissociation dynamics of the A-band absorption of (E)-?-nitrostyrene in cyclohexane solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shu-Qiang; Wang, Hui-gang; Pei, Ke-Mei; Zheng, Xuming; Phillips, David Lee

    2007-05-01

    Resonance Raman spectra were obtained for (E)-?-nitrostyrene in cyclohexane solution with excitation wavelengths in resonance with the charge transfer (CT)-band absorption spectrum. These spectra indicate that the Franck-Condon region photodissociation dynamics have multidimensional character with motion predominantly along the nominal NO2 symmetric stretch mode (?14), the nominal C ?C stretch mode (?8), the nominal benzene ring stretch mode (?9), accompanied by a smaller amount of motion along the nominal ONO symmetric bend/benzene ring stretch mode (?34), the nominal CCH in-plane bending mode (?20), the nominal HC ?CH in-plane bending mode (?18), the nominal NO2 asymmetric stretch mode (?11), the nominal C-N stretch/benzene ring breathing mode (?27), and the nominal CCC trigonal bending mode (?25). A preliminary resonance Raman intensity analysis was done and these results for (E )-?-nitrostyrene were compared to results previously reported for several nitrobenzene and trans-stilbene compounds. The differences and similarities between the CT-band resonance Raman spectra and vibrational reorganizational energies for (E)-?-nitrostyrene relative to those for nitrobenzene and trans-stilbene were briefly discussed.

  16. Resonance Raman and density functional theory investigation of the photodissociation dynamics of the A-band absorption of (E)-beta-nitrostyrene in cyclohexane solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Qiang; Wang, Hui-gang; Pei, Ke-Mei; Zheng, Xuming; Phillips, David Lee

    2007-05-21

    Resonance Raman spectra were obtained for (E)-beta-nitrostyrene in cyclohexane solution with excitation wavelengths in resonance with the charge transfer (CT)-band absorption spectrum. These spectra indicate that the Franck-Condon region photodissociation dynamics have multidimensional character with motion predominantly along the nominal NO(2) symmetric stretch mode (nu(14)), the nominal C=C stretch mode (nu(8)), the nominal benzene ring stretch mode (nu(9)), accompanied by a smaller amount of motion along the nominal ONO symmetric bend/benzene ring stretch mode (nu(34)), the nominal CCH in-plane bending mode (nu(20)), the nominal HC=CH in-plane bending mode (nu(18)), the nominal NO(2) asymmetric stretch mode (nu(11)), the nominal C-N stretch/benzene ring breathing mode (nu(27)), and the nominal CCC trigonal bending mode (nu(25)). A preliminary resonance Raman intensity analysis was done and these results for (E)-beta-nitrostyrene were compared to results previously reported for several nitrobenzene and trans-stilbene compounds. The differences and similarities between the CT-band resonance Raman spectra and vibrational reorganizational energies for (E)-beta-nitrostyrene relative to those for nitrobenzene and trans-stilbene were briefly discussed. PMID:17523820

  17. Optical absorption of divalent metal tungstates: Correlation between the band-gap energy and the cation ionic radius

    E-print Network

    Lacomba-Perales, R; Errandonea, D; Martinez-Garcia, D; Segura, A

    2008-01-01

    We have carried out optical-absorption and reflectance measurements at room temperature in single crystals of AWO4 tungstates (A = Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sr, and Zn). From the experimental results their band-gap energy has been determined to be 5.26 eV (BaWO4), 5.08 eV (SrWO4), 4.94 eV (CaWO4), 4.15 eV (CdWO4), 3.9-4.4 eV (ZnWO4), 3.8-4.2 eV (PbWO4), and 2.3 eV (CuWO4). The results are discussed in terms of the electronic structure of the studied tungstates. It has been found that those compounds where only the s electron states of the A2+ cation hybridize with the O 2p and W 5d states (e.g BaWO4) have larger band-gap energies than those where also p, d, and f states of the A2+ cation contribute to the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band (e.g. PbWO4). The results are of importance in view of the large discrepancies existent in prevoiusly published data.

  18. C7-526 JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C7, supple'ment au no 12, Tome 37, De'cembre 1976 COLLOID ABSORPTION BANDS ASSOCIATED WITH IMPLANTED

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    C7-526 JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C7, supple'ment au no 12, Tome 37, De'cembre 1976 COLLOID-width of these bands evolve like these of colloid absorption bands in alkali halides. Plasma oscillations of small of these colloids. The study of these colloids with electron microscopy is not easy in alkali halides [ll], because

  19. meso-meso Linked Porphyrin-[26]Hexaphyrin-Porphyrin Hybrid Arrays and Their Triply Linked Tapes Exhibiting Strong Absorption Bands in the NIR Region.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hirotaka; Tanaka, Takayuki; Lee, Sangsu; Lim, Jong Min; Kim, Dongho; Osuka, Atsuhiro

    2015-02-11

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of directly meso-meso linked porphyrin-[26]hexaphyrin-porphyrin hybrid oligomers and their triply linked (completely fused) hybrid tapes. meso-meso Linked Ni(II) porphyrin-[26]hexaphyrin-Ni(II) porphyrin trimers were prepared by methanesulfonic acid-catalyzed cross-condensation of meso-formyl Ni(II) porphyrins with a 5,10-diaryltripyrrane followed by oxidation with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ). The Ni(II) porphyrin moieties were converted to Zn(II) porphyrins via an indirect route involving reduction of the [26]hexaphyrin to its 28? congener, acid-induced denickelation, oxidation of the [28]hexaphyrin, and finally Zn(II) ion insertion. Over the course of these transformations, porphyrin-[28]hexaphyrin-porphyrin trimers have been revealed to take on a Möbius aromatic twisted structure for the [28]hexaphyrin segment. Oxidation of meso-meso linked hybrid trimer bearing 5,15-diaryl Zn(II) porphyrins with DDQ/Sc(OTf)3 under mild conditions resulted in meso-meso coupling oligomerization, affording the corresponding dimeric (hexamer), trimeric (nonamer), and tetrameric (dodecamer) oligomers. On the other hand, oxidation of a meso-meso linked hybrid trimer bearing 5,10,15-triaryl Zn(II) porphyrin terminals with DDQ/Sc(OTf)3 under harsher conditions afforded a meso-meso, ?-?, ?-? triply linked hybrid porphyrin tape, which displays a sharp and intense absorption band at 1912 nm. Comparison of this extremely red-shifted absorption band with those of Zn(II) porphyrin tapes suggests that the bathochromic-shifting capability of a [26]hexaphyrin unit is large, almost equivalent to that of four individual Zn(II) porphyrin units. As demonstrated, the fusion of porphyrins to [26]hexaphyrin offers an efficient means to expand their conjugation networks, significantly expanding the capabilities attainable for these chromophores. PMID:25611358

  20. Crystalline sulfur dioxide: Crystal field splittings, absolute band intensities and complex refractive indices derived from infrared spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, R. K.; Zhao, Guizhi

    1986-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectra of thin crystalline films of sulfur dioxide at 90 K are reported in the 2700 to 450/cm region. The observed multiplicity of the spectral features in the regions of fundamentals is attributed to factor group splittings of the modes in a biaxial crystal lattice and the naturally present minor S-34, S-36, and O-18 isotopic species. Complex refractive indices determined by an iterative Kramers-Kronig analysis of the extinction data, and absolute band strengths derived from them, are also reported in this region.

  1. Algorithm development for intensity modulated continuous wave laser absorption spectrometry in atmospheric CO2 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, B.; Harrison, F. W.; Browell, E. V.; Dobler, J. T.; Bryant, R. B.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and ITT are jointly developing algorithms for demonstration of range discrimination using ITT's laser absorption spectrometer (LAS), which is being evaluated for the future NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions during Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The objective of this Decadal Survey mission is to measure atmospheric column CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2) for improved determination of atmospheric carbon sources and sinks. Intensity Modulated Continuous Wave (IM-CW) techniques are used in this LAS approach. The LAS is designed to simultaneously measure CO2 and O2 columns, and these measurements are used to determine the required XCO2 column. The LAS measurements are enabled by the multi-channel operation of the instrument at 1.57 and 1.26-um for CO2 and O2, respectively. The algorithm development for the IM-CW techniques of the multi-channel LAS is focused on addressing key retrieval issues such as surface signal detection, thin cloud and/or aerosol layer rejection, vertical atmospheric range resolution, and optimizing the size of the measurement footprint. With these considerations, the modulation algorithm needs to maintain high enough signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) so that the mission scientific goals can be reached. A basic selection of the modulation algorithms that make XCO2 measurement and thin cloud rejection possible is the stepped frequency modulation scheme and a similar scheme of swept sine modulation. The differences between these two schemes for thin cloud rejection are small, assuming the proper selection of parameters is made. The stepped frequency approach is only a quantified version of swept sine method for the frequencies used. Swept sine scheme is a very common modulation technique for range discrimination, while the consideration of the stepped frequency scheme is based on the history of the rolling-tone modulation used in the instrument in previous successful column CO2 measurements. The stepped frequency approach provides minimal risk in the technology development for thin cloud rejection. To obtain a specified vertical resolution, a requisite bandwidth is needed for the stepped frequency/swept sine schemes. The requirements of horizontal resolution and SNR are obtained through the integration time of either stepped frequency or swept sine approaches. Based on these considerations and instrument hardware limitations, the frequencies for the intensity modulation approaches were selected and implemented in the current LAS. The LAS has six wavelength channels: 3 for CO2, 2 for O2 and 1 for background measurements. The frequencies of the stepped frequency algorithm vary from 200 to about 500 KHz with 100-KHz bandwidth in each individual channel. Reduction of potential spectral interference is also considered in the selection of the frequencies. Details of the development of the IM-CW algorithms and results from flight testing of these techniques during the spring and summer of 2011 are discussed in this paper.

  2. THE 217.5 nm BAND, INFRARED ABSORPTION, AND INFRARED EMISSION FEATURES IN HYDROGENATED AMORPHOUS CARBON NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Duley, W. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Hu, Anming, E-mail: wwduley@uwaterloo.ca, E-mail: a2hu@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Centre for Advanced Material Joining, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)] [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Centre for Advanced Material Joining, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2012-12-20

    We report on the preparation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon nanoparticles whose spectral characteristics include an absorption band at 217.5 nm with the profile and characteristics of the interstellar 217.5 nm feature. Vibrational spectra of these particles also contain the features commonly observed in absorption and emission from dust in the diffuse interstellar medium. These materials are produced under ''slow'' deposition conditions by minimizing the flux of incident carbon atoms and by reducing surface mobility. The initial chemistry leads to the formation of carbon chains, together with a limited range of small aromatic ring molecules, and eventually results in carbon nanoparticles having an sp {sup 2}/sp {sup 3} ratio Almost-Equal-To 0.4. Spectroscopic analysis of particle composition indicates that naphthalene and naphthalene derivatives are important constituents of this material. We suggest that carbon nanoparticles with similar composition are responsible for the appearance of the interstellar 217.5 nm band and outline how these particles can form in situ under diffuse cloud conditions by deposition of carbon on the surface of silicate grains. Spectral data from carbon nanoparticles formed under these conditions accurately reproduce IR emission spectra from a number of Galactic sources. We provide the first detailed fits to observational spectra of Type A and B emission sources based entirely on measured spectra of a carbonaceous material that can be produced in the laboratory.

  3. Iron absorption band analysis for the discrimination of iron rich zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A lineament study of the Nevada test site is near completion. Two base maps (1:500,000) have been prepared, one of band 7 lineaments and the other of band 5 lineaments. In general, more lineaments and more faults are seen on band 5. About 45% of the lineaments appear to be faults and contacts, the others being predominantly streams, roads, railway tracks, and mountain crests. About 25% of the lineaments are unidentified so far. Special attention is being given to unmapped extensions of faults, groups of unmapped lineaments, and known mineralized areas and alteration zones. Earthquake epicenters recorded from 1869 to 1963 have been plotted on the two base maps. Preliminary examination as yet indicates no basic correlation with the lineaments. Attempts are being made to subtract bands optically, using an I2S viewer, an enlarger, and a data color viewer. Success has been limited so far due to technical difficulties, mainly vignetting and poor light sources, within the machines. Some vegetation and rock type differences, however, have been discerned.

  4. Application of surface pressure measurements of O2-band differential absorption radar system in three-dimensional data assimilation on hurricane: Part II - A quasi-observational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Qilong; Gong, Wei; Lin, Bing; Hu, Yongxiang

    2015-01-01

    This is the second part on assessing the impacts of assimilating various distributions of sea-level pressure (SLP) on hurricane simulations, using the Weather and Research Forecast (WRF) three dimensional variational data assimilation system (3DVAR). One key purpose of this series of study is to explore the potential of using remotely sensed sea surface barometric data from O2-band differential absorption radar system currently under development for server weather including hurricane forecasts. In this part II we further validate the conclusions of observational system simulation experiments (OSSEs) in the part I using observed SLP for three hurricanes that passed over the Florida peninsula. Three SLP patterns are tested again, including all available data near the Florida peninsula, and a band of observations either through the center or tangent to the hurricane position. Before the assimilation, a vortex SLP reconstruction technique is employed for the use of observed SLP as discussed in the part I. In agreement with the results from OSSEs, the performance of assimilating SLP is enhanced for the two hurricanes with stronger initial minimum SLP, leading to a significant improvement in the track and position relative to the control where no data are assimilated. On the other hand, however, the improvement in the hurricane intensity is generally limited to the first 24-48 h of integration, while a high resolution nested domain simulation, along with assimilation of SLP in the coarse domain, shows more profound improvement in the intensity. A diagnostic analysis of the potential vorticity suggests that the improved track forecasts are attributed to the combined effects of adjusting the steering wind fields in a consistent manner with having a deeper vortex, and the associated changes in the convective activity.

  5. On the sub-band gap optical absorption in heat treated cadmium sulphide thin film deposited on glass by chemical bath deposition technique

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, P.; Karim, B.; Guha Roy, S. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, 92, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2013-12-28

    The sub-band gap optical absorption in chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide thin films annealed at different temperatures has been critically analyzed with special reference to Urbach relation. It has been found that the absorption co-efficient of the material in the sub-band gap region is nearly constant up to a certain critical value of the photon energy. However, as the photon energy exceeds the critical value, the absorption coefficient increases exponentially indicating the dominance of Urbach rule. The absorption coefficients in the constant absorption region and the Urbach region have been found to be sensitive to annealing temperature. A critical examination of the temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient indicates two different kinds of optical transitions to be operative in the sub-band gap region. After a careful analyses of SEM images, energy dispersive x-ray spectra, and the dc current-voltage characteristics, we conclude that the absorption spectra in the sub-band gap domain is possibly associated with optical transition processes involving deep levels and the grain boundary states of the material.

  6. Absolute line intensities determination in the ?7 band of C 2H 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walrand, Jacques; Lengelé, Marc; Blanquet, Ghislain; Lepère, Muriel

    2003-02-01

    Absolute intensities have been measured for 26 lines of C 2H 4 in the ?7 fundamental transition, using a tunable diode-laser spectrometer. These lines with 3? J??21, 2? Ka?4, 2? Kc?20 are located in the spectral range 920-980 cm -1. The intensities have been measured by using two methods: the equivalent width method (EWM) and the line profile fit method (FPM). For the last one, three models have been tested: Voigt, Rautian and Galatry profiles.

  7. Infrared, visible and ultraviolet absorptions of transition metal doped ZnS crystals with spin-polarized bands

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.H. [Department of Physics and Institute for Nanophysics and Rare-earth Luminescence, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Ding, J.W., E-mail: jwding@xtu.edu.c [Department of Physics and Institute for Nanophysics and Rare-earth Luminescence, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Cao, J.X. [Department of Physics and Institute for Nanophysics and Rare-earth Luminescence, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Zhang, Y.L. [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-03-15

    The formation energies, electronic structures and optical properties of TM:ZnS systems (TM=Cr{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+}) are investigated by using the first principles method. It is found that the wurtzite and zinc-blende structures have about the same stability, and thus can coexist in the TM:ZnS system. From the wurtzite TM:ZnS, especially, a partially filled intermediate band (IB) is obtained at TM=Cr{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 2+}, while it is absent at TM=Mn{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+}. The additional absorptions are obtained in infrared, visible and ultraviolet (UV) regions, due to the completely spin-polarized IB at Fermi level. The results are very helpful for both the designs and applications of TM:ZnS opto-electronics devices, such as solar-cell prototype. -- Graphical abstract: Absorption coefficients of w-TM{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}S crystals (TM=Cr{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+}) at x=0.028. The results may be helpful for the design and applications of TM:ZnS devices, especially for the new high efficiency solar-cell prototype, UV detector and UV LEDs. Display Omitted Research highlights: > It is found that the wurtzite and zinc-blende structures can coexist in TM:ZnS. > An intermediate band is obtained in TM:ZnS at TM=Cr{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 2+}. > The absorption coefficients are obtained in infrared, visible and ultraviolet regions.

  8. Experimental demonstrations of record high REAM intensity modulator-enabled 19.25Gb/s real-time end-to-end dual-band optical OFDM colorless transmissions over 25km SSMF IMDD systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q W; Hugues-Salas, E; Giddings, R P; Wang, M; Tang, J M

    2013-04-01

    Record-high 19.25Gb/s real-time end-to-end dual-band optical OFDM (OOFDM) colorless transmissions across the entire C-band are experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, in reflective electro-absorption modulator (REAM)-based 25km standard SMF systems using intensity modulation and direct detection. Adaptively modulated baseband (0-2GHz) and passband (6.125 ± 2GHz) OFDM RF sub-bands, supporting signal line rates of 9.75Gb/s and 9.5Gb/s respectively, are independently generated and detected with FPGA-based DSP clocked at only 100MHz as well as DACs/ADCs operating at sampling speeds as low as 4GS/s. The two OFDM sub-bands are electrically multiplexed for intensity modulation of a single optical carrier by an 8GHz REAM. The REAM colorlessness is experimentally characterized, based on which optimum REAM operating conditions are identified. To maximize and balance the signal transmission performance of each sub-band, on-line adaptive transceiver optimization functions and live performance monitoring are fully exploited to optimize key OOFDM transceiver and system parameters. For different wavelengths within the C-band, corresponding minimum received optical powers at the FEC limit vary in a range of <0.5dB and bit error rate performances for both baseband and passband signals are almost identical. Furthermore, detailed investigations are also undertaken of the maximum aggregated signal line rate sensitivity to electrical sub-band power variation. It is shown that the aforementioned system has approximately 3dB tolerance to RF sub-band power variation. PMID:23572005

  9. Band-gap evolution, hybridization, and thermal stability of InxGa1-xN alloys measured by soft X-ray emission and absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Philip; McGuinness, Cormac; Downes, James E.; Smith, Kevin E.; Doppalapudi, Dharanipal; Moustakas, Theodore D.

    2002-05-01

    The electronic structure of InxGa1-xN alloys with (0<=x<=0.3) has been studied using synchrotron radiation excited soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopies. These spectroscopies allow the elementally resolved partial density of states of the valence and conduction bands to be measured. The x-ray absorption spectra indicate that the conduction band broadens considerably with increasing indium incorporation. The evolution of the band gap as a function of indium content derives primarily from this broadening of the conduction-band states. The emission spectra indicate that motion of the valence band makes a smaller contribution to the evolution of the band gap. This gap evolution differs from previous studies on the AlxGa1-xN alloy system, which observed a linear valence-band shift through the series (0<=x<=1). For InxGa1-xN the valence band exhibits a large shift between x=0 and x=0.1 with minimal movement thereafter. We also report evidence of In 4d-N 2p and Ga 3d-N 2p hybridization. Finally, the thermal stability of an In0.11Ga0.89N film was investigated. Both emission and absorption spectra were found to have a temperature-dependent shift in energy, but the overall definition of the spectra was unaltered even at annealing temperatures well beyond the growth temperature of the film.

  10. Highly luminescent S, N co-doped graphene quantum dots with broad visible absorption bands for visible light photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Dan; Zheng, Min; Du, Peng; Zhou, Yue; Zhang, Ligong; Li, Di; Tan, Huaqiao; Zhao, Zhao; Xie, Zhigang; Sun, Zaicheng

    2013-11-01

    A facile hydrothermal synthesis route to N and S, N co-doped graphene quantum dots (GQDs) was developed by using citric acid as the C source and urea or thiourea as N and S sources. Both N and S, N doped GQDs showed high quantum yield (78% and 71%), excitation independent under excitation of 340-400 nm and single exponential decay under UV excitation. A broad absorption band in the visible region appeared in S, N co-doped GQDs due to doping with sulfur, which alters the surface state of GQDs. However, S, N co-doped GQDs show different color emission under excitation of 420-520 nm due to their absorption in the visible region. The excellent photocatalytic performance of the S, N co-doped GQD/TiO2 composites was demonstrated by degradation of rhodamine B under visible light. The apparent rate of S, N:GQD/TiO2 is 3 and 10 times higher than that of N:GQD/TiO2 and P25 TiO2 under visible light irradiation, respectively.A facile hydrothermal synthesis route to N and S, N co-doped graphene quantum dots (GQDs) was developed by using citric acid as the C source and urea or thiourea as N and S sources. Both N and S, N doped GQDs showed high quantum yield (78% and 71%), excitation independent under excitation of 340-400 nm and single exponential decay under UV excitation. A broad absorption band in the visible region appeared in S, N co-doped GQDs due to doping with sulfur, which alters the surface state of GQDs. However, S, N co-doped GQDs show different color emission under excitation of 420-520 nm due to their absorption in the visible region. The excellent photocatalytic performance of the S, N co-doped GQD/TiO2 composites was demonstrated by degradation of rhodamine B under visible light. The apparent rate of S, N:GQD/TiO2 is 3 and 10 times higher than that of N:GQD/TiO2 and P25 TiO2 under visible light irradiation, respectively. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: More XPS and UV-Vis spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04402e

  11. The nonlinear spectra of transneptunian objects: Evidence for organic absorption bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, W.; Brown, M.; Emery, J.

    2014-07-01

    The reflectance spectra of small (D?250 km) transneptunian objects (TNOs) are generally quite simple. Water-ice absorption is the only feature firmly detected on the majority of TNOs (Brown et al. 2012). Tentative detections of other materials have been presented (e.g., Barucci et al. 2011), but generally speaking, the spectra of small TNOs are nearly linear in the optical (0.5 < ? < 0.9 ? m; Fornasier et al. 2009) and NIR ranges (1.0 < ? < 1.5 ? m) with water-ice absorption apparent at longer wavelengths (Barkume et al. 2008). Each region is well described by a spectral slope, with the optical slope being typically redder than in the NIR (Hainaut and Delsanti, 2002, 2012). Here we present new spectral photometry of two TNOs which do not fit this simple prescription. We will present photometry of TNOs taken from HST during cycles 17 and 18. Unlike most objects, two TNOs do not exhibit linear optical spectra. Rather, they exhibit upward curvatures shortward of ? ˜ 1 ? m, with colors becoming redder with increasing wavelength. Previously published spectra and photometry exhibit similar optical shapes on a number of TNOs, including Borasisi, Pholus, Chariklo, Asbolus, and 2003 AZ_{84} (Romon-Martin et al. 2002, Alvarez-Candal et al. 2008, Fornasier 2009, Hainaut and Delsanti 2012). An interesting candidate for the upward curvature is complex C- and N-bearing hydrocarbons. These organic materials exhibit a broad absorption centered in the UV which is caused by a valence-conduction energy gap (see Moroz et al. 1998). The specific shape of the feature depends on the molecular structure of the organic material, with longer hydrocarbons generally producing wider absorptions. The assertion that the optical spectra of small TNOs are influenced by this hydrocarbon feature is reasonable as the feature is the general result of irradiation of simple organic H-, C-, and N-bearing materials, not dissimilar to that expected to occur on young TNOs (Brunetto et al. 2006). The interpretation of this feature as an absorption due to organics is compatible with the conclusions of Fraser and Brown (2012) who found that the small dynamically excited Kuiper-belt objects exhibit two different compositional classes. They assert that the difference between the neutral and red classes are the result of mixing of a non-icy (likely silicate) material component with two different organic components, one for each class of object. Brown et al. (2011) argue that because there is no quantitative difference between the colors of Centaurs and more distant TNOs, the two separate organic components are not the result of recent surface evolution, but rather is caused by early, post-formation volatile loss from the TNOs. Irradiation then rapidly drove evolution along two separate chemical pathways between those objects that lost and those objects that retained their volatiles. If it is shown to be true that the source of TNO spectral shapes are due to hydrocarbons, then the shape of the feature, which spans the UV-NIR region, holds the potential to reflect the relative irradiation doses experienced in the early Solar System between different objects within the same compositional class of TNO, and hence inform us of their relative formation locations.

  12. Multilayer Cloud Detection with the MODIS Near-Infrared Water Vapor Absorption Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wind, Galina; Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Hubanks, Paul A,; Pavolonis, Michael J.; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Yang, Ping; Baum, Bryan A.

    2009-01-01

    Data Collection 5 processing for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the NASA Earth Observing System EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft includes an algorithm for detecting multilayered clouds in daytime. The main objective of this algorithm is to detect multilayered cloud scenes, specifically optically thin ice cloud overlying a lower-level water cloud, that presents difficulties for retrieving cloud effective radius using single layer plane-parallel cloud models. The algorithm uses the MODIS 0.94 micron water vapor band along with CO2 bands to obtain two above-cloud precipitable water retrievals, the difference of which, in conjunction with additional tests, provides a map of where multilayered clouds might potentially exist. The presence of a multilayered cloud results in a large difference in retrievals of above-cloud properties between the CO2 and the 0.94 micron methods. In this paper the MODIS multilayered cloud algorithm is described, results of using the algorithm over example scenes are shown, and global statistics for multilayered clouds as observed by MODIS are discussed. A theoretical study of the algorithm behavior for simulated multilayered clouds is also given. Results are compared to two other comparable passive imager methods. A set of standard cloudy atmospheric profiles developed during the course of this investigation is also presented. The results lead to the conclusion that the MODIS multilayer cloud detection algorithm has some skill in identifying multilayered clouds with different thermodynamic phases

  13. Controlling multi-wave mixing signals via photonic band gap of electromagnetically induced absorption grating in atomic media.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiqi; Wu, Zhenkun; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Huaibin; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate dressed multi-wave mixing (MWM) and the reflection of the probe beam due to electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) grating can coexist in a five-level atomic ensemble. The reflection is derived from the photonic band gap (PBG) of EIA grating, which is much broader than the PBG of EIT grating. Therefore, EIA-type PBG can reflect more energy from probe than EIT-type PBG does, which can effectively affect the MWM signal. The EIA-type as well as EIT-type PBG can be controlled by multiple parameters including the frequency detunings, propagation angles and powers of the involved light fields. Also, the EIA-type PBG by considering both the linear and third-order nonlinear refractive indices is also investigated. The theoretical analysis agrees well with the experimental results. This investigation has potential applications in all-optical communication and information processing. PMID:24514487

  14. Jupiter's atmospheric composition and cloud structure deduced from absorption bands in reflected sunlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, M.; Hansen, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    The spectrum of sunlight reflected by Jupiter is analyzed by comparing observations of Woodman (1979) with multiple-scattering computations. The analysis yields information on the vertical cloud structure at several latitudes and on the abundance of CH4 and NH3 in the atmosphere of Jupiter. The abundances of CH4 and NH3 suggest that all ices and rocks are overabundant on Jupiter by a factor of 2 or more, providing an important constraint on models for the formation of Jupiter from the primitive solar nebula. The pressure level of the clouds, the gaseous NH3 abundance, the mean temperature profile, and the Clausius-Clapeyron relation suggest that these clouds are predominantly ammonia crystals with the cloud bottom at 600-700 mb. A diffuse distribution of aerosols exists between 150 and 500 mb, and the spectral variation of albedo reflects a changing bulk absorption coefficient of the material composing the aerosols and is diagnostic of the aerosol composition.

  15. CS band intensity and column densities and production rates of 15 comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanzovo, G. C.; Singh, P. D.; Huebner, W. F.

    1993-01-01

    An accurate fluorescence efficiency of the CS(0,0) band and the lifetime of CS have been calculated at 1 AU heliocentric distance. Model-independent CS column densities and production rates are determined from derived fluorescent emission rates (g-factors) and lifetimes for 15 comets: Austin (1982g), Borrelly (1980i), Bradfield (1979X), Crommelin (1983n), Encke (1980), Encke (1984), Giacobini-Zinner (1984e), Halley (1982i), IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983d), Meier (1980q), Panther (1980u), Stephan-Oterma (1980g), Tuttle (1980h), West (1975n), and Wilson (1986l).

  16. The correction of reflection intensities for incomplete absorption of high-energy X-rays in the CCD phosphor

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G.; Rodrigues, B.L.; Coppens, P. (SUNYB)

    2009-03-24

    It is shown that incomplete absorption of the X-ray beam in the phosphor of an area detector causes an incident-angle dependence of the recorded X-ray intensities. An energy scan of a SMART-6000 CCD (charge-coupled device) phosphor using synchrotron radiation shows the correction to be of importance above about 17 keV. Intensities of single reflections, each collected several times at different angles of incidence on the phosphor surface, show a pronounced angle-dependence at shorter wavelengths. Both conventional structural refinement and multipole charge density studies confirm that an oblique-incidence correction leads to improved quality of the results. Atomic displacement parameters will be systematically biased when the correction is not applied. For a {lambda} = 0.394 {angstrom} data set, neglecting the correction gives rise to artifacts in the deformation density maps that are likely to lead to misinterpretation of the experimental results.

  17. Highly luminescent S, N co-doped graphene quantum dots with broad visible absorption bands for visible light photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Qu, Dan; Zheng, Min; Du, Peng; Zhou, Yue; Zhang, Ligong; Li, Di; Tan, Huaqiao; Zhao, Zhao; Xie, Zhigang; Sun, Zaicheng

    2013-12-21

    A facile hydrothermal synthesis route to N and S, N co-doped graphene quantum dots (GQDs) was developed by using citric acid as the C source and urea or thiourea as N and S sources. Both N and S, N doped GQDs showed high quantum yield (78% and 71%), excitation independent under excitation of 340-400 nm and single exponential decay under UV excitation. A broad absorption band in the visible region appeared in S, N co-doped GQDs due to doping with sulfur, which alters the surface state of GQDs. However, S, N co-doped GQDs show different color emission under excitation of 420-520 nm due to their absorption in the visible region. The excellent photocatalytic performance of the S, N co-doped GQD/TiO2 composites was demonstrated by degradation of rhodamine B under visible light. The apparent rate of S, N:GQD/TiO2 is 3 and 10 times higher than that of N:GQD/TiO2 and P25 TiO2 under visible light irradiation, respectively. PMID:24150696

  18. Near field enhancement and absorption properties of the double cylindrical microcavities based on triple-band metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Hang; Yang, Li

    2014-06-01

    We numerically study the near field enhancement and absorption properties inside the double cylindrical microcavities based on triple-band metamaterial absorber. The compact single unit cell consists of concentric gold rings each with a gold disk in the center, and a metallic ground plane separated by a dielectric layer. At the normal incidence of electromagnetic radiation, the obtained reflection spectra show that the resonance frequencies of the double microcavities are 16.65 THz, 20.65 THz, and 25.65THz, respectively. We also calculate the values of contrast C (C = 1 - Rmin), which can reach 95%, 97%, and 95% at the corresponding frequencies by optimizing the geometry parameters of structure. Moreover, we demonstrate that the multilayer structure with subwavelength electromagnetic confinement allows 104 ~105-fold enhancement of the electromagnetic energy density inside the double cavities, which contains the most energy of the incoming electromagnetic radiation. Moreover, the proposed structure will be insensitive to the polarization of the incident wave due to the symmetry of the double cylindrical microcavities. The proposed optical metamaterial is a promising candidate as an absorbing element in scientific and technical applications because of its extreme confinement, multiband absorptions, and polarization insensitivity.

  19. Effects of low-intensity, elastic band resistance exercise combined with blood flow restriction on muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, T; Fukumura, K; Fukuda, T; Iida, H; Imuta, H; Sato, Y; Yamasoba, T; Nakajima, T

    2014-02-01

    We examined the effects of blood flow-restricted, low-intensity resistance exercise (termed kaatsu) using an elastic band for resistance on muscle activation. Nine men performed triceps extension and biceps flexion exercises (four sets respectively) using an elastic band for resistance with blood flow restriction (BFR) or CON (unrestricted blood flow). During a BFR session, subjects wore pressure cuffs inflated to 170-260?mmHg on the proximal region of both arms. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the triceps brachii and biceps brachii muscles, and mean integrated EMG (iEMG) was analyzed. Blood lactate concentration was obtained before (Pre) and immediately after two exercises (Post). During triceps extension and biceps flexion exercises, muscle activation increased progressively (P?bands for resistance enhances muscle activation and may be an effective method to promote muscle hypertrophy in older adults or patients with a low level of activity. PMID:22734915

  20. The determination of minority carrier lifetimes in direct band-gap semiconductors by monitoring intensity-modulated luminescence radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Roos, O.

    1985-01-01

    When an extrinsic, direct band-gap semiconductor sample is irradiated by photons of an energy higher than the energy of the band gap between valence and conduction bands, excess electron-hole pairs are generated which, while diffusing through the sample, produce luminescence via radiative recombination. If, furthermore, the intensity of the impinging beam of photons is modulated sinusoidally, the luminescence radiation escaping from the sample will be phase shifted with respect to the original photon beam in a characteristic way. It will be shown that by measuring the phase shift at different modulation frequencies, the Shockley-Read-Hall lifetime of minority carriers may be ascertained. The method is nondestructive inasmuch as there is no need to fabricate p-n junctions or Ohmic contacts, nor is it necessary to remove already existing Ohmic contacts of angle lap the surface, etc., procedures often needed when determining lifetimes with the scanning electron microscope (in which case a p-n junction must be present).

  1. Absorption

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katherine M Knudson (Polson Middle School)

    1998-04-01

    This activity can be used to allow students to explore the concept of absorption using a variety of materials. Extensions include exploring how Native Americans used absorbtion in a number of ways. This inquiry activity was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 1998 Frontiers in Physiology Program. The NSES Standards addressed by this activity are current as of the year of development. For more information on the Frontiers in Physiology Program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

  2. Evidence for the presence of the 802.7/cm band Q branch of HO2NO2 in high resolution solar absorption spectra of the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Russell, J. M., III; Park, J. H.; Zander, R.; Farmer, C. B.; Norton, R. H.; Brown, L. R.

    1986-01-01

    Stratospheric solar absorption spectra recorded at about 0.01/cm resolution by the ATMOS (Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy) Fourier transform spectrometer during the Spacelab 3 Shuttle mission (4/30-5/6/85) show a weak absorption feature covering about 802.5-803.3/cm. This feature is identified as the unresolved Q branch of the 802.7/cm band of HO2NO2 and profiles for 31 deg N and 47 deg S are reported.

  3. Three-Pulse Femtosecond Spectroscopy of PbSe Nanocrystals: 1S Bleach Nonlinearity and Sub-Band-Edge Excited-State Absorption Assignment.

    PubMed

    Gdor, Itay; Shapiro, Arthur; Yang, Chunfan; Yanover, Diana; Lifshitz, Efrat; Ruhman, Sanford

    2015-02-24

    Above band-edge photoexcitation of PbSe nanocrystals induces strong below band gap absorption as well as a multiphased buildup of bleaching in the 1Se1Sh transition. The amplitudes and kinetics of these features deviate from expectations based on biexciton shifts and state filling, which are the mechanisms usually evoked to explain them. To clarify these discrepancies, the same transitions are investigated here by double-pump-probe spectroscopy. Re-exciting in the below band gap induced absorption characteristic of hot excitons is shown to produce additional excitons with high probability. In addition, pump-probe experiments on a sample saturated with single relaxed excitons prove that the resulting 1Se1Sh bleach is not linear with the number of excitons per nanocrystal. This finding holds for two samples differing significantly in size, demonstrating its generality. Analysis of the results suggests that below band edge induced absorption in hot exciton states is due to excited-state absorption and not to shifted absorption of cold carriers and that 1Se1Sh bleach signals are not an accurate counter of sample excitons when their distribution includes multiexciton states. PMID:25629237

  4. Modeling of collision-induced infrared absorption spectra of H2 pairs in the first overtone band at temperatures from 20 to 500 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Chunguang; Borysow, Aleksandra

    1995-01-01

    A simple formalism is presented that permits quick computations of the low-resolution, rotovibrational collision-induced absorption (RV CIA) spectra of H2 pairs in the first overtone band of hydrogen, at temperatures from 20 to 500 K. These spectra account for the free-free transitions. The sharp dimer features, originating from the bound-free, free-bound, and bound-bound transitions are ignored, though their integrated intensities are properly accounted for. The method employs spectral model line- shapes with parameters computed from the three lowest spectral moments. The moments are obtained from first principles expressed as analytical functions of temperature. Except for the sharp dimer features, which are absent in this model, the computed spectra reproduce closely the results of exact quantum mechanical lineshape computations. Comparisons of the computed spectra with existing experimental data also show good agreement. The work interest for the modeling of the atmospheres of the outer planets in the near-infrared region of the spectrum. The user-friendly Fortran program developed here is available on request from the authors.

  5. Infrared absorption band and vibronic structure of the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehayias, P.; Doherty, M. W.; English, D.; Fischer, R.; Jarmola, A.; Jensen, K.; Leefer, N.; Hemmer, P.; Manson, N. B.; Budker, D.

    2013-10-01

    Negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV-) color centers in diamond have generated much interest for use in quantum technology. Despite the progress made in developing their applications, many questions about the basic properties of NV- centers remain unresolved. Understanding these properties can validate theoretical models of NV-, improve their use in applications, and support their development into competitive quantum devices. In particular, knowledge of the phonon modes of the 1A1 electronic state is key for understanding the optical pumping process. Using pump-probe spectroscopy, we measured the phonon sideband of the 1E?1A1 electronic transition in the NV- center. From this we calculated the 1E?1A1 one-phonon absorption spectrum and found it to differ from that of the 3E?3A2 transition, a result which is not anticipated by previous group-theoretical models of the NV- electronic states. We identified a high-energy 169-meV localized phonon mode of the 1A1 level.

  6. The Effects of Light Intensity and Color Absorption of Diurnal Leaf Movements of Malva parviflora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Lawrence; Ben Young; Matthew Yarborough

    2009-01-01

    Our group measured the heliotropic response rate of the Malva parviflora under various light environments in order to see the effect that light color and intensity had on daily leaf movement. In our experiment we measured the leaf angle of plants under white, blue, red and green light, as well as plants under shade, over a specific duration of time

  7. Modelling of Collision Induced Absorption Spectra Of H2-H2 Pairs for the Planetary Atmospheres Structure: The Second Overtone Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borysow, Aleksandra; Borysow, Jacek I.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of the proposal was to model the collision induced, second overtone band of gaseous hydrogen at low temperatures. The aim of this work is to assist planetary scientists in their investigation of planetary atmospheres, mainly those of Uranus and Neptune. The recently completed extended database of collision induced dipole moments of hydrogen pairs allowed us, for the first time, to obtain dipole moment matrix elements responsible for the roto-vibrational collision induced absorption spectra of H2-H2 in the second overtone band. Despite our numerous attempts to publish those data, the enormous volume of the database did not allow us to do this. Instead, we deposited the data on a www site. The final part of this work has been partially supported by NASA, Division for Planetary Atmospheres. In order to use our new data for modelling purpose, we first needed to test how well we can reproduce the existing experimental data from theory, when using our new input data. Two papers resulted from this work. The obtained agreement between theoretical results and the measurements appeared to be within 10-30%. The obviously poorer agreement than observed for the first H2 overtone, the fundamental, and the rototranslational bands can be attributed to the fact that dipole moments responsible for the second overtone are much weaker, therefore susceptible to larger numerical uncertainties. At the same time, the intensity of the second overtone band is much weaker and therefore it is much harder to be measured accurately in the laboratory. We need to point out that until now, no dependable model of the 2nd overtone band was available for modelling of the planetary atmospheres. The only one, often referred to in previous works on Uranian and Neptune's atmospheres, uses only one lineshape, with one (or two) parameter(s) deduced at the effective temperature of Uranus (by fitting the planetary observation). After that, the parameter(s) was(were) made temperature dependent according to some very simple relation. Summarizing, no reliable temperature-dependent model has been available yet. Our approach was a bit different from similar attempts done earlier, on account of the poorer agreement of theory with experiment. We needed to resort to some semi-empirical procedure. While we were in a favourable position to be able to rely on the physical input data, these, apparently, did not supply the most dependable predictions (simply because the results did not agree well enough with experimental data). On the other hand, the relative deviations between the theory and experiment were comparable at 77 and at 298 K. That fact indicated that theory is capable of predicting the temperature dependence of the absorption spectra well. We have thus chosen the "middle way". We have fitted the existing measurements with many 3- parameter lineshapes, in order to achieve the closest fit.

  8. Saturation and inverse-saturation absorption line shapes in alexandrite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle S. Malcuit; Robert W. Boyd; Lloyd W. Hillman; Jerzy Krasinski

    1984-01-01

    Through the use of modulation spectroscopy we have measured the absorption spectrum experienced by a weak probe beam in the presence of a saturating pump beam at two different wavelengths within the broad homogeneous absorption band of alexandrite. At 584 nm the absorption saturates at high pump intensities, and a hole (of width 612 Hz) appears at frequencies near that

  9. Controlling spin polarized band-structure by variation of vacancy intensity in nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamali, S.; Kilmametov, A.; Ghafari, M.; Itou, M.; Hahn, H.; Sakurai, Y.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the magnetic properties of FeAl alloys with different grain sizes produced by high-pressure torsion were probed by means of magnetic Compton scattering. The measurements were performed at 300 and 10 K. Magnetic Compton profiles of nanocrystalline (35 nm) and ultrafine-grained (160 nm) FeAl alloys were analyzed in terms of the integral area, the width, and the distinctive dip intensity at low momenta. The changes in total magnetic moment and the strength of spin-polarization of itinerant electrons are assumed to be caused by vacancies induced during the preparation of the samples. Despite local disordering due to interfacial regions and deviations in perfect stoichiometry for B2 structure, the effect of vacancies is considered as the major magnetic state contributor.

  10. Controlling spin polarized band-structure by variation of vacancy intensity in nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kamali, S; Kilmametov, A; Ghafari, M; Itou, M; Hahn, H; Sakurai, Y

    2015-02-25

    In this study, the magnetic properties of FeAl alloys with different grain sizes produced by high-pressure torsion were probed by means of magnetic Compton scattering. The measurements were performed at 300 and 10 K. Magnetic Compton profiles of nanocrystalline (35 nm) and ultrafine-grained (160 nm) FeAl alloys were analyzed in terms of the integral area, the width, and the distinctive dip intensity at low momenta. The changes in total magnetic moment and the strength of spin-polarization of itinerant electrons are assumed to be caused by vacancies induced during the preparation of the samples. Despite local disordering due to interfacial regions and deviations in perfect stoichiometry for B2 structure, the effect of vacancies is considered as the major magnetic state contributor. PMID:25646271

  11. Photo response of the EL2 absorption band and of the As+Ga ESR signal in B. Dischler and U. Kaufmann

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -gap. They also demonstrated that the spectral dependencies of the ASGA mid-gap level ionization cross-sections of the EL2 optical cross-sections known from photocapacitance studies. The thermal recovery of the EL2779 Photo response of the EL2 absorption band and of the As+Ga ESR signal in GaAs B. Dischler and U

  12. Linear and nonlinear intra-conduction band optical absorption in (In,Ga)N/GaN spherical QD under hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ghazi, Haddou; Jorio, Anouar; Zorkani, Izeddine

    2014-11-01

    Linear, third-order nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients of intra-conduction band 1s-1p transition with hydrogenic shallow-donor impurity in wurtzite (In,Ga)N/GaN spherical quantum dot are reported. Hydrostatic pressure effect is investigated within the framework of single band effective-mass approximation using a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree-Fock-Roothaan (HFR) method. The results show that the pressure has a great influence on optical absorption coefficients of QDs. A blue-shift of the resonant peak is observed while the maximum of the amplitude of optical absorption coefficients decreases under hydrostatic pressure effect. A good agreement is shown compared with results of the finding.

  13. High resolution absorption cross sections in the transmission window region of the Schumann-Runge bands and Herzberg continuum of O2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Cheung, A. S.-C.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented on measurements, conducted in the wavelength region 180-195 nm, and at different pressures of oxygen (between 2.5-760 torr) in order to separate the pressure-dependent absorption from the main cross sections, of the absorption cross sections of the Schumann-Runge bands in the window region between the rotational lines of S-R bands of O2. The present cross sections supersede the earlier published cross sections (Yoshino et al., 1983). The combined cross sections are presented graphically; they are available at wavenumber intervals of about 0.1/cm from the National Space Science Data Center. The Herzberg continuum cross sections are derived after subtracting calculated contributions from the Schumann-Runge bands. These are significantly smaller than any previous measurements.

  14. The Si-H stretching-bending overtone polyads of SiHF3: Assignments, band intensities, internal coordinate force field, and ab initio dipole moment surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hai; Bürger, Hans; MKadmi, El Bachir; He, Sheng-Gui; Yuan, Lan-Feng; Breidung, Jürgen; Thiel, Walter; Huet, Thérèse R.; Demaison, Jean

    2001-07-01

    Fourier transform overtone spectra of SiHF3 were recorded in the region of 2500-9000 cm-1 and vibrationally assigned. Experimental intensities were estimated. The 3?1 overtone band at 6753 cm-1 was observed to be more than 10 times weaker than the 4?1 band. A reduced three-dimensional Hamiltonian model in terms of internal coordinates was employed to study the Si-H stretching and bending vibrations including 5?1 and 6?1 which were recently recorded using optoacoustic spectroscopy. Potential energy parameters were optimized by fitting to experimental band centers. The Fermi resonance between the Si-H stretching and bending motions was found to be insignificant. Band intensities were computed using ab initio one- and three-dimensional dipole moment surfaces (DMS) expanded to polynomials in terms of symmetrized internal coordinates. The intensity anomaly of 3?1 is understood as resulting from cancellation of contributions by the linear and quadratic terms in the DMS expansion. The behavior of X-H stretching overtone intensities as excitation increases was also studied in the low and medium energy regions. Whether a rapid or a slow decrease of intensity occurs with increasing excitation depends strongly on the nonlinearity of the DMS. For some molecules, there is an almost complete cancellation of contributions from the lower order terms in the DMS so that the accuracy of the computed overtone intensities is mainly limited by the uncertainty of the higher order expansion coefficients in the DMS.

  15. Microwave-assisted synthesis of graphene-Ni composites with enhanced microwave absorption properties in Ku-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zetao; Sun, Xin; Li, Guoxian; Xue, Hairong; Guo, Hu; Fan, Xiaoli; Pan, Xuchen; He, Jianping

    2015-03-01

    Recently, graphene has been applied as a new microwave absorber because of its high dielectric loss and low density. Nevertheless, the high dielectric constant of pristine graphene has caused unbalanced electromagnetic parameters and results in a bad impedance matching characteristic. In this study, we report a facile microwave-assisted heating approach to produce reduced graphene oxide-nickel (RGO-Ni) composites. The phase and morphology of as-synthesized RGO-Ni composites are characterized by XRD, Raman, FESEM and TEM. The results show that Ni nanoparticles with a diameter around 20 nm are grown densely and uniformly on the RGO sheets. In addition, enhanced microwave absorption properties in Ku-band of RGO-Ni composites is mainly due to the synergistic effect of dielectric loss and magnetic loss and the dramatically electron polarizations caused by the formation of large conductive network. The minimum reflection loss of RGO-Ni-2 composite with the thickness of 2 mm can reaches -42 dB at 17.6 GHz. The RGO-Ni composite is an attractive candidate for the new type of high performance microwave absorbing material.

  16. Dosimetric absorption of intensity-modulated radiotherapy compared with conventional radiotherapy in breast-conserving surgery

    PubMed Central

    LIN, YANG; WANG, BENZHONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dosimetric benefits between intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and conventional radiotherapy (CR) among patients receiving breast-conserving surgery. A dosimetric comparison of IMRT and CR was evaluated in 20 patients with early-stage breast cancer using a three-dimensional treatment planning system. The prescribed mammary gland dose was completed in 25 fractions with a total dose of 5,000 cGy. Homogeneity of the planning target volume (PTV), irradiation dose and volume of organs at risk (OARs) were evaluated through a dose-volume histogram. For the homogeneity of PTV, the average volume receiving 95% of the prescribed dose in the IMRT plan was similar to that in the CR plan (97 vs. 96%, respectively). With regard to normal tissue sparing in OARs, the ipsilateral lung V20 in the IMRT and CR plans was 27.8 and 20.8%, respectively. The mean dose and V30 of the heart for five patients were 598.4 versus 348.3 cGy and 10.06 versus 5.3%, respectively. The mean dose sparing the heart or lung was markedly reduced in the IMRT plan compared with the CR plan. The results of the current study demonstrated that whole breast IMRT improves PTV dose distribution and improves normal tissue sparing in OARs. PMID:25435927

  17. Ground-state ?--branching intensities of several fission-product isotopes measured using a total absorption ?-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, R. C.; Putnam, M. H.; Watts, K. D.

    1996-02-01

    The final set of results of "ground-state" ?--branching intensities obtained in a program of systematic study of those regions of the fission-product nuclides accessible to investigation using the 252Cf-based INEL ISOL facility are presented. A total absorption ?-ray spectrometer, operating in a 4??-? coincidence mode, was used to obtain these "ground-state" ?--branching intensities; where here the "ground-state" is defined to include all states below a selected ?-ray discriminator level. Results obtained for 89Rb, 90gRb, 91Rb, 93Rb, 93Sr, 94Sr, 94Y, 95Sr, 95Y, 140Cs, 142La, 143Ba, 143La, 144Ba, 144La, 145Ba, 145La, 146Ce, 146Pr, 147Ce, 147Pr, 148Ce, 148Pr, (2.27 min), 149Pr, 149Nd, 151Pr, 151Nd, 152Pm (4.1 min), 153Nd, 155Nd, 157Pm, 157Sm, 158Sm and 158Eu are presented and compared with existing published data.

  18. The role of R&D intensity, technical development and absorptive capacity in creating entrepreneurial wealth in high technology start-ups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L Deeds

    2001-01-01

    This study uses 80 newly public pharmaceutical biotechnology companies to explore the relationship between a high technology venture’s R&D intensity, technical capabilities and absorptive capacity and the amount of entrepreneurial wealth created by the venture. A novel measure of absorptive capacity based on co-citation analysis of a firm’s scientific publications is developed and several indicators of technical capabilities are used

  19. Analysis of Mars surface hydration through the MEx/OMEGA observation of the 3 ?m absorption band.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouglet, D.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J. P.; Langevin, Y.; Gondet, B.; Milliken, R. E.; Mustard, J. F.

    The near infrared Mars surface global mapping done by OMEGA gives the first opportunity to study the global and detailed characteristics of the 3µm hydration absorption band on Mars surface. This feature is indistinctly due to bending and stretching vibrations of water bound in minerals or adsorbed at their surface, and of hydroxyl groups (for a review, see e.g. [1] or [2]). Its study may give new elements to determine the geologic and climatic past of Mars, and may put new constrain about the current water cycle of Mars. OMEGA data are processed in a pipeline that converts raw data to radiance, removes atmospheric effects and gets I/F. Specific data reduction scheme has been developed to assess temperature of OMEGA spectra at 5 µm and to remove their thermal part so as to get the albedo from 1.µm to 5.1µm ([2]). Two methods, the Integrated Band Depth and the water content based on comparison with laboratory measures of Yen et al. ([3]), have been used to assess the 3µm band depth. These two methods where applied to OMEGA spectra acquired at a nominal calibration level and not exhibiting water ice features. This corresponds to approximately 35 million spectra ([2]). The data processed show the presence of this absorption feature overall the Martian surface, which could be explained by the presence of adsorbed water up to 1% water mass percentage ([4]) and by rinds or coating resulting from weathering (see e.g. [5] or [6]). A possible increase of hydration with albedo is discussed so as to discriminate between the albedo-dependence of the method and hydration variations. Terrains enriched in phyllosilicates ([7]), sulfates ([8]) or hydroxides exhibit an increased hydration at 3 µm. This terrains show that the 3 µm band can bring additional information about composition, for example by observing a variation in the shape of the band. A decrease of hydration with elevation is observed on the processed data independently of the value of albedo. This correlation may be explained by a decrease of pressure with altitude so that less water can adsorb on minerals. Study of global maps reveals a strong increase of hydration with high latitudes (over 60°N), maybe due to a change in composition [9]. Careful analysis also shows seasonal variations of the hydration of soils with the decrease of hydration between spring and summer for mid latitudes regions (from 40°N to 60°N). This hydration enrichment is not due to instrumental effect or to the presence of aerosols or water ice. It is associated to an increase of hydration with latitude in spring, increase that has disappeared in summer. This temporal variation may be explained by the presence of frost in winter. Frost is in contact with minerals and imposes a high water vapor pressure, which makes water to fix on minerals during winter. Then the hydration of the surface returns to equilibrium with the atmosphere by releasing water. These variations seem to confirm the important role of regolith on water cycle, which was predicted from numerical simulations (e.g. [10]). [1] Cooper C.D. and Mustard J.F. (1999) Icarus 142, 557-570. [2] Jouglet D.et al., article in preparation. [3] Yen A.S. et al (1998) JGR E5, 103, 11,125-11,133. [4] Zent A.P. and Quinn R.C.(1997) JGR E4, 102, 9085-9095. [5] Yen A.S. et al (2005), Nature 436, 49-54. [6] Hurowitz J.A. et al (2006) JGR, 111, E02S19, doi:10.1029/2005JE002515. [7] Poulet F. et al (2005) Nature 438, 623-627. [8] Gendrin A. et al. (2005) Science 307, 1587-1591. [9] Milliken et al, article in preparation. [10] Böttger H.M.et al. (2005) Icarus 177, 174-189. 2

  20. Absorption Spectra and Absorption Coefficients for the 790 NM and 889 NM Bands of Methane at Temperatures down to 77 K

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. O'Brien; E. A. Amin; B. L. Kalmar

    1998-01-01

    Methane spectral features are prominent in the reflected sunlight spectra from the outer planets and some of their major satellites and can provide detailed information on the atmospheres of those bodies. Methane bands in the visible to near-IR region are particularly important because for many of these planetary bodies, methane IR bands are found to be saturated. Laboratory data acquired

  1. Temperature dependence of CO2 and CO2-He mixture absorption coefficients in the Q-branch of (20o0)III <--0110 band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aref'ev, Vladimir N.; Baranov, Yu. I.; Baranova, E. L.

    1997-03-01

    Absorption coefficients of pure carbon dioxide and CO2- He mixture have been measured in the Q-branch of the (20 degree(s)0)III IMP 0110 vibration-rotation band (1880.994 cm-1) at different pressures from 0.2 to 2.7 atm and temperatures: 294, 314, 333, and 353 K. The experiments were carried out by means of a 1-m multi-pass White cell with an optical path up to 90 m. The tunable CO- laser operated at P20, 8 IMP 7 (1880.9012 cm-1) transition was used as a radiation source. The absorption coefficients measured significantly exceeded the results of calculations with the Lorentzian shape due to important effects of line mixing. The temperature dependence of the difference between measured and calculated absorption coefficients are presented.

  2. Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave Laser Absorption Spectrometer at 1.57 Micrometer for Atmospheric CO2 Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the earth's carbon cycle is essential for diagnosing current and predicting future climates, which requires precise global measurements of atmospheric CO2 through space missions. The Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission will provide accurate global atmospheric CO2 measurements to meet carbon science requirements. The joint team of NASA Langley Research Center and ITT Exelis, Inc. proposes to use the intensity-modulated, continuous-wave (IM-CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) approach for the ASCENDS mission. Prototype LAS instruments have been developed and used to demonstrate the power, signal-to-noise ratio, precision and accuracy, spectral purity, and stability of the measurement and the instrument needed for atmospheric CO2 observations from space. The ranging capability from laser platform to ground surfaces or intermediate backscatter layers is achieved by transmitted range-encoded IM laser signals. Based on the prototype instruments and current lidar technologies, space LAS systems and their CO2 column measurements are analyzed. These studies exhibit a great potential of using IM-CW LAS system for the active space CO2 mission ASCENDS.

  3. Analysis of the ? 8+ ? 9Band of HNO 3, Line Positions and Intensities, and Resonances Involving the v6= v7= 1 Dark State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, A.; Flaud, J.-M.; Keller, F.; Goldman, A.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Murcray, F. J.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1999-03-01

    Using a high-resolution ( R= 0.0025 cm -1) Fourier transform spectrum of nitric acid recorded at room temperature in the 1100-1240 cm -1region, it has been possible to perform a more extended analysis of the ? 8+ ? 9band of HNO 3centered at 1205.7075 cm -1. As in a recent analysis of this band [W. F. Wang, P. P. Ong, T. L. Tan, E. C. Looi, and H. H. Teo, J. Mol. Spectrosc.183, 407-413 (1997)], the Hamiltonian used for the line positions calculation takes into account, for the upper state, the ? K= ±2 anharmonic resonance linking the rotational levels of the v8= v9= 1 "bright" vibrational state and those of the "dark" v6= v7= 1 vibrational state. More than 4800 lines were assigned in the ? 8+ ? 9band, which involve significantly higher rotational quantum numbers than in previous works. On the other hand, and surprisingly as compared to previous studies, the ? 8+ ? 9band appears to be a hybrid band. In fact, nonnegligible B-type transitions could be clearly identified among the much stronger A-type lines. Accordingly, a set of individual line intensities were measured for lines of both types and were introduced in a least-squares fit to get the A- and B-type components of the transition moment operator. Finally, a synthetic spectrum of the 8.3-?m region of HNO 3has been generated, using for the line positions and line intensities the Hamiltonian constants and the expansion of the transition moment operator which were determined in this work. In this way, the B-type and the A-type components of the ? 8+ ? 9band appear to contribute for about {1}/{4} and {3}/{4}, respectively, to the total band intensity.

  4. Clay composition and swelling potential estimation of soils using depth of absorption bands in the SWIR (1100-2500 nm) spectral domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufréchou, Grégory; Granjean, Gilles; Bourguignon, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Swelling soils contain clay minerals that change volume with water content and cause extensive and expensive damage on infrastructures. Presence of clay minerals is traditionally a good estimator of soils swelling and shrinking behavior. Montmorillonite (i.e. smectite group), illite, kaolinite are the most common minerals in soils and are usually associated to high, moderate, and low swelling potential when they are present in significant amount. Characterization of swelling potential and identification of clay minerals of soils using conventional analysis are slow, expensive, and does not permit integrated measurements. SWIR (1100-2500 nm) spectral domain are characterized by significant spectral absorption bands related to clay content that can be used to recognize main clay minerals. Hyperspectral laboratory using an ASD Fieldspec Pro spectrometer provides thus a rapid and less expensive field surface sensing that permits to measure soil spectral properties. This study presents a new laboratory reflectance spectroscopy method that used depth of clay diagnostic absorption bands (1400 nm, 1900 nm, and 2200 nm) to compare natural soils to synthetic montmorillonite-illite-kaolinite mixtures. We observe in mixtures that illite, montmorillonite, and kaolinite content respectively strongly influence the depth of absorption bands at 1400 nm (D1400), 1900 nm (D1900), and 2200 nm (D2200). To attenuate or removed effects of abundance and grain size, depth of absorption bands ratios were thus used to performed (i) 3D (using D1900/D2200, D1400/D1900, and D2200/D1400 as axis), and (ii) 2D (using D1400/D1900 and D1900/D2200 as axis) diagrams of synthetic mixtures. In this case we supposed that the overall reduction or growth of depth absorption bands should be similarly affected by the abundance and grain size of materials in soil. In 3D and 2D diagrams, the mixtures define a triangular shape formed by two clay minerals as external envelop and the three clay minerals mixtures are located inside of the triangular shape. Clay composition of natural soils were estimated using 3D and 2D diagrams used as standard template from: (i) the average clay composition of the three closer mixtures when soil samples were plotted inside the triangular distribution of mixtures; and (ii) the closer mixture when the soil sample were plotted outside of the triangular distribution of mixtures. Comparison with X-ray diffraction analysis show reliable prediction of montmorillonite content that were used to estimate the swelling potential of soils. This method allows a simple, fast, and low cost method that classes soils into four swelling classes based on comparison with Methylene Blue test, and could be used as complementary or alternative method to traditional geotechnical analysis.

  5. ANOMALOUS DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS IN THE SPECTRUM OF HERSCHEL 36. I. OBSERVATIONS OF ROTATIONALLY EXCITED CH AND CH{sup +} ABSORPTION AND STRONG, EXTENDED REDWARD WINGS ON SEVERAL DIBs

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlstrom, Julie [Carthage College, 2001 Alford Park Dr., Kenosha, WI 53140 (United States); York, Donald G.; Welty, Daniel E.; Oka, Takeshi; Johnson, Sean; Jiang Zihao; Sherman, Reid [University of Chicago, Astronomy and Astrophysics Center, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Hobbs, L. M. [University of Chicago, Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, WI 53191 (United States); Friedman, Scott D.; Sonnentrucker, Paule [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Rachford, Brian L. [Department of Physics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 3700 Willow Creek Road, Prescott, AZ 86301 (United States); Snow, Theodore P., E-mail: jdahlstrom1@carthage.edu [University of Colorado, CASA-Campus Box 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2013-08-10

    Anomalously broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 5780.5, 5797.1, 6196.0, and 6613.6 A are found in absorption along the line of sight to Herschel 36, the star illuminating the bright Hourglass region of the H II region Messier 8. Interstellar absorption from excited CH{sup +} in the J = 1 level and from excited CH in the J = 3/2 level is also seen. To our knowledge, neither those excited molecular lines nor such strongly extended DIBs have previously been seen in absorption from interstellar gas. These unusual features appear to arise in a small region near Herschel 36 which contains most of the neutral interstellar material in the sight line. The CH{sup +} and CH in that region are radiatively excited by strong far-IR radiation from the adjacent infrared source Her 36 SE. Similarly, the broadening of the DIBs toward Herschel 36 may be due to radiative pumping of closely spaced high-J rotational levels of relatively small, polar carrier molecules. If this picture of excited rotational states for the DIB carriers is correct and applicable to most DIBs, the 2.7 K cosmic microwave background may set the minimum widths (about 0.35 A) of known DIBs, with molecular processes and/or local radiation fields producing the larger widths found for the broader DIBs. Despite the intense local UV radiation field within the cluster NGC 6530, no previously undetected DIBs stronger than 10 mA in equivalent width are found in the optical spectrum of Herschel 36, suggesting that neither dissociation nor ionization of the carriers of the known DIBs by this intense field creates new carriers with easily detectable DIB-like features. Possibly related profile anomalies for several other DIBs are noted.

  6. Application of surface pressure measurements from O2-band differential absorption radar system in three-dimensional data assimilation on hurricane: Part I - An observing system simulation experiments study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Qilong; Gong, Wei; Lin, Bing; Hu, Yongxiang

    2015-01-01

    Sea level pressure (SLP) is an important variable in regulating hurricane motion. However, SLP generally cannot be measured in open oceans due to limited buoys. Because of the potential availability of an O2-band differential absorption radar for sea surface barometry, we investigate the value of assimilating various patterns of SLP from such a system on hurricane prediction using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) three-dimensional variational data assimilation system (3DVAR) based on Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). An important objective of this series of study is to explore the potential to use space and airborne sea surface air pressure measurements from an O2-band differential absorption radar currently under development for server weather including hurricane forecasts. The surface pressure patterns include an area of SLP, and a band of SLP either through the center or tangent to the hurricane position; the latter two distributions are similar to what could be obtained from the differential absorption radar system, which could be installed on spaceborne satellites and/or mounted on reconnaissance aircraft. In the banded pressure cases, we propose a vortex reconstruction technique based on surface pressure field. Assimilating observations from the reconstructed surface pressure leads to a better representation of initial SLP and vertical cross-section of wind, relative to the control where no data is assimilated and to the assimilation without vortex reconstruction. In eight of the nine OSSEs simulations on three hurricanes with three leading times of integration, which cover a wide range of initial minimum SLP from 951 to 1011 hPa, substantial improvements are found not only in the hurricane track and position, but also in the hurricane intensity, in terms of the SLP and maximum surface wind. The only case without significant improvement is resulted from the very weak initial condition (SLP 1011 hPa), which had no clear indication of tropical disturbance at the stage for initialization. The improvements of assimilation are generally enhanced for the stronger hurricanes whose differences in initial minimum SLP between nature run and control are larger.

  7. The effect of external magnetic field on the bremsstrahlung nonlinear absorption mechanism in the interaction of high intensity short laser pulse with collisional underdense plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedaghat, M.; Ettehadi-Abari, M.; Shokri, B.; Ghorbanalilu, M.

    2015-03-01

    Laser absorption in the interaction between ultra-intense femtosecond laser and solid density plasma is studied theoretically here in the intensity range I ? 2 ? 10 14 - 10 16 Wcm - 2 ? m 2 . The collisional effect is found to be significant when the incident laser intensity is less than 10 16 Wcm - 2 ? m 2 . In the current work, the propagation of a high frequency electromagnetic wave, for underdense collisional plasma in the presence of an external magnetic field is investigated. It is shown that, by considering the effect of the ponderomotive force in collisional magnetized plasmas, the increase of laser pulse intensity leads to steepening of the electron density profile and the electron bunches of plasma makes narrower. Moreover, it is found that the wavelength of electric and magnetic fields oscillations increases by increasing the external magnetic field and the density distribution of electrons also grows in comparison with the unmagnetized collisional plasma. Furthermore, the spatial damping rate of laser energy and the nonlinear bremsstrahlung absorption coefficient are obtained in the collisional regime of magnetized plasma. The other remarkable result is that by increasing the external magnetic field in this case, the absorption coefficient increases strongly.

  8. Tentative Identification of the 780/cm nu(sub 4) Band Q Branch of Chlorine Nitrate in High-Resolution Solar Absorption Spectra of the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, D. G.; Murcray, F. J.; Bonomo, F. S.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Devi, V. Malathy; Smith, M. A. H.; Rinsland, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Absorption by the Q branch of the nu(sub 4), band of ClONO2 at 780.2/cm has been tentatively identified in a series of 0.02/cm resolution balloon-borne solar absorption spectra of the stratosphere. The spectral data were recorded at sunset from a flot altitude of 33.5 km during a balloon flight from Holloman Air Force Base (32.8deg N, 106.0 deg W) near Alamogordo, New Mexico, on March 23 1998. A preliminary ClONO2 vertical profile has been determined from the stratospheric spectra by using the technique of nonlinear least squares spectral curve fitting and new spectroscopic parameters deduced from high-resolution laboratory spectra of ClONO2 and O3.

  9. Quasi-random narrow-band model fits to near-infrared low-temperature laboratory methane spectra and derived exponential-sum absorption coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baines, Kevin H.; West, Robert A.; Giver, Lawrence P.; Moreno, Fernando

    1993-01-01

    Near-infrared 10/cm resolution spectra of methane obtained at various temperatures, pressures, and abundances are fit to a quasi-random narrow-band model. Exponential-sum absorption coefficients for three temperatures (112, 188, and 295 K), and 20 pressures from 0.0001 to 5.6 bars, applicable to the cold environments of the major planets, are then derived from the band model for the 230 wavelengths measured from 1.6 to 2.5 microns. RMS deviations between the laboratory and the exponential-sum synthetic transmissions are reported for the best fitting 50 wavelengths. Deviations relevant to broadband, 1-percent spectral resolution observations are also presented. The validity of exponential-sum coefficients derived from broadband (10/cm) transmission data is demonstrated via direct comparison with line-by-line calculations. The complete atlas of coefficients is available from the Planetary Data System-Planetary Atmospheres Discipline Node.

  10. Visible-light absorption and large band-gap bowing of GaN1-xSbx from first principles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sheetz, R. Michael; Richter, Ernst; Andriotis, Antonis N.; Lisenkov, Sergey; Pendyala, Chandrashekhar; Sunkara, Mahendra K.; Menon, Madhu

    2011-08-01

    Applicability of the Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys for practical realization of photoelectrochemical water splitting is investigated using first-principles density functional theory incorporating the local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation plus the Hubbard U parameter formalism. Our calculations reveal that a relatively small concentration of Sb impurities is sufficient to achieve a significant narrowing of the band gap, enabling absorption of visible light. Theoretical results predict that Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys with 2-eV band gaps straddle the potential window at moderate to low pH values, thus indicating that dilute Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys could be potential candidates for splitting water under visible light irradiation.

  11. Cloud and precipitation features of Super Typhoon Neoguri revealed from dual oxygen absorption band sounding instruments on board FengYun-3C satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yang; Zou, Xiaolei; Weng, Fuzhong

    2015-02-01

    A new methodology is developed to detect the cloud structures at different vertical levels using the dual oxygen absorption bands located near 60 GHz and 118 GHz, respectively. Observations from Microwave Temperature Sounder (MWTS) and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MWHS) on board the recently launched Chinese FengYun-3C satellite are used to prove the concept. It is shown that a paired oxygen MWTS and MWHS sounding channel with the same peak weighting function altitude allows for detecting the vertically integrated cloud water path above that level. A cloud emission and scattering index (CESI) is defined using dual oxygen band measurements to indicate the amounts of cloud liquid and ice water paths. The CESI distributions from three paired channels reveal unique three-dimensional structures of clouds and precipitation within Super Typhoon Neoguri that occurred in July 2014.

  12. High-resolution spectra and photoabsorption coefficients for carbon monoxide absorption bands between 94.0 nm and 100.4 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Stark, G.; Smith, P. L.; Parkinson, W. H.; Ito, K.

    1988-01-01

    Photoabsorption coefficients have been measured for the CO in interstellar clouds at a resolving power more than 20 times greater than previously obtainable. In order to facilitate comparisons, these data have been integrated over the same wavelength ranges as used in Letzelter et al. (1987). It is found that most of the results obtained for bands between 94.0 and 100.4 nm are larger than those of Letzelter; the discrepancy may be attributable to the difference between the resolving powers of the spectrometers used, because the saturation effects associated with low resolution can underestimate absorption coefficient values.

  13. Chemoselectivity-induced multiple interfaces in MWCNT/Fe3O4@ZnO heterotrimers for whole X-band microwave absorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhijiang; Wu, Lina; Zhou, Jigang; Jiang, Zhaohua; Shen, Baozhong

    2014-11-01

    A chemoselective route to induce Fe3O4@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles decorating carbon nanotubes to form MWCNT/Fe3O4@ZnO heterotrimers has been developed. Charges are redistributed in the heterotrimers through C-O-Zn, C-O-Fe and Fe-O-Zn bondings, giving rise to multiple electronic phases. The generated significant interfacial polarization and synergetic interaction between dielectric and magnetic absorbers result in the MWCNT/Fe3O4@ZnO heterotrimers with high-performance microwave absorption in an entire X band. PMID:25080205

  14. Vibrational transition current density in (2 S,3 S)-oxirane-d 2: visualizing electronic and nuclear contributions to IR absorption and vibrational circular dichroism intensities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. B. Freedman; E. Lee; L. A. Nafie

    2000-01-01

    Vibrational transition current density (TCD) plots and charge-weighted nuclear displacement vectors for selected vibrational modes of A and B symmetry in (2S,3S)-oxirane-d2 are used to visualize the electronic and nuclear contributions to infrared absorption and vibrational circular dichroism intensities. Vibrational TCD provides a vector field map of the integrand of the electronic contribution to the velocity-form electric dipole transition moment.

  15. Electronic band gap reduction and intense luminescence in Co and Mn ion-implanted SiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R. J., E-mail: robert.green@usask.ca; St Onge, D. J.; Moewes, A. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada); Zatsepin, D. A. [Department of Electrophysics, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 19 Mira Str., 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, 18 Kovalevskoi Str., 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kurmaev, E. Z. [Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, 18 Kovalevskoi Str., 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Gavrilov, N. V. [Institute of Electrophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, 620016 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Zatsepin, A. F. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 19 Mira Str., 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-14

    Cobalt and manganese ions are implanted into SiO{sub 2} over a wide range of concentrations. For low concentrations, the Co atoms occupy interstitial locations, coordinated with oxygen, while metallic Co clusters form at higher implantation concentrations. For all concentrations studied here, Mn ions remain in interstitial locations and do not cluster. Using resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy and Anderson impurity model calculations, we determine the strength of the covalent interaction between the interstitial ions and the SiO{sub 2} valence band, finding it comparable to Mn and Co monoxides. Further, we find an increasing reduction in the SiO{sub 2} electronic band gap for increasing implantation concentration, due primarily to the introduction of Mn- and Co-derived conduction band states. We also observe a strong increase in a band of x-ray stimulated luminescence at 2.75?eV after implantation, attributed to oxygen deficient centers formed during implantation.

  16. Quadratic Jahn-Teller Effect in the Line Shapes of the A-Emission and A-Absorption Bands in KBr: Tl+-Type Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Toshiaki; Masunaga, Shoji

    1982-04-01

    The adiabatic potential energy surfaces (APES’s) of Tl+-type impurities in alkali halides, 3T1u(\\varGamma4-) and 3A1u(\\varGamma1-) have been calculated taking account of the spin-orbit interaction and both the linear and quadratic Jahn-Teller effect with the ?1g and \\varepsilong vibrational modes. It has been found that the 3T1u APES’s have one kind of minima or the two kinds of minima, depending on whether we assume the linear or both the linear and quadratic Jahn-Teller interactions. A trap level 3A1u lies just below both the minima. The line shapes of the A-emission and A-absorption bands in KBr: Tl+ are calculated by using the Franck-Condon and Condon approximations. It has been found that the theoretical line shape of the A-emission band has the asymmetric doublet structure and reproduces the experimental emission bands AT and AX. This shows that the large energy differnce between the AX and AT bands is caused by the quadratic Jahn-Teller terms involving Q1(?1g).

  17. Effects of pressure and solvents on the infrared absorption intensities of C-I stretching modes of methyl and ethyl iodides in solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isogai, Hideto; Kato, Minoru; Taniguchi, Yoshihiro

    2008-02-01

    We have investigated effects of pressure and solvents on infrared intensities of methyl and ethyl iodides in solutions using a hydrostatic high-pressure cell with synthetic diamond windows. We focused on the absolute intensity of the C-I stretching mode, which was measured in carbon disulfide solvent up to 300 MPa and at 293 K, and in n-hexane solvent at 298 K. For comparison, we investigated the effect of solvents on the absorption intensity. Effects of pressure and solvents on the infrared intensity were analyzed using two electrostatic models, which assume the shape of solute cavity as sphere or spheroid. The latter model is approximately in agreement with both effects on the intensity, particularly, for the pressure effect. This paper demonstrated that the electrostatic model taking the shape of the cavity into account is useful to explain the medium effect on the infrared intensity and also suggests that more improved models could provide information of the solvation structure from the medium effect on the infrared intensity.

  18. Ultraviolet absorption spectrum of HOCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The room temperature UV absorption spectrum of HOCl was measured over the wavelength range 200 to 380 nm with a diode array spectrometer. The absorption spectrum was identified from UV absorption spectra recorded following UV photolysis of equilibrium mixtures of Cl2O/H2O/HOCl. The HOCl spectrum is continuous with a maximum at 242 nm and a secondary peak at 304 nm. The measured absorption cross section at 242 nm was (2.1 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -19/sq cm (2 sigma error limits). These results are in excellent agreement with the work of Knauth et al. (1979) but in poor agreement with the more recent measurements of Mishalanie et al. (1986) and Permien et al. (1988). An HOCl nu2 infrared band intensity of 230 +/- 35/sq cm atm was determined based on this UV absorption cross section. The present results are compared with these previous measurements and the discrepancies are discussed.

  19. Optical absorption band at 5.8 eV associated with the E{sub {gamma}}{sup '} centers in amorphous silicon dioxide: Optical absorption and EPR measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Agnello, S.; Buscarino, G.; Gelardi, F. M.; Boscaino, R. [Department of Physical and Astronomical Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, I-90123 Palermo (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    Line shape modifications induced by thermal treatment in the optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals associated with the E{sub {gamma}}{sup '} center are experimentally investigated in various types of {gamma}-irradiated amorphous silicon dioxide (a-SiO{sub 2}). The g values of the EPR main resonance line of the E{sub {gamma}}{sup '} center show a shift correlated with the peak energy variation of the absorption band at about 5.8 eV associated with this defect. These spectroscopic changes are proposed to originate from structural modifications of the defect environment. The correlation is theoretically explained considering that the spin-orbit interaction couples the g-tensor's elements and the electronic energy level distribution of the defect. Our results suggest that the optical band at 5.8 eV is due to an intracenter electron promotion from the Si-O bonding states to the dangling bond of the O{identical_to}Si moiety.

  20. Intermodulation distortion suppression for intensity-modulated analog fiber-optic link incorporating optical carrier band processing.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yan; Dai, Yitang; Yin, Feifei; Dai, Jian; Xu, Kun; Li, Jianqiang; Lin, Jintong

    2013-10-01

    An intermodulation distortion suppression method based on the optical carrier band processing is demonstrated. A systematic analysis of the main optical spectrum contributors for the third-order intermodulation distortion in the nonlinear system is presented. Theoretical analysis shows that the third-order intermodulation distortion terms can cancel each other if a proper phase shifting is imposed to the optical carrier band. We experimentally demonstrate the approach with a two-tone test and a suppression of about 33 dB in the third-order intermodulation distortion is obtained. Experimental results show that an overall fundamental to third-order intermodulation distortion ratio of up to 64 dB is achieved and the link dynamic range is improved by 14.7 dB, compared with the conventional link without the proposed optical carrier band processing. PMID:24104257

  1. LINE ABSORPTION OSCILLATOR STRENGTHS FOR THE c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g}(0-5) BANDS IN N{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Lavin, C.; Velasco, A. M., E-mail: clavin@qf.uva.es [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47005 Valladolid (Spain)

    2011-09-20

    Theoretical absorption oscillator strengths and emission branching ratios for rotational lines of the c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g}(0-5) bands of molecular nitrogen are reported. The calculations have been performed with the molecular quantum defect orbital method, which has proved to be reliable in previous studies of rovibronic transitions in diatomic molecules. The strong interaction between c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3) and b' {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(10) states has been analyzed through an interaction matrix that includes rotational terms. Owing to the perturbation, the c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g}(0), c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g}(1), and c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g}(5) bands are not weak, in contrast to what would be expected on the basis of the Franck-Condon principle. Moreover, the intensity distribution of the rotational lines within each of the vibronic bands deviates from considerations based on Hoenl-London factors. In this work, we provide data that may be useful to interpret spectra from atmospheres of the Earth, Titan, and Triton, in which transitions from the c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3) level have been detected.

  2. A Multi-Band Analytical Algorithm for Deriving Absorption and Backscattering Coefficients from Remote-Sensing Reflectance of Optically Deep Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Zhong-Ping; Carder, Kendall L.

    2001-01-01

    A multi-band analytical (MBA) algorithm is developed to retrieve absorption and backscattering coefficients for optically deep waters, which can be applied to data from past and current satellite sensors, as well as data from hyperspectral sensors. This MBA algorithm applies a remote-sensing reflectance model derived from the Radiative Transfer Equation, and values of absorption and backscattering coefficients are analytically calculated from values of remote-sensing reflectance. There are only limited empirical relationships involved in the algorithm, which implies that this MBA algorithm could be applied to a wide dynamic range of waters. Applying the algorithm to a simulated non-"Case 1" data set, which has no relation to the development of the algorithm, the percentage error for the total absorption coefficient at 440 nm a (sub 440) is approximately 12% for a range of 0.012 - 2.1 per meter (approximately 6% for a (sub 440) less than approximately 0.3 per meter), while a traditional band-ratio approach returns a percentage error of approximately 30%. Applying it to a field data set ranging from 0.025 to 2.0 per meter, the result for a (sub 440) is very close to that using a full spectrum optimization technique (9.6% difference). Compared to the optimization approach, the MBA algorithm cuts the computation time dramatically with only a small sacrifice in accuracy, making it suitable for processing large data sets such as satellite images. Significant improvements over empirical algorithms have also been achieved in retrieving the optical properties of optically deep waters.

  3. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ULTRAVIOLET ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF CERTAIN PROTEINS AND AMINO ACIDS

    PubMed Central

    Coulter, Calvin B.; Stone, Florence M.; Kabat, Elvin A.

    1936-01-01

    1. The absorption spectra of a number of proteins in the region 2500 to 3000 A. have been found to comprise from six to nine narrow bands. In consequence of variation in the relative intensity of these bands from protein to protein, the absorption curve has a characteristic configuration for each protein. 2. These bands correspond closely in position with the narrow bands which appear in the absorption spectra of tryptophan, tyrosin, and phenylalanine. Tryptophan and tyrosin each present three bands, phenylalanine shows nine. 3. The bands in the proteins are accordingly attributed to these amino acids. In the proteins the bands are displaced from the positions which they occupy in the uncombined amino acids, in most instances, by 10 to 35 A. toward longer wavelengths. 4. The absorption spectrum of Pneumococcus Type I antibody resembles that of normal pseudoglobulin but shows characteristic differences. PMID:19872958

  4. Two-dimensional correlation analysis to study variation of near-infrared water absorption bands in the presence of inorganic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kyeol; Jung, Young Mee; Chung, Hoeil

    2014-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis has been utilized to investigate NIR water bands perturbed by the presence of four different inorganic acids individually: HCl, H2SO4, H3PO4, and HNO3. The observed spectral variation in the 9000-7700 cm-1 range was mainly due to interaction of dissociated H3O+ and corresponding anions with the vibration of water in a hydrogen bonding network. 2D correlation analysis of NIR spectra acquired from sample solutions (concentration range: 0.2-1.0 M) showed that individual acids differently influenced water vibration. In addition, unforeseen spectral variations under the water band that were difficult to identify with corresponding raw NIR spectra were clearly observed. Based on the asynchronous correlation analysis, three underlying individual variations occurred for HCl under the 8718 cm-1 band. Only two asynchronous correlations were observed for H2SO4 and H3PO4. The 2D correlation features of HNO3 were distinctly different from those of the other three acids due to an additional spectral feature caused by direct absorption by NO3-. The dissimilar influence of the selected acids on water vibration was confirmed by NIR spectroscopy combined with 2D correlation analysis. Partial least squares (PLS) loadings from each case were compared to examine the difference in weights that were constructed to follow the corresponding concentration changes.

  5. The fundamental quadrupole band of (N-14)2 - Line positions from high-resolution stratospheric solar absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Zander, R.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Gunson, M. R.; Farmer, C. B.

    1991-01-01

    Accurate measurements of the positions of O- and S-branch lines of the (1-0) vibration-rotation quadrupole band of molecular nitrogen (N-14)2 are reported. Improved Dunham coefficients were derived from a simultaneous least squares analysis of these measurements and selected infrared and far infrared data. The new measurements were performed using stratospheric solar occultation spectra recorded with Fourier transform spectrometer instruments, operated at unapodized spectral resolutions of 0.002 and 0.01/cm.

  6. Three-dimensional assemblies of semiconductor quantum dots in a wide-gap matrix providing an intermediate band for absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Voicu; Zunger, Alex

    2012-12-01

    We consider a self-assembled quantum dot (QD) system consisting of the QD itself, the wetting layer and the matrix on a substrate. The electronic structure for various III-V material combinations was determined by atomistic empirical pseudopotential calculations. Taking the widely investigated InAs/GaAs/GaAs(001) system as benchmark, we analyze the changes induced in the energy levels and offsets relevant for a QD-based intermediate band solar cell (IBSC). We explore the effects of (i) the dot material, (ii) the matrix material, and (iii) dot-matrix-substrate combinations that may enable strain balanced structures. Using as unique reference criterion the relative position of the intermediate band inside the band gap of the matrix, we suggest the dot/matrix/substrate combinations InAs/(In,Ga)P/GaAs(001), In(As,Sb)/GaAs/InP(001), and InAs/Ga(As,Sb)/InP(001) as promising candidates for QD-IBSCs.

  7. L(alpha)-induced two-photon absorption of visible light emitted from an O-type star by H2(+) ions located near the surface of the Stromgren sphere surrounding the star: A possible explanation for the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIDs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glownia, James H.; Sorokin, Peter P.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a new model is proposed to account for the DIB's (Diffuse Interstellar Bands). In this model, the DIB's result from a non-linear effect: resonantly-enhanced two-photon absorption of H(2+) ions located near the surface of the Stromgren sphere that surrounds an O- or B- type star. The strong light that is required to 'drive' the two-photon transition is provided by L(alpha) light emerging from the Stromgren sphere that bounds the H II region surrounding the star. A value of approximately 100 micro W/sq cm is estimated for the L(alpha) flux at the Stromgren radius, R(s), of a strong (O5) star. It is shown that a c.w. L(alpha) flux of this intensity should be sufficient to induce a few percent absorption for visible light radiated by the same star at a frequency (omega2) that completes an allowed two-photon transition, provided (1) the L(alpha) radiation happens to be nearly resonant with the frequency of a fully-allowed absorber transition that effectively represents the first step in the two-photon transition, and (2) an effective column density approximately 10(sup18)/sq cm of the absorber is present near the Stromgren sphere radius, R(sub s).

  8. Large acceptance magnetic focussing horns for production of a high intensity narrow band neutrino beam at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, A.; Chimienti, L.; Leonhardt, W.; Monaghan, R.; Ryan, G.; Sandberg, J.; Sims, W.; Smith, G.; Stillman, P.; Thorwarth, H.

    1985-01-01

    A set of two large acceptance (20 to 140 mrad) horns have been designed and built to form a parallel beam of 3 GeV/c pions and kaons for the production of an intense, dichromatic neutrino beam. A set of beam plugs and collimators determined the momentum of the particles which pass through the horns. The cooling and maintenance of the horns and target was a particular concern since they were operated with an incident intensity of over 10/sup 13/ proton/sec. These systems were designed for simplicity, reliability, and easy replacement.

  9. Acne phototherapy using UV-free high-intensity narrow-band blue light: a three-center clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalita, Alan R.; Harth, Yoram; Elman, Monica; Slatkine, Michael; Talpalariu, Gerry; Rosenberg, Yitzhak; Korman, Avner; Klein, Arieh

    2001-05-01

    Propionibacterium. acnes is a Gram positive, microaerophilic bacterium which takes a part in the pathogenesis of inflammatory acne. P. acnes is capable to produce high amounts endogenic porphyrins with no need of any trigger molecules. Light in the violet-blue range (407-420 nm) has been shown to exhibit a phototoxic effect on Propionibacterium acnes when irradiated in vitro. The purpose of our study was to test the clinical effects of a high intensity narrowband blue light source on papulo pustular acne. A total of 35 patients in 3 centers were treated twice a week with a high intensity metal halide lamp illuminating the entire face (20x20 cm2) or the back with visible light in the 407-420 nm range at an intensity of 90 mW/cm2 (CureLight Ltd.) for a total of 4 weeks. UV is totally cut off. In each treatment the patient was exposed to light for 8-15 minutes. After 8 treatments, 80% of the patients with mild to moderate papulo-pustular acne showed significant improvement at reducing the numbers of non- inflammatory, inflammatory and total facial lesions. Inflammatory lesion count decrease by a mean of 68%. No side effects to the treatment were noticed. In conclusion, full face or back illumination with the high intensity pure blue light we used exhibits a rapid significant decrease in acne lesions counts in 8 biweekly treatments.

  10. Efficient tissue ablation using a laser tunable in the water absorption band at 3 microns with little collateral damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nierlich, Alexandra; Chuchumishev, Danail; Nagel, Elizabeth; Marinova, Kristiana; Philipov, Stanislav; Fiebig, Torsten; Buchvarov, Ivan; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2014-03-01

    Lasers can significantly advance medical diagnostics and treatment. At high power, they are typically used as cutting tools during surgery. For lasers that are used as knifes, radiation wavelengths in the far ultraviolet and in the near infrared spectral regions are favored because tissue has high contents of collagen and water. Collagen has an absorption peak around 190 nm, while water is in the near infrared around 3,000 nm. Changing the wavelength across the absorption peak will result in significant differences in laser tissue interactions. Tunable lasers in the infrared that could optimize the laser tissue interaction for ablation and/or coagulation are not available until now besides the Free Electron Laser (FEL). Here we demonstrate efficient tissue ablation using a table-top mid-IR laser tunable between 3,000 to 3,500 nm. A detailed study of the ablation has been conducted in different tissues. Little collateral thermal damage has been found at a distance above 10-20 microns from the ablated surface. Furthermore, little mechanical damage could be seen in conventional histology and by examination of birefringent activity of the samples using a pair of cross polarizing filters.

  11. Self-broadening coefficients and improved line intensities for the ?7 band of ethylene near 10.5 ?m, and impact on ethylene retrievals from Jungfraujoch solar spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Auwera, J.; Fayt, A.; Tudorie, M.; Rotger, M.; Boudon, V.; Franco, B.; Mahieu, E.

    2014-11-01

    Relying on high-resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, the present work involved extensive measurements of individual line intensities and self-broadening coefficients for the ?7 band of 12C2H4. The measured self-broadening coefficients exhibit a dependence on both J and Ka. Compared to the corresponding information available in the latest edition of the HITRAN spectroscopic database, the measured line intensities were found to be higher by about 10% for high J lines in the P branch and lower by about 5% for high J lines of the R branch, varying between these two limits roughly linearly with the line positions. The impact of the presently measured line intensities on retrievals of atmospheric ethylene in the 949.0-952.0 cm-1 microwindow was evaluated using a subset of ground-based high-resolution FTIR solar spectra recorded at the Jungfraujoch station. The use of HITRAN 2012 with line intensities modified to match the present measurements led to a systematic reduction of the measured total columns of ethylene by -4.1±0.1%.

  12. Absorption intensities and complex refractive indices of crystalline HCN, HC3N, and C4N2 in the infrared region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masterson, C. M.; Khanna, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    IR absorption intensities are presented for thin crystalline films of HCN, HC3N, and C4N2, together with n and k complex refractive indices determined on the basis of an iterative program for the Kramers-Konig integral via a least-squares, point-by-point fitting of the experimental transmission data. It is established that the transmission spectra generated by means of these n and k values can reproduce the experimental transmission observation values to within + or - 2 percent.

  13. Confinement effect of laser ablation plume in liquids probed by self-absorption of C{sub 2} Swan band emission

    SciTech Connect

    Sakka, Tetsuo; Saito, Kotaro; Ogata, Yukio H. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2005-01-01

    The (0,0) Swan band of the C{sub 2} molecules in a laser ablation plume produced on the surface of graphite target submerged in water was used as a probe to estimate the density of C{sub 2} molecules in the plume. Observed emission spectra were reproduced excellently by introducing a self-absorption parameter to the theoretical spectral profile expected by a rotational population distribution at a certain temperature. The optical density of the ablation plume as a function of time was determined as a best-fit parameter by the quantitative fitting of the whole spectral profile. The results show high optical densities for the laser ablation plume in water compared with that in air. It is related to the plume confinement or the expansion, which are the important phenomena influencing the characteristics of laser ablation plumes in liquids.

  14. Electronic band redistribution probed by oxygen absorption spectra of (SrMnO3)n(LaMnO3)2n superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galdi, A.; Aruta, C.; Orgiani, P.; Adamo, C.; Bisogni, V.; Brookes, N. B.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Schlom, D. G.; Thakur, P.; Maritato, L.

    2012-03-01

    Oxygen 1s?2p (K-edge) x-ray absorption spectra mimic the density of metalliclike states of transition metal oxides, thus shedding light on the electronic band structure near Fermi energies of these compounds. We take here advantage of x-ray linear dichroism measurements at the O K edge of different (SrMnO3)n(LaMnO3)2n superlattices, of SrMnO3 and of LaMnO3 thin films. X-ray linear dichroism, in the pre-edge region of the spectra, provides evidence about the specific symmetry of the Mn 3d orbitals hybridized with the oxygen ions, thus allowing us to disentangle the pure interface contribution from those related to strain effect and charge leakage among the superlattices' constituent blocks.

  15. Resonant peaks of the linear optical absorption and rectification coefficients in GaAs/GaAlAs quantum well: Combined effects of intense laser, electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Emine; Sokmen, Ismail

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the resonant peaks of the linear optical absorption (OA) and rectification coefficients in GaAs/GaAlAs quantum well are calculated as dependent on the applied electric field (F), the magnetic field (B) and the laser field intensity parameter (?0). Our results show that the shape of confined potential profile, the energy levels and the dipole moment matrix elements are changed as dependent on the F, B and ?0. Also, the resonant peaks of the OA and rectification coefficients depend on the applied external field effects. Therefore, the variation of the resonant peaks of these coefficients which can be appropriate for various optical modulators and infrared optical device applications can be smoothly obtained by the alteration electric, magnetic and intense laser field.

  16. Microwave absorption in X and Ku band frequency of cotton fabric coated with Ni-Zn ferrite and carbon formulation in polyurethane matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, K. K.; Abbas, S. M.; Goswami, T. H.; Abhyankar, A. C.

    2014-08-01

    The present study highlights various microwave properties, i.e. reflection, transmission, absorption and reflection loss, of the coated cotton fabric [formulation: Ni-Zn ferrite (Ni 0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4) and carbon black (acetylene black) at concentrations of 30, 40, 50, 60 and70 g of ferrite and 5 g carbon in each 100 ml polyurethane] evaluated at 8-18 GHz frequency. The uniform density of filling materials in coated fabrics (dotted marks in SEM micrograph) indicates homogeneous dispersion of conducting fillers in polyurethane and the density of filling material cluster increases with increase in ferrite concentration. SEM images also show uniform coating of conducting fillers/resin system over individual fibers and interweave spaces. The important parameters governing the microwave properties of coated fabrics i.e. permittivity and permeability, S-parameters, reflection loss, etc. were studied in a HVS free space microwave measurement system. The lossy character of coated fabric is found to increase with increase of ferrite content; the ferrite content decreases the impedance and increases the permittivity and permeability values. The 1.6-1.8 mm thick coated fabric sample (40 wt% ferrite, 3 wt% carbon and 57 wt% PU) has shown about 40% absorption, 20% transmission and 40% reflectance in X (8.2-12.4 GHz) and Ku (12-18 GHz) frequency bands. The reflection loss at 13.5 GHz has shown the highest peak value (22.5 dB) due to coated sample optical thickness equal to ?/4 and more than 7.5 dB in entire Ku band. Owing to its thin and flexible nature, the coated fabric can be used as apparel in protecting human being from hazardous microwaves and also as radar camouflage covering screen in defense.

  17. TiO and VO broad band absorption features in the optical spectrum of the atmosphere of the hot-Jupiter HD 209458b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Désert, J.-M.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Lecavelier Des Etangs, A.; Sing, D.; Ehrenreich, D.; Hébrard, G.; Ferlet, R.

    2008-12-01

    Aims: The presence of titanium oxide (TiO) and vanadium oxide (VO) gas phase species is searched for in the atmosphere of the hot Jupiter HD 209458b. Methods: We compared a model for the planet's transmitted spectrum to multi-wavelength eclipse-depth measurements (from 3000 to 10 000 Å) using archived HST-STIS time series spectra. We make use of these observations to search for spectral signatures from extra absorbers in the planet atmosphere between 6000 and 8000 Å. Results: Along with sodium depletion and Rayleigh scattering recently published for this exoplanet atmosphere, an extra absorber of uncertain origin, redward of the sodium lines, is present in the atmosphere of the planet. Furthermore, this planet has a stratosphere experiencing a thermal inversion caused by the capture of optical stellar flux by absorbers at altitude. Recent models have predicted that the presence of TiO and VO in the atmosphere of HD 209458b may be responsible for this temperature inversion. Although no specific TiO and VO spectral band head signatures have been identified unambiguously in the observed spectrum, we suggest here that the opacities of those molecules are possible candidates to explain the remaining continuous broad band absorption observed between 6200 and 8000 Å. To match the data reasonably well, the abundances of TiO and VO molecules are evaluated from ten to one thousand times below solar. This upper limit result is in agreement with expected variations with altitude due to depletion effects such as condensation.

  18. Remeasurement of the absolute intensities of CFC11 (CFCl3) and CFC12 (CF2Cl2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varanasi, P.; Chudamani, S.

    1988-03-01

    The absolute intensities of the strong absorption bands of CFC11 (CFCl3) and CFC12 (CF2Cl2) have been remeasured at 300 K in view of their importance in global climatic impact and ozone depletion studies. For CFC11, our new values are 1718 ± 17 cm-2 atm-1 (846 cm-1 band) and 671 ± 8 cm-2 atm-1 (1085 cm-1 band). The values we have now obtained for the CFC12 intensities are 1421 ± 12 cm-2 atm-1 (923 cm-1 band), 1129 ± 11 cm-2 atm-1 (1102 cm-1 band), and 717 ± 14 cm-2 atm-1 (1161 cm-1 band).

  19. Exposure to Omethoate During Stapling of Ornamental Plants in Intensive Cultivation Tunnels: Influence of Environmental Conditions on Absorption ofthe Pesticide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Aprea; L. Centi; S. Santini; L. Lunghini; B. Banchi; G. Sciarra

    2005-01-01

    This report describes a study of exposure to omethoate during manual operations with ornamental plants in two intensive cultivation tunnels (tunnel 8 and tunnel 5). Airborne concentrations of omethoate were in the range 1.48–5.36 nmol\\/m3. Total skin contamination in the range 329.94–12,934.46 nmol\\/day averaged 98.1 ± 1.1% and 99.3 ± 0.6% of the total potential dose in tunnel 8 and

  20. A search for formic acid in the upper troposphere - A tentative identification of the 1105-per cm nu-6 band Q branch in high-resolution balloon-borne solar absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    Infrared solar absorption spectra recorded at 0.02-per cm resolution during a balloon flight from Alamogordo, NM (33 deg N), on March 23, 1981, have been analyzed for the possible presence of absorption by formic acid (HCOOH). An absorption feature at 1105 per cm has been tentatively identified in upper tropospheric spectra as due to the nu-6 band Q branch. A preliminary analysis indicates a concentration of about 0.6 ppbv and 0.4 ppbv near 8 and 10 km, respectively.

  1. L & M band infrared studies of V4332 Sagittarii - detection of the water-ice absorption band at 3.05 microns and the CO fundamental band in emission

    E-print Network

    Dipankar P. K. Banerjee; Watson P. Varricatt; Nagarhalli M. Ashok

    2004-09-16

    L and M band observations of the nova-like variable V4332 Sgr are presented. Two significant results are obtained viz. the unusual detection of water ice at 3.05 microns and the fundamental band of 12CO at 4.67 microns in emission. The ice feature is a first detection in a nova-like variable while the CO emission is rarely seen in novae. These results, when considered together with other existing data, imply that V4332 Sgr could be a young object surrounded by a circumstellar disc containing gas, dust and ice. The reason for a nova-like outburst to occur in such a system is unclear. But since planets are believed to form in such disks, it appears plausible that the enigmatic outburst of V4332 Sgr could be due to a planetary infall. We also give a more reliable estimate for an epoch of dust formation around V4332 Sgr which appears to have taken place rather late in 1999 - nearly five years after its outburst.

  2. Tuned intensity-dependent refractive index n2 and two-photon absorption in oxide glasses: Role of non-bridging oxygen bonds in optical nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Diasty, Fouad; Abdel-Baki, Manal; Abdel-Wahab, F. A.

    2008-10-01

    Several nonlinear glass parameters such as second-order refractive index, n2, third-order susceptibility ?(3), the imaginary part of ?(3) and two-photon absorption coefficient are calculated for five different oxide glass systems. The glasses exhibit considerable optical nonlinearities. It has been found that the decrease in band gap energy and Fermi energy increases the glass nonlinear optical properties. Glasses contain either chromium oxide, magnesium or barium oxide exhibit considerable nonlinearity comparing with titanium-containing glasses. The origin of this nonlinearity and the ability to tune it has been discussed based on the glass linear refractive indices, nonbridging oxygen bonds, hyperpolarizability of modifier cations and on the rule of these cations on the creation of nonbridging oxygen bonds.

  3. Optical transitions, absorption intensities, and intermanifold emission cross sections of Pr3+(4f2) in Ca5(PO4)3F crystal host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardar, Dhiraj K.; Russell, Charles C.

    2004-05-01

    A spectroscopic Judd-Ofelt investigation has been performed on Pr3+ ions doped in calcium fluorapatite, Ca5(PO4)3F, belonging to the apatite structure family. The standard Judd-Ofelt analysis was applied to the room temperature absorption intensities of Pr3+ transitions to determine the phenomenological intensity parameters: ?2, ?4, and ?6. Values of the intensity parameters were subsequently used to determine the decay rates (emission probabilities), radiative lifetimes, and branching ratios of the principal intermanifold transitions of Pr3+ from the 3P2, 1D2, and 3P0 manifold states to the lower-lying manifolds. In addition, the room temperature fluorescence lifetimes and emission cross sections of the 3P2?3H5, 1D2?3H4, and 3P0?3F2 transitions were measured; these values were compared with those of Nd3+:yttritium-aluminum-garnet and Pr3+:Sr5(PO4)3 (known as S-FAP).

  4. Simultaneous suppression of laser relative intensity noise: second- and third-order distortions using a balanced electro-absorption modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathai, Sagi; Capelluti, Federica; Jung, Thomas; Novak, Dalma; Waterhouse, Rod; Sivco, Deborah L.; Cho, Alfred Y.; Ghione, Giovanni; Wu, Ming C.

    2001-12-01

    Balanced electroabsorption modulators (B-EAM) are an attractive alternative to the cross-coupled Mach-Zehnder modulator. The B-EAM enables bias independent suppression of even-order distortions, relative intensity noise (RIN), and common amplified spontaneous emission noise. By biasing the B-EAM at the 3rd order null, a 5th order distortion limited spurious free dynamic range can be achieved. We report on the experimental demonstration of the simultaneous suppression of laser RIN, 2nd and 3rd order distortions using a 300 micrometers long B-EAM.

  5. Cost-effective 33-Gbps intensity modulation direct detection multi-band OFDM LR-PON system employing a 10-GHz-based transceiver.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Dar-Zu; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Li, Wei-Yuan; Chen, Jyehong

    2011-08-29

    We develop a dynamic multi-band OFDM subcarrier allocation scheme to fully utilize the available bandwidth under the restriction of dispersion- and chirp-related power fading. The experimental results successfully demonstrate an intensity-modulation-direct-detection 34.78-Gbps OFDM signal transmissions over 100-km long-reach (LR) passive-optical networks (PONs) based on a cost-effective 10-GHz EAM and a 10-GHz PIN. Considering 0-100-km transmission bandwidth of a 10-GHz EAM, the narrowest bandwidth is theoretically evaluated to occur at ~40 km, instead of 100 km. Consequently, the performances of 20-100-km PONs are experimentally investigated, and at least 33-Gbps capacity is achieved to support LR-PONs of all possible 20-100-km radii. PMID:21935121

  6. Theoritical study on an anomalous isotopic effect on the position and integrated intensity of the ir stretching vibration band for medium-strong and strong hydrogen bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guissani, Yves; Ratajczak, Henryk

    1981-11-01

    Anomalous isotopic effects on the position and the integrated intensity of the v(XH) stretching vibration band of hydrogen-bonded systems have been studied by applying standard methods of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. It has been shown that the calculations of the two first spectral moments reduce to that of analysing a one-dimensional quantum mechanical model of the X-H vibrator in an average force field in the condensed phase. Extensive numerical calculations have been carried out taking into account mechanical and electrical anharmonicity, respectively. It has been shown that observed anomalous isotopic effects can be explained on the basis of anharmonicity of the X-H vibrator engaged in the hydrogen bond. Finally, general relations for the temperature dependence of the first two spectral moments have been obtained and discussed.

  7. Measurements of the ClO radical vibrational band intensity and the ClO + ClO + M reaction product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.; Orlando, John J.; Hammer, Philip D.; Howard, Carleton J.; Goldman, Aaron

    1988-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the kinetics and concentrations of free radicals in the stratosphere. Chlorine monoxide is a critically important radical because of its role in catalytic cycles for ozone depletion. Depletion occurs under a wide variety of conditions including the Antarctic spring when unusual mechanisms such as the BrO sub x/ClO sub x, ClO dimer (Cl sub 2 O sub 2), and ClO sub x/HO sub x cycles are suggested to operate. Infrared spectroscopy is one of the methods used to measure ClO in the stratosphere (Menzies 1979 and 1983; Mumma et al., 1983). To aid the quantification of such infrared measurements, researchers measured the ClO ground state fundamental band intensity.

  8. TAKING ANOTHER LOOK AT THE 3-MICRON ABSORPTION BAND ON ASTEROIDS. E. S. Howell, Arecibo Obser-vatory, HC 3 Box 53995, Arecibo PR 00612, USA, (ehowell@naic.edu), A. S. Rivkin, Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Barbara Anne

    TAKING ANOTHER LOOK AT THE 3-MICRON ABSORPTION BAND ON ASTEROIDS. E. S. Howell, Arecibo Obser asteroids have hydrated minerals on the surface. This has been interpreted as evidence of aqueous alteration, and suggests that these asteroids may be related to meteorites rich in serpentine and/or saponite. However

  9. Absorption spectra, near-field intensity and microscopic cross section of RbTiOPO4 channel waveguide formed by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang-Ling; Cui, Xiao-Jun

    2012-06-01

    We report on optical channel waveguide in RbTiOPO4 crystal produced by photographic masking and following direct C3+ ion implantation at 6.0 MeV with a fluence of 5 × 1013 ions/cm2. The absorption spectra show that there are fewer point defects in the waveguide region, forming "crystal waveguide". The bright near field intensity distribution of the transverse-electric mode indicate that the light can be guided in a well confined way almost without leakage. Considering the Fresnel reflection at the air-crystal interface is about 15%, we obtained a loss of 1.7 dB/cm for the channel waveguide at wavelength of 633 nm.

  10. Proposal of high efficiency solar cells with closely stacked InAs/In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P quantum dot superlattices: Analysis of polarized absorption characteristics via intermediate–band

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, H., E-mail: yoshikawa-hirofumi@sharp.co.jp; Kotani, T.; Kuzumoto, Y.; Izumi, M.; Tomomura, Y.; Hamaguchi, C. [Advanced Technology Research Laboratories, Sharp Corporation Tenri, Nara 632-8567 (Japan)

    2014-07-07

    We present a theoretical study of the electronic structures and polarized absorption properties of quantum dot superlattices (QDSLs) using wide–gap matrix material, InAs/In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P QDSLs, for realizing intermediate–band solar cells (IBSCs) with two–step photon–absorption. The plane–wave expanded Burt–Foreman operator ordered 8–band k·p theory is used for this calculation, where strain effect and piezoelectric effect are taken into account. We find that the absorption spectra of the second transitions of two–step photon–absorption can be shifted to higher energy region by using In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P, which is lattice–matched material to GaAs substrate, as a matrix material instead of GaAs. We also find that the transverse magnetic polarized absorption spectra in InAs/In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P QDSL with a separate IB from the rest of the conduction minibands can be shifted to higher energy region by decreasing the QD height. As a result, the second transitions of two–step photon–absorption by the sunlight occur efficiently. These results indicate that InAs/In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P QDSLs are suitable material combination of IBSCs toward the realization of ultrahigh efficiency solar cells.

  11. A combined resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization and ab initio study of the first absorption band of 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene, pentafluorobenzene, and hexafluorobenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, Trevor; Rogers, David M.; Lawley, Kenneth P.

    2014-10-01

    The resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra of jet-cooled penta- and hexafluorobenzene when excited in the region ?ex = 265-253 nm of the first absorption band and observed only in the CF+ mass channel is dominated by rotational structure in the A?X transition of CF. However, structure in the CF+ channel for ?ex > 265 nm is not a continuation of this CF spectrum and is assigned to vibrational activity in two low-frequency modes of a distorted excited state of the parent molecule. The vibrational structure is assigned to the lowest ??* state from a comparison with the equivalent spectrum of 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene. Ab initio calculations at the CIS level of theory of the ??* state of the penta- and hexafluorobenzene reveal a much more distorted equilibrium geometry (C1 symmetry) than that of 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene. Long progressions observed in the ?ex > 265 nm REMPI spectra of C6HF5 and C6F6 are assigned to two very low frequency (˜30 and 80 cm-1) modes. The role of the close-lying ??* and ??* states in determining the energy redistribution of the initially excited state by internal conversion is discussed. Both the fluorescent yield and the direct production of CF(X) are associated with transfer to the lower-lying ??* state.

  12. Inhomogeneous broadening and peak shift of the 7.6 eV optical absorption band of oxygen vacancies in SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajihara, Koichi; Skuja, Linards; Hosono, Hideo

    2014-10-01

    The peak parameters of radiation-induced 7.6 eV optical absorption band of oxygen vacancies (Si-Si bonds) were examined for high-purity synthetic ?-quartz and amorphous SiO2 (a-SiO2) exposed to 60Co ?-rays. The peak shape is asymmetric with the steeper edge at the lower energy side both in ?-quartz and a-SiO2, and the peak energy is larger for ?-quartz than that for a-SiO2. The full width at half maximum for a-SiO2 is larger by ˜40-60% than that for ?-quartz, and it increases with an increase in the disorder of the a-SiO2 network, which is enhanced by raising the temperature of preannealing before irradiation, i.e., fictive temperature. These data are interpreted from the viewpoint of the site-to-site distribution of the Si-Si bond length in a-SiO2.

  13. Coupling of narrow and wide band-gap semiconductors on uniform films active in bacterial disinfection under low intensity visible light: implications of the interfacial charge transfer (IFCT).

    PubMed

    Rtimi, S; Sanjines, R; Pulgarin, C; Houas, A; Lavanchy, J-C; Kiwi, J

    2013-09-15

    This study reports the design, preparation, testing and surface characterization of uniform films deposited by sputtering Ag and Ta on non-heat resistant polyester to evaluate the Escherichia coli inactivation by TaON, TaN/Ag, Ag and TaON/Ag polyester. Co-sputtering for 120 s Ta and Ag in the presence of N? and O? led to the faster E. coli inactivation by a TaON/Ag sample within ?40 min under visible light irradiation. The deconvolution of TaON/Ag peaks obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) allowed the assignment of the Ta?O? and Ag-species. The shifts observed for the XPS peaks have been assigned to AgO to Ag?O and Ag(0), and are a function of the applied sputtering times. The mechanism of interfacial charge transfer (IFCT) from the Ag?O conduction band (cb) to the lower laying Ta?O? (cb) is discussed suggesting a reaction mechanism. The optical absorption of the TaON and TaON/Ag samples found by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) correlated well with the kinetics of E. coli inactivation. The TaON/Ag sample microstructure was characterized by contact angle (CA) and by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Self-cleaning of the TaON/Ag polyester after each disinfection cycle enabled repetitive E. coli inactivation. PMID:23867967

  14. Absorption spectroscopic probe to investigate the interaction between Nd(III) and calf-thymus DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ch. Victory Devi; N. Rajmuhon Singh

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between Nd(III) and Calf Thymus DNA (CT-DNA) in physiological buffer (pH 7.4) has been studied using absorption spectroscopy involving 4f–4f transition spectra in different aquated organic solvents. Complexation with CT-DNA is indicated by the changes in absorption intensity following the subsequent changes in the oscillator strengths of different 4f–4f bands and Judd–Ofelt intensity (T?) parameters. The other spectral

  15. Properties of the 800-nm luminescence band in neutron-irradiated magnesium oxide crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, R.; Chen, Y. (Solid State Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6031 (USA)); Sebek, R.M.; Williams, G.P. Jr.; Williams, R.T. (Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109 (USA)); Gellermann, W. (Department of Physics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84101 (USA))

    1991-03-01

    We present results on the luminescence at 800 nm which occurs upon excitation of the 573-nm optical absorption band attributed to an aggregate defect in neutron-irradiated MgO crystals both pure and doped. The study was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of this luminescence for a tunable laser. Absorption, luminescence, and excitation spectra were measured before and after isochronal annealing, with the goal of optimizing the luminescence intensity and stability of the responsible defect, and reducing the background absorption in the crystal. The emission intensity is highest after annealing at {similar to}550 K independent of dose. A thermally induced absorption band at 565 nm, which emerges at {similar to}550 K, does not contribute to the emission at 800 nm. Under low-intensity continuous excitation, the 573-nm absorption band is not susceptible to photoconversion. However, when pumped with high-intensity laser light, the band exhibits a decay which recovers within 0.5 s. The luminescence has a single-exponential decay time of 15.5 ns at room temperature, and the band shape remains essentially constant throughout the decay. Tests for laser action using pulsed and cw pump lasers were unsuccessful at 77 and 300 K.

  16. Screened coulomb hybrid DFT investigation of band gap and optical absorption predictions of CuVO3, CuNbO3 and Cu5Ta11O30 materials.

    PubMed

    Harb, Moussab; Masih, Dilshad; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2014-09-14

    We present a joint theoretical and experimental investigation of the optoelectronic properties of CuVO3, CuNbO3 and Cu5Ta11O30 materials for potential photocatalytic and solar cell applications. In addition to the experimental results obtained by powder X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis spectroscopy of the materials synthesized under flowing N2 gas at atmospheric pressure via solid-state reactions, the electronic structure and the UV-Vis optical absorption coefficient of these compounds are predicted with high accuracy using advanced first-principles quantum methods based on DFT (including the perturbation theory approach DFPT) within the screened coulomb hybrid HSE06 exchange-correlation formalism. The calculated density of states are found to be in agreement with the UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra, predicting a small indirect band gap of 1.4 eV for CuVO3, a direct band gap of 2.6 eV for CuNbO3, and an indirect (direct) band gap of 2.1 (2.6) eV for Cu5Ta11O30. It is confirmed that the Cu(I)-based multi-metal oxides possess a strong contribution of filled Cu(I) states in the valence band and of empty d(0) metal states in the conduction band. Interestingly, CuVO3 with its predicted small indirect band gap of 1.4 eV shows the highest absorption coefficient in the visible range with a broad absorption edge extending to 886 nm. This novel result offers a great opportunity for this material to be an excellent candidate for solar cell applications. PMID:25055167

  17. A neural network-based four-band model for estimating the total absorption coefficients from the global oceanic and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Cui, Tingwei; Quan, Wenting

    2015-01-01

    this study, a neural network-based four-band model (NNFM) for the global oceanic and coastal waters has been developed in order to retrieve the total absorption coefficients a(?). The applicability of the quasi-analytical algorithm (QAA) and NNFM models is evaluated by five independent data sets. Based on the comparison of a(?) predicted by these two models with the field measurements taken from the global oceanic and coastal waters, it was found that both the QAA and NNFM models had good performances in deriving a(?), but that the NNFM model works better than the QAA model. The results of the QAA model-derived a(?), especially in highly turbid waters with strong backscattering properties of optical activity, was found to be lower than the field measurements. The QAA and NNFM models-derived a(?) could be obtained from the MODIS data after atmospheric corrections. When compared with the field measurements, the NNFM model decreased by a 0.86-24.15% uncertainty (root-mean-square relative error) of the estimation from the QAA model in deriving a(?) from the Bohai, Yellow, and East China seas. Finally, the NNFM model was applied to map the global climatological seasonal mean a(443) for the time range of July 2002 to May 2014. As expected, the a(443) value around the coastal regions was always larger than the open ocean around the equator. Viewed on a global scale, the oceans at a high latitude exhibited higher a(443) values than those at a low latitude.

  18. Study of the stretching vibrational band intensities of XH4 molecules employing four-dimensional ab initio (X=C and Sn) and effective (X=C and Si) dipole moment surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Sheng-Gui; Liu, An-Wen; Lin, Hai; Hu, Shui-Ming; Zheng, Jing-Jing; Hao, Lu-Yuan; Zhu, Qing-Shi

    2002-12-01

    Stretching vibrational band intensities of XH4 molecules were investigated employing four-dimensional ab initio (X=C and Sn) and effective (X=C and Si) dipole moment surfaces (DMS) in combination with the local mode potential energy surfaces. The ab initio DMS of CH4 and SnH4 calculated at the coupled cluster CCSD(T) level of theory reproduced most of the observed intensities within a factor of 1.5. The effective DMS of CH4 and SiH4 were obtained by adjusting some selected high-order terms in the ab initio DMS to fit the observed intensities. They were applied to the corresponding deuterated isotopomers yielding better results than the ab initio DMS. The intensities of the combination bands are mainly due to the interbond cross terms in the DMS for SiH4, GeH4, and SnH4, while for CH4, both diagonal and cross terms are important. The relatively strong combination band that has comparable intensity with the pure overtone was predicted at the fourth local mode manifold for SnH4.

  19. Absolute Rovibrational Intensities, Self-Broadening and Self-Shift Coefficients for the X(sup 1) Sigma(+) V=3 (left arrow) V=0 Band (C-12)(O-16)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chackerian, Charles, Jr.; Freedman, R.; Giver, L. P.; Brown, L. R.

    2001-01-01

    The rotationless transition moment squared for the x(sup 1) sigma (sup +) v=3 (left arrow) v=0 band of CO is measured to be the absolute value of R (sub 3-0) squared = 1.7127(25)x 10(exp -7) Debye squared. This value is about 8.6 percent smaller than the value assumed for HITRAN 2000. The Herman-Wallis intensity factor of this band is F=1+0.01168(11)m+0.0001065(79)m squared. The determination of self-broadening coefficients is improved with the inclusion of line narrowing; self-shifts are also reported.

  20. Intensity measurements of the 0,0 band of the a/3 Pi/-Chi/1 Sigma/ Cameron system of CO.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, T. C.

    1971-01-01

    The band strength of the 0,0 band of a CO Cameron system has been determined from measurements of the equivalent widths of a number of resolved rotational lines. Equivalent widths were converted to line strengths using a Doppler curve of growth. The result obtained agrees almost exactly with that of Fairbairn (1970).

  1. Classification of CD and absorption spectra in the Soret band of H 2TMPyP bound to various synthetic polynucleotides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soomin Lee; Sun Hee Jeon; Bok-Jo Kim; Sung Wook Han; Ho G. Jang; Seog K. Kim

    2001-01-01

    The binding mode of porphyrins, namely meso-tetrakis(N-methyl pyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin (H2TMPyP), was classified in this work by absorption and circular dichroism(CD) spectroscopy. The three binding modes of intercalation, minor groove binding and external stacking exhibit their own characteristic absorption and CD spectra. Intercalation occurs for this porphyrin when bound to GC-rich polynucleotides at a low mixing ratio, as expected. This binding mode

  2. The Oxygen a Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Devi, V. Malathy; Hoo, Jiajun; Hodges, Joseph; Long, David A.; Sung, Keeyoon; Drouin, Brian; Okumura, Mitchio; Bui, Thinh Quoc; Rupasinghe, Priyanka

    2014-06-01

    The oxygen A band is used for numerous atmospheric experiments, but spectral line parameters that sufficiently describe the spectrum to the level required by OCO2 and other high precision/accuracy experiments are lacking. Fourier transform spectra from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and cavity ring down spectra from the National Institute of Standards and Technology were fitted simultaneously using the William and Mary multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting technique into a single solution including the entire band. In addition, photoacoustic spectra already available from the California Institute of Technology will be added to the solution. The three types of spectrometers are complementary allowing the strengths of each to fill in the weaknesses of the others. With this technique line positions, intensities, widths, shifts, line mixing, Dicke narrowing, temperature dependences and collision induced absorption have been obtained in a single physically consistent fit. D. Chris Benner, C. P. Rinsland, V. M. Devi, M. A. H. Smith, and D. Atkins, JQSRT 1995;53:705-21. Part of the research described in this paper was performed at The College of William and Mary, the, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contracts and cooperative agreements with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Support for the National Institute of Standards and Technology was provided by the NIST Greenhouse Gas Measurements and Climate Research Program and a NIST Innovations in Measurement Science (IMS) award.

  3. Infrared band intensities and global warming potentials of CF4, C2F6, C3F8, C4F10, C5F12, and C6F14

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Roehl; D. Boglu; C. Brühl; G. K. Moortgat

    1995-01-01

    IR band intensities have been measured for the species: CF4, C2F6, C3F8, C4F10, C5F12, and C6F14 via Fourier transform spectroscopy and compared to previous literature values if available. Relative radiative forcing calculations have been performed using these data in order to determine the global warming potential of the particular species. The relative forcing (compared to CFC11, per volume) increases with

  4. The two-photon absorptivity of rotational transitions in the A2 Sigma hyperon + (v prime = O) - X-2 pion (v prime prime = O) gamma band of nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, K. P.; Mckenzie, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A predominantly single-mode pulsed dye laser system giving a well characterized spatial and temporal output suitable for absolute two-photon absorptivity measurements was used to study the NO gamma(0,0) S11 + R21 (J double prime = 7-1/2) transition. Using a calibrated induced-fluorescence technique, an absorptivity parameter of 2.8 + or - 1.4 x 10 to the minus 51st power cm to the 6th power was obtained. Relative strengths of other rotational transitions in the gamma(0,0) band were also measured and shown to compare well with predicted values in all cases except the O12 (J double prime = 10-1/2) transition.

  5. Technical Note: A novel parameterization of the transmissivity due to ozone absorption in the k-distribution method and correlated-k approximation of Kato et al. (1999) over the UV band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandji Nyamsi, W.; Arola, A.; Blanc, P.; Lindfors, A. V.; Cesnulyte, V.; Pitkänen, M. R. A.; Wald, L.

    2015-01-01

    The k-distribution method and the correlated-k approximation of Kato et al. (1999) is a computationally efficient approach originally designed for calculations of the broadband solar radiation at ground level by dividing the solar spectrum in 32 specific spectral bands from 240 to 4606 nm. Compared to a spectrally-resolved computation, its performance in the UV band appears to be inaccurate, especially in the spectral intervals #3 [283, 307] nm and #4 [307, 328] nm because of inaccuracy in modelling the transmissivity due to ozone absorption. Numerical simulations presented in this paper indicate that a single effective ozone cross section is insufficient to accurately represent the transmissivity over each spectral interval. A novel parameterization of the transmissivity using more quadrature points yields maximum error of respectively 0.0006 and 0.0041 for interval #3 and #4. How to practically implement this new parameterization in a radiative transfer model is discussed for the case of libRadtran.

  6. On the origin of a very close similarity between the spectra of the supernova type 1 in NGC 3198 and the absorption of DQ HeR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustel, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    The type 1 supernova discovered late in 1966 in NGC 3198 has broad minima in its spectrum break down into a number of significantly narrower absorption bands. The broad minima of tau, sigma and mu, which usually show no details in the spectra of type supernovas, contain a number of narrow absorption bands. The reality of most of these absorption bands is demonstrated by comparison of recordings of spectra of the supernova presented for two moments in time. These minima (particularly of tau and mu,) are a result of blending of several broad absorption bands. The minimum of tau should be a blend of intensive and very broad Fe absorption lines, in which the lower level is metastable. The wavelengths of these line are: 5169, 5198, 5235, 5276, 5317, 5363A.

  7. Absorption of surface acoustic waves by topological insulator thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Li, L. L., E-mail: lllihfcas@foxmail.com [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Xu, W., E-mail: wenxu-issp@aliyun.com [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)

    2014-08-11

    We present a theoretical study on the absorption of the surface acoustic waves (SAWs) by Dirac electrons in topological insulator (TI) thin films (TITFs). We find that due to momentum and energy conservation laws, the absorption of the SAWs in TITFs can only be achieved via intra-band electronic transitions. The strong absorption can be observed up to sub-terahertz frequencies. With increasing temperature, the absorption intensity increases significantly and the cut-off frequency is blue-shifted. More interestingly, we find that the absorption of the SAWs by the TITFs can be markedly enhanced by the tunable subgap in the Dirac energy spectrum of the TI surface states. Such a subgap is absent in conventional two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) and in the gapless Dirac 2DEG such as graphene. This study is pertinent to the exploration of the acoustic properties of TIs and to potential application of TIs as tunable SAW devices working at hypersonic frequencies.

  8. Vibration-Rotation Bands of Some Polyatomic Molecules in the Photographic InfraRed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. W. Thompson

    1939-01-01

    The infra-red absorption of methyl mercaptan, ?-methyl hydroxylamine, methyl nitrite, methyl formate, dimethyl ether, formamide, methyl fluoride, methyl chloride, methyl bromide and methyl iodide has been measured over the range 7000–12,000A using low dispersion. The intense bands have been reexamined using higher dispersion. An analysis has been made of some bands in the spectra of the methyl halides. A parallel

  9. Optical-absorption studies on noncubic s2 centers in single crystals of KH2PO4 and RbH2PO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Ikuo

    1994-03-01

    Effects of a noncubic crystal field on the s2 ion are investigated. Optical-absorption spectra of thallous ion centers produced in single crystals of KH2PO4 (KDP) and RbH2PO4 (RDP) are presented. They consist of polarized absorption bands. Since it is confirmed that the Tl+ centers in KDP and RDP exhibit quite similar absorption characteristics, a model is proposed to interpret the interaction mechanisms between the s2 ions and the KDP-like crystal lattices. Among five typical absorption bands named Az, Axy, Bxy, Cxy, and Cz, the Axy band has a noticeable doublet structure and the Bxy band is as intense as the Axy band even at liquid-nitrogen temperature and is strongly temperature dependent. The observed results are qualitatively explained by taking into account the spin-orbit, crystal-field, and electronic-vibrational interactions.

  10. On the assignment of Jahn–Teller effects in the ultraviolet absorption spectrum of Ag3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. E. Wedum; E. R. Grant; P. Y. Cheng; K. F. Willey; M. A. Duncan

    1994-01-01

    A Jahn–Teller linear-plus-quadratic Hamiltonian is shown to account for most of the observed band positions and intensities in the absorption and emission spectra of Ag3. Coupling parameters obtained for a simultaneous fit to absorption and emission results are k=1.93, g=0.25 for the E’ ground state and k=0.19, g=0.02 for the E‘ excited state. At higher vibrational energies, simple Jahn–Teller calculations

  11. Electronic transitions and heterogeneity of the bacteriophytochrome Pr absorption band: An angle balanced polarization resolved femtosecond VIS pump-IR probe study.

    PubMed

    Linke, Martin; Yang, Yang; Zienicke, Benjamin; Hammam, Mostafa A S; von Haimberger, Theodore; Zacarias, Angelica; Inomata, Katsuhiko; Lamparter, Tilman; Heyne, Karsten

    2013-10-15

    Photoisomerization of biliverdin (BV) chromophore triggers the photoresponse in native Agp1 bacteriophytochrome. We discuss heterogeneity in phytochrome Pr form to account for the shape of the absorption profile. We investigated different regions of the absorption profile by angle balanced polarization resolved femtosecond VIS pump-IR probe spectroscopy. We studied the Pr form of Agp1 with its natural chromophore and with a sterically locked 18Et-BV (locked Agp1). We followed the dynamics and orientations of the carbonyl stretching vibrations of ring D and ring A in their ground and electronically excited states. Photoisomerization of ring D is reflected by strong signals of the ring D carbonyl vibration. In contrast, orientational data on ring A show no rotation of ring A upon photoexcitation. Orientational data allow excluding a ZZZasa geometry and corroborates a nontwisted ZZZssa geometry of the chromophore. We found no proof for heterogeneity but identified a new, to our knowledge, electronic transition in the absorption profile at 644 nm (S0?S2). Excitation of the S0?S2 transition will introduce a more complex photodynamics compared with S0?S1 transition. Our approach provides fundamental information on disentanglement of absorption profiles, identification of chromophore structures, and determination of molecular groups involved in the photoisomerization process of photoreceptors. PMID:24138851

  12. Electronic transitions and heterogeneity of the bacteriophytochrome Pr absorption band: An angle balanced polarization resolved femtosecond VIS pump–IR probe study

    PubMed Central

    Linke, Martin; Yang, Yang; Zienicke, Benjamin; Hammam, Mostafa A.S.; von Haimberger, Theodore; Zacarias, Angelica; Inomata, Katsuhiko; Lamparter, Tilman; Heyne, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Photoisomerization of biliverdin (BV) chromophore triggers the photoresponse in native Agp1 bacteriophytochrome. We discuss heterogeneity in phytochrome Pr form to account for the shape of the absorption profile. We investigated different regions of the absorption profile by angle balanced polarization resolved femtosecond VIS pump–IR probe spectroscopy. We studied the Pr form of Agp1 with its natural chromophore and with a sterically locked 18Et-BV (locked Agp1). We followed the dynamics and orientations of the carbonyl stretching vibrations of ring D and ring A in their ground and electronically excited states. Photoisomerization of ring D is reflected by strong signals of the ring D carbonyl vibration. In contrast, orientational data on ring A show no rotation of ring A upon photoexcitation. Orientational data allow excluding a ZZZasa geometry and corroborates a nontwisted ZZZssa geometry of the chromophore. We found no proof for heterogeneity but identified a new, to our knowledge, electronic transition in the absorption profile at 644 nm (S0?S2). Excitation of the S0?S2 transition will introduce a more complex photodynamics compared with S0?S1 transition. Our approach provides fundamental information on disentanglement of absorption profiles, identification of chromophore structures, and determination of molecular groups involved in the photoisomerization process of photoreceptors. PMID:24138851

  13. Microwave absorption properties of composite fine powder synthesized by polycarbonsilane precursor\\/magnetic powder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renchao Che; Yongqing Li; Zhaohui Chen; Hongji Lin

    1999-01-01

    With the improvement of the high technology industry, intensive research is devoted to composite materials to obtain properties that cannot be achieved by any of the elemental parts acting alone [1]. There are more and more requirements for the preparation technology of microwave absorption material. The production of composite fine powder whose electromagnetic property in microwave-band can be easily changed

  14. Reconstruction of the atmosphere composition vertical profile by emitted radiation intensity measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S. Antyufeev

    2003-01-01

    We consider the method of reconstructing the concentration of species and gases in the atmosphere by the measured values of intensity of radiation emitted and absorbed in various radiation frequency bands. At the first step, we reconstruct the altitude profile of the total absorption factor for different observation frequencies. At the second step, we reconstruct the components concentrations at differ-

  15. Optical absorption and determination of band offset in strain-balanced GaInP/InAsP multiple quantum wells grown by low-pressure metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ababou, Y.; Desjardins, P.; Chennouf, A.; Masut, R. A.; Yelon, A.; Beaudoin, M.; Bensaada, A.; Leonelli, R.; L'Espérance, G.

    1997-05-01

    We report on optical absorption of the interband transitions in zero-net strained 0268-1242/12/5/006/img12 multiple quantum wells (MQW) grown by low-pressure metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (LP-MOVPE), using tertiarybutylarsine as a group V source. Sharp interfaces are obtained using a growth interruption procedure. Analysis of this procedure with different interruption times leads to the same optimal times as those obtained for InP/InAsP superlattices grown in the same reactor. We have achieved the growth of modulation-free strain-balanced heterostructures, as indicated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. High-resolution x-ray diffraction and optical absorption analysis demonstrate the high crystallographic and optical quality of these structures. The absorption spectrum of an x = 0.06, y = 0.14 sample was accurately fitted using the Bastard/Marzin model, and a strained conduction band offset of 0268-1242/12/5/006/img13 was deduced. This corresponds to about 0268-1242/12/5/006/img14 of the total strained bandgap difference.

  16. High-resolution absorption cross sections of carbon monoxide bands at 295 K between 91.7 and 100.4 nanometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, G.; Yoshino, K.; Smith, Peter L.; Ito, K.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical descriptions of the abundance and excitation of carbon monoxide in interstellar clouds require accurate data on the vacuum-ultraviolet absorption spectrum of the molecule. The 6.65 m spectrometer at the Photon Factory synchrotron light source was used to measure photoabsorption cross sections of CO features between 91.2 and 100.4 nm. These data were recorded at a resolving power of 170,000, more than 20 times greater than that used in previous work.

  17. Developments for vegetation fluorescence retrieval from spaceborne high-resolution spectrometry in the O2-A and O2B absorption bands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Guanter; L. Alonso; L. Gómez-Chova; M. Meroni; R. Preusker; J. Fischer; J. Moreno

    2010-01-01

    Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence is a weak electromagnetic signal emitted in the red and far-red spectral regions by vegetation chlorophyll under excitation by solar radiation. Chlorophyll fluorescence has been demonstrated to be a close proxy to vegetation physiological functioning. The basis for fluorescence retrieval from passive space measurements is the exploitation of the O2-A and O2-B atmospheric absorption features to isolate

  18. Assignment of the S1- S0 Electronic Absorption Spectra of 1 H-Benzotriazole and of 1,2,4-Triazolo[1,5- a]Pyrimidine as ?*-? by Rotational Band Contour Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cane, E.; Trombetti, A.; Velino, B.

    1993-04-01

    The 0 00 bands in the S1- S0 electronic absorption systems of l H-benzotriazole at 286 nm and of 1,2,4-triazolo[l,5- a]pyrimidine at 315 nm have been analyzed by computer simulation of their rotational contours. The results have shown that the benzotriazole hand is an almost pure type- B band, while in the case of 1,2,4-triazolo[l,5- a] pyrimidine it is a pure type- A band, so each S1- S0 electronic system is assigned as à 1A'(??*)- X˜1A'. In both of these molecules, the transition moment is in the molecular plane, almost parallel to the b-inertial axis in benzotriazole. while it is parallel to the a-inertial axis in 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5- a]pyrimidine. Since the S1- S0 transitions in the indole derivatives previously analyzed were shown to be ?*-?, it seems likely that the nature of the S1- S0 electronic transition is the same in all the molecules of this kind.

  19. A Comparative Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Hydroxide and Carbonate Absorption Bands in Spectra of Shark Enameloid, Shark Dentin, and a Geological Apatite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Dahm; S. Risnes

    1999-01-01

    .   The purpose of the present work was to investigate the infrared (IR) spectrum of shark enameloid, especially with regard\\u000a to hydroxide and carbonate bands. With thin sections placed directly in the IR beam it was possible to get high concentrations\\u000a of ions without interfering effects from a dispersion medium (e.g., alkali halides). For comparison, spectra of shark dentin\\u000a and

  20. Relation of molecular structure to Franck-Condon bands in the visible-light absorption spectra of symmetric cationic cyanine dyes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Katrina Tao Hua; Silzel, John W

    2015-05-01

    A Franck-Condon (FC) model is used to study the solution-phase absorbance spectra of a series of seven symmetric cyanine dyes having between 22 and 77 atoms. Electronic transition energies were obtained from routine visible-light absorbance and fluorescence emission spectra. Harmonic normal modes were computed using density functional theory (DFT) and a polarizable continuum solvent model (PCM), with frequencies corrected using measured mid-infrared spectra. The model predicts the relative energies of the two major vibronic bands to within 5% and 11%, respectively, and also reproduces structure-specific differences in vibronic band shapes. The bands themselves result from excitation of two distinct subsets of normal modes, one with frequencies between 150 and 625cm(-1), and the other between 850 and 1480cm(-1). Vibronic transitions excite symmetric in-plane bending of the polymethine chain, in-plane bends of the polymethine and aromatic C-H bonds, torsions and deformations of N-alkyl substituents, and in the case of the indocyanines, in-plane deformations of the indole rings. For two dyes, the model predicts vibronic coupling into symmetry-breaking torsions associated with trans-cis photoisomerization. PMID:25703366

  1. Laser supported solid state absorption fronts in silica

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, C W; Bude, J D

    2010-02-09

    We develop a model based on simulation and experiment that explains the behavior of solid-state laser-supported absorption fronts generated in fused silica during high intensity (up to 5GW/cm{sup 2}) laser exposure. We find that the absorption front velocity is constant in time and is nearly linear in laser intensity. Further, this model can explain the dependence of laser damage site size on these parameters. This behavior is driven principally by the temperature-activated deep sub band-gap optical absorptivity, free electron transport and thermal diffusion in defect-free silica for temperatures up to 15,000K and pressures < 15GPa. The regime of parameter space critical to this problem spans and extends that measured by other means. It serves as a platform for understanding general laser-matter interactions in dielectrics under a variety of conditions.

  2. Modeling of collision-induced infrared absorption spectra of H2-H2 pairs in the fundamental band at temperatures from 20 to 300 K. [Planetary atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Borysow, A. (Michigan Technological University, Houghton (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The 20-300 K free-free rotovibrational collision-induced absorption (RV CIA) spectra of H2-H2 pairs are presently obtained by a numerical method which, in addition to closely matching known CIA spectra of H2-H2, can reproduce the results of the quantum-mechanical computations to within a few percent. Since the spectral lineshape parameters are derivable by these means from the lowest three quantum-mechanical spectral moments, these outer-planet atmosphere-pertinent model spectra may be computed on even small computers. 35 refs.

  3. Controlling absorption spectra of strained graphene nanoribbon by magnetic modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T. S.; Hsieh, C. T.; Yang, S. P.; Chang, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    This study shows that the optical absorption spectra of strained graphene nanoribbons can be effectively tuned by a spatially modulated magnetic field. The absorption spectra exhibit many asymmetric square-root divergent peaks structure due to the oscillatory parabolic subbands. These absorption peaks can be classified into primary and secondary ones. The number, spectral intensity, and frequency of the absorption peaks depend sensitively on the strength and period of the modulated field. The transition channels of the absorption peaks are identified and the optical selection rule is analyzed. There exists an optical selection rule for the primary absorption peaks. Such rule is originated from the orthogonal properties of the quasi-Landau level wave functions. A uniaxial stress changes the band-edge state energy and subband curvature, in turn modifying the optical absorption spectra. The evolution of the frequencies of the absorption peaks with the field strength is explored. They first show linear, then square-root dependence on the field strength. These theoretical predictions can be validated by absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  4. On the inversion of geometric parameters from absorption and circular dichroism spectroscopy of molecular dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisfeld, Alexander; Seibt, Joachim; Engel, Volker

    2008-12-01

    Absorption spectra of molecular dimers usually exhibit complex line-shapes. In an approximate treatment the excited dimer states are described as a two-level system, leading to two bands separated by twice the electronic coupling element which is responsible for the splitting. The band intensities are related to the relative orientation of the monomer transition dipole-moments. We show, considering absorption and circular dichroism spectra, that extracting geometric parameters using the two-level description can lead to substantial errors when internal monomer vibrations become relevant. The application of sum-rules offers a more accurate approach to invert the data.

  5. Coloration and oxygen vacancies in wide band gap oxide semiconductors: Absorption at metallic nanoparticles induced by vacancy clustering—A case study on indium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, M., E-mail: martin.albrecht@ikz-berlin.de; Schewski, R.; Irmscher, K.; Galazka, Z.; Markurt, T.; Naumann, M.; Schulz, T.; Uecker, R.; Fornari, R. [Leibniz-Institut für Kristallzüchtung, Max-Born-Straße 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Meuret, S.; Kociak, M. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Université Paris-Sud XI, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2014-02-07

    In this paper, we show by optical and electron microscopy based investigations that vacancies in oxides may cluster and form metallic nanoparticles that induce coloration by extinction of visible light. Optical extinction in this case is caused by generation of localized surface plasmon resonances at metallic particles embedded in the dielectric matrix. Based on Mie's approach, we are able to fit the absorption due to indium nanoparticles in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} to our absorption measurements. The experimentally found particle distribution is in excellent agreement with the one obtained from fitting by Mie theory. Indium particles are formed by precipitation of oxygen vacancies. From basic thermodynamic consideration and assuming theoretically calculated activation energies for vacancy formation and migration, we find that the majority of oxygen vacancies form just below the melting point. Since they are ionized at this temperature they are Coulomb repulsive. Upon cooling, a high supersaturation of oxygen vacancies forms in the crystal that precipitates once the Fermi level crosses the transition energy level from the charged to the neutral charge state. From our considerations we find that the ionization energy of the oxygen vacancy must be higher than 200?meV.

  6. Method and apparatus for aerosol particle absorption spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Campillo, Anthony J. (Nesconset, NY); Lin, Horn-Bond (Manorville, NY)

    1983-11-15

    A method and apparatus for determining the absorption spectra, and other properties, of aerosol particles. A heating beam source provides a beam of electromagnetic energy which is scanned through the region of the spectrum which is of interest. Particles exposed to the heating beam which have absorption bands within the band width of the heating beam absorb energy from the beam. The particles are also illuminated by light of a wave length such that the light is scattered by the particles. The absorption spectra of the particles can thus be determined from an analysis of the scattered light since the absorption of energy by the particles will affect the way the light is scattered. Preferably the heating beam is modulated to simplify the analysis of the scattered light. In one embodiment the heating beam is intensity modulated so that the scattered light will also be intensity modulated when the particles absorb energy. In another embodiment the heating beam passes through an interferometer and the scattered light reflects the Fourier Transform of the absorption spectra.

  7. Band models and correlations for infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.

    1975-01-01

    Absorption of infrared radiation by various line and band models are briefly reviewed. Narrow band model relations for absorptance are used to develop 'exact' formulations for total absorption by four wide band models. Application of a wide band model to a particular gas largely depends upon the spectroscopic characteristic of the absorbing-emitting molecule. Seven continuous correlations for the absorption of a wide band model are presented and each one of these is compared with the exact (numerical) solutions of the wide band models. Comparison of these results indicate the validity of a correlation for a particular radiative transfer application. In radiative transfer analyses, use of continuous correlations for total band absorptance provides flexibilities in various mathematical operations.

  8. CEFLES2: the remote sensing component to quantify photosynthetic efficiency from the leaf to the region by measuring sun-induced fluorescence in the oxygen absorption bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rascher, U.; Agati, G.; Alonso, L.; Cecchi, G.; Champagne, S.; Colombo, R.; Damm, A.; Daumard, F.; de Miguel, E.; Fernandez, G.; Franch, B.; Franke, J.; Gerbig, C.; Gioli, B.; Gómez, J. A.; Goulas, Y.; Guanter, L.; Gutiérrez-de-La-Cámara, Ã.`.; Hamdi, K.; Hostert, P.; Jiménez, M.; Kosvancova, M.; Lognoli, D.; Meroni, M.; Miglietta, F.; Moersch, A.; Moreno, J.; Moya, I.; Neininger, B.; Okujeni, A.; Ounis, A.; Palombi, L.; Raimondi, V.; Schickling, A.; Sobrino, J. A.; Stellmes, M.; Toci, G.; Toscano, P.; Udelhoven, T.; van der Linden, S.; Zaldei, A.

    2009-07-01

    The CEFLES2 campaign during the Carbo Europe Regional Experiment Strategy was designed to provide simultaneous airborne measurements of solar induced fluorescence and CO2 fluxes. It was combined with extensive ground-based quantification of leaf- and canopy-level processes in support of ESA's Candidate Earth Explorer Mission of the "Fluorescence Explorer" (FLEX). The aim of this campaign was to test if fluorescence signal detected from an airborne platform can be used to improve estimates of plant mediated exchange on the mesoscale. Canopy fluorescence was quantified from four airborne platforms using a combination of novel sensors: (i) the prototype airborne sensor AirFLEX quantified fluorescence in the oxygen A and B bands, (ii) a hyperspectral spectrometer (ASD) measured reflectance along transects during 12 day courses, (iii) spatially high resolution georeferenced hyperspectral data cubes containing the whole optical spectrum and the thermal region were gathered with an AHS sensor, and (iv) the first employment of the high performance imaging spectrometer HYPER delivered spatially explicit and multi-temporal transects across the whole region. During three measurement periods in April, June and September 2007 structural, functional and radiometric characteristics of more than 20 different vegetation types in the Les Landes region, Southwest France, were extensively characterized on the ground. The campaign concept focussed especially on quantifying plant mediated exchange processes (photosynthetic electron transport, CO2 uptake, evapotranspiration) and fluorescence emission. The comparison between passive sun-induced fluorescence and active laser-induced fluorescence was performed on a corn canopy in the daily cycle and under desiccation stress. Both techniques show good agreement in detecting stress induced fluorescence change at the 760 nm band. On the large scale, airborne and ground-level measurements of fluorescence were compared on several vegetation types supporting the scaling of this novel remote sensing signal. The multi-scale design of the four airborne radiometric measurements along with extensive ground activities fosters a nested approach to quantify photosynthetic efficiency and gross primary productivity (GPP) from passive fluorescence.

  9. CEFLES2: the remote sensing component to quantify photosynthetic efficiency from the leaf to the region by measuring sun-induced fluorescence in the oxygen absorption bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rascher, U.; Agati, G.; Alonso, L.; Cecchi, G.; Champagne, S.; Colombo, R.; Damm, A.; Daumard, F.; de Miguel, E.; Fernandez, G.; Franch, B.; Franke, J.; Gerbig, C.; Gioli, B.; Gómez, J. A.; Goulas, Y.; Guanter, L.; Gutiérrez-de-La-Cámara, Ó.; Hamdi, K.; Hostert, P.; Jiménez, M.; Kosvancova, M.; Lognoli, D.; Meroni, M.; Miglietta, F.; Moersch, A.; Moreno, J.; Moya, I.; Neininger, B.; Okujeni, A.; Ounis, A.; Palombi, L.; Raimondi, V.; Schickling, A.; Sobrino, J. A.; Stellmes, M.; Toci, G.; Toscano, P.; Udelhoven, T.; van der Linden, S.; Zaldei, A.

    2009-02-01

    The CEFLES2 campaign during the Carbo Europe Regional Experiment Strategy was designed to provide simultaneous airborne measurements of solar induced fluorescence and CO2 fluxes. It was combined with extensive ground-based quantification of leaf- and canopy-level processes in support of ESA's Candidate Earth Explorer Mission of the "Fluorescence Explorer" (FLEX). The aim of this campaign was to test if fluorescence signal detected from an airborne platform can be used to improve estimates of plant mediated exchange on the mesoscale. Canopy fluorescence was quantified from four airborne platforms using a combination of novel sensors: (i) the prototype airborne sensor AirFLEX quantified fluorescence in the oxygen A and B bands, (ii) a hyperspectral spectrometer (ASD) measured reflectance along transects during 12 day courses, (iii) spatially high resolution georeferenced hyperspectral data cubes containing the whole optical spectrum and the thermal region were gathered with an AHS sensor, and (iv) the first employment of the high performance imaging spectrometer HYPER delivered spatially explicit and multi-temporal transects across the whole region. During three measurement periods in April, June and September 2007 structural, functional and radiometric characteristics of more than 20 different vegetation types in the Les Landes region, Southwest France, were extensively characterized on the ground. The campaign concept focussed especially on quantifying plant mediated exchange processes (photosynthetic electron transport, CO2 uptake, evapotranspiration) and fluorescence emission. The comparison between passive sun-induced fluorescence and active laser-induced fluorescence was performed on a corn canopy in the daily cycle and under desiccation stress. Both techniques show good agreement in detecting stress induced fluorescence change at the 760 nm band. On the large scale, airborne and ground-level measurements of fluorescence were compared on several vegetation types supporting the scaling of this novel remote sensing signal. The multi-scale design of the four airborne radiometric measurements along with extensive ground activities fosters a nested approach to quantify photosynthetic efficiency and gross primary productivity (GPP) from passive fluorescence.

  10. Comparison of HITRAN Calculated Spectra with Laboratory Measurements of the 820, 940, 1130, and 1370 nm Water Vapor Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, Lawrence P.; Pilewskie, P.; Gore, Warren J.; Freedman, R. S.; Chackerian, C., Jr.; Varanasi, P.

    2001-01-01

    Several groups have recently been working to improve the near-infrared spectrum of water vapor on HITRAN. The unit-conversion errors found by Giver, et al have now been corrected on the recently released HITRAN-2000. The most important aspect of this article for atmospheric absorption was increasing all the HITRAN-1996 intensities of the 940 nm band by nearly 15%. New intensity measurements of this band by Brown, et al (submitted to J. Mol. Spec.) have now been included in the latest HITRAN. However, Belmiloud, et al discuss new data in the 633-1175 nm region which they expect will substantially increase the calculated absorption of solar radiation by water vapor. They suggest the 4 bands at 725, 820, 940, and 1130 nm are all stronger than the sum of the line intensities currently on HITRAN. For the 725 and 820 nm bands, their recommended intensity increases are 10% and 15%, about the same as previously noted by Grossmann and Browell and Ponsardin and Browell. Belmiloud, et al only suggest a 6% increase for the 940 nm. band over the corrected HITRAN-1996 intensities, but a large 38% increase for the 1130 nm band. The new data discussed by Belmiloud, et al have now been published in greater detail by Schermaul, et al. The intensity increase for the 1130 nm band discussed by Belmiloud, et al is very substantial; it is important to quickly determine if the HITRAN intensity values are in error by as much as they claim. Only intensity errors for the strong lines could result in the total band intensity being in error by such a large amount. To quickly get a number of spectra of the entire near-infrared region from 650 to 1650 nm, we used the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer with our 25-meter base path White absorption cell. This moderate resolution spectrometer is a flight instrument that has flown on the Sandia Twin Otter for the ARESE 11 experiment. The measured band profiles were then compared to calculated spectra using the latest HITRAN line intensities, convolved with the instrumental resolution. Our spectra for the 725 and 820 nm bands show somewhat more absorption than the HITRAN simulations, about as expected by Belmiloud, el al. The total absorption for our spectra of the 940 nm band agrees well with the HITRAN simulations; this HITRAN spectral region now has the new measurements of Brown, et al. Our spectra of the 1130 nm band have somewhat more absorption than the HITRAN simulations, but not as much as the 38% intensity increase for this band suggested by Belmiloud, et al. An intensity increase of about 20% on average would be more compatible with our data. Finally, our spectra of the 1370 nm band are fairly well modeled by the HITRAN simulations, despite the known problems of the older HITRAN data in this region.

  11. Absorption and photoluminescence of ternary nanostructured Ge-S-Ga(In)glassy semiconductor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Babaev, A. A., E-mail: babaev-arif@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Amirkhanov Institute of Physics, Dagestan Scientific Center (Russian Federation); Kudoyarova, V. Kh. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-15

    The photoluminescence and luminescence excitation spectra and the edge and IR absorption of Ge-S-Ga(In) glassy semiconductor systems are studied. The observed shifts of the optical-absorption edge, photoluminescence spectra (a decrease in their full width at half-maximum), and luminescence excitation spectra to lower energies upon the introduction of Ga or In into Ge-S binary systems are due to the fact that Ga or In tend to interact with sulfur, rather than with germanium. As the content of Ga(In) in the system increases, the intensity of the absorption band associated with vibrations of the Ge-S bond decreases.

  12. Two-Phonon Absorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    A nonlinear aspect of the acousto-optic interaction that is analogous to multi-photon absorption is discussed. An experiment is described in which the second-order acousto-optically scattered intensity is measured and found to scale with the square of the acoustic intensity. This experiment using a commercially available acousto-optic modulator is…

  13. Absorption spectrum of Gafchromic EBT2 film with angular rotation

    E-print Network

    Park, Soah; Hwang, Taejin; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Han, Taejin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Me-Yeon; Kim, KyoungJu; Bae, Hoonsik; Kang, Sei-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    It is important to study absorption spectrum in film dosimetry because the spectral absorbance of the film relates to the film's total absorption dose. We investigated the absorption spectra of Gafchromic EBT2 film with various rotational angles in a visible wavelength band. The film was irradiated with 6 MV photon beams and a total dose of 300 cGy. Absorption spectra were taken under different rotational angles after 24 h after irradiation and we fitted the spectra using Lorentzian functions. There were two dominant absorption peaks at approximately 586 nm (green) and 634 nm (red). The measured spectrum was decomposed 542 nm, 558 nm, 578 nm, 586 nm, 626 nm, 634 nm, and 641 nm. The maximum total area of the red band absorption spectrum was at 45{\\deg}(225{\\deg}) and the minimum at 90{\\deg}(270{\\deg}). As the angle of rotation changed, the intensity and integrated area of the blue and green peaks also changed with 180{\\deg} period, with minima at 90{\\deg} and 270{\\deg}, and maxima at 0{\\deg} and 180{\\deg}, alt...

  14. Absorption of monochromatic and narrow band radiation in the visible and near IR by both mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial photoacceptors results in photobiomodulation.

    PubMed

    Passarella, Salvatore; Karu, Tiina

    2014-11-01

    In addition to the major functions performed by in the cell, mitochondria play a major role in cell-light interaction. Accordingly it is generally accepted that mitochondria are crucial in cell photobiomodulation; however a variety of biomolecules themselves proved to be targets of light irradiation. We describe whether and how mitochondria can interact with monochromatic and narrow band radiation in the red and near IR optical regions with dissection of both structural and functional effects likely leading to photobiostimulation. Moreover we also report that a variety of biomolecules localized in mitochondria and/or in other cell compartments including cytochrome c oxidase, some proteins, nucleic acids and adenine nucleotides are light sensitive with major modifications in their biochemistry. All together the reported investigations show that the elucidation of the mechanism of the light interaction with biological targets still remains to be completed, this needing further research, however the light sensitivity of a variety of molecules strongly suggests that photobiomodulation could be used in both in photomedicine and in biotechnology. PMID:25226343

  15. Infrared band intensities and global warming potentials of CF4, C2F6, C3F8, C4F10, C5F12, and C6F14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehl, C. M.; Boglu, D.; Brühl, C.; Moortgat, G. K.

    1995-04-01

    IR band intensities have been measured for the species: CF4, C2F6, C3F8, C4F10, C5F12, and C6F14 via Fourier transform spectroscopy and compared to previous literature values if available. Relative radiative forcing calculations have been performed using these data in order to determine the global warming potential of the particular species. The relative forcing (compared to CFC11, per volume) increases with molecular weight in the above series from 0.47 to 2.1, the GWP for a time horizon of 100 yrs from 1.1 to 4.7. This corresponds to a GWP on CO2 basis per mass of about 5000.

  16. Temperature dependence of the ratio of intensities of up-conversion fluorescence bands of YVO4 and YGdVO4 crystals and lead fluoride nano glass ceramics activated with erbium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varaksa, Yu. A.; Sinitsyn, G. V.; Khodasevich, M. A.; Aseev, V. A.; Kolobkova, E. V.; Yasyukevich, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Up-conversion fluorescence spectra of YVO4 and YGdVO4 crystals and lead fluoride nano glass ceramics coactivated with erbium and ytterbium ions have been studied in the wavelength range of 520-560 nm under 967-nm pumping. The ratio of intensities of fluorescence bands in the ranges of 520-530 and 540-550 nm has been measured in the temperature range of from room temperature to 150°C. It is shown that the considered materials can be used for preparing a sensing element of optical fluorescent temperature sensors; the sensitivity of measuring the temperature of nano glass-ceramics can be close to that of crystal samples.

  17. SF_6: the Forbidden Band Unveiled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudon, V.; Manceron, L.; Kwabia-Tchana, F.; Roy, P.

    2013-06-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF_6) is a greenhouse gas of anthropogenic origin, whose strong infrared absorption in the ?_3 S-F stretching region near 948 cm^{-1} induces a global warming potential 23900 times bigger than CO_2. This heavy species features many hot bands at room temperature (at which the ground state population is only 30 %), especially those originating from the v_6=1 state. Unfortunately, the ?_6 band itself (near 347 cm^{-1}) being, in first approximation, both infrared and Raman inactive, no reliable information could be obtained about it up to now. A long time ago, some authors suggested that this band may be slightly activated through Coriolis interaction and may appear as a very faint band, with an integrated intensity about 2 millionths of that of ?_3. Using a new cryogenic multipass cell with 93 m optical path length and regulated at 165± 2 K temperature, we recorded a spectrum of the ?_6 far-infrared region thanks to the performances of the AILES Beamline at the SOLEIL french synchrotron facility. Low temperature was used to avoid the presence of the 2?_6-?_6 hot band and to reduce the neighboring, stronger ?_4-?_2 difference band. We are thus able to confirm that the small feature in this region, previously viewed at low-resolution is indeed ?_6. We present its fully resolved spectrum. It appears to be activated thanks to unidentified faint interactions resulting in the presence of a first-order dipole moment term that induces unusual selection rules. This spectrum was analyzed thanks to the XTDS software package, leading to accurate molecular spectroscopic parameters that should be useful to model the hot bands of SF_6. W. B. Person, B. J. Krohn, J. Mol. Spectrosc. {98}, 229-257 (1983), C. Chappados, G. Birnbaum, J. Mol. Spectrosc. {105}, 206-214 (1984). Ch. Wenger, V. Boudon, M. Rotger, M. Sanzharov and J.-P. Champion, J. Mol. Spectrosc., {251} 102-113 (2008).

  18. A study of the absorption features of Makemake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J.; Duffard, R.; Carvano, J.; de Pra, M.

    2014-07-01

    Most transneptunian objects do not show prominent absorption features due to the size and location [1]. Nevertheless, absorption due to water ice and volatile ices do appear on a few large objects, particularly those that have good signal-to-noise-ratio spectra. In particular, methane appears in three dwarf planets (Pluto, Eris, and Makemake), as well as in some smaller objects, such as Quaoar and probably Sedna, and in Neptune's satellite Triton. Methane has such intense absorption features that even small amounts of methane on the surface dominate the reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared range, making it a great tool to probe surfaces, especially, considering that the depth of the bands could be used as a proxy for physical depths and that shifts in the bands with respect to laboratory measurements could point to possible dilutions (as seen in Pluto and Eris; for instance [3] and references therein). Aiming at gaining a deeper insight into Makemake's surface through its methane absorption bands, we have observed it with X-Shooter at the VLT with a medium spectral resolution in the range of 0.4--1.8 microns. In this work, we present the results of comparing these features with those of methane in the laboratory and the same features in Eris and Pluto, within the context of methane-dominated spectra of dwarf planets.

  19. CCSD(T) potential energy and induced dipole surfaces for N2-H2(D2): Retrieval of the collision-induced absorption integrated intensities in the regions of the fundamental and first overtone vibrational transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buryak, Ilya; Lokshtanov, Sergei; Vigasin, Andrey

    2012-09-01

    The present work aims at ab initio characterization of the integrated intensity temperature variation of collision-induced absorption (CIA) in N2-H2(D2). Global fits of potential energy surface (PES) and induced dipole moment surface (IDS) were made on the basis of CCSD(T) (coupled cluster with single and double and perturbative triple excitations) calculations with aug-cc-pV(T,Q)Z basis sets. Basis set superposition error correction and extrapolation to complete basis set (CBS) limit techniques were applied to both energy and dipole moment. Classical second cross virial coefficient calculations accounting for the first quantum correction were employed to prove the quality of the obtained PES. The CIA temperature dependence was found in satisfactory agreement with available experimental data.

  20. A search for diffuse bands in fullerene planetary nebulae: evidence of diffuse circumstellar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Luis, J. J.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Kameswara Rao, N.; Manchado, A.; Cataldo, F.

    2015-01-01

    Large fullerenes and fullerene-based molecules have been proposed as carriers of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). The recent detection of the most common fullerenes (C60 and C70) around some planetary nebulae (PNe) now enable us to study the DIBs towards fullerene-rich space environments. We search DIBs in the optical spectra towards three fullerene-containing PNe (Tc 1, M 1-20, and IC 418). Special attention is given to DIBs which are found to be unusually intense towards these fullerene sources. In particular, an unusually strong 4428 Å absorption feature is a common charateristic of fullerene PNe. Similar to Tc 1, the strongest optical bands of neutral C60 are not detected towards IC 418. Our high-quality (S/N > 300) spectra for PN Tc 1, together with its large radial velocity, permit us to search for the presence of diffuse bands of circumstellar origin, which we refer to as diffuse circumstellar bands (DCBs). We report the first tentative detection of two DCBs at 4428 and 5780 Å in the fullerene-rich circumstellar environment around the PN Tc 1. Laboratory and theoretical studies of fullerenes in their multifarious manifestations (carbon onions, fullerene clusters, or even complex species formed by fullerenes and other molecules like PAHs or metals) may help solve the mystery of some of the diffuse band carriers. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Quantitative laboratory spectra and spectral line parameters for the nu2 and nu4 bands of PH3 applicable to spectral radiative models of the atmosphere of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Cook, G. R.; Bonomo, F. S.

    1980-01-01

    Quantitative laboratory PH3 absorption spectra were obtained in the 800-1350/cm region, at approximately 0.05/cm resolution, with gas amounts corresponding to observed PH3 absorptions in the atmosphere of Jupiter. A compilation of spectral line positions, intensities and ground state energies has been generated for the nu2 and nu4 bands of PH3. Line-by-line calculations have been compared with the experimental spectra.

  2. High-temperature UV absorption of methyl radicals behind shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A.; Davidson, David F.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2005-06-01

    The absorption of ultraviolet narrow-line laser radiation by methyl radicals (CH3) in the BA1??XA2? electronic system has been studied at high temperatures behind shock waves. Methyl radicals at high temperatures were generated by the shock heating of methyl precursors: azomethane, methyl iodide, and ethane. The spectral shape and intensity of the broadband BA1??XA2?CH3 absorption feature from 211.5 to 220 nm at high temperature (1565 K) has been measured. The absorption coefficient of CH3 at 216.62 nm, the wavelength of peak absorption at high temperatures in the P+Q band, has been determined from 1200 to 2500 K. Additionally, the absorption coefficients of several interfering UV-absorbing combustion species (C2H2,C2H4, and C3H6) have been determined at 216.62 nm.

  3. 5 × 5?cm2 silicon photonic crystal slabs on glass and plastic foil exhibiting broadband absorption and high-intensity near-fields

    PubMed Central

    Becker, C.; Wyss, P.; Eisenhauer, D.; Probst, J.; Preidel, V.; Hammerschmidt, M.; Burger, S.

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline silicon photonic crystal slabs are widely used in various photonics applications. So far, the commercial success of such structures is still limited owing to the lack of cost-effective fabrication processes enabling large nanopatterned areas (? 1?cm2). We present a simple method for producing crystalline silicon nanohole arrays of up to 5 × 5?cm2 size with lattice pitches between 600 and 1000?nm on glass and flexible plastic substrates. Exclusively up-scalable, fast fabrication processes are applied such as nanoimprint-lithography and silicon evaporation. The broadband light trapping efficiency of the arrays is among the best values reported for large-area experimental crystalline silicon nanostructures. Further, measured photonic crystal resonance modes are in good accordance with light scattering simulations predicting strong near-field intensity enhancements greater than 500. Hence, the large-area silicon nanohole arrays might become a promising platform for ultrathin solar cells on lightweight substrates, high-sensitive optical biosensors, and nonlinear optics. PMID:25073935

  4. Exposure to omethoate during stapling of ornamental plants in intensive cultivation tunnels: influence of environmental conditions on absorption of the pesticide.

    PubMed

    Aprea, C; Centi, L; Santini, S; Lunghini, L; Banchi, B; Sciarra, G

    2005-11-01

    This report describes a study of exposure to omethoate during manual operations with ornamental plants in two intensive cultivation tunnels (tunnel 8 and tunnel 5). Airborne concentrations of omethoate were in the range 1.48-5.36 nmol/m(3). Total skin contamination in the range 329.94-12,934.46 nmol/day averaged 98.1 +/- 1.1% and 99.3 +/- 0.6% of the total potential dose in tunnel 8 and tunnel 5, respectively. Estimated absorbed doses during work in tunnel 5 were much higher than the acceptable daily intake of omethoate, which is 1.41 nmol/kg b.w. This finding shows that organization of the work or the protective clothing worn in tunnel 5 did not protect the workers from exposure. Urinary excretion of alkylphosphates was significantly higher than in the general population, increasing with exposure and usually showing a peak in the urine sample collected after the work shift. Urinary alkylphosphates showed a good correlation with estimated potential doses during work in tunnel 8 and are confirmed as sensitive biological indicators of exposure to phosphoric esters. The linear regression analysis between the urinary excretion of alkylphosphate, expressed as total nmol excreted in 24 h, and total cutaneous dose allows for estimating that the fraction of omethoate absorbed through the skin during work in tunnel 8 is about 16.5%. PMID:16132410

  5. Neural network cloud screening algorithm, Part I: A synthetic case over land using micro-windows in O2 and CO2 near infrared absorption bands with nadir viewing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Thomas E.; O'Brien, D. M.

    2009-09-01

    A neural network is presented for estimating cloud water and ice paths, effective scattering heights of cloud water and ice, and column water vapor. The cloud water and ice are then used to classify scenes as either clear or cloudy using a simple threshold test of 2 gm-2 for water and 10 gm-2 for ice. Training of the neural networks was performed using high resolution spectra in micro-windows of O2 and CO2 near infrared absorption bands generated from an ensemble of analyzed meteorological fields from ECMWF and surface properties from MODIS. An independent test data set was generated using the same radiative transfermodel, but coupled with atmospheric profiles derived from CloudSat and Calipso data. Analysis indicates that the algorithmprovides approximately 75-90% accuracy with a 95-99% confidence level for classifying scenes as either cloudy or clear over land surfaces in nadir viewing geometry. These estimates are shown to be robust, in the sense that they are insensitive to realistic instrumental errors, errors in the meteorological analyses and surface properties, and errors in the simulations used for training.

  6. Picosecond blue-light-induced infrared absorption in single-domain and periodically poled ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirohashi, J.; Pasiskevicius, V.; Wang, S.; Laurell, F.

    2007-02-01

    Picosecond blue-light-induced infrared absorption is investigated in bulk and periodically poled ferroelectrics known to have high photorefractive resistance (KTiOPO4, MgO-doped congruent LiNbO3, MgO-doped stoichiometric LiNbO3, MgO-doped stoichiometric LiTaO3, and KNbO3). KNbO3 and MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 show the lowest susceptibility to induced absorption. Periodic poling slightly increases the susceptibility to the induced absorption in all materials but most noticeably in KTiOPO4, MgO-doped stoichiometric LiTaO3, and KNbO3. Different dynamics of induced absorption are investigated. Relatively high thresholds for induced absorption were observed in MgO-doped stoichiometric LiTaO3 and KNbO3. By increasing the peak power intensity of blue light, the induced absorption for LiNbO3, KTiOPO4, and KNbO3 are saturated, while in MgO-doped stoichiometric LiTaO3, the induced absorption increases almost linearly with the blue peak intensity. The low susceptibility to induced absorption observed in KNbO3 corroborates well with the earlier proposed existence of very shallow traps close to the valence band.

  7. Bird Banding

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Bird Banding - Elizabeth Sellers points out identification characteristics in the plumage of a male common yellowthroat to John P. Mosesso during a capture-recapture study at a Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program bird banding station....

  8. Optical dispersion parameters based on single-oscillator model and optical absorption of nanocrystalline metal phthalocyanine films: A comparison study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farag, A. A. M.; Yahia, I. S.; AlFaify, S.; Bilgiçli, A.; Kandaz, M.; Yakuphano?lu, F.

    2013-08-01

    Nanocrystalline thin films of {Co(II), Cu(II), Mn(III), Pb(II) and Zn(II)} phthalocyanine complexes were deposited by spin coating sol-gel technique. The surface morphologies of the films are found to be dependable on the type of the metal complex. The absorption spectra of the films show two well defined absorption bands of phthalocyanine molecule; namely Soret (B-band) and Q-bands. The Q-band absorption of the phthalocyanine complexes shifts to longer wavelength with the central metal change. The analysis of the spectral behavior of the absorption coefficient (?) in the absorption region revealed two expected indirect transitions. The refractive index (n) and the absorption index (k) were calculated using the measured data of the transmittance T(?) and reflectance R(?) coefficients. The dispersion parameters such as dispersion energy (Ed), oscillator energy (Eo), high frequency dielectric constant (??), and lattice dielectric constant (?L) were determined using the single oscillator model. The main reason for the change in dispersion parameters of the phthalocyanine complexes may be attributed to the intensity of the metal coordination bonds that are dependent on the bound metal atoms due to their electronegativity change. The founded results of the nano-crystalline metal phthalocyanine thin films can be useful for optoelectronic applications. Discussion of the obtained results and their comparisons with the available published literature were also considered.

  9. Photodissociation of carbon dioxide in singlet valence electronic states. II. Five state absorption spectrum and vibronic assignment

    E-print Network

    Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu

    2013-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of CO$_2$ in the wavelength range 120\\,nm --- 160\\,nm is analyzed by means of quantum mechanical calculations performed using vibronically coupled PESs of five singlet valence electronic states and the coordinate dependent transition dipole moment vectors. The thermally averaged spectrum, calculated for T=190\\,K via Boltzmann averaging of optical transitions from many initial rotational states, accurtely reproduces the experimental spectral envelope, consisting of a low and a high energy band, the positions of the absorption maxima, their FWHMs, peak intensities, and frequencies of diffuse structures in each band. Contributions of the vibronic interactions due to Renner-Teller coupling, conical intersections, and the Herzberg-Teller effect are isolated and the calculated bands are assigned in terms of adiabatic electronic states. Finally, diffuse structures in the calculated bands are vibronically assigned using wave functions of the underlying resonance states. It is demonstrated that...

  10. An Accurate Method for Computing the Absorption of Solar Radiation by Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    The method is based upon molecular line parameters and makes use of a far wing scaling approximation and k distribution approach previously applied to the computation of the infrared cooling rate due to water vapor. Taking into account the wave number dependence of the incident solar flux, the solar heating rate is computed for the entire water vapor spectrum and for individual absorption bands. The accuracy of the method is tested against line by line calculations. The method introduces a maximum error of 0.06 C/day. The method has the additional advantage over previous methods in that it can be applied to any portion of the spectral region containing the water vapor bands. The integrated absorptances and line intensities computed from the molecular line parameters were compared with laboratory measurements. The comparison reveals that, among the three different sources, absorptance is the largest for the laboratory measurements.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ions and the diffuse interstellar bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, F.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    Neutral naphthalene (C10H8), phenanthrene (C14H10), and pyrene (C16H10) absorb strongly in the ultraviolet and may contribute to the extinction curve. High abundances are required to produce detectable structures. The cations of these Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) absorb in the visible. C10H8(+) has 12 discrete absorption bands which fall between 6800 and 5000 A. The strongest band at 6741 A falls close to the weak 6742 A diffuse interstellar band (DIB). Five other weaker bands also match DIBs. The possibility that C10H8(+) is responsible for some of the DIBs can be tested by searching for new DIBS at 6520, 6151, and 5965 A, other moderately strong naphthalene cation band positions. If C10H8(+) is indeed responsible for the 6742 A feature, it accounts for 0.3% of the cosmic carbon. The spectrum of C16H10(+) is dominated by a strong band at 4435 A in an Ar matrix and 4395 A in a Ne matrix, a position which falls very close to the strongest DIB, that at 4430 A. If C16H10(+), or a closely related pyrene-like ion is indeed responsible for the 4430 A feature, it accounts for 0.2% of the cosmic carbon. We also report an intense, very broad UV-to-visible continuum which is associated with both ions and could explain how PAHs convert interstellar UV and visible radiation into IR.

  12. Infrared band strengths: Laboratory techniques and applications to astronomical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerakines, P. A.

    2002-09-01

    Whenever an abundance measurement is derived by way of infrared spectroscopy, it will typically make use of a laboratory-obtained conversion factor between the size of an IR absorption feature and the (column) density of the molecule under study. This factor is usually called the "absolute absorption intensity" by a chemist or the "band strength" by a typical IR astronomer. Band strengths have been studied in chemistry since the 1950s, and the commonly quoted "accuracy to with a factor of ten" historically required of astronomical calculations has not required much new input into this area. Today, however, astronomical measurements require much higher precision, and it is time for IR astronomers to ask more of laboratory measurements and to understand when and why to use IR band strengths in a more appropriate manner. The history, interpretation, measurement, and common astrophysical applications of infrared band strengths will be discussed. The "secrets" of the laboratory techniques involved in their measurement are described, and a compilation of results from the literature is given along with some new results. Typical astrophysical applications and appropriate uses will also be discussed. Common misconceptions are confronted and two challenges are presented: (i) to the laboratory astrophysics community to produce and advertise accurate values with caveats when necessary, and (ii) to the observational community to use the most appropriate results for the environment under study.

  13. Origin of coherent G -band phonon spectra in single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraha, A. R. T.; Hasdeo, E. H.; Sanders, G. D.; Stanton, C. J.; Saito, R.

    2015-01-01

    Coherent phonons in single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are observed as oscillations of the differential absorption coefficient as a function of time by means of pump-probe spectroscopy. For the radial breathing mode (RBM) of a SWNT, the coherent phonon signal is understood to be a result of the modulated diameter-dependent energy gaps due to the coherent RBM phonon oscillations. However, this mechanism might not be the dominant contribution to other phonon modes in the SWNT. In particular, for the G -band phonons, which correspond to bond-stretching motions, we find that the modulation of the interatomic optical dipole (electron-photon) matrix element gives rise to a strong coherent G -band phonon intensity comparable to the coherent RBM phonon intensity. We also further discuss the dependence of coherent G -band and RBM phonon amplitudes on the laser excitation pulse width.

  14. Optical conductivity of ABA stacked graphene trilayer: mid-IR resonance due to band nesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidian, Zeinab; Bludov, Yuliy V.; Ribeiro, Ricardo M.; Peres, N. M. R.; Vasilevskiy, Mikhail I.

    2014-10-01

    The band structure and the optical conductivity of an ABA (Bernal-type) stacked graphene trilayer are calculated. It is shown that, under appropriate doping, a strong resonant peak develops in the optical conductivity, located at the frequency corresponding to approximately 1.4 times the interlayer hopping energy and caused by the ‘nesting’ of two nearly parabolic bands in the electronic spectrum. The intensity of this resonant absorption can be controlled by adjusting the gate voltage. The effect is robust with respect to increasing temperature.

  15. Optical conductivity of ABA stacked graphene trilayer: mid-IR resonance due to band nesting.

    PubMed

    Rashidian, Zeinab; Bludov, Yuliy V; Ribeiro, Ricardo M; Peres, N M R; Vasilevskiy, Mikhail I

    2014-10-01

    The band structure and the optical conductivity of an ABA (Bernal-type) stacked graphene trilayer are calculated. It is shown that, under appropriate doping, a strong resonant peak develops in the optical conductivity, located at the frequency corresponding to approximately 1.4 times the interlayer hopping energy and caused by the 'nesting' of two nearly parabolic bands in the electronic spectrum. The intensity of this resonant absorption can be controlled by adjusting the gate voltage. The effect is robust with respect to increasing temperature. PMID:25192336

  16. Resolving the forbidden band of SF6.

    PubMed

    Boudon, V; Manceron, L; Kwabia Tchana, F; Loëte, M; Lago, L; Roy, P

    2014-01-28

    Sulfur hexafluoride is an important molecule for modeling thermophysical and polarizability properties. It is also a potent greenhouse gas of anthropogenic origin, whose concentration in the atmosphere, although very low is increasing rapidly; its global warming power is mostly conferred by its strong infrared absorption in the ?3 S-F stretching region near 948 cm(-1). This heavy species, however, features many hot bands at room temperature (at which only 31% of the molecules lie in the ground vibrational state), especially those originating from the lowest, v6 = 1 vibrational state. Unfortunately, the ?6 band itself (near 347 cm(-1)), in the first approximation, is both infrared- and Raman-inactive, and no reliable spectroscopic information could be obtained up to now and this has precluded a correct modeling of the hot bands. It has been suggested theoretically and experimentally that this band might be slightly activated through Coriolis interaction with infrared-active fundamentals and appears in high pressure measurements as a very faint, unresolved band. Using a new cryogenic multipass cell with 93 m optical path length and regulated at 163 ± 2 K temperature, coupled to synchrotron radiation and a high resolution interferometer, the spectrum of the ?6 far-infrared region has been recorded. Low temperature was used to avoid the presence of hot bands. We are thus able to confirm that the small feature in this region, previously viewed at low-resolution, is indeed ?6. The fully resolved spectrum has been analyzed, thanks to the XTDS software package. The band appears to be activated by faint Coriolis interactions with the strong ?3 and ?4 fundamental bands, resulting in the appearance of a small first-order dipole moment term, inducing unusual selection rules. The band center (?6 = 347.736707(35) cm(-1)) and rovibrational parameters are now accurately determined for the v6 = 1 level. The ?6 perturbation-induced dipole moment is estimated to be 33 ± 3 ?D and the ?6 integrated intensity to be 0.0035 km mol(-1). PMID:24297100

  17. Visible absorption spectrum of liquid ethylene

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Edward T.; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    1981-01-01

    The visible absorption spectrum of liquid ethylene at ? 108 K from 5500 Å to 7200 Å was measured by using a pulsed tunable dye laser, immersed-transducer, gated-detection opto-acoustic spectroscopy technique. The absorption features show the strongest band with an absorption coefficient of ?2 × 10-2 cm-1 and the weakest band with an absorption coefficient of ?1 × 10-4 cm-1. Proposed assignments of the observed absorption peaks involve combinations of overtones of local and normal modes of vibration of ethylene. PMID:16592978

  18. Infrared absorption of gaseous CH2BrOO detected with a step-scan Fourier-transform absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2014-10-01

    CH2BrOO radicals were produced upon irradiation, with an excimer laser at 248 nm, of a flowing mixture of CH2Br2 and O2. A step-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer coupled with a multipass absorption cell was employed to record temporally resolved infrared (IR) absorption spectra of reaction intermediates. Transient absorption with origins at 1276.1, 1088.3, 961.0, and 884.9 cm-1 are assigned to ?4 (CH2-wagging), ?6 (O-O stretching), ?7 (CH2-rocking mixed with C-O stretching), and ?8 (C-O stretching mixed with CH2-rocking) modes of syn-CH2BrOO, respectively. The assignments were made according to the expected photochemistry and a comparison of observed vibrational wavenumbers, relative IR intensities, and rotational contours with those predicted with the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ method. The rotational contours of ?7 and ?8 indicate that hot bands involving the torsional (?12) mode are also present, with transitions 7_0^1 12_v^v and 8_0^1 12_v^v, v = 1-10. The most intense band (?4) of anti-CH2BrOO near 1277 cm-1 might have a small contribution to the observed spectra. Our work provides information for directly probing gaseous CH2BrOO with IR spectroscopy, in either the atmosphere or laboratory experiments.

  19. Collision-induced vibrational absorption in molecular hydrogens

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, S.P.

    1993-05-01

    Collision induced absorption (CIA) spectra of the first overtone bands of H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, and HD have been recorded for gas densities up to 500 amagat at 77-300 K. Analyses of these spectra reveal that (1) contrary to the observations in the fundamental bands, the contribution of the isotropic overlap interaction to the first overtone bands is negligible, (2) the squares of the matrix elements B{sub 32}(R)/ea{sub o} [= {lambda}{sub 32} exp(-(R-{sigma})/{rho}{sub 32}) + 3 (R/a{sub o}){sup -4}] where the subscripts 3 and 2 represent L and {lambda}, respectively, account for the absorption intensity of the bands and (3) the mixed term, 2,3 {lambda}{sub 32} exp (-(R-{sigma})/{rho}{sub 32}) <{vert_bar}Q{vert_bar}> <{alpha}> (R/a){sup -4}, gives a negative contribution. In the CIA spectra of H{sub 2} in its second overtone region recorded at 77, 201 and 298 K for gas densities up to 1000 amagat, a dip in the Q branch with characteristic Q{sub p} and Q{sub R} components has been observed. The analysis of the absorption profiles reveals, in addition to the previously known effects, the occurrence of the triple-collision transitions of H{sub 2} of the type Q{sub 1}(J) + Q{sub 1}(J) + Q{sub 1}(J) for the first time. From the profile analysis the absorption coefficient of these transitions is obtained.

  20. Absorption Intensity and Fluorescence Lifetimes of Molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Ware; Bernard A. Baldwin

    1964-01-01

    The fluorescence lifetimes of a series of molecules have been measured using a nanosecond flash. The purpose of the measurement was to permit a comparison between the natural lifetime calculated from the theory of Strickler and Berg and that calculated from the quantum efficiency and the observed lifetime.

  1. Noninvasive detection of glucose concentration by differential absorption OCI with two wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yao; He, Yonghong; Dai, Xiangsong; Li, Peng; Duan, Lian; Zhou, Yong; Zeng, Nan

    2009-08-01

    We present a new method of glucose concentration detection with a differential absorption optical low-coherent interferometry (DAOCI) technique. In our system, we uses two OCI signals recorded by turns in one period with the same detector. Two different light sources are selected corresponding to the different absorption coefficient of the glucose absorption band. The ratio of the two intensities depends on the concentration of the glucose in samples. With the known difference in the absorption cross section or experimental data, it is possible to calculate the mean glucose concentration of samples. In our experiment, we measured a series of glucose solution in a cuvette, and the systemic resolution we got is 16.14mg/dL which achieves the required accuracy(20mg/dL) for practical application. The results prove the feasibility of this method to be used for no-invasive detection of glucose in the aqueous humor.

  2. The NH absorption spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funke, G. W.

    1982-01-01

    The lambda 3360 absorption band of NH was recorded in large dispersion (0.9 A/mm); this facilitates considerable analysis widening against low rotational levels. It thus becomes possible to investigate the lambda splitting more precisely. Both NH and OH(+) are compared. The molecular quantities of the known ionized hydrides are also compared to the same quantities of the corresponding isoelectric neutral hydrides. The equilibrium position of the hydrogen nucleus with respect to the metal atom is discussed.

  3. Assignment of bacteriochlorophyll a ligation state from absorption and resonance raman spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, P.M.; Cotton, T.M.

    1987-11-11

    Absorption and Soret excitation resonance Raman (RR) spectra have been obtained for a series of coordination forms on monomeric bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a). Strong and moderate intensity bands are observed in the RR spectrum at 1609 and 1530 cm/sup -1/ for five-coordinate species, which shift to 1595 and 1512 cm/sup -1/, respectively, in the six-coordinate form. These coordination-sensitive vibrations are independent of the nature of the axial ligand and are suggested to have significant C/sub a/ C/sub m/ character, while several other less intense coordination-sensitive bands at 1463, 1444, and 1375 cm/sup -1/ are considered to arise from C/sub b/C/sub b/ and C/sub a/N stretching vibrations. These coordination-sensitive RR bands were used to determine BChl a ligation state in the solvents used, and structure correlations based on absorption maxima have been developed. The Q/sub x/ absorption band position is sensitive not only to BChl a Mg/sup 2 +/ coordination number but also to the nature of the axial ligand, i.e., oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen. Q/sub x/ maxima are observed at 570, 575-580, and 582 nm for five-coordinate oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen ligands, respectively, and at 590-595 and 605-612 nm, for six-coordinate oxygen and nitrogen species, respectively. The Q/sub y/ absorption maximum is insensitive to coordination number changes but is dependent on the nature of the axial ligand: 770 nm for oxygen ligand(s) and 775 nm for nitrogen ligand(s). A similar series of absorption and Soret excitation RR spectra were obtained for the demetalated form of BChl a, BPheo a.

  4. The ?12 band of C 2D 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, T. L.; Gabona, M. G.; Lebron, G. B.

    2011-04-01

    The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectrum of the ?12 fundamental band of ethylene- d4 (C 2D 4) was recorded in the 1017-1137 cm -1 region with an unapodized resolution of 0.0063 cm -1. Upper state ( v12 = 1) rovibrational constants consisting of three rotational and five quartic constants were improved by assigning and fitting 2103 infrared transitions using Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian in the I r representation. The band centre of the A-type ?12 band is found to be 1076.98480 ± 0.00002 cm -1. The present analysis covering a wider wavenumber range and higher J and K c values yielded upper state constants including the band centre which are more accurate than previously reported. The rms deviation of the upper state fit is 0.00045 cm -1. Improved ground state rovibrational constants were also determined from the fit of 1247 ground state combination differences (GSCD) from the presently-assigned infrared transitions of the ?12 band of C 2D 4. The rms deviation of the GSCD fit is 0.00049 cm -1. In the rovibrational analysis, local frequency perturbations were not detected even at high J and K a values. The calculated inertial defect ? 12 is 0.32551 ± 0.00001 ?Å 2. The line intensities of the individual transitions in the ?12 band were measured and the band strength of 39.8 ± 2.0 cm -2 atm -1 was derived for the ?12 band of C 2D 4.

  5. Silicate absorption in heavily obscured galaxy nuclei

    E-print Network

    P. F. Roche; C. Packham; D. K. Aitken; R. E. Mason

    2006-10-19

    Spectroscopy at 8-13 microns with T-ReCS on Gemini-S is presented for 3 galaxies with substantial silicate absorption features, NGC 3094, NGC 7172 and NGC 5506. In the galaxies with the deepest absorption bands, the silicate profile towards the nuclei is well represented by the emissivity function derived from the circumstellar emission from the red supergiant, mu Cephei which is also representative of the mid-infrared absorption in the diffuse interstellar medium in the Galaxy. There is spectral structure near 11.2 microns in NGC 3094 which may be due to a component of crystalline silicates. In NGC 5506, the depth of the silicate absorption increases from north to south across the nucleus, suggestive of a dusty structure on scales of 10s of parsecs. We discuss the profile of the silicate absorption band towards galaxy nuclei and the relationship between the 9.7 micron silicate and 3.4 micron hydrocarbon absorption bands.

  6. Absorption cross-section measurements of methane, ethane, ethylene and methanol at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrefae, Majed; Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-09-01

    Mid-IR absorption cross-sections are measured for methane, ethane, ethylene and methanol over 2800-3400 cm-1 (2.9-3.6 ?m) spectral region. Measurements are carried out using a Fourier-Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer with temperatures ranging 296-1100 K and pressures near atmospheric. As temperature increases, the peak cross-sections decrease but the wings of the bands increase as higher rotational lines appear. Integrated band intensity is also calculated over the measured spectral region and is found to be a very weak function of temperature. The absorption cross-sections of the relatively small fuels studied here show dependence on the bath gas. This effect is investigated by studying the variation of absorption cross-sections at 3.392 ?m using a HeNe laser in mixtures of fuel and nitrogen, argon, or helium. Mixtures of fuel with He have the highest value of absorption cross-sections followed by Ar and N2. Molecules with narrow absorption lines, such as methane and methanol, show strong dependence on bath gas than molecules with relatively broader absorption features i.e. ethane and ethylene.

  7. Q BAND CHROMOSOMAL POLYMORPHISMS IN LAKE TROUT (SALVELINUS NAMAYCUSH)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RUTH B. PHILLIPS; KERRY D. ZAJICEK

    Q banding of chromosome preparations from lake trout revealed the presence of heteromorphic quinacrine bright bands on several chromosomes. All of the metacentric chromosome pairs can be distinguished on the basis of number, position and intensity of the quinacrine bright bands and chromosome size. These bands appear to represent heterochromatin, since they are darkly staining with the C band technique.

  8. Optical and infrared absorption spectra of 3d transition metal ions-doped sodium borophosphate glasses and effect of gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelghany, A. M.; ElBatal, F. H.; Azooz, M. A.; Ouis, M. A.; ElBatal, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    Undoped and transition metals (3d TM) doped sodium borophosphate glasses were prepared. UV-visible absorption spectra were measured in the region 200-900 nm before and after gamma irradiation. Experimental optical data indicate that the undoped sodium borophosphate glass reveals before irradiation strong and broad UV absorption and no visible bands could be identified. Such UV absorption is related to the presence of unavoidable trace iron impurities within the raw materials used for preparation of this base borophosphate glass. The TMs-doped glasses show absorption bands within the UV and/or visible regions which are characteristic to each respective TM ion in addition to the UV absorption observed from the host base glass. Infrared absorption spectra of the undoped and TMs-doped glasses reveal complex FTIR consisting of extended characteristic vibrational bands which are specific for phosphate groups as a main constituent but with the sharing of some vibrations due to the borate groups. This criterion was investigated and approved using DAT (deconvolution analysis technique). The effects of different TMs ions on the FTIR spectra are very limited due to the low doping level (0.2%) introduced in the glass composition. Gamma irradiation causes minor effect on the FTIR spectra specifically the decrease of intensities of some bands. Such behavior is related to the change of bond angles and/or bond lengths of some structural building units upon gamma irradiation.

  9. Optical and infrared absorption spectra of 3d transition metal ions-doped sodium borophosphate glasses and effect of gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Abdelghany, A M; ElBatal, F H; Azooz, M A; Ouis, M A; ElBatal, H A

    2012-12-01

    Undoped and transition metals (3d TM) doped sodium borophosphate glasses were prepared. UV-visible absorption spectra were measured in the region 200-900nm before and after gamma irradiation. Experimental optical data indicate that the undoped sodium borophosphate glass reveals before irradiation strong and broad UV absorption and no visible bands could be identified. Such UV absorption is related to the presence of unavoidable trace iron impurities within the raw materials used for preparation of this base borophosphate glass. The TMs-doped glasses show absorption bands within the UV and/or visible regions which are characteristic to each respective TM ion in addition to the UV absorption observed from the host base glass. Infrared absorption spectra of the undoped and TMs-doped glasses reveal complex FTIR consisting of extended characteristic vibrational bands which are specific for phosphate groups as a main constituent but with the sharing of some vibrations due to the borate groups. This criterion was investigated and approved using DAT (deconvolution analysis technique). The effects of different TMs ions on the FTIR spectra are very limited due to the low doping level (0.2%) introduced in the glass composition. Gamma irradiation causes minor effect on the FTIR spectra specifically the decrease of intensities of some bands. Such behavior is related to the change of bond angles and/or bond lengths of some structural building units upon gamma irradiation. PMID:22995547

  10. The NLTE problem of radiative transfer in the near-infrared CO2 and CO bands in the Martian atmosphere taking account for scattering and absorption of radiation by aerosol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Ogibalov

    2010-01-01

    Heating of the Martian atmosphere due to the radiative transfer in the nearinfrared (NIR) ro-vibrational CO2 bands is one of the most important mechanisms which control the structural and dynamical properties throughout the entire atmosphere of Mars. Also, the emissions in some of these bands are used for remote sensing of the atmosphere of Mars. So, a development of more

  11. Indication for dominating surface absorption in crystalline silicon test masses at 1550 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaidovski, Alexander; Steinlechner, Jessica; Schnabel, Roman

    2013-08-01

    The sensitivity of future gravitational wave (GW) observatories will be limited by thermal noise in a wide frequency band. To reduce thermal noise, the European GW observatory Einstein GW Telescope (ET) is suggested to use crystalline silicon test masses at cryogenic temperature and a laser wavelength of 1550?nm. Here, we report a measurement of the optical loss in a prototype high-resistivity crystalline silicon test mass as a function of optical intensity at room temperature. The total loss from both the bulk crystal and the surfaces was determined in a joint measurement. The characterization window ranged from small intensities below 1?W?cm-2, as planned to be used in ET, up to 21?kW?cm-2. A nonlinear absorption was observed for intensities above a few kW?cm-2. In addition, we have observed an intensity-independent offset that possibly arises from absorption in the crystal surfaces. This absorption was estimated to ?surf ? 800??ppm/surface, which might be too high for a cryogenic operation of a fiber-suspended silicon test mass. Such an offset was not observed in other recent measurements that were insensitive to surface absorption. Finally, a set of further characterization measurements is proposed to clearly separate the contributions from the surfaces and the bulk crystal.

  12. Assignment of the Q-bands of the chlorophylls: coherence loss via Qx - Qy mixing.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Jeffrey R; Cai, Zheng-Li; Kobayashi, Rika; Rätsep, Margus; Freiberg, Arvi; Krausz, Elmars

    2013-01-01

    We provide a new and definitive spectral assignment for the absorption, emission, high-resolution fluorescence excitation, linear dichroism, and/or magnetic circular dichroism spectra of 32 chlorophyllides in various environments. This encompases all data used to justify previous assignments and provides a simple interpretation of unexplained complex decoherence phenomena associated with Qx ? Qy relaxation. Whilst most chlorophylls conform to the Gouterman model and display two independent transitions Qx (S2) and Qy (S1), strong vibronic coupling inseparably mixes these states in chlorophyll-a. This spreads x-polarized absorption intensity over the entire Q-band system to influence all exciton-transport, relaxation and coherence properties of chlorophyll-based photosystems. The fraction of the total absorption intensity attributed to Qx ranges between 7% and 33%, depending on chlorophyllide and coordination, and is between 10% and 25% for chlorophyll-a. CAM-B3LYP density-functional-theory calculations of the band origins, relative intensities, vibrational Huang-Rhys factors, and vibronic coupling strengths fully support this new assignment. PMID:24067303

  13. Assignment of the Q-Bands of the Chlorophylls: Coherence Loss via Qx ? Qy Mixing

    PubMed Central

    Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Cai, Zheng-Li; Kobayashi, Rika; Rätsep, Margus; Freiberg, Arvi; Krausz, Elmars

    2013-01-01

    We provide a new and definitive spectral assignment for the absorption, emission, high-resolution fluorescence excitation, linear dichroism, and/or magnetic circular dichroism spectra of 32 chlorophyllides in various environments. This encompases all data used to justify previous assignments and provides a simple interpretation of unexplained complex decoherence phenomena associated with Qx ? Qy relaxation. Whilst most chlorophylls conform to the Gouterman model and display two independent transitions Qx (S2) and Qy (S1), strong vibronic coupling inseparably mixes these states in chlorophyll-a. This spreads x-polarized absorption intensity over the entire Q-band system to influence all exciton-transport, relaxation and coherence properties of chlorophyll-based photosystems. The fraction of the total absorption intensity attributed to Qx ranges between 7% and 33%, depending on chlorophyllide and coordination, and is between 10% and 25% for chlorophyll-a. CAM-B3LYP density-functional-theory calculations of the band origins, relative intensities, vibrational Huang-Rhys factors, and vibronic coupling strengths fully support this new assignment. PMID:24067303

  14. Low temperature cavity ring down spectroscopy with off-axis alignment: application to the A- and ?-bands of O2 in the visible at 90 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Delgado, Y.; Manzanares, C. E.

    2012-03-01

    The cavity ring down (CRD) technique presented here involves an optical cavity attached to a cryostat. The static cell and mirrors of the optical cavity are all inside a vacuum chamber at the same temperature of the cryostat. The temperature of the cell can be changed between 77 K and 298 K. An off-axis alignment of the laser beam into the cavity is used to increase the number of resonant modes inside the cavity and improve the signal to noise ratio of the absorption bands. To demonstrate the capabilities of the low temperature CRD cell, the absorption spectra of O2 are recorded at 90 K for the A ( ?'=0? ??=0) and ? ( ?'=2? ??=0) bands of the b1sumg^{ +}leftarrow X3sumg^{ -} transition using cavity ring down spectroscopy. The optical cavity performance was tested using two variations of the CRD technique. The A-band is measured using the phase-shift cavity ring down method and the ?-band using the pulsed-laser exponential-decay method. A comparison between experimental and simulated spectra of the O2 bands at 90 K confirms the molecular temperature measured by a sensor localized in the cell. Quantitative measurements of the individual rotational line intensities are made for the oxygen ?-band to confirm the temperature of the cell and calculate the vibrational band intensity. The application of this technique for laboratory studies of planetary atmospheres and the spectroscopy of molecular complexes is emphasized.

  15. [Light absorption characteristic of natural pyrite].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-Hong; Huang, Tao; Huang, Fei; Zhang, Sheng-Nan; Wang, Yi; Gao, Chao

    2011-09-01

    In the present paper, the natural pyrite was the sample. With the UV-visible near-infrared spectrophotometer Cary 500, we measured the absorption and reflection spectra of the sample within 200-2 000 nm range, calculated the absorption coefficient and figured out the forbidden band of the sample according to the Tauc regulation. The authors discovered that the light absorption coefficient of natural pyrite measured is 10(5) order of magnitude; in the absorption pattern we found obvious shoulder line structure and we can judge that the sample belongs to indirect forbidden band semiconductor, its forbidden band was 0.64 eV in width and the "limit conversion efficiency" corresponding to 0.64 eV could reach 14% or so. With the comparison of the results of this paper and the forbidden band of the solar battery materials at present in common, this paper mainly analyzed the effect of the light absorption coefficient and forbidden band on the photoelectric conversion efficiency of pyrite. The authors found that its high absorption coefficient provided the possibility that pyrite will be used as solar battery with the film form, but its forbidden band was narrower than the theoretical number. The authors could broaden its forbidden band or make composite films to use. PMID:22097859

  16. Spectrum of induced absorption of oxygen in mixtures with various gases in the region of the Herzberg photodissociation continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelikina, G. Y.; Kiseleva, M. B.; Burtsev, Andrei P.; Bertsev, V. V.

    1999-01-01

    Values of the binary absorption coefficients are obtained for the region of Herzberg photodissociation continuum in mixtures of oxygen with various foreign gases X, where X - Ar, Kr, Xe, N2, N2O, CH4, C3H8, CO2, NH3, NF3, SF6, CF4, C2F6, C3F8, CF3H, CF3Cl, CF3Br, CF2ClH, CF2Cl2 - group I (the ionization potential of molecules >= 11 eV) and C2H4, CF3I, C2F5I - group II (the ionization potential < 11 eV). The induced absorption of the mixtures of O2 with gases from group I is found to result from the Herzberg III band of oxygen. The obtained regular dependence of the intensity of induced absorption in an O2 - X pair on the ionization potential of a molecule X, confirms the hypothesis that excited electronic states of the ionic type of the molecular pair serve as the main intensity source for the Herzberg III band. The long-wavelength wing of the charge transfer band of the O2 - X pair is shown to contribute to the induced absorption of the mixtures of O2 with gases from group II.

  17. The lowest triplet state of tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanedithione. I. Single-crystal polarized absorption spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiardo, Joseph; Vala, Martin; Trabjerg, Ib

    1983-09-01

    The single-crystal polarized absorption spectrum of tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanedithione (TMCBDT) has been measured in the region of the lowest triplet state. All bands are polarized exclusively perpendicular to the tetragonal unit cell c axis. The 0-0 band which lies at 594.3 nm is the most intense feature with active vibrations at 309, 329, 600, 913, and 969 cm -1 of lower intensity. The electronic transition is assigned to 3A u ? 1A g (n˜ =) in the D 2h molecular point group. Weak, low-frequency vibrations (< 100 cm -1) observed near the origin band (and several other vibronic bands) have been analyzed using a model in which the excited triplet and ground electronic states are described by double-minimum potentials (DMPs). The parameters for these states were found by fitting the low-temperature (1.6 K) absorption and emission crystal spectra using the Coon, Naugle, and McKenzie method. A 23 cm -1 potential barrier is found for the ground state and a 95 cm -1 one for the triplet state. Using these results the temperature dependence of the absorption spectrum was simulated and it is shown that the essential features of the observed temperature behavior are accounted for. Finally, it is suggested that the DMP in both states results from either an intramolecular torsional motion and/or a particular lattice mode.

  18. Terahertz dual-band metamaterial absorber based on graphene/MgF2 multilayer structures.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhaoxian; Yin, Jianbo; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2015-01-26

    We design an ultra-thin terahertz metamaterial absorber based on graphene/MgF2 multilayer stacking unit cells arrayed on an Au film plane and theoretically demonstrate a dual-band total absorption effect. Due to strong anisotropic permittivity, the graphene/MgF2 multilayer unit cells possess a hyperbolic dispersion. The strong electric and magnetic dipole resonances between unit cells make the impedance of the absorber match to that of the free space, which induces two total absorption peaks in terahertz range. These absorption peaks are insensitive to the polarization and nearly omnidirectional for the incident angle. But the absorption intensity and frequency depend on material and geometric parameters of the multilayer structure. The absorbed electromagnetic waves are finally converted into heat and, as a result, the absorber shows a good nanosecond photothermal effect. PMID:25835924

  19. IR and Raman spectra of matrix isolated Cs2XO4 (X=S, Cr, Mo, W) molecules. The use of the isotopic shifts and IR band intensity relationships in the evaluation of the bond angles in the D2d Cs2XO4 molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Nagarathna; L. Bencivenni; K. A. Gingerich

    1984-01-01

    IR and Raman studies have been carried out on matrix isolated Cs2SO4, Cs2CrO4, Cs2MoO4, and Cs2WO4. The S, Cr, and Mo isotope shifts and the IR band intensity ratios of the E and B2 stretching modes have been used to evaluate the bond angles in these molecules. 18O substitution experiments have been carried out for Cs2WO4 in order to definitively

  20. Photoinduced absorption and refractive-index induction in phosphosilicate fibres by radiation at 193 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Rybaltovsky, A A; Sokolov, V O; Plotnichenko, V G; Lanin, Aleksei V; Semenov, S L; Dianov, Evgenii M [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gur'yanov, A N; Khopin, V F [Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2007-04-30

    The photoinduced room-temperature-stable increase in the refractive index by {approx}5x10{sup -4} at a wavelength of 1.55 {mu}m was observed in phosphosilicate fibres without their preliminary loading with molecular hydrogen. It is shown that irradiation of preliminary hydrogen-loaded fibres by an ArF laser at 193 nm enhances the efficiency of refractive-index induction by an order of magnitude. The induced-absorption spectra of preforms with a phosphosilicate glass core and optical fibres fabricated from them are studied in a broad spectral range from 150 to 5000 nm. The intense induced-absorption band ({approx}800 cm{sup -1}) at 180 nm is found, which strongly affects the formation of the induced refractive index. The quantum-chemical model of a defect related to this band is proposed. (optical fibres)

  1. Status of the Diffuse Interstellar Band Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. McCall; T. Fishman; S. D. Friedman; L. M. Hobbs; T. Oka; B. L. Rachford; T. P. Snow; P. Sonnentrucker; J. A. Thorburn; D. E. Welty; D. G. York

    2005-01-01

    The diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are a ubiquitous set of absorption lines seen in the visible spectra of most reddened stars. The first DIBs were observed by Mary Lea Heger at Lick Observatory in 1919, and to date the molecules responsible for these bands are still unknown. The problem of identifying the carriers of the DIBs is one of the

  2. Luminescence Properties and Optical Absorption of X ray-Irradiated KBr: Ce3(+), Tb (3+) Crystals.

    PubMed

    Bangaru, S; Saradha, K; Muralidharan, G

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports that KBr doubly doped with Tb(3+) and Ce(3+) were prepared by Bridgman-Stockbarger method and characterized by Optical absorption, Photoluminescence (PL), Thermoluminescence (TL), Photo stimulated emission (PSL) and TL emission, after X-ray irradiation have been observed. The optical absorption measurement indicates that F and Z3 centers are formed in the crystal during X-ray irradiation process. It was attempted to incorporate a broad band of Ce(3+) sensitizer into the narrow band emission of Tb(3+) in the KBr host without reduction of emission intensity. Co-doping of Ce(3+) ions in KBr:Tb(3+) crystal showed a broad band emission due to the d-f transition of Ce(3+) and a reduction in the intensity of emission peaks due to (5) days???(7)?F6 transition of Tb(3+) when they were excited at 250 nm. These results supported that an effective energy transfer occurs from Ce(3+) to Tb(3+) in the KBr host. Co-doping Ce(3+) ions greatly intensified the excitation peak at 260 nm for the emission at 390 nm of Tb(3+) which means that more lattice defects, involved in the energy absorption and transfer to Tb(3+), are formed by the Ce(3+) co-doping. The integrated light intensity is two orders of magnitude higher as compared to the undoped samples for similar doses of irradiation and heating rate. Thermoluminescence process has been identified due to thermal mobilization of F-electrons and this causes peaks at 371 K and at 427 K, 457 K in KBr: Ce(3+) , Tb(3+) crystals. The defects generated by irradiation were monitored by optical absorption and trap parameters for the TL process were calculated and presented. PMID:25585645

  3. First-principles calculation of ground and excited-state absorption spectra of ruby and alexandrite considering lattice relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shinta; Sasaki, Tomomi; Taniguchi, Rie; Ishii, Takugo; Ogasawara, Kazuyoshi

    2009-02-01

    We performed first-principles calculations of multiplet structures and the corresponding ground-state absorption and excited-state absorption spectra for ruby (Cr3+:?-Al2O3) and alexandrite (Cr3+:BeAl2O4) which included lattice relaxation. The lattice relaxation was estimated using the first-principles total energy and molecular-dynamics method of the CASTEP code. The multiplet structure and absorption spectra were calculated using the configuration-interaction method based on density-functional calculations. For both ruby and alexandrite, the theoretical absorption spectra, which were already in reasonable agreement with experimental spectra, were further improved by consideration of lattice relaxation. In the case of ruby, the peak positions and peak intensities were improved through the use of models with relaxations of 11 or more atoms. For alexandrite, the polarization dependence of the U band was significantly improved, even by a model with a relaxation of only seven atoms.

  4. Repetition of the shape of the ultrafast self-modulation of the optical absorption spectrum upon varying the energy of pulse of GaAs pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Ageeva, N. N.; Bronevoi, I. L., E-mail: bil@cplire.ru; Zabegaev, D. N.; Krivonosov, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel'nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2010-10-15

    Ultrafast self-modulation of the fundamental optical absorption emerges during intense picosecond optical pumping of GaAs and, according to the main assumption, reflects self-oscillations of depletion of electron populations in the conduction band. In this study, the quantitatively confirmed explanation of previously experimentally found cyclic repetition of the form of ultrafast self-modulation of the absorption spectrum upon varying the energy of the pumping pulse and fixed delay between pumping and probing (the measurement of absorption) is given. Repetition of the shape is explained by varying the phase of self-oscillations of the optical absorption. The explanation is based on the previously found experimentally dependence of the frequency of self-oscillations of absorption on the pumping energy. Therefore, this is also a new confirmation of the mentioned dependence (which satisfactorily coincides with a similar calculated dependence of the frequency of self-oscillations of depletion of populations).

  5. Two-photon absorption spectra of a near-infrared 2-azaazulene polymethine dye: solvation and ground-state symmetry breaking.

    PubMed

    Hu, Honghua; Przhonska, Olga V; Terenziani, Francesca; Painelli, Anna; Fishman, Dmitry; Ensley, Trenton R; Reichert, Matthew; Webster, Scott; Bricks, Julia L; Kachkovski, Alexey D; Hagan, David J; Van Stryland, Eric W

    2013-05-28

    Polymethine dyes (PDs) with absorption bands in the near-infrared region undergo symmetry breaking in polar solvents. To investigate how symmetry breaking affects nonlinear optical responses of PDs, an extensive and challenging experimental characterization of a cationic 2-azaazulene polymethine dye, including linear absorption, fluorescence, two-photon absorption and excited-state absorption, has been performed in two solvents with different polarity. Based on this extensive set of experimental data, a three-electronic-state model, accounting for the coupling of electronic degrees of freedom to molecular vibrations and polar solvation, has been reliably parameterized and validated for this dye, fully rationalizing optical spectra in terms of spectral position, intensities and bandshapes. In low-polarity solvents where the dye is mainly in its symmetric form, a nominally forbidden two-photon absorption band is observed, due to a vibronic activation mechanism. Inhomogeneous broadening plays a major role in polar solvents: absorption spectra represent the weighted sum of contributions from states with a variable amount of symmetry breaking, leading to a complex evolution of linear and nonlinear optical spectra with solvent polarity. In more polar solvents, the dominant role of the asymmetric form leads to the activation of two-photon absorption as a result of the symmetry lowering. The subtle interplay between the two mechanisms for two-photon absorption activation, vibronic coupling and polar solvation, can be fully accounted for within the proposed microscopic model allowing a detailed interpretation of the optical spectra of PDs. PMID:23591769

  6. Optical characterization of wide band gap semiconductors and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Chia-Wei

    The optical properties of ZnO-based wide band semiconductors and their nanostructures deposited by pulsed laser deposition are investigated. The ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of wurtzite MgxZn 1-xO (x = 0--0.36) single crystalline films in the wavelength range of 457--968 nm are measured for the first time by prism coupling techniques. The excitonic absorption features are clearly visible at room temperature despite the alloy broadening effect. The band gaps and exciton binding energies are obtained by modeling the absorption spectra near the band gap. Intense band-edge photoluminescence (PL) from MgxZn 1-xO films is demonstrated. The luminescence properties of MgZnO/ZnO multiple quantum wells (well width ˜35--80A in a series of samples) grown on c-plane sapphire substrates via a ZnO buffer layer are demonstrated. Despite poorly-defined well/barrier interfaces and high defect densities in the material, the PL peaks shift toward shorter wavelengths relative to the band edge of bulk ZnO when the well width decreases. The mechanism is qualitatively identified as confined-carrier transitions in partially intermixed quantum wells as a result of Mg atom interdiffusion during the deposition. A broad absorption peak around 314 nm and a bright ultraviolet PL peak at 328.6 nm are measured on ZnO quantum dots (average dot size ˜2.5 nm, smaller than the exciton Bohr diameter 3.6 nm) embedded in a polycrystalline AlN matrix. The three-dimensional carrier confinement and recombination centers in Al2O3 are likely to be responsible for the distinct optical characteristics. In contrast with most existing reports on ZnO nanoparticles, the defect luminescence in the visible range is largely absent in our studies. The same technique is also used to deposit crystalline Ge quantum dots (size 73, 130, 160 and 260 A +/- 5%) embedded in Al2O3 or AlN matrices. The spectral positions of E 1/E1 + Deltal and E2 transitions shift to higher energies (DeltaE1 = 1.19 eV, DeltaE2 = 0.57 eV) in the absorption spectra as dot size decreases (73 A) due to the quantum size effect, regardless of the surrounding matrix. The results of this study provide useful information and guidelines on the design of ZnO-based quantum heterostructure optical devices.

  7. The low energy electronic band structure of bilayer graphene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. McCann; D. S. L. Abergel; V. I. Fal'Ko

    2007-01-01

    We employ the tight binding model to describe the electronic band structure of bilayer graphene and we explain how the optical absorption coefficient of a bilayer is influenced by the presence and dispersion of the electronic bands, in contrast to the featureless absorption coefficient of monolayer graphene. We show that the effective low energy Hamiltonian is dominated by chiral quasiparticles

  8. Optical absorption components of light-modulated absorption spectrum of CdS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, E. J.; Long, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    The amplitude and decay coefficient of light-induced modulation of absorption (LIMA) was measured as a function of wavelength from 535 to 850 nm for single-crystal CdS. The decay coefficient exhibited a discontinuous resonance at 710 nm which was due to the overlap and cancellation of two opposing absorption changes. A method was developed to separate these opposing absorption changes using the measured decay coefficients. The discrete-level-to-band energy for one absorption change was found to be 1.64 eV. An improved model was developed which contains two associated levels in the band gap separated by 0.32 eV.

  9. EXTINCTION AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON INTENSITY VARIATIONS ACROSS THE H II REGION IRAS 12063-6259

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, D. J.; Peeters, E.; Otaguro, J. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Bik, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The spatial variations in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band intensities are normally attributed to the physical conditions of the emitting PAHs, however in recent years it has been suggested that such variations are caused mainly by extinction. To resolve this question, we have obtained near-infrared (NIR), mid-infrared (MIR), and radio observations of the compact H II region IRAS 12063-6259. We use these data to construct multiple independent extinction maps and also to measure the main PAH features (6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 {mu}m) in the MIR. Three extinction maps are derived: the first using the NIR hydrogen lines and case B recombination theory; the second combining the NIR data with radio data; and the third making use of the Spitzer/IRS MIR observations to measure the 9.8 {mu}m silicate absorption feature using the Spoon method and PAHFIT (as the depth of this feature can be related to overall extinction). The silicate absorption over the bright, southern component of IRAS 12063-6259 is almost absent while the other methods find significant extinction. While such breakdowns of the relationship between the NIR extinction and the 9.8 {mu}m absorption have been observed in molecular clouds, they have never been observed for H II regions. We then compare the PAH intensity variations in the Spitzer/IRS data after dereddening to those found in the original data. It was found that in most cases, the PAH band intensity variations persist even after dereddening, implying that extinction is not the main cause of the PAH band intensity variations.

  10. Temperature activated absorption during laser-induced damage: The evolution of laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, C W; Bude, J D; Shen, N; Demange, P

    2010-10-26

    Previously we have shown that the size of laser induced damage sites in both KDP and SiO{sub 2} is largely governed by the duration of the laser pulse which creates them. Here we present a model based on experiment and simulation that accounts for this behavior. Specifically, we show that solid-state laser-supported absorption fronts are generated during a damage event and that these fronts propagate at constant velocities for laser intensities up to 4 GW/cm{sup 2}. It is the constant absorption front velocity that leads to the dependence of laser damage site size on pulse duration. We show that these absorption fronts are driven principally by the temperature-activated deep sub band-gap optical absorptivity, free electron transport, and thermal diffusion in defect-free silica for temperatures up to 15,000K and pressures < 15GPa. In addition to the practical application of selecting an optimal laser for pre-initiation of large aperture optics, this work serves as a platform for understanding general laser-matter interactions in dielectrics under a variety of conditions.

  11. Experimental Line Parameters of the Oxygen A Band at 760 nm.

    PubMed

    Brown; Plymate

    2000-02-01

    To support atmospheric remote sensing applications, line positions, intensities, self- and nitrogen-broadened linewidths and their temperature dependences and pressure-induced shifts in line positions at room temperature were measured up to J' and N' = 22 for the oxygen A band at 13 122 cm(-1). Line intensities were obtained with 1% precisions and 2% absolute accuracies using absorption spectra recorded at Doppler-limited (0.02 cm(-1)) resolution with the McMath Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) located at Kitt Peak National Observatory/National Solar Observatory in Arizona. The oxygen line positions were calibrated using near-infrared transitions of the 2-0 and 3-0 bands of CO as secondary standards. The intensities and positions of seven H(2)O lines near 13 900 cm(-1) were also remeasured to validate the FTS performance. The O(2) intensities fell within 1% of the values currently assumed for the molecular databases, but it was found that broadening coefficients and line positions should be revised for the A band of molecular oxygen. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10637102

  12. Near-Infrared Band Strengths of Molecules Diluted in N2 and H2O Ice Mixtures Relevant to Interstellar and Planetary Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, Christina Rae; Gerakines, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    The relative abundances of ices in astrophysical environments rely on accurate laboratory measurements of physical parameters, such as band strengths (or absorption intensities), determined for the molecules of interest in relevant mixtures. In an extension of our previous study on pure-ice samples, here we focus on the near-infrared absorption features of molecules in mixtures with the dominant components of interstellar and planetary ices, H2O and N2. We present experimentally measured near-infrared spectral information (peak positions, widths, and band strengths) for both H2O- and N2-dominated mixtures of CO (carbon monoxide), CO2 (carbon dioxide), CH4 (methane), and NH3 (ammonia). Band strengths were determined during sample deposition by correlating the growth of near-infrared features (10,000-4000 per centimeter, 1-2.5 micrometers) with better-known mid-infrared features (4000-400 per centimeter, 2.5-25 micrometers) at longer wavelengths.

  13. Nonlinear ionization mechanism dependence of energy absorption in diamond under femtosecond laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Cong; Jiang Lan; Li Xin; Wang Feng; Yuan Yanping [Laser Micro/Nano Fabrication Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Qu Liangti [Key Laboratory of Cluster Science, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Lu Yongfeng [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0511 (United States)

    2013-04-14

    We present first-principles calculations for nonlinear photoionization of diamond induced by the intense femtosecond laser field. A real-time and real-space time-dependent density functional theory with the adiabatic local-density approximation is applied to describe the laser-material interactions in the Kohn-Sham formalism with the self-interaction correction. For a certain laser wavelength, the intensity dependence of energy absorption on multiphoton and/or tunnel ionization mechanisms is investigated, where laser intensity regions vary from 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2} to 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}. In addition, the effect of laser wavelength on energy absorption at certain ionization mechanism is discussed when the Keldysh parameter is fixed. Theoretical results show that: (1) at the fixed laser wavelength, the relationship between the energy absorption and laser intensity shows a good fit of E = c{sub M}I{sup N} (N is the number of photons absorbed to free from the valence band) when multiphoton ionization dominates; (2) while when tunnel ionization becomes significant, the relationship coincides with the expression of E = c{sub T}I{sup n} (n < N).

  14. High resolution UV absorption cross section measurements for N_2 and SO_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Peter L.; Stark, G.; Rufus, J.

    1999-09-01

    The most prominent EUV emission features in the airglows of Titan and Triton, where N_2 is the major atmospheric constituent, originate from the N_2 c(') _4 (1?_) u(v=0) level. We report new photoabsorption measurements of 43 rotational line oscillator strengths in the c(') _4(0)-X(0) band of N_2. These are the first measurements of individual line f-values for this band. Such values, which are important for models of atmospheres at various temperatures, cannot be reliably calculated from band f-values and Honl-London factors because of perturbations; the P- and R-branch intensity distribution in absorption deviates systematically from that of an isolated (1Sigma ) - (1Sigma ) band, as expected from the interactions of the c(') _4(0) level with nearby Rydberg and valence states. In addition, the variation of the band f-value calculated from the sums of pairs of R- and P-branch lines indicates that the c(') _4(0)-X(0) f-value is slightly temperature dependent. A summation over the integrated cross sections of the measured lines yields a room temperature band f-value of 0.132+/-0.020. SO_2 is an important constituent of the atmospheres of Io and Venus. Accurate photoabsorption cross section data at the temperatures of these planetary atmospheres are required for the interpretation of SO_2 observations and for reliable photochemical models. Our very high-resolution (lambda /Delta lambda ~ 450,000), room-temperature absorption spectra SO_2 absorption cross sections in the wavelength region 198 to 220 nm [Stark et al., JGR Planets 104, 16,585 (1999)] are being extended to lower temperatures. Preliminary results and their application to the atmosphere of Io will be discussed. This work was supported in part by NASA Grant NAG5-6222. The authors gratefully acknowledge the advice and assistance of K. P. Huber, A. P. Thorne, and K. Yoshino.

  15. Relaxed Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Kyle

    2004-01-01

    Relaxed intensity refers to a professional philosophy, demeanor, and way of life. It is the key to being an effective educational leader. To be successful one must be relaxed, which means managing stress efficiently, having fun, and enjoying work. Intensity allows one to get the job done and accomplish certain tasks or goals. Educational leaders…

  16. Structure of the Red Fluorescence Band in Chloroplasts

    E-print Network

    Govindjee

    Structure of the Red Fluorescence Band in Chloroplasts GOVINDJEE and LOUISA YANG From known from the analysis of the absorption bands of live cells (11-13). Since the half-band width in Chlorella pyrenoidosa at -196°C by Brody (18). Litvin, Krasnovsky, and Rikhireva (19) discovered another new

  17. Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhash, N.; Mallia, J. R.; Thomas, S. S.; Mathews, A.; Sebastian, P.; Madhaven, J.

    2006-01-01

    A low-cost, fast, and noninvasive method for early diagnosis of malignant lesions of oral mucosa based on diffuse reflectance spectral signatures is presented. In this technique, output of a tungsten halogen lamp is guided to the tissue through the central fiber of a reflection probe whose surrounding six fibers collects tissue reflectance. Ex vivo diffuse reflectance spectra in the 400 to 600-nm region is measured from surgically removed oral cavity lesions using a miniature fiber optic spectrometer connected to a computer. Reflectance spectral intensity is higher in malignant tissues and shows dips at 542 and 577 nm owing to absorption from oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2). Measurements carried out, within an hour of surgical excision, on malignant lesion and adjoining uninvolved mucosa show that these absorption features are more prominent in neoplastic tissues owing to increased microvasculature and blood content. It is observed that reflectance intensity ratio of hemoglobin bands, R540/R575, from malignant sites are always lower than that from normal sites and vary according to the histological grade of malignancy. The diffuse reflectance intensity ratio R540/R575 of the hemoglobin bands appears to be a useful tool to discriminate between malignant lesions and normal mucosa of the oral cavity in a clinical setting.

  18. Optical investigation of 6A 1g( 6S)? 4T 2g ( 4D) absorption band in magnetic MnF 2 and RbMnF 3 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, S.; Salah, H. K.; Abu-Teir, M. M.; Saleh, A. M.

    2009-08-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of the spectral lines in MnF 2 and RbMnF 3 have been carried out in the temperature range 10-300 K. Observations of exciton-magnon sidebands in the fine structures of the 6A 1g ? 4T 2g ( 4D) state of Mn 2+ ions are reported at low temperatures. The temperature dependence of peak positions, oscillator strength and half line widths have been investigated for selected bands. The analysis of the temperature dependence of these parameters confirms that the fine structure of the D band is mainly attributed to spin-orbit interaction combined with spin multiplicity in the ordered state. The ratios for the separation energies between these lines are fitted with the ratios expected from Landé interval rule.

  19. Rovibronic bands of the A~ 2B2<--X~ 2B1 transition of C6H5O and C6D5O detected with cavity ringdown absorption near 1.2 ?m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chi-Wen; Witek, Henryk; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2008-10-01

    We recorded several rovibronic bands of C6H5O and C6D5O in their à B22?X˜ B21 transitions in the range 1.14-1.31 ?m with the cavity ringdown technique. While the electronic transition is forbidden, several vibronic bands are observed. By comparison of rovibronic contours of observed and simulated bands to determine their types of transition, and by consideration of vibrational wavenumbers of the upper state based on quantum-chemical calculations, we were able to provide vibronic assignments of observed bands and derive several experimental vibrational wavenumbers (given as ? in unit of cm-1 in this paper) for the à B22 state, namely, ?12=947, ?13=793, ?14=417, ?15=964, ?16=866, ?17=723, ?18=680, and ?19=499 for C6H5O, and ?12=772, ?13=626, ?14=365, ?15=812, ?17=599, ?18=532, and ?19=436 for C6D5O. Transitions involving vibrationally excited levels of ?20 were also observed; ?20 of the à state is greater by 50 cm-1 than the X˜ state of C6H5O. A weak origin at 7681 cm-1 for the Ã?X˜ transition of C6H5O (7661 cm-1 for C6D5O) with a c-type contour was observed. Observed isotopic ratios of vibrational wavenumbers for the à state of C6H5O to those of C6D5O are in good agreement with the predictions from quantum-chemical calculations at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ level.

  20. Neutral and ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, diffuse interstellar bands and the ultraviolet extinction curve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid; Allamandola, Louis John

    1993-01-01

    Neutral naphthalene C10H8, phenanthrene C14H10 and pyrene C16H10 absorb strongly in the ultraviolet region and may contribute to the extinction curve. High abundances are required to produce detectable structures. The cations of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) absorb in the visible C10H8(+) has 13 discrete absorption bands which fall between 6800 and 4500 A. The strongest band at 6741 A falls close to the weak 6742 A diffuse interstellar band (DIB). Five other weaker bands also match DIBs. The possibility that C10H8(+) is responsible for some of the DIBs can be tested by searching for new DIBs at 6520 and 6151 A, other strong naphthalene cation band positions. If C10H8(+) is indeed responsible for the 6742 A feature, it accounts for 0.3% of the cosmic carbon. The spectrum of C16H10(+) is dominated by a strong band at 4435 A in an Ar matrix and 4395 A in Ne, wavelengths which fall very close to the strongest DIB at 4430 A. If C16H10(+) or a closely related pyrene-like ion, is indeed responsible for the 4430 A feature, it accounts for 0.2% of the cosmic carbon. An intense, very broad UV-to-visible continuum is reported which is associated with both ions and could explain how PAHs convert interstellar UV and visible radiation into IR radiation.

  1. Liquid water absorption and scattering effects in DOAS retrievals over oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, E.; Wittrock, F.; Richter, A.; Alvarado, L. M. A.; Rozanov, V. V.; Burrows, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Spectral effects of liquid water are present in absorption (differential optical absorption spectroscopy - DOAS) measurements above the ocean and, if insufficiently removed, may interfere with trace gas absorptions, leading to wrong results. Currently available literature cross sections of liquid water absorption are provided in coarser resolution than DOAS applications require, and vibrational Raman scattering (VRS) is mostly not considered, or is compensated for using simulated pseudo cross sections from radiative transfer modeling. During the ship-based TransBrom campaign across the western Pacific in October 2009, MAX-DOAS (Multi-AXis differential optical absorption spectroscopy) measurements of light penetrating very clear natural waters were performed, achieving average underwater light paths of up to 50 m. From these measurements, the retrieval of a correction spectrum (H2Ocorr) is presented, compensating simultaneously for insufficiencies in the liquid water absorption cross section and broad-banded VRS structures. Small-banded structures caused by VRS were found to be very efficiently compensated for by the intensity offset correction included in the DOAS fit. No interference between the H2Ocorr spectrum and phytoplankton absorption was found. In the MAX-DOAS tropospheric NO2 retrieval, this method was able to compensate entirely for all liquid water effects that decrease the fit quality, and performed better than using a liquid water cross section in combination with a simulated VRS spectrum. The decrease in the residual root mean square (rms) of the DOAS fit depends on the measurement's contamination with liquid water structures, and ranges from ? 30% for measurements slightly towards the water surface to several percent in small angles above the horizon. Furthermore, the H2Ocorr spectrum was found to prevent misfits of NO2 slant columns, especially for very low NO2 scenarios, and thus increases the reliability of the fit. In test fits on OMI satellite data, the H2Ocorr spectrum was found selectively above ocean surfaces, where it decreases the rms by up to ? 11 %.

  2. Modelling radiative mean absorption coefficients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-F. Ripoll; B. Dubroca; G. Duffa

    2001-01-01

    We define and compute mean absorption coefficients for the macroscopic models of radiative transfer. These coefficients take into account the anisotropic form of the photon emission and lead to a better computation of a photonic flow far from the radiative equilibrium. They are deduced by averaging a specific radiative intensity on the space of frequency and are generalized versions of

  3. Near-infrared absorptions of monomethylhydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Mark; Kurtz, Joe

    1993-01-01

    The peak absorption coefficients for two near-infrared absorptions of monomethylhydrazine, CH3-N2H3, (MMH) were measured. Absorption bands located at 1.524 micrometers (6560/cm), 1.557 micrometers (6423/cm), and 1.583 micrometers (6316/cm) are assigned to the Delta upsilon = 2 overtones of the infared N-H stretching fundamentals at 3317, 3245 and 3177/cm. An absorption band located at 1.04 micrometers (9620 +/- 100/cm) is assigned to the Delta upsilon = 3 overtone of one of these fundamentals. The peak absorption coefficients (alpha(sub 10)) at 1.524 micrometers (6560 +/- 20/cm) and 1.04 micrometers (9620 +/- 100/cm) are 31 x 10(exp -3) and 0.97 x 10(exp -3)/(cm atm), respectively. Uncertainties in these coefficients were estimated to be less than +/- 20% due primarily to uncertainties in the partial vapor pressure of MMH.

  4. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, M.E.; Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.

    1986-12-09

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined. 5 figs.

  5. Investigation of the effects of different carotenoids on the absorption and CD signals of light harvesting 1 complexes.

    PubMed

    Georgakopoulou, Sofia; van der Zwan, Gert; Olsen, John D; Hunter, C Neil; Niederman, Robert A; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2006-02-23

    Absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of light-harvesting (LH)1 complexes from the purple bacteria Rhodobacter (Rba.) sphaeroides and Rhodospirillum (Rsp.) rubrum are presented. The complexes exhibit very low intensity, highly nonconservative, near-infrared (NIR) CD spectra. Absorption and CD spectra from several mutant and reconstituted LH1 complexes, with the carotenoid neurosporene and the precursor phytoene replacing the wild-type (WT) carotenoids, are also examined. The experiments show that the position of the carotenoid bands as well as the bacteriochlorophyll (BChl)/carotenoid ratio affect the NIR CD spectra: bluer bands and larger ratios make the NIR CD signal more conservative. Modeling results that support this finding are presented. This study, combined with the theoretical approach of the companion paper, where modeling of such complexes is presented and discussed in detail, provide a complete explanation of the origin of the nonconservative NIR CD spectra of LH1 and B820. PMID:16494350

  6. Temperature and multi-species measurements by supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy for IC engine applications.

    PubMed

    Werblinski, Thomas; Engel, Sascha R; Engelbrecht, Rainer; Zigan, Lars; Will, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    The first supercontinuum (SC) absorption spectroscopy measurements showing the feasibility of quantitative temperature evaluation are presented to the best of the authors' knowledge. Temperature and multi-species measurements were carried out at a detection rate of ~2 MHz in a high-temperature flow cell within a temperature range from 450 K to 750 K at 0.22 MPa, representing conditions during the suction and compression stroke in an internal combustion (IC) engine. The broadband SC pulses were temporally dispersed into fast wavelength sweeps, covering the overtone absorption bands 2?(1), 2?(3), ?(1) + ?(3) of H2O and 3?(3) of CO2 in the near-infrared region from 1330 nm to 1500 nm. The temperature information is inferred from the peak ratio of a temperature sensitive (1362.42 nm) and insensitive (1418.91 nm) absorption feature in the ?(1) + ?(3) overtone bands of water. The experimental results are in very good agreement with theoretical intensity ratios calculated from absorption spectra based on HiTran data. PMID:23736618

  7. Phase shift cavity ring down absorption spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Engeln; Gert von Helden; Giel Berden; Gerard Meijer

    1996-01-01

    Cavity ring down absorption spectroscopy with a continuous light source is used to measure the transition frequencies and absolute absorption coefficient of the weak b1?g+(v? = 2) ? X 3?g?(v? = 0) transition of 18O2. The absorption spectrum is extracted from a measurement of the magnitude of the phase shift that an intensity modulated continuous light beam experiences upon passing

  8. Ultrahigh-intensity inverse bremsstrahlung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyukov, I. Yu.; Rax, J.-M.

    1999-01-01

    We study inverse bremsstrahlung in the ultrahigh intensity relativistic regime. The fully relativistic ultrahigh intensity absorption (emission) coefficient is derived for an arbitrary scattering potential and small-angle scattering. We find that in the Coulomb field case this absorption (emission) coefficient can be calculated as a function of the quiver energy, drift momentum, and impact parameter in two complementary regimes: (i) for remote collisions when the impact parameter is larger than the amplitude of the quiver motion, and (ii) for instantaneous collisions when the scattering time is shorter than the period of the wave. Both circular and linear polarizations are considered, and this study reveals that in this relativistic regime inverse bremsstrahlung absorption can be viewed as a harmonic Compton resonance heating of the laser-driven electron by the virtual photon of the ion Coulomb field. The relativistic modification of Marcuse's effect [Bell Syst. Tech. J. 41, 1557 (1962)] are also discussed, and relations with previous nonrelativistic results are elucidated.

  9. Intensity Analysis and Luminescence Spectra of Non-Aqueous Solutions of Europium Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legendziewicz, Janina; Oczko, Gra?yna; Str?k, Wies?aw

    1983-01-01

    The oscillator strengths of the f-f transitions as well the fluorescence spectra for europium Perchlorate, chloride and nitrate in mono- and disubstituted amides have been measured. The Judd-Ofelt parameters are calculated. The formation of inner-sphere europium complexes is discussed on the basis of intensity analysis of the absorption and luminescence spectra. In mono- and disubstituted amides solutions the f-f transitions of Eu+3 have been analysed and the three parameters fitted with satisfactory accuracy. Among all f-f transitions the hypersensitive ones in absorption 7 F0 ? 5 D0 and fluorescence 5 D0 ? 7 F2 varied most markedly. From an analysis of the data it was concluded that only Eu(NO3)3 and EUCl3 in DMF form inner-sphere complexes. At low concentration of EUCl3 in DMF the predominant form is [EuCl(DMF)y-1]+2 , whereas at high concentration the predominant form is [EUCl2(DMF)y-2]+1 . The intensity of the hypersensitive bands decreases with increasing EUC1 3 concentration, contrary to the common opinion that complexation increases the intensity of hypersensitive bands.

  10. FIRE DETECTION IN IMAGING SPECTROMETER DATA USING ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE ABSORPTION

    E-print Network

    1 FIRE DETECTION IN IMAGING SPECTROMETER DATA USING ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE ABSORPTION P (CIBR) was used to measure the relative depth of the 2000 nm carbon dioxide absorption band. Low CIBR and reflected radiance within a shortwave infrared carbon dioxide absorption band. Methods The SWIR radiance

  11. Suppression of thermal carrier escape and efficient photo-carrier generation by two-step photon absorption in InAs quantum dot intermediate-band solar cells using a dot-in-well structure

    SciTech Connect

    Asahi, S.; Teranishi, H.; Kasamatsu, N.; Kada, T.; Kaizu, T.; Kita, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-08-14

    We investigated the effects of an increase in the barrier height on the enhancement of the efficiency of two-step photo-excitation in InAs quantum dot (QD) solar cells with a dot-in-well structure. Thermal carrier escape of electrons pumped in QD states was drastically reduced by sandwiching InAs/GaAs QDs with a high potential barrier of Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As. The thermal activation energy increased with the introduction of the barrier. The high potential barrier caused suppression of thermal carrier escape and helped realize a high electron density in the QD states. We observed efficient two-step photon absorption as a result of the high occupancy of the QD states at room temperature.

  12. Photo-absorption studies on carbonyl sulphide in 30,000-91,000 cm-1 region using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunanda, K.; Rajasekhar, B. N.; Saraswathy, P.; Jagatap, B. N.

    2012-01-01

    Photo-absorption spectrum of carbonyl sulphide (OCS) is recorded in 30,000-91,000 cm-1 (3300-1050 Å) region at an average resolution of 1.2 Å using Photo-physics beamline on the 450 MeV Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source at RRCAT Indore, India. Owing to significant absorption cross section dependence, spectra of OCS are recorded at various pressures (0.001-5 mbar) to optimize the S/N ratio for band systems appearing at different energy regions. The spectral region below 70,000 cm-1 has contributions from dissociation mechanism of the ground state of OCS and three valence band systems arising from promotion of a 3? electron to 4? and 10? orbital. Improved S/N ratio helped in unambiguous assignment of the valence band progressions at 42,000-48,000 cm-1, 53,000-62,000 cm-1 and 63,500-70,000 cm-1 regions to the 1??X1?+ transition, the relatively intense and sharp bands of 1??X1?+ transition and intense but broad bands of 1?+?X1?+ transition, respectively, and obtain the vibrational frequencies. Above 70,000 cm-1 Rydberg series arising from s, p, d and f orbitals converging to the ionic ground state X2? of OCS+ (90,121 cm-1) are identified. Long progression in the first few members of the Rydberg series is suggestive of mixed valence character. Quantum defects are evaluated and used to discuss the nature of the molecular orbital. The present study provides a unifying picture of the VUV photo-absorption spectrum of OCS up to its first ionization limit.

  13. Propionaldehyde infrared cross-sections and band strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köro?lu, Batikan; Loparo, Zachary; Nath, Janardan; Peale, Robert E.; Vasu, Subith S.

    2015-02-01

    The use of oxygenated biofuels reduces the greenhouse gas emissions; however, they also result in increased toxic aldehyde by-products, mainly formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and propionaldehyde. These aldehydes are carcinogenic and/or toxic and therefore it is important to understand their formation and destruction pathways in combustion and atmospheric systems. Accurate information about their infrared cross-sections and integrated strengths are crucially needed for development of quantitative detection schemes and modeling tools. Critical to the development of such diagnostics are accurate characterization of the absorption features of these species. In this study, the gas phase infrared spectra of propionaldehyde (also called propanal, CH3-CH2-CHO), a saturated three carbon aldehyde found in the exhaust emissions of biodiesel or diesel fuels, was studied using high resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy over the wavenumber range of 750-3300 cm-1 and at room temperature 295 K. The absorption cross sections of propionaldehyde were recorded at resolutions of 0.08 and 0.096 cm-1 and at seven different pressures (4-33 Torr). The calculated band-strengths were reported and the integrated band intensity results were compared with values taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) database (showing less than 2% discrepancy). The peak positions of the 19 different vibrational bands of propionaldehyde were also compared with previous studies taken at a lower resolution of 1 cm-1. To the best of our knowledge, the current FTIR measurements provide the first highest resolution infrared cross section data for propionaldehyde.

  14. A band enhanced metamaterial absorber based on E-shaped all-dielectric resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liyang; Wang, Jun; Du, Hongliang; Wang, Jiafu; Qu, Shaobo; Xu, Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a band enhanced metamaterial absorber in microwave band, which is composed of high-permittivity E-shaped dielectric resonators and metallic ground plate. The E-shaped all-dielectric structure is made of high-temperature microwave ceramics with high permittivity and low loss. An absorption band with 1 GHz bandwidth for both TE and TM polarizations are observed. Moreover, the absorption property is stable under different incident angles. The band enhanced absorption is caused by different resonant modes which lie closely in the absorption band. Due to the enhanced localized electric/magnetic fields at the resonant frequencies, strong absorptions are produced. Our work provides a new method of designing high-temperature and high-power microwave absorbers with band enhanced absorption.

  15. Gaia broad band photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordi, C.; Gebran, M.; Carrasco, J. M.; de Bruijne, J.; Voss, H.; Fabricius, C.; Knude, J.; Vallenari, A.; Kohley, R.; Mora, A.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: The scientific community needs to be prepared to analyse the data from Gaia, one of the most ambitious ESA space missions, which is to be launched in 2012. The purpose of this paper is to provide data and tools to predict how Gaia photometry is expected to be. To do so, we provide relationships among colours involving Gaia magnitudes (white light G, blue GBP, red GRP and GRVS bands) and colours from other commonly used photometric systems (Johnson-Cousins, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Hipparcos and Tycho). Methods: The most up-to-date information from industrial partners has been used to define the nominal passbands, and based on the BaSeL3.1 stellar spectral energy distribution library, relationships were obtained for stars with different reddening values, ranges of temperatures, surface gravities and metallicities. Results: The transformations involving Gaia and Johnson-Cousins V - IC and Sloan DSS g - z colours have the lowest residuals. A polynomial expression for the relation between the effective temperature and the colour GBP - GRP was derived for stars with Teff ? 4500 K. For stars with Teff < 4500 K, dispersions exist in gravity and metallicity for each absorption value in g - r and r - i. Transformations involving two Johnson or two Sloan DSS colours yield lower residuals than using only one colour. We also computed several ratios of total-to-selective absorption including absorption AG in the G band and colour excess E(GBP - GRP) for our sample stars. A relationship involving AG/AV and the intrinsic (V - IC) colour is provided. The derived Gaia passbands have been used to compute tracks and isochrones using the Padova and BASTI models. Finally, the performances of the predicted Gaia magnitudes have been estimated according to the magnitude and the celestial coordinates of the star. Conclusions: The provided dependencies among colours can be used for planning scientific exploitation of Gaia data, performing simulations of the Gaia-like sky, planning ground-based complementary observations and for building catalogues with auxiliary data for the Gaia data processing and validation. Tables 11-13 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/523/A48

  16. The Absorption Spectrum of H2S Between 2150 and 4260 cm-1: Analysis of the Positions and Intensities in the First (2nu2, nu1, and nu3) and Second (3nu2, nu1 + nu2, and nu2 + nu3) Triad Regions

    PubMed

    Brown; Crisp; Crisp; Naumenko; Smirnov; Sinitsa; Perrin

    1998-04-01

    The two triad systems of hydrogen sulfide (2nu2, nu1, and nu3 near 4 µm and 3nu2, nu1 + nu2, and nu2 + nu3 near 2.7 µm) were analyzed using 14 spectra recorded at 0.0056 and 0.011 cm-1 resolution with the McMath Fourier transform spectrometer located at Kitt Peak National Observatory. Experimental upper state levels of H232S, H234S, and H233S were obtained from assigned positions (as high as J = 20 and Ka = 15 for the main isotope). These were fitted to the A-reduced Watson Hamiltonian to determine precise sets of rotational constants through J10 and up to nine Fermi and Coriolis coupling parameters. Intensities of the two H232S triads were modeled with rms values of 2.5%, using the transformed transition moment expansion with 19 terms for 568 intensities of the first triad and 11 terms for the 526 intensities of the second triad. The second derivatives of the dipole moment with respect to normal coordinates were estimated in Debye to be: 22µx = -0.004873 (90); 12µx = 0.01372 (30); and 23µz = 0.01578 (30). This confirmed that for hydrogen sulfide some of the second derivatives are larger than the first derivatives. The calculated line intensities were summed yielding integrated band strengths (in cm-2/atm at 296 K) as follows: 0.3315 for 2nu2, 0.4522 for nu1, 0.1201 for nu3, 0.0303 for 3nu2, 1.820 for nu1 + nu2, and 2.869 for nu2 + nu3. In addition, the hot band transitions were identified in both regions. Finally, a composite database of hydrogen sulfide line parameters was predicted for the 5- to 2.5-µm region. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9535683

  17. Perceiving the Intensity of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Dale; Williams, S. Mark; Nundy, Surajit; Lotto, R. Beau

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between luminance (i.e., the photometric intensity of light) and its perception (i.e., sensations of lightness or brightness) has long been a puzzle. In addition to the mystery of why these perceptual qualities do not scale with luminance in any simple way, "illusions" such as simultaneous brightness contrast, Mach bands,…

  18. Density functional calculation of the electronic absorption spectrum of Cu{sup +} and Ag{sup +} aqua ions

    SciTech Connect

    Bernasconi, Leonardo; Blumberger, Jochen; Sprik, Michiel; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Laboratoire de Physique Theorique des Liquides, Universite P. et M. Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

    2004-12-15

    The UV absorption of aqueous Cu{sup +} and Ag{sup +} has been studied using Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) response techniques. The TDDFT electronic spectrum was computed from finite temperature dynamical trajectories in solution generated using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) based Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics (AIMD) method. The absorption of the two ions is shown to arise from similar excitation mechanisms, namely transitions from d orbitals localized on the metal center to a rather delocalized state originating from hybridization of the metal s orbital to the conduction band edge of the solvent. The ions differ in the way the spectral profile builds up as a consequence of solvent thermal motion. The Cu{sup +} absorption is widely modulated, both in transition energies and intensities by fluctuations in the coordination environment which is characterized by the formation of strong coordination bonds to two water molecules in an approximately linear geometry. Though, on average, absorption intensities are typical of symmetry forbidden transitions of metal ions in the solid state, occasionally very short (<100 fs) bursts in intensity are observed, associated with anomalous Cu-H interactions. Absorption by the Ag{sup +} complex is in comparison relatively stable in time, and can be interpreted in terms of the energy splitting of the metal 4d manifold in an average crystal field corresponding to a fourfold coordination in a distorted tetrahedral arrangement. Whereas the spectral profile of the Ag{sup +} aqua ion is in good agreement with experiment, the overall position of the band is underestimated by 2 eV in the BLYP approximation to DFT. The discrepancy with experiment is reduced to 1.3 eV when a hybrid functional (PBE0) is used. The remaining inaccuracy of TDDFT in this situation is related to the delocalized character of the target state in d{yields}s transitions.

  19. Diffuse interstellar bands in RAVE survey spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munari, U.; Tomasella, L.; Fiorucci, M.; Bienaymé, O.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F. G.; Williams, M.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

    2008-09-01

    We have used spectra of hot stars from the RAVE Survey in order to investigate the visibility and properties of five diffuse interstellar bands previously reported in the literature. The RAVE spectroscopic survey for Galactic structure and kinematics records CCD spectra covering the 8400-8800 Å wavelength region at 7500 resolving power. The spectra are obtained with the UK Schmidt at the AAO, equipped with the 6dF multi-fiber positioner. The DIB at 8620.4 Å is by far the strongest and cleanest of all DIBs occurring within the RAVE wavelength range, with no interference by underlying absorption stellar lines in hot stars. It correlates so tightly with reddening that it turns out to be a reliable tool to measure it, following the relation EB-V = 2.72 (± 0.03)× EW~(Å), valid throughout the general interstellar medium of our Galaxy. The presence of a DIB at 8648 Å is confirmed. Its intensity appears unrelated to reddening, in agreement with scanty and preliminary reports available in the literature, and its measurability is strongly compromised by severe blending with underlying stellar He I doublet at 8649 Å. The two weak DIBs at 8531 and 8572 Å do not appear real and should actually be blends of underlying stellar lines. The very weak DIB at 8439 Å cannot be resolved within the profile of the much stronger underlying hydrogen Paschen 18 stellar line. Table 1 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. Ab initio calculations for the far infrared collision induced absorption by N2 gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussery-Honvault, Béatrice; Hartmann, Jean-Michel

    2014-02-01

    We present (far-infrared) Collision Induced Absorption (CIA) spectra calculations for pure gaseous N2 made for the first time, from first-principles. They were carried out using classical molecular dynamics simulations based on ab initio predictions of both the intermolecular potential and the induced-dipole moment. These calculations reproduce satisfactory well the experimental values (intensity and band profile) with agreement within 3% at 149 K. With respect to results obtained with only the long range (asymptotic) dipole moment (DM), including the short range overlap contribution improves the band intensity and profile at 149 K, but it deteriorates them at 296 K. The results show that the relative contribution of the short range DM to the band intensity is typically around 10%. We have also examined the sensitivity of the calculated CIA to the intermolecular potential anisotropy, providing a test of the so-called isotropic approximation used up to now in all N2 CIA calculations. As all these effects interfere simultaneously with quantitatively similar influences (around 10%), it is rather difficult to assert which one could explain remaining deviations with the experimental results. Furthermore, the rather large uncertainties and sometimes inconsistencies of the available measurements forbid any definitive conclusion, stressing the need for new experiments.

  1. Interpretation of the Minkowski bands in Grw + 70 deg 8247.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.

    1972-01-01

    Demonstration on the basis of the spectral structure of circular polarization in Grw + 70 deg 8247, that the absorption bands are at least in part molecular in origin. The spectrum of molecular helium has strong bands coincident with several of the Minkowski bands and, in particular, at high temperature shows a strong band head at about 4125 A. Helium molecules could be formed in sufficient density to give the absorption features in the star if it has a pure helium atmosphere. The Zeeman effect in molecular helium can explain in general the observed spectral features in the polarization and also may be responsible for the continuum polarization.

  2. Laser isotope separation by multiple photon absorption

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C. Paul (Los Alamos, NM); Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM); Jensen, Reed J. (Los Alamos, NM); Lyman, John L. (Los Alamos, NM); Aldridge, III, Jack P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    Multiple photon absorption from an intense beam of infrared laser light may be used to induce selective chemical reactions in molecular species which result in isotope separation or enrichment. The molecular species must have a sufficient density of vibrational states in its vibrational manifold that, is the presence of sufficiently intense infrared laser light tuned to selectively excite only those molecules containing a particular isotope, multiple photon absorption can occur. By this technique, for example, intense CO.sub.2 laser light may be used to highly enrich .sup.34 S in natural SF.sub.6 and .sup.11 B in natural BCl.sub.3.

  3. Laser isotope separation by multiple photon absorption

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C.P.; Rockwood, S.D.; Jensen, R.J.; Lyman, J.L.; Aldridge, J.P. III.

    1987-04-07

    Multiple photon absorption from an intense beam of infrared laser light may be used to induce selective chemical reactions in molecular species which result in isotope separation or enrichment. The molecular species must have a sufficient density of vibrational states in its vibrational manifold that, is the presence of sufficiently intense infrared laser light tuned to selectively excite only those molecules containing a particular isotope, multiple photon absorption can occur. By this technique, for example, intense CO[sub 2] laser light may be used to highly enrich [sup 34]S in natural SF[sub 6] and [sup 11]B in natural BCl[sub 3]. 8 figs.

  4. Resonance Absorption of Microwaves by the Human Skull

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William T. Joines; Ronald J. Spiegel

    1974-01-01

    Resonance absorption of microwaves by the human skull is examined by making computerized calculations of theoretical models of the skull. The calculated relative absorption versus frequency is plotted and compared for homogeneous and inhomogeneous skull models. At a frequency of maximum power absorption, the spatial distribution of intracranial field intensity (based upon the theoretical model) is also calculated and plotted.

  5. Band gap effects of hexagonal boron nitride using oxygen plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sevak Singh, Ram; Leong Chow, Wai [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Yingjie Tay, Roland [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Temasek Laboratories-NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Hon Tsang, Siu [Temasek Laboratories-NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Mallick, Govind [Temasek Laboratories-NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005 (United States); Tong Teo, Edwin Hang, E-mail: htteo@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2014-04-21

    Tuning of band gap of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has been a challenging problem due to its inherent chemical stability and inertness. In this work, we report the changes in band gaps in a few layers of chemical vapor deposition processed as-grown h-BN using a simple oxygen plasma treatment. Optical absorption spectra show a trend of band gap narrowing monotonically from 6?eV of pristine h-BN to 4.31?eV when exposed to oxygen plasma for 12?s. The narrowing of band gap causes the reduction in electrical resistance by ?100 fold. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results of plasma treated hexagonal boron nitride surface show the predominant doping of oxygen for the nitrogen vacancy. Energy sub-band formations inside the band gap of h-BN, due to the incorporation of oxygen dopants, cause a red shift in absorption edge corresponding to the band gap narrowing.

  6. E-band fiber Raman amplifier in nonzero dispersion fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Chestnut; J. R. Taylor

    2003-01-01

    An E-band fiber Raman amplifier in nonzero dispersion fiber is demonstrated with a 39 dB peak gain. Gain fiber water absorption is not observed to significantly hinder amplification. Such a device could extend the telecommunications bandwidth.

  7. Ultrafast band-gap oscillations in iron pyrite

    E-print Network

    Kolb, Brian

    With its combination of favorable band gap, high absorption coefficient, material abundance, and low cost, iron pyrite, FeS[subscript 2], has received a great deal of attention over the past decades as a promising material ...

  8. Titanium-silicon oxide film structures for polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Iain E.; Zorn, Stefan; Richter, Gunther; Srot, Vesna; Kelsch, Marion; van Aken, Peter A.; Skoda, Maximilian; Gerlach, Alexander; Spatz, Joachim P.; Schreiber, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We present a titanium-silicon oxide film structure that permits polarization modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy on silicon oxide surfaces. The structure consists of a ~6 nm sputtered silicon oxide film on a ~200 nm sputtered titanium film. Characterization using conventional and scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray reflectometry is presented. We demonstrate the use of this structure to investigate a selectively protein-resistant self-assembled monolayer (SAM) consisting of silane-anchored, biotin-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). PEG-associated IR bands were observed. Measurements of protein-characteristic band intensities showed that this SAM adsorbed streptavidin whereas it repelled bovine serum albumin, as had been expected from its structure. PMID:20418963

  9. Titanium-silicon oxide film structures for polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Iain E; Zorn, Stefan; Richter, Gunther; Srot, Vesna; Kelsch, Marion; van Aken, Peter A; Skoda, Maximilian; Gerlach, Alexander; Spatz, Joachim P; Schreiber, Frank

    2009-01-30

    We present a titanium-silicon oxide film structure that permits polarization modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy on silicon oxide surfaces. The structure consists of a ~6 nm sputtered silicon oxide film on a ~200 nm sputtered titanium film. Characterization using conventional and scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray reflectometry is presented. We demonstrate the use of this structure to investigate a selectively protein-resistant self-assembled monolayer (SAM) consisting of silane-anchored, biotin-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). PEG-associated IR bands were observed. Measurements of protein-characteristic band intensities showed that this SAM adsorbed streptavidin whereas it repelled bovine serum albumin, as had been expected from its structure. PMID:20418963

  10. The Absorption Spectrum of Chlorine Dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold C. Urey; Helen Johnston

    1931-01-01

    The wave-lengths of 134 absorption bands of ClO2 have been measured with the Hilger E-1 and E-185 quartz instruments. The bands have been arranged in progressions and the energy levels deduced. Five vibrational levels of the normal electronic state have been found; the vibrational levels of the excited electronic state can be described with the use of two vibrational quantum

  11. UV absorption of ion implanted sapphire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Dalal; M. Rahmani; P. D. Townsend

    1988-01-01

    Optical absorption bands in the ultraviolet region develop during ion implantation. These include the 4.8, 5.4 and 6.1 eV features noted previously in earlier damage studies. In the case of the ion implants additional bands are formed. The region contains features at 5.9, 6.3, 6.4, 6.8 and 6.97 eV which are resolvable at various stages of the growth curves. The

  12. Near band-edge luminescence and evidence of the weakening of the N-conduction-band coupling for partially relaxed and high nitrogen composition GaAs1-xNx epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coaquira, J. A. H.; Pinault, M.-A.; Litvinchuk, A. P.; Bhusal, L.; Freundlich, Alex

    2007-10-01

    Photoluminescence and absorption spectroscopy experiments are implemented on as-grown and thermally annealed GaAs1-xNx epilayers grown on GaAs(001) having a nitrogen content in the range of 0.4%-7.1%. At low temperature, photoluminescence spectra exhibit two sets of features: (i) a relatively broad peak at low energy in the vicinity of the band gap predicted by the band anticrossing model (BAC) and (ii) sharp excitonic features at higher energy (over 100meV above the band gap for x >4%). An enhancement of the photoluminescence response of excitonic emissions and a notable intensity reduction of the deeper luminescence were systematically observed for samples subjected to high-temperature postgrowth annealing treatments. For pseudomorphically strained low nitrogen-containing epilayers (x<2%), and by taking into account the strain magnitude and the average substitutional nitrogen concentration (as extracted from x-ray analysis), excitonic energies and corresponding band gaps (as determined by absorption spectroscopy) are well described within the framework of the BAC model. The extracted binding energies of split heavy- and light-hole excitons are found to be consistent with the expected increase of electron effective masses. For thick partially relaxed epilayers (1%4%), the fundamental band gap of GaAsN is found at significantly higher energies than those predicted by the BAC model using the commonly accepted nitrogen coupling parameter CNM=2.7eV. To account, within the BAC framework, for the apparent deceleration in the band-gap reduction rate requires the use of a smaller coupling constant (CNM=2.0eV), which suggests a weakening of the strength of the interaction between the localized nitrogen state and the conduction band of the host matrix. This observation seems to be associated with the increasing population of N-related defects.

  13. The low energy electronic band structure of bilayer graphene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. McCann; D. S. L. Abergel; V. I. Fal'ko

    2007-01-01

    .  We employ the tight binding model to describe the electronic band structure of bilayer graphene and we explain how the \\u000a optical absorption coefficient of a bilayer is influenced by the presence and dispersion of the electronic bands, in contrast\\u000a to \\u000a the featureless absorption coefficient of monolayer graphene. We show that the effective low energy Hamiltonian is dominated\\u000a by \\u000a chiral quasiparticles

  14. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultze, Martin; Ramasesha, Krupa; Pemmaraju, C. D.; Sato, S. A.; Whitmore, D.; Gandman, A.; Prell, James S.; Borja, L. J.; Prendergast, D.; Yabana, K.; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2014-12-01

    Electron transfer from valence to conduction band states in semiconductors is the basis of modern electronics. Here, attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectroscopy is used to resolve this process in silicon in real time. Electrons injected into the conduction band by few-cycle laser pulses alter the silicon XUV absorption spectrum in sharp steps synchronized with the laser electric field oscillations. The observed ~450-attosecond step rise time provides an upper limit for the carrier-induced band-gap reduction and the electron-electron scattering time in the conduction band. This electronic response is separated from the subsequent band-gap modifications due to lattice motion, which occurs on a time scale of 60 ± 10 femtoseconds, characteristic of the fastest optical phonon. Quantum dynamical simulations interpret the carrier injection step as light-field–induced electron tunneling.

  15. Comparison of x-ray absorption spectra between water and ice: new ice data with low pre-edge absorption cross-section.

    PubMed

    Sellberg, Jonas A; Kaya, Sarp; Segtnan, Vegard H; Chen, Chen; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Nordlund, Dennis; Pettersson, Lars G M; Nilsson, Anders

    2014-07-21

    The effect of crystal growth conditions on the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectra of ice is investigated through detailed analysis of the spectral features. The amount of ice defects is found to be minimized on hydrophobic surfaces, such as BaF2(111), with low concentration of nucleation centers. This is manifested through a reduction of the absorption cross-section at 535 eV, which is associated with distorted hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, a connection is made between the observed increase in spectral intensity between 544 and 548 eV and high-symmetry points in the electronic band structure, suggesting a more extended hydrogen-bond network as compared to ices prepared differently. The spectral differences for various ice preparations are compared to the temperature dependence of spectra of liquid water upon supercooling. A double-peak feature in the absorption cross-section between 540 and 543 eV is identified as a characteristic of the crystalline phase. The connection to the interpretation of the liquid phase O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum is extensively discussed. PMID:25053326

  16. [DFT/TDDFT study on the structure and absorption spectra of free base, N-/neo-confused porphyrin].

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Kui; Cao, Hong-Yu; Li, Shen-Min; Tang, Qian; Yang, Yan-Jie; Zheng, Xue-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Porphyrin is an important class of photochemical materials, which has been widely used in various fields. Computational investigations into the ground state structures and orbital energy levels of free base porphyrin (FBP), neo-confused porphyrin (NECP) and N-confused porphyrin (NCP) were performed with density functional theory(DFT). Absorption spectra were calculated at TD-B3LYP/6-31+G(d). Degeneracy of HOMO and HOMO-1 is lost, which would account for the shoulder peaks about the most intense transitions of FBP and NECP. Following FBP, NECP and NCP order, the orbital energy level (OEL) of LUMO decreases while the OEL of HOMO increases, which lead to the red shift of adsorption spectra. The energy difference between LUMO and LUMO+1 is almost the same as the difference between HOMO and HOMO-1, which would account for the only most intense transition of NCP. Solvent effect on ground state structures and absorption spectra was also investigated. The data shows that the character peak of Soret band and Q band changes in different solvent (benzene, chloroform, acetonitrile and water). So we further focus on discussing the N atom position and solvent effects on the energy level and Soret/Q bands of FBP, NCP and NECP, as well as clarifying its variation regularity and mechanism. PMID:24783547

  17. The effect of ionization on the infrared absorption spectra of PAHs: A preliminary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defrees, Doug J.; Miller, M. D.

    1989-01-01

    The emission lines observed in many interstellar IR sources at 3.28, 6.2, 7.7, 8.7, and 11.3 microns are theorized to originate from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These assignments are based on analyses of lab IR spectra of neutral PAHs. However, it is likely that in the interstellar medium that PAHs are ionized, i.e., are positively charged. Besides, as pointed out by Allamandola et al., although the IR emission band spectrum resembles what one might expect from a mixture of PAHs, it does not match in details such as frequency, band profile, or relative intensities predicted from the absorption spectra of any known PAH molecule. One source of more information to test the PAH theory is ab initio molecular orbital theory. It can be used to compute, from first principles, the geometries, vibrational frequencies, and vibrational intensities for model PAH compounds which are difficult to study in the lab. The Gaussian 86 computer program was used to determine the effect of ionization on the infrared absorption spectra of several small PAHs: naphthalene and anthracene. A preliminary report is presented of the results of these calculations.

  18. Self-broadening of 16O12C16O ?3-band lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, N. H.; Landsheere, X.; Pangui, E.; Morales, S. B.; Hartmann, J.-M.

    2014-12-01

    Absorption spectra of pure 16O12C16O have been recorded, at room temperature and for five pressures between 0.2 and 1 atm, in the very intense ?3 band. As recently done for CO, this was achieved using a high resolution (0.005 cm-1) Fourier transform spectrometer together with a specially designed cell. With the latter, set to a path length of about 20 ?m, the absorption by extremely intense lines is measured under appropriate (non saturating transmission) absorption conditions, regardless of the gas pressure. The recorded spectra have been adjusted one-by-one using Voigt line-shapes in order to retrieve the line positions and the Lorentz widths for the P(40) to R(40) lines. The results show that accurate self-broadening coefficients ? are obtained but that experimental uncertainties forbid any reliable determinations of the pressure-induced shifts ? due to the fact that they are about two order of magnitude smaller than ?. The present values of ? show the limited accuracy of previous determinations for the exact same lines. They are in very good agreement with those in the HITRAN database if the latter, which are for a speed-dependent Voigt profile, are properly corrected to correspond to a Voigt profile.

  19. Inter-band optoelectronic properties in quantum dot structure of low band gap III-V semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Anup, E-mail: a-dey2002@yahoo.com [Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, Kalyani Government Engineering College, Kalyani 741235 (India); Maiti, Biswajit [Physics Department, Kalyani Government Engineering College, Kalyani 741235 (India); Chanda, Debasree [Department of Engineering and Technological Studies, Kalyani University, Kalyani 741235 (India)

    2014-04-14

    A generalized theory is developed to study inter-band optical absorption coefficient (IOAC) and material gain (MG) in quantum dot structures of narrow gap III-V compound semiconductor considering the wave-vector (k{sup ?}) dependence of the optical transition matrix element. The band structures of these low band gap semiconducting materials with sufficiently separated split-off valance band are frequently described by the three energy band model of Kane. This has been adopted for analysis of the IOAC and MG taking InAs, InSb, Hg{sub 1?x}Cd{sub x}Te, and In{sub 1?x}Ga{sub x}As{sub y}P{sub 1?y} lattice matched to InP, as example of III–V compound semiconductors, having varied split-off energy band compared to their bulk band gap energy. It has been found that magnitude of the IOAC for quantum dots increases with increasing incident photon energy and the lines of absorption are more closely spaced in the three band model of Kane than those with parabolic energy band approximations reflecting the direct the influence of energy band parameters. The results show a significant deviation to the MG spectrum of narrow-gap materials having band nonparabolicity compared to the parabolic band model approximations. The results reflect the important role of valence band split-off energies in these narrow gap semiconductors.

  20. Photoluminescence of charged CdSe/ZnS quantum dots in the gas phase: effects of charge and heating on absorption and emission probabilities.

    PubMed

    Howder, Collin R; Long, Bryan A; Bell, David M; Furakawa, Kevin H; Johnson, Ryan C; Fang, Zhiyuan; Anderson, Scott L

    2014-12-23

    Gas phase spectral measurements for CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) before and after heating with both infrared (CO2) and visible lasers are reported. As-trapped QDs are spectrally similar to the same QDs in solution; however their photoluminescence (PL) intensities are very low, at least partly due to low absorption cross sections. After heating, the PL intensities brighten by factors ranging from ?4 to 1800 depending on the QD size and pump laser wavelength. The emission spectra no longer resemble solution spectra and are similar, regardless of the QD diameter. Emission extends from the pump laser wavelength into the near-IR, with strong emission features above the band gap energy, between 645 and 775 nm, and in the near-infrared. Emission spectra from brightened QD ensembles, single QD aggregates, and single QD monomers are similar, showing that even single QDs support PL from a wide variety of states. The heating and cooling processes for QDs in this environment are analyzed, providing limits on the magnitudes of the absorption cross sections before and after thermal brightening. A model, based on absorption bleaching by extra electrons in the conduction band, appears to account for the changes in absorption and emission behavior induced by charging and heating. PMID:25427008

  1. Electric field induced optical absorption and refractive index changes in a diluted magnetic quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonora, J. Merciline; Peter, A. John; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2013-01-01

    Binding energy of a confined exciton is investigated in a CdMnTe/CdMnTe/CdMnTe diluted magnetic quantum well in the influence of electric field. Calculations are performed for various Mn incorporation in Cd1-xMnxTe material within a single band effective mass approximation using variational method. Spin polaronic shifts are estimated using mean field theory for different Mn concentration and the well sizes. A theoretical study of diluted magnetic semiconductors treating local sp-d exchange interaction J between the itinerant carriers and the Mn electrons is treated within a realistic band structure. The optical absorption and the refractive index changes as a function of normalized photon energy in the presence of electric field strength and the Mn ion content are analysed. Our results show that the occurred red shift of the absorption resonant peak due to the electric field gives the information about the variation of two energy levels in the quantum well. The optical absorption coefficients and the refractive index changes strongly depend on the incident optical intensity, the electric field strength and Mn content.

  2. Ultraviolet absorption and luminescence of matrix-isolated adenine

    SciTech Connect

    Polewski, K.; Sutherland, J.; Zinger, D.; Trunk, J.

    2011-10-01

    We have investigated the absorption, the fluorescence and phosphorescence emission and the fluorescence lifetimes of adenine in low-temperature argon and nitrogen matrices at 15 K. Compared to other environments the absorption spectrum shows higher intensity at the shortest wavelengths, and a weak apparent absorption peak is observed at 280 nm. The resolved fluorescence excitation spectrum has five peaks at positions corresponding to those observed in the absorption spectrum. The position of the fluorescence maximum depends on the excitation wavelength. Excitation below 220 nm displays a fluorescence maximum at 305 nm, while for excitations at higher wavelengths the maximum occurs at 335 nm. The results suggest that multiple-emission excited electronic states are populated in low-temperature gas matrices. Excitation at 265 nm produces a phosphorescence spectrum with a well-resolved vibrational structure and a maximum at 415 nm. The fluorescence decays corresponding to excitation at increasing energy of each resolved band could be fit with a double exponential, with the shorter and longer lifetimes ranging from 1.7 to 3.3 ns and from 12 to 23 ns, respectively. Only for the excitation at 180 nm one exponential is required, with the calculated lifetimes of 3.3 ns. The presented results provide an experimental evidence of the existence of multiple site-selected excited electronic states, and may help elucidate the possible deexcitation pathways of adenine. The additional application of synchrotron radiation proved to result in a significant enhancement of the resolution and spectral range of the phenomena under investigation.

  3. Analysis of the visible absorption spectrum of I2 in inert solvents using a physical model.

    PubMed

    Tellinghuisen, Joel

    2012-01-12

    Absorption spectra of I(2) dissolved in n-heptane and CCl(4) are analyzed with a quantum gas-phase model, in which spectra at four temperatures between 15° and 50 °C are least-squares fitted by bound-free spectral simulations to obtain estimates of the excited-state potential energy curves and transition moment functions for the three component bands--A ? X, B ? X, and C ? X. Compared with a phenomenological band-fitting model used previously on these spectra, the physical model (1) is better statistically, and (2) yields component bands with less variability. The results support the earlier tentative conclusion that most of the ~20% gain in intensity in solution is attributable to the C ? X transition. The T-dependent changes in the spectrum are accounted for by potential energy shifts that are linear in T and negative (giving red shifts in the spectra) and about twice as large for CCl(4) as for heptane. The derived upper potentials resemble those in the gas phase, with one major exception: In the statistically best convergence mode, the A potential is much lower and steeper, with a strongly varying transition moment function. This observation leads to the realization that two markedly different potential curves can give nearly identical absorption spectra. PMID:22128887

  4. Band gap narrowing in BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles facilitated by multiple mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakanth, S. [Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); James Raju, K. C., E-mail: kcjrsp@uohyd.ernet.in [Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2014-05-07

    In the present work, BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles of four different size ranges were prepared by sol-gel method. The optical band gap of these particles at some size ranges has come down to 2.53?eV from 3.2?eV, resulting in substantial increase in optical absorption by these ferroelectric nanoparticles making them potential candidates for light energy harvesting. XRD results show the presence of higher compressive strain in 23?nm and 54?nm size particles, they exhibit a higher band gap narrowing, whereas tensile strain is observed in 31?nm and 34?nm particles, and they do not show the marginal band gap narrowing. The 23?nm and 54?nm particles also show a coupling of free carriers to phonons by increasing the intensity of LO phonon mode at 715?cm{sup ?1}. The higher surface charge density is expected in case of enhanced surface optical Raman modes (638?cm{sup ?1}) contained in 31 and 34?nm size particles. In addition to this, the red shift in an LO mode Raman spectral line at 305?cm{sup ?1} with decrease in particle size depicts the presence of phonon confinement in it. The enhanced optical absorption in 23?nm and 54?nm size particles with a narrowed band gap of 3?eV and 2.53?eV is due to exchange correlation interactions between the carriers present in these particles. In 31?nm and 34?nm range particles, the absorption got bleached exhibiting increased band gaps of 3.08?eV and 3.2?eV, respectively. It is due to filling up of conduction band resulting from weakening of exchange correlation interactions between the charge carriers. Hence, it is concluded that the band gap narrowing in the nanoparticles of average size 23?nm/54?nm is a consequence of multiple effects like strain, electron-phonon interaction, and exchange correlation interactions between the carriers which is subdued in some other size ranges like 31?nm/34?nm.

  5. Heteroleptic cationic iridium(III) complexes bearing naphthalimidyl substituents: synthesis, photophysics and reverse saturable absorption.

    PubMed

    Pei, Chengkui; Cui, Peng; McCleese, Christopher; Kilina, Svetlana; Burda, Clemens; Sun, Wenfang

    2015-02-01

    Three heteroleptic cationic iridium(iii) complexes containing a cyclometalating 2-[3-(7-naphthalimidylfluoren-2'-yl)phenyl]pyridine ligand and different diimine (N^N) ligands (N^N = 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy, ), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen, ), and 5,5'-bis[7-(benzothiazol-2'-yl)fluoren-2'-yl]-2,2'-bipyridine (BTF-bpy, )) were synthesized and characterized. The photophysics of these complexes was systematically investigated via spectroscopic methods and by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). All complexes possess a very weak charge-transfer tail at ca. 450-570 nm; and two intense absorption bands in the region of 290-350 nm and 350-450 nm, respectively. The emission of in CH2Cl2 emanates predominantly from the C^N ligand-localized (3)?,?* state. These emitting excited states also give rise to broadband triplet excited-state absorption in the visible to the near-IR region (i.e. 420-800 nm for and , and 460-800 nm for ). The kinetics of fs transient absorption (TA) reveals that the lowest singlet excited-state lifetimes of these complexes vary from 1.43 ps to 142 ps. The stronger excited-state absorption of compared to their respective ground-state absorption in the visible spectral range leads to strong reverse saturable absorption (RSA) at 532 nm for ns laser pulses. The trend of transmission signal decrease follows > > . Extending the ?-conjugation of the N^N ligand increases the strength of RSA. In addition, the naphthalimidyl (NI) substitution at the cyclometalating ligand dramatically increases the triplet excited-state lifetimes and broadens the triplet excited-state absorption to the NIR region compared to the respective Ir(iii) complexes with a benzothiazolyl substituent on the cyclometalating ligand. PMID:25512315

  6. Converting Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Absorption coefficients measured by the chamber method are referred to as Sabine absorption coefficients, which sometimes exceed unity due to the finite size of a sample and non-uniform intensity in the reverberation chambers under test. In this study, conversion methods from Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients are proposed. The overestimations of the Sabine absorption coefficient are investigated theoretically based on Miki's model for porous absorbers backed by a rigid wall or an air cavity, resulting in conversion factors. Additionally, three optimizations are suggested: An optimization method for the surface impedances for locally reacting absorbers, the flow resistivity for extendedly reacting absorbers, and the flow resistance for fabrics. With four porous type absorbers, the conversion methods are validated. For absorbers backed by a rigid wall, the surface impedance optimization produces the best results, while the flow resistivity optimization also yields reasonable results. The flow resistivity and flow resistance optimization for extendedly reacting absorbers are also found to be successful. However, the theoretical conversion factors based on Miki's model do not guarantee reliable estimations, particularly at frequencies below 250 Hz and beyond 2500?Hz. PMID:23742349

  7. Water detection in skin by dual-band photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saknite, Inga; Kviesis, Edgars; Spigulis, Janis

    2013-11-01

    Purpose of this study was to develop a simple model for possibilities to detect water in skin by diffuse reflectance spectra. The model is based on comparison of diffuse reflectance spectra when illuminating water sample with LEDs of different wavelengths (1200 nm, and 1450 nm). The illumination LEDs were chosen due to water absorption differences in near-infrared spectral range. For detection, dual-band photodiodeDSD2 by Thorlabs was used. Due to differences of water absorption at different wavelengths in the near-infrared spectral region, this correlation could be used for mapping of water content in skin or, in other words, determine relative moisture level in skin. Simple experimental setup of illuminating LEDs, detecting photodiode, oscilloscope for measuring the signal received by photodiode, and a sample of water in a Petri plate, was used. The signal of the oscilloscope was interpreted as a parameter that describes intensity of light that is initially illuminated by the LEDs and that travels through the water sample. This study shows the basic principles used and first results, as well as gives insight of further work that will be carried out.

  8. Wavelength and intensity dependent primary photochemistry of isolated Photosystem II reaction centers at 5°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, Scott R.; Seibert, Michael; Govindjee; Wasielewski, Michael R.

    1996-10-01

    The long wavelength absorption band of the isolated Photosystem II reaction center was directly excited at five wavelengths between 655 and 689 nm to study the effects of excitation wavelength and intensity on both excitation energy transfer and charge separation processes. Subpicosecond transient absorption measurements were made monitoring principally the bleach of the pheophytin a Q x band at 544 nm. At all pump wavelengths, the kinetics require three exponentials (1-3, 10-25 and 50-100 ps) to be fit properly. The pump energy was varied by a factor of twenty-five (40-1000 nJ), with no apparent effect on either the rates or the amplitude ratios of the three components, although clear evidence of nonlinear behavior was observed at the higher excitation energies. The dependence of both the rates and amplitude ratios of the three components upon pump wavelength will be discussed in terms of excitation energy transfer occurring on a 30 ps timescale. Selective excitation into the short and long-wavelength sides of the composite Q y band give identical transient spectra at 500 ps, indicating near-unity efficiency of excitation energy transfer. At 1 ps, the spectra are quite different, calling into question the extent of ultrafast (˜ 100 fs) excitation energy transfer. The time after the excitation pulse at which the transient crosses ?A = 0 was found to be a highly sensitive measure of both the excitation energy and the identity of the pigment pool that had been excited.

  9. Infrared absorption of gaseous CH{sub 2}BrOO detected with a step-scan Fourier-transform absorption spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan [Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yuan-Pern, E-mail: yplee@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-28

    CH{sub 2}BrOO radicals were produced upon irradiation, with an excimer laser at 248 nm, of a flowing mixture of CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. A step-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer coupled with a multipass absorption cell was employed to record temporally resolved infrared (IR) absorption spectra of reaction intermediates. Transient absorption with origins at 1276.1, 1088.3, 961.0, and 884.9 cm{sup ?1} are assigned to ?{sub 4} (CH{sub 2}-wagging), ?{sub 6} (O–O stretching), ?{sub 7} (CH{sub 2}-rocking mixed with C–O stretching), and ?{sub 8} (C–O stretching mixed with CH{sub 2}-rocking) modes of syn-CH{sub 2}BrOO, respectively. The assignments were made according to the expected photochemistry and a comparison of observed vibrational wavenumbers, relative IR intensities, and rotational contours with those predicted with the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ method. The rotational contours of ?{sub 7} and ?{sub 8} indicate that hot bands involving the torsional (?{sub 12}) mode are also present, with transitions 7{sub 0}{sup 1}12{sub v}{sup v} and 8{sub 0}{sup 1}12{sub v}{sup v}, v = 1–10. The most intense band (?{sub 4}) of anti-CH{sub 2}BrOO near 1277 cm{sup ?1} might have a small contribution to the observed spectra. Our work provides information for directly probing gaseous CH{sub 2}BrOO with IR spectroscopy, in either the atmosphere or laboratory experiments.

  10. Asymmetric band profile of the Soret band of deoxymyoglobin is caused by electronic and vibronic perturbations of the heme group rather than by a doming deformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhard Schweitzer-Stenner; John Paul Gorden; Andrew Hagarman

    2007-01-01

    We measured the Soret band of deoxymyoglobin (deoxyMb), myoglobin cyanide (MbCN), and aquo-metmyoglobin (all from horse heart) with absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. A clear non-coincidence was observed between the absorption and CD profiles of deoxyMb and MbCN, with the CD profiles red- and blueshifted with respect to the absorption band position, respectively. On the contrary, the CD and

  11. Absorption-Ablation-Excitation Mechanism of Laser-Cluster Interactions in a Nanoaerosol System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yihua; Li, Shuiqing; Zhang, Yiyang; Tse, Stephen D.; Long, Marshall B.

    2015-03-01

    The absorption-ablation-excitation mechanism in laser-cluster interactions is investigated by measuring Rayleigh scattering of aerosol clusters along with atomic emission from phase-selective laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. For 532 nm excitation, as the laser intensity increases beyond 0.16 GW /cm2 , the scattering cross section of TiO2 clusters begins to decrease, concurrent with the onset of atomic emission of Ti, indicating a scattering-to-ablation transition and the formation of nanoplasmas. With 1064 nm laser excitation, the atomic emissions are more than one order of magnitude weaker than that at 532 nm, indicating that the thermal effect is not the main mechanism. To better clarify the process, time-resolved measurements of scattering signals are examined for different excitation laser intensities. For increasing laser intensity, the cross section of clusters decreases during a single pulse, evincing the shorter ablation delay time and larger ratios of ablation clusters. Assessment of the electron energy distribution during the ablation process is conducted by nondimensionalizing the Fokker-Planck equation, with analogous Strouhal SlE , Peclet PeE , and Damköhler DaE numbers defined to characterize the laser-induced aerothermochemical environment. For conditions where SlE?1 , PeE?1 , and DaE?1 , the electrons are excited to the conduction band by two-photon absorption, then relax to the bottom of the conduction band by electron energy loss to the lattice, and finally serve as the energy transfer media between laser field and lattice. The relationship between delay time and excitation intensity is well correlated by this simplified model with quasisteady assumption.

  12. Absorption-ablation-excitation mechanism of laser-cluster interactions in a nanoaerosol system.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yihua; Li, Shuiqing; Zhang, Yiyang; Tse, Stephen D; Long, Marshall B

    2015-03-01

    The absorption-ablation-excitation mechanism in laser-cluster interactions is investigated by measuring Rayleigh scattering of aerosol clusters along with atomic emission from phase-selective laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. For 532 nm excitation, as the laser intensity increases beyond 0.16??GW/cm^{2}, the scattering cross section of TiO_{2} clusters begins to decrease, concurrent with the onset of atomic emission of Ti, indicating a scattering-to-ablation transition and the formation of nanoplasmas. With 1064 nm laser excitation, the atomic emissions are more than one order of magnitude weaker than that at 532 nm, indicating that the thermal effect is not the main mechanism. To better clarify the process, time-resolved measurements of scattering signals are examined for different excitation laser intensities. For increasing laser intensity, the cross section of clusters decreases during a single pulse, evincing the shorter ablation delay time and larger ratios of ablation clusters. Assessment of the electron energy distribution during the ablation process is conducted by nondimensionalizing the Fokker-Planck equation, with analogous Strouhal Sl_{E}, Peclet Pe_{E}, and Damköhler Da_{E} numbers defined to characterize the laser-induced aerothermochemical environment. For conditions where Sl_{E}?1, Pe_{E}?1, and Da_{E}?1, the electrons are excited to the conduction band by two-photon absorption, then relax to the bottom of the conduction band by electron energy loss to the lattice, and finally serve as the energy transfer media between laser field and lattice. The relationship between delay time and excitation intensity is well correlated by this simplified model with quasisteady assumption. PMID:25793812

  13. Q Band Chromosomal Polymorphisms in Lake Trout (SALVELINUS NAMAYCUSH)

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Ruth B.; Zajicek, Kerry D.

    1982-01-01

    Q banding of chromosome preparations from lake trout revealed the presence of heteromorphic quinacrine bright bands on several chromosomes. All of the metacentric chromosome pairs can be distinguished on the basis of number, position and intensity of the quinacrine bright bands and chromosome size. These bands appear to represent heterochromatin, since they are darkly staining with the C band technique. Since all of the fish examined had consistent heteromorphisms at several of the quinacrine bright bands, these chromosome markers should be useful in genetic comparisons between different trout stocks and populations. PMID:7173603

  14. Computational search for direct band gap silicon crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, In-Ho; Lee, Jooyoung; Oh, Young Jun; Kim, Sunghyun; Chang, K. J.

    2014-09-01

    Due to its abundance, silicon is the preferred solar-cell material despite the fact that current silicon materials have indirect band gaps. Although the band gap properties of silicon have been studied intensively, until now, no direct band gap silicon-based material has been found or suggested. We report here the discovery of direct band gap silicon crystals. By using conformational space annealing, we optimize various crystal structures containing multiple (10 to 20) silicon atoms per unit cell so that their electronic structures become direct band gap. Through first-principles calculations, we identify many direct and quasidirect band gap crystal structures, which exhibit excellent photovoltaic efficiency.

  15. Infrared radiation parameterizations for the minor CO[sub 2] bands and for several CFC bands in the window region

    SciTech Connect

    Kratz, D.P. (Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Company, Hampton, VA (United States)); Chou, M.D. (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)); Yan, M.M.H. (Science Systems Applications, Inc., Lanham, MD (United States))

    1993-07-01

    Fast and accurate parameterizations have been developed for the transmission functions of the CO[sub 2] 9.4- and 10.4-[mu]m bands, as well as the CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-22 bands located in the 8-12[mu]m region. The parameterizations are based on line-by-line calculations of transmission functions for the CO[sub 2] bands on high spectral resolution laboratory measurements of the absorption coefficients for the CFC bands. Also developed are the parameterizations for the H[sub 2]O transmission functions for the corresponding spectral bands. Compared to the high-resolution calculations, fluxes at the tropopause computed with the parameterizations are accurate to within 10% when overlapping of gas absorptions within a band is taken into account. For individual gas absorption, the accuracy is of order 0%-2%. The climate effects of these trace gases have been studied using a zonally averaged multilayer energy balance model, which includes seasonal cycles and a simplified deep ocean. With the trace gas abundances taken to follow the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Low Emissions [open quotes]B[close quotes] scenario, the transient response of the surface temperature is simulated for the period 1900-2060. The minor CO[sub 2] and CFC bands contribute about 20%-25% of the total warming at the surface, which is comparable to the contribution from the CH[sub 4] and N[sub 2] bands. Collectively these minor absorption band account for 40%-45% of the total surface temperature increases. Thus, the climate warming due to absorption in these bands is comparable to that in the 15 [mu]m CO[sub 2] band. 41 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Electromagnetically induced absorption via incoherent collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Xihua [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Sheng Jiteng; Xiao Min [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    We conduct theoretical studies on electromagnetically induced absorption via incoherent collisions in an inhomogeneously broadened ladder-type three-level system with the density-matrix approach. The effects of the collision-induced coherence decay rates as well as the probe laser field intensity on the probe field absorption are examined. It is shown that with the increase of the collisional decay rates in a moderate range, a narrow dip due to electromagnetically induced transparency superimposed on the Doppler-broadened absorption background can be turned into a narrow peak under the conditions that the probe field intensity is not very weak as compared to the pump field, which results from the enhancement of constructive interference and suppression of destructive interference between one-photon and multiphoton transition pathways. The physical origin of the collision-assisted electromagnetically induced absorption is analyzed with a power-series solution of the density-matrix equations.

  17. Band analysis by spectral curve fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. L.; Shaw, J. H.; Calvert, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    A method of estimating the values of the parameters in the models describing the positions, widths, and intensities of the lines in rotation-vibration bands of gases, without the need for line by line analysis, is described. To illustrate the technique, portions of the 1-0 bands of HCl and CO have been analyzed. The values of up to 27 parameters, their standard deviations, and the correlations between the parameters required to describe the spectra have been obtained.

  18. Nonlinear optical absorption of photosynthetic pigment molecules in leaves.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zi-Piao

    2012-04-01

    A mathematical formulation of the relationship between optical absorption coefficient of photosynthetic pigment molecules and light intensity was developed. It showed that physical parameters of photosynthetic pigment molecule (i.e., light absorption cross-section of photosynthetic pigment molecule, its average lifetime in the excited state, total photosynthetic pigment molecules, the statistical weight, or degeneracy of energy level of photosynthetic pigment molecules in the ground state and in the excited state) influenced on both the light absorption coefficient and effective light absorption cross-section of photosynthetic pigment molecules. Moreover, it also showed that both the light absorption coefficient and effective light absorption cross-section of photosynthetic pigment molecules were not constant, they decreased nonlinearly with light intensity increasing. The occupation numbers of photosynthetic pigment molecules in the excited states increased nonlinearly with light intensity increasing. PMID:22430129

  19. Transient absorption and luminescence spectra of K9 glass at sub-damage site by ultraviolet laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Huang, J.; Geng, F.; Zhou, X. Y.; Feng, S. Q.; Cheng, X. L.; Jiang, X. D.; Wu, W. D.; Zheng, W. G.; Tang, Y. J.

    2014-01-01

    Transient absorption and luminescence spectra at sub-damage site of K9 glass by laser irradiation at 355 nm are presented. The dependence of transient absorption on laser energy and number of pulses was investigated. As the energy density increases to 2.54 and 3.18 J/cm2, the transient absorption intensity reaches to about 0.20 range from 400 to 480 nm. With the increase of number of pulses the process of residual absorption appears, which can be used to explain the fatigue effect of K9 glass. The defects in K9 glass were investigated by fluorescence and Raman spectra. The fluorescence band centered at about 410 nm is attributed to oxygen deficiency centers. The mechanism of two-photon ionization plays a critical role at sub-damage site. Compared to the Raman spectra of pristine site, intensity of Raman spectra is very high at a lower energy density, while it decreased at a higher energy density.

  20. Come Join the Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of students in Blue Springs, Missouri, are joining the band, drawn by a band director who emphasizes caring and inclusiveness. In the four years since Melissia Goff arrived at Blue Springs High School, the school's extensive band program has swelled. The marching band alone has gone from 100 to 185 participants. Also under Goff's…

  1. Electron dynamics in transparent materials under high-intensity laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenk, Oliver; Rethfeld, Bärbel

    2012-12-01

    The energy of a laser beam irradiating a surface is primarily absorbed by electrons within the solid. In actual transparent materials, absorption is low. High-intensity lasers may, however, be absorbed by initially bounded electrons through nonlinear processes. The increase of free-electron density leads eventually to dielectric breakdown, and the material becomes highly absorbing. We present theoretical studies on the dynamics of electrons in dielectrics under irradiation with a visible high-intensity laser pulse. We consider microscopic processes determining absorption, redistribution of the energy among electrons, and transfer of energy to the crystal lattice. We review different aspects of electronic excitation, studied with time-resolved models as the Boltzmann kinetic approach and the time and spatial resolved multiple rate equation. Furthermore, we investigate criteria for damage thresholds. Two concepts are compared, namely a critical free-electron density and the melting threshold of the lattice. We show that in dielectrics both criteria are fulfilled simultaneously. Optical parameters depend on the density of free electrons in the conduction band of the solid, so the free-electron density directly leads to an increased energy absorption causing material modification. We present results on the spatial dependence of dielectric breakdown.

  2. The ultraviolet and visible spectrum of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon C10H8(+) - Possible contributions to the diffuse interstellar bands and to the ultraviolet-visible extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, F.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    The properties of the cation of the PAH naphthalene (C10H8(+)) isolated in inert gas matrices under conditions relevant to astrophysical environments are described. The band at 6741 A is the strongest and falls close to the weak 6742 A diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). Five other weaker bands also fall remarkably close to the positions of known DIBs. A very intense and broad continuum extended from the UV to the visible, which seems to be associated with the ion, is reported. The molar absorption coefficient at the peak of the continuum is 2.0 x 10 exp 6 cu dm/mol cm. If a continuum is a general property of PAH cations, this characteristic will have a strong impact on the understanding of how PAHs convert interstellar UV and visible radiation into IR radiation.

  3. Toward an Impurity Band PV: Dynamics of Carriers Generated via Sub-band gap Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Joseph; Simmons, Christie; Akey, Austin; Aziz, Michael; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2013-03-01

    Intermediate band solar cells are a pathway to cells that surpass the Shockley-Queisser limit by enabling the utilization of sub-band gap photons. A proposed method for fabricating an intermediate band material is to use impurities that introduce electronic levels within the band gap. At sufficiently high dopant concentrations, band formation may lead to a suppression of Shockley-Reed-Hall recombination, an idea known as ``lifetime recovery'' [1]. We investigate a proposed intermediate band material, silicon hyper-doped with sulfur. This material system exhibits strong sub-band gap optical absorption and metallic conductivity at sufficiently high sulfur concentrations [2], which makes it a strong candidate for an impurity-band material. We employ low-temperature photoconductivity using sub-band gap light to estimate the trapping rate of electrons in the conduction band. We vary the sulfur concentration near the critical value for the metal-insulator transition to test the idea of ``lifetime recovery'' in the S:Si system.[4pt] [1] A. Luque and A. Mart'i, Adv. Mater. 22, 160 (2010).[0pt] [2] M. T. Winkler et.al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 178701 (2011)

  4. Absorption suppression in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figotin, A.; Vitebskiy, I.

    2008-03-01

    We study electromagnetic properties of periodic composite structures, such as photonic crystals, involving lossy components. We show that in many cases a properly designed periodic structure can dramatically suppress the losses associated with the absorptive component, while preserving or even enhancing its useful functionality. As an example, we consider magnetic photonic crystals, in which the lossy magnetic component provides nonreciprocal Faraday rotation. We show that the electromagnetic losses in the composite structure can be reduced by up to two orders of magnitude, compared to those of the uniform magnetic sample made of the same lossy magnetic material. Importantly, the dramatic absorption reduction is not a resonance effect and occurs over a broad frequency range covering a significant portion of the respective photonic frequency band.

  5. Stacking-dependent optical absorption in multilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshino, Mikito

    2013-01-01

    We study the infrared optical absorption properties of ABA- and ABC-stacked graphene multilayers using the effective mass approximation. We calculate the optical absorption spectrum at various carrier densities, and find the characteristic features that identify the stacking types and the number of layers. We fully include the band parameters and discuss detailed features such as trigonal warping and electron-hole asymmetry.

  6. Parameterization of near infrared absorption by atmospheric gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridgway, W. L.; Arking, A.

    1986-01-01

    An absorption coefficient (k) distribution model is presented for fast calculation of atmospheric transmittances based solely on essential data from line-by-line (LBL) calculations. The absorption at any site is summed over the spectra obtained by LBL calculations. Application of the scaling model is illustrated with sample calculations for 0.72 micron emissions and the 1.36 micron water vapor band. LBL absorption spectra are calculated for the pressure levels 260 mb, 400 mb and 1000 mb.

  7. Scintillation theory of eclipse shadow bands

    SciTech Connect

    Codona, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a theoretical investigation of solar eclipse shadow bands are presented. The study provides both quantitative and qualitative insight into the factors governing the visibility of shadow bands. Using only standard, weak-scattering scintillation theory and standard models for atmospheric turbulence, all of the salient features of the shadow bands are explained. The contrast is found to be greater for shorter wavelengths and the band spacing to scale like the square-root of the wavelength very near totality. For times greater than about 20 seconds before (or after) totality the band spacing becomes frequency-independent and the scintillations are dominated by turbulence near the ground. The turbulence mainly responsible for shadow bands is found to be below two kilometers in altitude. Turbulence at the tropopause is found to have no impact on shadow bands until 2-3 seconds from totality. Longer eclipes are expected to show bands with greater contrast and linearity. Intensity correlation scales are typically less than 10cm within 30 seconds of totality. The scintillation theory predictions for shadow band structure motion, and evolution are found to be in agreement with both visual and photoelectric observations.

  8. Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Engeln; Giel Berden; Rudy Peeters; Gerard Meijer

    1998-01-01

    It is experimentally demonstrated that a narrow band continuous wave (cw) light source can be used in combination with a high-finesse optically stable cavity to perform sensitive, high-resolution direct absorption and optical rotation spectroscopy in an amazingly simple experimental setup, using ideas from the field of cavity ring down spectroscopy. Light from a scanning narrow band cw laser is coupled

  9. Oral Drug Absorption

    E-print Network

    Yamashita, Shinji

    2006-10-26

    properties ? membrane permeability ? metabolic stability ? enzyme inhibition or induction ? protein binding ? transporter affinity ?. Chemical Optimization DDS technology 4 Strategy of Drug Delivery Absorption Distribution Metabolism Excretion Improve of drug... absorption absorption enhancement controlled releasecontrolled release new administration route Drug targeting to the tissue to the cell to the organelle Dr. Shinji Yamashita (Setsunan University) Issue: Oral Drug Absorption Dr. Valentino J. Stella...

  10. The Effects of Light Intensity and Spectral Quality on Growth and Shoot Initiation in Tobacco Callus

    PubMed Central

    Seibert, Michael; Wetherbee, Phyllis J.; Job, Donald D.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of eight different narrow band-emitting fluorescent lamps (371-750 nm) and four commercial broad band-emitting fluorescent sources upon growth and shoot initiation in tobacco callus (Nicotiana tabacum var. Wisconsin 38) have been characterized. Wavelength and intensity are equally important parameters in determining morphogenic changes. Near ultraviolet light (371 nm) was found to stimulate (0.024 mw/cm2) or inhibit (above 0.15 mw/cm2) callus growth and shoot initiation, depending on the light intensity. Stimulation of growth and shoot production occurs also in blue light region, but at higher intensity than in the near ultraviolet. Red and far red light (up to 1.7 mw/cm2) do not appear to affect callus growth or stimulate shoot initiation. The enhancement of callus growth and the stimulation of shoot initiation are controlled by the same near ultraviolet-absorbing photoreceptor system present in a small enough concentration that it cannot be recognized in the absorption spectrum of the intact tissue. Carotenoids, porphyrins, and phytochrome associated with the high irradiance response do not appear to qualify as the photoreceptor. Flavonoids are possible candidates. Radiation emitted by fluorescent lamps outside the near visible region was determined, and we concluded that energy levels were not sufficient to affect the reported results. The spectral output of several commercial lamps in the visible and near visible regions is such that there could be different effects on growth and development of tissue cultures. Images PMID:16659243

  11. Band filling effects on temperature performance of intermediate band quantum wire solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kunets, Vas. P., E-mail: vkunets@uark.edu; Furrow, C. S.; Ware, M. E.; Souza, L. D. de; Benamara, M.; Salamo, G. J. [Institute for Nanoscience and Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Mortazavi, M. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, Pine Bluff, Arkansas 71601 (United States)

    2014-08-28

    Detailed studies of solar cell efficiency as a function of temperature were performed for quantum wire intermediate band solar cells grown on the (311)A plane. A remotely doped one-dimensional intermediate band made of self-assembled In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}As quantum wires was compared to an undoped intermediate band and a reference p-i-n GaAs sample. These studies indicate that the efficiencies of these solar cells depend on the population of the one-dimensional band by equilibrium free carriers. A change in this population by free electrons under various temperatures affects absorption and carrier transport of non-equilibrium carriers generated by incident light. This results in different efficiencies for both the doped and undoped intermediate band solar cells in comparison with the reference GaAs p-i-n solar cell device.

  12. Band parameters of N2O and CO2 determined by whole band analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, R. L.; Hoke, M. L.; Shaw, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Whole band analysis, a method of obtaining band parameters from spectra by nonlinear least squares fitting of calculated to observed spectra, has been applied to bands of N2O and CO2. The retrieved N2 broadened widths of the 02(0)00 - 00(0) and 12(0)0 - 00(0)0 bands of N2O suggest that the air broadened widths on the AFGL listing are about 10% high. The intensities and (C-12)(O-16)2 broadened widths of the 20002-00001 and 21102-01101 bands of (C-12)(O-16)(O-18) and the 20002-00001 band of (C-12)(O-16)(O-17) have also been determined.

  13. Effect of Atmospheric Interfering Absorption on Measurement of BTX by DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Fu-min; Xie, Pin-hua; Li, Hai-yang; Zhang, Ying-hua; Wang, Jun-de; Liu, Wen-qing

    2008-06-01

    It was reported on the elimination of interfering absorption of BTX. the absorption of O2 includes different absorption bands, which change differently when the partial pressure of oxygen is varied. These cause the nonlinear absorption of O2 and the observed band shape to vary with the column density of O2. The absorption ratios of molecular absorption in each of the Herzberg bands and dimer absorptions, as well as the contribution to the correction error of molecular absorption, are studied based on the characteristic of these absorption bands. The optimized way to eliminate the interfering absorption is obtained in the end and the effectiveness of using interpolation proposed by Volkamer et al. to remove O2 absorption is proved again. As to O3 and SO2, the effect of the thermal effect of characteristic spectra on the elimination error of their absorption is studied. Solutions to these problems are discussed and demonstrated together with methods to optimize the interpolation of spectra. As a sample application, differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of BTX are carried out. Results show a low detection limit and the good correlation with point instruments are achieved. All these prove the feasibility of using spectral interpolation to improve the accuracy of DOAS measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons for practical purposes.

  14. Enhanced absorption cycle computer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, G.; Wilk, M.

    1993-09-01

    Absorption heat pumps have received renewed and increasing attention in the past two decades. The rising cost of electricity has made the particular features of this heat-powered cycle attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered absorption chillers, gas-fired domestic heat pumps, and waste-heat-powered industrial temperature boosters are a few of the applications recently subjected to intensive research and development. The absorption heat pump research community has begun to search for both advanced cycles in various multistage configurations and new working fluid combinations with potential for enhanced performance and reliability. The development of working absorption systems has created a need for reliable and effective system simulations. A computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system's components and property subroutines containing thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The user conveys to the computer an image of his cycle by specifying the different subunits and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flow rate, concentration, pressure, and vapor fraction at each state point in the system, and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance (COP) may be determined. This report describes the code and its operation, including improvements introduced into the present version. Simulation results are described for LiBr-H2O triple-effect cycles, LiCl-H2O solar-powered open absorption cycles, and NH3-H2O single-effect and generator-absorber heat exchange cycles. An appendix contains the user's manual.

  15. New CW-CRDS measurements and global modeling of 12C 16O 2 absolute line intensities in the 1.6 ?m region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perevalov, B. V.; Campargue, A.; Gao, B.; Kassi, S.; Tashkun, S. A.; Perevalov, V. I.

    2008-12-01

    Line intensities of 12C 16O 2 transitions have been measured by CW-Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy in four wavenumber intervals near 1.6 ?m. Intensity values of 952 transitions ranging from 1.10 × 10 -28 to 4.94 × 10 -25 cm/molecule were retrieved with an average accuracy of 4%. These transitions belong to a total of 30 bands corresponding to the ? P = 9 series of transitions. The achieved sensitivity (noise equivalent absorption ?min ˜ 3 × 10 -10 cm -1) allows lowering by more than two orders of magnitude the lower intensity values measured in the region. Comparison with the values included in the JPL database [R.A. Toth, L.R. Brown, C.E. Miller, V. Malathi Devi, D.C. Benner, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109 (2008) 906-921] shows residuals exceeding one order of magnitude for weak lines. The measured intensities together with a selection of experimental intensities available in the literature were used to extend and refine the set of effective dipole moment parameters for the ? P = 9 series of transitions of the principal isotopologue of carbon dioxide. The refined parameters allow reproducing, within the experimental uncertainties, the whole set of intensity measurements which extends over nearly six orders of magnitude (1.10 × 10 -28-6.12 × 10 -23 cm/molecule). Combining the CW-CRDS line positions with the calculated line intensities, a line list has been generated for the whole 5851-7045 cm -1 region and is provided as Supplementary Material. The obtained effective dipole moment parameters have also been used to generate the ? P = 9 series of transitions included in the new version of the CDSD database. The comparison of the CDSD line intensities with the values provided by the HITRAN-2004 database shows discrepancies up to 80% for some of the bands while discrepancies up to three orders of magnitude are noted for the weakest bands included in the JPL database.

  16. Temperature dependence of C-terminal carboxylic group IR absorptions in the amide I? region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Benjamin A.; Literati, Alex; Ball, Borden; Kubelka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Studies of structural changes in peptides and proteins using IR spectroscopy often rely on subtle changes in the amide I? band as a function of temperature. However, these changes can be obscured by the overlap with other absorptions, namely the side-chain and terminal carboxylic groups. The former were the subject of our previous report (Anderson et al., 2014). In this paper we investigate the IR spectra of the asymmetric stretch of ?-carboxylic groups for amino acids representing all major types (Gly, Ala, Val, Leu, Ser, Thr, Asp, Glu, Lys, Asn, His, Trp, Pro) as well as the C-terminal groups of three dipeptides (Gly-Gly, Gly-Ala, Ala-Gly) in D2O at neutral pH. Experimental temperature dependent IR spectra were analyzed by fitting of both symmetric and asymmetric pseudo-Voigt functions. Qualitatively the spectra exhibit shifts to higher frequency, loss in intensity and narrowing with increased temperature, similar to that observed previously for the side-chain carboxylic groups of Asp. The observed dependence of the band parameters (frequency, intensity, width and shape) on temperature is in all cases linear: simple linear regression is therefore used to describe the spectral changes. The spectral parameters vary between individual amino acids and show systematic differences between the free amino acids and dipeptides, particularly in the absolute peak frequencies, but the temperature variations are comparable. The relative variations between the dipeptide spectral parameters are most sensitive to the C-terminal amino acid, and follow the trends observed in the free amino acid spectra. General rules for modeling the ?-carboxylic IR absorption bands in peptides and proteins as the function of temperature are proposed.

  17. Simulation and measurement of loudspeaker nonlinearity with a broad-band noise excitation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Simulation and measurement of loudspeaker nonlinearity with a broad-band noise excitation A as the excitation is presented. It consists in excitation of loudspeaker with an intensive broad-band noise with removed narrow frequency band using band-stop filter. The acoustic signal produced by the loudspeaker

  18. Ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy in optically dense fireballs using broadband second-harmonic generation of a pulsed modeless dye laser.

    PubMed

    Soo, Michael; Glumac, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Broadband frequency doubling of a modeless dye laser pulse is used to enable single-shot absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet for optically dense, energetic-materials fireball applications. Band widths of approximately 1-3 nm are generated in the 226 and 268 nm regions using a doubling crystal. Strong focusing of the fundamental beam onto the crystal is found to be sufficient to achieve 1-5% conversion efficiency with a pulse intensity sufficient to saturate the array detector even after 75% attenuation through the fireball. The technique is demonstrated with nitric oxide (NO) absorption in a gas cell and is then used to perform the first detection and temperature fitting of aluminum monofluoride (AlF) and magnesium monofluoride (MgF) in a fireball environment. PMID:25014593

  19. Intense visible upconversion and energy transfer in Ho3+/Yb3+ codoped tellurite glasses for potential fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shengxi; Wu, Libo; Wang, Bo; Yang, Fengjing; Qi, Yawei; Zhou, Yaxun

    2015-03-01

    New Ho3+/Yb3+ codoped tellurite glasses (TeO2-Bi2O3-ZnO-Na2O) prepared by melt-quenching technique were investigated to realize visible-band upconversion emissions applied for compact fiber lasers. The absorption spectra, upconversion emission spectra, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra were measured to characterize the spectroscopic properties of Ho3+, thermal stability and structural nature of glass hosts. Under the excitation of 980 nm laser diode (LD), the intense green (?543 nm) and red (?657 nm) upconversion emissions corresponding to 5F4(5S2) ? 5I8 and 5F5 ? 5I8 transitions of Ho3+ respectively are simultaneously observed. The power dependence study of upconversion intensities on excited pump power revealed that the Ho3+ population at 5F4(5S2) and 5F5 levels was originated from two-photon absorption process based on the energy transfer from Yb3+ to Ho3+. The energy transfer mechanism from Yb3+ to Ho3+ was investigated and relevant micro-parameters (energy transfer coefficient and critical radius) and phonon contribution ratio were presented. With the increase of Yb3+ doped concentration, both the green and red upconversion intensities enhanced greatly, meanwhile the thermal stability of glass hosts, characterized by the three characteristic temperatures, also got a slight improvement. Furthermore, the glass structure was briefly analyzed with the calculated Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, the measured Raman spectra and XRD curves. The present results indicate that the new synthesized Ho3+/Yb3+ codoped tellurite glass with intense green and red upconversion emissions is a promising medium applied for the visible-band fiber lasers.

  20. Nonlinear absorption in silicon nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Korovin, S B; Orlov, A N; Prokhorov, A M; Pustovoi, V I [Natural Science Center, A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Konstantaki, M; Couris, S; Koudoumas, E [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (IESL-FORTH), Institute of Electronic Structure and Lasers, Crete (Greece)

    2001-09-30

    The nonlinear absorption of light in silicon nanocrystals suspended in glycerol is studied by the Z-scan method. The experimental data are used for calculating the nonlinear absorption coefficient {beta}{sub Si-gl} for silicon nanocrystals in glycerol (with a volume filling factor f=2x10{sup -4}), and the coefficient {beta}{sub Si} for pure silicon with a hypothetical volume filling factor f{approx}1. For the laser radiation wavelength {lambda}=497 nm and the pulse duration {tau}=0.5 ns, these coefficients are {beta}{sub Si-gl}=1.2x10{sup -8} cm W{sup -1} and {beta}{sub Si} =7.36x10{sup -5} cm W{sup -1}, while the corresponding values for {lambda}=532 nm and {tau}=10 ns are {beta}{sub Si-gl}=5.36x10{sup -5} cm W{sup -1} and {beta}{sub Si} =0.25 cm W{sup -1}. Experiments with 540-nm, 20-ps laser pulses performed for two different filling factors equal to 2x10{sup -4} and 3x10{sup -3} gave nonlinear absorption coefficients {beta}{sub Si-gl}=2x10{sup -7} and 3.6x10{sup -6} cm W{sup -1}, respectively. Optical absorption and Raman scattering spectra of silicon nanocrystals are also studied. A theoretical analysis of the experimental results shows that optical absorption can be related to the localisation of photoexcited carriers in the conduction band. The localisation is caused by the action of strong static electric fields on an electron in a nanoparticle. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  1. Solvent effects on the ultraviolet absorption spectrum of mercury atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buturlimova, M. V.; Zelikina, G. Ya.; Kiseleva, M. B.

    2008-05-01

    Absorption spectrum of mercury dissolved in hexane and heptane in the region 280-180 nm was found to consist of three bands. These bands were assigned to the 1S0 ? 1P1 transition (A band, ? = 254 nm), to the 1S0 ? 3P2 transition (B band, ? = 226 nm) and to the 1S0 ? 1P1 transition (C band, ? = 190 nm) of a mercury atom placed into a liquid cell. The B and C absorption bands of mercury in liquid solutions were observed for the first time. It was found that the A band and the C band have, respectively, distinct doublet and triplet structure, while the doublet structure of the B band is only slightly seen. The oscillator strengths of all three bands of mercury in solutions were estimated. The structure of the C, A and B bands of mercury in solutions most probably results from the removal of the degeneracy of the excited states 1P1, 3P1 and 3P2 of a mercury atom, placed into a cell of low symmetry.

  2. Observation of the visible absorption spectrum of H2O(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Biman; Farley, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The water cation, H2O(+), has been studied, using laser absorption spectroscopy in a velocity-modulated discharge. It is shown that it is possible to observe the absorption spectrum of an ion that is not a terminal ion, despite the weak absorption oscillator strength, and despite the use of a relatively noisy dye laser. The relative intensities of the absorption lines have been measured to an accuracy of 13 percent. It is concluded that if the absorption cross section of a single transition can be measured absolutely, then the entire manifold will be known absolutely.

  3. Modeling of collision induced absorption spectra of CO2-CO2 pairs for planetary atmosphere of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borysow, Aleksandra

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the proposal was to model the rototranslational and rotovibrational collision induced absorption spectral bands of importance for the radiative transfer analysis of the atmosphere of Venus. Our main task has involved CO2 pairs. The approach is not straightforward: whereas computational techniques to compute CIA spectra of small linear molecules exist, and were successfully applied to molecules like H2 or N2, they fail when applied to large molecules like CO2. For small molecules one can safely assume that the interaction potential is isotropic. The same approximation does not work for CO2, and when employed, it gives an incorrect band shape and only 50 percent of the CIA intensity.

  4. Collisional Line-Shape and Line-Mixing Parameters for CO(2) Absorption near 3340 cm(-1): Measurements and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldyreva, Jeanna; Auwera, Jean Vander

    2014-06-01

    class="MsoNormal">The present work is focused on the determination of line-shape parameters for one of the 12C16O2 bands detectable by the SOIR (Solar Occultation in the InfraRed) instrument onboard the ESA Venus Express spacecraft, namely the 21102 - 00001 band located near 3340 cm-1. High-resolution Fourier transform spectra of this band have been recorded at sub-atmospheric pressures and analyzed to extract isolated-line intensities and collisional parameters as well as first-order line-mixing coefficients. Voigt, hard-collision Rautian and Sobel'man, and quadratic-speed-dependent Voigt profiles have been used. The retrieved parameters are compared with previous data available in the literature and with theoretical estimates obtained by an Energy-Corrected Sudden approach (generally, non-Markovian) employing a symmetric metric in the Liouville space. The same approach, supplied with additional hypotheses for basic transition rates for the hot bands, has also been used to model the complete band shapes. The need for accounting of line-narrowing effects at sub-atmospheric pressures has been evidenced from comparison with the recorded spectra, and some improvements have been introduced in the relaxation matrix model, leading to a good agreement of calculated and measured absorptions from nearly Doppler pressure regime to nearly atmospheric pressure.

  5. Rubber Band Racers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    IEEE

    2013-08-30

    In this activity, learners explore the design of rubber band powered cars. Learners work in teams of "engineers" to design and build their own rubber band cars out of everyday items. They test their rubber band cars, evaluate their results, and present to the group.

  6. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Enhanced nonlinear optical absorption of Au/SiO2 nano-composite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Cui-Hua; Zhang, Bo-Ping; Shang, Peng-Peng

    2009-12-01

    Nano metal-particle dispersed glasses are the attractive candidates for nonlinear optical material applications. Au/SiO2 nano-composite thin films with 3 vol% to 65 vol% Au are prepared by inductively coupled plasma sputtering. Au particles as perfect spheres with diameters between 10 nm and 30 nm are uniformly dispersed in the SiO2 matrix. Optical absorption peaks due to the surface plasmon resonance of Au particles are observed. The absorption property is enhanced with the increase of Au content, showing a maximum value in the films with 37 vol% Au. The absorption curves of the Au/SiO2 thin films with 3 vol% to 37 vol% Au accord well with the theoretical optical absorption spectra obtained from Mie resonance theory. Increasing Au content over 37 vol% results in the partial connection of Au particles, whereby the intensity of the absorption peak is weakened and ultimately replaced by the optical absorption of the bulk. The band gap decreases with Au content increasing from 3 vol% to 37 vol% but increases as Au content further increases.

  7. Ordered Arrays of Dual-Diameter Nanopillars for Maximized Optical Absorption

    E-print Network

    Javey, Ali

    Ordered Arrays of Dual-Diameter Nanopillars for Maximized Optical Absorption Zhiyong Fan,,,§ Rehan control to achieve the optimal absorption efficiency. Increasing the Ge materials filling ratio is shown a strong diameter dependency. To enhance the broad band optical absorption efficiency, a novel dual

  8. Characterizing Absorption Spectrum of Natural Rubidium by Using a Directly Modulated VCSEL

    E-print Network

    Eisenstein, Gadi

    Characterizing Absorption Spectrum of Natural Rubidium by Using a Directly Modulated VCSEL Ido Ben in the absorption profile of a medium containing system atoms. Moreover, the change leads to a very narrow spectra: the VCSEL output and the absorption. Two modulation side bands, separated by fhfs owe to coincide

  9. The Absorption Refrigerator as a Thermal Transformer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, F.

    2009-01-01

    The absorption refrigerator can be considered a thermal transformer, that is, a device that is analogous to the electric transformer. The analogy is based on the correspondence between the extensive quantities, entropy and electric charge and the intensive variables, temperature and electric potential. (Contains 1 footnote and 6 figures.)

  10. Mid-infrared FEL absorption spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Kozub; Bibo Feng; William E. Gabella

    2002-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Mark III FEL is a tunable source of high- intensity coherent mid-infrared radiation occurring as a train of picosecond pulses spaced 350ps apart. The laser beam is transported to each laboratory under vacuum, but is typically transmitted through some distance of atmosphere before reaching the target. Losses due to absorption by water vapor and CO2 can be large,

  11. Mesoscale Banded Precipitation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2005-06-24

    Precipitation frequently falls and accumulates in discrete bands with accumulations that vary markedly over short distances. This module examines several mechanisms that result in mesoscale banded precipitation, focusing primarily on processes at work in midlatitude cyclones. The module starts with a review of the Norwegian and conveyor belt cyclone models. Then several banding processes are examined in detail, including deformation/frontogenesis, the Trowal (Trough of Warm Air Aloft), frontal merger, CSI/slantwise convection, and melting/evaporation-induced circulations. The module concludes with discussions of the representation of banded precipitation by NWP models and the detection of banded precipitation with satellite sensors.

  12. Ultraviolet and infrared absorption spectra of Cr2O3 doped-sodium metaphosphate, lead metaphosphate and zinc metaphosphate glasses and effects of gamma irradiation: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, M A; ElBatal, F H; Abdelghany, A M

    2013-10-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on spectral properties of Cr2O3-doped phosphate glasses of three varieties, namely sodium metaphosphate, lead metaphosphate and zinc metaphosphate have been investigated. Optical spectra of the undoped samples reveal strong UV absorption bands which are attributed to the presence of trace iron impurities in both the sodium and zinc phosphate glasses while the lead phosphate glass exhibits broad UV near visible bands due to combined absorption of both trace iron impurities and divalent lead ions. The effect of chromium oxide content has been investigated. The three different Cr2O3-doped phosphate glasses reveal spectral visible bands varying in their position and intensity and splitting due to the different field strengths of the Na(+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+) cations, together with the way they are housed in the network and their effects on the polarisability of neighboring oxygens ligands. The effects of gamma irradiation on the optical spectral properties of the various glasses have been compared. The different effects for lead and zinc phosphate are related to the ability of Pb(2+), and Zn(2+) to form additional structural units causing stability of the network towards gamma irradiation. Also, the introduction of the transition metal chromium ions reveals some shielding behavior towards irradiation. Infrared absorption spectra of the three different base phosphate glasses show characteristic vibrations due to various phosphate groups depending on the type of glass and Cr2O3 is observed to slightly affect the IR spectra. Gamma irradiation causes minor variations in some of the intensities of the IR spectra but the main characteristic bands due to phosphate groups remain in their number and position. PMID:23816486

  13. Ultraviolet and infrared absorption spectra of Cr2O3 doped - Sodium metaphosphate, lead metaphosphate and zinc metaphosphate glasses and effects of gamma irradiation: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzouk, M. A.; ElBatal, F. H.; Abdelghany, A. M.

    2013-10-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on spectral properties of Cr2O3-doped phosphate glasses of three varieties, namely sodium metaphosphate, lead metaphosphate and zinc metaphosphate have been investigated. Optical spectra of the undoped samples reveal strong UV absorption bands which are attributed to the presence of trace iron impurities in both the sodium and zinc phosphate glasses while the lead phosphate glass exhibits broad UV near visible bands due to combined absorption of both trace iron impurities and divalent lead ions. The effect of chromium oxide content has been investigated. The three different Cr2O3-doped phosphate glasses reveal spectral visible bands varying in their position and intensity and splitting due to the different field strengths of the Na+, Pb2+, Zn2+ cations, together with the way they are housed in the network and their effects on the polarisability of neighboring oxygens ligands. The effects of gamma irradiation on the optical spectral properties of the various glasses have been compared. The different effects for lead and zinc phosphate are related to the ability of Pb2+, and Zn2+ to form additional structural units causing stability of the network towards gamma irradiation. Also, the introduction of the transition metal chromium ions reveals some shielding behavior towards irradiation. Infrared absorption spectra of the three different base phosphate glasses show characteristic vibrations due to various phosphate groups depending on the type of glass and Cr2O3 is observed to slightly affect the IR spectra. Gamma irradiation causes minor variations in some of the intensities of the IR spectra but the main characteristic bands due to phosphate groups remain in their number and position.

  14. Two-color-absorption sensor for time-resolved measurements of gasoline concentration and temperature.

    PubMed

    Pyun, Sung Hyun; Porter, Jason M; Jeffries, Jay B; Hanson, Ronald K; Montoya, Juan C; Allen, Mark G; Sholes, Kevin R

    2009-11-20

    A midinfrared absorption sensor for crank-angle-resolved in-cylinder measurements of gasoline concentration and gas temperature for spark-ignition internal-combustion engines is reported, and design considerations and validation testing in the controlled environments of a heated cell and shock-heated gases are discussed. Mid-IR laser light was tuned to transitions in the strong absorption bands associated with C-H stretching vibration near 3.4 microm, and time-resolved fuel vapor concentration and gas temperature were determined simultaneously from the absorption at two different wavelengths. These two infrared laser wavelengths were simultaneously produced by difference-frequency generation, which combines a near-IR signal laser with two near-IR pump lasers in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. Injection current modulation of the pump lasers produced intensity modulation of the mid-IR, which allowed the transmitted signals from the two laser wavelengths to be detected on a single detector and separated by frequency demultiplexing. Injection current modulation produced a wavelength modulation synchronous with the intensity modulation for each of the laser wavelengths, and accurate measurement of the gasoline absorption signal required the effects of wavelength modulation to be considered. Validation experiments were conducted for a single-component hydrocarbon fuel (2,2,4-trimethyl-pentane, commonly known as iso-octane) and a gasoline blend in a heated static cell (300 < or = T < or = 600 K) and behind planar shock waves (600 < T < 1100 K) in a shock tube. With a bandwidth of 10 kHz, the measured fuel concentrations agreed within 5% RMS and the measured temperature agreed within 3% RMS to the known values. The 10 kHz bandwidth is sufficient to resolve 1 crank-angle degree at 1600 RPM. PMID:19935971

  15. D-xylose absorption

    MedlinePLUS

    D-xylose absorption is a laboratory test to determine how well the intestines absorb a simple sugar (D-xylose). The test ... test is primarily used to determine if nutrient absorption problems are due to a disease of the ...

  16. Subbarrier absorption in a stationary superlattice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arutyunyan, G. M.; Nerkararyan, K. V.

    1984-01-01

    The calculation of the interband absorption coefficient was carried out in the classical case, when the frequency of light was assumed to bind two miniband subbarrier states of different bands. The influence of two dimensional Mott excitons on this absorption was studied and a comparison was made with the experiment. All of these considerations were done taking into account the photon wave vector (the phase spatial heterogeneity). The basic traits of the energy spectra of superlattice semiconductors, their kinetic and optical properties, and possible means of electromagnetic wave intensification were examined. By the density matrix method, a theory of electrical and electromagnetic properties of superlattices was suggested.

  17. 2-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)-benzothiazole (HBT)-Rhodamine Dyad: Acid-Switchable Absorption and Fluorescence of Excited-State Intramolecular Proton Transfer (ESIPT).

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Poulomi; Zhao, Jianzhang

    2015-02-12

    Dyad was prepared by link rhodamine and excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) chromophore 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-benzothiazole (HBT) using Click reaction, with the goal to switch the absorption/emission property of ESIPT chromophore. The photophysical properties of the dyad were studied with steady state and time-resolved absorption and emission spectroscopy. In the absence of acid, that is, with rhodamine is in spirolactam structure, ESIPT was observed, the enol form emission of HBT unit was observed at 404 nm in protic solvents. In aprotic solvents, emission of the keto form of HBT was observed at 543 nm. With addition of acid such as trifluoroacetic acid, the rhodamine unit transforms to the opened amide structure, intense absorption band at 554 nm developed, as well as a strong fluorescence band at 579 nm; in EtOH, the enol emission of HBT at 406 nm was not quenched by the resonance energy transfer (RET), thus, dual fluorescence was observed. In dichloromethane, however, the fluorescence of the keto form of HBT unit was completely quenched. Thus, the absorption and emission of the ESIPT chromophore were switched by a acid/base-activatable rhodamine chromophore. Such studies will add additional modulability to the ESIPT chromophores. PMID:25207667

  18. Electromagnetic wave absorption characteristics of multiwalled carbon nanocoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, Usaburo; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Suda, Yoshiyuki

    2014-04-01

    We have studied the electromagnetic wave absorption properties of a multiwalled carbon nanocoil (MWCNC), a promising lightweight and wide-band electromagnetic wave absorber. Experiments were conducted using several types of paste with various weight concentrations of MWCNC compounded into an organic binder. The results revealed the significant electromagnetic wave absorption potential of the MWCNC. They also verified that its electromagnetic wave absorption effect is strongly dependent on MWCNC concentration, so that there is an optimal MWCNC composition. The increased sample thickness enhances electric conduction loss and encourages electromagnetic wave absorption, even in a high-frequency range. Consequently, the MWCNC has been demonstrated as a new outstanding electromagnetic wave absorber.

  19. Chemical Reaction Observed by Ultrafast X-ray Absorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Jiang; A. Ikhlef; J. C. Kieffer; H. Pépin; F. Raksi; K. Wilson

    1996-01-01

    In the present experiments we studied shape resonance which is a high amplitude absorption resonance in the near edge spectral region close to the absorption threshold for a particular shell, and occurs in symmetrical molecules. The SF6 molecule exhibits intense shape resonance lines at the sulfur K and L edges, due to multiple scattering and interference of the photoelectrons by

  20. IR absorption spectroscopic study of mixed cobalt substituted lithium ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, V. S.; Bagade, A. A.; Mohite, S. V.; Rajpure, K. Y.

    2014-10-01

    The IR spectra of Li0.5-(x/2)CoxFe2.5-(x/2)O4 ferrite samples (0?x?0.6) prepared by solution combustion method have been reported. The influence of Co substitution is verified. XRD studies confirm the spinel phase formation of ferrites. Lattice constant varies linearly from 8.31 Å (x=0) to 8.35 Å (x=0.6) with composition. Evidence of two absorption bands in the IR spectra (below 800 cm-1) reveals the characteristic feature of spinel ferrite. The IR spectra featured additional three absorption bands around 550, 670 and 705 cm-1 for the samples x=0.1 and x=0.6. Absence of bands splitting specifies that Fe ions do not exist in excess form. It is found that high frequency band (?1), due to tetrahedral (A) group, lies at around 600 cm-1 and low frequency band (?2), due to octahedral (B) group, around 450 cm-1. The positions of bands are found to be composition dependent. The IR bands due to tetrahedral complexes shift slightly towards high frequency side with composition upto x=0.4 where as that due to octahedral complexes shift towards lower frequency side with x. Based on the data of absorption bands, force constants (kt, ko) and bond lengths (RA, RB) were estimated. Compositional dependence of force constants is explained on the basis of cation-oxygen bond distances of respective sites and cation distribution.