Sample records for absorption path length

  1. Path length enhancement in disordered media for increased absorption

    E-print Network

    Mupparapu, Rajeshkumar; Svensson, Tomas; Burresi, Matteo; Wiersma, Diederik S

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically and numerically investigate the capability of disordered media to enhance the optical path length in dielectric slabs and augment their light absorption efficiency due to scattering. We first perform a series of Monte Carlo simulations of random walks to determine the path length distribution in weakly to strongly (single to multiple) scattering, non-absorbing dielectric slabs under normally incident light and derive analytical expressions for the path length enhancement in these two limits. Quite interestingly, while multiple scattering is expected to produce long optical paths, we find that media containing a vanishingly small amount of scatterers can still provide high path length enhancements due to the very long trajectories sustained by total internal reflection at the slab interfaces. The path length distributions are then used to calculate the light absorption efficiency of media with varying absorption coefficients. We find that maximum absorption enhancement is obtained at an optima...

  2. Light absorption cell combining variable path and length pump

    DOEpatents

    Prather, William S. (2419 Dickey Rd., Augusta, GA 30906)

    1993-01-01

    A device for use in making spectrophotometric measurements of fluid samples. In particular, the device is a measurement cell containing a movable and a fixed lens with a sample of the fluid therebetween and through which light shines. The cell is connected to a source of light and a spectrophotometer via optic fibers. Movement of the lens varies the path length and also pumps the fluid into and out of the cell. Unidirectional inlet and exit valves cooperate with the movable lens to assure a one-way flow of fluid through the cell. A linear stepper motor controls the movement of the lens and cycles it from a first position closer to the fixed lens and a second position farther from the fixed lens, preferably at least 10 times per minute for a nearly continuous stream of absorption spectrum data.

  3. Light absorption cell combining variable path and length pump

    DOEpatents

    Prather, W.S.

    1993-12-07

    A device is described for use in making spectrophotometric measurements of fluid samples. In particular, the device is a measurement cell containing a movable and a fixed lens with a sample of the fluid there between and through which light shines. The cell is connected to a source of light and a spectrophotometer via optic fibers. Movement of the lens varies the path length and also pumps the fluid into and out of the cell. Unidirectional inlet and exit valves cooperate with the movable lens to assure a one-way flow of fluid through the cell. A linear stepper motor controls the movement of the lens and cycles it from a first position closer to the fixed lens and a second position farther from the fixed lens, preferably at least 10 times per minute for a nearly continuous stream of absorption spectrum data. 2 figures.

  4. Monitoring of Atmospheric Hydrogen Peroxide in Houston Using Long Path-Length Laser-Based Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, N. P.; Cao, Y.; Jiang, W.; Tittel, F. K.; Griffin, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a relevant atmospheric species mainly formed by recombination of hydroperoxyl radicals. H2O2 participates in the formation of sulfate aerosol by in-cloud oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI) and has been associated with the generation of multi-functional water soluble organic compounds in atmospheric particulate matter. Furthermore, H2O2 plays an important role in the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere as it acts as a reservoir for HOx radicals (OH and HO2). Particular conditions in the Houston area (e.g. extensive presence of petrochemical industry and high ozone and humidity levels) indicate the potential relevance of this species at this location. Despite its atmospheric relevance, no reports on the levels of H2O2 in Houston have been presented previously in the scientific literature. Determination of atmospheric H2O2 usually has been conducted based on transfer of the gas-phase H2O2 to the liquid phase prior to quantification by techniques such as fluorescence spectroscopy. Although these methods allow detection of H2O2 at the sub-ppb level, they present some limitations including the interference from other atmospheric constituents and potential sampling artifacts. In this study, a high sensitivity sensor based on long-path absorption spectroscopy using a distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser was developed and used to conduct direct gas-phase H2O2 monitoring in Houston. The sensor, which targets a strong H2O2 absorption line (~7.73 ?m) with no interference from other atmospheric species, was deployed at a ground level monitoring station near the University of Houston main campus during summer 2014. The performance of this novel sensor was evaluated by side-by-side comparison with a fluorescence-based instrument typically used for atmospheric monitoring of H2O2. H2O2 levels were determined, and time series of H2O2 mixing ratios were generated allowing insight into the dynamics, trends, and atmospheric inter-relations of H2O2 in the Houston area.

  5. Multiple-Path-Length Optical Absorbance Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An optical absorbance cell that offers a selection of multiple optical path lengths has been developed as part of a portable spectrometric instrument that measures absorption spectra of small samples of water and that costs less than does a conventional, non-portable laboratory spectrometer. The instrument is intended, more specifically, for use in studying colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in seawater, especially in coastal regions. Accurate characterization of CDOM is necessary for building bio-optical mathematical models of seawater. The multiple path lengths of the absorption cell afford a wide range of sensitivity needed for measuring the optical absorbances associated with the wide range of concentrations of CDOM observed in nature. The instrument operates in the wavelength range of 370 to 725 nm. The major subsystems of the instrument (see figure) include a color-balanced light source; the absorption cell; a peristaltic pump; a high-precision, low-noise fiber optic spectrometer; and a laptop or other personal computer. A fiber-optic cable transmits light from the source to the absorption cell. Other optical fibers transmit light from the absorption cell to the spectrometer,

  6. Free path lengths in quasicrystals

    E-print Network

    Jens Marklof; Andreas Strömbergsson

    2013-04-07

    Previous studies of kinetic transport in the Lorentz gas have been limited to cases where the scatterers are distributed at random (e.g. at the points of a spatial Poisson process) or at the vertices of a Euclidean lattice. In the present paper we investigate quasicrystalline scatterer configurations, which are non-periodic, yet strongly correlated. A famous example is the vertex set of the Penrose tiling. Our main result proves the existence of a limit distribution of the free path length, which answers a question of Wennberg. The limit distribution is characterised by a certain random variable on the space of higher dimensional lattices, and is distinctly different from the exponential distribution observed for random scatterer configurations. The key ingredients in the proofs are equidistribution theorems on homogeneous spaces, which follow from Ratner's measure classification.

  7. Variable path length spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    O'Rourke, Patrick E. (157 Greenwood Dr., Martiney, GA 30907); McCarty, Jerry E. (104 Recreation Dr., Aiken, SC 29803); Haggard, Ricky A. (1144 Thornwood Drive, North Augusta, SC 29891)

    1992-01-01

    A compact, variable pathlength, fiber optic probe for spectrophotometric measurements of fluids in situ. The probe comprises a probe body with a shaft having a polished end penetrating one side of the probe, a pair of optic fibers, parallel and coterminous, entering the probe opposite the reflecting shaft, and a collimating lens to direct light from one of the fibers to the reflecting surface of the shaft and to direct the reflected light to the second optic fiber. The probe body has an inlet and an outlet port to allow the liquid to enter the probe body and pass between the lens and the reflecting surface of the shaft. A linear stepper motor is connected to the shaft to cause the shaft to advance toward or away from the lens in increments so that absorption measurements can be made at each of the incremental steps. The shaft is sealed to the probe body by a bellows seal to allow freedom of movement of the shaft and yet avoid leakage from the interior of the probe.

  8. Utilization of path length fuzing in the Peacekeeper Weapon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, A. D.

    This paper presents a discussion of the utilization and implementation of path length fuzing in the Peacekeeper Weapon System. Some background information which introduces the concept of path length fuzing and discusses its applicability to the Peacekeeper is first presented. Mathematical modeling of path length fuzing is discussed, and some novel algorithms and techniques developed by the author for implementation of path length fuzing in the Peacekeeper Operational Flight Program are presented. The scope of this paper is confined to the flight software and targeting aspects of path length fuzing; details of of the fuze hardware and electronics are not addressed.

  9. UV laser long-path absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorn, Hans-Peter; Brauers, Theo; Neuroth, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    Long path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using a picosecond UV laser as a light source was developed in our institute. Tropospheric OH radicals are measured by their rotational absorption lines around 308 nm. The spectra are obtained using a high resolution spectrograph. The detection system has been improved over the formerly used optomechanical scanning device by application of a photodiode array which increased the observed spectral range by a factor of 6 and which utilizes the light much more effectively leading to a considerable reduction of the measurement time. This technique provides direct measurements of OH because the signal is given by the product of the absorption coefficient and the OH concentration along the light path according to Lambert-Beers law. No calibration is needed. Since the integrated absorption coefficient is well known the accuracy of the measurement essentially depends on the extent to which the OH absorption pattern can be detected in the spectra. No interference by self generated OH radicals in the detection lightpath has been observed. The large bandwidth (greater than 0.15 nm) and the high spectral resolution (1.5 pm) allows absolute determination of interferences by other trace gas absorptions. The measurement error is directly accessible from the absorption-signal to baseline-noise ratio in the spectra. The applicability of the method strongly depends on visibility. Elevated concentrations of aerosols lead to considerable attenuation of the laser light which reduces the S/N-ratio. In the moderately polluted air of Julich, where we performed a number of OH measurement spectra. In addition absorption features of unidentified species were frequently detected. A quantitative deconvolution even of the known species is not easy to achieve and can leave residual structures in the spectra. Thus interferences usually increase the noise and deteriorate the OH detection sensitivity. Using diode arrays for sensitive absorption measurements some specific problems of those detectors have to be solved experimentally (i.e. fixed pattern noise, dark signal noise, nonuniform efficiency of individual elements, spatial sensitivity variations). In order to improve the low spatial resolution we performed laboratory studies using a multiple reflection cell to convert the long path technique to a real in situ point measurement. Under the conditions of field experiments in Julich residual absorbance signals at present are about 1.5x10(exp -4) corresponding to an OH detection sensitivity of 2x10(exp 6) OH/cm(exp 3) using a light path of 5.8 km. Total integration times for one measurement point vary between a few minutes and an hour.

  10. Diagnosis of multilayer clouds using photon path length distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Siwei; Min, Qilong

    2010-10-01

    Photon path length distribution is sensitive to 3-D cloud structures. A detection method for multilayer clouds has been developed, by utilizing the information of photon path length distribution. The photon path length method estimates photon path length information from the low level, single-layer cloud structure that can be accurately observed by a millimeter-wave cloud radar (MMCR) combined with a micropulse lidar (MPL). As multiple scattering within the cloud layers and between layers would substantially enhance the photon path length, the multilayer clouds can be diagnosed by evaluating the estimated photon path information against observed photon path length information from a co-located rotating shadowband spectrometer (RSS). The measurements of MMCR-MPL and RSS at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site have been processed for the year 2000. Cases studies illustrate the consistency between MMCR-MPL detection and the photon path length method under most conditions. However, the photon path length method detected some multilayer clouds that were classified by the MMCR-MPL as single-layer clouds. From 1 year statistics at the ARM SGP site, about 27.7% of single-layer clouds detected by the MMCR-MPL with solar zenith angle less than 70° and optical depth greater than 10 could be multilayer clouds. It suggests that a substantial portion of single-layer clouds detected by the MMCR-MPL could also be influenced by some "missed" clouds or by the 3-D effects of clouds.

  11. Radio path length correction using water vapour radiometry

    E-print Network

    R. J. Sault; G. J. Carrad; P. J. Hall; J. Crofts

    2006-12-31

    Path length changes through the atmosphere cause significant errors for astronomical radio interferometry at high frequencies (e.g. 100 GHz). Path length differences typically give rise to a differential excess path of 1mm for antennas separated by 1km, and have fluctuation time scales of greater than 10 seconds. To measure these fluctuations, we are building a four-channel radiometer centred on the 22 GHz water line. By sensing the water vapour emission, the excess path can be deduced and corrected. Multiple channels give us robustness against various systematic errors, but gain stability of the radiometer of 1 pair in 10^4 is still required.

  12. Analytical solution of average path length for Apollonian networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongzhi; Chen, Lichao; Zhou, Shuigeng; Fang, Lujun; Guan, Jihong; Zou, Tao

    2008-01-01

    With the help of recursion relations derived from the self-similar structure, we obtain the solution of average path length, dmacr t , for Apollonian networks. In contrast to the well-known numerical result dmacr t?(lnNt)3/4 [J. S. Andrade, Jr. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 018702 (2005)], our rigorous solution shows that the average path length grows logarithmically as dmacr t?lnNt in the infinite limit of network size Nt . The extensive numerical calculations completely agree with our closed-form solution.

  13. In-situ Measurements of Tropospheric Hydroxyl Radicals by Folded Long-Path Laser Absorption During the Field Campaign POPCORN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe Brandenburger; Theo Brauers; Hans-Peter Dorn; Martin Hausmann; Dieter H. Ehhalt

    1998-01-01

    Absolutely calibrated in-situ measurements of tropospheric hydroxyl radicals, formaldehyde, sulfur dioxide, and naphthalene (C10H8) were performed by long-path laser absorption spectroscopy during the field campaign POPCORN. The absorption light path was folded into an open optical multiple reflection cell with a mirror separation of 38.5 m. Using a light path length of 1848 m and an integration time of 200

  14. Proper generating trees and their internal path length

    E-print Network

    Merlini, Donatella

    Proper generating trees and their internal path length Donatella Merlini Dipartimento di Sistemi e Informatica viale Morgagni 65, 50134, Firenze, Italia merlini@dsi.unifi.it Abstract We find the generating, Merlini and Verri [15] pointed out an important connection between pRa's and generating trees

  15. Phylogenetic dating with confidence intervals using mean path lengths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Britton; Bengt Oxelman; Annika Vinnersten; Kåre Bremer

    2002-01-01

    The mean path length (MPL) method, a simple method for dating nodes in a phylogenetic tree, is presented. For small trees the age estimates and corresponding confidence intervals, calibrated with fossil data, can be calculated by hand, and for larger trees a computer program gives the results instantaneously (a Pascal program is available upon request). Necessary input data are a

  16. Photon path length distributions in Oxygen A-band and water vapor band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Q.; Harrison, L. C.; Kiedron, P.; Berndt, J.; Clothiaux, E. E.; Joseph, E.

    2004-05-01

    A prototype high-resolution oxygen A-band and water vapor band spectrometer (HAWS) has been developed and demonstrated to study the applicability of photon path length statistics in the remote sensing of clouds, aerosols, and water vapor. The HAWS successfully achieves an out-of-band rejection of better than 10-5, a resolution of better than 0.5 cm-1, and high signal to noise ratio, which are crucial to retrieval of atmospheric information through high-resolution spectrometry in the A-band and water vapor band. An algorithm for retrieving the first two moments of the photon path length probability density function for both the oxygen A-band and the 0.820 mm water vapor band from measurements of HAWS and Rotating Shadowband Spectrometer (RSS) is developed and applied to data from the ARM SGP site. Results show that in the A-band thick and multiple layer clouds significantly enhance the mean and variance of the photon path length distribution, thin cirrus condition produce relatively small mean distribution and variance, and mean path lengths comparable to or smaller than the solar airmass were associated with clear sky cases at large solar zenith angles. The mean path length and variance in the water vapor band differs from that in the A-band due to the spatial inhomogeneity of water vapor amounts, particularly in association with cloud layers. Case studies illustrate that the variance of the photon path length probability density function is more sensitive than the mean of the probability density function to vertical cloud structure. Interestingly, the first two moments of the photon path length probability density function appear to exhibit sufficient sensitivity to detect cirrus that the ARM SGP millimeter-wave cloud radar failed to detect. Photon path length probability density functions from both the oxygen A-band and 0.820 mm water vapor band provide additional insights into radiative transfer through a variety of cloudy conditions, improving our understanding of water vapor absorption of solar radiation in these conditions. This work also provides a basis for the application of path length distribution in the development and validation of radiative transfer parameterizations that account for the effects of cloud inhomogeneity.

  17. Effective path length corrections in beam-beam scattering experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinkmann, R. T.; Trajmar, S.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of the change of scattering geometry with scattering angle in beam-beam experiments is investigated. Atomic (molecular) target distributions associated with static gas, orifice, tube, capillary array (with and without further collimation), and jet sources have been considered in model calculations for a number of commonly used electron scattering geometries. The relationship between scattering intensity, cross section, and the geometrical integral called 'effective path length' is derived. Volume correction factors (the reciprocal of effective path length) have been calculated for sample cases to illustrate the effect of various beam and scattering geometry characteristics. The validity of the model calculation has been experimentally verified. Most of the commonly used scattering geometries require significant correction of the scattering intensity distributions, but with proper planning scattering geometries can be designed such that the intensity and the cross section angular distribution are identical within 1%.

  18. Test Bed For Control Of Optical-Path Lengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neal, Michael C.; Eldred, Daniel D.; Liu, Dankai; Redding, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Truss structure and ancillary equipment constitute test bed for experiments in methods of controlling lengths of optical paths under conditions of structural vibration and deformation. Accommodates both passive and active methods of control. Experimental control system reduces millimeter-level disturbances in optical path length to nanometers. Developed for control, alignment, and aiming of distributed optical systems on large flexible structures. Test bed includes tower 2.5 meters high with two horizontal arms extending at right angles from its top. Rigidly mounted on massive steel block providing measure of isolation from ground vibrations. Optical motion-compensation system similar to one described previously in NASA Tech Briefs enclosed in flexure-mounted frame, called "trolley," at end of longer horizontal arm.

  19. Long path atomic/ionic absorption spectrometry in an inductively coupled plasma.

    PubMed

    Mignardi, M A; Smith, B W; Winefordner, J D

    1990-03-15

    A novel approach was taken to increase the atomic/ionic absorption path length in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) by using a water-cooled quartz "T-shaped" bonnet. Atomic and ionic absorption spectrometry was performed utilizing a continuum source and line sources. Absorption spectra of synthetic multielement solutions were collected with a photodiode array. Sample introduction into the ICP was accomplished with an ultrasonic nebulizer. To prevent the bonnet from cracking, low radio frequency powers were utilized (i.e., 400-600 W). Plasma diagnostics were performed to study the plasma temperature and electron number density within the "T-shaped" bonnet. Analytical figures of merit were found to be better than those obtained from previous work attempted with inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectroscopy and approaching that of flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. PMID:2316872

  20. Simulation of experimental investigations of X-ray spectral path lengths on Iskra-5 laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bel'kov, S A; Sharov, O O [Russian Federal Nuclear Center 'All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics', Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-31

    We describe an improved Slater average-ion model employed in the numerical-theoretical analysis of experimental data, which were obtained in the investigation of X-ray spectral path lengths performed on the Iskra-5 laser facility at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF). The proposed model permits determining the spectral characteristics of the X-ray radiation with an accuracy of a few electronvolts. We outline the results of simulations of experiments with X-ray radiation-heated aluminium and germanium specimens of initial thickness of {approx}0.1 mm, in which absorption lines arising from 1s-2p transitions in Al and the absorption band arising from 2p-3d transitions in Ge were recorded.

  1. Photon path length distributions inferred from rotating shadowband spectrometer measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements Program Southern Great Plains site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Qilong; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2003-08-01

    An algorithm for retrieving the first two moments of the photon path length probability density function for both the oxygen A-band and the 0.820 ?m water vapor band from measurements of the second generation Rotating Shadowband Spectrometer (RSS) is developed and applied to data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. In the algorithm, solar direct-beam measurements are used to characterize the instrument response function in pixel (i.e., wavelength) space. By using nonlinear least squares regression with a two-parameter gamma function constraint, the mean and variance of the photon path length probability density function for cloudy skies are subsequently retrieved from spectral measurements in both bands. Two case studies illustrate that the variance of the photon path length probability density function is more sensitive than the mean of the probability density function to vertical cloud structure. Interestingly, the first two moments of the photon path length probability density function appear to exhibit sufficient sensitivity to detect cirrus that the ARM SGP millimeter-wave cloud radar failed to detect. Photon path length probability density functions from both the oxygen A-band and 0.820 ?m water vapor band provide additional insights into radiative transfer through a variety of cloudy conditions, improving our understanding of water vapor absorption of solar radiation in these conditions.

  2. Temperature variable long path cell for absorption measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shetter, R. E.; Davidson, J. A.; Cantrell, C. A.; Calvert, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    The design and construction of a long path cell for absorption measurements at temperatures ranging from 215-470 K and at pressures from vacuum to 10 atm are described. The cell consists of three concentric stainless-steel tubes; the innermost tube is 6.5-in. in internal diameter, has a volume of about 47 l, and contains White-type optics, six thermocouples, and a gas input tube; and the outermost tube provides a vacuum Dewar around the inner assembly. The optical design and temperature control system for the long path temperature variable cell are examined. The long path cell is applicable for analyzing temperature and pressure dependence of spectra and reaction rates of gases, and the cell has flow and photolysis capabilities for studying transient species and photochemically initiated reactions. A diagram of the cell is provided.

  3. On the Relationship of Tornado Path Length and Width to Intensity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold E. Brooks

    2004-01-01

    Reported path lengths and widths of tornadoes have been modeled using Weibull distributions for different Fujita (F) scale values. The fits are good over a wide range of lengths and widths. Path length and width tend to increase with increasing F scale, although the temporal nonstationarity of the data for some parts of the data (such as width of F3

  4. High reflected cubic cavity as long path absorption cell for infrared gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jia; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2014-10-01

    One direct and efficient method to improve the sensitivity of infrared gas sensors is to increase the optical path length of gas cells according to Beer-Lambert Law. In this paper, cubic shaped cavities with high reflected inner coating as novel long path absorption cells for infrared gas sensing were developed. The effective optical path length (EOPL) for a single cubic cavity and tandem cubic cavities were investigated based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) measuring oxygen P11 line at 763 nm. The law of EOPL of a diffuse cubic cavity in relation with the reflectivity of the coating, the port fraction and side length of the cavity was obtained. Experimental results manifested an increase of EOPL for tandem diffuse cubic cavities as the decrease of port fraction of the connecting aperture f', and the EOPL equaled to the sum of that of two single cubic cavities at f'<0.01. The EOPL spectra at infrared wavelength range for different inner coatings including high diffuse coatings and high reflected metallic thin film coatings were deduced.

  5. Optical Path Switching Based Differential Absorption Radiometry for Substance Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, Glen W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system and method are provided for detecting one or more substances. An optical path switch divides sample path radiation into a time series of alternating first polarized components and second polarized components. The first polarized components are transmitted along a first optical path and the second polarized components along a second optical path. A first gasless optical filter train filters the first polarized components to isolate at least a first wavelength band thereby generating first filtered radiation. A second gasless optical filter train filters the second polarized components to isolate at least a second wavelength band thereby generating second filtered radiation. The first wavelength band and second wavelength band are unique. Further, spectral absorption of a substance of interest is different at the first wavelength band as compared to the second wavelength band. A beam combiner combines the first and second filtered radiation to form a combined beam of radiation. A detector is disposed to monitor magnitude of at least a portion of the combined beam alternately at the first wavelength band and the second wavelength band as an indication of the concentration of the substance in the sample path.

  6. Laser Metrology for an Optical-Path-Length Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gursel, Yekta

    2005-01-01

    Laser gauges have been developed to satisfy requirements specific to monitoring the amplitude of the motion of an optical-path-length modulator that is part of an astronomical interferometer. The modulator includes a corner-cube retroreflector driven by an electromagnetic actuator. During operation of the astronomical interferometer, the electromagnet is excited to produce linear reciprocating motion of the corner-cube retroreflector at an amplitude of 2 to 4 mm at a frequency of 250, 750, or 1,250 Hz. Attached to the corner-cube retroreflector is a small pick-off mirror. To suppress vibrations, a counterweight having a mass equal to that of the corner-cube retroreflector and pick-off mirror is mounted on another electromagnetic actuator that is excited in opposite phase. Each gauge is required to measure the amplitude of the motion of the pick-off mirror, assuming that the motions of the pick-off mirror and the corner-cube retroreflector are identical, so as to measure the amplitude of motion of the corner- cube retroreflector to within an error of the order of picometers at each excitation frequency. Each gauge is a polarization-insensitive heterodyne interferometer that includes matched collimators, beam separators, and photodiodes (see figure). The light needed for operation of the gauge comprises two pairs of laser beams, the beams in each pair being separated by a beat frequency of 80 kHz. The laser beams are generated by an apparatus, denoted the heterodyne plate, that includes stabilized helium-neon lasers, acousto-optical modulators, and associated optical and electronic subsystems. The laser beams are coupled from the heterodyne plate to the collimators via optical fibers.

  7. Modeling Path Length in Wireless Ad-hoc Quan Jun Chen , Salil S. Kanhere , Mahbub Hassan

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    on the performance of wireless network, such as throughput, end- to-end delay and energy consumption. In this paper of path length in wireless ad-hoc network is still absent in the literature. This paper targets1 Modeling Path Length in Wireless Ad-hoc Network Quan Jun Chen , Salil S. Kanhere , Mahbub Hassan

  8. Gas spectroscopy and optical path-length assessment in scattering media using a frequency-modulated continuous-wave diode laser.

    PubMed

    Mei, Liang; Jayaweera, Hiran; Lundin, Patrik; Svanberg, Sune; Somesfalean, Gabriel

    2011-08-15

    Simultaneous assessment of the spectroscopic absorption signal of gas enclosed in a scattering medium and the corresponding optical path length of the probing light is demonstrated using a single setup. Sensitive gas absorption measurements are performed by a tunable diode laser using wavelength-modulation spectroscopy, while the path length is evaluated by the frequency-modulated cw technique commonly used in the field of telecommunication. Proof-of-principle measurements are demonstrated with water vapor as the absorbing gas and using polystyrene foam as an inhomogeneously scattering medium. The combination of these techniques opens up new possibilities for straightforward evaluation of gas presence and exchange in scattering media. PMID:21847151

  9. COMPARISON BETWEEN PATH LENGTHS TRAVELED BY SOLAR ELECTRONS AND IONS IN GROUND-LEVEL ENHANCEMENT EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Lun C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Malandraki, Olga E.; Patsou, Ioanna; Papaioannou, Athanasios [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, Athens (Greece); Reames, Donald V. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ng, Chee K. [College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Wang, Linghua, E-mail: ltan@umd.edu [Department of Geophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-05-01

    We have examined the Wind/3DP/SST electron and Wind/EPACT/LEMT ion data to investigate the path length difference between solar electrons and ions in the ground-level enhancement (GLE) events in solar cycle 23. Assuming that the onset time of metric type II or decameter-hectometric (DH) type III radio bursts is the solar release time of non-relativistic electrons, we have found that within an error range of {+-}10% the deduced path length of low-energy ({approx}27 keV) electrons from their release site near the Sun to the 1 AU observer is consistent with the ion path length deduced by Reames from the onset time analysis. In addition, the solar longitude distribution and IMF topology of the GLE events examined are in favor of the coronal mass ejection-driven shock acceleration origin of observed non-relativistic electrons. We have also found an increase of electron path lengths with increasing electron energies. The increasing rate of path lengths is correlated with the pitch angle distribution (PAD) of peak electron intensities locally measured, with a higher rate corresponding to a broader PAD. The correlation indicates that the path length enhancement is due to the interplanetary scattering experienced by first arriving electrons. The observed path length consistency implies that the maximum stable time of magnetic flux tubes, along which particles transport, could reach 4.8 hr.

  10. Thermoacoustic optical path length stabilization in a single-mode optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Lewoczko-Adamczyk, Wojciech; Schiemangk, Max; Müller, Holger; Peters, Achim

    2009-02-01

    We present a simple technique to actively stabilize the optical path length in an optical fiber. A part of the fiber is coated with a thin, electrically conductive layer, which acts as a heater. The optical path length is thus modified by temperature-dependent changes in the refractive index and the mechanical length of the fiber. For the first time, we measure the dynamic response of the optical path length to the periodic changes of temperature and find it to be in agreement with our former theoretical prediction. The fiber's response to the temperature changes is determined by the speed of sound in quartz rather than by slow thermal diffusion. Making use of this fact, we succeeded in actively stabilizing the optical path length with a closed-loop bandwidth of 3.8 kHz. PMID:19183596

  11. An improved photon path length probability density function–based radiative transfer model for space-based observation of greenhouse gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey Oshchepkov; Andrey Bril; Tatsuya Yokota

    2009-01-01

    We present an improved model to describe the photon path length probability density function (PPDF) that effectively accounts for both aerosol and thin cloud effects for rapid retrieval of greenhouse gas data from space-based high spectral resolution measurements. The reasonably simple PPDF and effective transmittance parameterization permit vertical inhomogeneity of gas absorption and three plane-parallel arbitrarily located layers to account

  12. A Faster Algorithm for the Single Source Shortest Path Problem with Few Distinct Positive Lengths

    E-print Network

    Orlin, James B.

    In this paper, we propose an efficient method for implementing Dijkstra's algorithm for the Single Source Shortest Path Problem (SSSPP) in a graph whose edges have positive length, and where there are few distinct edge ...

  13. FREE PATH LENGTHS IN QUASICRYSTALS JENS MARKLOF AND ANDREAS STR OMBERGSSON

    E-print Network

    Strömbergsson, Andreas

    FREE PATH LENGTHS IN QUASICRYSTALS JENS MARKLOF AND ANDREAS STR ¨OMBERGSSON Abstract. Previous of quasicrystals, for instance the vertex set of any of the classical Penrose tilings. Date: October 14, 2013

  14. Planar length-optimal paths under acceleration constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Aneesh; S. P. Bhat

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of finding minimum length trajectories for a particle moving in a two-dimensional plane from a given initial position and velocity to a specified terminal heading under a magnitude constraint on the acceleration. Unlike previous work on related problems, variations in the magnitude of the velocity vector are allowed. Pontryagin's maximum principle is used to show

  15. Design and analysis of long absorption-length traveling-wave photodetectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Wei Shi; Chi-Kuang Sun

    2000-01-01

    Long-absorption-length traveling-wave-photodetectors (TWPDs) are requisite for high-power and high-speed applications. In the long absorption length regime, some previously negligible bandwidth limitation factors, such as microwave loss and boundary reflection, become critical. In this paper, we calculate each limiting factor for long-absorption-length TWPDs using a photo-distributed-current model, which can be easily modified to include different effects comparing with the previous model.

  16. All Pairs Shortest Paths for Graphs with Small Integer Length Edges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zvi Galil; Oded Margalit

    1997-01-01

    The authors have solved the all pairs shortest distances (APSD) problem for graphs with integer edge lengths. Our algorithm is subcubic for edge lengths of small (?M) absolute value. In this paper we show how to transform these algorithms to solve the all pairs shortest paths (APSP), in the same time complexity, up to a polylogarithmic factor. Forn=|V| the number

  17. An anatomic study of retrobulbar needle path length.

    PubMed

    Katsev, D A; Drews, R C; Rose, B T

    1989-08-01

    One hundred twenty human orbits were measured to determine orbital depth and the position of orbital structures in relation to the length of needles used for retrobulbar anesthesia. The distance from the inferior temporal orbital rim to the nasal entrance of the optic foramen ranged from 42 to 54 mm. Taking into account the size of the optic nerve, the common 38-mm (1.5-in) retrobulbar needle could perforate the optic nerve where it is fixed in front of the foramen in over 11% of the population. The authors recommend that needles be placed less than 31 mm (1.25 in) behind the orbital rim for both retro- and peribulbar anesthesia. PMID:2797726

  18. Pillar cuvettes: capillary-filled, microliter quartz cuvettes with microscale path lengths for optical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Holzner, Gregor; Kriel, Frederik Hermanus; Priest, Craig

    2015-05-01

    The goal of most analytical techniques is to reduce the lower limit of detection; however, it is sometimes necessary to do the opposite. High sample concentrations or samples with high molar absorptivity (e.g., dyes and metal complexes) often require multiple dilution steps or laborious sample preparation prior to spectroscopic analysis. Here, we demonstrate dilution-free, one-step UV-vis spectroscopic analysis of high concentrations of platinum(IV) hexachloride in a micropillar array, that is, "pillar cuvette". The cuvette is spontaneously filled by wicking of the liquid sample into the micropillar array. The pillar height (thus, the film thickness) defines the optical path length, which was reduced to between 10 and 20 ?m in this study (3 orders of magnitude smaller than in a typical cuvette). Only one small droplet (?2 ?L) of sample is required, and the dispensed volume need not be precise or even known to the analyst for accurate spectroscopy measurements. For opaque pillars, we show that absorbance is linearly related to platinum concentration (the Beer-Lambert Law). For fully transparent or semitransparent pillars, the measured absorbance was successfully corrected for the fractional surface coverage of the pillars and the transmittance of the pillars and reference. Thus, both opaque and transparent pillars can be applied to absorbance spectroscopy of high absorptivity, microliter samples. It is also shown here that the pillar array has a useful secondary function as an integrated (in-cuvette) filter for particulates. For pillar cuvette measurements of platinum solutions spiked with 6 ?m diameter polystyrene spheres, filtered and unfiltered samples gave identical spectra. PMID:25844800

  19. Visual target distance, but not visual cursor path length produces shifts in motor behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wendker, Nike; Sack, Oliver S.; Sutter, Christine

    2014-01-01

    When using tools effects in body space and distant space often do not correspond. Findings so far demonstrated that in this case visual feedback has more impact on action control than proprioceptive feedback. The present study varies the dimensional overlap between visual and proprioceptive action effects and investigates its impact on aftereffects in motor responses. In two experiments participants perform linear hand movements on a covered digitizer tablet to produce ?-shaped cursor trajectories on the display. The shape of hand motion and cursor motion (linear vs. curved) is dissimilar and therefore does not overlap. In one condition the length of hand amplitude and visual target distance is similar and constant while the length of the cursor path is dissimilar and varies. In another condition the length of the hand amplitude varies while the lengths of visual target distance (similar or dissimilar) and cursor path (dissimilar) are constant. First, we found that aftereffects depended on the relation between hand path length and visual target distance, and not on the relation between hand and cursor path length. Second, increasing contextual interference did not reveal larger aftereffects. Finally, data exploration demonstrated a considerable benefit from gain repetitions across trials when compared to gain switches. In conclusion, dimensional overlap between visual and proprioceptive action effects modulates human information processing in visually controlled actions. However, adjustment of the internal model seems to occur very fast for this kind of simple linear transformation, so that the impact of prior visual feedback is fleeting. PMID:24672507

  20. ABSORPTION TIME AND TREE LENGTH OF THE KINGMAN COALESCENT AND THE GUMBEL DIS-

    E-print Network

    Möhle, Martin

    ABSORPTION TIME AND TREE LENGTH OF THE KINGMAN COALESCENT AND THE GUMBEL DIS- TRIBUTION M. M¨ohle1 to revisit the moments and central moments of the classical Gumbel distribution. Keywords: absorption time of coalescent processes (restricted to a sample of size n N) such as the number of jumps, the absorption time

  1. Phase space considerations for light path lengths in planar, isotropic absorbers.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ian Marius

    2014-05-01

    Fundamental limits for path lengths of light in isotropic absorbers are calculated. The method of calculation is based on accounting for occupied states in optical phase space. Light trapping techniques, such as scattering or diffraction, are represented by the way how the available states are occupied. One finding of the presented investigation is that the path length limit is independent of the light trapping mechanism and only depends on the conditions for light incidence to, and escape from the absorber. A further finding is that the maximum path length is obtained for every light trapping mechanisms which results in a complete filling of the available states in phase space. For stationary solar cells, the Yablonovitch limit of 4dn², with n the refractive index of the absorber, is a very good approximation of this limit. PMID:24922396

  2. Optical path switching based differential absorption radiometry for substance detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, Glen W. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An optical path switch divides sample path radiation into a time series of alternating first polarized components and second polarized components. The first polarized components are transmitted along a first optical path and the second polarized components along a second optical path. A first gasless optical filter train filters the first polarized components to isolate at least a first wavelength band thereby generating first filtered radiation. A second gasless optical filter train filters the second polarized components to isolate at least a second wavelength band thereby generating second filtered radiation. A beam combiner combines the first and second filtered radiation to form a combined beam of radiation. A detector is disposed to monitor magnitude of at least a portion of the combined beam alternately at the first wavelength band and the second wavelength band as an indication of the concentration of the substance in the sample path.

  3. Path Length Control in a Nulling Coronagraph with a MEMS Deformable Mirror and a Calibration Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti R.; Wallacea, J. Kent; Samuele, Rocco; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy; Hicks, Brian; Jung, Paul; Lane, Benjamin; Levine, B. Martin; Mendillo, Chris; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Shao, Mike; Stewart, Jason B.

    2008-01-01

    We report progress on a nulling coronagraph intended for direct imaging of extrasolar planets. White light is suppressed in an interferometer, and phase errors are measured by a second interferometer. A 1020-pixel MEMS deformable mirror in the first interferometer adjusts the path length across the pupil. A feedback control system reduces deflections of the deformable mirror to order of 1 nm rms.

  4. On the determination of atmospheric path length by passive microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, W. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Microwave radiometer techniques were evaluated for use in atmospheric path length correction of Pacific Plate Motion Experiment interferometer measurements. It is shown that passive microwave radiometry allows precise measurement of the brightness temperature of the sky. It is also noted that the technological requirements of radiometers are very different from the requirements of radio astronomy. The technology was used in the construction of radiometers which are sufficient for use in the path length correction problem. A simulation study shows that, when combined with surface meteorology data, passive microwave radiometer data would allow a determination of the path length correction to better than 2 cm at the zenith. By a careful choice of frequencies, a dual frequency system would allow a measurement of the path length correction to better than 4 cm at zenith angles as great as 60 deg. Because of the wide range of weather conditions to be expected for the PPME sites (which include Alaska, Hawaii and Massachusetts), it will probably be necessary to use a separate correction algorithm for each site.

  5. Acoustic method for measuring the sound speed of gases over small path lengths

    E-print Network

    Acoustic method for measuring the sound speed of gases over small path lengths J. S. Olfert,a M. D, Canada Received 9 February 2007; accepted 8 April 2007; published online 9 May 2007 Acoustic "phase shift this method the discrete acoustic wave and phase detection DAWPD method. Experimental results show

  6. Optical Path Length Factor at Near-Bandgap Wavelengths in Si Solar Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Abenante

    2006-01-01

    By using the Rand and Basore (R&B) physical model for light trapping, a particular analytical expression for near-bandgap optical path length factor Zo is derived for the case where back surface reflectivity RBACK is equal to unity (RBACK = 1). This expression shows that according to the R&B physical model, at RBACK = 1, Zo has a finite value. At

  7. Qualms Regarding the Optimality of Cumulative Path Length Control in CSA\\/CMA-Evolution Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-georg Beyer; Dirk V. Arnold

    2003-01-01

    The cumulative step-size adaptation (CSA) based on path length control is regarded as a robust alternative to the standard mutative self-adaptation technique in evolution strategies (ES), guaranteeing an almost optimal control of the mutation operator. In this short paper it is shown that the underlying basic assumption in CSA - the per- pendicularity of expected consecutive steps - does not

  8. Tapered laser rods as a means of minimizing the path length of trapped barrel mode rays

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Payne, Stephen A.; Mercer, Ian; Perry, Michael D.

    2005-08-30

    By tapering the diameter of a flanged barrel laser rod over its length, the maximum trapped path length of a barrel mode can be dramatically reduced, thereby reducing the ability of the trapped spontaneous emission to negatively impact laser performance through amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). Laser rods with polished barrels and flanged end caps have found increasing application in diode array end-pumped laser systems. The polished barrel of the rod serves to confine diode array pump light within the rod. In systems utilizing an end-pumping geometry and such polished barrel laser rods, the pump light that is introduced into one or both ends of the laser rod, is ducted down the length of the rod via the total internal reflections (TIRs) that occur when the light strikes the rod's barrel. A disadvantage of using polished barrel laser rods is that such rods are very susceptible to barrel mode paths that can trap spontaneous emission over long path lengths. This trapped spontaneous emission can then be amplified through stimulated emission resulting in a situation where the stored energy available to the desired lasing mode is effectively depleted, which then negatively impacts the laser's performance, a result that is effectively reduced by introducing a taper onto the laser rod.

  9. A Graduated Cylinder Colorimeter: An Investigation of Path Length and the Beer-Lambert Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, James; Harman, Stephanie

    2002-05-01

    A 10-mL graduated cylinder was used to construct a colorimeter to investigate the relationship between absorbance and path length found in the Beer-Lambert law. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were used as the light sources and filter monochromators. The experiments were conducted on intensely colored permanganate and tetraamminecopper(II) solutions. The device also was useful for demonstrating the relationship between absorbance and concentration.

  10. Evaluation of LOWTRAN and MODTRAN for use over high zenith angle\\/long path length viewing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan C. Wright

    1991-01-01

    LOWTRAN and MODTRAN were evaluated in the 2.0-5.5 micron region against field collection data at high zenith angle\\/long path lengths to determine the degree of uncertainty associated with these models under these conditions. Matching data sets were developed using data from the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory Flying Infrared Signatures Technology Aircraft (FISTA) as the field reference. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was

  11. Path-length dependence of energy loss within in-medium showers

    SciTech Connect

    Renk, Thorsten [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae, Finland and (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-02-15

    The study of the path-length dependence of high-transverse-momentum (P{sub T}) hadron suppression in heavy-ion collisions by measuring the dependence of hard-hadron production on the angle {phi} with the reaction plane in noncentral collisions has so far been one of the most successful tools in constraining the microscopic picture of leading-parton energy loss. With the imminent start of the Large Hadron Collider heavy-ion program and the possibility of full jet reconstruction, the focus has shifted to models that are capable of simulating full in-medium parton showers rather than tracing the leading parton only. Yet, on the level of single-inclusive hadron observables, such shower models need to reproduce the findings of leading-parton energy-loss models; in particular, they need to reproduce the correct reaction-plane-angle dependence of hadron suppression. The aim of this work is to illustrate, using the example of the Monte Carlo in-medium shower code, yajem (Yet another Jet Energy-loss Model), how path-length dependence arises in a Monte Carlo shower formulation, how it relates to path-length dependence of leading-parton energy loss, and how model results compare with data on the reaction-plane dependence of the nuclear suppression factor R{sub AA}({phi}).

  12. Visibility oscillation in a multimode laser interferometer signal and its use in optimizing path lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruden, E. L.; Camacho, J. F.; Lynn, A. G.

    2013-10-01

    The interference signal visibility V (difference to sum ratio of intensities at maximum and minimum interference) of an interferometer that uses a multimode laser is here derived for a given laser gain profile and spectral mode separation as a function of the difference ZS between the probe and reference beam optical path lengths and the spectral separation kS between the center of the laser gain profile and the nearest laser mode of higher frequency. kS has a significant effect on V for a given ZS. This parameter, in lasers where it sweeps freely across the gain profile, and other effects, such as various misalignments and optical coupling inefficiencies, render V alone an unreliable parameter for quantifying ZS (for the purpose of reducing it, say). However, the difference to sum ratio of the maximum and minimum V due to variations in kS for a given ZS is an intrinsic property of the laser insensitive to configurational details. Parameter W so defined, therefore, proves very useful for balancing path lengths. This is of particular importance for systems where probe and/or reference beams are transmitted via long single mode optical fibers, so this application is detailed. Optical path lengths within such fibers often cannot be measured to sufficient accuracy by spatial path length measurements due to fiber nonuniformity resulting in variations in the mode's group velocity (needed to convert to optical path length). Two examples are provided using different makes and models of 0.633 ?m HeNe lasers with similar specifications. In the first case, the function W(ZS) is calculated directly from the laser's published gain profile and mode separation. In the second case, W is determined empirically for a range of ZS values for a laser with an unknown gain profile in a (heterodyned) interferometer whose interference signal oscillates between maximum and minimum intensity at 80 MHz due to the reference beam's optical frequency being acousto-optically upshifted by that amount, while kS spontaneously varies on an acoustic time scale. A single high-bandwidth waveform record for each ZS, therefore, provides all the information needed to determine W. Despite the second laser's gain profile apparently differing in detail, qualitative agreement is achieved between the two methods sufficient to validate the technique.

  13. Length Dependent Thermal Conductivity Measurements Yield Phonon Mean Free Path Spectra in Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hang; Hua, Chengyun; Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J.

    2015-03-01

    Thermal conductivity measurements over variable lengths on nanostructures such as nanowires provide important information about the mean free paths (MFPs) of the phonons responsible for heat conduction. However, nearly all of these measurements have been interpreted using an average MFP even though phonons in many crystals possess a broad MFP spectrum. Here, we present a reconstruction method to obtain MFP spectra of nanostructures from variable-length thermal conductivity measurements. Using this method, we investigate recently reported length-dependent thermal conductivity measurements on SiGe alloy nanowires and suspended graphene ribbons. We find that the recent measurements on graphene imply that 70% of the heat in graphene is carried by phonons with MFPs longer than 1 micron.

  14. Length dependent thermal conductivity measurements yield phonon mean free path spectra in nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hang; Hua, Chengyun; Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J

    2015-01-01

    Thermal conductivity measurements over variable lengths on nanostructures such as nanowires provide important information about the mean free paths (MFPs) of the phonons responsible for heat conduction. However, nearly all of these measurements have been interpreted using an average MFP even though phonons in many crystals possess a broad MFP spectrum. Here, we present a reconstruction method to obtain MFP spectra of nanostructures from variable-length thermal conductivity measurements. Using this method, we investigate recently reported length-dependent thermal conductivity measurements on SiGe alloy nanowires and suspended graphene ribbons. We find that the recent measurements on graphene imply that 70% of the heat in graphene is carried by phonons with MFPs longer than 1 micron. PMID:25764977

  15. Length Dependent Thermal Conductivity Measurements Yield Phonon Mean Free Path Spectra in Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hang; Hua, Chengyun; Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal conductivity measurements over variable lengths on nanostructures such as nanowires provide important information about the mean free paths (MFPs) of the phonons responsible for heat conduction. However, nearly all of these measurements have been interpreted using an average MFP even though phonons in many crystals possess a broad MFP spectrum. Here, we present a reconstruction method to obtain MFP spectra of nanostructures from variable-length thermal conductivity measurements. Using this method, we investigate recently reported length-dependent thermal conductivity measurements on SiGe alloy nanowires and suspended graphene ribbons. We find that the recent measurements on graphene imply that 70% of the heat in graphene is carried by phonons with MFPs longer than 1 micron. PMID:25764977

  16. In-situ detection of tropospheric OH radicals by folded long-path laser absorption. Results from the POPCORN Field Campaign in August 1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, H.-P.; Brandenburger, U.; Brauers, T.; Hausmann, M.; Ehhalt, D. H.

    Ground based in-situ measurements of tropospheric hydroxyl radicals were conducted by folded long-path laser absorption as part of the field campaign POPCORN in August 1994. The OH instrument used an open optical multiple-reflection cell of 38.5 m base length through which the laser beam was passed up to 80 times. The broadband emission of a short-pulse UV laser together with a multichannel detection system allowed the simultaneous observation of six OH absorption lines in a spectral interval of ???0.24 nm at 308.1nm (A²?+,?? = 0? X²?,?? = 0 transition). Along with the OH radicals, the trace gases SO2, HCHO, and naphthalene were measured by this technique. The large spectral detection range covered a multitude of rotational absorption lines of these trace gases which were all used for multicomponent analysis, thus allowing a specific and sensitive detection of tropospheric OH radicals. An average 2? detection limit of 1.5 × 106 OH/cm³ for an integration time of 200 seconds and an absorption light path length of 1848 m was determined from the field measurements. In total, 392 OH data were obtained by long-path absorption during 16 days of field measurements. The observed OH concentrations reached peak values of 13 × 106 cm-3 at noon.

  17. Phrase length matters: the interplay between implicit prosody and syntax in Korean "garden path" sentences.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyekyung; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2011-11-01

    In spoken language comprehension, syntactic parsing decisions interact with prosodic phrasing, which is directly affected by phrase length. Here we used ERPs to examine whether a similar effect holds for the on-line processing of written sentences during silent reading, as suggested by theories of "implicit prosody." Ambiguous Korean sentence beginnings with two distinct interpretations were manipulated by increasing the length of sentence-initial subject noun phrases (NPs). As expected, only long NPs triggered an additional prosodic boundary reflected by a closure positive shift (CPS) in ERPs. When sentence materials further downstream disambiguated the initially dispreferred interpretation, the resulting P600 component reflecting processing difficulties ("garden path" effects) was smaller in amplitude for sentences with long NPs. Interestingly, additional prosodic revisions required only for the short subject disambiguated condition-the delayed insertion of an implicit prosodic boundary after the subject NP-were reflected by a frontal P600-like positivity, which may be interpreted in terms of a delayed CPS brain response. These data suggest that the subvocally generated prosodic boundary after the long subject NP facilitated the recovery from a garden path, thus primarily supporting one of two competing theoretical frameworks on implicit prosody. Our results underline the prosodic nature of the cognitive processes underlying phrase length effects and contribute cross-linguistic evidence regarding the on-line use of implicit prosody for parsing decisions in silent reading. PMID:21391765

  18. In situ detection of tropospheric OH radicals by folded long-path laser absorption. Results from the POPCORN field campaign in August 1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-P. Dorn; U. Brandenburger; T. Brauers; M. Hausmann; D. H. Ehhalt

    1996-01-01

    Ground based in situ measurements of tropospheric hydroxyl radicals were conducted by folded long-path laser absorption as part of the field campaign POPCORN in August 1994. The OH instrument used an open optical multiple-reflection cell of 38.5 m base length through which the laser beam was passed up to 80 times. The broadband emission of a short-pulse UV laser together

  19. LHC Predictions from an extended theory with Elastic, Inelastic, and Path Length Fluctuating Energy Loss

    E-print Network

    William A. Horowitz

    2007-02-27

    We present the LHC predictions for the WHDG model of radiative, elastic, and path length fluctuating energy loss. We find the pT dependence of RAA is qualitatively very different from AWS-based energy loss extrapolations to the LHC; the large pT reach of the year one data at the LHC should suffice to distinguish between the two. We also discuss the importance of requiring a first elastic scatter before any medium-induced elastic or radiative loss occurs, a necessary physical effect not considered in any previous models.

  20. Long-path supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy for measurement of atmospheric constituents.

    PubMed

    Brown, David M; Shi, Kebin; Liu, Zhiwen; Philbrick, C R

    2008-06-01

    A supercontinuum source has been proposed as a new tool for measurement of minor species concentrations on long paths through the atmosphere. The present work describes results from recent experiments that demonstrate the potential for Differential Absorption Spectroscopy (DAS) and Spectral Pattern Recognition Differential Absorption Lidar (SPR-DIAL) measurements utilizing a supercontinuum source. As an initial example of this measurement approach, the results include the quantification of water vapor concentration through indoor and outdoor path absorption measurements using a collimated supercontinuum source. Experimental spectra are compared with equivalent simulations from MODTRAN??? versions 4 and 5 to examine the water vapor band between 1300 and 1500 nm to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. PMID:18545560

  1. Cavity enhanced differential optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS) - application and Light-Path Correction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, U.; Meinen, J.; Pöhler, D.; Leisner, T.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric trace gas measurements by cavity assisted long-path absorption spectroscopy are an emerging technology. Initial approaches made use of monochromatic cavity ring-down (CRD) devices, while more recently steady state approaches became known as cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) technologies. An interesting approach is the combination of CEAS with broad band light sources. Broad-band CEAS (BB-CEAS) has several enormous advantages over CRD. For instance LED's can be used instead of pulsed lasers, significant simplifying the instrumental set-up. Furthermore, BB-CEAS absorption spectra can be analysed using the DOAS technique realising all advantages of DOAS. This cavity enhanced DOAS (CE-DOAS) technique offers e.g. sensitive detection of very small differential absorption structures (usually vibrational molecular bands), quantitative detection of a particular molecule, simultaneous measurement of several molecular species with overlapping spectra and even determination of the aerosol extinction. In contrast to the CRD technique, where the shortening (compared to the "empty" cavity) of the ring-down time is always proportional to the additional absorbance, an important problem associated with BB-CEAS is the reduction of the light path by the trace gas absorption. In extreme, but not unrealistic cases the optical density of an absorption structure can become nearly independent of the trace gas concentration in the cavity, thus the CEAS Method would almost completely loose its sensitivity to trace gas absorptions. In typical applications the optimum sensitivity is reached in situations where the light path reduction effect is neither negligible nor dominating, thus correction of this effect is required. We present a detailed, theoretical investigation of these relationships, present several methods to correct for the cases between the two above extremes, and demonstrate the usefulness of our new approach with experimental data.

  2. A volumetric approach to path-length measurements is essential when treating radiotherapy with modulated beams.

    PubMed

    Forde, Elizabeth; Booth, Jeremy; Leech, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The established dosimetric benefits of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy have lead to their increased use in prostate radiotherapy. Complimenting these techniques, volumetric image guidance has supported increased positional accuracy. In addition, 3-dimensional image guidance has also allowed for assessment of potential dosimetric variation that can be attributed to a deformation of either internal or external structures, such as rectal distension or body contour. Compounding these issues is the variation of tissue density through which the new field position passes and also the variation of dose across a modulated beam. Despite the growing level of interest in this area, there are only a limited number of articles that examine the effect of a variation in beam path length, particularly across a modulated field. IMRT and volumetric-modulated radiation therapy (VMAT) fields are dynamic in nature, and the dose gradient within these fields is variable. Assessment of variation of path length away from the beam?s central axis and across the entire field is vital where there is considerable variation of dose within the field, such as IMRT and VMAT. In these cases, reliance on the traditional central axis to focus skin distances is no longer appropriate. This article discusses these more subtle challenges that may have a significant clinical effect if left unrecognized and undervalued. PMID:24630910

  3. Optical Free-Path-Length Distribution in a Fractal Aggregate and its Effect on Enhanced Backscattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Katsuhiro; Iwai, Toshiaki; Uozumi, Jun; Asakura, Toshimitsu

    1998-07-01

    A free-path-length distribution function (FPDF) of multiply backscattered light is theoretically derived for a fractal aggregate of particles. An effective mean-free path-length l D is newly introduced as a measure of randomness analogous with a homogeneously random medium. We confirm the validity of the FPDF by demonstrating agreement between the dimensions designed for a particle distribution generated by a random walk based on the derived FPDF and estimated by the radius of gyration method. The FPDF is applied to Monte Carlo simulations for copolarized multiply backscattered light from the fractal aggregate of particles. It is shown that a copolarized intensity peak of enhanced backscattering in the far field decreases in accordance with 2 D and has an angular width of l D . This spatial feature of the backscattering enhancement corresponds to that of the copolarized intensity peak produced from a homogeneously random medium with a dimension of D 3 . As a result, the validity of the model for the fractal structure of particle aggregates and the applicability of the derived FPDF are confirmed by the numerical results.

  4. New method for path-length equalization of long single-mode fibers for interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M.; Monnier, J. D.; Ozdowy, K.; Woillez, J.; Perrin, G.

    2014-07-01

    The ability to use single mode (SM) fibers for beam transport in optical interferometry offers practical advantages over conventional long vacuum pipes. One challenge facing fiber transport is maintaining constant differential path length in an environment where environmental thermal variations can lead to cm-level variations from day to night. We have fabricated three composite cables of length 470 m, each containing 4 copper wires and 3 SM fibers that operate at the astronomical H band (1500-1800 nm). Multiple fibers allow us to test performance of a circular core fiber (SMF28), a panda-style polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber, and a lastly a specialty dispersion-compensated PM fiber. We will present experimental results using precision electrical resistance measurements of the of a composite cable beam transport system. We find that the application of 1200 W over a 470 m cable causes the optical path difference in air to change by 75 mm (+/- 2 mm) and the resistance to change from 5.36 to 5.50?. Additionally, we show control of the dispersion of 470 m of fiber in a single polarization using white light interference fringes (?c=1575 nm, ??=75 nm) using our method.

  5. Multispectral reflectance imaging of brain activation in rodents: methodological study of the differential path length estimations and first in vivo recordings in the rat olfactory bulb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, Rémi; Martin, Claire; Gurden, Hirac; Pain, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic maps of relative changes in blood volume and oxygenation following brain activation are obtained using multispectral reflectance imaging. The technique relies on optical absorption modifications linked to hemodynamic changes. The relative variation of hemodynamic parameters can be quantified using the modified Beer-Lambert Law if changes in reflected light intensities are recorded at two wavelengths or more and the differential path length (DP) is known. The DP is the mean path length in tissues of backscattered photons and varies with wavelength. It is usually estimated using Monte Carlo simulations in simplified semi-infinite homogeneous geometries. Here we consider the use of multilayered models of the somatosensory cortex (SsC) and olfactory bulb (OB), which are common physiological models of brain activation. Simulations demonstrate that specific DP estimation is required for SsC and OB, specifically for wavelengths above 600 nm. They validate the hypothesis of a constant path length during activation and show the need for specific DP if imaging is performed in a thinned-skull preparation. The first multispectral reflectance imaging data recorded in vivo during OB activation are presented, and the influence of DP on the hemodynamic parameters and the pattern of oxymetric changes in the activated OB are discussed.

  6. Multispectral reflectance imaging of brain activation in rodents: methodological study of the differential path length estimations and first in vivo recordings in the rat olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Rémi; Martin, Claire; Gurden, Hirac; Pain, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic maps of relative changes in blood volume and oxygenation following brain activation are obtained using multispectral reflectance imaging. The technique relies on optical absorption modifications linked to hemodynamic changes. The relative variation of hemodynamic parameters can be quantified using the modified Beer-Lambert Law if changes in reflected light intensities are recorded at two wavelengths or more and the differential path length (DP) is known. The DP is the mean path length in tissues of backscattered photons and varies with wavelength. It is usually estimated using Monte Carlo simulations in simplified semi-infinite homogeneous geometries. Here we consider the use of multilayered models of the somatosensory cortex (SsC) and olfactory bulb (OB), which are common physiological models of brain activation. Simulations demonstrate that specific DP estimation is required for SsC and OB, specifically for wavelengths above 600 nm. They validate the hypothesis of a constant path length during activation and show the need for specific DP if imaging is performed in a thinned-skull preparation. The first multispectral reflectance imaging data recorded in vivo during OB activation are presented, and the influence of DP on the hemodynamic parameters and the pattern of oxymetric changes in the activated OB are discussed. PMID:22352662

  7. Phase locking in a fiber laser array with varying path lengths Liping Liu, Yi Zhou, Fanting Kong, and Y. C. Chena)

    E-print Network

    Phase locking in a fiber laser array with varying path lengths Liping Liu, Yi Zhou, Fanting Kong arrays,13­15,17 in their unequal and ever- changing path lengths among the fiber elements. The lengths and maintain a stable beam profile. In this letter, we report that fiber lasers of arbitrary lengths can

  8. Pulse-length dependence of absorptance and degradation rate of fused silica at 248 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Eva, E.; Mann, K. [Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen e.V. (Germany); Thomas, S. [Heraeus Quarzglas GmbH, Hanau (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Optical components for industrial excimer laser applications such as semiconductor lithography steppers have to withstand more than 10{sup 10} laser pulses without suffering from significant cumulative absorption increase due to color center formation. Lithography lasers are now approaching pulse durations of 10 ns and repetition rates of 1000 Hz, a domain unexplored in previous degradation studies. With the aid of an optical pulse-extension unit and a modified laser resonator, we measured absorptance and absorption changes in Suprasil 312 UV-grade fused silica calorimetrically at pulse lengths of 7 - 73 ns. At 100 mJ/cm{sup 2}, no degradation was detectable even after 500 000 pulses, but there was slight evidence of an absorption decrease due to laser cleaning. At 400 mJ/cm{sup 2}, both absorptance and degradation rate increased towards shorter pulses and hence higher intensities, but even over the full pulse-length range, the changes remained moderate. Furthermore, degradation at 300 Hz was lower than at 150 Hz, indicating that a simultaneous bleaching effect might be involved which favors future high-repetition rate applications.

  9. A 2-Micron Pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar Development For Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Reithmaier, Karl; Bai, Yingxin; Trieu, Bo C.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2012-01-01

    A 2-micron pulsed, Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar instrument for ground and airborne atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements via direct detection method is being developed at NASA Langley Research Center. This instrument will provide an alternate approach to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. A high energy pulsed approach provides high-precision measurement capability by having high signal-to-noise level and unambiguously eliminates the contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement.

  10. An open path, fast response infrared absorption gas analyzer for H2O and CO2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Auble; Tilden P. Meyers

    1992-01-01

    An open path infrared absorption based instrument for fast response measurements of H2O and CO2 fluctuations is described. This instrument performed reliably in several field experiments in both terrestrial and marine environments, on both fixed (tower) and mobile (boat, plane) flux platforms. Noise levels for H2O and CO2 concentrations were less than 10 mg\\/m3 and 300 ?g\\/m3, respectively for frequencies

  11. The dynamical halo and the variation of cosmic-ray path length with energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that the dynamical halo model offers a natural explanation for the form of the variation of the cosmic-ray path length with energy. The variation above approximately 1 GeV/nucleon can be understood as due to the variation of the diffusion coefficient, and hence the resident time, with energy. The flattening of the curve below 1 GeV/nucleon is seen to mark a transition to a convection dominated regime where coefficient is no longer the determining parameter. A fit to the observations yields a halo outflow velocity of 8 km sec/1. An attempt is made to determine the overall scale of the halo and the diffusion coefficient using recent Be-10 flux measurements but the data do not agree well enough to pin down these variables to within less than four or five orders of magnitude.

  12. Determining average path length and average trapping time on generalized dual dendrimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Guan, Jihong

    2015-03-01

    Dendrimer has wide number of important applications in various fields. In some cases during transport or diffusion process, it transforms into its dual structure named Husimi cactus. In this paper, we study the structure properties and trapping problem on a family of generalized dual dendrimer with arbitrary coordination numbers. We first calculate exactly the average path length (APL) of the networks. The APL increases logarithmically with the network size, indicating that the networks exhibit a small-world effect. Then we determine the average trapping time (ATT) of the trapping process in two cases, i.e., the trap placed on a central node and the trap is uniformly distributed in all the nodes of the network. In both case, we obtain explicit solutions of ATT and show how they vary with the networks size. Besides, we also discuss the influence of the coordination number on trapping efficiency.

  13. The extension of the concept of the cosmic-ray path-length distribution to nonrelativistic energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lezniak, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of the cosmic-ray path-length distribution is examined. The corresponding cosmic-ray propagation calculational procedure has been justified theoretically at relativistic energies (Ginzburg and Syrovatskii, 1964) where the effects of ionization energy loss are negligible. The present paper extends the use of the path-length distribution concept in cosmic-ray propagation calculations to nonrelativistic energies. Sufficient constraints to effect this extension are presented. The solution of the cosmic-ray propagation equations in terms of a Green's function approach is also investigated and is used to provide a formulation of the path-length distribution at nonrelativistic as well as relativistic energies in terms of the cosmic-ray source distribution and the propagation characteristics of the interstellar medium. The leaky-box model of cosmic-ray propagation is also examined.

  14. Nearly arc-length tool path generation and tool radius compensation algorithm research in FTS turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Minghui; Zhao, Xuesen; Li, Zengqiang; Sun, Tao

    2014-08-01

    In the non-rotational symmetrical microstrcture surfaces generation using turning method with Fast Tool Servo(FTS), non-uniform distribution of the interpolation data points will lead to long processing cycle and poor surface quality. To improve this situation, nearly arc-length tool path generation algorithm is proposed, which generates tool tip trajectory points in nearly arc-length instead of the traditional interpolation rule of equal angle and adds tool radius compensation. All the interpolation points are equidistant in radial distribution because of the constant feeding speed in X slider, the high frequency tool radius compensation components are in both X direction and Z direction, which makes X slider difficult to follow the input orders due to its large mass. Newton iterative method is used to calculate the neighboring contour tangent point coordinate value with the interpolation point X position as initial value, in this way, the new Z coordinate value is gotten, and the high frequency motion components in X direction is decomposed into Z direction. Taking a typical microstructure with 4?m PV value for test, which is mixed with two 70?m wave length sine-waves, the max profile error at the angle of fifteen is less than 0.01?m turning by a diamond tool with big radius of 80?m. The sinusoidal grid is machined on a ultra-precision lathe succesfully, the wavelength is 70.2278?m the Ra value is 22.81nm evaluated by data points generated by filtering out the first five harmonics.

  15. NO2 measurements in Hong Kong using LED based long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, K. L.; Pöhler, D.; Kuhlmann, G.; Hartl, A.; Platt, U.; Wenig, M. O.

    2012-05-01

    In this study we present the first long term measurements of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using a LED based Long Path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) instrument. This instrument is measuring continuously in Hong Kong since December 2009, first in a setup with a 550 m absorption path and then with a 3820 m path at about 30 m to 50 m above street level. The instrument is using a high power blue light LED with peak intensity at 450 nm coupled into the telescope using a Y-fibre bundle. The LP-DOAS instrument measures NO2 levels in the Kowloon Tong and Mongkok district of Hong Kong and we compare the measurement results to mixing ratios reported by monitoring stations operated by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department in that area. Hourly averages of coinciding measurements are in reasonable agreement (R = 0.74). Furthermore, we used the long-term data set to validate the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 data product. Monthly averaged LP-DOAS and OMI measurements correlate well (R = 0.84) when comparing the data for the OMI overpass time. We analyzed weekly patterns in both data sets and found that the LP-DOAS detects a clear weekly cycle with a reduction on weekends during rush hour peaks, whereas OMI is not able to observe this weekly cycle due to its fix overpass time (13:30-14:30 LT - local time).

  16. Fiber optic acoustic hydrophone with double Mach-Zehnder interferometers for optical path length compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, T. K.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y.; Yip, Y. M.; Lam, Y. L.

    1999-01-01

    We report on the development of a fiber optic acoustic hydrophone which consists of a sensing Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer and a compensating MZ interferometer for optical path length compensation. This double-interferometer configuration has the following advantages: the hydrophone is a true heterodyne device; a laser source with a short coherence length can be used; the sensing interferometer is completely passive; the compensating interferometer can be located near the signal processing electronics, far away from the sensing interferometer; a conventional modulation analyzer can be used to demodulate the optical phase shift, which greatly simplifies the demodulation electronics. The performance of the hydrophone is evaluated experimentally by immersing the sensing interferometer in a water tank to detect underwater acoustic signals generated by an acoustic wave projector. Experimental results show that over the frequency range of 5 to 20 kHz, the hydrophone has an almost flat response with an average normalized phase sensitivity of -322.3 dB re 1/?Pa and an average pressure sensitivity of -153.7 dB re rad/?Pa. These performance figures are better than those obtained from a commercial piezoelectric hydrophone. Furthermore, we have also demonstrated that with improved signal processing techniques, the normalized phase sensitivity of the hydrophone increases to -313 dB re 1/?Pa, and the pressure sensitivity increases to -136.9 dB re rad/?Pa. These results indicate that the present design offers equal or better performance in terms of sensitivity over its counterparts employing conventional Mach-Zehner configurations.

  17. Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering in highly scattering random media: The transition to diffusing wave spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering in highly scattering random media: The transition diffusive light. Our experimental analysis provides details on the transition from single scattering.80. s Dynamic light scattering DLS has been used extensively during the past few decades for characterization

  18. Continuous correction of differential path length factor in near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, Tanveer; Moore, Jason H.; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2013-05-01

    In continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS), changes in the concentration of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin can be calculated by solving a set of linear equations from the modified Beer-Lambert Law. Cross-talk error in the calculated hemodynamics can arise from inaccurate knowledge of the wavelength-dependent differential path length factor (DPF). We apply the extended Kalman filter (EKF) with a dynamical systems model to calculate relative concentration changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin while simultaneously estimating relative changes in DPF. Results from simulated and experimental CW-NIRS data are compared with results from a weighted least squares (WLSQ) method. The EKF method was found to effectively correct for artificially introduced errors in DPF and to reduce the cross-talk error in simulation. With experimental CW-NIRS data, the hemodynamic estimates from EKF differ significantly from the WLSQ (p<0.001). The cross-correlations among residuals at different wavelengths were found to be significantly reduced by the EKF method compared to WLSQ in three physiologically relevant spectral bands 0.04 to 0.15 Hz, 0.15 to 0.4 Hz and 0.4 to 2.0 Hz (p<0.001). This observed reduction in residual cross-correlation is consistent with reduced cross-talk error in the hemodynamic estimates from the proposed EKF method.

  19. Continuous correction of differential path length factor in near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Tanveer; Moore, Jason H; Diamond, Solomon G

    2013-05-01

    In continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS), changes in the concentration of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin can be calculated by solving a set of linear equations from the modified Beer-Lambert Law. Cross-talk error in the calculated hemodynamics can arise from inaccurate knowledge of the wavelength-dependent differential path length factor (DPF). We apply the extended Kalman filter (EKF) with a dynamical systems model to calculate relative concentration changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin while simultaneously estimating relative changes in DPF. Results from simulated and experimental CW-NIRS data are compared with results from a weighted least squares (WLSQ) method. The EKF method was found to effectively correct for artificially introduced errors in DPF and to reduce the cross-talk error in simulation. With experimental CW-NIRS data, the hemodynamic estimates from EKF differ significantly from the WLSQ (p < 0.001). The cross-correlations among residuals at different wavelengths were found to be significantly reduced by the EKF method compared to WLSQ in three physiologically relevant spectral bands 0.04 to 0.15 Hz, 0.15 to 0.4 Hz and 0.4 to 2.0 Hz (p < 0.001). This observed reduction in residual cross-correlation is consistent with reduced cross-talk error in the hemodynamic estimates from the proposed EKF method. PMID:23640027

  20. Continuous correction of differential path length factor in near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Tanveer; Moore, Jason H.; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. In continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS), changes in the concentration of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin can be calculated by solving a set of linear equations from the modified Beer-Lambert Law. Cross-talk error in the calculated hemodynamics can arise from inaccurate knowledge of the wavelength-dependent differential path length factor (DPF). We apply the extended Kalman filter (EKF) with a dynamical systems model to calculate relative concentration changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin while simultaneously estimating relative changes in DPF. Results from simulated and experimental CW-NIRS data are compared with results from a weighted least squares (WLSQ) method. The EKF method was found to effectively correct for artificially introduced errors in DPF and to reduce the cross-talk error in simulation. With experimental CW-NIRS data, the hemodynamic estimates from EKF differ significantly from the WLSQ (p<0.001). The cross-correlations among residuals at different wavelengths were found to be significantly reduced by the EKF method compared to WLSQ in three physiologically relevant spectral bands 0.04 to 0.15 Hz, 0.15 to 0.4 Hz and 0.4 to 2.0 Hz (p<0.001). This observed reduction in residual cross-correlation is consistent with reduced cross-talk error in the hemodynamic estimates from the proposed EKF method. PMID:23640027

  1. Addressing the Path-Length-Dependency Confound in White Matter Tract Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Liptrot, Matthew G.; Sidaros, Karam; Dyrby, Tim B.

    2014-01-01

    We derive the Iterative Confidence Enhancement of Tractography (ICE-T) framework to address the problem of path-length dependency (PLD), the streamline dispersivity confound inherent to probabilistic tractography methods. We show that PLD can arise as a non-linear effect, compounded by tissue complexity, and therefore cannot be handled using linear correction methods. ICE-T is an easy-to-implement framework that acts as a wrapper around most probabilistic streamline tractography methods, iteratively growing the tractography seed regions. Tract networks segmented with ICE-T can subsequently be delineated with a global threshold, even from a single-voxel seed. We investigated ICE-T performance using ex vivo pig-brain datasets where true positives were known via in vivo tracers, and applied the derived ICE-T parameters to a human in vivo dataset. We examined the parameter space of ICE-T: the number of streamlines emitted per voxel, and a threshold applied at each iteration. As few as 20 streamlines per seed-voxel, and a robust range of ICE-T thresholds, were shown to sufficiently segment the desired tract network. Outside this range, the tract network either approximated the complete white-matter compartment (too low threshold) or failed to propagate through complex regions (too high threshold). The parameters were shown to be generalizable across seed regions. With ICE-T, the degree of both near-seed flare due to false positives, and of distal false negatives, are decreased when compared with thresholded probabilistic tractography without ICE-T. Since ICE-T only addresses PLD, the degree of remaining false-positives and false-negatives will consequently be mainly attributable to the particular tractography method employed. Given the benefits offered by ICE-T, we would suggest that future studies consider this or a similar approach when using tractography to provide tract segmentations for tract based analysis, or for brain network analysis. PMID:24797510

  2. Measuring optical absorption coefficient of pure water in UV using the integrating cavity absorption meter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Wang

    2008-01-01

    The integrating cavity absorption meter (ICAM) has been used successfully to measure the low absorption coefficient of pure water. The ICAM produces an effective total path length of several meters or even longer, although the physical size of the instrument is only several centimeters. The long effective total path length ensures a high sensitivity that enables the ICAM to measure

  3. Retrievals of atmospheric columnar carbon dioxide and methane from GOSAT observations with photon path-length probability density function (PPDF) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bril, A.; Oshchepkov, S.; Yokota, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.; Belikov, D. A.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    We retrieved the column-averaged dry air mole fraction of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO2) and methane (XCH4) from the radiance spectra measured by Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) for 48 months of the satellite operation from June 2009. Recent version of the Photon path-length Probability Density Function (PPDF)-based algorithm was used to estimate XCO2 and optical path modifications in terms of PPDF parameters. We also present results of numerical simulations for over-land observations and "sharp edge" tests for sun-glint mode to discuss the algorithm accuracy under conditions of strong optical path modification. For the methane abundance retrieved from 1.67-µm-absorption band we applied optical path correction based on PPDF parameters from 1.6-µm carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption band. Similarly to CO2-proxy technique, this correction assumes identical light path modifications in 1.67-µm and 1.6-µm bands. However, proxy approach needs pre-defined XCO2 values to compute XCH4, whilst the PPDF-based approach does not use prior assumptions on CO2 concentrations.Post-processing data correction for XCO2 and XCH4 over land observations was performed using regression matrix based on multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The MANOVA statistics was applied to the GOSAT retrievals using reference collocated measurements of Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). The regression matrix was constructed using the parameters that were found to correlate with GOSAT-TCCON discrepancies: PPDF parameters ? and ?, that are mainly responsible for shortening and lengthening of the optical path due to atmospheric light scattering; solar and satellite zenith angles; surface pressure; surface albedo in three GOSAT short wave infrared (SWIR) bands. Application of the post-correction generally improves statistical characteristics of the GOSAT-TCCON correlation diagrams for individual stations as well as for aggregated data.In addition to the analysis of the observations over 12 TCCON stations we estimated temporal and spatial trends (interannual XCO2 and XCH4 variations, seasonal cycles, latitudinal gradients) and compared them with modeled results as well as with similar estimates from other GOSAT retrievals.

  4. Experimental validation of Monte Carlo and finite-element methods for the estimation of the optical path length in inhomogeneous tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Eiji; Schweiger, Martin; Arridge, Simon R.; Firbank, Michael; Delpy, David T.

    1996-07-01

    To validate models of light propagation in biological tissue, experiments to measure the mean time of flight have been carried out on several solid cylindrical layered phantoms. The optical properties of the inner cylinders of the phantoms were close to those of adult brain white matter, whereas a range of scattering or absorption coefficients was chosen for the outer layer. Experimental results for the mean optical path length have been compared with the predictions of both an exact Monte Carlo (MC) model and a diffusion equation, with two differing boundary conditions implemented in a finite-element method (FEM). The MC and experimental results are in good agreement despite poor statistics for large fiber spacings, whereas good agreement with the FEM prediction requires a careful choice of proper boundary conditions. measurement, Monte Carlo method, finite-element method.

  5. Development of a portable active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy system for volcanic gas measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vita, Fabio; Kern, Christoph; Inguaggiato, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) has been an effective tool for measuring atmospheric trace gases for several decades. However, instruments were large, heavy and power-inefficient, making their application to remote environments extremely challenging. Recent developments in fibre-coupling telescope technology and the availability of ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDS) have now allowed us to design and construct a lightweight, portable, low-power LP-DOAS instrument for use at remote locations and specifically for measuring degassing from active volcanic systems. The LP-DOAS was used to measure sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from La Fossa crater, Vulcano, Italy, where column densities of up to 1.2 × 1018 molec cm?2 (~ 500 ppmm) were detected along open paths of up to 400 m in total length. The instrument's SO2 detection limit was determined to be 2 × 1016 molec cm?2 (~ 8 ppmm), thereby making quantitative detection of even trace amounts of SO2 possible. The instrument is capable of measuring other volcanic volatile species as well. Though the spectral evaluation of the recorded data showed that chlorine monoxide (ClO) and carbon disulfide (CS2) were both below the instrument's detection limits during the experiment, the upper limits for the X / SO2 ratio (X = ClO, CS2) could be derived, and yielded 2 × 10?3 and 0.1, respectively. The robust design and versatility of the instrument make it a promising tool for monitoring of volcanic degassing and understanding processes in a range of volcanic systems.

  6. Explicit solutions for the band edges of multi-layer photonic crystals with integer ratios of optical path lengths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Szmulowicz

    2007-01-01

    The tangent formulation for photonic bandgap materials is used to derive explicit expressions for the energy eigenvalues at the centre and the edge of the Brillouin zone of multi-layer photonic bandgap materials with integer ratios of optical path lengths (e.g. any combination of quarter-wave, half-wave, etc., stacks). Unlike the transfer matrix formalism---in which such solutions are implicit functions of photon

  7. Design of a Simple Detection Cell with Extended Optical Path Length for Capillary Electrophoresis: Application to Multiresidue Pesticide Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mário S. Galhiane; Sandra R. Rissato; Bernhard M. Apon

    2005-01-01

    Absorbance detection in capillary electrophoresis (CE), offers an excellent mass sensitivity, but poor concentration detection limits owing to very small injection volumes (normally 1 to 10 nL). This aspect can be a limiting factor in the applicability of CE\\/UV to detect species at trace levels, particularly pesticide residues. In the present work, the optical path length of an “on?column” detection cell

  8. Open-path tunable diode laser absorption for eddy correlation flux measurements of atmospheric trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Stuart M.; Zahniser, Mark S.

    1991-01-01

    Biogenic emissions from and dry deposition to terrestrial surfaces are important processes determining the trace gas composition of the atmosphere. An instrument has been developed for flux measurements of gases such as CH4, N2O, and O3 based on the eddy correlation technique which combines trace gas fluctuation measurements with simultaneous windfield measurements. The instrument combines a tunable diode laser infrared light source with an open-path multipass absorption cell in order to provide the fast time response and short base pathlength required for the eddy correlation method. Initial field tests using the instrument to measure methane emissions from a local wetland demonstrate the capability for high precision eddy correlation flux measurements.

  9. Development of a Pulsed 2-Micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar for CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Refaat, Tamer

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important greenhouse gas that significantly contributes to the carbon cycle and global radiation budget on Earth. Active remote sensing of CO2 is important to address several limitations that contend with passive sensors. A 2-micron double-pulsed, Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar instrument for ground and airborne atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements via direct detection method is being developed at NASA Langley Research Center. This active remote sensing instrument will provide an alternate approach of measuring atmospheric CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. A high energy pulsed approach provides high-precision measurement capability by having high signal-to-noise ratio level and unambiguously eliminates the contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement. Commercial, on the shelf, components are implemented for the detection system. Instrument integration will be presented in this paper as well as a background for CO2 measurement at NASA Langley research Center

  10. [Quantitative study on errors in evaluation of trace gases by long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Wen; Liu, Wen-Qing; Xie, Pin-Hua; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Li, Ang; Chen, Teng-Yun

    2007-07-01

    Long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) can be used to retrieve the concentration of trace gases based on the principle of least squares. LP-DOAS permits the sensitive measurement of concentrations of trace gases. However, the calculation of a statistically sound measurement precision still remains an unsolved problem. The absorbance of atmospheric trace gases is usually very weak, so the interference caused by the occurrence of non-reproducible spectral artifacts often determines the detection limit and the measurement precision. These spectral artifacts bias the least squares fitting result in two respects. Spectral artifacts are falsely interpreted as real absorption, and spectral artifacts add non-statistical noise to spectral residuals, resulting in a significant underestimation of the least squares fitting error. Monte Carlo method was presented to investigate the evaluation errors in DOAS spectra accurately. Residual inspection by cyclic displacement was used to estimate the effect of false interpretation of the artifact structures. The evaluation of simulated atmospheric measurement spectra shows that Monte Carlo method yields a good estimate of the spectra evaluation error. It is approximately real error, factors of errors are 1.13, but errors are ordinarily underestimated by err(LSQ), and factors of errors are 3.12. PMID:17944388

  11. Measurement of Urban Air Quality by an Open-Path Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectrometer in Beijing During Summer 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, A. P.; Liu, P. Q.; Yeung, J. K.; Zhang, Y.; Baeck, M. L.; Pan, X.; Dong, H.; Wang, Z.; Smith, J. A.; Gmachl, C. F.

    2009-05-01

    The 2008 Olympic Games focused attention on the air quality of Beijing, China and served as an important test-bed for developing, deploying, and testing new technologies for analysis of air quality and regional climate in urban environments. Poor air quality in urban locations has a significant detrimental effect on the health of residents while also impacting both regional and global climate change. As a result, there exists a great need for highly sensitive trace gas sensors for studying the atmosphere of the urban environment. Open-path remote sensors are of particular interest as they can obtain data on spatial scales similar to those used in regional climate models. Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) can be designed for operation in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) with a central wavelength anywhere between 3 to 24 ?m and made tunable over a wavelength interval of over 0.1 ?m. The Quantum Cascade Laser Open-Path System (QCLOPS) is a mid-infrared laser absorption spectrometer that uses a tunable, thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed Daylight Solutions Inc. QCL for measurement of trace gases. The system is aimed at applications with path lengths ranging from approximately 0.1 to 1.0 km. The system is designed to continuously monitor multiple trace gases [water vapor (H2O), ozone (O3), ammonia (NH3), and carbon dioxide (CO2)] in the lower atmosphere. A field campaign from July to September 2008 in Beijing used QCLOPS to study trace gas concentrations before, during, and after the Olympic Games in an effort to capture changes induced by emissions reduction methods. QCLOPS was deployed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics - Chinese Academy of Sciences on the roof of a two-story building, at an approximate distance of 2 miles from the Olympic National Stadium ("The Bird's Nest.") QCLOPS operated with an open-path round trip distance of approximately 75 m. The system ran with minimal human interference, twenty-four hours per day for the full campaign period. In order to collect data over numerous absorption peaks belonging to the target gases of H2O, NH3, O3, and CO2, measurements were made at 317 different wavelengths within the full tuning range of the laser (1020 - 1070 cm-1). We present the design of this novel sensor which was successfully built, deployed, and operated with minimal operator intervention for the three month field campaign period. Furthermore, we present the results of the field campaign and the capabilities of the QCLOPS system to measure fluctuations of the trace gases at parts-per-billion levels. The time series data illustrate the changing levels of the trace gases over the campaign period. In addition, data from commercial sensors simultaneously deployed at the field site are presented as a validation of the capabilities of the QCLOPS system. This work was supported by MIRTHE (NSF-ERC #EEC-0540832).

  12. Ground-based integrated path coherent differential absorption lidar measurement of CO2: hard target return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, S.; Koyama, M.; Baron, P.; Iwai, H.; Mizutani, K.; Itabe, T.; Sato, A.; Asai, K.

    2012-11-01

    The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) have made a great deal of effort to develop a coherent 2-?m differential absorption and wind lidar (Co2DiaWiL) for measuring CO2 and wind speed. First, coherent Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar experiments were conducted using the Co2DiaWiL and a hard target (surface return) located about 7.12 km south of NICT on 11, 27, and 28 December 2010. The detection sensitivity of a 2-?m IPDA lidar was examined in detail using the CO2 concentration measured by the hard target. The precisions of CO2 measurement for the hard target and 900, 4500 and 27 000 shot pairs were 6.5, 2.8, and 1.2%, respectively. The results indicated that a coherent IPDA lidar with a laser operating at a high pulse repetition frequency of a few tens of KHz is necessary for measuring the CO2 concentration of the hard target with a precision of 1-2 ppm. Statistical comparisons indicated that, although a small amount of in situ data and the fact that they were not co-located with the hard target made comparison difficult, the CO2 volume mixing ratio measured with the Co2DiaWiL was about 5 ppm lower than that measured with the in situ sensor. The statistical results indicated that there were no differences between the hard target and atmospheric return measurements. A precision of 1.5% was achieved from the atmospheric return, which is lower than that obtained from the hard-target returns. Although long-range DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) CO2 measurement with the atmospheric return can result in highly precise measurement, the precision of the atmospheric return measurement was widely distributed comparing to that of the hard target return. Our results indicated that it is important to use a Q-switched laser to measure the range-gated differential absorption optical depth with the atmospheric return and that it is better to simultaneously conduct both hard target and atmospheric return measurements to enable highly accurate CO2 measurement.

  13. [Effect of path-length variations on PLSR calibration model in noninvasive measurement of blood glucose by mid-infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-min; Lu, Qi-peng; Ding, Hai-quan; Huang, Fu-rong

    2012-04-01

    In noninvasive blood glucose measurement, it is difficult to keep the contact area between skin and internal reflectance element uniform while the mid-infrared spectra of human skin are taken, and this would lead to path-length variations. To study the effect of path-length variations on PLSR calibration model, in the present paper, according to the correlation coefficients between path-lengths and glucose concentrations, two PLSR models were achieved respectively and RMSECV were 31.3 and 4.52 mg x dL(-1), RMSEP were 30.3 and 98.7 mg x dL(-1) for the validation set. The results show that the chance correlations between path-lengths and glucose concentrations will lead to calibration models with different accuracy and robustness. This is useful to improving the reliability of noninvasive measurement of blood glucose by mid-infrared spectroscopy. PMID:22715755

  14. Investigation of an implantable dosimeter for single-point water equivalent path length verification in proton therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Mann, Greg; Cascio, Ethan [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Sicel Technologies, Inc., Morrisville, North Carolina 27560 (United States); Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: In vivo range verification in proton therapy is highly desirable. A recent study suggested that it was feasible to use point dose measurement for in vivo beam range verification in proton therapy, provided that the spread-out Bragg peak dose distribution is delivered in a different and rather unconventional manner. In this work, the authors investigate the possibility of using a commercial implantable dosimeter with wireless reading for this particular application. Methods: The traditional proton treatment technique delivers all the Bragg peaks required for a SOBP field in a single sequence, producing a constant dose plateau across the target volume. As a result, a point dose measurement anywhere in the target volume will produce the same value, thus providing no information regarding the water equivalent path length to the point of measurement. However, the same constant dose distribution can be achieved by splitting the field into a complementary pair of subfields, producing two oppositely ''sloped'' depth-dose distributions, respectively. The ratio between the two distributions can be a sensitive function of depth and measuring this ratio at a point inside the target volume can provide the water equivalent path length to the dosimeter location. Two types of field splits were used in the experiment, one achieved by the technique of beam current modulation and the other by manipulating the location and width of the beam pulse relative to the range modulator track. Eight MOSFET-based implantable dosimeters at four different depths in a water tank were used to measure the dose ratios for these field pairs. A method was developed to correct the effect of the well-known LET dependence of the MOSFET detectors on the depth-dose distributions using the columnar recombination model. The LET-corrected dose ratios were used to derive the water equivalent path lengths to the dosimeter locations to be compared to physical measurements. Results: The implantable dosimeters measured the dose ratios with a reasonable relative uncertainty of 1%-3% at all depths, except when the ratio itself becomes very small. In total, 55% of the individual measurements reproduced the water equivalent path lengths to the dosimeters within 1 mm. For three dosimeters, the difference was consistently less than 1 mm. Half of the standard deviations over the repeated measurements were equal or less than 1 mm. Conclusions: With a single fitting parameter, the LET-correction method worked remarkably well for the MOSFET detectors. The overall results were very encouraging for a potential method of in vivo beam range verification with millimeter accuracy. This is sufficient accuracy to expand range of clinical applications in which the authors could use the distal fall off of the proton depth dose for tight margins.

  15. Design of differential optical absorption spectroscopy long-path telescopes based on fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Merten, André; Tschritter, Jens; Platt, Ulrich

    2011-02-10

    We present a new design principle of telescopes for use in the spectral investigation of the atmosphere and the detection of atmospheric trace gases with the long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. A combination of emitting and receiving fibers in a single bundle replaces the commonly used coaxial-Newton-type combination of receiving and transmitting telescope. This very simplified setup offers a higher light throughput and simpler adjustment and allows smaller instruments, which are easier to handle and more portable. The higher transmittance was verified by ray-tracing calculations, which result in a theoretical factor threefold improvement in signal intensity compared with the old setup. In practice, due to the easier alignment and higher stability, up to factor of 10 higher signal intensities were found. In addition, the use of a fiber optic light source provides a better spectral characterization of the light source, which results in a lower detection limit for trace gases studied with this instrument. This new design will greatly enhance the usability and the range of applications of active DOAS instruments. PMID:21343997

  16. Phrase Length Matters: The Interplay between Implicit Prosody and Syntax in Korean "Garden Path" Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Hyekyung; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    In spoken language comprehension, syntactic parsing decisions interact with prosodic phrasing, which is directly affected by phrase length. Here we used ERPs to examine whether a similar effect holds for the on-line processing of written sentences during silent reading, as suggested by theories of "implicit prosody." Ambiguous Korean sentence…

  17. PATH

    SciTech Connect

    Su, S.D.; Baylor, K.J.; Engholm, B.A. (CEGA Corporation, San Diego, CA (United States))

    1987-05-01

    PATH is a highly flexible shielding code utilizing the common point-kernel integration technique primarily for treating gamma radiation from reactors, radioactive components and from complex piping systems. Major features of the code include complex geometry capability, various source options, extensive data library, simple but flexible input and well-organized output format.

  18. Spectroscopic method for Earth-satellite-Earth laser long-path absorption measurements using Retroreflector In Space (RIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugimoto, Nobuo; Minato, Atsushi; Sasano, Yasuhiro

    1992-01-01

    The Retroreflector in Space (RIS) is a single element cube-corner retroreflector with a diameter of 0.5 m designed for earth-satellite-earth laser long-path absorption experiments. The RIS is to be loaded on the Advanced Earth Observing System (ADEOS) satellite which is scheduled for launch in Feb. 1996. The orbit for ADEOS is a sun synchronous subrecurrent polar-orbit with an inclination of 98.6 deg. It has a period of 101 minutes and an altitude of approximately 800 km. The local time at descending node is 10:15-10:45, and the recurrent period is 41 days. The velocity relative to the ground is approximately 7 km/s. In the RIS experiment, a laser beam transmitted from a ground station is reflected by RIS and received at the ground station. The absorption of the intervening atmosphere is measured in the round-trip optical path.

  19. Simulating the Effect of Modulated Tool-Path Chip Breaking On Surface Texture and Chip Length

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.S.; McFarland, J.T.; Tursky, D. A.; Assaid, T. S.; Barkman, W. E.; Babelay, Jr., E. F.

    2010-04-30

    One method for creating broken chips in turning processes involves oscillating the cutting tool in the feed direction utilizing the CNC machine axes. The University of North Carolina at Charlotte and the Y-12 National Security Complex have developed and are refining a method to reliably control surface finish and chip length based on a particular machine's dynamic performance. Using computer simulations it is possible to combine the motion of the machine axes with the geometry of the cutting tool to predict the surface characteristics and map the surface texture for a wide range of oscillation parameters. These data allow the selection of oscillation parameters to simultaneously ensure broken chips and acceptable surface characteristics. This paper describes the machine dynamic testing and characterization activities as well as the computational method used for evaluating and predicting chip length and surface texture.

  20. Designing optical path length, photonic, and plasmonic effects into nanostructured solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wook Jun Nam; Liming Ji; Vasundara V. Varadan; Stephen J. Fonash

    2011-01-01

    The numerical modeling presented here shows the carrier collection and light management potential of nano-scale structure designs in solar cells. This design evaluation procedure includes scattering phenomena arising from photonic (periodic structure) and plasmonic effects and also the effective absorber length impact arising from morphology. This design work points to short circuit current densities of over 17mA\\/cm2 being attainable under

  1. Ground-based integrated path coherent differential absorption lidar measurement of CO2: foothill target return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, S.; Koyama, M.; Baron, P.; Iwai, H.; Mizutani, K.; Itabe, T.; Sato, A.; Asai, K.

    2013-05-01

    The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) has made a great deal of effort to develop a coherent 2 ?m differential absorption and wind lidar (Co2DiaWiL) for measuring CO2 and wind speed. First, coherent Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar experiments were conducted using the Co2DiaWiL and a foothill target (tree and ground surface) located about 7.12 km south of NICT on 11, 27, and 28 December 2010. The detection sensitivity of a 2 ?m IPDA lidar was examined in detail using the CO2 concentration measured by the foothill reflection. The precisions of CO2 measurements for the foothill target and 900, 4500 and 27 000 shot pairs were 6.5, 2.8, and 1.2%, respectively. The results indicated that a coherent IPDA lidar with a laser operating at a high pulse repetition frequency of a few tens of KHz is necessary for XCO2 (column-averaged dry air mixing ratio of CO2) measurement with a precision of 1-2 ppm in order to observe temporal and spatial variations in the CO2. Statistical comparisons indicated that, although a small amount of in situ data and the fact that they were not co-located with the foothill target made comparison difficult, the CO2 volume mixing ratio obtained by the Co2DiaWiL measurements for the foothill target and atmospheric returns was about -5 ppm lower than the 5 min running averages of the in situ sensor. Not only actual difference of sensing volume or the natural variability of CO2 but also the fluctuations of temperature could cause this difference. The statistical results indicated that there were no biases between the foothill target and atmospheric return measurements. The 2 ?m coherent IPDA lidar can detect the CO2 volume mixing ratio change of 3% in the 5 min signal integration. In order to detect the position of the foothill target, to measure a range with a high SNR (signal-to-noise ratio), and to reduce uncertainty due to the presence of aerosols and clouds, it is important to make a precise range measurement with a Q-switched laser and a range-gated receiver.

  2. Ground-based Photon Path Measurements from Solar Absorption Spectra of the O2 A-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Z.; Wennberg, P. O.; Cageao, R. P.; Pongetti, T. J.; Toon, G. C.; Sander, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution solar absorption spectra obtained from Table Mountain Facility (TMF, 34.38degN, 117.68degW, 2286 m elevation) have been analyzed in the region of the O2 A-band. The photon paths of direct sunlight in clear sky cases are retrieved from the O2 absorption lines and compared with ray-tracing calculations based on the solar zenith angle and surface pressure. At a given zenith angle, the ratios of retrieved to geometrically derived photon paths are highly precise (approx.0.2%), but they vary as the zenith angle changes. This is because current models of the spectral lineshape in this band do not properly account for the significant absorption that exists far from the centers of saturated lines. For example, use of a Voigt function with Lorentzian far wings results in an error in the retrieved photon path of as much as 5%, highly correlated with solar zenith angle. Adopting a super-Lorentz function reduces, but does not completely eliminate this problem. New lab measurements of the lineshape are required to make further progress.

  3. PATH

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Started in the 1970s as an agency to assist men and women in gaining access to a variety of birth control methods, PATH has since expanded its focus to provide "sustainable, culturally relevant [health] solutions, enabling communities worldwide to break longstanding cycles of poor health." The PATH website has more than a dozen videos and slideshows available to visitors at the "Our Multimedia" link near the bottom right hand corner of the homepage. A three-minute video entitled "Better Nutrition For Life" educates visitors about an innovative rice product that could bring greater nutrition to millions of malnourished people where rice is a staple food. The product is Ultra Rice, and is actually fortified pasta that looks, cooks, and tastes like rice, but is fortified with nutrients. The "rice" can be fortified with the needed nutrients the particular population being served is lacking. A slideshow about TB in the Ukraine, explains to visitors why there has been a resurgence of TB in Eastern Europe, and how PATH and its partners set out to help control it throughout the region.

  4. Investigation of an implantable dosimeter for single-point water equivalent path length verification in proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Mann, Greg; Cascio, Ethan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose:In vivo range verification in proton therapy is highly desirable. A recent study suggested that it was feasible to use point dose measurement for in vivo beam range verification in proton therapy, provided that the spread-out Bragg peak dose distribution is delivered in a different and rather unconventional manner. In this work, the authors investigate the possibility of using a commercial implantable dosimeter with wireless reading for this particular application. Methods: The traditional proton treatment technique delivers all the Bragg peaks required for a SOBP field in a single sequence, producing a constant dose plateau across the target volume. As a result, a point dose measurement anywhere in the target volume will produce the same value, thus providing no information regarding the water equivalent path length to the point of measurement. However, the same constant dose distribution can be achieved by splitting the field into a complementary pair of subfields, producing two oppositely “sloped” depth-dose distributions, respectively. The ratio between the two distributions can be a sensitive function of depth and measuring this ratio at a point inside the target volume can provide the water equivalent path length to the dosimeter location. Two types of field splits were used in the experiment, one achieved by the technique of beam current modulation and the other by manipulating the location and width of the beam pulse relative to the range modulator track. Eight MOSFET-based implantable dosimeters at four different depths in a water tank were used to measure the dose ratios for these field pairs. A method was developed to correct the effect of the well-known LET dependence of the MOSFET detectors on the depth-dose distributions using the columnar recombination model. The LET-corrected dose ratios were used to derive the water equivalent path lengths to the dosimeter locations to be compared to physical measurements. Results: The implantable dosimeters measured the dose ratios with a reasonable relative uncertainty of 1%–3% at all depths, except when the ratio itself becomes very small. In total, 55% of the individual measurements reproduced the water equivalent path lengths to the dosimeters within 1 mm. For three dosimeters, the difference was consistently less than 1 mm. Half of the standard deviations over the repeated measurements were equal or less than 1 mm. Conclusions: With a single fitting parameter, the LET-correction method worked remarkably well for the MOSFET detectors. The overall results were very encouraging for a potential method of in vivo beam range verification with millimeter accuracy. This is sufficient accuracy to expand range of clinical applications in which the authors could use the distal fall off of the proton depth dose for tight margins. PMID:21158298

  5. Long term NO2 measurements in Hong Kong using LED based Long Path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, K. L.; Pöhler, D.; Kuhlmann, G.; Hartl, A.; Platt, U.; Wenig, M. O.

    2011-11-01

    In this study we present the first long term measurements of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using a LED based Long Path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) instrument. This instrument is measuring continuously in Hong Kong since December 2009, first in a setup with a 550 m absorption path and then with a 3820 m path at about 30 m to 50 m above street level. The instrument is using a high power blue light LED with peak intensity at 450 nm coupled into the telescope using a Y-fibre bundle. The LP-DOAS instrument measures NO2 concentrations in the Kowloon Tong and Mong Kok district of Hong Kong and we compare the measurement results to concentrations reported by monitoring stations operated by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department in that area. Hourly averages of coinciding measurements are in reasonable agreement (R = 0.74). Furthermore, we used the long-term data set to validate the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 data product. Monthly averaged LP-DOAS and OMI measurements correlate well (R = 0.84) when comparing the data for the OMI overpass time. We analyzed weekly patterns in both data sets and found that the LP-DOAS detects a clear weekly cycle with a reduction on weekends during rush hour peaks, whereas OMI is not able to observe this weekly cycle due to its fix overpass time.

  6. [Measurement of atmospheric NO3 radical with long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy based on red light emitting diodes].

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Wen; Liu, Wen-Qing; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Xie, Pin-Hua; Wang, Xu-De

    2013-02-01

    Nitrate radical (NO3) is the most important oxidant in the tropospheric nighttime chemistry. Due to its high reactivity and low atmospheric concentrations, modern red light emitting diodes (LEDs) was proposed as light source in long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) to measure NO3 radical in the atmosphere. The spectral properties of Luxeon LXHL-MD1D LEDs were analyzed in the present paper. The principle of LEDs-DOAS system to measure nitrate radical was studied in this paper. The experimental setup and retrieval method of NO3 radical were discussed in this paper. The retrieved example of NO3 was given and the time series of NO3 concentrations was performed for a week. The results showed that the detection limits of LEDs-DOAS system were 12 ppt for atmospheric NO3 radical when the optical path of LEDs-DOAS system was 2.8 km. PMID:23697129

  7. OPEN PATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR ACQUISITION OF FUGITIVE EMISSION FLUX DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollutant emission from unconfined sources is an increasingly important environmental issue. The U.S. EPA has developed a gorund-based optical remote sensing method that enables direct measurement of fugitive emission flux from large area sources. Open-path Fourier transfor...

  8. A stochastic simulation of the propagation of Galactic cosmic rays reflecting the discreteness of cosmic ray sources Age and path length distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, S.; Muraishi, H.; Yanagita, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The path length distribution of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) is the fundamental ingredient for modeling the propagation process of GCRs based on the so-called weighted slab method. We try to derive this distribution numerically by taking into account the discreteness in both space and time of occurrences of supernova explosions where GCRs are suspected to be born. The resultant age distribution and ratio of B/C are to be compared with recent observations. Methods: We solve numerically the stochastic differential equations equivalent to the Parker diffusion-convection equation which describes the propagation process of GCR in the Galaxy. We assume the three-dimensional diffusion is an isotropic one without any free escape boundaries. We ignore any energy change of GCRs and the existence of the Galactic wind for simplicity. We also assume axisymmetric configurations for the density distributions of the interstellar matter and for the surface density of supernovae. We have calculated age and path length of GCR protons arriving at the solar system with this stochastic method. The obtained age is not the escape time of GCRs from the Galaxy as usually assumed, but the time spent by GCRs during their journey to the solar system from the supernova remnants where they were born. Results: The derived age and path length show a distribution spread in a wide range even for GCR protons arriving at the solar system with the same energy. The distributions show a cut-off at a lower range in age or path length depending on the energy of GCRs. These cut-offs clearly come from the discreteness of occurrence of supernovae. The mean age of GeV particles obtained from the distributions is consistent with the age obtained by direct observation of radioactive secondary nuclei. The energy dependence of the B/C ratio estimated with the path length distribution reproduces reliably the energy dependence of B/C obtained by recent observations in space.

  9. LONG PATH DIFFERENTIAL OPTICAL ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AND EPA-APPROVED FIXED POINT METHODS INTERCOMPARISON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differential optical absorption spectrometry (DOAS) has been used by a number of investigators over the past 10 years to measure a wide range of gaseous air pollutants. ecently OPSIS AB, Lund, Sweden, has developed and made commercially available DOAS instrument that has a number...

  10. Computing the average path length and a label-based routing in a small-world graph

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with M0 being the empty graph, and M1 being a pair of nodes s0,s1 connected by an active edge. At time a path for each active edge and making the two end edges of the new paths active. Formally, at time t, a path u,i, j,v is created for all active edges {u,v}. Then, {u,v} becomes inactive while {u,i} and {j

  11. In situ stratospheric ozone measurements by long path UV absorption - Developments and interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstock, E. M.; Schiller, C. M.; Anderson, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    A high-sensitivity, in situ UV absorption ozone sensor has been developed for use in the stratosphere. The instrument couples 254-nm radiation from a low-pressure mercury discharge lamp into a 40-pass White cell to attain a high-sensitivity ozone absorption measurement. Preflight/postflight laboratory tests utilizing an ozone source coupled to a laboratory UV ozone photometer in a fast-flow system as well as in-flight diagnostics verify the successful operation of the instrument. Evidence is presented to verify that in situ UV absorption ozone photometers can measure stratospheric ozone with better than 3 percent precision and 5 percent accuracy, provided proper attention is given to both the thermal field surrounding the gondola and the ambient pressure measurements. Ozone data are compared with modeled profiles in the 28- to 40-km region. An assessment of the disagreement between observations and modeled profiles is given along with suggestions for future experiments designed to constrain photochemical models.

  12. Theoretical Evaluation of Earth-to-Satellite Laser Long-Path Absorption Measurement of Atmospheric Trace Species in the Infrared Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuo Sugimoto; Atsushi Minato; Kenichi Ozawa; Yasunori Saito; Akio Nomura

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of atmospheric trace species based on the earth-to-satellite laser long-path absorption method using continuously tunable infrared laser was theoretically studied. Optimum wavelengths for the measurement were systematically investigated in the infrared region for all molecules included in the HITRAN92 data base. It was shown that H2O, CO2, O3, CH4, N2O and CO have strong absorption lines, and that the

  13. Integration of Ground-Based Solar FT-IR Absorption Spectroscopy and Open-Path Systems for Atmospheric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steill, J. D.; Hager, J. S.; Compton, R. N.

    2006-05-01

    Air quality issues in the Knoxville and East Tennessee region are of great concern, particularly as regards the nearby Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Infrared absorption spectroscopy of the atmosphere provides a unique opportunity to analyze the local chemical composition, since many trace atmospheric constituents are open to this analysis, such as O3, CO, CH4, and N2O. Integration of a Bomem DA8 FT-IR spectrometer with rooftop sun-tracking optics and an open-path system provide solar-sourced and boundary- layer atmospheric infrared spectra of these and other relevant atmospheric components. Boundary layer concentrations as well as total column abundances and vertical concentration profiles are derived. Vertical concentration profiles are determined by fitting solar-sourced absorbance lines with the SFIT2 algorithm. Improved fitting of solar spectra has been demonstrated by incorporating the tropospheric concentrations as determined by open-path measurements. A record of solar-sourced atmospheric spectra of greater than two years duration is under analysis to characterize experimental error and thus the limit of precision in the concentration determinations. Initial efforts using atmospheric O2 as a calibration indicate the solar- sourced spectra may not yet meet the precision required for accurate atmospheric CO2 quantification by such efforts as the OCO and NDSC. However, this variability is also indicative of local concentration fluxes pertinent to the regional atmospheric chemistry. In addition to providing a means to improve the analysis of solar spectra, the open-path data is useful for elucidation of seasonal and diurnal trends in the local trace gas concentrations.

  14. Investigation of OH absorption cross sections of rotational transitions in the A2Sigma+, v'=0<-X2Pi, v`=0 band under atmospheric conditions: Implications for tropospheric long-path absorption measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-P. Dorn; R. Neuroth; A. Hofzumahaus

    1995-01-01

    The accuracy of tropospheric hydroxyl radical measurements by long-path absorption spectroscopy is ultimately limited by the uncertainty of the effective OH absorption cross sections. The latter were determined from calculated spectra for the Q1(2), Q1(3), and P1(1) rotational lines of the OH A2Sigma+, (v'=0)X2Pi, (v`=0) transition at 308 nm. The calculations took into account Doppler broadening, measured data of the

  15. Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar Optimizations Based on Pre-Analyzed Atmospheric Data for ASCENDS Mission Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pliutau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a modeling method based on data reductions is investigated which includes pre analyzed MERRA atmospheric fields for quantitative estimates of uncertainties introduced in the integrated path differential absorption methods for the sensing of various molecules including CO2. This approach represents the extension of our existing lidar modeling framework previously developed and allows effective on- and offline wavelength optimizations and weighting function analysis to minimize the interference effects such as those due to temperature sensitivity and water vapor absorption. The new simulation methodology is different from the previous implementation in that it allows analysis of atmospheric effects over annual spans and the entire Earth coverage which was achieved due to the data reduction methods employed. The effectiveness of the proposed simulation approach is demonstrated with application to the mixing ratio retrievals for the future ASCENDS mission. Independent analysis of multiple accuracy limiting factors including the temperature, water vapor interferences, and selected system parameters is further used to identify favorable spectral regions as well as wavelength combinations facilitating the reduction in total errors in the retrieved XCO2 values.

  16. Förster resonance energy transfer, absorption and emission spectra in multichromophoric systems. III. Exact stochastic path integral evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moix, Jeremy M; Ma, Jian; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-03-01

    A numerically exact path integral treatment of the absorption and emission spectra of open quantum systems is presented that requires only the straightforward solution of a stochastic differential equation. The approach converges rapidly enabling the calculation of spectra of large excitonic systems across the complete range of system parameters and for arbitrary bath spectral densities. With the numerically exact absorption and emission operators, one can also immediately compute energy transfer rates using the multi-chromophoric Förster resonant energy transfer formalism. Benchmark calculations on the emission spectra of two level systems are presented demonstrating the efficacy of the stochastic approach. This is followed by calculations of the energy transfer rates between two weakly coupled dimer systems as a function of temperature and system-bath coupling strength. It is shown that the recently developed hybrid cumulant expansion (see Paper II) is the only perturbative method capable of generating uniformly reliable energy transfer rates and emission spectra across a broad range of system parameters. PMID:25747062

  17. Delivery Path Length and Holding Tree Minimization Method of Securities Delivery among the Registration Agencies Connected as Non-Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamura, Atsushi; Moritsu, Toshiyuki; Someya, Harushi

    To dematerialize the securities such as stocks or cooporate bonds, the securities were registered to account in the registration agencies which were connected as tree. This tree structure had the advantage in the management of the securities those were issued large amount and number of brands of securities were limited. But when the securities such as account receivables or advance notes are dematerialized, number of brands of the securities increases extremely. In this case, the management of securities with tree structure becomes very difficult because of the concentration of information to root of the tree. To resolve this problem, using the graph structure is assumed instead of the tree structure. When the securities are kept with tree structure, the delivery path of securities is unique, but when securities are kept with graph structure, path of delivery is not unique. In this report, we describe the requirement of the delivery path of securities, and we describe selecting method of the path.

  18. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  19. An Alternative Solution for Modelling Lava Flow Path and Length: applied for hazard assessment at Hekla and Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland 

    E-print Network

    O'Hara, Mhairi

    2012-08-08

    This paper describes the development of a model that determines the flow path of lava by processing a DEM and estimates the maximum distance it will attain based on the average discharge rate. The effusive eruptions that took place at Hekla in 2000...

  20. Observation of halogen species in the Amundsen Gulf, Arctic, by active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pöhler, Denis; Vogel, Leif; Frieß, Udo; Platt, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    In the polar tropospheric boundary layer, reactive halogen species (RHS) are responsible for ozone depletion as well as the oxidation of elemental mercury and dimethyl sulphide. After polar sunrise, air masses enriched in reactive bromine cover areas of several million square kilometers. Still, the source and release mechanisms of halogens are not completely understood. We report measurements of halogen oxides performed in the Amundsen Gulf, Arctic, during spring 2008. Active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) measurements were set up offshore, several kilometers from the coast, directly on the sea ice, which was never done before. High bromine oxide concentrations were detected frequently during sunlight hours with a characteristic daily cycle showing morning and evening maxima and a minimum at noon. The, so far, highest observed average mixing ratio in the polar boundary layer of 41 pmol/mol (equal to pptv) was detected. Only short sea ice contact is required to release high amounts of bromine. An observed linear decrease of maximum bromine oxide levels with ambient temperature during sunlight, between -24 °C and -15 °C, provides indications on the conditions required for the emission of RHS. In addition, the data indicate the presence of reactive chlorine in the Arctic boundary layer. In contrast to Antarctica, iodine oxide was not detected above a detection limit of 0.3 pmol/mol. PMID:20160121

  1. Observation of halogen species in the Amundsen Gulf, Arctic, by active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pöhler, Denis; Vogel, Leif; Friess, Udo; Platt, Ulrich

    2010-04-13

    In the polar tropospheric boundary layer, reactive halogen species (RHS) are responsible for ozone depletion as well as the oxidation of elemental mercury and dimethyl sulphide. After polar sunrise, air masses enriched in reactive bromine cover areas of several million square kilometers. Still, the source and release mechanisms of halogens are not completely understood. We report measurements of halogen oxides performed in the Amundsen Gulf, Arctic, during spring 2008. Active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) measurements were set up offshore, several kilometers from the coast, directly on the sea ice, which was never done before. High bromine oxide concentrations were detected frequently during sunlight hours with a characteristic daily cycle showing morning and evening maxima and a minimum at noon. The, so far, highest observed average mixing ratio in the polar boundary layer of 41 pmol/mol (equal to pptv) was detected. Only short sea ice contact is required to release high amounts of bromine. An observed linear decrease of maximum bromine oxide levels with ambient temperature during sunlight, between -24 degrees C and -15 degrees C, provides indications on the conditions required for the emission of RHS. In addition, the data indicate the presence of reactive chlorine in the Arctic boundary layer. In contrast to Antarctica, iodine oxide was not detected above a detection limit of 0.3 pmol/mol. PMID:20160121

  2. Global observations of atmospheric CH4 by Integrated Path Differential-Absorption Lidar: the French-German Climate Monitoring Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehret, Gerhard; Flamant, Pierre; Ciais, Philippe; Fabien, Gibert; Amediek, Axel; Kiemle, Christoph; Fix, Andreas; Quatrevalet, Mathieu; Wirth, Martin

    Atmospheric methane (CH4) is a powerful greenhouse gas, which has a Greenhouse Warming Potential (GWP) of 25 relative to CO2 on a time scale of 100 years. Despite the fact that the imbalance between the sources and sinks has decreased in the early 1990's to an insignificant value, a significant renewal of the CH4 growth is reported in recent years. Questions arise whether an increase of atmospheric CH4 might be fostered through melting of permafrost soil in the Arctic region or arise from changes of the tropical wetlands which comprise the biggest natural methane source. Another reason could be the change in the agro-industrial era of predominant human influence or the very large deposits of CH4 as gas hydrates on ocean shelves that are vulnerable to ocean warming. The French-German Climate Monitoring Initiative, which has recently been selected to undergo Phase0/A studies in a joint project by the space agencies CNES (France)and DLR (Germany), targets on satellite observations of atmospheric CH4 for the improvement of our knowledge on regional to synoptic scale CH4 sources on a global basis. As a novel feature, the observational instrument of this mission will be an Integrated Path Differential-Absorption (IPDA) Lidar system embarked on board of the French Myriade platform for the measurement of the column-weighted dry-air mixing ratio of CH4 in a nadir viewing configuration. This data will be provided by the lidar technique with no bias due to particles scattering in the light path and can directly be used as input for flux inversion models. In our presentation we will discuss the observational principle and the sampling strategy of the envisaged mission in connection to the needs for CH4 flux inversion experiments. In addition, we report on supporting campaign activities on airborne measurements of Lidar reflectivity data in the respective spectral region. The airborne data is of prime interest for the generation of pseudo CH4 data examples using the satellite instrument in order to address questions how to optimally aggregate the satellite measurements for maximum information content and minimum error. The field campaign was funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) in the framework of the A-SCOPE mission evaluation activity on active remote sensing of CO2 from space-borne platform.

  3. Using water Raman intensities to determine the effective excitation and emission path lengths of fluorophotometers for correcting fluorescence inner filter effect.

    PubMed

    Nettles, Charles B; Hu, Juan; Zhang, Dongmao

    2015-05-01

    Fluorescence and Raman inner filter effects (IFE) cause spectral distortion and nonlinearity between spectral signal intensity with increasing analyte concentration. Convenient and effective correction of fluorescence IFE has been an active research goal for decades. Presented herein is the finding that fluorescence and Raman IFE can be reliably corrected using the equation I(corr)/I(obsd) = 10(dxAx + dmAm) when the effective excitation and emission path lengths, dx and dm, of a fluorophotometer are determined by simple linear curve-fitting of Raman intensities of a series of water Raman reference samples that have known degrees of Raman IFEs. The path lengths derived with one set of Raman measurements at one specific excitation wavelength are effective for correcting fluorescence and Raman IFEs induced by any chromophore or fluorophore, regardless of the excitation and emission wavelengths. The IFE-corrected fluorescence intensities are linearly correlated to fluorophore concentration over 5 orders of magnitude (from 5.9 nM to 0.59 mM) for 2-aminopurine in a 1 cm × 0.17 cm fluorescence cuvette. This water Raman-based method is easy to implement. It does not involve complicated instrument geometry determination or difficult data manipulation. This work should be of broad significance to physical and biological sciences given the popularity of fluorescence techniques in analytical applications. PMID:25864855

  4. Intercomparison of OH Radical Measurements by Long-Path Absorption and Laser Induced Fluorescence in the Atmosphere Simulation Chamber SAPHIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, H.-P.; Brauers, T.; Greif, J.; Häseler, R.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Rupp, L.

    2003-04-01

    A striking advantage of the SAPHIR chamber is the availability of two spectroscopic detection instruments for OH radicals: Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIF) and Long-Path Differential Optical Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Both instruments have already been compared in 1994 during the field measurement campaign POPCORN. They agreed well with a correlation coefficient of r=0.90 and a weighted linear fit with a slope of 1.09 +- 0.12. However, OH measurements in the simulation chamber differ significantly from measurements in ambient air. While DOAS measures OH as an integral value along the central longitudinal axis of SAPHIR, LIF samples the air locally and close (2 cm) to the floor of the chamber. Thus, the LIF measurements might be possibly affected by local concentration gradients caused by insufficient mixing of the chamber air or by deposition to the wall. On the other hand, if turbulent mixing of the chamber air is weak and high concentrations of ozone are used in experiments, the DOAS instrument might be subject to artificial formation of OH radicals in the air volume which is illuminated by the detection laser. This interference results from laser induced photolysis of ozone and the subsequent reaction of water vapor with the excited oxygen atoms formed. Thus it is of decisive importance to compare OH measurements from both instruments in order to investigate potential disturbing effects due to the specific sampling properties of both instruments within SAPHIR. We report on OH measurements accomplished simultaneously with both instruments using different trace gas compositions and experimental conditions.

  5. Tornado Paths

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Perry Samson

    This website catalogs all the tornado paths in the United States since 1950. The tornado path data is overlaid onto a Google Maps base for easy browsing and manipulation of the map view. Clicking on individual tornados provides the user with information such as its Fujita rating, the amount of damage caused by the tornado, the size of the path that the tornado made, and the length of time the tornado was on the ground.

  6. Absorption

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katherine M Knudson (Polson Middle School)

    1998-04-01

    This activity can be used to allow students to explore the concept of absorption using a variety of materials. Extensions include exploring how Native Americans used absorbtion in a number of ways. This inquiry activity was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 1998 Frontiers in Physiology Program. The NSES Standards addressed by this activity are current as of the year of development. For more information on the Frontiers in Physiology Program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

  7. Analysis of sensitivity and optical path-length in non-invasive measurement of glucose with near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yunhan; Liu, Rong; Chen, Wenliang; Cui, Houxin; Xu, Kexin

    2005-03-01

    Non-invasive glucose monitoring with optical methods has obtained increasing interest, in that the methods have shown great benefit for diabetes. Nevertheless, low sensitivity and signal to noise ratio (ratio of effective photons) are two major difficulties in non-invasively NIR spectral monitoring of blood glucose concentration. Designing the optical probe properly is one of the effective ways to improve measuring sensitivity and ratio of effective photons. In this paper, definition about ratio of effective photons in measurement of glucose is introduced. And then effect of glucose on optical properties of human skin is analyzed, based on this, two kind of sensitivities for diffuse reflectance, namely sensitivity to absorption and that to scattering, is derived. To investigate the ratio of effective photons and sensitivities, Monte Carlo simulations have been performed on a three-layered media with optical parameters similar to those of human skin. The results have shown that (1) high ratio of effective photons, even as high as 60%, can be obtained by choosing proper the separation between source and detector; (2) sensitivity of diffuse reflectance to absorption and scattering has different dependence on source-detector separation, which enables one can have different options by making use of different effect from glucose level changing. In the end, some suggestions have been put forward to improve precision of measurement of blood glucose.

  8. Optical absorption of pure water in the blue and ultraviolet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng Lu

    2006-01-01

    The key feature of the Integrating Cavity Absorption Meter (ICAM) is that it produces an isotropic illumination of the liquid sample and thereby dramatically minimizes scattering effects. The ICAM can produce an effective optical path length up to several meters. As a consequence, it is capable of measuring absorption coefficients as low as 0.001 m-1. The early version of the

  9. Synchrotron radiation and long path cryogenic cells: New tools and results for modelling SF6 absorption in the 10?m atmospheric window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faye, Mbaye; Boudon, Vincent; Loete, Michel; Roy, Pascale; Manceron, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    Sulfur hexa?uoride (SF6) is a heavy and stable molecule used in many sectors, such as the electrical industry, but also as a gas tracer to model air masse motions in the Earth atmosphere. This anthropogenic species is also an atmospheric pollutant owing to its greenhouse effect capability. Although its six fundamental modes have been largely studied up to now, it is not the case for the numerous hot bands that represent the most important part of the SF6 spectrum at room temperature. So, to model correctly the SF6 atmospheric absorption requires the knowledge of the spectroscopic parameters of all states involved in these hot bands. Nevertheless, due to their overlapping, a direct analysis of the hot bands near the 10,5?m absorption of SF6 in the atmospheric window is not possible. It is necessary to use another strategy, gathering information in the far and mid infrared regions on initial and final states to recompute the relevant total absorption. Here, we present new results of an analysis of spectra recorded at the AILES beam line at the SOLEIL Synchrotron facility. For these measurements, we used a IFS125HR interferometer in the 100 - 3200 cm-1 range, coupled to a cryogenic multiple pass cell [1]. The optical path length was adjusted to 93m; the SF6 sample was cooled down to 153 K. We could record 17 rovibrational bands of SF6 in this region with a resolution of 0.0025 cm-1. These results allowed us to perform the detailed analysis of several bands. Adding to previous knowledge on ?3, ?2, 2?3 and new results on 3?3, 2?1 + ?3, ?1 + ?3, ?2 + ?3, ?3 - ?2 , ?3 - ?1 , we developed a global fit of the ?1, ?2, ?3 parameters, thus permitting the modelling of the ?3 + ?1 - ?1, ?3 + ?2 - ?2 hot bands. New information has also been obtained on ?6 and ?3 + ?5 and another strategy will be detailed to model the more important ?3 + ?5 - ?5 and ?3 + ?6 - ?6 hot band contributions. Including these new parameters in the XTDS model [2], we substantially improved the previous global fit [3] of SF6 parameters. [1] F. Kwabia Tchana, F. Willaert, X. Landsheere, J.- M. Flaud, L. Lago, M. Chapuis, P. Roy, L. Manceron. A new, low temperature long-pass cell for mid-IR to THz Spectroscopy and Synchrotron Radiation Use. Rev. Sci. Inst. 84, 093101, (2013). [2] C. Wenger, V. Boudon, M. Rotger, M. Sanzharov, and J.-P. Champion, 'XTDS and SPVIEW: Graphical tools for Analysis and Simulation of High Resolution Molecular Spectra', J. Mol. Spectrosc. 251, 102 (2008). [3] M. Faye, A. Le Ven, V. Boudon, L. Manceron, P. Asselin, P. Soulard, F. Kwabia Tchana, P. Roy, High-Resolution spectroscopy of difference and combination bands of SF6 to elucidate the ?3 + ?1 - ?1 and ?3+ ?2 - ?2hot band structures in the ?3 region, Mol. Phys. 112, 909059 (2014).

  10. Advancements in Algorithms for the Retrieval of CO2 Column Amount and Path Length Using an Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, F. W.; Lin, B.; Ismail, S.; Nehrir, A. R.; Dobler, J. T.; Browell, E. V.; Kooi, S. A.; Campbell, J. F.; Obland, M. D.; Yang, M. M.; Meadows, B.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the methods for the retrieval of carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) column amounts and their associated path lengths measured by the Multi-Functional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL) and the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES). MFLL and ACES are multi-frequency, Intensity-Modulated, Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) Lidar systems developed as proof-of-concept demonstrators for NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The National Research Council identified ASCENDS in 2007 as an important mid-term decadal survey mission to provide measurements critical to improved projections of the Earth's future climate. The ASCENDS measurement requirements have evolved significantly since first proposed by the NRC as has our understanding of the IM-CW measurement technique we propose for use by ASCENDS. To meet these requirements, both MFLL and ACES transmit wavelengths near 1.57 and 1.26 ?m modulated with range-encoded signals to minimize bias from thin clouds in the CO2 and O2 column measurements while simultaneously measuring the path length to the surface and to intervening cloud layers. In preparation for the ASCENDS mission, the MFLL has been deployed on 13 airborne field campaigns since 2005, including the latest series of flights in August 2014. NASA also flew the ACES instrument as a technology demonstrator in 2014. In this paper we describe the current ASCENDS retrieval technique and present the accuracy and precision of the measurements obtained using this technique. We also present a reanalysis of the 2011 MFLL measurements and compare the results previously reported to the reanalysis. Reanalysis yields range precisions of less that one meter from an altitude of 12 kilometers from the CO2 offline channel with 1.6 watts of transmitted power.

  11. Path-length stabilized low-coherent reflection-type quantitative phase microscope for nanometer-resolution profiling of plasma membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Iwai, Hidenao; Goto, Kentaro; Honma, Shu; Yamashita, Yutaka

    2015-03-01

    We developed a portable and user-friendly prototype of low-coherent reflection-type quantitative phase microscope (QPM). Our setup is based on the full-field Linnik type phase-shifting interference microscope and is optimized for surface profiling of living cell's membrane. Unlike commonly available transmission-type quantitative phase microscopes which reveal the optical thickness, our reflection-type setup can obtain the geometrical thickness (real shape) of the sample, decoupled with the refractive index. The coherence length of our imaging light source (halogen lamp) was approximately 1 micrometer so that we can selectively obtain the interference of the light reflected from the cell membranes whose reflectivity in culture medium is only on the order of 0.1%. Moreover our setup has a feedback controlled path-length stabilization circuit so that users can implement accurate phase shifting interferometry with one nanometer of reproducibility. The stabilization circuit allows installing our setup even in noisy environments such as biology labs without an optical bench. In this paper, we will also show our studies of recent biomedical applications, including imaging of cell plasma membrane and phase-resolved 3D tomography of living cells.

  12. Adjusting the tasseled cap brightness and greenness factors for atmospheric path radiance and absorption on a pixel by pixel basis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, R. D.; Slater, P. N.; Pinter, P. J. (principal investigators)

    1982-01-01

    A radiative transfer model was used to convert ground measured reflectances into the radiance at the top of the atmosphere, for several levels of atmospheric path radiance. The radiance in MSS7 (0.8 to 1.1 m) was multiplied by the transmission fraction for atmospheres having different levels of precipitable water. The radiance values were converted to simulated LANDSAT digital counts for four path radiance levels and four levels of precipitable water. These values were used to calculate the Kauth-Thomas brightness, greenness, yellowness, and nonsuch factors. Brightness was affected by surface conditions and path radiance. Greenness was affected by surface conditions, path radiance, and precipitable water. Yellowness was affected by path radiance and nonsuch by precipitable water, and both factors changed only slightly with surface conditions. Yellowness and nonsuch were used to adjust brightness and greenness to produce factors that were affected only by surface conditions such as soils and vegetation, and not by path radiance and precipitable water.

  13. Development of formulae for estimating amylose content, amylopectin chain length distribution, and resistant starch content based on the iodine absorption curve of rice starch.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Satoh, Hikaru; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2015-01-01

    Not only amylose but also amylopectin greatly affects the gelatinization properties of rice starch and the quality of cooked rice grains. We here characterized the starches of 32 rice cultivars and evaluated the relationship between their iodine absorption curve, apparent amylose content (AAC), pasting property, resistant starch (RS) content, and chain length distribution of amylopectin. We found that the iodine absorption curve differed among the various sample rice cultivars. Using the wavelength at which absorbance becomes maximum on iodine staining of starch (?max), we propose a novel index, "new ?max" (AAC/(?max of sample rice starches-?max of glutinous rice starch)). We developed the novel estimation formulae for AAC, RS contents, and amylopectin fractions with the use of ?max and "new ?max." These formulae would lead to the improved method for estimating starch properties using an easy and rapid iodine colorimetric method. PMID:25384364

  14. MAXIMAL LENGTH COMMON NONINTERSECTING PATHS

    E-print Network

    Urrutia, Jorge

    @scs.carleton.ca) Jorge Urrutia zy (jorge@csi.uottawa.ca) Abstract Given a set P n of n points on the plane la­ beled and Souvaine [1] and Kranakis and Urrutia [5] studied the problem of finding common tri­ angulations of point

  15. Integration of Ground-Based Solar FT-IR Absorption Spectroscopy and Open-Path Systems for Atmospheric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steill, J. D.; Hager, J. S.; Compton, R. N.

    2005-12-01

    Air quality issues in the Knoxville and East Tennessee region are of great concern, particularly as regards the nearby Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Integration of a Bomem DA8 FT-IR spectrometer with rooftop sun-tracking optics and an open-path system provides a unique opportunity to analyze the local atmospheric chemical composition. Many trace atmospheric constituents are open to this analysis, such as O3, CO, CH4, and N2O. Boundary layer concentrations as well as total column abundances and vertical concentration profiles are derived. Vertical concentration profiles are determined by fitting solar absorbance lines with the SFIT2 algorithm. Improved fitting of solar spectra has been demonstrated by incorporating the tropospheric concentrations as determined by open-path measurements. In addition to providing a means to improve the analysis of solar spectra, the open-path data is useful for elucidation of diurnal trends in the trace gas concentrations. Anthropogenic influences are of special interest, and seasonal and daily trends in amounts of tropospheric pollutants such as ozone correlate with other sources such as the EPA. Although obviously limited by weather considerations, the technique is suited to the regional climate and a body of data of more than two years extent is available for analysis.

  16. Spectroscopy in an extremely thin vapor cell: Comparing the cell-length dependence in fluorescence and in absorption techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkisyan, D.; Varzhapetyan, T.; Sarkisyan, A.; Malakyan, Yu.; Papoyan, A.; Lezama, A.; Bloch, D.; Ducloy, M. [Institute for Physical Research, NAS of Armenia, Ashtarak-2, 378410 Armenia (Armenia); Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, C.P. 30, Montevideo (Uruguay); Labaratoire de Physique des Lasers, UMR 7538 du CNRS, Universite Paris 13, F-93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2004-06-01

    We compare the behavior of absorption and of resonance fluorescence spectra in an extremely thin Rb vapor cell as a function of the ratio of L/{lambda}, with L the cell thickness (L{approx}150-1800 nm) and {lambda} the wavelength of the Rb D{sub 2} line ({lambda}=780 mn). The Dicke-type coherent narrowing [G. Dutier et al., Europhys. Lett. 63, 35 (2003)] is observed only in transmission measurements, in the linear regime, with its typical collapse and revival, which reaches a maximum for L=(2n+1){lambda}/2 (n integer). It is shown not to appear in fluorescence, whose behavior-amplitude, and spectral width, is more monotonic with L. Conversely, at high-intensity, the sub-Doppler saturation effects are shown to be the most visible in transmission around L=n{lambda}.

  17. Photonic crystal back-reflectors for light management and enhanced absorption in aSi:H solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Michael Curtin

    2009-01-01

    Thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells suffer from weak absorption of long wavelength photons, which have absorption lengths that are far greater than the absorber layer thickness. Light trapping schemes utilizing photonic crystal based back-reflectors can strongly diffract long wavelength photons and increase their optical path length. Photonic crystal back-reflectors were fabricated to investigate optical absorption enhancement in

  18. Comparison of an open path differential optical absorption spectroscopy system and a conventional in situ monitoring system on the basis of long-term measurements of SO 2, NO 2, and O 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Min-Young

    A field-based intercomparison study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a line-integrating monitoring technique (a commercial differential optical absorption spectroscopy, DOAS, system by Opsis AB, Sweden) in concert with a conventional in situ monitoring technique (MACSAM-2 (or MS2) system, Japan). In the course of our study, the mixing ratios of three trace gases including SO 2, NO 2, and O 3 were measured routinely from the Ban Po district of Seoul during a 13 month period (June 1999-August 2000). The data obtained from two different systems were used to evaluate various aspects of DOAS performance. The differences in the observed mixing ratios between two techniques, if assessed in terms of the percent difference (PD) values between different data sets, were in general rather compatible not only among different species but also as a function of varying time scale. The differences in the measured mixing ratio between the two systems were also examined statistically using linear regression analysis. Results of the regression analysis indicated the existence of significant correlations among all trace gases monitored, confirming the strong compatibility between the two systems. The effects of meteorological factors on the DOAS performance were also examined through investigation of the mixing ratio differences between two systems and the concurrently determined environmental parameters. According to our analysis, it is concluded that the level of agreement between the two systems can be affected by the variations in the spatial mixing conditions. Although some uncertainties remain to be resolved, our preliminary attempts to evaluate an open path monitoring technique clearly demonstrated that consideration of meteorological conditions may be required to properly assess the DOAS performance due to its capacity to cover spatial scale over the open path length.

  19. Diurnal Variations in the Specific Absorption Coefficient: Recent Results from Mexico City

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Baumgardner; G. Kok; G. B. Raga

    2005-01-01

    The specific absorption coefficient, sigmaa, defined as the absorbance of light per unit path length and per unit of mass concentration, is an important, radiative property of the atmosphere and is also used as a conversion factor when estimating the mass of light absorbing material, usually black carbon, from measurements of the absorption coefficient. The magnitude of sigmaa varies over

  20. THz Laboratory Measurements of Atmospheric Absorption Between 6% and 52% Relative Humidity

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    1 THz Laboratory Measurements of Atmospheric Absorption Between 6% and 52% Relative Humidity path length for relative humidity values ranging from 6% to 52%. Absorption coefficient values were calculated as a function of relative humidity, for the atmospheric windows in this region. Introduction THz

  1. The influence of a probe on the optical path of atomic absorption spectrometer with a graphite tube atomizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Yu. A.; Kokorina, O. B.; Okunev, R. V.

    2014-04-01

    We have studied the influence on the atomic absorption signal of the obscuring of the transmission beam by a probe for the two-stage atomization in a graphite tube atomizer. The following parameters were varied: the thickness of the probe (0.5-1.0 mm), its displacement from the optical axis of the spectrometer (up to 2 mm), the diameter of the transmission beam (1.3-4.0 mm), the slit width of the monochromator, and the shape of the intensity distribution over the cross section of the beam emitted either by a hollow cathode lamp, or a deuterium lamp, or an electrodeless lamp. We have shown that, using a probe with a thickness that is optimal for the two-stage atomization (1 mm), it is possible to register analytical absorption signals from 28 chemical elements out of 56 (except Hg), which can be determined in graphite atomizers, with a maximal sensitivity and with no optical interference. The remaining elements can be determined with a lower sensitivity because of the necessity to lower the temperature of the secondary atomization.

  2. From (2,3)-Motzkin Paths to Schröder Paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Sherry H. F.

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, we provide a bijection between the set of restricted (2,3)-Motzkin paths of length n and the set of Schroder paths of semilength n. Furthermore, we give a one-to-one correspondence between the set of (2,3)-Motzkin paths of length n and the set of little Schroder paths of semilength n+1. By applying the bijections, we get the enumerations of Schroder paths according to the statistics "number of udd's" and "number of hd's".

  3. Measuring optical absorption coefficient of pure water in UV using the integrating cavity absorption meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling

    2008-10-01

    The integrating cavity absorption meter (ICAM) has been used successfully to measure the low absorption coefficient of pure water. The ICAM produces an effective total path length of several meters or even longer, although the physical size of the instrument is only several centimeters. The long effective total path length ensures a high sensitivity that enables the ICAM to measure liquid mediums with low absorption. Compared to the conventional transmission type of instruments that were used to measure the same medium with the same path length, the ICAM eliminates the effect of scattering by introducing isotropic illumination in the medium, and consequently measures the true absorption coefficient of the medium in stead of the attenuation coefficient. The original ICAM was constructed with Spectralon and used in the wavelength range from 380 nm to 700 nm. Later studies showed that Spectralon is not suitable for measurements in the UV region because of its relatively lower reflectivity in this region and, even worse, the continuously decaying reflectivity under the exposure to UV radiation. Thus, we have developed a new way to construct the ICAM utilizing the material fumed silica. The resulting ICAM has a high sensitivity even in the UV region and doesn't have the deterioration problem. The measurement results from the new ICAM are in good agreement with the existing results. The absorption coefficients of pure water at wavelengths between 250 nm and 400 nm are presented here.

  4. Cavity Ring Down Absorption of HD at 90K

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos E. Manzanares; Yasnahir Perez-Delgado

    2009-01-01

    Cavity ring down is an ideal technique to detect weak molecular absorptions because of the long optical path lengths (order of km) that can be achieved. Coupling the method to a custom fitted cryostat allows gas phase molecules to be studied at cryogenic temperatures in a thermally isolated vacuum chamber. A novel design is described to construct the complete instrument.

  5. Low temperature cell for cavity ring down absorption studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernest K. Lewis; Craig J. Moehnke; Juan G. Navea; Carlos E. Manzanares

    2006-01-01

    Phase shift cavity ring down is a technique that due to its long optical path length is an ideal method to detect weak absorptions. Coupling the method to a custom fitted cryostat allows gas phase molecules to be studied at cryogenic temperatures in a thermally isolated vacuum chamber. A novel design is described to construct the complete instrument. With optical

  6. Path planning for UAVs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Bortoff; E. Hartford

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a two step path-planning algorithm for UAVs is proposed. The algorithm generates a stealthy path through a set of enemy radar sites of known location, and provides an intuitive way to trade-off stealth versus path length. In the first step, a suboptimal rough-cut path is generated through the radar sites by constructing and searching a graph based

  7. CHARM-F: An airborne Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) LIDAR for the simultaneous measurement of CO2 and CH4 Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, M.; Amediek, A.; Büdenbender, C.; Ehret, G.; Fix, A.; Kiemle, C.; Quatrevalet, M.; Hoffmann, D.; Löhring, J.; Klein, V.; Schöggl, R.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) - in collaboration with Fraunhofer-Institut für Lasertechnik (ILT) and Kayser-Threde GmbH (KT) - is developing CHARM-F, an Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) LIDAR for simultaneous measurement of CO2 and CH4 columns. Design goal is a compact and rugged instrument optimized for airborne use on board of DLR's long range research aircraft HALO. The main scientific goal of the instrument is to provide precise column measurements of CO2 and CH4 to infer fluxes of these important greenhouse gases by means of inverse modeling. For this purpose, very stringent requirements concerning accuracy and precision have to be met since typical surface sources and sinks alter the total column only by a few percent. To achieve this, CHARM-F uses laser sources emitting pulse-pairs with nanosecond duration which allows for a precise ranging and a proper separation of atmospheric influences (i.e. aerosol and clouds) from the ground return leading to an unambiguously defined column (no airmass factors involved). Two laser systems - one for each trace gas - are employed using highly efficient and robust Nd:YAG lasers to pump optical parametric oscillators (OPO) which convert the pump radiation to the desired measurement wavelengths in the near infrared. Each laser system emits a pulse pair having different wavelengths. One is tuned to an absorption line of the trace gas under consideration and the other one to a nearby wavelength with much less absorption. The close temporal pulse separation of 250 ?s together with a relatively large spot size of 30 m on ground ensures that nearly the same area is illuminated by both pulses. To achieve single-mode operation, both the pump and the OPO are injection seeded. The seed lasers are locked to a gas cell filled with a mixture of CO2 and CH4 to ensure an absolute wavelength calibration. Furthermore, deviations of the wavelength between outgoing laser pulse and the seed lasers are measured to detect and to correct for possible mode pulling effects. A new pulse energy calibration concept using fiber-coupled integrating spheres is employed to allow for a proper normalization of the return signal strength. Assembly and laboratory tests of the instrument will start by end of 2011, the first flight test is planned for fall of 2012. CHARM-F is also intended to serve as an airborne demonstrator for the French-German climate satellite MERLIN that will be launched in 2016.

  8. Method and apparatus for background signal reduction in opto-acoustic absorption measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosengren, L. G. (inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The sensitivity of an opto-acoustic absorption detector is increased to make it possible to measure trace amounts of constituent gases. A second beam radiation path is created through the sample cell identical to a first path except as to length, alternating the beam through the two paths and minimizing the detected pressure difference for the two paths while the beam wavelength is tuned away from the absorption lines of the sample. Then with the beam wavelength tuned to the absorption line of any constituent of interest, the pressure difference is a measure of trace amounts of the constituent. The same improved detector may also be used for measuring the absorption coefficient of known concentrations of absorbing gases.

  9. A comprehensive study on energy absorption and exposure buildup factors for some essential amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates in the energy range 0.015–15 MeV up to 40 mean free path

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murat Kurudirek; Yüksel Özdemir

    2011-01-01

    The gamma ray energy absorption (EABF) and exposure buildup factors (EBF) have been calculated for some essential amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates in the energy region 0.015–15MeV up to a penetration depth of 40mfp (mean free path). The five parameter geometric progression (G-P) fitting approximation has been used to calculate both EABF and EBF. Variations of EABF and EBF

  10. Cross-Validation of Open-Path and Closed-Path Eddy-Covariance Techniques for Observing Methane Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Hiroki; Kosugi, Yoshiko; Ono, Keisuke; Mano, Masayoshi; Sakabe, Ayaka; Miyata, Akira; Takahashi, Kenshi

    2014-04-01

    Methane () fluxes observed with the eddy-covariance technique using an open-path analyzer and a closed-path analyzer in a rice paddy field were evaluated with an emphasis on the flux correction methodology. A comparison of the fluxes obtained by the analyzers revealed that both the open-path and closed-path techniques were reliable, provided that appropriate corrections were applied. For the open-path approach, the influence of fluctuations in air density and the line shape variation in laser absorption spectroscopy (hereafter, spectroscopic effect) was significant, and the relative importance of these corrections would increase when observing small fluxes. A new procedure proposed by Li-Cor Inc. enabled us to accurately adjust for these effects. The high-frequency loss of the open-path analyzer was relatively large (11 % of the uncorrected covariance) at an observation height of 2.5 m above the canopy owing to its longer physical path length, and this correction should be carefully applied before correcting for the influence of fluctuations in air density and the spectroscopic effect. Uncorrected fluxes observed with the closed-path analyzer were substantially underestimated (37 %) due to high-frequency loss because an undersized pump was used in the observation. Both the bandpass and transfer function approaches successfully corrected this flux loss. Careful determination of the bandpass frequency range or the transfer function and the cospectral model is required for the accurate calculation of fluxes with the closed-path technique.

  11. Photonic crystal slot waveguide absorption spectrometer for on-chip near-infrared spectroscopy of xylene in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wei-Cheng; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Wang, Xiaolong; Lin, Cheyun; Chen, Ray T.

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 300 ?m long silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide near-infrared absorption spectrometer. Based on Beer-Lambert absorption law, our on-chip absorption spectrometer combines slow light in a photonic crystal waveguide with a high electric field intensity in a low-index 75 nm wide slot, which effectively increases the optical absorption path length of the analyte. We demonstrate near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of xylene in water, with a polydimethyl siloxane sensing phase for xylene extraction from water. Xylene concentrations up to 100 ppb (parts per billion) (86 ?g/l) in water were measured.

  12. Photonic crystal slot waveguide for high sensitivity on-chip near-infrared optical absorption spectroscopy of xylene in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Lai, Wei-Cheng; Wang, Xiaolong; Lin, Che-Yun; Chen, Ray T.

    2011-06-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 300?m long silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide for on-chip near-infrared absorption spectroscopy. Based on the Beer-Lambert absorption law, our device combines slow light in photonic crystal waveguide with high electric field intensity in low-index 75nm wide slot, which effectively increases the optical absorption path length of the analyte. We demonstrate near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of xylene in water, independent of near-infrared absorption signatures of water, with a hydrophobic PDMS sensing phase that extracts xylene from water. Xylene concentrations up to 100ppb (parts per billion) (86?g/L) in water were measured.

  13. Azimuthal Anisotropy of {pi}{sup 0} Production in Au+Au Collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV: Path-Length Dependence of Jet Quenching and the Role of Initial Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.; Bickley, A. A.; Ellinghaus, F.; Glenn, A.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Nagle, J. L.; Rosen, C. A.; Seele, J.; Wysocki, M. [University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Afanasiev, S.; Isupov, A.; Litvinenko, A.; Malakhov, A.; Peresedov, V.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Zolin, L. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Aidala, C.; Datta, A. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003-9337 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    We have measured the azimuthal anisotropy of {pi}{sup 0} production for 1path-length dependence steeper than what is implied by current PQCD energy-loss models show reasonable agreement with the data.

  14. Refractive index and absorption length of YAP: Ce scintillation crystal and reflectance of the coating used in YAP : Ce single-crystal matrix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Baccaro; A. Cecilia; M. Montecchi; T. Malatesta; F. de Notaristefani; S. Torrioli; F. Vittori

    1998-01-01

    Recent works show growing interest in optically isolated YAP : Ce single-crystal matrices as high spatial resolution detectors for imaging applications in Nuclear Medicine. Such matrices are manufactured by Preciosa Crytur (Czech Republic) by means of a special sticking procedure of YAP : Ce pillars about 10 mm in length and with cross section ranging between 0.6 mm × 0.6

  15. Cavity Ring Down Absorption of HD at 90K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzanares, Carlos E.; Perez-Delgado, Yasnahir

    2009-06-01

    Cavity ring down is an ideal technique to detect weak molecular absorptions because of the long optical path lengths (order of km) that can be achieved. Coupling the method to a custom fitted cryostat allows gas phase molecules to be studied at cryogenic temperatures in a thermally isolated vacuum chamber. A novel design is described to construct the complete instrument. With optical cavities of length between 10 cm ? (?) ? 43 cm, optical path lengths between 200 m and 8 km have been achieved. High vibrational overtones H-D (?? = 4) are measured at 90 K. The experimental set up can be used to study kinetics and spectroscopy of atmospheric molecules, planetary atmospheres, and molecular complexes in the gas phase at temperatures below 298 K using liquid He or liquid N_2 as cryogens.

  16. Low temperature cell for cavity ring down absorption studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Ernest K.; Moehnke, Craig J.; Navea, Juan G.; Manzanares, Carlos E.

    2006-07-01

    Phase shift cavity ring down is a technique that due to its long optical path length is an ideal method to detect weak absorptions. Coupling the method to a custom fitted cryostat allows gas phase molecules to be studied at cryogenic temperatures in a thermally isolated vacuum chamber. A novel design is described to construct the complete instrument. With optical cavities of length 10???43cm, optical path lengths between 200m and 6km have been achieved. High vibrational overtones C-H (??=5) are measured at 130K (methane), 150K (ethylene), and 155K (ethane). Oscillator strengths of each molecule calculated at different temperatures are in excellent agreement. The experimental setup can be used to study kinetics and spectroscopy of atmospheric molecules, planetary atmospheres, and molecular complexes in the gas phase. Low temperatures can be obtained using liquid He or liquid N2 as cryogens.

  17. Broadband transient absorption spectroscopy with 1- and 2-photon excitations: Relaxation paths and cross sections of a triphenylamine dye in solution.

    PubMed

    Moreno, J; Dobryakov, A L; Ioffe, I N; Granovsky, A A; Hecht, S; Kovalenko, S A

    2015-07-14

    1-photon (382 nm) and 2-photon (752 nm) excitations to the S1 state are applied to record and compare transient absorption spectra of a push-pull triphenylamine (TrP) dye in solution. After 1-photon excitation, ultrafast vibrational and structural molecular relaxations are detected on a 0.1 ps time scale in nonpolar hexane, while in polar acetonitrile, the spectral evolution is dominated by dipolar solvation. Upon 2-photon excitation, transient spectra in hexane reveal an unexpected growth of stimulated emission (SE) and excited-state absorption (ESA) bands. The behavior is explained by strong population transfer S1 ? Sn due to resonant absorption of a third pump photon. Subsequent Sn ? S1 internal conversion (with ?1 = 1 ps) prepares a very hot S1 state which cools down with ?2 = 13 ps. The pump pulse energy dependence proves the 2-photon origin of the bleach signal. At the same time, SE and ESA are strongly affected by higher-order pump absorptions that should be taken into account in nonlinear fluorescence applications. The 2-photon excitation cross sections ?((2)) = 32 ? 10(-50) cm(4) s at 752 nm are evaluated from the bleach signal. PMID:26178109

  18. On-chip methane sensing by near-IR absorption signatures in a photonic crystal slot waveguide.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wei-Cheng; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Wang, Xiaolong; Lin, Cheyun; Chen, Ray T

    2011-03-15

    We demonstrate a 300??m long silicon photonic crystal (PC) slot waveguide device for on-chip near-infrared absorption spectroscopy, based on the Beer-Lambert law for the detection of methane gas. The device combines slow light in a PC waveguide with high electric field intensity in a low-index 90?nm wide slot, which effectively increases the optical absorption path length. A methane concentration of 100?ppm (parts per million) in nitrogen was measured. PMID:21403750

  19. Measuring Length

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article focuses on young students encountering the measurement of length. The article cites examples of key concepts in recognizing length as an attribute and in proper and improper ways to measure length. Conservation and additivity of length, standard and non-standard units, iteration, and the zero point are among the topics presented.

  20. Intracavity absorption with a continuous wave dye laser - Quantification for a narrowband absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brobst, William D.; Allen, John E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the dependence of intracavity absorption on factors including transition strength, concentration, absorber path length, and pump power is presented for a CW dye laser with a narrow-band absorber (NO2). A Beer-Lambert type relationship is found over a small but useful range of these parameters. Quantitative measurement of intracavity absorption from the dye laser spectral profiles showed enhancements up to 12,000 (for pump powers near lasing threshold) when compared to extracavity measurements. The definition of an intracavity absorption coefficient allowed the determination of accurate transition strength ratios, demonstrating the reliability of the method.

  1. Application of a long-path differential optical absorption spectrometer (LP-DOAS) on the measurements of NO(2), SO(2), O(3), and HNO(2) in Gwangju, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeongsoon; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Young J; Lee, Jaihoon

    2008-03-01

    A differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) technique has been applied to monitor airborne trace pollutants including NO(2), SO(2), O(3), and HNO(2) in the ultraviolet (UV) region (290-350 nm) over a 1.5 km beam path (two ways) during an intensive measurement campaign held at Gwangju, Korea (March 2002). Their mean mixing ratios (and standard deviations) were computed as 11.3 (8.8), 1.9 (1.7), 17.1 (19.3), and 0.5 (0.4)ppbv, respectively. As a means to evaluate the performance of the long-path DOAS (LP-DOAS) system with conventional point monitoring systems (PMS), correlation analysis was conducted between the two data sets. These data sets were then inspected to account for the influence of the environmental conditions on the correlation strength between the two systems, especially with respect to light level and wind speed. To facilitate the comparison, correlation analyses were conducted after dividing the data sets for those parameters into several classes. The strength of the correlations between DOAS and meteorological parameters was also examined to evaluate their effects on the DOAS performance. It was found that, among the four pollutant species, O(3) is the most sensitive to changes in meteorological conditions in relation with atmospheric mixing conditions. The overall results of our study indicate that open-path monitoring techniques can be used to effectively diagnose air quality and be substituted for the conventional point monitoring methods with the proper consideration of those parameters affecting the DOAS sensitivity (e.g., light level and wind speed). PMID:17335958

  2. Global sampling of the photochemical reaction paths of bromoform by ultrafast deep-UV through near-IR transient absorption and ab initio multiconfigurational calculations.

    PubMed

    Pal, S K; Mereshchenko, A S; Butaeva, E V; El-Khoury, P Z; Tarnovsky, A N

    2013-03-28

    Ultrafast deep-ultraviolet through near infrared (210-950 nm) transient absorption spectroscopy complemented by ab initio multiconfigurational calculations offers a global description of the photochemical reaction pathways of bromoform following 255-nm excitation in methylcyclohexane and acetonitrile solutions. Photoexcitation of CHBr3 leads to the ground-state iso-CHBr3 product in a large quantum yield (?35%), formed through two different mechanisms: concerted excited-state isomerization and cage-induced isomerization through the recombination of the nascent radical pair. These two processes take place on different time scales of tens of femtoseconds and several picoseconds, respectively. The novel ultrafast direct isomerization pathway proposed herein is consistent with the occurrence of a conical intersection between the first excited singlet state of CHBr3 and the ground electronic state of iso-CHBr3. Complete active space self-consistent field calculations characterize this singularity in the vicinity of a second order saddle point on the ground state which connects the two isomer forms. For cage-induced isomerization, both the formation of the nascent radical pair and its subsequent collapse into ground-state iso-CHBr3 are directly monitored through the deep-ultraviolet absorption signatures of the radical species. In both mechanisms, the optically active (i.e., those with largest Franck-Condon factors) C-Br-Br bending and Br-Br stretching modes of ground-state iso-CHBr3 have the largest projection on the reaction coordinate, enabling us to trace the structural changes accompanying vibrational relaxation of the non-equilibrated isomers through transient absorption dynamics. The iso-CHBr3 photoproduct is stable in methylcyclohexane, but undergoes either facile thermal isomerization to the parent CHBr3 structure through a cyclic transition state stabilized by the polar acetonitrile medium (?300-ps lifetime), and hydrolysis in the presence of water. PMID:23556730

  3. Path-integral Monte Carlo calculation of the effects of thermal disorder in extended x-ray-absorption fine structure of copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccara, S. A.; Fornasini, P.

    2008-05-01

    The distributions of interatomic distances of the first four coordination shells of copper and their leading cumulants have been determined by a path-integral Monte Carlo calculation on a many-body potential model, in the temperature range of 4 300 K. The asymmetry of the distance distribution, measured by the third cumulant, is much larger for the first shell than for the outer shells. The mean value of the distance between neighboring atoms is given for each shell by the first cumulant of the distribution. This allowed us to test a well-known method of estimating the thermal expansion of each shell from the second and third cumulants of its distribution. This method gave values smaller by 40% for the first shell and much smaller for all outer shells.

  4. Near-infrared optical-absorption behavior in high-beta nonlinear optical chromophore-polymer guest-host materials. II. Dye spacer length effects in an amorphous polycarbonate copolymer host.

    PubMed

    Barto, Richard R; Frank, Curtis W; Bedworth, Peter V; Ermer, Susan; Taylor, Rebecca E

    2005-06-15

    In the second of a three-part series, spectral absorption behavior of nonlinear optical (NLO) dyes incorporated into amorphous polycarbonate, comprised of a homologous series of dialkyl spacer groups extending from the midsection of the dye molecule, is characterized by UV-Vis and photothermal deflection spectroscopy. The dyes are structural analogs of the NLO dye FTC [2-(3-cyano-4-{2-[5-(2-{4-[ethyl-(2-methoxyethyl)amino]phenyl}vinyl)-3,4-diethylthiophen-2-yl]vinyl}-5,5-dimethyl-5H-furan-2-ylidene)malononitrile]. Previous Monte Carlo calculations [B. H. Robinson and L. R. Dalton, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4785 (2000)] predict a strong dependence of the macroscopic nonlinear optical susceptibility on the chromophore waist: length aspect ratio in electric-field-poled films arising from interactions between chromophores. It is expected that these interactions will play a role in the absorption characteristics of unpoled films, as well. The spacer groups range in length from diethyl to dihexyl, and each dye is studied over a wide range of concentrations. Among the four dyes studied, a universal dependence of near-IR loss on inhomogeneous broadening of the dye main absorption peak is found. The inhomogeneous width and its concentration dependence are seen to vary with spacer length in a manner characteristic of the near-IR loss-concentration slope at transmission wavelengths of 1.06 and 1.3 mum, but not at 1.55 mum. The lower wavelength loss behavior is assigned to purely Gaussian broadening, and is described by classical mixing thermodynamic quantities based on the Marcus theory of inhomogeneous broadening [R. A. Marcus, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1261 (1965)], modeled as a convolution of dye-dye dipole broadening and dye-polymer van der Waals broadening. The Gaussian dipole interactions follow a Loring dipole-broadening description [R. F. Loring, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 513 (1990)] dominated by the excited-state dipole moment, and have a correlated homogeneous broadening contribution. The long-wavelength loss behavior has a non-Gaussian dye-dye dipole contribution which follows Kador's broadening analysis [L. Kador, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 5574 (1991)], with a net broadening described by a convolution of this term with a Gaussian van der Waals interaction given by Obata et al. [M. Obata, S. Machida, and K. Horie, J. Polym. Sci. B 37, 2173 (1999)], with each term governed by the dye spacer length. A minimum in broadening and loss-concentration slope at a spacer length of four carbons per alkyl at all wavelengths has important consequences for practical waveguide devices, and is of higher aspect ratio than the spherical limit shown by Robinson and Dalton to minimize dipole interactions under a poling field. PMID:16008487

  5. The dependence of the ultrafast relaxation kinetics of the S2 and S1 states in ?-carotene homologs and lycopene on conjugation length studied by femtosecond time-resolved absorption and Kerr-gate fluorescence spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosumi, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Masazumi; Fujii, Ritsuko; Cogdell, Richard J.; Hashimoto, Hideki; Yoshizawa, Masayuki

    2009-06-01

    The ultrafast relaxation kinetics of all-trans-?-carotene homologs with varying numbers of conjugated double bonds n(n =7-15) and lycopene (n =11) has been investigated using femtosecond time-resolved absorption and Kerr-gate fluorescence spectroscopies, both carried out under identical excitation conditions. The nonradiative relaxation rates of the optically allowed S2(1Bu+1) state were precisely determined by the time-resolved fluorescence. The kinetics of the optically forbidden S1(2Ag-1) state were observed by the time-resolved absorption measurements. The dependence of the S1 relaxation rates upon the conjugation length is adequately described by application of the energy gap law. In contrast to this, the nonradiative relaxation rates of S2 have a minimum at n =9 and show a reverse energy gap law dependence for values of n above 11. This anomalous behavior of the S2 relaxation rates can be explained by the presence of an intermediate state (here called the Sx state) located between the S2 and S1 states at large values of n (such as n =11). The presence of such an intermediate state would then result in the following sequential relaxation pathway S2?Sx?S1?S0. A model based on conical intersections between the potential energy curves of these excited singlet states can readily explain the measured relationships between the decay rates and the energy gaps.

  6. Time optimal paths for high speed maneuvering

    SciTech Connect

    Reister, D.B.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent theoretical results have completely solved the problem of determining the minimum length path for a vehicle with a minimum turning radius moving from an initial configuration to a final configuration. Time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle are a subset of the minimum length paths. This paper uses the Pontryagin maximum principle to find time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle. The time optimal paths consist of sequences of axes of circles and straight lines. The maximum principle introduces concepts (dual variables, bang-bang solutions, singular solutions, and transversality conditions) that provide important insight into the nature of the time optimal paths. We explore the properties of the optimal paths and present some experimental results for a mobile robot following an optimal path.

  7. Ladybug Lengths

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    This lesson introduces students to the measurable attribute of length and provides practice in measuring length using non-standard units. The lesson is launched using the story Ladybug on the Move by Richard Fowler. Lesson objectives, teaching ideas, and handouts are included.

  8. A comprehensive study on energy absorption and exposure buildup factors for some essential amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates in the energy range 0.015-15 MeV up to 40 mean free path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurudirek, Murat; Özdemir, Yüksel

    2011-01-01

    The gamma ray energy absorption ( EABF) and exposure buildup factors ( EBF) have been calculated for some essential amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates in the energy region 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path). The five parameter geometric progression (G-P) fitting approximation has been used to calculate both EABF and EBF. Variations of EABF and EBF with incident photon energy, penetration depth and weight fraction of elements have been studied. While the significant variations in EABF and EBF for amino acids and fatty acids have been observed at the intermediate energy region where Compton scattering is the main photon interaction process, the values of EABF and EBF appear to be almost the same for all carbohydrates in the continuous energy region. It has been observed that the fatty acids have the largest EABF and EBF at 0.08 and 0.1 MeV, respectively, whereas the maximum values of EABF and EBF have been observed for aminoacids and carbohydrates at 0.1 MeV. At the fixed energy of 1.5 MeV, the variation of EABF with penetration depth appears to be independent of the variations in chemical composition of the amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates. Significant variations were also observed between EABF and EBF which may be due to the variations in chemical composition of the given materials.

  9. Counting paths in digraphs

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Blair D [ORNL; Seymour, Dr. Paul Douglas [Princeton University

    2010-01-01

    Say a digraph is k-free if it has no directed cycles of length at most k, for k {element_of} Z{sup +}. Thomasse conjectured that the number of induced 3-vertex directed paths in a simple 2-free digraph on n vertices is at most (n-1)n(n+1)/15. We present an unpublished result of Bondy proving there are at most 2n{sup 3}/25 such paths, and prove that for the class of circular interval digraphs, an upper bound of n{sup 3}/16 holds. We also study the problem of bounding the number of (non-induced) 4-vertex paths in 3-free digraphs. We show an upper bound of 4n{sup 4}/75 using Bondy's result for Thomasse's conjecture.

  10. Wedge absorption remote sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Wendell R.; White, Kenneth O.

    1981-11-01

    Remote detection of gases, especially methane, is important in several fields including coal mining, natural gas storage, and pollution monitoring. Near real-time remote sensing of atmospheric gases can already be performed by using differential absorption lidar or transmission techniques. A new system called the wedge absorption remote sensor has been developed which improves integrated path detection of atmospheric gases. The wedge absorption remote sensor utilizes an emission spike train of short-time duration as is found in the long-pulse output mode of a solid-state laser to define the on- and off-line absorption of an atmospheric gas and, hence, its concentration. The wedge absorption remote sensor has performed well as a remote sensor of methane concentrations with an erbium:ytterbium-aluminum-garnet laser as the source.

  11. Design parameters for enhanced photon absorption in vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Superior photon absorption in ordered nanowire arrays has been demonstrated recently. However, systematic studies are still missing to explore the limits of their implementation as functional photonic devices. With emphasis on silicon nanowires, we investigated the effects of nanowire diameter, length, morphology, and pitch on the photon absorption within the visible solar spectrum based on simulations. Our results reveal that these parameters are crucial but disclose a path to improve the absorbance drastically. PACS 78.40.Fy; 78.67.Uh; 78.67.-n PMID:25276106

  12. Quantitative infrared absorption cross sections of isoprene for atmospheric measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, Carolyn S.; Blake, Thomas A.; Guenther, Alex B.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Sams, Robert L.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2014-11-19

    The OH- and O3- initiated oxidations of isoprene, which is one of the primary volatile organic compounds produced by vegetation, are a major source of atmospheric formaldehyde and other oxygenated organics, yet little quantitative IR data exists for isoprene. We thus report absorption coefficients and integrated band intensities for isoprene in the 600 - 6500 cm-1 region. The pressure-broadened (1 atmosphere N2) spectra were recorded at 278, 298 and 323 K in a 19.96 cm path length cell at 0.112 cm-1 resolution, using a Bruker 66V FTIR. Composite spectra are derived from a minimum of seven pressures at each temperature.

  13. Spectral Fingerprinting of Individual Cells Visualized by Cavity-Reflection-Enhanced Light-Absorption Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Minamikawa, Takeo; Takamatsu, Tetsuro; Nagai, Takeharu

    2015-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of light is known to be a “molecular fingerprint” that enables analysis of the molecular type and its amount. It would be useful to measure the absorption spectrum in single cell in order to investigate the cellular status. However, cells are too thin for their absorption spectrum to be measured. In this study, we developed an optical-cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopic microscopy method for two-dimensional absorption imaging. The light absorption is enhanced by an optical cavity system, which allows the detection of the absorption spectrum with samples having an optical path length as small as 10 ?m, at a subcellular spatial resolution. Principal component analysis of various types of cultured mammalian cells indicates absorption-based cellular diversity. Interestingly, this diversity is observed among not only different species but also identical cell types. Furthermore, this microscopy technique allows us to observe frozen sections of tissue samples without any staining and is capable of label-free biopsy. Thus, our microscopy method opens the door for imaging the absorption spectra of biological samples and thereby detecting the individuality of cells. PMID:25950513

  14. Finger Length

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2005-03-28

    This Science Update explores male agression patterns and their correlation to pre-natal testosterone exposure. Although life experience plays a huge role in shaping who we are, the foundations of our personality begin in the womb. One recent study looks to finger length for signs of a man's pre-natal exposure to testosterone.n women, the index and ring finger are roughly equal in length. But in most men, the ring finger is longer. That's a result of fetal exposure to testosterone. Psychologists Alison Bailey and Pete Hurd, of the University of Alberta in Canada, studied these finger ratios in male college students. And they found that men with more dramatic differences tended to be more aggressive. Additional links to resources are given for further inquiry.

  15. Optical absorption of pure water in the blue and ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zheng

    The key feature of the Integrating Cavity Absorption Meter (ICAM) is that it produces an isotropic illumination of the liquid sample and thereby dramatically minimizes scattering effects. The ICAM can produce an effective optical path length up to several meters. As a consequence, it is capable of measuring absorption coefficients as low as 0.001 m-1. The early version of the ICAM was used previously to measure the absorption spectrum of pure water over the 380-700 nm range. To extend its range into the ultraviolet, several modifications have been completed. The preliminary tests showed that the modified ICAM was able to measure the absorption of pure water for the wavelength down to 300 nm. After extensive experimental investigation and analysis, we found that the absorption of SpectralonRTM (the highly diffusive and reflective material used to build the ICAM) has a higher impact on measurements of absorption in the UV range than we had expected. Observations of high values for pure water absorption in the UV, specifically between 300 and 360 nm, are a consequence of absorption by the Spectralon RTM. These results indicated that even more serious modifications were required (e.g. SpectralonRTM can not be used for a cavity in the UV). Consequently, we developed a new diffuse reflecting material and used fused silica powder (sub-micron level) sealed inside a quartz cell to replace the inner SpectralonRTM cavity of the ICAM. The new data is in excellent agreement with the Pope and Fry data (380-600 nm) and fills the gap between the 320 nm data of Quickenden and Irvin and 380 nm data of Pope and Fry. We present definitive results for the absorption spectrum of pure water between 300 and 600 nm.

  16. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, Michael E. (Bedford, MA); Bien, Fritz (Concord, MA); Bernstein, Lawrence S. (Bedford, MA)

    1986-01-01

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined.

  17. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, M.E.; Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.

    1986-12-09

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined. 5 figs.

  18. Broadband supercontinuum laser absorption spectrometer for multiparameter gas phase combustion diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Göran Blume, Niels; Wagner, Steven

    2015-07-01

    We report on the development and application of a broadband absorption spectrometer utilizing a pulsed supercontinuum laser light source and dispersion compensating fiber with a single-pass absorption path to obtain absolute methane mole fractions in a laminar nonpremixed CH4/air flame supported on a Wolfhard-Parker burner. The basic principle of supercontinuum broadband absorption spectroscopy (SCLAS) provides advantageous means of combustion diagnostics since the broad spectral coverage allows for use in high-pressure high-temperature environments. Furthermore, a previously validated tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy fitting algorithm was applied to the recorded spectra and found to be applicable to SCLAS measurements as well, by comparison of fitted methane gas concentrations to reference measurements on the Wolfhard-Parker burner. The spectrometer reached spectral resolutions of up to 0.152??cm-1, while providing a spectral coverage of over 110??cm-1, with an absorption path length of only 41 mm. First measurements of absolute CH4 mole fractions showed the suitability of SCL-based spectroscopy for combustion diagnostics with short absorption path lengths in the nIR spectral region. Here, we achieved in-flame methane mole fraction resolutions of 3 %Vol. (1210 ppm·m) and optical resolutions of up to 1.1×10-2. Based on this first validation, this method can now be extended to other species and combustion parameters such as temperature and pressure. PMID:26125387

  19. Shortest Path Problems on a Polyhedral Surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atlas F. Cook; Carola Wenk

    2009-01-01

    We develop algorithms to compute edge sequences, Voronoi diagrams, shortest path maps, the Fréchet distance, and the diameter for a polyhedral surface. Dis- tances on the surface are measured either by the length of a Euclidean shortest path or by link distance.

  20. Multiresolution Path Planning Via Sector Decompositions

    E-print Network

    Tsiotras, Panagiotis

    Multiresolution Path Planning Via Sector Decompositions Compatible to On-Board Sensor Data that includes actual path length along with a risk-induced metric. We use a multi-resolution cell decomposition or popup threats. Several multi-resolution or hierarchical algorithms have been proposed in the literature

  1. A Random Walk on a Circular Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, W.-K.; Lee, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This short note introduces an interesting random walk on a circular path with cards of numbers. By using high school probability theory, it is proved that under some assumptions on the number of cards, the probability that a walker will return to a fixed position will tend to one as the length of the circular path tends to infinity.

  2. An introduction to critical paths.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Richard J; Richards, Janet S; Remmert, Carl S; LeRoy, Sarah S; Schoville, Rhonda R; Baldwin, Phyllis J

    2005-01-01

    A critical path defines the optimal sequencing and timing of interventions by physicians, nurses, and other staff for a particular diagnosis or procedure. Critical paths are developed through collaborative efforts of physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and others to improve the quality and value of patient care. They are designed to minimize delays and resource utilization and to maximize quality of care. Critical paths have been shown to reduce variation in the care provided, facilitate expected outcomes, reduce delays, reduce length of stay, and improve cost-effectiveness. The approach and goals of critical paths are consistent with those of total quality management (TQM) and can be an important part of an organization's TQM process. PMID:15739581

  3. Term Paths

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cynthia Ann Radle (McCullough High School REV)

    1995-06-30

    Students follow several pathways using anatomical directions on a simulated "body" produced from a copy of a school building's fire evacuation plan. The main hallways are designated as major blood vessels and the various areas of the school, the head, chest, abdomen, etc. Students complete several pathways using anatomical terms as directions. For example, one of my paths begins, "Ex- ot-, ad- superior, ecto- derm-, peri-frontal, circum- rhino-, " which loosely means, exit the ear, go to the superior region, outside the skin, around the frontal region, around the nose. At the end of each path I leave a clue that lets me know the students actually made it. The combined clues form a sentence.

  4. Near-infrared open-path measurement of CO2 concentration in the urban atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hayato; Manago, Naohiro; Kuriyama, Kenji; Kuze, Hiroaki

    2015-06-01

    Average concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been measured over a path length of 5.1 km in the lower troposphere by the method of differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) using a near-infrared light source based on amplified spontaneous emission. The analysis of CO2 absorption intensity around 1575 nm observed during 10 days over the Chiba city area has revealed that the CO2 concentration varied in the range of around 360-450 ppmv, with presumable influence of air mass advection from nearby industrial facilities. In addition, a good correlation has been found in relative humidity values between the DOAS and meteorological station data. As a whole, the present result indicates the usefulness of such a DOAS approach for measuring the concentration of CO2 averaged over an optical path of a few kilometers in the lower troposphere. PMID:26030559

  5. A cryogenic circulating advective multi-pass absorption cell.

    PubMed

    Stockett, M H; Lawler, J E

    2012-03-01

    A novel absorption cell has been developed to enable a spectroscopic survey of a broad range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) under astrophysically relevant conditions and utilizing a synchrotron radiation continuum to test the still controversial hypothesis that these molecules or their ions could be carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands. The cryogenic circulating advective multi-pass absorption cell resembles a wind tunnel; molecules evaporated from a crucible or injected using a custom gas feedthrough are entrained in a laminar flow of cryogenically cooled buffer gas and advected into the path of the synchrotron beam. This system includes a multi-pass optical White cell enabling absorption path lengths of hundreds of meters and a detection sensitivity to molecular densities on the order of 10(7) cm(-3). A capacitively coupled radio frequency dielectric barrier discharge provides ionized and metastable buffer gas atoms for ionizing the candidate molecules via charge exchange and the Penning effect. Stronger than expected clustering of PAH molecules has slowed efforts to record gas phase PAH spectra at cryogenic temperatures, though such clusters may play a role in other interstellar phenomena. PMID:22462957

  6. [Measurement of OH radicals in flame with high resolution differential optical absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Liu, Wen-Qing; Kan, Rui-Feng; Si, Fu-Qi; Xu, Zhen-Yu; Hu, Ren-Zhi; Xie, Pin-Hua

    2011-10-01

    The present paper describes a new developed high resolution differential optical absorption spectroscopy instrument used for the measurement of OH radicals in flame. The instrument consists of a Xenon lamp for light source; a double pass high resolution echelle spectrometer with a resolution of 3.3 pm; a multiple-reflection cell of 20 meter base length, in which the light reflects in the cell for 176 times, so the whole path length of light can achieve 3 520 meters. The OH radicals'6 absorption lines around 308 nm were simultaneously observed in the experiment. By using high resolution DOAS technology, the OH radicals in candles, kerosene lamp, and alcohol burner flames were monitored, and their concentrations were also inverted. PMID:22250529

  7. Optimal robot path planning based on danger degree map

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yinghua Xue; Guohui Tian; Bin Huang

    2009-01-01

    A modified path planning approach is presented for mobile robot in the paper. First a new environment model called danger degree map (DDM) is constructed in order to provide more rich environment information than grids map. Then the equidistant distributed PSO whose fitness function is the weighted sum of the path length and the path danger degree is introduced to

  8. Soliton absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kalashnikov, V. L.; Sorokin, E.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze optical soliton propagation in the presence of weak absorption lines with much narrower linewidths as compared to the soliton spectrum width using the novel perturbation analysis technique based on an integral representation in the spectral domain. The stable soliton acquires spectral modulation that follows the associated index of refraction of the absorber. The model can be applied to ordinary soliton propagation and to an absorber inside a passively modelocked laser. In the latter case, a comparison with water vapor absorption in a femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser yields a very good agreement with experiment. Compared to the conventional absorption measurement in a cell of the same length, the signal is increased by an order of magnitude. The obtained analytical expressions allow further improving of the sensitivity and spectroscopic accuracy making the soliton absorption spectroscopy a promising novel measurement technique. PMID:21151755

  9. Intensities and N2 collision-broadening coefficients measured for selected H2O absorption lines between 715 and 732 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, T. D.; Schwemmer, G.; Gentry, B.; Giver, L. P.

    1979-01-01

    Intensities and N2 collision-broadening coefficients are measured for 62 water vapor absorption lines between 715 and 732 nm potentially applicable to laser remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor. Absolute line strengths and widths were determined from spectra corrected for instrument resolution, air-path absorption and Lorentz and Doppler broadening for pure water vapor and water vapor-nitrogen mixtures in a multipass absorption cell with a base path length of 25 m (White cell). Line strengths are observed to range from 4 x 10 to the -25th to 4 x 10 to the -23rd kayser/molecule per sq cm, and collision broadening coefficients are found to be approximately equal to 0.1 kayser/atm.

  10. Influence of absorption induced thermal initiation pathway on irradiance threshold for laser induced breakdown

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Babu; Bonito, Valentina; Jurna, Martin; Palero, Jonathan; Verhagen, Margaret Hortonand Rieko

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the influence of thermal initiation pathway on the irradiance threshold for laser induced breakdown in transparent, absorbing and scattering phantoms. We observed a transition from laser-induced optical breakdown to laser-induced thermal breakdown as the absorption coefficient of the medium is increased. We found that the irradiance threshold after correction for the path length dependent absorption and scattering losses in the medium is lower due to the thermal pathway for the generation of seed electrons compared to the laser-induced optical breakdown. Furthermore, irradiance threshold gradually decreases with the increase in the absorption properties of the medium. Creating breakdown with lower irradiance threshold that is specific at the target chromophore can provide intrinsic target selectivity and improve safety and efficacy of skin treatment methods that use laser induced breakdown. PMID:25909007

  11. Scramjet Performance Assessment Using Water Absorption Diagnostics (U)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavolowsky, John A.; Loomis, Mark P.; Deiwert, George

    1995-01-01

    Simultaneous multiple path measurements of temperature and H2O concentration will be presented for the AIMHYE test entries in the NASA Ames 16-Inch Shock Tunnel. Monitoring the progress of high temperature chemical reactions that define scramjet combustor efficiencies is a task uniquely suited to nonintrusive optical diagnostics. One application strategy to overcome the many challenges and limitations of nonintrusive measurements is to use laser absorption spectroscopy coupled with optical fibers. Absorption spectroscopic techniques with rapidly tunable lasers are capable of making simultaneous measurements of mole fraction, temperature, pressure, and velocity. The scramjet water absorption diagnostic was used to measure combustor efficiency and was compared to thrust measurements using a nozzle force balance and integrated nozzle pressures to develop a direct technique for evaluating integrated scramjet performance. Tests were initially performed with a diode laser tuning over a water absorption feature at 1391.7 nm. A second diode laser later became available at a wavelength near 1343.3 nm covering an additional water absorption feature and was incorporated in the system for a two-wavelength technique. Both temperature and mole fraction can be inferred from the lineshape analysis using this approach. Additional high temperature spectroscopy research was conducted to reduce uncertainties in the scramjet application. The lasers are optical fiber coupled to ports at the combustor exit and in the nozzle region. The output from the two diode lasers were combined in a single fiber, and the resultant two-wavelength beam was subsequently split into four legs. Each leg was directed through 60 meters of optical fiber to four combustor exit locations for measurement of beam intensity after absorption by the water within the flow. Absorption results will be compared to 1D combustor analysis using RJPA and nozzle CFD computations as well as to data from a nozzle metric balance measuring thrust and integrated pressure measurements along the length of the nozzle. Assessment of its value as a combustor performance evaluation tool will be conducted.

  12. FIRST 0747+2739: A FIRST/2MASS Quasar with an Overabundance of C IV Absorption Systems

    E-print Network

    Gordon T. Richards; Michael D. Gregg; Robert H. Becker; Richard L. White

    2002-01-28

    We present a Keck ESI spectrum of FIRST 074711.2+273904, a K=15.4 quasar with redshift 4.11 that is detected by both FIRST and 2MASS. The spectrum contains at least 14 independent C IV absorption systems longward of the Ly-alpha forest. These systems are found over a path length of Delta z = 0.984, constituting one of the highest densities per unit redshift of C IV absorption ever observed. One of the C IV systems is trough-like and resembles a weak BAL-type outflow. Two of the C IV are ``associated'' absorption systems with |v|3000 km/s, eight are either resolved or require multiple discrete systems to fit the line profiles. In addition to C IV absorption, there are two low-ionization Mg II absorption systems along with two damped Ly-alpha systems, at least one of which may be a C IV system. The overdensity of C IV absorption spans a redshift range of Delta z=1. Superclusters along the line of sight are unlikely to cause an overdensity stretching over such a long redshift path, thus the absorption may be an example of narrow, high-velocity, intrinsic absorption that originates from the quasar. We suggest that this quasar is a member of a transitional class of BAL quasars where we are just barely seeing the spatial, density, or temporal edge of the BAL-producing region (or period); the multiple high-velocity absorption systems may be the remnants (or precursors) of a stronger BAL outflow. If correct, then some simpler absorption line complexes in other quasars may also be due to outflowing rather than intervening material.

  13. Ray Paths

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For the next two exercises, we will break up into groups of four. Each member of the group will represent one of four waves leaving the source: direct wave, ground roll, reflected wave, and head wave. All four "waves" will leave the source at the same time and travel at a particular speed and path as directed by the instructor. ALL students will record the arrival time of each "wave" at each geophone until all 12 geophones have been used. Plot arrival time versus distance for each "wave". Do any of the time versus distance curves fit a straight line? Do any of them not fit a straight line? Explain why they do or don't fit a straight line. Uses online and/or real-time data Has minimal/no quantitative component

  14. Continuously variable focal length lens

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  15. ALGEBRAIC ASPECTS OF EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY WITH ABSORPTION

    E-print Network

    Tijdeman, Robert

    ALGEBRAIC ASPECTS OF EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY WITH ABSORPTION L. Hajdu and R. Tijdeman Abstract of emission tomography with absorption, con- sider a ray (such as light or X-ray) transmitting through #1; e #22;x ; where #22; #21; 0 denotes the absorption coeÃ?cient of the material, and x is the length

  16. Analysis for nonlinear inversion technique developed to estimate depth-distribution of absorption by spatially resolved backscattering measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Kazuhiro; Namita, Takeshi; Kato, Yuji; Shimizu, Koichi

    2015-03-01

    We have proposed a new nonlinear inversion technique to estimate the spatial distribution of the absorption coefficient (?a) in the depth direction of a turbid medium by spatially resolved backscattering measurement. With this technique, we can obtain cross-sectional image of ?a as deep as the backscattered light traveled even when the transmitted light through the medium cannot be detected. In this technique, the depth distribution of absorption coefficient is determined by iterative calculation using the spatial path-length distribution (SPD) of traveled photons as a function of source-detector distance. In this calculation, the variance of path-length of many photons in each layer is also required. The SPD and the variance of path-length are obtained by Monte Carlo simulation using a known reduced scattering coefficient (?s'). Therefore, we need to know the ?s' of the turbid medium beforehand. We have shown in computer simulation that this technique works well when the ?s' is the typical values of mammalian body tissue, or 1.0 /mm. In this study, the accuracy of the ?a estimation was analyzed and its dependence on the ?s' was clarified quantitatively in various situations expected in practice. 10% deviations in ?s' resulted in about 30% error in ?a estimation, in average. This suggested that the measurement or the appropriate estimation of ?s' is required to utilize the proposed technique effectively. Through this analysis, the effectiveness and the limitation of the newly proposed technique were clarified, and the problems to be solved were identified.

  17. A Combinatorial Interpretation of the Area of Schroder Paths

    E-print Network

    Pinzani, Renzo

    A Combinatorial Interpretation of the Area of Schr¨oder Paths E. Pergola, R. Pinzani Dipartimento. Abstract An elevated Schr¨oder path is a lattice path that uses the steps (1; 1), (1; \\Gamma1), and (2; 0 of elevated Schr¨oder paths of length 2n + 2 satisfies the recurrence f n+1 = 6f n \\Gamma f n\\Gamma1 , n â?? 2

  18. EVLA MEMO #10 PREDICTED OPTICAL FIBER LENGTH VARIATIONS

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    EVLA MEMO #10 PREDICTED OPTICAL FIBER LENGTH VARIATIONS DUE TO TEMPERATURE CHANGES TERRY COTTER; Table I: Fiber Segments Segment Max expected path length 1. Control building segment ( Antenna back end mode fiber. IV. Analysis Analysis is being done to determine the over all length variation due

  19. Spectroscopic method for determination of the absorption coefficient in brain tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Johannes D.

    2010-09-01

    I use Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements to characterize a probe with adjacent optical fibres for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during stereotactic surgery in the brain. Simulations and measurements have been fitted to a modified Beer-Lambert model for light transport in order to be able to quantify chromophore content based on clinically measured spectra in brain tissue. It was found that it is important to take the impact of the light absorption into account when calculating the apparent optical path length, lp, for the photons in order to get good estimates of the absorption coefficient, ?a. The optical path length was found to be well fitted to the equation lp=a+b ln(Is)+c ln(?a)+d ln(Is)ln(?a), where Is is the reflected light intensity for scattering alone (i.e., zero absorption). Although coefficients a-d calculated in this study are specific to the probe used here, the general form of the equation should be applicable to similar probes.

  20. Spectroscopic method for determination of the absorption coefficient in brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Johannes D

    2010-01-01

    I use Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements to characterize a probe with adjacent optical fibres for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during stereotactic surgery in the brain. Simulations and measurements have been fitted to a modified Beer-Lambert model for light transport in order to be able to quantify chromophore content based on clinically measured spectra in brain tissue. It was found that it is important to take the impact of the light absorption into account when calculating the apparent optical path length, lp, for the photons in order to get good estimates of the absorption coefficient, ?a. The optical path length was found to be well fitted to the equation lp=a+b ln(Is)+c ln(?a)+d ln(Is)ln(?a), where Is is the reflected light intensity for scattering alone (i.e., zero absorption). Although coefficients a-d calculated in this study are specific to the probe used here, the general form of the equation should be applicable to similar probes. PMID:21054121

  1. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies of Zn/sub 2/Fe/sub 2/ hybrid hemoglobins: absence of heme bond length changes in half-ligated species

    SciTech Connect

    Simolo, K.; Korszun, Z.R.; Stucky, G.; Moffat, K.; McLendon, G.

    1986-07-01

    Metal hybrid hemoglobins, in which Zn(II) replaces Fe(II), have been structurally characterized by extended X-ray absorption structure (EAFS) studies. Since Zn and Fe have very different K absorption edge energies, the structures of the ligated (Fe) and unligated (Zn) sites could be examined independently within a single molecule that mimics an intermediate ligation state. The observed EXAFS spectra and associated structural parameters are compared among the ligand free (..cap alpha..Zn)/sub 2/(..beta..Zn)/sub 2/, half-ligated (..cap alpha..FeCO)/sub 2/(..beta..Zn)/sub 2/ and (..cap alpha..Zn)/sub 2/(..beta..FeCO)/sub 2/, and fully ligated (..cap alpha..FeCO)/sub 2/(..beta..FeCO)/sub 2/ systems.

  2. Surpassing the Path-Limited Resolution of a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with Frequency Combs

    E-print Network

    Maslowski, Piotr; Johansson, Alexandra C; Khodabakhsh, Amir; Kowzan, Grzegorz; Rutkowski, Lucile; Mills, Andrew A; Mohr, Christian; Jiang, Jie; Fermann, Martin E; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Fourier transform spectroscopy based on incoherent light sources is a well-established tool in research fields from molecular spectroscopy and atmospheric monitoring to material science and biophysics. It provides broadband molecular spectra and information about the molecular structure and composition of absorptive media. However, the spectral resolution is fundamentally limited by the maximum delay range ({\\Delta}$_{max}$) of the interferometer, so acquisition of high-resolution spectra implies long measurement times and large instrument size. We overcome this limit by combining the Fourier transform spectrometer with an optical frequency comb and measuring the intensities of individual comb lines by precisely matching the {\\Delta}$_{max}$ to the comb line spacing. This allows measurements of absorption lines narrower than the nominal (optical path-limited) resolution without ringing effects from the instrumental lineshape and reduces the acquisition time and interferometer length by orders of magnitude.

  3. Absorption of planar waves in a draining bathtub

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Ednilton S.; Dolan, Sam R.; Crispino, Luis C. B. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil) and Faculdade de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Para, 66075-110, Belem, Para (Brazil); School of Mathematics, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Faculdade de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Para, 66075-110, Belem, Para (Brazil)

    2010-06-15

    We present an analysis of the absorption of acoustic waves by a black hole analogue in (2+1) dimensions generated by a fluid flow in a draining bathtub. We show that the low-frequency absorption length is equal to the acoustic hole circumference and that the high-frequency absorption length is 4 times the ergoregion radius. For intermediate values of the wave frequency, we compute the absorption length numerically and show that our results are in excellent agreement with the low- and high-frequency limits. We analyze the occurrence of superradiance, manifested as negative partial absorption lengths for corotating modes at low frequencies.

  4. Nonlinear optical propagation in a tandem structure comprising nonlinear absorption and scattering materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kangpeng; Ju, Yongfeng; He, Jin; Zhang, Long, E-mail: jwang@siom.ac.cn, E-mail: lzhang@siom.ac.cn; Wang, Jun, E-mail: jwang@siom.ac.cn, E-mail: lzhang@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials for High-Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Chen, Yu [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Department of Chemistry, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Blau, Werner J. [Key Laboratory of Materials for High-Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); School of Physics and the Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-01-13

    Laser propagation in a tandem structure comprising carbon nanotubes and phthalocyanines is studied by Z-scan method. Due to the different mechanisms of the two materials, the laser beam can be attenuated with different absorptivities, by changing the sequence of light passing through each material. Numerical simulations considering the effect of path length and the change of nonlinear coefficient within each material are conducted for understanding the distribution of laser intensity in the tandem system and hence, fitting of the asymmetric Z-scan curves. The results are helpful for the design of nonlinear optical devices comprising multiple nonlinear materials and mechanisms.

  5. Discovering Interesting Sub-paths in Spatiotemporal Datasets: A Summary of Results

    E-print Network

    Shekhar, Shashi

    Discovering Interesting Sub-paths in Spatiotemporal Datasets: A Summary of Results Xun Zhou interesting sub-paths defined by an interest measure. Sub-path discovery is of fundamental importance is computationally challeng- ing due to the massive volume of data, the varying length of sub-paths and non

  6. On the Generation of Nearly Optimal, Planar Paths of Bounded Curvature and Bounded Curvature Gradient

    E-print Network

    Tsiotras, Panagiotis

    is a generalization of the Dubins problem to account for more realistic vehicle dynamics. The problem is solved. First, the generated path should be compatible to the vehicle dynamics, and second, the path should is the total length of the path, whereas the vehicle's dynamics may be incorporated into the path generation

  7. A multiple path photonic lab on a chip for parallel protein concentration measurements.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Isaac; Conejero-Muriel, Mayte; Ackermann, Tobias N; Gavira, José A; Llobera, Andreu

    2015-02-21

    We propose a PDMS-based photonic system for the accurate measurement of protein concentration with minute amounts of the sample. As opposed to the state of the art approach, in the multiple path photonic lab on a chip (MPHIL), analyte concentration or molar absorptivity is obtained with a single injection step, by performing simultaneous parallel optical measurements varying the optical path length. Also, as opposed to the standard calibration protocol, the MPHIL approach does not require a series of measurements at different concentrations. MPHIL has three main advantages: firstly the possibility of dynamically selecting the path length, always working in the absorbance vs. concentration linear range for each target analyte. Secondly, a dramatic reduction of the total volume of the sample required to obtain statistically reliable results. Thirdly, since only one injection is required, the measurement time is minimized, reducing both contamination and signal drifts. These characteristics are clearly advantageous when compared to commercial micro-spectrophotometers. The MPHIL concept was validated by testing three commercial proteins, lysozyme (HEWL), glucose isomerase (d-xylose-ketol-isomerase, GI) and Aspergillus sp. lipase L (BLL), as well as two proteins expressed and purified for this study, B. cereus formamidase (FASE) and dihydropyrimidinase from S. meliloti CECT41 (DHP). The use of MPHIL is also proposed for any spectrophotometric measurement in the UV-VIS range, as well as for its integration as a concentration measurement platform in more advanced photonic lab on a chip systems. PMID:25537135

  8. Finding a Hamiltonian Path in a Cube with Specified Turns is Hard

    E-print Network

    Abel, Zachary Ryan

    We prove the NP-completeness of finding a Hamiltonian path in an N × N × N cube graph with turns exactly at specified lengths along the path. This result establishes NP-completeness of Snake Cube puzzles: folding a chain ...

  9. Concentration measurement of gas embedded in scattering media by employing absorption and time-resolved laser spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Somesfalean, Gabriel; Sjöholm, Mikael; Alnis, Janis; af Klinteberg, Claes; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Svanberg, Sune

    2002-06-20

    Diode-laser-based absorption spectroscopy for the evaluation of embedded gas concentrations in porous materials is demonstrated in measurements of molecular oxygen dispersed throughout scattering polystyrene foam, used here as a generic test material. The mean path length of light scattered in the material is determined with the temporal characteristics of the radiation transmitted through the sample. This combined with sensitive gas-absorption measurements employing wavelength-modulation spectroscopy yields an oxygen concentration in polystyrene foam of 20.4% corresponding to a foam porosity of 98%, which is consistent with manufacturing specifications. This feasibility study opens many possibilities for quantitative measurements by using the method of gas-in-scattering-media absorption spectroscopy. PMID:12078678

  10. Absorption spectroscopy of RDX monopropellant flames: CN and NH concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, B. E.; Vanderhoff, John A.

    1997-11-01

    UV-visible multi-channel absorption spectroscopy has been used to probe the self-sustained combustion of pressed RDX, a main energetic ingredient found in modern day propellants and explosives. The two dimensional feature of an intensified CCD detector allowed simultaneous recording of multiple, spatially distinct absorption spectra. Between 10 and 12 equally spaced absorption spectra with spatial resolution as small as 0.163 mm have been obtained during 1 ms exposure. The number of absorption spectra and the spatial resolution can easily be set by the detector software, size of the excitation sheet and the focal length of the collection lens. Temporal resolution in the UV region has been increased to 1 ms by pulsing the light source. A 0.54 joule pulse with a duration of 0.75 ms was added to a simmering Xenon arc lamp for the measurement of combustion species. The increase in light intensity of 30 and 70 times the non-pulsed output provided the necessary light flux to achieve single pulse, multiple absorption spectra. To increase the species concentration sensitivity of the experiment, a triple pass optical arrangement was adopted. Partially silvered windows were installed at an angle to the beam providing for three passes across the samples. The corresponding path length was increased by a factor of 2.8 times the sample diameter. Least squares analysis of absorption spectra provide mole fraction profiles for OH, CN and NH along with temperature. Profiles for NC and HN have been determined for self-sustained combustion of RDX in 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 atm air. Peak CN mole fractions of about 200 ppm are observed at 1 atm pressure and the NH mole fraction is about a factor of two lower. As the pressure is increased the reactive CN and HN species peak closer to the combusting surface and reside over a smaller spatial extent. Peak concentrations drop for these higher pressures, but may be due, at least in part, to limitations of the spatial resolution of the absorption experiment.

  11. Geodesy by radio interferometry: Effects of atmospheric modeling errors on estimates of baseline length

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Davis; T. A. Herrinch; I. I. Shapiro; A. E. E. Rollers; G. Elgered

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of very long baseline interferometry data indicates that systematic errors in prior estimates of baseline length, of order 5 cm for  8000-km baselines, were due primarily to mismodeling of the electrical path length of the troposphere and mesosphere (\\

  12. Propagation path length variations due to bending of optical fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K. Y.

    1981-01-01

    The geometric effect and material stress effects are included. Calculations are shown that put an upper limit on the expected phase shift in single mode fibers. The fractional change in propagation constant is presented. Moding effects in multimode fibers cause extraneous phase shifts of unusually high magnitude. This does not occur in single mode fibers, rendering them very insensitive to bending with a theoretical limit given by the above relation.

  13. Path Length Correction for dE/dx Olushakin Olojo

    E-print Network

    Cinabro, David

    empirically from the data. Specific Ionization Specific ionization, also known as dE/dx, is the energy lost particle tracks go through this region of the detector and ionize the Helium and Propane, liberating of the cell it begins to pick up speed, moving so fast that it ionizes other molecules. Electrons liberated

  14. Substrate and chain length dependencies of the thermal behavior of [CF3(CF2)m(CH2)nCOO]2Cd single monolayers investigated by infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yanzhi; Asanuma, Morito; Iimura, Ken-ichi; Kato, Teiji

    2001-01-01

    Temperature-variable grazing incidence reflection absorption (GIR) spectra were recorded for the single monolayer of [CF3(CF2)m(CH2)nCOO)]2Cd [(m,n)=(7,10), (7,16), (7,22), (5,22), and (3,22)], transferred from aqueous Cd2+ subphase to gold- and aluminum-evaporated glass substrates. The spectra reveal that these monolayers have better thermal stability on Al substrates than on Au. An "interaction band" is identified at 1484˜1480 cm-1, due to the ?s(COO-) mode of carboxylate headgroups in ionic bonding with the Al surface. It is found that both the van der Waals interaction between the trans zig-zag hydrocarbon chains and the overlapping interaction between the fluorocarbon helixes are responsible for the systematic variation of the monolayer thermal behavior with (m,n). The thermal behavior of a single monolayer of cadmium stearate, serving as a model system, has been investigated to further confirm the spectral interpretation about the partially fluorinated monolayer. In addition, temperature-dependent friction measurements show that the single monolayers of (m,n)=(7,16), (7,22), (5,22), and (3,22) are potential molecular lubricants that can be used in the range of 25˜140 °C.

  15. Cooperative organic mine avoidance path planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, Christopher B.; Piatko, Christine D.; Peterson, Adam V.; Donnald, Creighton R.; Cohen, David

    2005-06-01

    The JHU/APL Path Planning team has developed path planning techniques to look for paths that balance the utility and risk associated with different routes through a minefield. Extending on previous years' efforts, we investigated real-world Naval mine avoidance requirements and developed a tactical decision aid (TDA) that satisfies those requirements. APL has developed new mine path planning techniques using graph based and genetic algorithms which quickly produce near-minimum risk paths for complicated fitness functions incorporating risk, path length, ship kinematics, and naval doctrine. The TDA user interface, a Java Swing application that obtains data via Corba interfaces to path planning databases, allows the operator to explore a fusion of historic and in situ mine field data, control the path planner, and display the planning results. To provide a context for the minefield data, the user interface also renders data from the Digital Nautical Chart database, a database created by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency containing charts of the world's ports and coastal regions. This TDA has been developed in conjunction with the COMID (Cooperative Organic Mine Defense) system. This paper presents a description of the algorithms, architecture, and application produced.

  16. Intrinsic UV absorption spectrometry observed with a liquid core waveguide as a sensor technique for monitoring ozone in water.

    PubMed

    Le, Trang; Tao, Shiquan

    2011-08-21

    The industrial use of ozone as a sanitizing agent in water treatment and food processing in recent years calls for sensor technologies for monitoring ozone in water for process control. Ozone molecules absorb UV light with a peak absorption wavelength at 254 nm. This property has been used in this work to develop a simple sensor technology for online, real-time continuous monitoring of trace ozone in water. A Teflon AF2400 tube filled with pure water forms a liquid core waveguide (LCW), which is used as a long-path-length optical absorption cell. This pure water filled tube was deployed into a water sample. Ozone molecules dissolved in the water sample permeate through the Teflon AF2400 tube wall and dissolve in water filled in the tube. This prevents interference species from entering the LCW, and eliminates interferences. The optical absorption signal of the long-path-length cell at 254 nm measured by guiding light through the LCW is used as a sensing signal. This simple structured sensor does not involve any chemical reagent, is reversible, and has a response time <4.5 minutes. It can be used to detect ozone in water samples down to 3.6 × 10(-9) mol L(-1). PMID:21743914

  17. On-column double-beam laser absorption detection for capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Y.; Yeung, E.S. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Double-beam laser absorption detection in capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been developed. This is based on the direct subtraction of reference and signal photocurrents by an electronic circuit, under feedback control, to reduce background noise. A simple equation for calculating concentrations has been proposed and was confirmed by experimental results. A practical noise-to-signal ratio of 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]5] in intensity is achieved. This is 5 times lower than that of commercial CE systems. For absorbance detection, as low as 2 [times] 10[sup [minus]8] M malachite green can be detected. This corresponds to a 25-fold improvement of detection limit over commercial systems. This gain in detectability results from both a reduction in intensity fluctuations (noise) and an increase in the effective absorption path length (signal). 22 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Laser absorption spectroscopy of oxygen confined in highly porous hollow sphere xerogel.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Somesfalean, Gabriel; He, Sailing

    2014-02-10

    An Al2O3 xerogel with a distinctive microstructure is studied for the application of laser absorption spectroscopy of oxygen. The xerogel has an exceptionally high porosity (up to 88%) and a large pore size (up to 3.6 µm). Using the method of gas-in-scattering media absorption spectroscopy (GASMAS), a long optical path length (about 3.5m) and high enhancement factor (over 300 times) are achieved as the result of extremely strong multiple-scattering when the light is transmitted through the air-filled, hollow-sphere alumina xerogel. We investigate how the micro-physical feature influences the optical property. As part of the optical sensing system, the material's gas exchange dynamics are also experimentally studied. PMID:24663551

  19. Interstellar Metastable Helium Absorption as a Probe of the Cosmic-Ray Ionization Rate

    E-print Network

    Indriolo, Nick; Hinkle, K H; McCall, Benjamin J

    2009-01-01

    The ionization rate of interstellar material by cosmic rays has been a major source of controversy, with different estimates varying by three orders of magnitude. Observational constraints of this rate have all depended on analyzing the chemistry of various molecules that are produced following cosmic-ray ionization, and in many cases these analyses contain significant uncertainties. Even in the simplest case (H3+) the derived ionization rate depends on an (uncertain) estimate of the absorption path length. In this paper we examine the feasibility of inferring the cosmic-ray ionization rate using the 10830 A absorption line of metastable helium. Observations through the diffuse clouds toward HD 183143 are presented, but yield only an upper limit on the metastable helium column density. A thorough investigation of He+ chemistry reveals that only a small fraction of He+ will recombine into the triplet state and populate the metastable level. In addition, excitation to the triplet manifold of helium by secondary...

  20. Note: cavity enhanced self-absorption spectroscopy: a new diagnostic tool for light emitting matter.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Anton J; Zhao, Dongfeng; Linnartz, Harold

    2013-02-01

    We introduce the concept of Cavity Enhanced Self-Absorption Spectroscopy (CESAS), a new sensitive diagnostic tool for analyzing light-emitting samples. The technique works without an additional light source and its implementation is straight forward. In CESAS, a sample (plasma, flame, or combustion source) is located in an optically stable cavity consisting of two high reflectivity mirrors, and here it acts both as light source and absorbing medium. A modest portion of the emitted light is trapped inside the cavity, making 10(4)-10(5) cavity round trips while crossing the sample and an artificial augmentation of the path length of the absorbing medium occurs as the light transverses the cavity. Light leaking out of the cavity simultaneously provides emission and absorption features. The performance is illustrated by CESAS results on supersonically expanding pulsed hydrocarbon plasma. We expect CESAS to become a generally applicable analytical tool for real time and in situ diagnostics. PMID:23464270

  1. Near-IR diode laser absorption for measurement of tropospheric HO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, Alan C.

    1994-01-01

    The possibility of using tunable lead salt diode lasers in the infrared for measurement of tropospheric HO2 has been frequently considered. Although the sensitivity of diode laser absorption has been improved through the use of high frequency detection techniques, nature has been unkind in that the HO2 absorption cross sections are weak. Even using the most optimistic assumptions about attainable path length and detectable absorbance, measurement of tropospheric HO2 by diode laser absorption in the mid-IR appears marginal. A possible alternative method for measuring HO2 is by absorption at near-infrared wavelengths. Several absorption bands of HO2 occur in the wavelength region between 1.2 and 1.6 micron due to electronic transitions and overtones of the fundamental vibrational modes. InGaAsP diode lasers operate in this wavelength region and can be used for high resolution spectroscopy in a manner analogous to the lead salt lasers. A diode laser system in the near-IR offers some advantages.

  2. Portable 4.6 Micrometers Laser Absorption Spectrometer for Carbon Monoxide Monitoring and Fire Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Ryan M.; Frez, Clifford; Forouhar, Siamak; May, Randy D.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    The air quality aboard manned spacecraft must be continuously monitored to ensure crew safety and identify equipment malfunctions. In particular, accurate real-time monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO) levels helps to prevent chronic exposure and can also provide early detection of combustion-related hazards. For long-duration missions, environmental monitoring grows in importance, but the mass and volume of monitoring instruments must be minimized. Furthermore, environmental analysis beyond low-Earth orbit must be performed in-situ, as sample return becomes impractical. Due to their small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor-laser-based absorption spectrometers are viable candidates for this purpose. To reduce instrument form factor and complexity, the emission wavelength of the laser source should coincide with strong fundamental absorption lines of the target gases, which occur in the 3 to 5 micrometers wavelength range for most combustion products of interest, thereby reducing the absorption path length required for low-level concentration measurements. To address the needs of current and future NASA missions, we have developed a prototype absorption spectrometer using a semiconductor quantum cascade laser source operating near 4.6 micrometers that can be used to detect low concentrations of CO with a compact single-pass absorption cell. In this study, we present the design of the prototype instrument and report on measurements of CO emissions from the combustion of a variety of aerospace plastics.

  3. Neutron scattering lengths and cross sections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Varley F. Sears

    1992-01-01

    The application of thermal neutron scattering to the study of the structure and dynamics of condensed matter requires a knowledge of the scattering lengths and the corresponding scattering and absorption cross sections of the elements. Ln some cases, values for the individual isotopes are needed as well. This information is required to obtain an absolute normalization ofthe scatteredneutron distributions, tocalculate

  4. Goal Directed Shortest Path Queries Using Precomputed Cluster Distances

    E-print Network

    Matijevic, Domagoj

    of starting and end point as well as the length of the shortest connection between each pair of clusters[v] algorithm removes the closest node u, settles Dijkstra's algorithm for shortest path queries can be accelerated by using precomputed shortest path

  5. Traveling salesman path problems

    E-print Network

    Lam, Fumei

    2005-01-01

    In the Traveling Salesman Path Problem, we are given a set of cities, traveling costs between city pairs and fixed source and destination cities. The objective is to find a minimum cost path from the source to destination ...

  6. Detection of optical path in spectroscopic space-based observations of greenhouse gases: Application to GOSAT data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshchepkov, Sergey; Bril, Andrey; Maksyutov, Shamil; Yokota, Tatsuya

    2011-07-01

    We present a method to detect optical path modification due to atmospheric light scattering in space-based greenhouse gas spectroscopic sounding. This method, which was applied to the analysis of radiance spectra measured by the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), is based on the path length probability density function (PPDF) and on retrieval of PPDF parameters from radiance spectra in the oxygen A-band of absorption at 0.76 ?m. We show that these parameters can be effectively used to characterize the impact of atmospheric light scattering on carbon dioxide retrieval in the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption bands at 1.6 ?m and 2.0 ?m. The threshold for PPDF parameters is set so that the optical-path modification is negligible, and these settings are recommended as a basic guideline for selecting the clearest atmospheric scenarios. An example of data processing for six global GOSAT repeat cycles in April and July 2009 shows that PPDF-based selection efficiently removes CO2 retrieval biases associated with subvisible cirrus and sandstorm activities.

  7. Multiple-scattering calculations of x-ray-absorption spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. I. Zabinsky; J. J. Rehr; A. Ankudinov; R. C. Albers; M. J. Eller

    1995-01-01

    A high-order multiple-scattering (MS) approach to the calculation of polarized x-ray-absorption spectra, which includes both x-ray-absorption fine structure and x-ray-absorption near-edge structure, is presented. Efficient calculations in arbitrary systems are carried out by using a curved-wave MS path formalism that ignores negligible paths, and has an energy-dependent self-energy and MS Debye-Waller factors. Embedded-atom background absorption calculations on an absolute energy

  8. Combined Monte Carlo and path-integral method for simulated library of time-resolved reflectance curves from layered tissue models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robert H.; Vishwanath, Karthik; Mycek, Mary-Ann

    2009-02-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are considered the "gold standard" for mathematical description of photon transport in tissue, but they can require large computation times. Therefore, it is important to develop simple and efficient methods for accelerating MC simulations, especially when a large "library" of related simulations is needed. A semi-analytical method involving MC simulations and a path-integral (PI) based scaling technique generated time-resolved reflectance curves from layered tissue models. First, a zero-absorption MC simulation was run for a tissue model with fixed scattering properties in each layer. Then, a closed-form expression for the average classical path of a photon in tissue was used to determine the percentage of time that the photon spent in each layer, to create a weighted Beer-Lambert factor to scale the time-resolved reflectance of the simulated zero-absorption tissue model. This method is a unique alternative to other scaling techniques in that it does not require the path length or number of collisions of each photon to be stored during the initial simulation. Effects of various layer thicknesses and absorption and scattering coefficients on the accuracy of the method will be discussed.

  9. Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions Drew Blasco1 to the availability of clean, safe water. In this study we examined cross cultural preferences for soft path vs. hard conceptualize water solutions (hard paths, soft paths, no paths) cross-culturally? 2) What role does development

  10. Functional equivalence and spatial path memory.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Don R; Gunzelmann, Glenn M

    2011-11-01

    Loomis, Klatzky, Avraamides, Lippa and Golledge ( 2007 ) suggest that, when it comes to spatial information, verbal description and perceptual experience are nearly functionally equivalent with respect to the cognitive representations they produce. We tested this idea for the case of spatial memory for complex paths. Paths consisted entirely of unit-length segments followed by 90-degree turns, thus assuring that a path could be described with equal precision using either an egocentric verbal description or a virtual self-motion experience. The verbal description was analogous to driving directions (e.g., turn left and go one block, then turn right, etc.) except in three dimensions (allowing rotation followed by up or down movement). Virtual self-motion was depicted as first-person travel through a 3D grid of featureless corridors. Comparison of these two conditions produced a result that may be surprising to some, but nevertheless appears to support the notion of functional equivalence: Virtual self-motion does not produce better path memory than verbal description, when care is taken to present equally precise path information. This result holds for even very complex paths and despite evidence from proximity-based interference that the memory representation of the path is spatial. PMID:22044400

  11. CO2 concentration and temperature sensor for combustion gases using diode-laser absorption near 2.7 ?m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, A.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2008-03-01

    A new tunable diode-laser sensor based on CO2 absorption near 2.7 ?m is developed for high-resolution absorption measurements of CO2 concentration and temperature. The sensor probes the R(28) and P(70) transitions of the ?1+?3 combination band of CO2 that has stronger absorption line-strengths than the bands near 1.5 ?m and 2.0 ?m used previously to sense CO2 in combustion gases. The increased absorption strength of transitions in this new wavelength range provides greatly enhanced sensitivity and the potential for accurate measurements in combustion gases with short optical path lengths. Simulated high-temperature spectra are surveyed to find candidate CO2 transitions isolated from water vapor interference. Measurements of line-strength, line position, and collisional broadening parameters are carried out for candidate CO2 transitions in a heated static cell as a function of temperature and compared to literature values. The accuracy of a fixed-wavelength CO2 absorption sensor is determined via measurement of known temperature and CO2 mole fraction in a static cell and shock-tube. Absorption measurements of CO2 are then made in a laboratory flat-flame burner and in ignition experiments of shock-heated n-heptane/O2/argon mixtures to illustrate the potential of this sensor for combustion and reacting-flow applications.

  12. Nutrient absorption.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, S A; Kumar, N S; St Hilaire, R J; Nutting, D F; Mansbach, C M

    2000-03-01

    Some key advances occurred last year in understanding mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption. A novel "prechylomicron transport vesicle" was identified; its movement to the Golgi is the rate-limiting step for triacylglycerol absorption. A scavenger receptor (type BI) in the brush border membrane appears to facilitate cholesterol uptake. Several studies define mechanisms for gastrointestinal peptide hormone stimulation of glucose uptake. An oligopeptide transporter, PepT1, is transcriptionally upregulated by certain dietary amino acids and dipeptides. Surprisingly, both insulin and fasting double the maximum velocity for dipeptide uptake (via PepT1), but they act by different mechanisms. Three transporters, SMVT (sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter for biotin and pantothenate), SVCT (for vitamin C), and CaT1 (for Ca uptake from the lumen) have been cloned and are active when expressed in various cells. Additional studies provide insights on Ca absorption and vitamin D action in aging, estrogen deficiency, and adaptation to a low Ca diet. Nramp2, also called DMT1 (divalent metal ion transporter), seems to be a major regulator of transferrin-independent, nonheme iron uptake. Finally, the protein HFE associates with the transferrin receptor and is part of an iron-sensing mechanism that regulates iron absorption. It is defective in hereditary hemochromatosis. HFE and Nramp2 (DMT1) genes are reciprocally regulated. PMID:17024033

  13. Arc Length Gone Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Gregory M.; Wells, M. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Everyone with a thorough knowledge of single variable calculus knows that integration can be used to find the length of a curve on a given interval, called its arc length. Fortunately, if one endeavors to pose and solve more interesting problems than simply computing lengths of various curves, there are techniques available that do not require an…

  14. Interband cascade laser based absorption sensor for ppb-level formaldehyde detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wei; Luo, Longqiang; Cao, Yingchun; Jiang, Wenzhe; Tittel, Frank K.

    2015-01-01

    A trace gas absorption sensor for formaldehyde (H2CO) detection was developed using a continuous wave, room temperature, low-power consumption interband cascade laser (ICL) at 3.6 ?m. The recent availability of ICLs with wavelength ranged between 3-4 ?m enables the sensitive detection of trace gases such as formaldehyde that possesses a strong absorption band in this particular wavelength region. This absorption sensor detected a strong formaldehyde line at 2778.5 cm-1 in its v1 fundamental band. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic detection (WMS-2f) combined with a compact and novel multipass gas cell (7.6 cm physical length, 32 ml sampling volume, and 3.7 m optical path length) was utilized to achieve a sensitivity of ~6 ppbv for H2CO measurements at 1 Hz sampling rate. The Allan- Werle deviation plot reveals that a minimum detection limit of ~1.5 ppbv can be achieved for an averaging time of 140 seconds.

  15. Absorption of Zinc from Small and Large Intestine of Calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Hampton; W. J. Miller; M. W. Neathery; R. L. Kincaid; D. M. Blackmon; R. P. Gentry

    1976-01-01

    Calves fed a high-zinc diet were used to study zinc absorption from various sections of the small intestine. Absorp- tion was determined by measuring zinc- 65 in various tissues and plotting the tissue concentrations against dosing site, expressed as percentage of intestinal length. Zinc absorption, per unit of in- testinal length, was similar throughout the small intestine and was as

  16. Tornado intensity estimated from damage path dimensions.

    PubMed

    Elsner, James B; Jagger, Thomas H; Elsner, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    The Newcastle/Moore and El Reno tornadoes of May 2013 are recent reminders of the destructive power of tornadoes. A direct estimate of a tornado's power is difficult and dangerous to get. An indirect estimate on a categorical scale is available from a post-storm survery of the damage. Wind speed bounds are attached to the scale, but the scale is not adequate for analyzing trends in tornado intensity separate from trends in tornado frequency. Here tornado intensity on a continuum is estimated from damage path length and width, which are measured on continuous scales and correlated to the EF rating. The wind speeds on the EF scale are treated as interval censored data and regressed onto the path dimensions and fatalities. The regression model indicates a 25% increase in expected intensity over a threshold intensity of 29 m s(-1) for a 100 km increase in path length and a 17% increase in expected intensity for a one km increase in path width. The model shows a 43% increase in the expected intensity when fatalities are observed controlling for path dimensions. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .77 (.34, .93) [95% confidence interval] with a small sample of wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. Research is needed to understand the upward trends in path length and width. PMID:25229242

  17. Theoretical model of absorption of laser light by a plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Mora

    1982-01-01

    A simple model of laser light absorption is described. The absorption mechanism is mainly inverse bremsstrahlung, but a crude description of resonance absorption is also included. The intensity and the wavelength dependence are emphasized, but the model takes into account the target material composition, the laser pulse length, and the focal spot radius. Plane and spherical expansion are treated. Results

  18. Minimal entropy probability paths between genome families.

    PubMed

    Ahlbrandt, Calvin; Benson, Gary; Casey, William

    2004-05-01

    We develop a metric for probability distributions with applications to biological sequence analysis. Our distance metric is obtained by minimizing a functional defined on the class of paths over probability measures on N categories. The underlying mathematical theory is connected to a constrained problem in the calculus of variations. The solution presented is a numerical solution, which approximates the true solution in a set of cases called rich paths where none of the components of the path is zero. The functional to be minimized is motivated by entropy considerations, reflecting the idea that nature might efficiently carry out mutations of genome sequences in such a way that the increase in entropy involved in transformation is as small as possible. We characterize sequences by frequency profiles or probability vectors, in the case of DNA where N is 4 and the components of the probability vector are the frequency of occurrence of each of the bases A, C, G and T. Given two probability vectors a and b, we define a distance function based as the infimum of path integrals of the entropy function H( p) over all admissible paths p(t), 0 < or = t< or =1, with p(t) a probability vector such that p(0)=a and p(1)=b. If the probability paths p(t) are parameterized as y(s) in terms of arc length s and the optimal path is smooth with arc length L, then smooth and "rich" optimal probability paths may be numerically estimated by a hybrid method of iterating Newton's method on solutions of a two point boundary value problem, with unknown distance L between the abscissas, for the Euler-Lagrange equations resulting from a multiplier rule for the constrained optimization problem together with linear regression to improve the arc length estimate L. Matlab code for these numerical methods is provided which works only for "rich" optimal probability vectors. These methods motivate a definition of an elementary distance function which is easier and faster to calculate, works on non-rich vectors, does not involve variational theory and does not involve differential equations, but is a better approximation of the minimal entropy path distance than the distance //b-a//(2). We compute minimal entropy distance matrices for examples of DNA myostatin genes and amino-acid sequences across several species. Output tree dendograms for our minimal entropy metric are compared with dendograms based on BLAST and BLAST identity scores. PMID:15133624

  19. Computing almost shortest paths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Elkin

    2005-01-01

    We study the s-sources almost shortest paths(abbreviated s-ASP) problem. Given an unweightedgraph G = (V,E),and a subset S ? Vof s nodes, the goal is to compute almostshortest paths between all the pairs of nodes S× V. We devise an algorithm withrunning timeO(∣E∣n?+ s ·n1 + ?)for this problem that computes the pathsPu,wfor all pairs (u,w) ?S × V such

  20. Resonant absorption and not-so-resonant absorption in short, intense laser irradiated plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Z. Y.; Zhuo, H. B.; Ma, Y. Y.; Yang, X. H.; Yu, T. P.; Zou, D. B.; Yin, Y.; Shao, F. Q. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)] [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Yu, W.; Luan, S. X. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)] [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhou, C. T. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China) [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Peng, X. J. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)] [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2013-07-15

    An analytical model for laser-plasma interaction during the oblique incidence by an ultrashort ultraintense p-polarized laser on a solid-density plasma is proposed. Both the resonant absorption and not-so-resonant absorption are self-consistently included. Different from the previous theoretical works, the physics of resonant absorption is found to be valid in more general conditions as the steepening of the electron density profile is considered. Even for a relativistic intensity laser, resonant absorption can still exist under certain plasma scale length. For shorter plasma scale length or higher laser intensity, the not-so-resonant absorption tends to be dominant, since the electron density is steepened to a critical level by the ponderomotive force. The laser energy absorption rates for both mechanisms are discussed in detail, and the difference and transition between these two mechanisms are presented.

  1. Use of radial symmetry for the calculation of cylindrical absorption coefficients and optimal capillary loadings

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khalifah, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles ?D of 0°more »to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.« less

  2. [Concentration retrieving method of SO2 using differential optical absorption spectroscopy based on statistics].

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Sun, Chang-Ku; Zhang, Chi; Zhao, Yu-Mei; Liu, Jun-Ping

    2011-01-01

    A concentration retrieving method using statistics is presented, which is applied in differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) for measuring the concentration of SO2. The method uses the standard deviation of the differential absorption to represents the gas concentration. Principle component analysis (PCA) method is used to process the differential absorption spectrum. In the method, the basis data for the concentration retrieval of SO2 is the combination of the PCA processing result, the correlation coefficient, and the standard deviation of the differential absorption. The method is applied to a continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) with optical path length of 0.3 m. Its measuring range for SO2 concentration is 0-5 800 mg x m(-3). The nonlinear calibration and the temperature compensation for the system were executed. The full scale error of the retrieving concentration is less than 0.7% FS. And the measuring result is -4.54 mg x m(-3) when the concentration of SO2 is zero. PMID:21428087

  3. Use of radial symmetry for the calculation of cylindrical absorption coefficients and optimal capillary loadings

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khalifah, Peter [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles ?D of 0° to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.

  4. Resonance Absorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Mulser; Dieter Bauer

    \\u000a The most familiar absorption process of laser radiation is inverse bremsstrahlung. As the electron temperature increases Coulomb\\u000a collisions become less effective and, in the absence of other conversion processes, a plasma becomes highly transparent to\\u000a the laser radiation when the electron density n\\u000a \\u000a e\\u000a is below its critical value n\\u000a \\u000a c\\u000a ; alternatively, in case an overdense layer exists, i.e.,

  5. AIR QUALITY MONITORING IN ATLANTA WITH THE DIFFERENTIAL OPTICAL ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    During July and August of 1990, a differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) made by OPSIS Inc. was used to measure gaseous air pollutants over three separate open paths in Atlanta, GA. ver path 1 (1099 m) and path 2 (1824 m), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen d...

  6. Correlations between bond lengths, Tc, and O vibration frequencies: Raman-scattering and infrared-absorption study of the 1:2:1:2 structure (Ca1-yYy)Sr2(Tl0.5Pb0.5)Cu2O7 as a function of doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertelj, T.; Mihailovi?, D.; Matacotta, F. C.; Liu, R. S.; Cooper, J. R.; Gameson, I.; Edwards, P. P.

    1993-05-01

    Raman-scattering and infrared-absorption measurements on optical phonons are used to investigate the doping-induced changes in the electronic structure of (Ca1-yYy)Sr2(Tl0.5Pb0.5)Cu2O7 (Tl/Pb-1:2:1:2). In contrast to YBa2Cu3O7-? (YBCO), the doping of the CuO2 planes is achieved by direct substitution of Ca2+ for Y3+ in between the CuO2 planes, enabling the effects of the dynamic out-of-plane charge transfer and doping to be separated. In spite of large changes in Cu to apical-O bond lengths as measured by neutron scattering, we observe no corresponding apical O(2) vibration frequency shifts with doping of the type found in YBCO. Instead, the frequencies of the A1g Raman-active apical O(2) phonon and an A2u IR-active out-of-plane phonon are correlated with the Tc curve.

  7. Demonstration of scan path optimization in proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Joanne H; Wilkens, Jan J; Oelfke, Uwe

    2007-09-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) intensity modulated proton therapy treatment plan to be delivered by magnetic scanning may comprise thousands of discrete beam positions. This research presents the minimization of the total scan path length by application of a fast simulated annealing (FSA) optimization algorithm. Treatment plans for clinical prostate and head and neck cases were sequenced for continuous raster scanning in two ways, and the resulting scan path lengths were compared: (1) A simple back-and-forth, top-to-bottom (zigzag) succession, and (2) an optimized path produced as a solution of the FSA algorithm. Using a first approximation of the scanning dynamics, the delivery times for the scan sequences before and after path optimization were calculated for comparison. In these clinical examples, the FSA optimization shortened the total scan path length for the 3D target volumes by approximately 13%-56%. The number of extraneous spilled particles was correspondingly reduced by about 13%-54% due to the more efficient scanning maps that eliminated multiple crossings through regions of zero fluence. The relative decrease in delivery time due to path length minimization was estimated to be less than 1%, due to both a high scanning speed and time requirements that could not be altered by optimization (e.g., time required to change the beam energy). In a preliminary consideration of application to rescanning techniques, the decrease in delivery time was estimated to be 4%-20%. PMID:17926947

  8. Dynamic Frame Length ALOHA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Schoute

    1983-01-01

    Adding frame structure to slotted ALOHA makes it very convenient to control the ALOHA channel and eliminate instability. The frame length is adjusted dynamically according to the number of garbled, successful, and empty timeslots in the past. Each terminal that has a packet to transmit selects at random one of thentimeslots of a frame. Dynamic frame length ALOHA achieves a

  9. Length of Quantum Trajectories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Claude Zambrini; Kunio Yasue

    1984-01-01

    A notion of length for quantum mechanical trajectories is introduced within the realm of stochastic mechanics. Using a stochastic calculus of variation, one shows that the geodesic dynamics is not the free one, but the quantum evolution in the time-dependent quadratic potential associated with the Wiener process in stochastic mechanics. The length for the free evolution is also examined.

  10. Neandertal clavicle length.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Holliday, Trenton W; Auerbach, Benjamin M

    2014-03-25

    The Late Pleistocene archaic humans from western Eurasia (the Neandertals) have been described for a century as exhibiting absolutely and relatively long clavicles. This aspect of their body proportions has been used to distinguish them from modern humans, invoked to account for other aspects of their anatomy and genetics, used in assessments of their phylogenetic polarities, and used as evidence for Late Pleistocene population relationships. However, it has been unclear whether the usual scaling of Neandertal clavicular lengths to their associated humeral lengths reflects long clavicles, short humeri, or both. Neandertal clavicle lengths, along with those of early modern humans and latitudinally diverse recent humans, were compared with both humeral lengths and estimated body masses (based on femoral head diameters). The Neandertal do have long clavicles relative their humeri, even though they fall within the ranges of variation of early and recent humans. However, when scaled to body masses, their humeral lengths are relatively short, and their clavicular lengths are indistinguishable from those of Late Pleistocene and recent modern humans. The few sufficiently complete Early Pleistocene Homo clavicles seem to have relative lengths also well within recent human variation. Therefore, appropriately scaled clavicular length seems to have varied little through the genus Homo, and it should not be used to account for other aspects of Neandertal biology or their phylogenetic status. PMID:24616525

  11. Differential optoacoustic absorption detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumate, M. S. (inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A differential optoacoustic absorption detector employed two tapered cells in tandem or in parallel. When operated in tandem, two mirrors were used at one end remote from the source of the beam of light directed into one cell back through the other, and a lens to focus the light beam into the one cell at a principal focus half way between the reflecting mirror. Each cell was tapered to conform to the shape of the beam so that the volume of one was the same as for the other, and the volume of each received maximum illumination. The axes of the cells were placed as close to each other as possible in order to connect a differential pressure detector to the cells with connecting passages of minimum length. An alternative arrangement employed a beam splitter and two lenses to operate the cells in parallel.

  12. Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM); Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Simonson, Robert J. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2010-09-21

    A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.

  13. Fast orthogonal transforms and generation of Brownian paths

    PubMed Central

    Leobacher, Gunther

    2012-01-01

    We present a number of fast constructions of discrete Brownian paths that can be used as alternatives to principal component analysis and Brownian bridge for stratified Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo. By fast we mean that a path of length n can be generated in O(nlog(n)) floating point operations. We highlight some of the connections between the different constructions and we provide some numerical examples. PMID:23471545

  14. Short and Robust Communication Paths in Dynamic Wireless Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoann Pigné; Frédéric Guinand

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a We consider the problem of finding and maintaining communication paths in wireless mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). We consider\\u000a this problem as a bi-objective problem when trying to minimize both the length of the constructed paths and the number link\\u000a reconnections. We propose two centralized algorithms that help analyse the problem from a dynamic graph point of view. These\\u000a algorithms

  15. Follow the Paths

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, younger students will be introduced to the various orbital paths that are used for satellites. Using a globe and a satellite model or a large picture of Earth, the teacher will introduce three types of orbital paths (polar, elliptical, and geosynchronous). The students should be able to define 'satellite', define the three types of orbits, describe how satellites orbit the Earth, and understand how they are slowed down by drag from the atmosphere.

  16. Restoration by Path Concatenation: Fast Recovery of MPLS Paths

    E-print Network

    Bremler-Barr, Anat

    Restoration by Path Concatenation: Fast Recovery of MPLS Paths Yehuda Afek Anat Bremler,natali,haimkg@math.tau.ac.il, fedith,mischug@research.att.com Abstract A new general theory about restoration of network paths is first introduced. The theory pertains to restoration of shortest paths in a network following failure, e.g., we

  17. Restoration by Path Concatenation: Fast Recovery of MPLS Paths

    E-print Network

    Kaplan, Haim

    Restoration by Path Concatenation: Fast Recovery of MPLS Paths Yehuda Afek Anat Bremler-Barr Haim,natali,haimk}@math.tau.ac.il, {edith,mischu}@research.att.com Abstract A new general theory about restoration of network paths is first introduced. The theory pertains to restoration of shortest paths in a network following failure, e.g., we

  18. Far-from-equilibrium measurements of thermodynamic length

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Edward H.; Crooks, Gavin E.

    2008-11-05

    Thermodynamic length is a path function that generalizes the notion of length to the surface of thermodynamic states. Here, we show how to measure thermodynamic length in far-from-equilibrium experiments using the work fluctuation relations. For these microscopic systems, it proves necessary to define the thermodynamic length in terms of the Fisher information. Consequently, the thermodynamic length can be directly related to the magnitude of fluctuations about equilibrium. The work fluctuation relations link the work and the free energy change during an external perturbation on a system. We use this result to determine equilibrium averages at intermediate points of the protocol in which the system is out-of-equilibrium. This allows us to extend Bennett's method to determine the potential of mean force, as well as the thermodynamic length, in single molecule experiments.

  19. OPEN PATH AMBIENT MEASUREMENTS OF POLLUTANTS WITH A DOAS SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) has been in operation since August 1991 at the U.S. EPA in RTP, NC. he analyzer unit is located in an environmentally-controlled shelter in the EPA parking lot. our separate open optical paths have been established, ranging fr...

  20. Enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 through spatial structuring and particle size control: from subnanometric to submillimetric length scale.

    PubMed

    Aprile, Carmela; Corma, Avelino; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2008-02-14

    This review summarizes the physical approaches towards enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide by controlling this semiconductor in a certain length scale from subnanometric to submillimetric distances and provides examples in which the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 is not promoted by doping or changes in the chemical composition, but rather by application of physical concepts and spatial structuring of the semiconductor. Thus, encapsulation inside the micropores and cavities of zeolites (about 1 nm) renders small titanium oxide clusters with harnessed photocatalytic activity. On the other hand, nanometric titanium particles can be ordered forming structured periodic mesoporous materials with high specific surface area and well defined porosity. Titiania nanotubes of micrometric length, either independent or forming a membrane, also exhibit unique photocatalytic activity as consequence of the long diffusion length of charge carriers along the nanotube axis. Finally, photonic crystals with an inverse opal structure and the even more powerful concept of photonic sponges can serve to slow down visible light photons inside the material, increasing the effective optical path in such a way that light absorption near the absorption onset of the material is enhanced considerably. All these physical-based approaches have shown their potential in enhancing the photocatalytic activity of titania, paving the way for a new generation of novel structured photocatalysts in which physical and chemical concepts are combined. PMID:18231679

  1. Minimal length uncertainty relation and ultraviolet regularization

    SciTech Connect

    Kempf, A. [Department of Applied Mathematics Theoretical Physics and Corpus Christi College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 9EW (United Kingdom)] [Department of Applied Mathematics Theoretical Physics and Corpus Christi College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 9EW (United Kingdom); Mangano, G. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, I-80125 Napoli (Italy)] [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, I-80125 Napoli (Italy)

    1997-06-01

    Studies in string theory and quantum gravity suggest the existence of a finite lower limit {Delta}x{sub 0} to the possible resolution of distances, at the latest on the scale of the Planck length of 10{sup {minus}35} m. Within the framework of the Euclidean path integral we explicitly show ultraviolet regularization in field theory through this short distance structure. Both rotation and translation invariance can be preserved. An example is studied in detail. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Approximating shortest paths on a convex polytope in three dimensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pankaj K. Agarwal; Sariel Har-Peled; Micha Sharir; Kasturi R. Varadarajan

    1997-01-01

    Given a convex polytope P withn faces in R3, points s,t?6P, and a parameter 0e?1, we present an algorithm that constructs a path on6P from s tot whose length is at most1+edPs,t, where dPs,t is the length of the shortest path betweens andt on 6P. The algorithm runs in Onlog1\\/e+1\\/e3 time, and is relatively simple. The running time isOn+1\\/e3 if

  3. Gas cell for in situ soft X-ray transmission-absorption spectroscopy of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Drisdell, W. S.; Kortright, J. B. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    A simple gas cell design, constructed primarily from commercially available components, enables in situ soft X-ray transmission-absorption spectroscopy of materials in contact with gas at ambient temperature. The cell has a minimum X-ray path length of 1 mm and can hold gas pressures up to ?300 Torr, and could support higher pressures with simple modifications. The design enables cycling between vacuum and gas environments without interrupting the X-ray beam, and can be fully sealed to allow for measurements of air-sensitive samples. The cell can attach to the downstream port of any appropriate synchrotron beamline, and offers a robust and versatile method for in situ measurements of certain materials. The construction and operation of the cell are discussed, as well as sample preparation and proper spectral analysis, illustrated by examples of spectral measurements. Potential areas for improvement and modification for specialized applications are also mentioned.

  4. Method for Veterbi decoding of large constraint length convolutional codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, In-Shek (inventor); Truong, Trieu-Kie (inventor); Reed, Irving S. (inventor); Jing, Sun (inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A new method of Viterbi decoding of convolutional codes lends itself to a pipline VLSI architecture using a single sequential processor to compute the path metrics in the Viterbi trellis. An array method is used to store the path information for NK intervals where N is a number, and K is constraint length. The selected path at the end of each NK interval is then selected from the last entry in the array. A trace-back method is used for returning to the beginning of the selected path back, i.e., to the first time unit of the interval NK to read out the stored branch metrics of the selected path which correspond to the message bits. The decoding decision made in this way is no longer maximum likelihood, but can be almost as good, provided that constraint length K in not too small. The advantage is that for a long message, it is not necessary to provide a large memory to store the trellis derived information until the end of the message to select the path that is to be decoded; the selection is made at the end of every NK time unit, thus decoding a long message in successive blocks.

  5. Not-so-resonant, resonant absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Brunel, F.

    1987-07-06

    When an intense electromagnetic wave is incident obliquely on a sharply bounded overdense plasma, strong energy absorption can be accounted for by the electrons that are dragged into the vacuum and sent back into the plasma with velocities vapprox. =v/sub osc/. This mechanism is more efficient than usual resonant absorption for v/sub osc//..omega..>L, with L being the density gradient length. In the very high-intensity CO/sub 2/-laser--target interaction, this mechanism may account for most of the energy absorption.

  6. A stochastic wire length distribution for gigascale integration (GSI)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey A. Davis; V. K. De; J. D. Meindl

    1997-01-01

    Based on Rent's Rule, a well established empirical relationship, a rigorous derivation of a complete wire length distribution for on-chip random logic networks is performed. This distribution is used to enhance a critical path model; to derive a preliminary dynamic power dissipation model; and to describe optimal architectures for multilevel wiring networks that provide maximum interconnect density

  7. Relativistic Length Agony Continued

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redzic, D. V.

    2014-06-01

    We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redzic 2008b), we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the 'pole in a barn' paradox.

  8. An Algorithm of Tool-Path Optimization for High-Speed Machining Deep-Cavity Precision Forging Die

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. P. Sun; Q. L. Chen; Q. F. Wang; W. H. Liao

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the difficulty of maintaining the contour precision of forging die with deep pocket, an optimization algorithm of tool-path generation for high speed machining (abbr. HSM) forging die with deep cavity is proposed in this paper. In terms of measuring errors of pocketing die, a mathematical model correlation to the length of a tool-path, the available length of a

  9. Variable focal length microlenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L. G., Commander; Day, S. E.; Selviah, D. R.

    2000-04-01

    Refractive surface relief microlenses (150 ?m diameter) are immersed in nematic liquid crystal in a cell. Application of a variable voltage across the cell effectively varies the refractive index of the liquid crystal and results in a change of the focal length by the lensmakers formula (E. Hecht, Optics, 2nd edn., Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1987, p. 138). We describe the cell design and construction and demonstrate a range of focal lengths from +490 to +1000 ?m for 2 to 12 V applied. A diverging lens results when the voltage is lower. Theoretical models are developed to account for some of the observed aberrations.

  10. Quantum cascade laser-based multipass absorption system for hydrogen peroxide detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yingchun; Sanchez, Nancy P.; Jiang, Wenzhe; Ren, Wei; Lewicki, Rafal; Jiang, Dongfang; Griffin, Robert J.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a relevant molecular trace gas species, that is related to the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, the production of radical species such as OH, the generation of sulfate aerosol via oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI), and the formation of acid rain. The detection of atmospheric H2O2 involves specific challenges due to its high reactivity and low concentration (ppbv to sub-ppbv level). Traditional methods for measuring atmospheric H2O2 concentration are often based on wet-chemistry methods that require a transfer from the gas- to liquid-phase for a subsequent determination by techniques such as fluorescence spectroscopy, which can lead to problems such as sampling artifacts and interference by other atmospheric constituents. A quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based system for the measurement of atmospheric H2O2 with a detection limit of 75 ppb for 1-s integration time was previously reported. In this paper, an updated H2O2 detection system based on long-optical-path-length absorption spectroscopy by using a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (DFB-QCL) will be described. A 7.73-?m CW-DFB-QCL and a thermoelectrically cooled infrared detector, optimized for a wavelength of 8 ?m, are employed for theH2O2 sensor system. A commercial astigmatic Herriott multi-pass cell with an effective optical path-length of 76 m is utilized for the reported QCL multipass absorption system. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) with second harmonic detection is used for enhancing the signal-to-noise-ratio. A minimum detection limit of 13.4 ppb is achieved with a 2 s sampling time. Based on an Allan-Werle deviation analysis the minimum detection limit can be improved to 1.5 ppb when using an averaging time of 300 s.

  11. Sensor for headspace pressure and H2O concentration measurements in closed vials by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Tingdong; Wang, Guishi; Cao, Zhensong; Zhang, Weijun; Gao, Xiaoming

    2014-07-01

    The concentration of H2O and the pressure in the headspace of vials are simultaneously measured by a tunable diode laser sensor based on absorption spectroscopy techniques. The 7168.437 cm-1 spectral line of H2O is chosen as the sensing transition for its strong absorption strength and being reasonably far away from its neighboring molecular transitions. In order to prevent interference absorption by ambient water vapor in the room air, a difference between the measured signal and the referenced signal is used to calculate the pressure and H2O concentration in the headspace of vials, eliminating the need for inert gas purges and calibration with known gas. The validation of the sensor is conducted in a static vial, yielding an accuracy of 1.23% for pressure and 3.81% for H2O concentration. The sensitivity of the sensor is estimated to be about 2.5 Torr for pressure and 400 ppm for H2O concentration over a 3 cm absorption path length respectively. Accurate measurements for commercial freeze-dried products demonstrate the in-line applications of the sensor for the pharmaceutical industry.

  12. Development of a Near-Ir Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectrometer for the Detection of Atmospheric Oxidation Products and Organoamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddingsaas, Nathan C.; Jewell, Breanna; Thurnherr, Emily

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 10,000 to 100,000 different compounds have been measured in the atmosphere, each one undergoes many oxidation reactions that may or may not degrade air quality. To date, the fate of even some of the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere is poorly understood. One difficulty is the detection of atmospheric oxidation products that are very labile and decompose during analysis. To study labile species under atmospheric conditions, a highly sensitive, non-destructive technique is needed. Here we describe a near-IR incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) setup that we are developing to meet this end. We have chosen to utilize the near-IR, where vibrational overtone absorptions are observed, due to the clean spectral windows and better spectral separation of absorption features. In one spectral window we can simultaneously and continuously monitor the composition of alcohols, hydroperoxides, and carboxylic acids in an air mass. In addition, we have used our CEAS setup to detect organoamines. The long effective path length of CEAS allows for low detection limits, even of the overtone absorption features, at ppb and ppt levels.

  13. Design of a simple cryogenic system for ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy with a back-reflectance fiber optic probe.

    PubMed

    Vinyard, Andrew; Hansen, Kaj A; Byrd, Ross; Stuart, Douglas A; Hansen, John E

    2014-01-01

    We report a convenient and inexpensive technique for the rapid acquisition of absorption spectra from small samples at cryogenic temperatures using a home built cryostat with novel collection optics. A cylindrical copper block was constructed with a coaxial bore to hold a 4.00 mm diameter electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) tube and mounted on a copper feed in thermal contact with liquid nitrogen. A 6.35 mm diameter hole was bored into the side of the cylinder so a fiber optic cable bundle could be positioned orthogonally to the EPR tube. The light passing through the sample is reflected off of the opposing surfaces of the EPR tube and surrounding copper, back through the sample. The emergent light is then collected using the fiber optic bundle and analyzed using a dispersive spectrometer. Absorption spectra for KMnO4 were measured between 400 and 700 nm. Absorption intensity at 506, 525, 545, and 567 nm was found to be proportional to concentration, displaying Beer's law-like behavior. The EPR tube had an internal diameter of 3.2 mm; the double pass of the probe beam through the sample affords a central path length of about 6.4 mm. Comparing these measurements with those recorded on a conventional tabletop spectrometer using a cuvette with a 10.00 mm path length, we consistently found a ratio between intensities of 0.58 rather than the anticipated 0.64. These 6% smaller values we attribute to the curvature of the EPR tube and transmission/reflection losses. This system is particularly well-suited to studying the kinetics and dynamics of chemical reactions at cryogenic temperatures. The rapid response (100 ms) and multiplex advantage provided the opportunity of recording simultaneous time courses at several wavelengths following initiation of a chemical reaction with a pulsed laser source. PMID:24405962

  14. Labeled Ballot Paths and the Springer Numbers

    E-print Network

    Chen, William Y C; Jia, Jeffrey Y T

    2010-01-01

    The Springer numbers are defined in connection with the irreducible root systems of type $B_n$, which also arise as the generalized Euler and class numbers introduced by Shanks. Combinatorial interpretations of the Springer numbers have been found by Purtill in terms of Andre signed permutations, and by Arnol'd in terms of snakes of type $B_n$. We introduce the inversion code of a snake of type $B_n$ and establish a bijection between labeled ballot paths of length n and snakes of type $B_n$. Moreover, we obtain the bivariate generating function for the number B(n,k) of labeled ballot paths starting at (0,0) and ending at (n,k). Using our bijection, we find a statistic $\\alpha$ such that the number of snakes $\\pi$ of type $B_n$ with $\\alpha(\\pi)=k$ equals B(n,k). We also show that our bijection specializes to a bijection between labeled Dyck paths of length 2n and alternating permutations on [2n].

  15. Lengths of Ladybugs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Utah LessonPlans

    2012-09-18

    In this math lesson, learners explore the concept of using units to measure length. Learners first read "Ladybug on the Move" by Richard Fowler and measure the distance the ladybug travels on each page using yarn. Next, learners make their own "Go Ladybug Go!" books and use lima beans and a ladybug ruler to make and record measurements.

  16. Document Length Normalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singhal, Amit; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated document retrieval relevance based on document length in an experimental text collection. Topics include term weighting and document ranking, retrieval strategies such as the vector-space cosine match, and a modified technique called the pivoted cosine normalization. (LRW)

  17. Reversible variable length codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Takishima; M. Wada; H. Murakami

    1995-01-01

    Proposes some reversible variable length codes (RVLCs) which can be decoded instantaneously both in the forward and backward directions and have high transmission efficiency. These codes can be used, for example, in the backward reconstruction of video signals from the data last received when some signal is lost midway in the transmission. Schemes for a symmetrical RVLC requiring only a

  18. Mappability and read length

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wentian; Freudenberg, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Power-law distributions are the main functional form for the distribution of repeat size and repeat copy number in the human genome. When the genome is broken into fragments for sequencing, the limited size of fragments and reads may prevent an unique alignment of repeat sequences to the reference sequence. Repeats in the human genome can be as long as 104 bases, or 105 ? 106 bases when allowing for mismatches between repeat units. Sequence reads from these regions are therefore unmappable when the read length is in the range of 103 bases. With a read length of 1000 bases, slightly more than 1% of the assembled genome, and slightly less than 1% of the 1 kb reads, are unmappable, excluding the unassembled portion of the human genome (8% in GRCh37/hg19). The slow decay (long tail) of the power-law function implies a diminishing return in converting unmappable regions/reads to become mappable with the increase of the read length, with the understanding that increasing read length will always move toward the direction of 100% mappability. PMID:25426137

  19. Performance of absorption photometry microchip for blood hemoglobin measurement integrated with processing circuits and Si(1 1 0) 45° mirrors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshihiko Noda; Hidekuni Takao; Kazunori Yoshioka; Narihiro Oku; Mitsuaki Ashiki; Kazuaki Sawada; Koichi Matsumoto; Makoto Ishida

    2006-01-01

    In this study, advantages of optical path extension in absorption photometry microchip for highly sensitive hemoglobin measurement have been demonstrated. Stability in repetitive measurement is evaluated with real blood samples. Long optical path (5mm) is realized on the microchip for highly sensitive absorption photometry. Two 45° mirrors are fabricated in ‘Multi-layered smart-MEMS structure’ to form a long optical path. Different

  20. Ultrasensitive, real-time analysis of biomarkers in breath using tunable external cavity laser and off-axis cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrakli, Ismail; Akman, Hatice

    2015-03-01

    A robust biomedical sensor for ultrasensitive detection of biomarkers in breath based on a tunable external cavity laser (ECL) and an off-axis cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OA-CEAS) using an amplitude stabilizer is developed. A single-mode, narrow-linewidth, tunable ECL is demonstrated. A broadly coarse wavelength tuning range of 720 cm-1 for the spectral range between 6890 and 6170 cm-1 is achieved by rotating the diffraction grating forming a Littrow-type external-cavity configuration. A mode-hop-free tuning range of 1.85 cm-1 is obtained. The linewidths below 140 kHz are recorded. The ECL is combined with an OA-CEAS to perform laser chemical sensing. Our system is able to detect any molecule in breath at concentrations to the ppbv range that have absorption lines in the spectral range between 1450 and 1620 nm. Ammonia is selected as target molecule to evaluate the performance of the sensor. Using the absorption line of ammonia at 6528.76 cm-1, a minimum detectable absorption coefficient of approximately 1×10-8 cm-1 is demonstrated for 256 averages. This is achieved for a 1.4-km absorption path length and a 2-s data-acquisition time. These results yield a detection sensitivity of approximately 8.6×10-10 cm-1 Hz-1/2. Ammonia in exhaled breath is analyzed and found in a concentration of 870 ppb for our example.

  1. Improving Atmospheric Correction for Visible/Short Wave Infrared (VSWIR) Imaging Spectrometers with Iterative Fitting of Absorption By Three Phases of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennington, E. A.; Thompson, D. R.; Green, R. O.; Gao, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometers like the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) offer valuable insight into the Earth's terrestrial and ocean ecosystems, mineralogy, and land use. Estimating surface reflectance requires accounting for atmospheric absorption, which is sensitive to the local abundance of water vapor. Analysts typically estimate water vapor concentrations using the depths of absorption features, which can be inaccurate by up to 50% over surface features containing liquid water or ice. This can bias the retrieved water vapor maps and create atmospheric artifacts in reflectance spectra. A new retrieval method offers significant accuracy improvements over plant canopies or ice by estimating the path lengths of all three phases of water simultaneously, adjusting absorptions to best fit the measurement over a broader spectral interval. This paper assesses the remaining sources of error for the three-phase retrieval technique. We analyze retrievals for synthetic data when the 940 and 1140 nm wavelength features are fitted, for initial vapor path estimates ranging from 0 to ±50% accuracy. These tests indicate that most error comes from inaccuracy in the initial path estimate used to obtain vapor absorption coefficients. We evaluate a modified algorithm that uses multiple iterations to refine this estimate. Error is found to approach a constant value, demonstrating improved robustness to initialization conditions. We also assess the new iterative method using corrected AVIRIS data over various environments. The iterative method yields significantly better water vapor maps, reducing spurious correlations between vegetation canopy water and vapor estimates. The new iterative method offers accuracy improvements over traditional Visible/Short Wave Infrared (VSWIR) atmospheric correction methods, at modest computational cost.

  2. Absorption of zinc from small and large intestine of calves.

    PubMed

    Hampton, D L; Miller, W J; Neathery, M W; Kincaid, R L; Blackmon, D M; Gentry, R P

    1976-11-01

    Calves fed a high-zinc diet were used to study zinc absorption from various sections of the small intestine. Absorption was determined by measuring zinc-65 in various tissues and plotting the tissue concentrations against dosing site, expressed as percentage of intestinal length. Zinc absorption, per unit of intestinal length, was similar throughout the small intestine and was as great in the distal as in the proximal end. Apparently, early researchers using isolated loops and everted sac techniques failed to recognize rate of digesta passage and tissue homeostasis as major factors associated with zinc uptake when they concluded that the duodenum was the primary site of zinc absorption. The data show that the duodenum is not the major site of zinc absorption in calves regardless of dietary zinc. In a separate experiment, zinc-65 was injected directly into the large intestine of calves fed a low zinc diet. Only about 2% of total zinc absorption was from the large intestine. PMID:993414

  3. Path to the Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Toni

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of institutions are being more deliberate about bringing in fundraisers who fit the culture of the development department and about assessing skills and providing training that fill specific needs. Development shops are paying more attention to cultivating their staffs, staying attuned to employees' needs and creating career paths

  4. Air vehicle path planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Michael Hebert

    2001-01-01

    This dissertation explores optimal path planning for air vehicles. An air vehicle exposed to illumination by a tracking radar is considered and the problem of determining an optimal planar trajectory connecting two prespecified points is addressed. An analytic solution yielding the trajectory minimizing the received radar energy reflected from the target is derived using the Calculus of Variations. Additionally, the

  5. Asynchronous Data Path Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danil Sokolov; Ivan Poliakov; Alexandre Yakovlev

    2007-01-01

    A token-based model for asynchronous data path is formally defined and three token game semantics, spread token, antitoken and counterflow, are introduced. These semantics are studied and their advantages and drawbacks are highlighted. For analysis and comparison a software tool is developed which integrates these models into a consistent framework. The models are verified by mapping them into Petri nets

  6. Dynamic Shortest Paths Containers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothea Wagner; Thomas Willhalm; Christos D. Zaroliagis

    2004-01-01

    Using a set of geometric containers to speed up shortest path queries in a weighted graph has been proven a useful tool for dealing with large sparse graphs. Given a layout of a graph G = (V; E), we store, for each edge (u; v) 2 E, the bounding box of all nodes t 2 V for which a shortest

  7. Geometric Shortest Path Containers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothea Wagner; Thomas Willhalm; Christos Zaroliagis

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we consider Dijkstra's algorithm for the single source single target shortest path problem in large sparse graphs. The goal is to reduce the response time for on-line queries by using precomputed information. Due to the size of the graph, preprocessing space requirements can be only linear in the number of nodes. We assume that a layout of

  8. DNA Computing Hamiltonian path

    E-print Network

    Hagiya, Masami

    2014 DNA DNA #12;DNA Computing · Feynman · Adleman · DNASIMD · ... · · · · · DNADNA #12;DNA · DNA · · · · DNA · · #12;2000 2005 2010 1995 Hamiltonian path DNA tweezers DNA tile DNA origami DNA box Sierpinski DNA tile self assembly DNA logic gates Whiplash PCR DNA automaton DNA spider MAYA

  9. Muscle paths in biomechanical multibody simulations Ramona Maas1

    E-print Network

    Leyendecker, Sigrid

    Muscle paths in biomechanical multibody simulations Ramona Maas1 , Sigrid Leyendecker1 1 Chair, the actuation of those systems can be implemented via Hill-type muscle models. The essential task of these models is to represent the typical force-length and force-velocity relation of real muscles, hence

  10. Path planning using genetic algorithms for mini-robotic tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Víctor Ayala-ramírez; Arturo Pérez-garcía; F. J. Montecillo-puente; E. Martinez-labrada; Raúl Enrique Sánchez-yáñez

    2004-01-01

    We present a genetic algorithm-based method to optimize trajectory planning for mini-robotic tasks. Codifying a number of motion primitive parameters into computational chromosomes does this. Each trajectory is composed of a fixed number N of straight segments. We search with a genetic algorithm the length and direction parameters of the N path segments that let us to arrive a target

  11. Profilometry using two-photon absorption of silicon avalanche photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yusuke; Kurokawa, Takashi

    2002-09-01

    Though silicon photodetectors are usually insensitive to near infrared light of the wavelength longer than 1100 nm, they become sensitive to it with high intensity, producing photocurrent in proportion to the square of the intensity. This is due to two-photon absorption (TPA) process. So far, the TPA process in silicon photodetectors has mainly been applied to measuring the waveform of optical short pulses, since it can give the intensity correlation of incident light signals. In this paper, as a new application of the TPA process in photodetectors, we propose a novel profilometry based on Michelson interferometer with optical microwave as a light source and avalanche photodiode as a two-photon absorber. In contrast to the classical heterodyne profilometer that measures the optical path length difference from the phase of the modulated optical signal, the dynamic range of the TPA method is not limited by the bandwidth of a photodetector and attached electronic devices. The TPA method can realize the dynamic range of several millimeters to several ten meters with simple setup. The principle of the TPA based profilometry is experimentally demonstrated using fiber optic Michelson interferometer.

  12. Quantitative infrared absorption cross sections of isoprene for atmospheric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, C. S.; Blake, T. A.; Guenther, A. B.; Sharpe, S. W.; Sams, R. L.; Johnson, T. J.

    2014-11-01

    Isoprene (C5H8, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is a volatile organic compound (VOC) and is one of the primary contributors to annual global VOC emissions. Isoprene is produced primarily by vegetation as well as anthropogenic sources, and its OH- and O3-initiated oxidations are a major source of atmospheric oxygenated organics. Few quantitative infrared studies have been reported for isoprene, limiting the ability to quantify isoprene emissions via remote or in situ infrared detection. We thus report absorption cross sections and integrated band intensities for isoprene in the 600-6500 cm-1 region. The pressure-broadened (1 atmosphere N2) spectra were recorded at 278, 298, and 323 K in a 19.94 cm path-length cell at 0.112 cm-1 resolution, using a Bruker IFS 66v/S Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Composite spectra are derived from a minimum of seven isoprene sample pressures, each at one of three temperatures, and the number densities are normalized to 296 K and 1 atm.

  13. Long-range open-path greenhouse gas monitoring using mid-infrared laser dispersion spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daghestani, Nart; Brownsword, Richard; Weidmann, Damien

    2015-04-01

    Accurate and sensitive methods of monitoring greenhouse gas (GHG) emission over large areas has become a pressing need to deliver improved estimates of both human-made and natural GHG budgets. These needs relate to a variety of sectors including environmental monitoring, energy, oil and gas industry, waste management, biogenic emission characterization, and leak detection. To address the needs, long-distance open-path laser spectroscopy methods offer significant advantages in terms of temporal resolution, sensitivity, compactness and cost effectiveness. Path-integrated mixing ratio measurements stemming from long open-path laser spectrometers can provide emission mapping when combined with meteorological data and/or through tomographic approaches. Laser absorption spectroscopy is the predominant method of detecting gasses over long integrated path lengths. The development of dispersion spectrometers measuring tiny refractive index changes, rather than optical power transmission, may offer a set of specific advantages1. These include greater immunity to laser power fluctuations, greater dynamic range due to the linearity of dispersion, and ideally a zero baseline signal easing quantitative retrievals of path integrated mixing ratios. Chirped laser dispersion spectrometers (CLaDS) developed for the monitoring of atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide will be presented. Using quantum cascade laser as the source, a minimalistic and compact system operating at 7.8 ?m has been developed and demonstrated for the monitoring of atmospheric methane over a 90 meter open path2. Through full instrument modelling and error propagation analysis, precision of 3 ppm.m.Hz-0.5 has been established (one sigma precision for atmospheric methane normalized over a 1 m path and 1 s measurement duration). The system was fully functional in the rain, sleet, and moderate fog. The physical model and system concept of CLaDS can be adapted to any greenhouse gas species. Currently we are developing an in-lab instrument that can measure carbon dioxide using a quantum cascade laser operating in the 4 ?m range. In this case, the dynamic range benefit of CLaDS is used to provide high precision even when peak absorbance in the CO2 spectrum gets greater than 2. Development for this deployable CO2 measurement system is still at an early stage. So far laboratory gas cell experiments have demonstrated a 9.3 ppm.m.Hz-0.5 for CO2 monitoring. This corresponds to about 0.02% relative precision in measuring CO2 atmospheric background over a 100 m open-path in one second. 1 G. Wysocki and D. Weidmann, "Molecular dispersion spectroscopy for chemical sensing using chirped mid-infrared quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express 18(25), 26123-26140 (2010). 2 N.S. Daghestani, R. Brownsword, D. Weidmann, 'Analysis and demonstration of atmospheric methane monitoring by mid-infrared open-path chirped dispersion spectroscopy' Opt. Express 22(25), A1731-A1743 (2014).

  14. Transitional Information in Spatial Serial Memory: Path Characteristics Affect Recall Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrice B. R. Parmentier; Greg Elford; Murray Mayberry

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the role of stimulus characteristics in a visuospatial order reconstruction task in which participants were required to recall the order of sequences of spatial locations. The complexity of the to-be-remembered sequences, as measured by path crossing, path length, and angles, was found to affect serial memory, in terms of both recall accuracy and response times. The results

  15. Universal Behavior of Optimal Paths in Weighted Networks with General Disorder Yiping Chen,1

    E-print Network

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    Universal Behavior of Optimal Paths in Weighted Networks with General Disorder Yiping Chen,1 Pw. We find that different types of disorder lead to the same universal behavior. Specifically, we) determines the distributions of the optimal path length, including both strong and weak disorder regimes

  16. Denial of Service attacks: path reconstruction for IP traceback using Adjusted Probabilistic Packet Marking

    E-print Network

    Dube, Raghav

    2005-02-17

    the Same Distance Field Value . . 23 8 Simulation Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 9 Hop Count Distribution in the Trace Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 10 Probability of Receiving a Packet Marked by Routers... Lengths and Various Traffic Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 13 Path Reconstruction Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 14 Hop Count Distribution as a Fraction of Total Paths...

  17. The size Ramsey number of a directed path Ido Ben-Eliezer

    E-print Network

    Krivelevich, Michael

    The size Ramsey number of a directed path Ido Ben-Eliezer Michael Krivelevich Benny Sudakov September 25, 2011 Abstract Given a graph H, the size Ramsey number re(H, q) is the minimal number m of H. We study the size Ramsey number of the directed path of length n in oriented graphs, where

  18. High pressure in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy cell for studying simultaneously the liquid phase and the solid/liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Ramin, Michael; Rohr, Markus; Michailovski, Alexej; Patzke, Greta R.; Baiker, Alfons

    2005-05-01

    A high pressure in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy cell with two different path lengths and path positions is presented for studying element-specifically both the liquid phase and the solid/liquid interface at pressures up to 250 bar and temperatures up to 220 °C. For this purpose, one x-ray path probes the bottom, while the other x-ray path penetrates through the middle of the in situ cell. The basic design of the cell resembles a 10 ml volume batch reactor, which is equipped with in- and outlet lines to dose compressed gases and liquids as well as a stirrer for good mixing. Due to the use of a polyetheretherketone inset it is also suitable for measurements under corrosive conditions. The characteristic features of the cell are illustrated using case studies from catalysis and solid state chemistry: (a) the ruthenium-catalyzed formylation of an amine in "supercritical" carbon dioxide in the presence of hydrogen; (b) the cycloaddition of carbon dioxide to propylene oxide in the presence of a solid Zn-based catalyst, and (c) the solvothermal synthesis of MoO3 nanorods from MoO3•2H2O.

  19. What is a MISR path?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    ... every 233 revolutions around the Earth, it is natural to name each of these different trajectories or paths. For MISR, the path is the generic name (actually the numeric label) of all orbits that observe the same areas ...

  20. The Longest Path Problem Is Polynomial on Interval Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannidou, Kyriaki; Mertzios, George B.; Nikolopoulos, Stavros D.

    The longest path problem is the problem of finding a path of maximum length in a graph. Polynomial solutions for this problem are known only for small classes of graphs, while it is NP-hard on general graphs, as it is a generalization of the Hamiltonian path problem. Motivated by the work of Uehara and Uno in [20], where they left the longest path problem open for the class of interval graphs, in this paper we show that the problem can be solved in polynomial time on interval graphs. The proposed algorithm runs in O(n 4) time, where n is the number of vertices of the input graph, and bases on a dynamic programming approach.

  1. ON THE LENGTH OF SNAKES IN POWERS OF COMPLETE JERZY WOJCIECHOWSKI

    E-print Network

    Wojciechowski, Jerzy

    ON THE LENGTH OF SNAKES IN POWERS OF COMPLETE GRAPHS JERZY WOJCIECHOWSKI Abstract. We prove holds for every n 2 and d 2, where S(Kd n) is the length of the longest snake (cycle without chords. A snake in a graph G is a closed path in G with at least three vertices and without proper chords

  2. Length of the Day

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this activity, students measure the length of the day using the rotation of the Earth, and discover that the Sun is not exactly in the same place at the same clock time every day, understand that the changes are due to motions of the Earth, and lead to differences in solar, star, and sidereal time. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications.

  3. Bike path Schools Bike friendly

    E-print Network

    Crews, Stephen

    Bike path Schools Parks Greenways Bike lane Bike friendly Bike path on sidewalk (uphill only a left turn, merge with motor vehicle traffic well in advance of the intersection. When bicycle paths stopping distance in inclement weather. Use a backpack or bike bag to carry items. Reasons to Bike

  4. Autonomous ground vehicle path tracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Wit; Carl D. Crane III; David G. Armstrong II

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous ground vehicle navigation requires the integration of many technologies such as path planning, position and orientation sensing, vehicle control, and obstacle avoidance. The work presented here focuses on the control of a nonholonomic ground vehicle as it tracks a given path. A new path tracking technique called ''vector pursuit'' is presented. This new technique is based on the theory

  5. Length of stain dosimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Payload customers for the Space Shuttle have recently expressed concerns about the possibility of their payloads at an adjacent pad being contaminated by plume effluents from a shuttle at an active pad as they await launch on an inactive pad. As part of a study to satisfy such concerns a ring of inexpensive dosimeters was deployed around the active pad at the inter-pad distance. However, following a launch, dosimeters cannot be read for several hours after the exposure. As a consequence factors such as different substrates, solvent systems, and possible volatilization of HCl from the badges were studied. This observation led to the length of stain (LOS) dosimeters of this invention. Commercial passive LOS dosimeters are sensitive only to the extent of being capable of sensing 2 ppm to 20 ppm if the exposure is 8 hours. To map and quantitate the HCl generated by Shuttle launches, and in the atmosphere within a radius of 1.5 miles from the active pad, a sensitivity of 2 ppm HCl in the atmospheric gases on an exposure of 5 minutes is required. A passive length of stain dosimeter has been developed having a sensitivity rendering it capable of detecting a gas in a concentration as low as 2 ppm on an exposure of five minutes.

  6. Preliminary assignments of 2 ? 3 - ? 4 hot band of 12 CH 4 in the 2 ?m transparency window from long-path FTS spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, A. V.; Daumont, L.; Thomas, X.; Régalia, L.; Rey, M.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.; Brown, L. R.

    2011-07-01

    New measurements and assignments for the rovibrational transitions of the hot band 2 v3- v4 of 12CH 4 are reported from 4600 to 4880 cm -1 and refer to lower part of the 2 ?m methane transparency window. Three long-path spectra were recorded with a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) in Reims using an L = 1603 m absorption path length at 1, 7, 34 h Pa for the natural samples of CH 4; a spectrum of enriched 13CH 4 was also used. Assignments were made for 196 lines of 2 v3(F 2,E)- v4. These transitions had an integrated intensity of 5 × 10 -24 cm/molecule at 296 K and improved the overall description of absorption in the 2.1 ?m region. The empirical upper state levels of these assignments belong to Tetradecad (4800-6200 cm -1). The new analysis provided much better accuracies of badly blended positions of 2 v3(F 2)-ground state manifolds at 1.66 ?m.

  7. Slip length crossover on a graphene surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhi; Keblinski, Pawel

    2015-04-01

    Using equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we study the flow of argon fluid above the critical temperature in a planar nanochannel delimited by graphene walls. We observe that, as a function of pressure, the slip length first decreases due to the decreasing mean free path of gas molecules, reaches the minimum value when the pressure is close to the critical pressure, and then increases with further increase in pressure. We demonstrate that the slip length increase at high pressures is due to the fact that the viscosity of fluid increases much faster with pressure than the friction coefficient between the fluid and the graphene. This behavior is clearly exhibited in the case of graphene due to a very smooth potential landscape originating from a very high atomic density of graphene planes. By contrast, on surfaces with lower atomic density, such as an (100) Au surface, the slip length for high fluid pressures is essentially zero, regardless of the nature of interaction between fluid and the solid wall.

  8. D-xylose absorption

    MedlinePLUS

    D-xylose absorption is a laboratory test to determine how well the intestines absorb a simple sugar (D-xylose). The test ... test is primarily used to determine if nutrient absorption problems are due to a disease of the ...

  9. Kinetic paths, time scale, and underlying landscapes: a path integral framework to study global natures of nonequilibrium systems and networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Erkwang

    2010-09-28

    We developed a general framework to quantify three key ingredients for dynamics of nonequilibrium systems through path integrals in length space. First, we identify dominant kinetic paths as the ones with optimal weights, leading to effective reduction of dimensionality or degrees of freedom from exponential to polynomial so large systems can be treated. Second, we uncover the underlying nonequilibrium potential landscapes from the explorations of the state space through kinetic paths. We apply our framework to a specific example of nonequilibrium network system: lambda phage genetic switch. Two distinct basins of attractions emerge. The dominant kinetic paths from one basin to another are irreversible and do not follow the usual steepest descent or gradient path along the landscape. It reflects the fact that the dynamics of nonequilibrium systems is not just determined by potential gradient but also the residual curl flux force, suggesting experiments to test theoretical predictions. Third, we have calculated dynamic transition time scales from one basin to another critical for stability of the system through instantons. Theoretical predictions are in good agreements with wild type and mutant experiments. We further uncover the correlations between the kinetic transition time scales and the underlying landscape topography: the barrier heights along the dominant paths. We found that both the dominant paths and the landscape are relatively robust against the influences of external environmental perturbations and the system tends to dissipate less with less fluctuations. Our general framework can be applied to other nonequilibrium systems. PMID:20886967

  10. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of gaseous atmospheric pressure plasmas with 2 mm spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroche, G.; Vallade, J.; Bazinette, R.; van Nijnatten, P.; Hernandez, E.; Hernandez, G.; Massines, F.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm × 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45° beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma.

  11. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of gaseous atmospheric pressure plasmas with 2 mm spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Laroche, G; Vallade, J; Bazinette, R; van Nijnatten, P; Hernandez, E; Hernandez, G; Massines, F

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm × 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45° beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma. PMID:23126767

  12. HII Absorption Bill Erickson

    E-print Network

    Ellingson, Steven W.

    HII Absorption Bill Erickson November 10, 2006 It would make all of the drift curve simulations.8 dB above the data. One reason for this might be HII absorption which is not modeled in simulations. There are a number of ways that one might try to estimate the absorption. One might use optical maps of HII

  13. An advanced open-path atmospheric monitor design

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.; Suhre, D. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mech, S. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The conceptual design of an open-path atmospheric monitor combines an acousto-optic tunable filter for emission spectroscopy (3-14 {mu}m) with a mid-IR (4.6-5.4 {mu}m) for absorption spectroscopy. It utilizes mostly commercially available components, covers a large area ({approximately}4 km radius), measures the distance to any reflecting object, can take measurements along any line-of-sight, and is eye safe. Of twenty test pollutants it is to detect, the concentrations of all twenty will be measurable via emission spectroscopy and ten by the more sensitive absorption spectroscopy.

  14. Odd Length Contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-09-01

    Let's denote by VE the speed of the Earth and byVR the speed of the rocket. Both travel in the same direction on parallel trajectories. We consider the Earth as a moving (at a constant speed VE -VR) spacecraft of almost spherical form, whose radius is r and thus the diameter 2r, and the rocket as standing still. The non-proper length of Earth's diameter, as measured by the astronaut is: L = 2 r?{ 1 -|/VE -VR|2 c2 } < 2 r . Therefore Earth's diameter shrinks in the direction of motion, thus Earth becomes an ellipsoid - which is untrue. Planet Earth may increase or decrease its diameter (volume), but this would be for other natural reasons, not because of a...flying rocket! Also, let's assume that the astronaut is laying down in the direction of motion. Therefore, he would also shrink, or he would die!

  15. A facile heating cell for in situ transmittance and fluorescence X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigations.

    PubMed

    An, Pengfei; Hong, Caihao; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wei; Hu, Tiandou

    2014-01-01

    A facile heating cell has been designed for in situ transmittance and fluorescence X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements up to 1273?K under vacuum or an inert atmosphere. These high temperatures are achieved using a tantalum heating element by ohmic heating. Because of the small specific heat capacity, the temperature can be changed in a matter of minutes from room temperature to high temperature. Furthermore, a commercial power controller was adapted to provide stable temperature control. The construction of the heat shielding system provides a novel approach to reducing the beam's path length and the cell's size. The cell is inexpensive and easy to build. Its performance was evaluated by in situ XAS measurements of the temperature-dependent structure of ceria nanocrystals. Some preliminary results for the structural mechanism in ceria nanocrystal redox applications are given. PMID:24365932

  16. X-ray absorption fine structure Debye-Waller factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poiarkova, Anna Victorovna

    For accurate x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra calculations, especially in complex and disordered systems, it is crucial to have an efficient and reliable method for obtaining multiple-scattering XAFS Debye-Waller factors. Traditional phenomenological models such as the correlated Debye and Einstein models, often fail to provide sufficient accuracy in the mean square half-path length fluctuation, sigma2. To overcome limitations of such isotropic models we introduce two alternative methods for the Debye-Waller factor calculations: the equation-of-motion method and the recursion method. These are generalized for a multiple-scattering case from their original single-scattering formulation. The equation-of-motion method is an efficient local method for calculation of the mean fluctuations s2j in XAFS Debye-Waller factors for a general scattering path j. Given a few local force constants, the method yields s2j via the projected densities of modes or via the displacement-displacement correlation function in real time, over a few vibration cycles. Sample applications of the method are presented for crystalline Cu and Ge, and for several organometallic molecules. XAFS Debye-Waller factors in anion of tetrachloroferrate (II) were calculated via the equation-of-motion method using dynamical matrix obtained from ab initio computation via density functional theory by means of the DGauss program. These ab initio Debye-Waller factors were then used in XAFS calculations in tetramethylammoniurn tetrachloroferrate (II). Debye-Waller factors were also calculated for single- and multiple scattering paths in a molecule of oxidized Pyrococcus furious rubredoxin and a molecule of zinc tetraimidazole based on force constants fitted to experimental vibrational spectra. Also, efficient local recursion method is presented for s2j calculations. Instead of computing entire projected densities of modes, the calculations are based on a double delta-function representation. Sample application of the method is presented for Cu crystal. Both methods have been implemented as FORTRAN 77 FEFF compatible computer programs SIGEM and SIGRM. Discussion on calculation of anharmonic and spherical wave corrections is presented.

  17. 100 Femtosecond laser absorption in solid density targets

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.F.; More, R.M.; Walling, R.S.; Stewart, R.E.

    1996-10-08

    Experimental short pulse lasers are rapidly approaching energy levels where target irradiances exceeding 10{sup 20} W/CM{sup 2} are routinely achievable. These high intensity levels will open up a new class of solid target interaction physics where relativistic effects must be included and non-traditional absorption mechanisms become significant. However much remains to be understood of the absorption physics at lower intensities where classical absorption is dominated by collisional and resonance absorption. If attention is paid to producing clean laser pulses that do not significantly pre-pulse interact with the target, it is possible to produce plasmas of sufficiently short scale length that near-solid density interactions are observable at intensities exceeding 10{sup 18} W/CM{sup 2} for 100 fs laser irradiation. We report here extensions to our previous efforts at normal incidence that expand our observations to non-normal angles including the effect of polarization for several target materials. Between 10{sup 13} W/CM{sup 2} and 10{sup 14} W/CM{sup 2} we observe that the target absorption retains a signature of the intra-band atomic transitions. At higher intensities a more material independent ion-electron collisional absorption and short scale length resonance absorption dominate. P - polarized absorption in short scale length plasmas has been observed to exceed 60 percent.

  18. A Two Micron Coherent Differential Absorption Lidar Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Chen, Songsheng; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Trieu, Bo C.; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2010-01-01

    A pulsed, 2-micron coherent Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL)/Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) transceiver, developed under the Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) at NASA, is integrated into a fully functional lidar instrument. This instrument measures atmospheric CO2 profiles (by DIAL) from a ground platform. It allows the investigators to pursue subsequent in science-driven deployments, and provides a unique tool for Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Night, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) validation that was strongly advocated in the recent ASCENDS Workshop. Keywords: Differential Absorption Lidar, Near Infrared Laser,

  19. An investigation of a mathematical model for atmospheric absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niple, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program that calculates absorption spectra for slant paths through the atmosphere is described. The program uses an efficient convolution technique (Romberg integration) to simulate instrument resolution effects. A brief information analysis is performed on a set of calculated spectra to illustrate how such techniques may be used to explore the quality of the information in a spectrum.

  20. Diode-laser absorption measurements of hydrazine and monomethylhydrazine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Webber; R. M. Mihalcea; D. S. Baer; R. K. Hanson; J. Segall; P. A. DeBarber

    1999-01-01

    Absorption measurements of pure hydrazine, N2H4, and monomethylhydrazine, CH3N2H3 (MMH), were recorded in an optical absorption cell (3 passes, 50cm\\/pass) at low pressure (0–35Torr) using a tunable external-cavity diode laser (ECDL), operating in the range from 6350 to 6650 cm-1 (1.49 to 1.58?m). Peak absorption cross-section measurements of hydrazine and MMH, as determined from fixed wave-length absorption measurements, were found

  1. JAVA PathFinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehhtz, Peter

    2005-01-01

    JPF is an explicit state software model checker for Java bytecode. Today, JPF is a swiss army knife for all sort of runtime based verification purposes. This basically means JPF is a Java virtual machine that executes your program not just once (like a normal VM), but theoretically in all possible ways, checking for property violations like deadlocks or unhandled exceptions along all potential execution paths. If it finds an error, JPF reports the whole execution that leads to it. Unlike a normal debugger, JPF keeps track of every step how it got to the defect.

  2. Thermoalgebras and path integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, F. C.; Malbouisson, A. P. C.; Malbouisson, J. M. C.; Santana, A. E.

    2009-09-01

    Using a representation for Lie groups closely associated with thermal problems, we derive the algebraic rules of the real-time formalism for thermal quantum field theories, the so-called thermo-field dynamics (TFD), including the tilde conjugation rules for interacting fields. These thermo-group representations provide a unified view of different approaches for finite-temperature quantum fields in terms of a symmetry group. On these grounds, a path integral formalism is constructed, using Bogoliubov transformations, for bosons, fermions and non-abelian gauge fields. The generalization of the results for quantum fields in (S1)d×R topology is addressed.

  3. pathChirp: Efficient Available Bandwidth Estimation for Network Paths

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, Les

    2003-04-30

    This paper presents pathChirp, a new active probing tool for estimating the available bandwidth on a communication network path. Based on the concept of ''self-induced congestion,'' pathChirp features an exponential flight pattern of probes we call a chirp. Packet chips offer several significant advantages over current probing schemes based on packet pairs or packet trains. By rapidly increasing the probing rate within each chirp, pathChirp obtains a rich set of information from which to dynamically estimate the available bandwidth. Since it uses only packet interarrival times for estimation, pathChirp does not require synchronous nor highly stable clocks at the sender and receiver. We test pathChirp with simulations and Internet experiments and find that it provides good estimates of the available bandwidth while using only a fraction of the number of probe bytes that current state-of-the-art techniques use.

  4. FILAMENT LENGTHS IN STRIATED MUSCLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SALLY G. PAGE; H. E. HUXLEY

    1963-01-01

    Filament lengths in resting and excited frog muscles have been measured in the electron microscope, and investigations made of the changes in length that are found under different conditions, to distinguish between those changes which arise during preparation and the actual differences in the living muscles. It is concluded that all the measured differences in filament length are caused by

  5. Enhancing near-infrared light absorption in PtSi thin films for Schottky barrier IR detectors using moth-eye surface structures.

    PubMed

    Lora Gonzalez, Federico; Gordon, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    Si-based Schottky barrier infrared detectors typically use thin (1-10 nm) PtSi or Pd2Si layers grown on Si substrates as an absorption medium. Herein, we demonstrate the use of sub-wavelength moth-eye (ME) structures on the Si substrate of such detectors to enhance absorption of near infrared (NIR) light in the active PtSi layer to increase detector efficiency. Absorbance enhancement of 70%-200% in the ?=1-2.5???m range is demonstrated in crystalline PtSi films grown via electron beam evaporation of Pt and subsequent vacuum annealing. Low total reflectance (<10%) was measured for ME films, demonstrating the efficacy of the ME effect. Effective medium approximation calculations show that absorption enhancement at short wavelengths is partially due to forward scattering, which increases the effective optical path length in PtSi. Results also suggest that ME structuring of substrates is a general and low-cost method to enhance absorption in a variety of IR material platforms used for back-illuminated detectors. PMID:25831372

  6. Propagation and absorption of high-intensity femtosecond laser radiation in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononenko, V. V.; Konov, V. I.; Gololobov, V. M.; Zavedeev, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    Femtosecond interferometry has been used to experimentally study the photoexcitation of the electron subsystem of diamond exposed to femtosecond laser pulses of intensity 1011 to 1014 W cm-2. The carrier concentration has been determined as a function of incident intensity for three harmonics of a Ti : sapphire laser (800, 400 and 266 nm). The results demonstrate that, in a wide range of laser fluences (up to those resulting in surface and bulk graphitisation), a well-defined multiphoton absorption prevails. We have estimated nonlinear absorption coefficients for pulsed radiation at ? = 800 nm (four-photon transition) and at 400 and 266 nm (indirect and direct two-photon transitions, respectively). It has also been shown that, at any considerable path length of a femtosecond pulse in diamond (tens of microns or longer), the laser beam experiences a severe nonlinear transformation, determining the amount of energy absorbed by the lattice, which is important for the development of technology for diamond photostructuring by ultrashort pulses. The competition between wave packet self-focusing and the plasma defocusing effect is examined as a major mechanism governing the propagation of intense laser pulses in diamond.

  7. Centrifugal Length Separation of Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Fagan, Jeffrey A.; Becker, Matthew L.; Chun, Jaehun; Nie, Pingting; Bauer, Barry J.; Simpson, Jeffrey R.; Hight-Walker, Angela; Hobbie, Erik K.

    2008-12-16

    Separation of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by length via centrifugation in a high density medium, and the characterization of both the separated fractions and the centrifugation process are presented. Significant quantities of the separated SWCNTs ranging in average length from < 50 nm to ?2 ?m were produced, with the distribution width being coupled to the rate of the separation. Less rapid separation is shown to produce narrower distributions; these length fractions, produced using sodium deoxycholate dispersed SWCNTs, were characterized by UV-visible-nearinfrared absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, Raman scattering, and atomic force microscopy. Several parameters of the separation were additionally explored: SWCNT concentration, added salt concentration, liquid density, rotor speed, surfactant concentration, and the processing temperature. The centrifugation technique is shown to support 10 mg per day scale processing and is applicable to all of the major SWCNT production methods. The cost per unit of the centrifugation-based separation is also demonstrated to be significantly less than size exclusion chromatography-based separations.

  8. Prediction of noise reduction through vehicle path rerouting.

    PubMed

    Makarewicz, Rufin

    2010-01-01

    Traffic noise, produced by moving vehicles, is described in terms of the day-night average sound level L(dn) and the day-evening-night level L(den). Both levels depend on the path of noise sources, such as road vehicles or aircraft. Usually, noise source path is rectilinear. Substituting a circle arc of radius R for the straight path segment yields noise reduction DeltaL=DeltaL(dn)=DeltaL(den). Assuming that noise propagation is governed by geometrical spreading, air absorption, and ground effect, relationship between DeltaL and R is derived. For example, replacement of a straight road at the distance of 100 m with the road of radius R=270 m and the angle Phi=68 degrees yields the noise reduction of 4 dB. In the case of road traffic noise, the presented results seem to be a viable alternative to barrier construction. PMID:20058966

  9. Air vehicle path planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Jeffrey Michael

    This dissertation explores optimal path planning for air vehicles. An air vehicle exposed to illumination by a tracking radar is considered and the problem of determining an optimal planar trajectory connecting two prespecified points is addressed. An analytic solution yielding the trajectory minimizing the received radar energy reflected from the target is derived using the Calculus of Variations. Additionally, the related problem of an air vehicle tracked by a passive sensor is also solved. Using the insights gained from the single air vehicle radar exposure minimization problem, a hierarchical cooperative control law is formulated to determine the optimal trajectories that minimize the cumulative exposure of multiple air vehicles during a rendezvous maneuver. The problem of one air vehicle minimizing exposure to multiple radars is also addressed using a variational approach, as well as a sub-optimal minmax argument. Local and global optimality issues are explored. A novel decision criterion is developed determining the geometric conditions dictating when it is preferable to go between or around two radars. Lastly, an optimal minimum time control law is obtained for the target identification and classification mission of an autonomous air vehicle. This work demonstrates that an awareness of the consequences of embracing sub-optimal and non-globally optimal solutions for optimization problems, such as air vehicle path planning, is essential.

  10. Internet's critical path horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, S.; Solé, R. V.

    2004-03-01

    Internet is known to display a highly heterogeneous structure and complex fluctuations in its traffic dynamics. Congestion seems to be an inevitable result of user's behavior coupled to the network dynamics and it effects should be minimized by choosing appropriate routing strategies. But what are the requirements of routing depth in order to optimize the traffic flow? In this paper we analyse the behavior of Internet traffic with a topologically realistic spatial structure as described in a previous study [S.-H. Yook et al., Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 99, 13382 (2002)]. The model involves self-regulation of packet generation and different levels of routing depth. It is shown that it reproduces the relevant key, statistical features of Internet's traffic. Moreover, we also report the existence of a critical path horizon defining a transition from low-efficient traffic to highly efficient flow. This transition is actually a direct consequence of the web's small world architecture exploited by the routing algorithm. Once routing tables reach the network diameter, the traffic experiences a sudden transition from a low-efficient to a highly-efficient behavior. It is conjectured that routing policies might have spontaneously reached such a compromise in a distributed manner. Internet would thus be operating close to such critical path horizon.

  11. An algorithm to find critical execution paths of software based on complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guoyan; Zhang, Bing; Ren, Rong; Ren, Jiadong

    2015-01-01

    The critical execution paths play an important role in software system in terms of reducing the numbers of test date, detecting the vulnerabilities of software structure and analyzing software reliability. However, there are no efficient methods to discover them so far. Thus in this paper, a complex network-based software algorithm is put forward to find critical execution paths (FCEP) in software execution network. First, by analyzing the number of sources and sinks in FCEP, software execution network is divided into AOE subgraphs, and meanwhile, a Software Execution Network Serialization (SENS) approach is designed to generate execution path set in each AOE subgraph, which not only reduces ring structure's influence on path generation, but also guarantees the nodes' integrity in network. Second, according to a novel path similarity metric, similarity matrix is created to calculate the similarity among sets of path sequences. Third, an efficient method is taken to cluster paths through similarity matrices, and the maximum-length path in each cluster is extracted as the critical execution path. At last, a set of critical execution paths is derived. The experimental results show that the FCEP algorithm is efficient in mining critical execution path under software complex network.

  12. Collaborative Authoring of Walden's Paths

    E-print Network

    Li, Yuanling

    2012-10-19

    COLLABORATIVE AUTHORING OF WALDEN’S PATHS A Thesis by YUANLING LI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 2012 Major Subject: Computer Science Collaborative Authoring of Walden’s Paths Copyright 2012 Yuanling Li COLLABORATIVE AUTHORING OF WALDEN’S PATHS A Thesis by YUANLING LI...

  13. Interactive cutting path analysis programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiner, J. M.; Williams, D. S.; Colley, S. R.

    1975-01-01

    The operation of numerically controlled machine tools is interactively simulated. Four programs were developed to graphically display the cutting paths for a Monarch lathe, Cintimatic mill, Strippit sheet metal punch, and the wiring path for a Standard wire wrap machine. These programs are run on a IMLAC PDS-ID graphic display system under the DOS-3 disk operating system. The cutting path analysis programs accept input via both paper tape and disk file.

  14. Path planning for virtual bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Negahdar, Mohamadreza; Ahmadian, Alireza; Navab, Nassir; Firouznia, Kavous

    2006-01-01

    We have developed an automated path planning method, which enables virtual bronchoscopic 3D multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) image analysis and follow on image-guided bronchoscopy. The method fundamentals are novel combination of distance transformation and snake-based models. The computation time of our algorithm is faster than similar works and there were no missing or false branches in the final path of airways. The planned path is suitable for quantitative airway analysis and smooth virtual navigation. PMID:17946384

  15. Paths with more turns are perceived as longer: misperceptions with map-based and abstracted path stimuli (.).

    PubMed

    Brunyé, Tad T; Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A

    2015-04-01

    -When navigating, people tend to overestimate distances when routes contain more turns, termed the route-angularity effect. Three experiments examined the source and generality of this effect. The first two experiments examined whether route-angularity effects occur while viewing maps and might be related to sex differences or sense of direction. The third experiment tested whether the route-angularity effect would occur with stimuli devoid of spatial context, reducing influences of environmental experience and visual complexity. In the three experiments, participants (N = 1,552; M = 32.2 yr.; 992 men, 560 women) viewed paths plotted on maps (Exps. 1 and 2) or against a blank background (Exp. 3). The depicted paths were always the same overall length, but varied in the number of turns (from 1 to 7) connecting an origin and destination. Participants were asked to estimate the time to traverse each path (Exp. 1) or the length of each path (Exps. 2 and 3). The Santa Barbara Sense of Direction questionnaire was administered to assess whether overall spatial sense of direction would be negatively related to the magnitude of the route-angularity effect. Repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) indicated that paths with more turns elicited estimates of greater distance and travel times, whether they were depicted on maps or blank backgrounds. Linear regressions also indicated that these effects were significantly larger in those with a relatively low sense of direction. The results support the route-angularity effect and extend it to paths plotted on map-based stimuli. Furthermore, because the route-angularity effect was shown with paths plotted against blank backgrounds, route-angularity effects are not specific to understanding environments and may arise at the level of visual perception. PMID:25799028

  16. A subterranean mammal uses the magnetic compass for path integration.

    PubMed

    Kimchi, Tali; Etienne, Ariane S; Terkel, Joseph

    2004-01-27

    Path integration allows animals to navigate without landmarks by continuously processing signals generated through locomotion. Insects such as bees and ants have evolved an accurate path integration system, assessing and coding rotations with the help of a general directional reference, the sun azimuth. In mammals, by contrast, this process can take place through purely idiothetic (mainly proprioceptive and vestibular) signals. However, without any stable external reference for measuring direction, path integration is highly affected by cumulative errors and thus has been considered so far as valid only for short-distance navigation. Here we show through two path integration experiments (homing and shortcut finding) that the blind mole rat assesses direction both through internal signals and by estimating its heading in relation to the earth's magnetic field. Further, it is shown that the greater the circumvolution and length of the traveled path, the more the animal relies on the geomagnetic field. This path integration system strongly reduces the accumulation of errors due to inaccuracies in the estimation of rotations and thus allows the mole rat to navigate efficiently in darkness, without the help of any landmark, over both short and long distances. PMID:14732687

  17. Handbook of Feynman Path Integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosche, Christian, Steiner, Frank

    The Handbook of Feynman Path Integrals appears just fifty years after Richard Feynman published his pioneering paper in 1948 entitled "Space-Time Approach to Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics", in which he introduced his new formulation of quantum mechanics in terms of path integrals. The book presents for the first time a comprehensive table of Feynman path integrals together with an extensive list of references; it will serve the reader as a thorough introduction to the theory of path integrals. As a reference book, it is unique in its scope and will be essential for many physicists, chemists and mathematicians working in different areas of research.

  18. Path of the Sun at Different Latitudes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Charles Burrows

    There is a lot of information packed into this Flash animation. Find the path of the sun above the horizon (on the celestial sphere) for four locations (both poles, equator, and 41 degrees north) during equinox and solstices. An important point that can be extrapolated from this animation is that although each pole has perpetual day during its respective summer solstice, the sun never exceeds around 24 degrees above the horizon. Given the sun?s oblique rays, there is enhanced atmospheric scattering and absorption resulting in lower temperatures. In addition, ice shelves and glaciers promote high albedos, further lowering temperatures. Thus, it?s a refrigerator even during perpetual day. The animation can easily be rewound or paused to stress important points.

  19. Collisionless absorption in sharp-edged plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbon, P. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biophysikalische Chemie, D-3400 Goettingen-Nikolausberg (Germany)); Bell, A.R. (The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom))

    1992-03-09

    The absorption of subpicosecond, obliquely incident laser light is studied using a 11/2D particle-in-cell code. Density scale lengths from {ital L}/{lambda}=0.01 to 2 and laser irradiances between {ital I}{lambda}{sup 2}=10{sup 14} and 10{sup 18} W cm{sup {minus}2} {mu}m{sup 2} are considered. Vacuum heating'' (F. Brunel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 52 (1987)) dominates over resonance absorption for scale lengths {ital L}/{lambda}{lt}0.1, and is most efficient when {ital v}{sub osc}/{ital c}{congruent}3.1({ital L}/{lambda}){sup 2}. Absorbed energy is carried mainly by a superhot'' electron population with {ital U}{sub hot}{similar to}({ital I}{lambda}{sup 2}){sup 1/3--1/2}.

  20. Shortest Path Algorithm What is the Shortest Path Problem?

    E-print Network

    Razak, Saquib

    at vertex B: The resulting vertex-weighted graph is: #12;Data structures required · The implementation. · The method returns a vertex-weighted Digraph from which the shortest path from s to any vertex can be found;What is the shortest path problem? · In an edge-weighted graph, the weight of an edge measures the cost

  1. 757 Path Loss Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, Kent; Huffman, Mitch; Eppic, Brian; White, Harrison

    2005-01-01

    Path Loss Measurements were obtained on three (3) GPS equipped 757 aircraft. Systems measured were Marker Beacon, LOC, VOR, VHF (3), Glide Slope, ATC (2), DME (2), TCAS, and GPS. This data will provide the basis for assessing the EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) safety margins of comm/nav (communication and navigation) systems to portable electronic device emissions. These Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) include all devices operated in or around the aircraft by crews, passengers, servicing personnel, as well as the general public in the airport terminals. EMI assessment capability is an important step in determining if one system-wide PED EMI policy is appropriate. This data may also be used comparatively with theoretical analysis and computer modeling data sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and others.

  2. Theoretical model of absorption of laser light by a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mora, P.

    1982-06-01

    A simple model of laser light absorption is described. The absorption mechanism is mainly inverse bremsstrahlung, but a crude description of resonance absorption is also included. The intensity and the wavelength dependence are emphasized, but the model takes into account the target material composition, the laser pulse length, and the focal spot radius. Plane and spherical expansion are treated. Results range from short-wavelength, low-intensity regime, where inverse bremsstrahlung absorption is total, to long-wavelength high-intensity regime, where inverse bremsstrahlung absorption is negligible. Scaling laws concerning absorption, electron temperature, and electron kinetic pressure are given in the two limiting regimes. A characteristic flux Phi(, or, alternatively, a characteristic wavelength lambda( is defined which separates the two regimes, the other parameters being held constant.

  3. The Absorption Spectrum of Chlorine Dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold C. Urey; Helen Johnston

    1931-01-01

    The wave-lengths of 134 absorption bands of ClO2 have been measured with the Hilger E-1 and E-185 quartz instruments. The bands have been arranged in progressions and the energy levels deduced. Five vibrational levels of the normal electronic state have been found; the vibrational levels of the excited electronic state can be described with the use of two vibrational quantum

  4. Ferromagnetic Resonance Absorption in Magnetite Single Crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R. Bickford

    1950-01-01

    The microwave resonance absorption technique, at both 1.25 and 3.3 cm wave-lengths, was used to study the ferromagnetic crystalline anisotropy characteristics and g-factor of magnetite Fe3O4. The experiments were performed on single crystals, both synthetic and natural, from room temperature to -195°C. Depending upon the temperature, magnetite single crystals were found to have magnetic anisotropy characteristics similar to those of

  5. Long Path Quantum Cascade Laser Based Sensor for Environment Sensing/Ambient Detection of CH4 and N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, P. C.; Sydoryk, I.; Gross, B.; Moshary, F.

    2013-12-01

    Methane (CH4) and Nitrous Oxide (N2O) are long-lived greenhouse gases in the atmosphere with significant global warming effects. These gases also are known to be produced in a number of anthropogenic settings such as manure management systems, which releases substantial GHGs and is mandated by the EPA to provide continuous monitoring. In addition, natural gas leaks in urban areas is another source of strong spatially inhomogeneous methane emissions Most open path methods for quantitative detection of trace gases utilize either Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTIR) or near-IR differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). Although, FTIR is suitable for ambient air monitoring measurement of more abundant gases such as CO2 and H20 etc., the lack of spectral resolution makes the retrieval of weaker absorbing features such as N20 more difficult. On the other hand, conventional DOAS systems can be large and impractical. As an alternative, we illustrate a robust portable quantum cascade laser (QCL) approach for simultaneous detection of CH4 and N2O. In particular, gas spectra were recorded by ultrafast pulse intensity (thermal) chirp tuning over the 1299 - 1300cm-1 spectral window. Etalon measurements insure stable tuning was obtained. To deal with multiple species, a LSQ spectral fitting approach was used which accounted for both the overlapping trace gases , background water vapor as well as detector drift and calibration. In summary, ambient concentrations of CH4 with and N2O with accuracy < 1% was obtained on the order of 5ms using optical paths of 500 m path length. In addition, unattended long term operation was demonstrated and validations using other sensors when possible were shown to be consistent. The system accuracy is limited by systemic errors, which are still being explored.

  6. Path detection in video surveillance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitrios Makris; Tim Ellis

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automatically extracting frequently used pedestrian pathways from video sequences of natural outdoor scenes. Path models are learnt from the accumulation of trajectory data over long time periods, and can be used to augment the classification of subseq uent track data. In particular, labelled paths provide an efficient means for compressing the trajectory data for

  7. Using Runtime Paths for Macroanalysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Y. Chen; Emre Kiciman; Anthony Accardi; Armando Fox; Eric A. Brewer

    2003-01-01

    We introduce macroanalysis, an approach used to infer the high-level properties of dynamic, distributed systems, and an indispensable tool when faced with tasks where lo- cal context and individual component details are insuffi- cient. We present a new methodology, runtime path anal- ysis, where paths are traced through software components and then aggregated to understand global system behav- ior via

  8. Path Analysis: A Brief Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carducci, Bernardo J.

    Path analysis is presented as a technique that can be used to test on a priori model based on a theoretical conceptualization involving a network of selected variables. This being an introductory source, no previous knowledge of path analysis is assumed, although some understanding of the fundamentals of multiple regression analysis might be…

  9. Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; Roberts, C. M.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences based on development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in more developed sites. Thematically, people in less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community based solutions, while people in more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in water-rich sites. Thematically, people in water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.

  10. Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.; Roberts, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences associated with development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in the two less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in the more developed sites. Thematically, people in the two less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community-based solutions, while people in the more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in the two water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in the water-rich sites. Thematically, people in the two water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in the water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.

  11. Reasoning with Temporal Logic on Truncated Paths

    E-print Network

    Francalanza, Adrian

    Reasoning with Temporal Logic on Truncated Paths Cindy Eisner1 Dana Fisman1,2 John Havlicek3 Yoad of reasoning with linear temporal logic on truncated paths. A truncated path is a path which is finite for reasoning about truncated paths, and analyze its characteristics. 1 Introduction Traditional ltl semantics

  12. PHOSPHATE ABSORPTION IN EELGRASS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Peter McRoy; Robert J. Barsdate

    The absorption of phosphate by eelgrass (Zostera marina L. ) was studied using 32P in a partitioned container where leaves were separated from roots and rhizomes. Absorption, which was greatest in the light, occurred through both leaves and roots, and the absorbed phosphorus was transported rapidly to all parts of the plant. It therefore appears that eelgrass can use phosphate

  13. Logarithmic Sobolev Inequalities on Path Spaces Over Riemannian Manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Elton P.

    Let Wo(M) be the space of paths of unit time length on a connected, complete Riemannian manifold M such that ?(0) =o, a fixed point on M, and ? the Wiener measure on Wo(M) (the law of Brownian motion on M starting at o).If the Ricci curvature is bounded by c, then the following logarithmic Sobolev inequality holds:

  14. Path-Loss Characteristics of Urban Wireless Channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith T. Herring; Jack W. Holloway; David H. Staelin; Daniel W. Bliss

    2010-01-01

    Wireless channel data was collected in Cambridge, Massachusetts for diverse propagation environments over distances ranging from tens of meters to several kilometers using mobile 2.4-GHz transmitters and receivers. The 20-MHz bandwidth signals from eight individually movable van-top antennas were Nyquist sampled simultaneously with 12-bit accuracy. Although path-loss variance for any given link length within single residential\\/urban neighborhoods was large, single

  15. Structural Testing: An Introduction Flow Graphs Path Testing Conclusions Path Testing

    E-print Network

    Mousavi, Mohammad

    Structural Testing: An Introduction Flow Graphs Path Testing Conclusions Path Testing Mohammad Mousavi Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands Software Testing, 2012 Mousavi: Path Testing #12;Structural Testing: An Introduction Flow Graphs Path Testing Conclusions Outline Structural

  16. Structural Testing: An Introduction Flow Graphs Path Testing Conclusions Path Testing

    E-print Network

    Mousavi, Mohammad

    Structural Testing: An Introduction Flow Graphs Path Testing Conclusions Path Testing Mohammad Mousavi Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands Software Testing, 2013 Mousavi: Path Testing #12;Structural Testing: An Introduction Flow Graphs Path Testing Conclusions Outline Structural

  17. British Pathe Newsreels Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    British Pathe, one of the oldest media companies in the world, recently made available its entire 3500-hour film archive, covering "news, sport, social history and entertainment from 1896 to 1970." At the Web site, users can search by keyword or try out advanced search, if details such as reel numbers or exact titles are known. Casual users may prefer the "Lucky Dip" search, which provides a random selection of films to see. After a search returns a hit list of films, choices include "Preview Film: a page of stills, with a textual description of the clip;" "Download Now: a free, low resolution clip;" or "Add to basket, to purchase higher resolutions of the film." (A rate card giving prices for low and high resolution clips is provided.) One hint for first-time users, though: if files do not seem to download properly, check your email, because you will be sent the URL to retrieve your film. After just a bit of finagling on our first visit, we watched the Beatles at a water-skiing show, Charlie Chaplin, and Sir Ernest Shackleton and his sled dogs photographed in 1916 on returning from their Antarctic expedition.

  18. Reconfigurable data path processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohoe, Gregory (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A reconfigurable data path processor comprises a plurality of independent processing elements. Each of the processing elements advantageously comprising an identical architecture. Each processing element comprises a plurality of data processing means for generating a potential output. Each processor is also capable of through-putting an input as a potential output with little or no processing. Each processing element comprises a conditional multiplexer having a first conditional multiplexer input, a second conditional multiplexer input and a conditional multiplexer output. A first potential output value is transmitted to the first conditional multiplexer input, and a second potential output value is transmitted to the second conditional multiplexer output. The conditional multiplexer couples either the first conditional multiplexer input or the second conditional multiplexer input to the conditional multiplexer output, according to an output control command. The output control command is generated by processing a set of arithmetic status-bits through a logical mask. The conditional multiplexer output is coupled to a first processing element output. A first set of arithmetic bits are generated according to the processing of the first processable value. A second set of arithmetic bits may be generated from a second processing operation. The selection of the arithmetic status-bits is performed by an arithmetic-status bit multiplexer selects the desired set of arithmetic status bits from among the first and second set of arithmetic status bits. The conditional multiplexer evaluates the select arithmetic status bits according to logical mask defining an algorithm for evaluating the arithmetic status bits.

  19. Pathways with PathWhiz

    PubMed Central

    Pon, Allison; Jewison, Timothy; Su, Yilu; Liang, Yongjie; Knox, Craig; Maciejewski, Adam; Wilson, Michael; Wishart, David S.

    2015-01-01

    PathWhiz (http://smpdb.ca/pathwhiz) is a web server designed to create colourful, visually pleasing and biologically accurate pathway diagrams that are both machine-readable and interactive. As a web server, PathWhiz is accessible from almost any place and compatible with essentially any operating system. It also houses a public library of pathways and pathway components that can be easily viewed and expanded upon by its users. PathWhiz allows users to readily generate biologically complex pathways by using a specially designed drawing palette to quickly render metabolites (including automated structure generation), proteins (including quaternary structures, covalent modifications and cofactors), nucleic acids, membranes, subcellular structures, cells, tissues and organs. Both small-molecule and protein/gene pathways can be constructed by combining multiple pathway processes such as reactions, interactions, binding events and transport activities. PathWhiz's pathway replication and propagation functions allow for existing pathways to be used to create new pathways or for existing pathways to be automatically propagated across species. PathWhiz pathways can be saved in BioPAX, SBGN-ML and SBML data exchange formats, as well as PNG, PWML, HTML image map or SVG images that can be viewed offline or explored using PathWhiz's interactive viewer. PathWhiz has been used to generate over 700 pathway diagrams for a number of popular databases including HMDB, DrugBank and SMPDB. PMID:25934797

  20. Argon microplasma diagnostics by diode laser absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Naoto; Xue, Jun; Hopwood, Jeffrey

    2009-10-01

    Argon kinetic gas temperature and line integrated resonance state (1s4) density in argon microplasma at 1-760 Torr were estimated by diode laser absorption. A 900 MHz microstrip split ring resonator (MSRR) was used as the microplasma generator. An argon atomic transition at 810.4 nm (1s4-2p7) was chosen as the absorption line. The wavelength of a single-mode laser diode was tuned by changing the diode case temperature. The absorption line was scanned by modulating the laser driving current. The laser output was collimated and passed through a 0.5 mm hole drilled between the MSRR electrodes where the microplasma was sustained. The absorption profile was fit with a Voigt function. The gas temperature was estimated from the broadening, and the line integrated density of the argon resonance state (1s4) was obtained from the integral of the absorption profile. The line integrated densities of argon 1s4 were 1.7x10^15 m-3 m at 1 Torr and 1.4x10^15 m-3 m at 760 Torr with 1W of input power. The visually observed length of plasma decreased from 1 cm at 1 Torr to a few hundred microns at 760 Torr. The measured gas temperature increased from 350 K at 1 Torr to 750 K at 760 Torr. The microplasma was also simulated using a fluid model, which will be compared with experimental measurements.

  1. Correlations between bond lengths, Tc, and O vibration frequencies: Raman-scattering and infrared-absorption study of the 1:2:1:2 structure (Ca1-yYy)Sr2(Tl0.5Pb0.5)Cu2O7 as a function of doping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Mertelj; D. Mihailovic; F. C. Matacotta; R. S. Liu; J. R. Cooper; I. Gameson; P. P. Edwards

    1993-01-01

    Raman-scattering and infrared-absorption measurements on optical phonons are used to investigate the doping-induced changes in the electronic structure of (Ca1-yYy)Sr2(Tl0.5Pb0.5)Cu2O7 (Tl\\/Pb-1:2:1:2). In contrast to YBa2Cu3O7-delta (YBCO), the doping of the CuO2 planes is achieved by direct substitution of Ca2+ for Y3+ in between the CuO2 planes, enabling the effects of the dynamic out-of-plane charge transfer and doping to be separated.

  2. Characterizing Reactive Flow Paths in Fractured Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenning, Q. C.; Huerta, N. J.; Hesse, M. A.; Bryant, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration can be a viable method for reducing anthropogenic CO2 flux into the atmosphere. However, the technology must be economically feasible and pose acceptable risk to stakeholders. One key risk is CO2 leakage out of the storage reservoir. Potential driving forces for leakage are the overpressure due to CO2 injection and the buoyancy of free phase CO2. Potential hazards of leakage are contamination of Underground Sources of Drinking Water or the atmosphere and would be deemed an unacceptable risk. Wells potentially provide a fast path for leakage from the reservoir. While the well's cement casing is reactive with CO2 and CO2-saturated brine, the low cement matrix permeability and slow diffusion rate make it unlikely that CO2 will escape through a properly constructed wellbore. However, highly permeable fractures with micrometer scale apertures can occur in cement casings. Reactions that occur in the flow in these fractures can either be self-limiting or self-enhancing. Therefore, understanding the reactive flow is critical to understanding of leakage evolution through these fractures. The goal of our work is to characterize the modification of the flow paths in the fracture due to reaction with acidic brine. With this aim we have characterized both the initial flow path of un-reactive flow and the final flow path after introduction of low-pH acid along the same fracture. Class H cement cores 3-6 cm in length and 2.5 cm diameter are created and a single natural and unique fracture is produced in each core using the Brazilian method. Our experimental fluid is injected at a constant rate into the cement core housed in a Hassler Cell under confining pressure. A solution of red dye and deionized water is pumped through the fracture to stain the un-reactive flow paths. Deionized water is then pumped through the core to limit diffusion of the dye into non-flowing portions of the fracture. After staining the initial flow path, low pH water due to hydrochloric acid (HCL), is pumped through the core at the same rate as the dye. The low pH water is used as a proxy for acidic CO2-saturated brine. Both staining from the un-reactive dye and acid produce visible permanent color alterations on the cement fracture plane. Results show that nearly the entire fracture width is stained by the red dye, with only a few asperities un-dyed. However the low pH HCl forms restricted reacted channels that are a subset of the area open to un-reactive flow, occupying only 10-50% of the entire fracture width. Low pH HCl is believed to be the driving force for the reaction that causes channeling. As acid flows through the fracture, calcium is stripped from the low pH high velocity flow front and precipitates along of the edges of the channel where pH is higher due to the lower flow velocities outside the channel. It is hypothesized that this mineral precipitation restricts the flow into localized channels within the plane of fractures having apertures of tens of micrometers. Reactions restrict the flow path to a smaller fraction of the surface, which may be an indication of self-limiting behavior.

  3. Excess noise in GaAs and AlGaAs avalanche photodiodes with GaSb absorption regions—composite structures grown using interfacial misfit arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, A. P.; Reyner, C. J.; Marshall, A. R. J.; Huffaker, D. L.

    2014-05-01

    Interfacial misfit arrays were embedded within two avalanche photodiode (APD) structures. This allowed GaSb absorption layers to be combined with wide-bandgap multiplication regions, consisting of GaAs and Al0.8Ga0.2As, respectively. The GaAs APD represents the simplest case. The Al0.8Ga0.2As APD shows reduced dark currents of 5.07 ?Acm-2 at 90% of the breakdown voltage, and values for effective k =?/? below 0.2. Random-path-length modeled excess noise is compared with experimental data, for both samples. The designs could be developed further, allowing operation to be extended to longer wavelengths, using other established absorber materials which are lattice matched to GaSb.

  4. Fluid absorption solar energy receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A conventional solar dynamic system transmits solar energy to the flowing fluid of a thermodynamic cycle through structures which contain the gas and thermal energy storage material. Such a heat transfer mechanism dictates that the structure operate at a higher temperature than the fluid. This investigation reports on a fluid absorption receiver where only a part of the solar energy is transmitted to the structure. The other part is absorbed directly by the fluid. By proportioning these two heat transfer paths the energy to the structure can preheat the fluid, while the energy absorbed directly by the fluid raises the fluid to its final working temperature. The surface temperatures need not exceed the output temperature of the fluid. This makes the output temperature of the gas the maximum temperature in the system. The gas can have local maximum temperatures higher than the output working temperature. However local high temperatures are quickly equilibrated, and since the gas does not emit radiation, local high temperatures do not result in a radiative heat loss. Thermal radiation, thermal conductivity, and heat exchange with the gas all help equilibrate the surface temperature.

  5. Learning for informative path planning

    E-print Network

    Park, Sooho, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    Through the combined use of regression techniques, we will learn models of the uncertainty propagation efficiently and accurately to replace computationally intensive Monte- Carlo simulations in informative path planning. ...

  6. COMPUTER SCIENCE: MISCONCEPTIONS, CAREER PATHS

    E-print Network

    Hristidis, Vagelis

    COMPUTER SCIENCE: MISCONCEPTIONS, CAREER PATHS AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES School of Computing Undergraduate Student) #12;Computer Science Misconceptions Intro to Computer Science - Florida International University 2 Some preconceived ideas & stereotypes about Computer Science (CS) are quite common

  7. Scattering theory with path integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfelder, R. [Particle Theory Group, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)] [Particle Theory Group, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    Starting from well-known expressions for the T-matrix and its derivative in standard nonrelativistic potential scattering, I rederive recent path-integral formulations due to Efimov and Barbashov et al. Some new relations follow immediately.

  8. Anti-interference performance of multi-path direct sequence spread spectrum wireless communication system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caijiao Xue

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve information transmission rate in unit bandwidth, using direct-sequence spread-spectrum CDMA thinking, creatively present a new multi-path direct sequence spread spectrum wireless communication systems' model, and give its multi-path interference performance based on MATLAB. Simulation results show that the system can increase the information transmission rate in unit bandwidth through enhancing the length of the spreading code

  9. A Comparative Study of Six Basic Approaches for Path Planning Towards an Autonomous Navigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Randria; M. M. Ben Khelifa; M. Bouchouicha; P. Abellard

    2007-01-01

    The optimal path search is important in navigation learning with an electrical wheelchair. This paper studies six basic approaches for path planning in a static environment: breath-first search, depth-first search, A*, Moore-Dijkstra, neural approach and genetic algorithms. Firstly, the environment is modeled in a 2D grid and the genetic approach has fixed chromosome length. Then the genetic approach is evaluated

  10. Coupled Experimental and Computational Analysis of Fracture Path Selection in PMMA Blocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Tsai; Y. L. Guan; R. C. Batra; D. C. Ohanehi; J. G. Dillard; E. Nicoli; D. A. Dillard

    \\u000a While developing experimental and computational tools for analyzing crack path selection and failure loci in adhesively bonded\\u000a joints, we have initially applied these tools for studying crack paths in pre-notched monolithic blocks of polymethyl methacrylate\\u000a (PMMA), a common material for conducting brittle fracture experiments. Specimen configurations similar to the compact tension\\u000a specimen but of varying length\\/width ratios were used to

  11. Calculating Least Risk Paths in 3d Indoor Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanclooster, A.; De Maeyer, Ph.; Fack, V.; Van de Weghe, N.

    2013-08-01

    Over the last couple of years, research on indoor environments has gained a fresh impetus; more specifically applications that support navigation and wayfinding have become one of the booming industries. Indoor navigation research currently covers the technological aspect of indoor positioning and the modelling of indoor space. The algorithmic development to support navigation has so far been left mostly untouched, as most applications mainly rely on adapting Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm to an indoor network. However, alternative algorithms for outdoor navigation have been proposed adding a more cognitive notion to the calculated paths and as such adhering to the natural wayfinding behaviour (e.g. simplest paths, least risk paths). These algorithms are currently restricted to outdoor applications. The need for indoor cognitive algorithms is highlighted by a more challenged navigation and orientation due to the specific indoor structure (e.g. fragmentation, less visibility, confined areas…). As such, the clarity and easiness of route instructions is of paramount importance when distributing indoor routes. A shortest or fastest path indoors not necessarily aligns with the cognitive mapping of the building. Therefore, the aim of this research is to extend those richer cognitive algorithms to three-dimensional indoor environments. More specifically for this paper, we will focus on the application of the least risk path algorithm of Grum (2005) to an indoor space. The algorithm as proposed by Grum (2005) is duplicated and tested in a complex multi-storey building. The results of several least risk path calculations are compared to the shortest paths in indoor environments in terms of total length, improvement in route description complexity and number of turns. Several scenarios are tested in this comparison: paths covering a single floor, paths crossing several building wings and/or floors. Adjustments to the algorithm are proposed to be more aligned to the specific structure of indoor environments (e.g. no turn restrictions, restricted usage of rooms, vertical movement) and common wayfinding strategies indoors. In a later stage, other cognitive algorithms will be implemented and tested in both an indoor and combined indoor-outdoor setting, in an effort to improve the overall user experience during navigation in indoor environments.

  12. Shortest Paths in Euclidean Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Sedgewick; Jeffrey Scott Vitter

    1986-01-01

    We analyze a simple method for finding shortest paths inEuclidean graphs (where vertices are points in a Euclidean space and edge weights are Euclidean distances between points). For many graph\\u000a models, the average running time of the algorithm to find the shortest path between a specified pair of vertices in a graph\\u000a withV vertices andE edges is shown to beO(V)

  13. Formal language constrained path problems

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.

    1997-07-08

    In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.

  14. Quantum Mechanics: Sum Over Paths

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Taylor, Edwin F.

    Created by Edwin F. Taylor a former professor at the Department of Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, this material describes methods of presenting quantum mechanics using the path-integral formulation. Included are links to a paper and presentation outlining the method, software to simulate the path integrals, and student workbook materials. This course has been used for introducing quantum physics to high school teachers.

  15. Long-path monitoring of NO2 with a 635 nm diode laser using frequency-modulation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Somesfalean, Gabriel; Alnis, Janis; Gustafsson, Ulf; Edner, Hans; Svanberg, Sune

    2005-08-20

    In situ monitoring of traffic-generated nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions using long-path absorption spectroscopy is reported. High-sensitivity detection of NO2 is achieved by employing two-tone frequency-modulation spectroscopy at a visible absorption band using a tunable high-power diode laser operated around 635 nm. A real-time absorption spectrometer is accomplished by repetitively applying a rectangular current pulse to the diode-laser operating current, allowing detection of isolated NO2 absorption lines. A detection limit of 10 microg/m3 for NO2 at atmospheric pressure using a 160 m absorption path is demonstrated. Continuous monitoring of NO2 over a road intersection at peak traffic is performed. PMID:16121802

  16. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  17. Scale Length of Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi, K.; Allen, M.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Peletier, R.

    2009-07-01

    As a part of a Euro-VO research initiative, we have undertaken a programme aimed at studying the scale length of 54909 Sa-Sd spiral galaxies from the SDSS DR6 catalogue. We have retrieved u, g, r, i, z-band images for all galaxies in order to derive the light profiles. We also calculate asymmetry parameters to select non-disturbed disks for which we will derive exponential disk scale lengths. As images in different bands probe different optical depths and stellar populations, it is likely that a derived scale length value should depend on waveband, and our goal is to use the scale length variations with band pass, inclination, galaxy type, redshift, and surface brightness, in order to better understand the nature of spiral galaxies.

  18. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  19. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  20. Laser intracavity absorption spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Baev; T. Latz; P. E. Toschek

    1999-01-01

    .   Emission spectra of multimode lasers are very sensitive to spectrally selective extinction in their cavity. This phenomenon\\u000a allows the quantitative measurement of absorption. The sensitivity of measurements of intracavity absorption grows with the\\u000a laser pulse duration. The ultimate sensitivity obtained with a cw laser is set by various perturbations of the light coherence,\\u000a such as quantum noise, Rayleigh scattering,

  1. Length measurement in accelerated systems

    E-print Network

    Bahram Mashhoon; Uwe Muench

    2002-06-27

    We investigate the limitations of length measurements by accelerated observers in Minkowski spacetime brought about via the hypothesis of locality, namely, the assumption that an accelerated observer at each instant is equivalent to an otherwise identical momentarily comoving inertial observer. We find that consistency can be achieved only in a rather limited neighborhood around the observer with linear dimensions that are negligibly small compared to the characteristic acceleration length of the observer.

  2. Near infrared absorption spectra of oxygen-18 enriched carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Oberly; K. Narahari Rao; L. H. Jones; Maxwell Goldblatt

    1971-01-01

    The near infrared absorption spectra of 12C18O2 have been recorded using a vacuum prism-grating spectrograph with a resolution of about 0.03 cm-1. A one-meter absorption path was used with pressures ranging from 4 mm Hg to 10 cm Hg. The vibrational transitions (1001,0201)I-0000, (1001,0201)II-0000, (2001,0401)I-0000, (2001,0401)II-0000, (2001,0401)III-0000, and their associated ``hot'' bands were observed and the structure has been analyzed

  3. Clear-air propagation on line-of-sight radio paths: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik T. Stephansen

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in theoretical and experimental work on clear air propagation on line-of-sight paths is reviewed. Descriptions of the physical mechanisms involved, illustrations of the variability in time and in space of the phenomena, and descriptions of the modeling of the propagation are addressed. Absorption by atmospheric gases is dealt with briefly. Refractive index structures are mentioned as background information.

  4. LASER-BASED, LONG PATH MONITORING OF AMBIENT GASES, ANALYSIS OF TWO SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    New long path absorption techniques for measurement of ambient O3 and CO have recently been demonstrated using a CO2 laser and a semiconductor diode laser, respectively. For the CO2 laser system the use of closely spaced wavelengths minimizes system drift and simplifies the deter...

  5. Accurate Liquid Water Path Retrieval from Low-Cost Microwave Radiometers Using Additional Information from a Lidar Ceilometer and Operational Forecast Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Gaussiat; Robin J. Hogan; Anthony J. Illingworth

    2007-01-01

    Water clouds have an important impact on the radiative balance of the earth. The use of ground-based dual-frequency microwave radiometers to derive both liquid water path (LWP) and water vapor path (WVP) is well established, but uncertainties over the dry, water vapor, and liquid water absorption coef- ficients and the radiometric calibration can lead to errors in the retrieved LWP.

  6. Time-multiplexed open-path TDLAS spectrometer for dynamic, sampling-free, interstitial H2 18O and H2 16O vapor detection in ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnreich, B.; Wagner, S.; Habig, J. C.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Ebert, V.

    2015-04-01

    An advanced in situ diode laser hygrometer for simultaneous, sampling-free detection of interstitial H2 16O and H2 18O vapor was developed and tested in the aerosol interaction and dynamics in atmosphere (AIDA) cloud chamber during dynamic cloud formation processes. The spectrometer to measure isotope-resolved water vapor concentrations comprises two rapidly time-multiplexed DFB lasers near 1.4 and 2.7 µm and an open-path White cell with 227-m absorption path length and 4-m mirror separation. A dynamic water concentration range from 2.6 ppb to 87 ppm for H2 16O and 87 ppt to 3.6 ppm for H2 18O could be achieved and was used to enable a fast and direct detection of dynamic isotope ratio changes during ice cloud formation in the AIDA chamber at temperatures between 190 and 230 K. Relative changes in the H2 18O/H2 16O isotope ratio of 1 % could be detected and resolved with a signal-to-noise ratio of 7. This converts to an isotope ratio resolution limit of 0.15 % at 1-s time resolution.

  7. On hallucinated garden paths UC San Diego

    E-print Network

    On hallucinated garden paths Roger Levy UC San Diego Department of Linguistics 2010 LSA Annual., 1995) #12;Garden-pathing in incremental parsing · Garden-path sentence a consequence of incrementality recent examples don't match this definition · Tabor et al. (2004): garden-paths on continuous substrings

  8. Cooperative organic mine avoidance path planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher B. McCubbin; Christine D. Piatko; Adam V. Peterson; Creighton R. Donnald; David Cohen

    2005-01-01

    The JHU\\/APL Path Planning team has developed path planning techniques to look for paths that balance the utility and risk associated with different routes through a minefield. Extending on previous years' efforts, we investigated real-world Naval mine avoidance requirements and developed a tactical decision aid (TDA) that satisfies those requirements. APL has developed new mine path planning techniques using graph

  9. Graphs and Paths Page 1 Introduction

    E-print Network

    Allan, Vicki H.

    ? For example: I want to travel every bike path in Logan (assuming they had any ) but I don't want to everGraphs and Paths Page 1 Chapter 9 Graphs Introduction What are some characteristics of a binary travel on the same path twice. Can I begin at my home, visit every path, and then return? The data

  10. Complexity of path discovery game problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Tohyama; Akeo Adachi

    2000-01-01

    In this paper path discovery games are introduced, and complexity of the game problems is studied. It is shown that the path discovery game problem played on directed graphs is PSPACE-complete, and the path discovery game problem played on undirected graphs is in the class SSPACE(nlogn). Moreover, it is shown that the acyclic path discovery game problems played on directed

  11. Length-weight and length-length relationships of fish species from the Aegean Sea (Greece)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Moutopoulos; K. I. Stergiou

    2002-01-01

    Summary We present the relationships between total (TL), fork(FL) and standard (SL) length for 37 fish species and the relationships between TL and wet weight for 40 fish species from the Aegean Sea (Cyclades; Greece). The relationships between TL, FL and SL were all linear (for all cases: r2 > 0.928). The values of the exponent b of the length-weight

  12. Signatures of Seismic Absorption in Magnetic Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, C.; Cally, P. S.

    One of the major developments in local helioseismology of the late 1980s was the discovery by Braun, Duvall, & LaBonte that magnetic regions strongly absorb p modes that the quiet Sun itself efficiently reflects. A second major development, in the mid 1990s with the advent of the {Solar and Heliospheric Observatory}, was the discovery by Duvall et al. that phase travel times for waves propagating into sunspot photospheres are significantly longer than for waves propagating away from them along identical paths, a phenomenon to which we refer in this review as ``the phase asymmetry.'' Theoretical work by Cally et al. proposes to explain absorption of p modes by coupling of p modes to Alfvén modes. Recent work by Schunker et al. shows compelling evidence that this coupling contributes strongly to the phase asymmetry. More recent work by Rajaguru et al. suggests that radiative transfer effects in magnetic photospheres with upward-propagating waves contribute significantly to the phase asymmetry. Both of these contributions depend on strong absorption of p modes in magnetic photospheres. We will comment on the physics that relates phase shifts that underlie phenomena such as the phase asymmetry to irreversible processes such as p-mode absorption in magnetic regions. Magnetic contributions to the phase asymmetry have significant implications respecting seismic diagnostics of flows in active region subphotospheres.

  13. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Matthew; Wilks, Scott; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen; Baring, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top relativistic particle accelerators, ultrafast charged particle imaging systems and fast ignition inertial confinement fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. In this presentation, using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show how to derive the theoretical maximum and minimum of f. These boundaries constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. Close agreement is shown with several dozens of published experimental data points and simulation results, helping to confirm the theory. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials.

  14. Attenuation, scattering, and absorption properties of light emitting planar waveguides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Schrottke

    1995-01-01

    Attenuation, scattering, and absorption coefficients of planar waveguides which contain light emitting areas are investigated by analysis of the lateral intensity distribution of the light scattered out from regions of the waveguides surrounding the active areas. Short attenuation lengths require an experimental method without the use of coupling prisms. This method was succesfully applied to a set of thin film

  15. The M-Series Absorption Spectrum of Metallic Bismuth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D. Phelps

    1934-01-01

    With a vacuum spectrometer and sputtered bismuth films as absorbers, the five M-absorption edges were obtained. The large discrepancies between computed and observed wave-lengths of Bi MIV and MV were verified. The MI, MII and MIII discrepancies were found to be of the order of experimental error. To explain the MIV and MV discrepancies it is assumed that electrons from

  16. Generation regimes in a ring gas laser with nonlinear absorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Nikolaenko

    1980-01-01

    determines the center of the gain curve (resonance ~ +), of the region of single-mode generation (region A), and of the synchronization region between the opposing wave frequencies (Ss) when nonlinear absorption (NA) is introduced into the RGL resonator. The experimental setup used in this investigation is shown schematically in Fig. 1. The resonator of length 180 cm was formed

  17. When Does Length Cause the Word Length Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Bireta, Tamra J.; Surprenant, Aimee M.

    2011-01-01

    The word length effect, the finding that lists of short words are better recalled than lists of long words, has been termed one of the benchmark findings that any theory of immediate memory must account for. Indeed, the effect led directly to the development of working memory and the phonological loop, and it is viewed as the best remaining…

  18. IMF Length Scales and Predictability: The Two Length Scale Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Szabo, Adam; Slavin, James A.; Lepping, R. P.; Kokubun, S.

    1999-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a systematic study using simultaneous data from three spacecraft, Wind, IMP 8 (Interplanetary Monitoring Platform) and Geotail to examine interplanetary length scales and their implications on predictability for magnetic field parcels in the typical solar wind. Time periods were selected when the plane formed by the three spacecraft included the GSE (Ground Support Equipment) x-direction so that if the parcel fronts were strictly planar, the two adjacent spacecraft pairs would determine the same phase front angles. After correcting for the motion of the Earth relative to the interplanetary medium and deviations in the solar wind flow from radial, we used differences in the measured front angle between the two spacecraft pairs to determine structure radius of curvature. Results indicate that the typical radius of curvature for these IMF parcels is of the order of 100 R (Sub E). This implies that there are two important IMF (Interplanetary Magnetic Field) scale lengths relevant to predictability: (1) the well-established scale length over which correlations observed by two spacecraft decay along a given IMF parcel, of the order of a few tens of Earth radii and (2) the scale length over which two spacecraft are unlikely to even observe the same parcel because of its curvature, of the order of a hundred Earth radii.

  19. Screening length in plasma winds

    E-print Network

    Elena Caceres; Makoto Natsuume; Takashi Okamura

    2007-06-04

    We study the screening length L_s of a heavy quark-antiquark pair in strongly coupled gauge theory plasmas flowing at velocity v. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we investigate, analytically, the screening length in the ultra-relativistic limit. We develop a procedure that allows us to find the scaling exponent for a large class of backgrounds. We find that for conformal theories the screening length is (boosted energy density)^{-1/d}. As examples of conformal backgrounds we study R-charged black holes and Schwarzschild-anti-deSitter black holes in (d+1)-dimensions. For non-conformal theories, we find that the exponent deviates from -1/d and as examples we study the non-extremal Klebanov-Tseytlin and Dp-brane geometries. We find an interesting relation between the deviation of the scaling exponent from the conformal value and the speed of sound.

  20. A rapid method to derive horizontal distributions of trace gases and aerosols near the surface using multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Li, A.; Xie, P. H.; Wagner, T.; Chen, H.; Liu, W. Q.; Liu, J. G.

    2014-06-01

    We apply a novel experimental procedure for the rapid measurement of the average volume mixing ratios (VMRs) and horizontal distributions of trace gases such as NO2, SO2, and HCHO in the boundary layer, which was recently suggested by Sinreich et al. (2013). The method is based on two-dimensional scanning multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS). It makes use of two facts (Sinreich et al., 2013): first, the light path for observations at 1° elevation angle traverses mainly air masses located close to the ground (typically < 200 m); second, the light path length can be calculated using the simultaneous measured absorption of the oxygen dimer O4. Thus, the average value of the trace gas VMR in the atmospheric layer between the surface and the particular altitude, for which this observation was sensitive, can be calculated. Compared to the originally proposed method, we introduce several important modifications and improvements: We apply the method only to measurements at 1° elevation angle (besides zenith view), for which the uncertainties of the retrieved values of the VMRs and surface extinctions are especially small. Using only 1° elevation angle for off-axis observation also allows an increased temporal resolution. We determine (and apply) correction factors (and their uncertainties) directly as function of the measured O4 absorption. Finally, the method is extended to trace gases analysed at other wavelengths and also to the retrieval of aerosol extinction. Depending on atmospheric visibility, the typical uncertainty of the results ranges from about 20% to 30%. We apply the rapid method to observations of a newly-developed ground-based multifunctional passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy (GM-DOAS) instrument in the north-west outskirts near Hefei in China. We report NO2, SO2, and HCHO VMRs and aerosol extinction for four azimuth angles and compare these results with those from simultaneous long-path DOAS observations. Good agreement is found (squares of the correlation coefficients for NO2, SO2, and HCHO were 0.92, 0.85, and 0.60, respectively), verifying the reliability of this novel method. Similar agreement is found for the comparison of the aerosol extinction with results from visibility meters. Future studies may conduct measurements using a larger number of azimuth angles to increase the spatial resolution.

  1. Folded-light-path colloidal quantum dot solar cells.

    PubMed

    Koleilat, Ghada I; Kramer, Illan J; Wong, Chris T O; Thon, Susanna M; Labelle, André J; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2013-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics combine low-cost solution processing with quantum size-effect tuning to match absorption to the solar spectrum. Rapid advances have led to certified solar power conversion efficiencies of over 7%. Nevertheless, these devices remain held back by a compromise in the choice of quantum dot film thickness, balancing on the one hand the need to maximize photon absorption, mandating a thicker film, and, on the other, the need for efficient carrier extraction, a consideration that limits film thickness. Here we report an architecture that breaks this compromise by folding the path of light propagating in the colloidal quantum dot solid. Using this method, we achieve a substantial increase in short-circuit current, ultimately leading to improved power conversion efficiency. PMID:23835564

  2. Evaluation of steam path audits

    SciTech Connect

    Caudill, M.B. [Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc., Montrose, CO (United States); Griebenow, R.D. [SAIC, Huntersville, NC (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Tri-State Generation and Transmission association is the operating agent for the 1350 megawatt Craig Generating Station, located in northwestern Colorado. Tri-State has recently incorporated turbine steam path audits into their aggressive performance improvement program. The intent of the audits are to quantify and attain the most cost effective increase in turbine performance as a result of a major outage. Valuable information about performance losses in the turbine has been obtained from steam path audits conducted on the three Craig Units. However, accurate audit results often depend on the quality of measurements and the experience of the auditor. Without a second method to verify the results of a steam path audit, repairs might be performed on a non-cost effective basis, or significant performance degradations might be overlooked. In addition, an inaccurate audit may lead to erroneous expectations for performance improvements resulting from the maintenance performed during the outage.

  3. Phase Diagram of Optimal Paths

    E-print Network

    Alex Hansen; Janos Kertesz

    2004-02-17

    We show that choosing appropriate distributions of the randomness, the search for optimal paths links diverse problems of disordered media like directed percolation, invasion percolation, directed and non-directed spanning polymers. We also introduce a simple and efficient algorithm, which solves the d-dimensional model numerically in order N^(1+d_f/d) steps where d_f is the fractal dimension of the path. Using extensive simulations in two dimensions we identify the phase boundaries of the directed polymer universality class. A new strong-disorder phase occurs where the optimum paths are self-affine with parameter-dependent scaling exponents. Furthermore, the phase diagram contains directed and non-directed percolation as well as the directed random walk models at specific points and lines.

  4. THE EFFECT OF ABSORPTION SYSTEMS ON COSMIC REIONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Marcelo A. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Abel, Tom, E-mail: malvarez@cita.utoronto.ca [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2012-03-10

    We use large-scale simulations to investigate the morphology of reionization during the final, overlap phase. Our method uses an efficient three-dimensional smoothing technique that takes into account the finite mean free path due to absorption systems, {lambda}{sub abs}, by only smoothing over scales R{sub s} < {lambda}{sub abs}. The large dynamic range of our calculations is necessary to resolve the neutral patches left at the end of reionization within a representative volume; we find that simulation volumes exceeding several hundred Mpc on a side are necessary in order to properly model reionization when the neutral fraction is {approx_equal} 0.01-0.3. Our results indicate a strong dependence of percolation morphology on a large and uncertain region of model parameter space. The single most important parameter is the mean free path to absorption systems, which serve as opaque barriers to ionizing radiation. If these absorption systems were as abundant as some realistic estimates indicate, the spatial structure of the overlap phase is considerably more complex than previously predicted. In view of the lack of constraints on the mean free path at the highest redshifts, current theories that do not include absorption by Lyman-limit systems, and in particular three-dimensional simulations, may underestimate the abundance of neutral clouds at the end of reionization. This affects predictions for the 21 cm signal associated with reionization, interpretation of absorption features in quasar spectra at z {approx} 5-6, the connection between reionization and the local universe, and constraints on the patchiness and duration of reionization from temperature fluctuations measured in the cosmic microwave background arising from the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect.

  5. Zinc absorption from the small intestine in young calves.

    PubMed

    Hampton, D L; Miller, W J; Blackmon, D M; Gentry, R P; Neathery, M W; Lassiter, J W; Kincaid, R L; Stake, P E

    1976-04-01

    Zinc-65 was injected directly into various sites throughout the small intestine of Holstein calves fed a low zinc diet. Zinc absorption was determined by comparing zinc-65 content of blood, liver, kidney, lung, heart, pancreas, rib, muscle, and other tissues. Tissue zinc-65 was plotted against site of injection expressed as percentage of intestinal length from proximal to distal ends. Zinc absorption occurred throughout the small intestine with the amount absorbed per centimeter of length about equal throughout the small intestine. This is in contrast to conclusions from studies of rats indicating more absorption in the proximal part of the small intestine. The difference appears to have been due to artifacts in the procedures with rats. However, species and dietary differences may have affected relative findings between this and earlier work. PMID:1262580

  6. Segmentation and length measurement of the abdominal blood vessels in 3-D MRI images.

    PubMed

    Babin, Danilo; Vansteenkiste, Ewout; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Philips, Wilfried

    2009-01-01

    In diagnosing diseases and planning surgeries the structure and length of blood vessels is of great importance. In this research we develop a novel method for the segmentation of 2-D and 3-D images with an application to blood vessel length measurements in 3-D abdominal MRI images. Our approach is robust to noise and does not require contrast-enhanced images for segmentation. We use an effective algorithm for skeletonization, graph construction and shortest path estimation to measure the length of blood vessels of interest. PMID:19964361

  7. Effect of defoliation upon root growth, phosphate absorption and respiration in nutrient-limited tundra graminoids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Stuart Chapin; Mari Slack

    1979-01-01

    Moderate experimental defoliation stimulated root respiration and phosphate absorption in two tundra graminoids, Eriophorum vaginatum and Carex aquatilis, growing under nutrient-limited field conditions in northern Alaska. The increase in phosphate absorption rate following defoliation of Eriophorum was associated with a decrease in root phosphate and available carbohydrate contents per unit root length but a constant root nitrogen content. Only after

  8. Handbook for the estimation of microwave propagation effects: Link calculations for earth-space paths (path loss and noise estimation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, R. K.; Blood, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    A single model for a standard of comparison for other models when dealing with rain attenuation problems in system design and experimentation is proposed. Refinements to the Global Rain Production Model are incorporated. Path loss and noise estimation procedures as the basic input to systems design for earth-to-space microwave links operating at frequencies from 1 to 300 GHz are provided. Topics covered include gaseous absorption, attenuation by rain, ionospheric and tropospheric scintillation, low elevation angle effects, radome attenuation, diversity schemes, link calculation, and receiver noise emission by atmospheric gases, rain, and antenna contributions.

  9. Multiplasmon Absorption in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablan, Marinko; Chang, Darrick E.

    2015-06-01

    We show that graphene possesses a strong nonlinear optical response in the form of multiplasmon absorption, with exciting implications in classical and quantum nonlinear optics. Specifically, we predict that graphene nanoribbons can be used as saturable absorbers with low saturation intensity in the far-infrared and terahertz spectrum. Moreover, we predict that two-plasmon absorption and extreme localization of plasmon fields in graphene nanodisks can lead to a plasmon blockade effect, in which a single quantized plasmon strongly suppresses the possibility of exciting a second plasmon.

  10. Multiple paths in complex tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galanter, Eugene; Wiegand, Thomas; Mark, Gloria

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between utility judgments of subtask paths and the utility of the task as a whole was examined. The convergent validation procedure is based on the assumption that measurements of the same quantity done with different methods should covary. The utility measures of the subtasks were obtained during the performance of an aircraft flight controller navigation task. Analyses helped decide among various models of subtask utility combination, whether the utility ratings of subtask paths predict the whole tasks utility rating, and indirectly, whether judgmental models need to include the equivalent of cognitive noise.

  11. A model of anomalous absorption, backscatter, and flux limitation in laser-produced plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Colombant; W. M. Manheimer

    1980-01-01

    Fluid simulations of laser light absorption and backscatter for planar targets are presented for various laser irradiances, wavelengths, target materials, laser pulse lengths, and simulated prepulse conditions. Physical processes included in the model are inverse bremsstrahlung, resonant absorption, absorption by ion-acoustic fluctuations, and Brillouin backscatter. For the anomalous processes, self-consistent transport coefficients are derived and used throughout the time-dependent, one-dimensional

  12. A theory of anomalous absorption, backscatter and flux limitation in laser produced plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Colombant; W. M. Manheimer

    1979-01-01

    Fluid simulations of laser light absorption and backscatter are presented for various laser irradiances, wavelengths, target materials, laser pulse lengths and simulated prepulse conditions. Physical processes included in the model are inverse bremsstrahlung, resonant absorption, absorption by ion-acoustic fluctuations, and Brillouin backscatter. For the anomalous processes, self-consistent transport coefficients are derived and used throughout the time-dependent, one-dimensional code. Flux limitation

  13. GAS ABSORPTION INTO WAVY AND TURBULENT FALLING LIQUID FILMS IN A WETTED-WALL COLUMN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SIU-MING YIH; KAI-YUNE CHEN

    1982-01-01

    Experiments are conducted for gas absorption in a long wetted-wall column. Liquid-side mass transfer coefficients are measured for absorption of CO2 and O2 into falling water films on the outside of a stainless steel pipe 2.72 cm OD and 183 cm absorption length. The liquid film Reynolds number ranges from 129 to 10500 which encompasses the wavy-laminar, wavy-transition and turbulent

  14. [Research on the NO2 mean concentration measurement with target differential optical absorption spectroscopy technology].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Si, Fu-Qi; Zhou, Hai-Jin; Zhao, Min-Jie; Dou, Ke; Liu, Wen-Qing

    2013-04-01

    A new monitoring method of NO2 concentration near ground with the target difference absorption spectrum technology (Target DOAS) is introduced in the present paper. This method is based on the passive difference absorption spectrum technology. The instrument collects solar reflection spectrum of remote objectives, such as wall of building and mountain, and a specific reference spectrum is chosen to subtract the influence of trace gases from the target to atmospheric top, then integrated concentration of NO2 along the path between the target and instrument can be calculated through the differential absorption spectra inversion algorithm. Since the distance between the instrument and target is given, the mean concentration of NO2 can be derived. With developed Target DOAS instrument, NO2 concentration measurement was carried out in Hefei. And comparison was made between the target DOAS and long path difference absorption spectrometer. Good consistency was presented, proving the feasibility of this method. PMID:23841393

  15. Internode Length in Pisum1

    PubMed Central

    Reid, James B.

    1983-01-01

    Internode length in light-grown peas (Pisum sativum L.) is controlled by the interaction of genes occupying at least five major loci, Le, La, Cry, Na, and Lm. The present work shows that the genes at all of the loci examined (Le, Cry, and Na) also exert an effect on internode length in plants grown in complete darkness. Preliminary results using pure lines were verified using either segregating progenies or near isogenic lines. The major cause of the differences was due to a change in the number of cells per internode rather than to an alteration of the cell length. Since the genes occupying at least two of these loci, Le and Na, have been shown to be directly involved with gibberellin metabolism, it appears that gibberellins are not only essential for elongation in the dark but are limiting for elongation in the nana (extremely short, na), dwarf (Na le), and tall (Na Le) phenotypes. These results are supported by the large inhibitory effects of AMO 1618 treatments on stem elongation in dwarf and tall lines grown in the dark and the fact that applied gibberellic acid could overcome this inhibition and greatly promote elongation in a gibberellin-deficient na line. It is clear that the internode length genes, and in particular the alleles at the Le locus, are not acting by simply controlling the sensitivity of the plant to light. PMID:16663081

  16. The Minimum Description Length Principle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter D. Grünwald

    2007-01-01

    The minimum description length (MDL) principle is a powerful method of inductive inference, the basis of statistical modeling, pattern recognition, and machine learning. It holds that the best explanation, given a limited set of observed data, is the one that permits the greatest compression of the data. MDL methods are particularly well-suited for dealing with model selection, prediction, and estimation

  17. Electron localization length in polyaniline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Kahol; R. P. Perera; K. K. Satheesh Kumar; S. Geetha; D. C. Trivedi

    2003-01-01

    Electrical DC conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, and EPR measurements are used to investigate the electron localization behavior of polyaniline as a function of the dopant type using seven sulfonic acid based doping acids. In spite of differences in the magnitude and the temperature dependences of DC conductivity and magnetic susceptibility data, the experiments reveal a localization length of approximately 30Å for

  18. A temporal ant colony optimization approach to the shortest path problem in dynamic scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Feng; Li, Yanjun; Wu, Tie-Jun

    2010-02-01

    A large number of networks in the real world have a scale-free structure, and the parameters of the networks change stochastically with time. Searching for the shortest paths in a scale-free dynamic and stochastic network is not only necessary for the estimation of the statistical characteristics such as the average shortest path length of the network, but also challenges the traditional concepts related to the “shortest path” of a network and the design of path searching strategies. In this paper, the concept of shortest path is defined on the basis of a scale-free dynamic and stochastic network model, and a temporal ant colony optimization (TACO) algorithm is proposed for searching for the shortest paths in the network. The convergence and the setup for some important parameters of the TACO algorithm are discussed through theoretical analysis and computer simulations, validating the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  19. Diurnal Variations in the Specific Absorption Coefficient: Recent Results from Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgardner, D.; Kok, G.; Raga, G. B.

    2005-12-01

    The specific absorption coefficient, ?a, defined as the absorbance of light per unit path length and per unit of mass concentration, is an important, radiative property of the atmosphere and is also used as a conversion factor when estimating the mass of light absorbing material, usually black carbon, from measurements of the absorption coefficient. The magnitude of ?a varies over a wide range of values, 2 to 25 m 2g-1, due to the composition and structure of the light absorbing material. The value of this parameter is usually determined by measuring the absorption coefficient, Babs with a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) or an Aethalometer and the black carbon (BC) with one of several types of thermal optical techniques. There are two disadvantages to this approach, both associated with the thermo-optical derivations of BC. The first disadvantage is that significant sample times are needed to accumulate sufficient aerosol mass to derive the BC value. Secondly, there is a large uncertainty associated with the BC mass derived from the thermo-optical method. The recent development of the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP-2) has allowed high resolution estimates of ?a . The SP2 measures directly the mass of single, light absorbing particles using laser induced incandescence. This mass, when combined with Babs derived from measurements of light attenuation, leads to an accurate, fast response estimate of ?a . This technique has been recently applied during a field campaign in Mexico City in April, 2005. An SP-2, PSAP, Nephelometer, and other particle counters measured the physical and optical properties of particles in the southwest sector of Mexico City. Measurements were made 24 hours a day so that the diurnal variations could be monitored. The value of ?a, derived every five minutes from the measurements of the SP-2 and PSAP, showed clear diurnal variations that reflect the changes in the age of the BC that is emitted by local sources. In the morning the BC is fresh as a result of the peak in traffic and ages with time as the boundary layer develop and photochemical processes presumably alter the characteristics of the BC.

  20. Colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics: a path forward.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Illan J; Sargent, Edward H

    2011-11-22

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) offer a path toward high-efficiency photovoltaics based on low-cost materials and processes. Spectral tunability via the quantum size effect facilitates absorption of specific wavelengths from across the sun's broad spectrum. CQD materials' ease of processing derives from their synthesis, storage, and processing in solution. Rapid advances have brought colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic solar power conversion efficiencies of 6% in the latest reports. These achievements represent important first steps toward commercially compelling performance. Here we review advances in device architecture and materials science. We diagnose the principal phenomenon-electronic states within the CQD film band gap that limit both current and voltage in devices-that must be cured for CQD PV devices to fulfill their promise. We close with a prescription, expressed as bounds on the density and energy of electronic states within the CQD film band gap, that should allow device efficiencies to rise to those required for the future of the solar energy field. PMID:21967723

  1. FIBONACCI LENGTH AND EFFICIENCY IN GROUP PRESENTATIONS

    E-print Network

    St Andrews, University of

    FIBONACCI LENGTH AND EFFICIENCY IN GROUP PRESENTATIONS Peter Philip Campbell Ph.D. Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2 Introduction to Fibonacci length and generalizations 19 1 Introduction and apology considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3.1 Fibonacci length

  2. Characteristic length of glass transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donth, E.

    1996-03-01

    The characteristic length of the glass transition (? _? ) is based on the concept of cooperatively rearranging regions (CRR's) by Adam & Gibbs (1965): ? _? is the diameter of one CRR. In the theoretical part of the talk a formula is derived how this length can be calculated from calorimetric data of the transformation interval. The approach is based on fluctuations in natural functional subsystems. The corresponding thermodynamics is represented e.g. in a book of the author (E. Donth, Relaxation and Thermodynamics in Polymers. Glass Transition, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1992). A typical value for this length is 3 nanometers. In the experimental part several examples are reported to enlarge the experimental evidence for such a length: Squeezing the glass transition in the amorphous layers of partially crystallized PET (C. Schick, Rostock), glass transition of small-molecule glass formers in a series of nanoscaled pores of porous glasses (F. Kremer, Leipzig), comparison with a concentration fluctuation model in homogeneous polymer mixtures (E.W. Fischer, Mainz), and, from our laboratory, backscaling to ? _? across the main transition from the entanglement spacing in several amorphous polymers such as PVAC, PS, NR, and some polymer networks. Rouse backscaling was possible in the ? ? splitting region of several poly(n alkyl methacrylates) resulting in small characteristic lengths of order 1 nanometer near the onset of ? cooperativity. In a speculative outlook a dynamic density pattern is presented, having a cellular structure with higher density and lower mobility of the cell walls. It will be explained, with the aid of different thermal expansion of wall and clusters, how the clusters within the cells maintain a certain mobility far below the glass temperature.

  3. Two-Phonon Absorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    A nonlinear aspect of the acousto-optic interaction that is analogous to multi-photon absorption is discussed. An experiment is described in which the second-order acousto-optically scattered intensity is measured and found to scale with the square of the acoustic intensity. This experiment using a commercially available acousto-optic modulator is…

  4. ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METHOD...

  5. On the Distribution of Free Path Lengths for the Periodic Lorentz Gas III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caglioti, Emanuele; Golse, François

    For r(0,1), let Zr={xR2|dist(x,Z2)>r/2} and define ?r(x,v)=inf{t>0|x+tv?Zr}. Let ?r(t) be the probability that ?r(x,v)>=t for x and v uniformly distributed in Zr and §1 respectively. We prove in this paper that as t-->+?. This result improves upon the bounds on ?r in Bourgain-Golse-Wennberg [Commun. Math. Phys. 190, 491-508 (1998)]. We also discuss the applications of this result in the context of kinetic theory.

  6. Information Flow in Interaction Networks II: Channels, Path Lengths, and Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Stojmirovi?, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In our previous publication, a framework for information flow in interaction networks based on random walks with damping was formulated with two fundamental modes: emitting and absorbing. While many other network analysis methods based on random walks or equivalent notions have been developed before and after our earlier work, one can show that they can all be mapped to one of the two modes. In addition to these two fundamental modes, a major strength of our earlier formalism was its accommodation of context-specific directed information flow that yielded plausible and meaningful biological interpretation of protein functions and pathways. However, the directed flow from origins to destinations was induced via a potential function that was heuristic. Here, with a theoretically sound approach called the channel mode, we extend our earlier work for directed information flow. This is achieved by constructing a potential function facilitating a purely probabilistic interpretation of the channel mode. For each network node, the channel mode combines the solutions of emitting and absorbing modes in the same context, producing what we call a channel tensor. The entries of the channel tensor at each node can be interpreted as the amount of flow passing through that node from an origin to a destination. Similarly to our earlier model, the channel mode encompasses damping as a free parameter that controls the locality of information flow. Through examples involving the yeast pheromone response pathway, we illustrate the versatility and stability of our new framework. PMID:22409812

  7. The No-U-Turn Sampler The No-U-Turn Sampler: Adaptively Setting Path Lengths

    E-print Network

    Gelman, Andrew

    Bayesian models are a mainstay of the machine learning and statistics com- munities. Exact posterior, NY 10027, USA Andrew Gelman gelman@stat.columbia.edu Departments of Statistics and Political Science chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm that avoids the random walk behavior and sensitivity to correlated

  8. Radial bunch compression: Path-length compensation in an rf photoinjector with a curved cathode

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    or free-electron lasers (FELs) and for direct use in applications such as pulsed radiolysis [1] and time such as the free-electron laser by making them more compact and with shorter pulse duration, and could provide photoinjector is an ideal electron source for driving coherent spontaneous or superradiant free-electron lasers

  9. Mean free-path length theory of predator–prey interactions: Application to juvenile salmon migration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Anderson; Eliezer Gurarie; Richard W. Zabel

    2005-01-01

    Ecological theory traditionally describes predator–prey interactions in terms of a law of mass action in which the prey mortality rate depends on the density of predators and prey. This simplifying assumption makes population-based models more tractable but ignores potentially important behaviors that characterize predator–prey dynamics. Here, we expand traditional predator–prey models by incorporating directed and random movements of both predators

  10. The Water-Vapor Continuum Absorption in the Mid-Infrared Windows at Temperatures from 311 K to 363 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Yu. I.; Lafferty, W. J.

    2009-06-01

    The water-vapor continuum absorption in the mid-infrared 10 ?m and 4 ?m atmospheric windows plays an important role in the radiative balance of the Earth. We have derived the continuum absorption coefficients from spectra recorded at NIST with a resolution of 0.1 wn over a wide range of pressures from 2.8 kPa (21 torr) to 15.1 kPa (113 torr) and temperatures from 311 K to 363 K with path lengths ranging from 74 to 116 m. These measurements were performed with a BOMEM DA3-002 FTIR spectrometer with a 2 m base multi-pass cell. The spectral range was from 800 to 3500 wn . We have published the results obtained in the 10 ?m region recently. At the conditions given above, the continuum absorption in the higher frequency atmospheric window is quite detectable reaching as high as 4%. In order to avoid mistakes caused by the non-linear behavior of a MCT detector we later recorded an additional set of spectra with a highly-linear InSb detector. Both sets of spectra provide absorption coefficients coinciding within error bars. Our results around 5 ?m are in good agreement with those obtained from the widely used MT-CKD continuum model. However, at shorter wave lengths, the values diverge dramatically increasing up to one order of magnitude at the center of the window. Despite the comparatively large uncertainties of our data, comparison with all other available results leads us to the conclusion that the MT-CKD model greatly underestimates the self-broadened continuum over the 4 ?m atmospheric window. We have also extended our measurements to lower frequencies with the use of KRS-5 cell windows. The current spectral range is down to 600 wn. Yu. I. Baranov, W. J. Lafferty, Q. Ma, R. H. Tipping, JQSRT 109, 2291, (2008) S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, and R. W. Davies, Atmos. Res. 23, 229, (1989)

  11. Alternative Nuclear Paths To 2050

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Vera; Evelyne Bertel; Geoffrey Stevens

    he circumstances surrounding nuclear power worldwide and the importance that may be given to issues affecting its future development point toward very different alternative paths over the next 50 years. Economic deregulation, lack of competitiveness in some countries, negative public perception and concerns about waste issues suggest that nuclear power might decrease progressively with a potential phase-out of the technology

  12. NPRE at Illinois Three Paths

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, Matthew

    NPRE at Illinois Three Paths Students choose from three concentrations: · Plasma and Fusion · Power,312,815 Research Facilities · Beckman Institute (beckman.illinois.edu) · Center for Plasma-Material Interactions (cpmi.illinois.edu) · Institute for Genomic Biology (igb.illinois.edu) · Micro and Nanotechnology

  13. Moldovan employment relations: “path dependency”?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio Morrison; Richard Croucher

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims to examine the theory that trade unions' functions in a transitional economy are characterised by “path dependency”. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research is based on case studies of employment relations in enterprises operating in Moldova. The approach is realist (critical materialism). An ethnographic approach is taken to analysing social relations in three locally and foreign-owned companies

  14. Noncommutative Geometry and Path Integrals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikhail Kapranov

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a We argue that there should exist a “noncommutative Fourier transform” which should identify functions of noncommutative variables\\u000a (say, of matrices of indeterminate size) and ordinary functions or measures on the space of paths. Some examples are considered.

  15. WHEELCHAIR NEGOTIABLE PATHS ACCESSIBLE ENTRANCE

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianyu

    NEGOTIABLE PATHS ACCESSIBLE ENTRANCE ACCESSIBLE PARKING SPACE ELEVATOR ACCESS KEY PPUBLIC PARKING BUS STOP ENTRANCE ACCESSIBLE PARKING SPACE ELEVATOR ACCESS KEY PPUBLIC PARKING BUS STOP (EAGLE ESCORT) BLUE LIGHT SPACE ELEVATOR ACCESS KEY PPUBLIC PARKING BUS STOP (EAGLE ESCORT) BLUE LIGHT EMERGENCY PHONE #12

  16. Magnetic Refocussing of Electron Paths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Stephens

    1934-01-01

    A general method of magnetic direction refocussing, i.e., the refocussing of slightly divergent electron paths in a uniform magnetic field, has been found, of which the familiar 180° refocussing is a particular case. If we use a wedge-shaped magnetic field, whose lines of force are perpendicular to the plane of motion of an electron beam, the field being produced by

  17. Acyclic orientations with path constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosa M. V. Figueiredo; Valmir C. Barbosa; Nelson Maculan; Cid C. Souza

    2005-01-01

    Many well-known combinatorial optimization problems can be stated over the set of acyclic orientations of an undirected graph. For example, acyclic orientations with certain diameter constraints are closely related to the optimal solutions of the vertex coloring and frequency assignment problems. In this paper we introduce a linear programming formulation of acyclic orientations with path constraints, and discuss its use

  18. SSME propellant path leak detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Roger; Shohadaee, Ahmad Ali

    1989-01-01

    The complicated high-pressure cycle of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) propellant path provides many opportunities for external propellant path leaks while the engine is running. This mode of engine failure may be detected and analyzed with sufficient speed to save critical engine test hardware from destruction. The leaks indicate hardware failures which will damage or destroy an engine if undetected; therefore, detection of both cryogenic and hot gas leaks is the objective of this investigation. The primary objective of this phase of the investigation is the experimental validation of techniques for detecting and analyzing propellant path external leaks which have a high probability of occurring on the SSME. The selection of candidate detection methods requires a good analytic model for leak plumes which would develop from external leaks and an understanding of radiation transfer through the leak plume. One advanced propellant path leak detection technique is obtained by using state-of-the-art technology infrared (IR) thermal imaging systems combined with computer, digital image processing, and expert systems for the engine protection. The feasibility of IR leak plume detection is evaluated on subscale simulated laboratory plumes to determine sensitivity, signal to noise, and general suitability for the application.

  19. Atmospheric Precorrected Differential Absorption technique to retrieve columnar water vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaepfer, D.; Itten, K.I. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Geography] [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Geography; Borel, C.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Keller, J. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)] [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

    1998-09-01

    Differential absorption techniques are suitable to retrieve the total column water vapor contents from imaging spectroscopy data. A technique called Atmospheric Precorrected Differential Absorption (APDA) is derived directly from simplified radiative transfer equations. It combines a partial atmospheric correction with a differential absorption technique. The atmospheric path radiance term is iteratively corrected during the retrieval of water vapor. This improves the results especially over low background albedos. The error of the method for various ground reflectance spectra is below 7% for most of the spectra. The channel combinations for two test cases are then defined, using a quantitative procedure, which is based on MODTRAN simulations and the image itself. An error analysis indicates that the influence of aerosols and channel calibration is minimal. The APDA technique is then applied to two AVIRIS images acquired in 1991 and 1995. The accuracy of the measured water vapor columns is within a range of {+-}5% compared to ground truth radiosonde data.

  20. Absorption of ac fields in amorphous indium-oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Ovadyahu, Z. [Racah Institute of Physics, the Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2014-08-20

    Absorption data from applied ac fields in Anderson-localized amorphous indium-oxide (In{sub x}O) films are shown to be frequency and disorder dependent. The absorption shows a roll-off at a frequency which is much lower than the electron-electron scattering rate of the material when it is in the diffusive regime. This is interpreted as evidence for discreteness of the energy spectrum of the deeply localized regime. This is consistent with recent many-body localization scenarios. As the metal-insulator transition is approached, the absorption shifts to higher frequencies. Comparing with the previously obtained results on the crystalline version of indium-oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3?x}) implies a considerably higher inelastic electron-phonon scattering rate in the amorphous material. The range over which the absorption versus frequency decreases may indicate that a wide distribution of localization length is a common feature in these systems.

  1. Direct and quantitative photothermal absorption spectroscopy of individual particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Jonathan K.; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Eon Han, Sang; Burg, Brian R.; Chen, Gang, E-mail: gchen2@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Zheng, Ruiting [Key Laboratory of Radiation Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Radiation Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Shen, Sheng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2013-12-23

    Photonic structures can exhibit significant absorption enhancement when an object's length scale is comparable to or smaller than the wavelength of light. This property has enabled photonic structures to be an integral component in many applications such as solar cells, light emitting diodes, and photothermal therapy. To characterize this enhancement at the single particulate level, conventional methods have consisted of indirect or qualitative approaches which are often limited to certain sample types. To overcome these limitations, we used a bilayer cantilever to directly and quantitatively measure the spectral absorption efficiency of a single silicon microwire in the visible wavelength range. We demonstrate an absorption enhancement on a per unit volume basis compared to a thin film, which shows good agreement with Mie theory calculations. This approach offers a quantitative approach for broadband absorption measurements on a wide range of photonic structures of different geometric and material compositions.

  2. 69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  3. Parametric Study of the Absorption Cross-Section for a Moderately Conducting Thin Cylinder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristan Peter Gurton

    1994-01-01

    A system has been developed to measure the absorption cross section of a single carbon fiber at 35 GHz as a function of length, orientation, and diameter. Typical lengths considered ranged from 1 to 20 mm, and diameters ranged from 3 to 8 um. The results were compared with the modified integral equation calculations of Waterman and Pedersen that describe

  4. Sampling-based path planning: a new tool for missile guidance

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    midcourse guidance laws. Keywords: trajectory planning; optimal control; missiles; midcourse guidance. 1 and Tahk [2001, 2002]) and used as a feedback control law to obtain almost optimal trajectories. However' results to find minimum path length trajectories, though a recent work on reachability guidance is one

  5. An Experimental Comparison of Path Planning Techniques for Teams of Mobile Robots

    E-print Network

    Teschner, Matthias

    , their time complexity is #12;exponential in the dimension of the composite configuration space. In practice robots in the con- figuration time-space. Thereby it trades off the distance to both to static objects as well as to other robots and the length of the path to be traveled. In different experiments carried out

  6. Variable focal length deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Headley, Daniel (Albuquerque, NM); Ramsey, Marc (Albuquerque, NM); Schwarz, Jens (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-12

    A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

  7. Dynamic optical properties in graphene: Length versus velocity gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, H. M.; Han, K., E-mail: han6409@263.net [Department of Physics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Xu, W. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)

    2014-02-14

    The dynamic optical properties of graphene are theoretically investigated in both length gauge and velocity gauge in the presence of ultrafast optical radiation field. The two gauges present different results of dynamic photo-induced carriers and optical conductance due to distinct dependencies on electric field and non-resonant optical absorption, while the two gauges give identical results in the steady state time. It shows that the choice of gauge affects evidently the dynamic optical properties of graphene. The velocity gauge represents an outcome of a real physical experiment.

  8. Optical scattering lengths in large liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors.

    PubMed

    Wurm, M; von Feilitzsch, F; Göger-Neff, M; Hofmann, M; Lachenmaier, T; Lewke, T; Marrodán Undagoitia, T; Meindl, Q; Möllenberg, R; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Tippmann, M; Todor, S; Traunsteiner, C; Winter, J

    2010-05-01

    For liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors of kiloton scale, the transparency of the organic solvent is of central importance. The present paper reports on laboratory measurements of the optical scattering lengths of the organic solvents phenylxylylethane, linear alkylbenzene (LAB), and dodecane, which are under discussion for next-generation experiments such as SNO+ (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory), HanoHano, or LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy). Results comprise the wavelength range of 415-440 nm. The contributions from Rayleigh and Mie scattering as well as from absorption/re-emission processes are discussed. Based on the present results, LAB seems to be the preferred solvent for a large-volume detector. PMID:20515130

  9. Critical Length Limiting Superlow Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ming; Benassi, Andrea; Vanossi, Andrea; Urbakh, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Since the demonstration of superlow friction (superlubricity) in graphite at nanoscale, one of the main challenges in the field of nano- and micromechanics was to scale this phenomenon up. A key question to be addressed is to what extent superlubricity could persist, and what mechanisms could lead to its failure. Here, using an edge-driven Frenkel-Kontorova model, we establish a connection between the critical length above which superlubricity disappears and both intrinsic material properties and experimental parameters. A striking boost in dissipated energy with chain length emerges abruptly due to a high-friction stick-slip mechanism caused by deformation of the slider leading to a local commensuration with the substrate lattice. We derived a parameter-free analytical model for the critical length that is in excellent agreement with our numerical simulations. Our results provide a new perspective on friction and nanomanipulation and can serve as a theoretical basis for designing nanodevices with superlow friction, such as carbon nanotubes.

  10. Critical length limiting superlow friction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming; Benassi, Andrea; Vanossi, Andrea; Urbakh, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Since the demonstration of superlow friction (superlubricity) in graphite at nanoscale, one of the main challenges in the field of nano- and micromechanics was to scale this phenomenon up. A key question to be addressed is to what extent superlubricity could persist, and what mechanisms could lead to its failure. Here, using an edge-driven Frenkel-Kontorova model, we establish a connection between the critical length above which superlubricity disappears and both intrinsic material properties and experimental parameters. A striking boost in dissipated energy with chain length emerges abruptly due to a high-friction stick-slip mechanism caused by deformation of the slider leading to a local commensuration with the substrate lattice. We derived a parameter-free analytical model for the critical length that is in excellent agreement with our numerical simulations. Our results provide a new perspective on friction and nanomanipulation and can serve as a theoretical basis for designing nanodevices with superlow friction, such as carbon nanotubes. PMID:25699452

  11. The Near Infrared Absorption Spectrum of Water by CRDS Between 1.26-1.70 µm:Complete Empirical Line List and Continuum Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondelain, Didier; Campargue, Alain; Kassi, Samir; Mikhailenko, Semen

    2014-06-01

    Due to the increasing performances of Airborne- and ground-based spectrometers, a more and more accurate characterization of the water vapor absorption is required. This is especially true in the transparency windows, corresponding to low absorption spectral regions widely used for probing the Earth's atmosphere. State-of-the-art experimental developments are required to fulfill the needs in terms of accuracy of the spectroscopic data. For that purpose, we are using high-sensitivity Continuous Wave Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CW-CRDS) allowing reproducing in laboratory conditions comparable to the atmospheric ones in terms of absorption path length (tens of kilometers), temperature and pressure. From extensive analysis of our CRDS spectra, we have constructed an empirical line list for "natural" water vapor at 296 K in the 5850 7920 cm-1 region including 38 318 transitions of four major water isotopologues (H2 16O, H218O, H217O and HD16O) with an intensity cut-off of 1·10-29 cm/molecule. The list is made mostly complete over the whole spectral region by including a large number of unobserved weak lines with positions calculated using experimentally determined energy levels and intensities obtained from variational calculations. In addition, we provide HD18O and HD 17O lists in the same region for transitions with intensities larger than 1·10-29 cm/molecule. The HD18O and HD17O lists (1 972 lines in total) were obtained using empirical energy levels available in the literature and variational intensities. The global list (40 290 transitions) including the contribution of the six major isotopologues has been adopted for the new edition of the GEISA database in the region. The advantages and drawbacks of our list will be discussed in comparison with the list provided for the same region in the 2012 edition of the HITRAN database. Separate experiments were dedicated to the measurement of the water vapor self-continuum crosssections in the 1.6 µm window by CW-CRDS at different temperatures (from room temperature to 340 K). Due to the weakness of the broadband absorption signal to be measured, very few measurements of the water vapor continuum are available in the NIR windows especially for temperature conditions relevant for our atmosphere. This is in particular the case for the 1.6 µm window where the very few available measurements show a large disagreement. The absorption cross-sections, Cs(?, T), were retrieved for different selected wave numbers from a fit of the absorption coefficients measured in real time during pressure ramps, after subtraction of the contributions of the local water monomer lines and of water adsorbed on the CRDS mirrors. The values measured between 5875 and 6665 cm-1 range between 1.5·10-25 and 2·10-24 cm2 molec-1 atm-1 with a minimum around 6300 cm-1. Overall, our measurements are found in strong disagreement with recent FTS measurements and in a good agreement with the values predicted by the MT CKD2.5 model, except for the temperature dependence in the center of the window which is found significantly smaller than predicted.

  12. Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile length are both good predictors of post-inflatable prosthesis penile length.

    PubMed

    Osterberg, E C; Maganty, A; Ramasamy, R; Eid, J F

    2014-01-01

    Inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) remains the gold standard for the surgical treatment of refractory erectile dysfunction; however, current literature to aid surgeons on how best to counsel patients on their postoperative inflated penile length is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative parameters that could better predict postoperative penile length following insertion of an IPP. Twenty men were enrolled in a prospective study examining penile lengths before and after IPP surgery. Patients with Peyronie's disease were excluded from this analysis. Baseline preoperative characteristics, including body mass index, history of hypertension, diabetes, Sexual Health Inventory for Men scores and/or prior radical prostatectomy were recorded. All patients underwent implantation with a three-piece inflatable Coloplast penile prosthesis. We compared stretched penile length to pharmacologically induced erect lengths. Postoperatively, we measured inflated penile lengths at 6 weeks and assessed patients' perception of penile size at 12 weeks. The median (±interquartile range) stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length was 15 (±3) and 14.25 (±2)?cm, respectively (P=0.5). Median post-prosthesis penile length (13.5±2.13?cm) was smaller than preoperative pharmacologically induced length (P=0.02) and preoperative stretched penile length (P=0.01). The majority of patients (70%) had a decrease in penile length (median loss 0.5±1.5?cm); however, this loss was perceptible by 43% of men. Stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length were equally good predictors of postoperative inflated length (Spearman's correlation 0.8 and 0.9, respectively). Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile lengths are equal predictors of post-prosthesis penile length. The majority of men will experience some decrease in penile length following prosthesis implantation; however <50% report a subjective loss of penile length. PMID:24430278

  13. Model for Delay Faults Based upon Paths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon L. Smith

    1985-01-01

    Delay testing of combinational logic in a clocked environment is analyzed. A model based upon paths is introduced for delay faults. Any path with a total delay exceeding the clock interval is called a \\

  14. Path-Based Failure and Evolution Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Y. Chen; Anthony Accardi; Emre Kiciman; David A. Patterson; Armando Fox; Eric A. Brewer

    2004-01-01

    We present a new approach to managing failures and evolution in large, complex distributed systems using runtime paths. We use the paths that requests follow as they move through the system as our core abstraction, and our \\

  15. Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 71 NIST Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) for use in quantitative surface analyses by AES and XPS.

  16. The Quantum Absorption Refrigerator

    E-print Network

    Amikam Levy; Ronnie Kosloff

    2011-11-09

    A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified, the cooling power J_c vanishes as J_c proportional to T_c^{alpha}, when T_c approach 0, where alpha =d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

  17. Length-dependent dynamics of microtubules

    E-print Network

    Vandana Yadav; Sutapa Mukherji

    2012-04-02

    Certain regulatory proteins influence the polymerization dynamics of microtubules by inducing catastrophe with a rate that depends on the microtubule length. Using a discrete formulation, here we show that, for a catastrophe rate proportional to the microtubule length, the steady-state probability distributions of length decay much faster with length than an exponential decay as seen in the absence of these proteins.

  18. Length-dependent dynamics of microtubules

    E-print Network

    Yadav, Vandana

    2012-01-01

    Certain regulatory proteins influence the polymerization dynamics of microtubules by inducing catastrophe with a rate that depends on the microtubule length. Using a discrete formulation, here we show that, for a catastrophe rate proportional to the microtubule length, the steady-state probability distributions of length decay much faster with length than an exponential decay as seen in the absence of these proteins.

  19. Collision avoidance analysis for transition taper length

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinxian Weng

    2011-01-01

    Transition taper length plays a vitally important role in work zone safety operations because too short a transition taper length will result in higher accident risks and too long a transition taper length could increase traffic delay. This paper evaluates transition taper length under various traffic conditions and road geometries using collision avoidance analysis. The longitudinal distances for lane changing

  20. Optical absorption in amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    O`Leary, S.K.; Zukotynski, S.; Perz, J.M.; Sidhu, L.S. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The role that disorder plays in shaping the form of the optical absorption spectrum of hydrogenated amorphous silicon is investigated. Disorder leads to a redistribution of states, which both reduces the Tauc gap and broadens the absorption tail. The observed relationship between the Tauc gap and the breadth of the absorption tail is thus explained.

  1. Femtosecond Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition

    E-print Network

    McCusker, James K.

    Femtosecond Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal Charge-Transfer Complexes JAMES K. MCCUSKER ABSTRACT Our research is concerned with the application of femtosecond time-resolved absorption techniques, where semiconductors are the functional element of most photovoltaic devices, absorption of light leads

  2. 7, 1066910686, 2007 Spectral absorption

    E-print Network

    and can be approx- imated with a power-law wavelength dependence (Absorption Angstrom Exponent or10 AAEACPD 7, 10669­10686, 2007 Spectral absorption properties of atmospheric aerosols R. W. Bergstrom et a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Spectral absorption properties

  3. 7, 1066910686, 2007 Spectral absorption

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with wavelength and can be approx- imated with a power-law wavelength dependence (Absorption Angstrom Exponent orACPD 7, 10669­10686, 2007 Spectral absorption properties of atmospheric aerosols R. W. Bergstrom et a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Spectral absorption properties

  4. Configuration Path Integral Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonitz, Michael; Schoof, Tim; Groth, Simon; Filinov, Alexei; Hochstuhl, David

    2011-10-01

    A novel path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) approach for correlated many-particle systems with arbitrary pair interaction in continuous space at low temperatures is presented. It is based on a representation of the N-particle density operator in a basis of (anti-)symmetrized N-particle states (``configurations'' of occupation numbers). The path integral is transformed into a sum over trajectories with the same topology and, finally, the limit of M to infinity, (M is the number of high-temperature factors), is analytically performed. This yields exact expressions for the thermodynamic quantities and allows to perform efficient simulations for fermions at low temperature and weak to moderate coupling. Our method is applicable to dense quantum plasmas in the regime of strong degeneracy where conventional PIMC, e.g., fails due to the fermion sign problem. This work is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  5. Path Planning for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clément Pêtrès; Yan Pailhas; Pedro Patrón; Yvan R. Petillot; Jonathan Evans

    2007-01-01

    Efficient path planning algorithms are a crucial issue for modern autonomous underwater vehicles. Classical path planning algorithms in artificial intelligence are not designed to deal with wide continuous environments prone to currents. We present a novel Fast Marching based approach to address the following issues. First, we develop an algorithm we call FM* to efficiently extract a continuous path from

  6. Quantifying the Causes of Path Inflation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Spring; Ratul Mahajan; Thomas Anderson

    2003-01-01

    Researchers have shown that the Internet exhibits path inflation - end-to-end paths can be significantly longer than necessary. We present a trace-driven study of 65 ISPs that characterizes the root causes of path inflation, namely topology and routing policy choices within an ISP, between pairs of ISPs, and across the global Inter- net. To do so, we develop and validate

  7. Disjoint Paths in Densely Embedded Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon M. Kleinberg; Eva Tardoss

    1995-01-01

    We consider the following maximum disjoint paths problem (mdpp). We are given a large network, and pairs of nodes that wish to communicate over paths through the network — the goal is to simultaneously connect as many of these pairs as possible in such a way that no two communication paths share an edge in the network. This classical problem

  8. Continuous Path Planning with Multiple Constraints

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Ian

    paths for unmanned aerial vehicles through enviroments with varying levels of threat. Paths an algorithm which generates paths whose costs lie on the Pareto optimal surface for each possible destina destination can be rapidly evaluated. To handle constraints, we sample the Pareto optimal surface looking

  9. Circular Shortest Path on Regular Grids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changming Sun; Stefano Pallottino Csiro

    2002-01-01

    Shortest path algorithms have been used for a number of applications such as crack detection, road orlinear feature extraction on images. There are applications where the starting and ending positionsof the shortest path needs to be constrained. In this paper, we presents several new algorithms forthe extraction of a circular shortest path within an image such that the starting and

  10. Path and Trajectory Diversity Theory and Algorithms

    E-print Network

    Branicky, Michael S.

    Path and Trajectory Diversity Theory and Algorithms Ross A. Knepper International Conference. Kuffner #12;R.A. Knepper Path and Trajectory Diversity 2 Applications [Knepper and Mason, ISER, 2008][Lau and Trajectory Diversity 3 Not all path sets are created equal Introduction Conclusion

  11. Scripted documents: a hypermedia path mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Polle T. ZelIweger

    1989-01-01

    The concept of a path, or ordered traversal of some links in a hypertext, has been a part of the hypertext notion from its early formation. Although paths can help to solve two major problems with hypertext systems, namely user disorientation and high cognitive overhead for users, their value has not been recognized. Paths can also provide the backbone for

  12. 14 CFR 25.111 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...surface to the end of the takeoff path. (d) The takeoff path must be determined by a continuous demonstrated takeoff or by synthesis from segments. If the takeoff path is determined by the segmental method— (1) The segments must be clearly...

  13. Removing False Paths from Combinational Modules 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji Kukimoto; Robert K. Brayton

    The existence of false paths complicates the task of accurate tim- ing analysis significantly. A technique to remove false paths from a combinational circuit without degrading its performance h as a prac- tical value since topological timing analysis is then good e nough to estimate the performance of false-path-free circuits accu rately. One can think of the KMS algorithm (1)

  14. Chip layout optimization using critical path weighting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Dunlop; V. D. Agrawal; D. N. Deutsch; M. F. Jukl; P. Kozak; M. Wiesel

    1984-01-01

    A chip layout procedure for optimizing the performance of critical timing paths in a synchronous digital circuit is presented. The procedure uses the path analysis data produced by a static timing analysis program to generate weights for critical nets on clock and data paths. These weights are then used to bias automatic placement and routing in the layout program. This

  15. Chip layout optimization using critical path weighting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Dunlop; V. D. Agrawal; D. N. Deutsch; M. F. Jukl; P. Kazak

    1988-01-01

    A chip layout procedure for optimizing the performance of critical timing paths in a synchronous digital circuit is presented. The procedure uses the path analysis data produced by a static timing analysis program to generate weights for critical nets on clock and data paths. These weights are then used to bias automatic placement and routing in the layout program. This

  16. Modulated Tool-Path (MTP) Chip Breaking System

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, K. B.

    2010-04-01

    The Modulated Tool-Path (MTP) Chip Breaking System produces user-selectable chip lengths and workpiece finishes and is compatible with any material, workpiece shape, and depth of cut. The MTP chip breaking system consistently creates the desired size of chips regardless of workpiece size, shape, or material, and the machine operator does not need to make any adjustments during the machining operation. The system's programmer configures the part program that commands the machine tool to move in a specific fashion to deliver the desired part size, shape, chip length, and workpiece surface finish. The MTP chip breaking system helps manufacturers avoid the detrimental effects of continuous chips, including expensive repair costs, delivery delays, and hazards to personnel.

  17. Mid-infrared FEL absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozub, John A.; Feng, Bibo; Gabella, William E.

    2002-04-01

    The Vanderbilt Mark III FEL is a tunable source of high- intensity coherent mid-infrared radiation occurring as a train of picosecond pulses spaced 350ps apart. The laser beam is transported to each laboratory under vacuum, but is typically transmitted through some distance of atmosphere before reaching the target. Losses due to absorption by water vapor and CO2 can be large, and since the bandwidth of the FEL is several percent of the wavelength, the spectrum can be altered by atmospheric absorptions. In order to provide an accurate representation of the laser spectrum delivered to the target, and to investigate any non-linear effects associated with transport of the FEL beam, we have recorded the spectrum of the FEL output using a vacuum spectrometer positioned after measured lengths of atmosphere. The spectrometer is equipped with a linear pyroelectric array which provides the laser spectrum for each pulse. Absorption coefficients are being measured for laboratory air, averaged over the bandwidth of the FEL. The high peak powers of this Fel have induced damage in common infrared-transparent materials; we are also measuring damage thresholds for several materials at various wavelengths.

  18. Squeezed states and path integrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daubechies, Ingrid; Klauder, John R.

    1992-01-01

    The continuous-time regularization scheme for defining phase-space path integrals is briefly reviewed as a method to define a quantization procedure that is completely covariant under all smooth canonical coordinate transformations. As an illustration of this method, a limited set of transformations is discussed that have an image in the set of the usual squeezed states. It is noteworthy that even this limited set of transformations offers new possibilities for stationary phase approximations to quantum mechanical propagators.

  19. Lévy flights over quantum paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Nick

    2007-02-01

    An impact of integration over the paths of the Lévy flights on the quantum mechanical kernel has been studied. Analytical expression for a free particle kernel has been obtained in terms of the Fox H-function. A new equation for the kernel of a particle in the box has been found. New general results include the well known quantum formulae for a free particle kernel and particle in box kernel.

  20. Acyclic Orientations with Path Constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosa M. V. Figueiredo; Valmir C. Barbosa; Nelson Maculan; Cid C. de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Many well-known combinatorial optimization problems can be stated over the\\u000aset of acyclic orientations of an undirected graph. For example, acyclic\\u000aorientations with certain diameter constraints are closely related to the\\u000aoptimal solutions of the vertex coloring and frequency assignment problems. In\\u000athis paper we introduce a linear programming formulation of acyclic\\u000aorientations with path constraints, and discuss its use

  1. Intestinal adaptation in patients with short bowel syndrome. Measurement by calcium absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Gouttebel, M.C.; Saint Aubert, B.; Colette, C.; Astre, C.; Monnier, L.H.; Joyeux, H. (Cancer Institute, Montpellier (France))

    1989-05-01

    Functional adaptation of remaining intestine was evaluated in 30 patients with extensive small bowel resection. Calcium and xylose absorption tests were compared. Calcium absorption was measured by a double-radiotracer technique. Serum xylosemia was measured 2 hr after D-xylose ingestion. Patients were divided into two groups according to the time interval between surgery and evaluation: less (group I) or more (group II) than two years. A statistically significant correlation was found between xylosemia and remaining small bowel length (r = 0.71; P less than 0.001) and between calcium absorption and remaining small bowel length (r = 0.75; P less than 0.001) in group I. A significant correlation was also observed between calcium absorption and time after surgery (r = 0.65; P = 0.001) but not for xylose absorption. Calcium absorption value was significantly increased in group II patients compared with group I patients matched for remaining small bowel length (36.2 +/- 12.5% vs 14.5 +/- 9.1%; P less than 0.001) while no difference was observed between the two groups concerning xylose absorption. These data indicate that intestinal calcium absorption continues to increase for more than two years after a major bowel resection in man. The intestine does not seem to recover all its functions at the same time.

  2. Direct integration transmittance model. [for atmospheric IF molecular absorption and thermal emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunde, V. G.; Maguire, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    A transmittance model has been developed for interpretation of high spectral resolution measurements of laboratory absorption and of planetary thermal emission. The high spectral resolution requires transmittances to be computed monochromatically by summing the contribution of individual molecular absorption lines. A magnetic tape atlas of H2O, O3, and CO2 molecular line parameters serves as input to the transmittance model with simple empirical representations used for continuum regions wherever suitable laboratory data exist. The theoretical formulation of the transmittance model and the computational procedures used for the evaluation of the transmittances are discussed, and application of the model to several homogeneous-path laboratory absorption examples is demonstrated.

  3. Absorption spectra of liquid water and aqueous buffers between 0.3 and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106

    E-print Network

    Xu, Jing

    Absorption spectra of liquid water and aqueous buffers between 0.3 and 3.72 THz Jing Xua Department-dependent terahertz absorption with attenuation lengths on the order of tens of micrometers. To access this spectral.5 THz, these studies provide a well- documented absorption spectrum for liquid water, at approxi- mately

  4. Preserving Topology Confidentiality in Inter-Domain Path Computation Using a Path-Key-Based Mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Farrel

    Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) Traffic Engineering (TE) Label Switched Paths (LSPs) may be computed by Path Computation Elements (PCEs). Where the TE LSP crosses multiple domains, such as Autonomous Systems (ASes), the path may be computed by multiple PCEs that cooperate, with each responsible for computing a segment of the path. However, in some cases (e.g.,

  5. Landscape and Flux Framework for Non-Equilibrium Networks: Kinetic Paths and Rate Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin

    2012-02-01

    We developed a general framework to quantify three key ingredients for dynamics of nonequilibrium systems through path integrals in length space. First, we identify dominant kinetic paths as the ones with optimal weights, leading to effective reduction of dimensionality or degrees of freedom from exponential to polynomial so large systems can be treated. Second, we uncover the underlying nonequilibrium potential landscapes from the explorations of the state space through kinetic paths. We apply our framework to a specific example of nonequilibrium network system: lambda phage genetic switch. Two distinct basins of attractions emerge. The dominant kinetic paths from one basin to another are irreversible and do not follow the usual steepest descent or gradient path along the landscape. It reflects the fact that the dynamics of nonequilibrium systems is not just determined by potential gradient but also the residual curl flux force, suggesting experiments to test theoretical predictions. Third, we have calculated dynamic transition time scales from one basin to another critical for stability of the system through instantons. Theoretical predictions are in good agreements with wild type and mutant experiments.We further uncover the correlations between the kinetic transition time scales and the underlying landscape topography: the barrier heights along the dominant paths. We found that both the dominant paths and the landscape are relatively robust against the influences of external environmental perturbations and the system tends to dissipate less with less fluctuations. Our theoretical framework is general and can be applied to other nonequilibrium systems.

  6. Path Complexity in Virtual Water Maze Navigation: Differential Associations with Age, Sex, and Regional Brain Volume.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Ana M; Yuan, Peng; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Raz, Naftali

    2014-05-23

    Studies of human navigation in virtual maze environments have consistently linked advanced age with greater distance traveled between the start and the goal and longer duration of the search. Observations of search path geometry suggest that routes taken by older adults may be unnecessarily complex and that excessive path complexity may be an indicator of cognitive difficulties experienced by older navigators. In a sample of healthy adults, we quantify search path complexity in a virtual Morris water maze with a novel method based on fractal dimensionality. In a two-level hierarchical linear model, we estimated improvement in navigation performance across trials by a decline in route length, shortening of search time, and reduction in fractal dimensionality of the path. While replicating commonly reported age and sex differences in time and distance indices, a reduction in fractal dimension of the path accounted for improvement across trials, independent of age or sex. The volumes of brain regions associated with the establishment of cognitive maps (parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus) were related to path dimensionality, but not to the total distance and time. Thus, fractal dimensionality of a navigational path may present a useful complementary method of quantifying performance in navigation. PMID:24860019

  7. Alignment and arm length measurement of the swing arm profilometer using a laser tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Hongwei; King, Christopher; Walker, David

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we present the use of the laser tracker to aid the alignment of a Swing Arm Profilometer (SAP) and measure the length of the swinging arm, thus calibrating the operating radius of the SAP. The measurement uncertainty analysis is given. A laser tracker is used to align the SAP to ensure the path of the probe head passes through the rotary axis of the rotary table. By building the coordinate system by laser tracker measurement on the rotary table and measuring the swinging arc of the arm, we can determine whether the swinging path of the probe head passes through the rotary axis of the rotary table and perform the corresponding adjustment if necessary. A laser tracker is also used to measure the arm length, i.e. the length between the probe's ball centre and the rotation axis of the swinging arm. By placing a retroreflector or the tracker ball on the swinging arm and scanning the swinging path of the arm using the laser tracker, we can acquire the data of an arc and fit to determine the length of the probe head center to rotation axis of swinging arm, thus giving accurate SAP calibration data.

  8. Effect of temperature on the multiple photon absorption of polyatomic molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. Tsay

    1980-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the multiple photon absorption of polyatomic molecules was investigated. A transmission measurement was used which gave the average number of photons absorbed per molecule in the laser beam path as functions of laser frequency, energy fluence, gas temperature, pressure and molecular species. A method for determining the fraction of molecules participating in the multiple photon

  9. Effects of Temperature Gradients, Self-Absorption, and Line Shape on Apparent Rotational Temperatures of OH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1954-01-01

    The effect on apparent rotational temperatures (of OH) of adjacent radiating and absorbing regions at different temperatures and of spectral line shape, coupled with varying degrees of self-absorption, has been studied. The calculations emphasize the fact that definitive conclusions regarding interpretation of flame spectra are difficult to obtain by use of conventional low-resolution spectroscopic studies of flames. Multiple path experiments,

  10. Oxygen and water vapor absorption of radio waves in the atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Bean; R. Abbott

    1957-01-01

    Summary Calculated values of the gaseous atmospheric absorption are presented for the frequency range 100 to 50,000 Mc at elevations above ground up to at least 130,000 feet, for average conditions during February and August at Bismarck, N. D. and Washington, D. C. Total radio path absorptionsare presented for tropospheric forward scatter communication links for distances of 100, 300 and

  11. Cycling to work in 90 large American cities: new evidence on the role of bike paths and lanes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Buehler; John Pucher

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the variation in bike commuting in large American cities, with a focus on assessing the influence of\\u000a bike paths and lanes, which have been the main approach to increasing cycling in the USA. To examine the role of cycling facilities,\\u000a we used a newly assembled dataset on the length of bike lanes and paths in 2008 collected

  12. Application of a diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption sensor for in situ measurements of atomic mercury in coal-combustion exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse K. Magnuson; Thomas N. Anderson; Robert P. Lucht; Udayasarathy A. Vijayasarathy; Hyukjin Oh; Kalyan Annamalai; Jerald A. Caton [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-09-15

    A diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption sensor was successfully demonstrated for both in situ and extractive sampling atomic mercury measurements in a laboratory-scale 29.3 kWt (100 000 BTU/h) coal combustor and in situ measurements in a flow reactor at Texas A&M University. Laser sensor measurements were compared to measurements from a commercial mercury analyzer (CMA). A 375 nm single-mode laser and a 784 nm distributed feedback (DFB) laser are sum-frequency-mixed in a nonlinear {beta}-barium borate crystal to generate a 254 nm beam. By tuning the frequency of the DFB laser, the ultraviolet beam frequency was tuned across the transition frequency of mercury at 253.7 nm. The tuning range was large enough that an off-resonant baseline was clearly visible on both sides of the Hg transition. No pretreatment is required for elemental mercury measurements, and the effects of broadband absorption can be effectively eliminated during data analysis. Extractive sampling was demonstrated to improve the detection limit of the sensor and demonstrate the feasibility of total mercury concentration measurements in the future through extractive sampling. Significant variation in the atomic mercury concentration of coal-combustion exhaust was observed over short time periods during our in situ measurements. The sensor detection limits for in situ and extractive sampling are 0.3 and 0.1 parts per billion over a 1 m path length, respectively. 34 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. NMR Measures of Heterogeneity Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiess, Hans W.

    2002-03-01

    Advanced solid state NMR spectroscopy provides a wealth of information about structure and dynamics of complex systems. On a local scale, multidimensional solid state NMR has elucidated the geometry and the time scale of segmental motions at the glass transition. The higher order correlation functions which are provided by this technique led to the notion of dynamic heterogeneities, which have been characterized in detail with respect to their rate memory and length scale. In polymeric and low molar mass glass formers of different fragility, length scales in the range 2 to 4 nm are observed. In polymeric systems, incompatibility of backbone and side groups as in polyalkylmethacrylates leads to heteogeneities on the nm scale, which manifest themselves in unusual chain dynamics at the glass transition involving extended chain conformations. References: K. Schmidt-Rohr and H.W. Spiess, Multidimensional Solid-State NMR and Polymers,Academic Press, London (1994). U. Tracht, M. Wilhelm, A. Heuer, H. Feng, K. Schmidt-Rohr, H.W. Spiess, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2727 (1998). S.A. Reinsberg, X.H. Qiu, M. Wilhelm, M.D. Ediger, H.W. Spiess, J.Chem.Phys. 114, 7299 (2001). S.A. Reinsberg, A. Heuer, B. Doliwa, H. Zimmermann, H.W. Spiess, J. Non-Crystal. Solids, in press (2002)

  14. Saturable absorption of intense hard X-rays in iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Hitoki; Inubushi, Yuichi; Yabashi, Makina; Katayama, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Mimura, Hidekazu; Kitamura, Hikaru

    2014-10-01

    In 1913, Maurice de Broglie discovered the presence of X-ray absorption bands of silver and bromine in photographic emulsion. Over the following century, X-ray absorption spectroscopy was established as a standard basis for element analysis, and further applied to advanced investigation of the structures and electronic states of complex materials. Here we show the first observation of an X-ray-induced change of absorption spectra of the iron K-edge for 7.1-keV ultra-brilliant X-ray free-electron laser pulses with an extreme intensity of 1020?W?cm?2. The highly excited state yields a shift of the absorption edge and an increase of transparency by a factor of 10 with an improvement of the phase front of the transmitted X-rays. This finding, the saturable absorption of hard X-rays, opens a promising path for future innovations of X-ray science by enabling novel attosecond active optics, such as lasing and dynamical spatiotemporal control of X-rays.

  15. Absorption of Solar Radiation by Clouds: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This talk provides an overview of the subject of absorption of solar radiation by clouds in the earth's atmosphere. The paper summarizes the available evidence which points to disagreements between theoretical and observed values of cloud absorption (and reflections). The importance of these discrepancies, particularly to remote sensing of clouds as well as to studies of cloud physics and earth radiation budgets, is emphasized. Existing cloud absorption and reflection measurements are reviewed and the persistent differences that exist between calculated and measured near-infrared cloud albedos are highlighted. Various explanations for these reflection and absorption discrepancies are discussed under two separate paths: a theoretician's approach and an experimentalist's approach. Examples for the former approach include model accuracy tests, large-droplet hypothesis, excess absorbing aerosol, enhanced water vapor continuum absorption, and effects of cloud inhomogeneity. The latter approach focuses on discussions of instrumental device, calibration, operational strategy, and signal/noise separation. A recommendation for future activities on this subject will be given.

  16. Length-dependent thermal transport and ballistic thermal conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bor-Woei; Hsiao, Tzu-Kan; Lin, Kung-Hsuan; Chiou, Dah-Wei; Chang, Chih-Wei

    2015-05-01

    Probing length-dependent thermal conductivity of a given material has been considered as an important experimental method to determine the length of ballistic thermal conduction, or equivalently, the averaged phonon mean free path (l). However, many previous thermal transport measurements have focused on varying the lateral dimensions of samples, rendering the experimental interpretation indirect. Moreover, deducing l is model-dependent in many optical measurement techniques. In addition, finite contact thermal resistances and variations of sample qualities are very likely to obscure the effect in practice, leading to an overestimation of l. We point out that directly investigating one-dimensional length-dependent (normalized) thermal resistance is a better experimental method to determine l. In this regard, we find that no clear experimental data strongly support ballistic thermal conduction of Si or Ge at room temperature. On the other hand, data of both homogeneously-alloyed SiGe nanowires and heterogeneously-interfaced Si-Ge core-shell nanowires provide undisputed evidence for ballistic thermal conduction over several micrometers at room temperature.

  17. Arithmetic area for m planar Brownian paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbois, Jean; Ouvry, Stéphane

    2012-05-01

    We pursue the analysis made in Desbois and Ouvry (2011 J. Stat. Mech. P05024) on the arithmetic area enclosed by m closed Brownian paths. We pay particular attention to the random variable Sn1, n2,..., nm(m), which is the arithmetic area of the set of points, also called winding sectors, enclosed n1 times by path 1, n2 times by path 2,..., and nm times by path m. Various results are obtained in the asymptotic limit m\\to \\infty . A key observation is that, since the paths are independent, one can use in the m-path case the SLE information, valid in the one-path case, on the zero-winding sectors arithmetic area.

  18. Mechanics of the crack path formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Asher A.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed analysis of experimentally obtained curvilinear crack path trajectories formed in a heterogeneous stress field is presented. Experimental crack path trajectories were used as data for the numerical simulations, recreating the actual stress field governing the development of the crack path. Thus, the current theories of crack curving and kinking could be examined by comparing them with the actual stress field parameters as they develop along the experimentally observed crack path. The experimental curvilinear crack path trajectories were formed in the tensile specimens with a hole positioned in the vicinity of a potential crack path. The numerical simulation, based on the solution of equivalent boundary value problems with the possible perturbations of the crack path, is presented.

  19. Mechanics of the crack path formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Asher A.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed analysis of experimentally obtained curvilinear crack path trajectories formed in a heterogeneous stress field is presented. Experimental crack path trajectories were used as data for numerical simulations, recreating the actual stress field governing the development of the crack path. Thus, the current theories of crack curving and kinking could be examined by comparing them with the actual stress field parameters as they develop along the experimentally observed crack path. The experimental curvilinear crack path trajectories were formed in the tensile specimens with a hole positioned in the vicinity of a potential crack path. The numerical simulation, based on the solution of equivalent boundary value problems with the possible perturbations of the crack path, is presented here.

  20. Differential absorption lidar technique for measurement of the atmospheric pressure profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. L.; Weng, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    A new two-wavelength lidar technique for remotely measuring the pressure profile using the trough absorption region between two strong lines in the oxygen A band is described. The theory of integrated vertical path, differential ranging, and horizontal-path pressure measurements is given, with methods to desensitize and correct for temperature effects. The properties of absorption troughs are described and shown to reduce errors due to laser frequency jitter by up to two orders of magnitude. A general analysis, including laser bandwidth effects, demonstrates that pressure measurements with an integrated-vertical-path technique are typically fifty times more accurate than with a differential ranging technique. Simulations show 0.1-0.3 percent accuracy for ground and Shuttle-based pressure-profile and surface-pressure experiments.