Science.gov

Sample records for absorption path length

  1. Light absorption cell combining variable path and length pump

    DOEpatents

    Prather, William S.

    1993-01-01

    A device for use in making spectrophotometric measurements of fluid samples. In particular, the device is a measurement cell containing a movable and a fixed lens with a sample of the fluid therebetween and through which light shines. The cell is connected to a source of light and a spectrophotometer via optic fibers. Movement of the lens varies the path length and also pumps the fluid into and out of the cell. Unidirectional inlet and exit valves cooperate with the movable lens to assure a one-way flow of fluid through the cell. A linear stepper motor controls the movement of the lens and cycles it from a first position closer to the fixed lens and a second position farther from the fixed lens, preferably at least 10 times per minute for a nearly continuous stream of absorption spectrum data.

  2. Light absorption cell combining variable path and length pump

    DOEpatents

    Prather, W.S.

    1993-12-07

    A device is described for use in making spectrophotometric measurements of fluid samples. In particular, the device is a measurement cell containing a movable and a fixed lens with a sample of the fluid there between and through which light shines. The cell is connected to a source of light and a spectrophotometer via optic fibers. Movement of the lens varies the path length and also pumps the fluid into and out of the cell. Unidirectional inlet and exit valves cooperate with the movable lens to assure a one-way flow of fluid through the cell. A linear stepper motor controls the movement of the lens and cycles it from a first position closer to the fixed lens and a second position farther from the fixed lens, preferably at least 10 times per minute for a nearly continuous stream of absorption spectrum data. 2 figures.

  3. Effective optical path length for tandem diffuse cubic cavities as gas absorption cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Gao, Q.; Zhang, Y. G.; Zhang, Z. G.; Wu, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Tandem diffuse cubic cavities designed by connecting two single diffuse cubic-shaped cavities, A and B, with an aperture (port fraction fap) in the middle of the connecting baffle was developed as a gas absorption cell. The effective optical path length (EOPL) was evaluated by comparing the oxygen absorption signal in the cavity and in air based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Experimental results manifested an enhancement of EOPL for the tandem diffuse cubic cavities as the decrease of fap and can be expressed as the sum of EOPL of two single cubic cavities at fap < 0.01, which coincided well with theoretical analysis. The simulating EOPL was smaller than experimental results at fap > 0.01, which indicated that back scattering light from cavity B to cavity A cannot be ignored at this condition.

  4. Suppression of infrared absorption in nanostructured metals by controlling Faraday inductance and electron path length.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Eon

    2016-02-01

    Nanostructured metals have been intensively studied for optical applications over the past few decades. However, the intrinsic loss of metals has limited the optical performance of the metal nanostructures in diverse applications. In particular, light concentration in metals by surface plasmons or other resonances causes substantial absorption in metals. Here, we avoid plasmonic excitations for low loss and investigate methods to further suppress loss in nanostructured metals. We demonstrate that parasitic absorption in metal nanostructures can be significantly reduced over a broad band by increasing the Faraday inductance and the electron path length. For an example structure, the loss is reduced in comparison to flat films by more than an order of magnitude over most of the very broad spectrum between short and long wavelength infrared. For a photodetector structure, the fraction of absorption in the photoactive material increases by two orders of magnitude and the photoresponsivity increases by 15 times because of the selective suppression of metal absorption. These findings could benefit many metal-based applications that require low loss such as photovoltaics, photoconductive detectors, solar selective surfaces, infrared-transparent defrosting windows, and other metamaterials. PMID:26906830

  5. Monitoring of Atmospheric Hydrogen Peroxide in Houston Using Long Path-Length Laser-Based Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, N. P.; Cao, Y.; Jiang, W.; Tittel, F. K.; Griffin, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a relevant atmospheric species mainly formed by recombination of hydroperoxyl radicals. H2O2 participates in the formation of sulfate aerosol by in-cloud oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI) and has been associated with the generation of multi-functional water soluble organic compounds in atmospheric particulate matter. Furthermore, H2O2 plays an important role in the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere as it acts as a reservoir for HOx radicals (OH and HO2). Particular conditions in the Houston area (e.g. extensive presence of petrochemical industry and high ozone and humidity levels) indicate the potential relevance of this species at this location. Despite its atmospheric relevance, no reports on the levels of H2O2 in Houston have been presented previously in the scientific literature. Determination of atmospheric H2O2 usually has been conducted based on transfer of the gas-phase H2O2 to the liquid phase prior to quantification by techniques such as fluorescence spectroscopy. Although these methods allow detection of H2O2 at the sub-ppb level, they present some limitations including the interference from other atmospheric constituents and potential sampling artifacts. In this study, a high sensitivity sensor based on long-path absorption spectroscopy using a distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser was developed and used to conduct direct gas-phase H2O2 monitoring in Houston. The sensor, which targets a strong H2O2 absorption line (~7.73 μm) with no interference from other atmospheric species, was deployed at a ground level monitoring station near the University of Houston main campus during summer 2014. The performance of this novel sensor was evaluated by side-by-side comparison with a fluorescence-based instrument typically used for atmospheric monitoring of H2O2. H2O2 levels were determined, and time series of H2O2 mixing ratios were generated allowing insight into the dynamics, trends, and atmospheric inter-relations of H2O2 in the Houston area.

  6. Photon path length retrieval from GOSAT observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremmling, Beke; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Deutschmann, Tim; Wagner, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The influence of clouds on the atmospheric radiation budget is investigated, focussing on the photon path length distributions of the scattered sunlight. Apart from the reflection of incoming solar radiation at the cloud top, clouds can also introduce a large number of additional scattering events causing an enhancement of the photon paths. In certain cloud formations, these scattering events also result in a ``ping-pong`` behaviour between different cloud patches and cloud layers. It has been shown from ground based measurements that it is possible to retrieve photon path lengths by analysis of high resolution oxygen A-band spectra (O. Funk et al.). This study uses similar space based measurements of the oxygen A-band for the path length retrieval. The oxygen A-band spectra are retrieved from the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) which was successfully launched in 2009. The high spectral resolution of the GOSAT TANSO-FTS instrument allows to almost completely resolve the individual absorption lines. The considered spectral range is particularly suitable for this study because it shows clear absorption structures of different strength. From the analysis of the spectral signatures, cloud properties and the underlying path length distributions can be derived. The retrieval is done by analysis and comparison of the extracted TANSO-FTS spectra with simulations from the Monte Carlo radiative transfer Model McArtim. The model permits modelling of altitude dependent oxygen absorption cross sections and three-dimensional cloud patterns. Case studies of clear and cloudy sky scenarios will be presented. Future studies will focus on more complicated cloud structures, especially considering three-dimensional geometries and heterogeneities.

  7. Multiple-Path-Length Optical Absorbance Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An optical absorbance cell that offers a selection of multiple optical path lengths has been developed as part of a portable spectrometric instrument that measures absorption spectra of small samples of water and that costs less than does a conventional, non-portable laboratory spectrometer. The instrument is intended, more specifically, for use in studying colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in seawater, especially in coastal regions. Accurate characterization of CDOM is necessary for building bio-optical mathematical models of seawater. The multiple path lengths of the absorption cell afford a wide range of sensitivity needed for measuring the optical absorbances associated with the wide range of concentrations of CDOM observed in nature. The instrument operates in the wavelength range of 370 to 725 nm. The major subsystems of the instrument (see figure) include a color-balanced light source; the absorption cell; a peristaltic pump; a high-precision, low-noise fiber optic spectrometer; and a laptop or other personal computer. A fiber-optic cable transmits light from the source to the absorption cell. Other optical fibers transmit light from the absorption cell to the spectrometer,

  8. Variable path length spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    O'Rourke, Patrick E.; McCarty, Jerry E.; Haggard, Ricky A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact, variable pathlength, fiber optic probe for spectrophotometric measurements of fluids in situ. The probe comprises a probe body with a shaft having a polished end penetrating one side of the probe, a pair of optic fibers, parallel and coterminous, entering the probe opposite the reflecting shaft, and a collimating lens to direct light from one of the fibers to the reflecting surface of the shaft and to direct the reflected light to the second optic fiber. The probe body has an inlet and an outlet port to allow the liquid to enter the probe body and pass between the lens and the reflecting surface of the shaft. A linear stepper motor is connected to the shaft to cause the shaft to advance toward or away from the lens in increments so that absorption measurements can be made at each of the incremental steps. The shaft is sealed to the probe body by a bellows seal to allow freedom of movement of the shaft and yet avoid leakage from the interior of the probe.

  9. Optical path-length matrix method for estimating skin spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Izumi; Yamauchi, Midori; Tsumura, Norimichi; Ogawa-Ochiai, Keiko

    2012-11-01

    In this article, we propose a new methodthe optical path-length matrix method (OPLM)as a faster alternative to the Monte Carlo for multi-layered media (MCML), which is often used to simulate the skin spectrum. Theoretically, peripheral oxygen saturation can be estimated by iterating MCML, but it is not a realistic strategy because it requires huge computation time. The optical path-length matrix is obtained as the probabilistic density histograms of the optical path length in skin using MCML, and once the matrix is obtained, skin spectral reflectance can be calculated by accumulating all combinations of elements in the matrix and by setting an absorption coefficient based on the Beer-Lambert law. The computational time of OPLM was approximately 26,000 times faster than that of MCML.

  10. Dependence of the absorption of pulsed CO{sub 2}-laser radiation by silane on wavenumber, fluence, pulse duration, temperature, optical path length, and pressure of absorbing and nonabsorbing gases

    SciTech Connect

    Blazejowski, J.; Gruzdiewa, L.; Rulewski, J.; Lampe, F.W.

    1995-05-15

    The absorption of three lines [{ital P}(20), 944.2 cm{sup {minus}1}; {ital P}(14), 949.2 cm{sup {minus}1}; and {ital R}(24), 978.5 cm{sup {minus}1}] of the pulsed CO{sub 2} laser (00{sup 0}1--10{sup 0}0 transition) by SiH{sub 4} was measured at various pulse energy, pulse duration, temperature, optical path length, and pressure of the compound and nonabsorbing foreign gases. In addition, low intensity infrared absorption spectrum of silane was compared with high intensity absorption characteristics for all lines of the pulsed CO{sub 2} laser. The experimental dependencies show deviations from the phenomenological Beer--Lambert law which can be considered as arising from the high intensity of an incident radiation and collisions of absorbing molecules with surroundings. These effects were included into the expression, being an extended form of the Beer--Lambert law, which reasonably approximates all experimental data. The results, except for extending knowledge on the interaction of a high power laser radiation with matter, can help understanding and planning processes leading to preparation of silicon-containing technologically important materials.

  11. Gap Filling as Exact Path Length Problem.

    PubMed

    Salmela, Leena; Sahlin, Kristoffer; Mäkinen, Veli; Tomescu, Alexandru I

    2016-05-01

    One of the last steps in a genome assembly project is filling the gaps between consecutive contigs in the scaffolds. This problem can be naturally stated as finding an s-t path in a directed graph whose sum of arc costs belongs to a given range (the estimate on the gap length). Here s and t are any two contigs flanking a gap. This problem is known to be NP-hard in general. Here we derive a simpler dynamic programming solution than already known, pseudo-polynomial in the maximum value of the input range. We implemented various practical optimizations to it, and compared our exact gap-filling solution experimentally to popular gap-filling tools. Summing over all the bacterial assemblies considered in our experiments, we can in total fill 76% more gaps than the best previous tool, and the gaps filled by our method span 136% more sequence. Furthermore, the error level of the newly introduced sequence is comparable to that of the previous tools. The experiments also show that our exact approach does not easily scale to larger genomes, where the problem is in general difficult for all tools. PMID:26959081

  12. UV laser long-path absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorn, Hans-Peter; Brauers, Theo; Neuroth, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    Long path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using a picosecond UV laser as a light source was developed in our institute. Tropospheric OH radicals are measured by their rotational absorption lines around 308 nm. The spectra are obtained using a high resolution spectrograph. The detection system has been improved over the formerly used optomechanical scanning device by application of a photodiode array which increased the observed spectral range by a factor of 6 and which utilizes the light much more effectively leading to a considerable reduction of the measurement time. This technique provides direct measurements of OH because the signal is given by the product of the absorption coefficient and the OH concentration along the light path according to Lambert-Beers law. No calibration is needed. Since the integrated absorption coefficient is well known the accuracy of the measurement essentially depends on the extent to which the OH absorption pattern can be detected in the spectra. No interference by self generated OH radicals in the detection lightpath has been observed. The large bandwidth (greater than 0.15 nm) and the high spectral resolution (1.5 pm) allows absolute determination of interferences by other trace gas absorptions. The measurement error is directly accessible from the absorption-signal to baseline-noise ratio in the spectra. The applicability of the method strongly depends on visibility. Elevated concentrations of aerosols lead to considerable attenuation of the laser light which reduces the S/N-ratio. In the moderately polluted air of Julich, where we performed a number of OH measurement spectra. In addition absorption features of unidentified species were frequently detected. A quantitative deconvolution even of the known species is not easy to achieve and can leave residual structures in the spectra. Thus interferences usually increase the noise and deteriorate the OH detection sensitivity. Using diode arrays for sensitive absorption measurements some specific problems of those detectors have to be solved experimentally (i.e. fixed pattern noise, dark signal noise, nonuniform efficiency of individual elements, spatial sensitivity variations). In order to improve the low spatial resolution we performed laboratory studies using a multiple reflection cell to convert the long path technique to a real in situ point measurement. Under the conditions of field experiments in Julich residual absorbance signals at present are about 1.5x10(exp -4) corresponding to an OH detection sensitivity of 2x10(exp 6) OH/cm(exp 3) using a light path of 5.8 km. Total integration times for one measurement point vary between a few minutes and an hour.

  13. Diagnosis of multilayer clouds using photon path length distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Siwei; Min, Qilong

    2010-10-01

    Photon path length distribution is sensitive to 3-D cloud structures. A detection method for multilayer clouds has been developed, by utilizing the information of photon path length distribution. The photon path length method estimates photon path length information from the low level, single-layer cloud structure that can be accurately observed by a millimeter-wave cloud radar (MMCR) combined with a micropulse lidar (MPL). As multiple scattering within the cloud layers and between layers would substantially enhance the photon path length, the multilayer clouds can be diagnosed by evaluating the estimated photon path information against observed photon path length information from a co-located rotating shadowband spectrometer (RSS). The measurements of MMCR-MPL and RSS at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site have been processed for the year 2000. Cases studies illustrate the consistency between MMCR-MPL detection and the photon path length method under most conditions. However, the photon path length method detected some multilayer clouds that were classified by the MMCR-MPL as single-layer clouds. From 1 year statistics at the ARM SGP site, about 27.7% of single-layer clouds detected by the MMCR-MPL with solar zenith angle less than 70° and optical depth greater than 10 could be multilayer clouds. It suggests that a substantial portion of single-layer clouds detected by the MMCR-MPL could also be influenced by some "missed" clouds or by the 3-D effects of clouds.

  14. Modified Sagnac interferometer for contact-free length measurement of a direct absorption cell.

    PubMed

    Elandaloussi, Hadj; Rouillé, Christian; Marie-Jeanne, Patrick; Janssen, Christof

    2016-03-10

    Accurate path length measurements in absorption cells are recurrent requirements in quantitative molecular absorption spectroscopy. A new twin path laser interferometer for length measurements in a simple direct path absorption geometry is presented, along with a full uncertainty budget. The path in an absorption cell is determined by measuring the optical path length change due to the diminution of the refractive index when the cell originally filled with nitrogen gas is evacuated. The performance of the instrument based on a stabilized HeNe laser is verified by comparison with the results of direct mechanical length measurements of a roughly 45 mm long, specially designed absorption cell. Due to a resolution of about 1/300 of a HeNe fringe, an expanded (coverage factor k=2) uncertainty of 16 μm in the length measurement is achieved, providing an expanded relative uncertainty of 3.6·10-4 for the length of our test absorption cell. This value is about 8 times lower than what has been reported previously. The instrument will be useful for precision measurements of absorption cross sections of strong absorbers which require short light paths, such as ozone, halogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds in the UV. PMID:26974791

  15. 47 CFR 101.143 - Minimum path length requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.143 Minimum path length requirements. (a) The... carrier fixed point-to-point microwave services must equal or exceed the value set forth in the...

  16. 47 CFR 101.143 - Minimum path length requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.143 Minimum path length requirements. (a) The... carrier fixed point-to-point microwave services must equal or exceed the value set forth in the...

  17. 47 CFR 101.143 - Minimum path length requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.143 Minimum path length requirements. (a) The... carrier fixed point-to-point microwave services must equal or exceed the value set forth in the...

  18. 47 CFR 101.143 - Minimum path length requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.143 Minimum path length requirements. (a) The... carrier fixed point-to-point microwave services must equal or exceed the value set forth in the...

  19. 47 CFR 101.143 - Minimum path length requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.143 Minimum path length requirements. (a) The... carrier fixed point-to-point microwave services must equal or exceed the value set forth in the...

  20. All-optical, thermo-optical path length modulation based on the vanadium-doped fibers.

    PubMed

    Matjasec, Ziga; Campelj, Stanislav; Donlagic, Denis

    2013-05-20

    This paper presents an all-fiber, fully-optically controlled, optical-path length modulator based on highly absorbing optical fiber. The modulator utilizes a high-power 980 nm pump diode and a short section of vanadium-co-doped single mode fiber that is heated through absorption and a non-radiative relaxation process. The achievable path length modulation range primarily depends on the pump's power and the convective heat-transfer coefficient of the surrounding gas, while the time response primarily depends on the heated fiber's diameter. An absolute optical length change in excess of 500 µm and a time-constant as short as 11 ms, were demonstrated experimentally. The all-fiber design allows for an electrically-passive and remote operation of the modulator. The presented modulator could find use within various fiber-optics systems that require optical (remote) path length control or modulation. PMID:23736401

  1. The path-length distribution for galactic cosmic-ray propagation - An energy-dependent depletion of short path lengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Munoz, M.; Guzik, T. G.; Simpson, J. A.; Wefel, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that at low energies, the depletion of short path lengths in the interstellar cosmic-ray path-length distribution is a function of energy, decreasing in magnitude with increasing energy. The analysis leading to this conclusion is based on the comparison of compiled data for the B/C and sub-Fe/Fe ratios at 0.08-50 GeV per nucleon, with the results of detailed galactic propagation and solar modulation calculations, which include experimental values for the important nuclear cross sections. This energy dependence of the depletion resolves some of the conflicts between previous reports on the question of short path lengths and may be explained by models including a matter distribution around discrete sources or, possibly, by models invoking waves generated by particle-magnetic field interactions in the Galaxy.

  2. Effective path length corrections in beam-beam scattering experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinkmann, R. T.; Trajmar, S.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of the change of scattering geometry with scattering angle in beam-beam experiments is investigated. Atomic (molecular) target distributions associated with static gas, orifice, tube, capillary array (with and without further collimation), and jet sources have been considered in model calculations for a number of commonly used electron scattering geometries. The relationship between scattering intensity, cross section, and the geometrical integral called 'effective path length' is derived. Volume correction factors (the reciprocal of effective path length) have been calculated for sample cases to illustrate the effect of various beam and scattering geometry characteristics. The validity of the model calculation has been experimentally verified. Most of the commonly used scattering geometries require significant correction of the scattering intensity distributions, but with proper planning scattering geometries can be designed such that the intensity and the cross section angular distribution are identical within 1%.

  3. Test Bed For Control Of Optical-Path Lengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neal, Michael C.; Eldred, Daniel D.; Liu, Dankai; Redding, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Truss structure and ancillary equipment constitute test bed for experiments in methods of controlling lengths of optical paths under conditions of structural vibration and deformation. Accommodates both passive and active methods of control. Experimental control system reduces millimeter-level disturbances in optical path length to nanometers. Developed for control, alignment, and aiming of distributed optical systems on large flexible structures. Test bed includes tower 2.5 meters high with two horizontal arms extending at right angles from its top. Rigidly mounted on massive steel block providing measure of isolation from ground vibrations. Optical motion-compensation system similar to one described previously in NASA Tech Briefs enclosed in flexure-mounted frame, called "trolley," at end of longer horizontal arm.

  4. Parallel optical-path-length-shifting digital holography.

    PubMed

    Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Koyama, Takamasa; Tahara, Tatsuki; Ito, Kenichi; Shimozato, Yuki; Kaneko, Atsushi; Nishio, Kenzo; Ura, Shogo; Kubota, Toshihiro; Matoba, Osamu

    2009-12-01

    The authors propose an optical-path-length-shifting digital holography as a technique capable of single-shot recording of three-dimensional information of objects. With a single image sensor, the proposed technique can simultaneously record all of the holograms required for the in-line digital holography that reconstruct the image of an object from two intensity measurements at different planes. The technique can be optically implemented by using an optical-path-length-shifting array device located in the common path of the reference and object waves. The array device has periodic structure of two-step optical-path difference. The configuration of the array device of the proposed technique is simpler than the phase-shifting array device required for parallel phase-shifting digital holographies. Therefore, the optical system of the proposed technique is more suitable for the realization of a single-shot in-line digital holography system that removes the conjugate image from the reconstructed image. The authors conducted both a numerical simulation and a preliminary experiment of the proposed technique. The reconstructed images were quantitatively evaluated by using root mean squared error. In comparison to single-shot digital holography using the Fresnel transform alone, with the proposed technique the root mean squared errors of the technique were reduced to less than 1/6 in amplitude and 1/3 in phase. Also the results of the simulation and experiment agreed well with the images of an object. Thus the effectiveness of the proposed technique is verified. PMID:19956287

  5. Path Length Fluctuations Derived from Site Testing Interferometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Nessel, James A.; Morse, Jacquelynne R.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate possible sites for NASA's proposed Ka-band antenna array, the NASA Glenn Research Center has constructed atmospheric phase monitors (APM) which directly measure the tropospheric phase stability. These instruments observe an unmodulated 20.2 GHz beacon signal broadcast from a geostationary satellite (Anik F2) and measure the phase difference between the signals received by the two antennas. Two APM's have been deployed, one at the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) Tracking Complex in Goldstone, California, and the other at the NASA White Sands Complex, in Las Cruces, New Mexico. Two station-years of atmospheric phase fluctuation data have been collected at Goldstone since operations commenced in May 2007 and 0.5 station-years of data have been collected at White Sands since operations began February 2009. With identical instruments operating simultaneously, we can directly compare the phase stability at the two sites. Phase stability is analyzed statistically in terms of the root-mean-square (rms) of the tropospheric path length fluctuations over 10 min blocks. Correlation between surface wind speed and relative humidity with interferometer phase are discussed. For 2 years, the path length fluctuations at the DSN site in Goldstone, California, have been better than 757 micrometer (with reference to a 300 m baseline and to Zenith) for 90 percent of the time. For the 6 months of data collected at White Sands, New Mexico, the path length fluctuations have been better than 830 micrometers (with reference to a 300 m baseline and to Zenith) for 90 percent of the time. This type of data analysis, as well as many other site quality characteristics (e.g., rain attenuation, infrastructure, etc.), will be used to determine the suitability of both sites for NASA s future communication services at Ka-band using an array of antennas.

  6. Photon path length distributions for cloudy atmospheres from GOSAT satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremmling, Beke; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Wagner, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The presence of clouds in the atmosphere has significant influence on the photon paths of the scattered sunlight. Besides reflections of radiation at the cloud top, additional scattering events inside the cloud may occur and thus lengthening or shortening of the photon path in the atmosphere. Clouds consisting of multiple layers or patches may lead to a "ping pong" behaviour of the photons due to reflections at the individual surfaces. The objective of our study is the retrieval of photon path length distributions for various atmospheric cloud situations which will lead to a better understanding of the influence of clouds on the atmospheric radiative transport. Following principles from ground based photon path length retrieval (Funk et al., 2003), our research uses the combination of space based measurements of the oxygen A-band and radiative transfer simulations. The experimental spectra originate from the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), more precisely the Fourier Transform Spectrometer TANSO-FTS. Its high spectral resolution allows to almost completely resolve the individual absorption lines which is a prerequisite to our study. The Monte Carlo radiative transfer model McArtim (Deutschmann et al., 2011) is used to model the measured spectra. This model allows user-defined input for the altitude dependent cross sections and furthermore the incorporation of three dimensional cloud shapes and properties. From the simulation output and the sun-satellite geometry, photon path length distributions can be obtained. Distributions of photon path lengths are presented for a selection of GOSAT observations of entirely cloud covered atmospheres with similar measurement geometries.

  7. Path Length Entropy Analysis of Diastolic Heart Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Griffel, B.; Zia, M. K.; Fridman, V.; Saponieri, C.; Semmlow, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) using the acoustic approach, a noninvasive and cost-effective method, would greatly improve the outcome of CAD patients. To detect CAD, we analyze diastolic sounds for possible CAD murmurs. We observed diastolic sounds to exhibit 1/f structure and developed a new method, path length entropy (PLE) and a scaled version (SPLE), to characterize this structure to improve CAD detection. We compare SPLE results to Hurst exponent, Sample entropy and Multi-scale entropy for distinguishing between normal and CAD patients. SPLE achieved a sensitivity-specificity of 80%–81%, the best of the tested methods. However, PLE and SPLE are not sufficient to prove nonlinearity, and evaluation using surrogate data suggests that our cardiovascular sound recordings do not contain significant nonlinear properties. PMID:23930808

  8. Long-length contaminated equipment disposal process path document

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-09-30

    The first objective of the LLCE Process Path Document is to guide future users of this system on how to accomplish the cradle-to-grave process for the disposal of long-length equipment. Information will be provided describing the function and approach to each step in the process. Pertinent documentation, prerequisites, drawings, procedures, hardware, software, and key interfacing organizations will be identified. The second objective is related to the decision to lay up the program until funding is made available to complete it or until a need arises due to failure of an important component in a waste tank. To this end, the document will identify work remaining to be completed for each step of the process and open items or issues that remain to be resolved.

  9. An Exact Algebraic Evaluation of Path-Length Difference for Two-Source Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Seth; Howell, John

    2006-01-01

    When studying wave interference, one often wants to know the difference in path length for two waves arriving at a common point P but coming from adjacent sources. For example, in many contexts interference maxima occur where this path-length difference is an integer multiple of the wavelength. The standard approximation for the path-length…

  10. Ray tracing based path-length calculations for polarized light tomographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2015-09-01

    A ray tracing based path length calculation is investigated for polarized light transport in a pixel space. Tomographic imaging using polarized light transport is promising for applications in optical projection tomography of small animal imaging and turbid media with low scattering. Polarized light transport through a medium can have complex effects due to interactions such as optical rotation of linearly polarized light, birefringence, di-attenuation and interior refraction. Here we investigate the effects of refraction of polarized light in a non-scattering medium. This step is used to obtain the initial absorption estimate. This estimate can be used as prior in Monte Carlo (MC) program that simulates the transport of polarized light through a scattering medium to assist in faster convergence of the final estimate. The reflectance for p-polarized (parallel) and s-polarized (perpendicular) are different and hence there is a difference in the intensities that reach the detector end. The algorithm computes the length of the ray in each pixel along the refracted path and this is used to build the weight matrix. This weight matrix with corrected ray path length and the resultant intensity reaching the detector for each ray is used in the algebraic reconstruction (ART) method. The proposed method is tested with numerical phantoms for various noise levels. The refraction errors due to regions of different refractive index are discussed, the difference in intensities with polarization is considered. The improvements in reconstruction using the correction so applied is presented. This is achieved by tracking the path of the ray as well as the intensity of the ray as it traverses through the medium.

  11. Laser Metrology for an Optical-Path-Length Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gursel, Yekta

    2005-01-01

    Laser gauges have been developed to satisfy requirements specific to monitoring the amplitude of the motion of an optical-path-length modulator that is part of an astronomical interferometer. The modulator includes a corner-cube retroreflector driven by an electromagnetic actuator. During operation of the astronomical interferometer, the electromagnet is excited to produce linear reciprocating motion of the corner-cube retroreflector at an amplitude of 2 to 4 mm at a frequency of 250, 750, or 1,250 Hz. Attached to the corner-cube retroreflector is a small pick-off mirror. To suppress vibrations, a counterweight having a mass equal to that of the corner-cube retroreflector and pick-off mirror is mounted on another electromagnetic actuator that is excited in opposite phase. Each gauge is required to measure the amplitude of the motion of the pick-off mirror, assuming that the motions of the pick-off mirror and the corner-cube retroreflector are identical, so as to measure the amplitude of motion of the corner- cube retroreflector to within an error of the order of picometers at each excitation frequency. Each gauge is a polarization-insensitive heterodyne interferometer that includes matched collimators, beam separators, and photodiodes (see figure). The light needed for operation of the gauge comprises two pairs of laser beams, the beams in each pair being separated by a beat frequency of 80 kHz. The laser beams are generated by an apparatus, denoted the heterodyne plate, that includes stabilized helium-neon lasers, acousto-optical modulators, and associated optical and electronic subsystems. The laser beams are coupled from the heterodyne plate to the collimators via optical fibers.

  12. Temperature variable long path cell for absorption measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shetter, R. E.; Davidson, J. A.; Cantrell, C. A.; Calvert, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    The design and construction of a long path cell for absorption measurements at temperatures ranging from 215-470 K and at pressures from vacuum to 10 atm are described. The cell consists of three concentric stainless-steel tubes; the innermost tube is 6.5-in. in internal diameter, has a volume of about 47 l, and contains White-type optics, six thermocouples, and a gas input tube; and the outermost tube provides a vacuum Dewar around the inner assembly. The optical design and temperature control system for the long path temperature variable cell are examined. The long path cell is applicable for analyzing temperature and pressure dependence of spectra and reaction rates of gases, and the cell has flow and photolysis capabilities for studying transient species and photochemically initiated reactions. A diagram of the cell is provided.

  13. Signal absorption effects on HF radio paths near Sodankyla observatory (Finland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoveshchenskii, D. V.

    2015-05-01

    Studies were performed on three oblique ionospheric sounding (OIS) paths: Gor'kovskaya-Lovozero (St. Petersburg) with a length of 890 km, Sodankyla-Gor'kovskaya (800 km), and Sodankyla-Lovozero (360 km). The data for March 17 and April 14, 2012, the days during the recovery phase of the corresponding magnetic storms, have been analyzed. According to the observations performed at Sodankyla, riometer absorption in the morning-daytime hours was high against a background of very weak magnetic disturbances registered with a magnetometer; a high absorption level was also typical of the second day but during a substantial magnetic disturbance. The signal propagation mode structure and intensity on different paths were compared for the indicated days. The main results achieved are as follows. The OIS signal mode structure at weak (for April 14, 2012) and strong (for March 17, 2012) absorption substantially differed when magnetic disturbances were weak at the same instant. Diffuse reflections from the F2 layer were observed on the first two paths during a magnetic disturbance at night of April 14, 2012. At the same time, diffusivity was absent on the same paths under quiet magnetic conditions in the morning and daytime hours on March 17, 2012. A short-term abrupt increase in the maximum observed frequency of the Es layer (MOF Es) by 30-80% was registered half an hour before a substantial absorption burst on the first path. Signal reflections from the sporadic Es layer were observed only on the first path on March 17, 2012, and April 14, 2012, during the absorption maximum ( A = 6 dB) according to the Sodankyla data, and the signal characteristics differed on those days.

  14. Optical Path Switching Based Differential Absorption Radiometry for Substance Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, Glen W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system and method are provided for detecting one or more substances. An optical path switch divides sample path radiation into a time series of alternating first polarized components and second polarized components. The first polarized components are transmitted along a first optical path and the second polarized components along a second optical path. A first gasless optical filter train filters the first polarized components to isolate at least a first wavelength band thereby generating first filtered radiation. A second gasless optical filter train filters the second polarized components to isolate at least a second wavelength band thereby generating second filtered radiation. The first wavelength band and second wavelength band are unique. Further, spectral absorption of a substance of interest is different at the first wavelength band as compared to the second wavelength band. A beam combiner combines the first and second filtered radiation to form a combined beam of radiation. A detector is disposed to monitor magnitude of at least a portion of the combined beam alternately at the first wavelength band and the second wavelength band as an indication of the concentration of the substance in the sample path.

  15. Infrared Pulse-laser Long-path Absorption Measurement of Carbon Dioxide Using a Raman-shifted Dye Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minato, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Sasano, Yasuhiro

    1992-01-01

    A pulsed laser source is effective in infrared laser long-path absorption measurements when the optical path length is very long or the reflection from a hard target is utilized, because higher signal-to-noise ratio is obtained in the detection of weak return signals. We have investigated the performance of a pulse-laser long-path absorption system using a hydrogen Raman shifter and a tunable dye laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser, which generates second Stokes radiation in the 2-micron region.

  16. Estimation of partial optical path length in the brain in subject-specific head models for near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kotaro; Kurihara, Kazuki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Obata, Takayuki; Ito, Hiroshi; Okada, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional head models with the structures constructed from the MR head images of 40 volunteers were constructed to analyze light propagation in the subject-specific head models. The mean optical path length in the head and the partial optical path length in the brain at 13 fiducial points for each volunteer were estimated to evaluate the intersubject and spatial variability in the optical path lengths. Although the intersubject variability in the optical path lengths is very high, the spatial variability in the average of the mean optical path length and partial optical path length is similar to the previously reported data. The mean optical path length in the head increases, whereas the partial optical path length in the brain decreases with an increase in the depth of the brain surface. The partial optical path length is highly correlated with the depth of the brain surface in comparison to the mean optical path length in the head.

  17. Estimation of partial optical path length in the brain in subject-specific head models for near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kotaro; Kurihara, Kazuki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Obata, Takayuki; Ito, Hiroshi; Okada, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional head models with the structures constructed from the MR head images of 40 volunteers were constructed to analyze light propagation in the subject-specific head models. The mean optical path length in the head and the partial optical path length in the brain at 13 fiducial points for each volunteer were estimated to evaluate the intersubject and spatial variability in the optical path lengths. Although the intersubject variability in the optical path lengths is very high, the spatial variability in the average of the mean optical path length and partial optical path length is similar to the previously reported data. The mean optical path length in the head increases, whereas the partial optical path length in the brain decreases with an increase in the depth of the brain surface. The partial optical path length is highly correlated with the depth of the brain surface in comparison to the mean optical path length in the head.

  18. High reflected cubic cavity as long path absorption cell for infrared gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jia; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2014-10-01

    One direct and efficient method to improve the sensitivity of infrared gas sensors is to increase the optical path length of gas cells according to Beer-Lambert Law. In this paper, cubic shaped cavities with high reflected inner coating as novel long path absorption cells for infrared gas sensing were developed. The effective optical path length (EOPL) for a single cubic cavity and tandem cubic cavities were investigated based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) measuring oxygen P11 line at 763 nm. The law of EOPL of a diffuse cubic cavity in relation with the reflectivity of the coating, the port fraction and side length of the cavity was obtained. Experimental results manifested an increase of EOPL for tandem diffuse cubic cavities as the decrease of port fraction of the connecting aperture f', and the EOPL equaled to the sum of that of two single cubic cavities at f'<0.01. The EOPL spectra at infrared wavelength range for different inner coatings including high diffuse coatings and high reflected metallic thin film coatings were deduced.

  19. Comparison Between Path Lengths Traveled by Solar Electrons and Ions in Ground-Level Enhancement Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Lun C.; Malandraki, Olga E.; Reames, Donald; NG, Chee K.; Wang, Linghua; Patsou, Ioanna; Papaioannou, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the Wind/3DP/SST electron and Wind/EPACT/LEMT ion data to investigate the path length difference between solar electrons and ions in the ground-level enhancement (GLE) events in solar cycle 23. Assuming that the onset time of metric type II or decameter-hectometric (DH) type III radio bursts is the solar release time of non-relativistic electrons, we have found that within an error range of plus or minus 10% the deduced path length of low-energy (approximately 27 keV) electrons from their release site near the Sun to the 1 AU observer is consistent with the ion path length deduced by Reames from the onset time analysis. In addition, the solar longitude distribution and IMF topology of the GLE events examined are in favor of the coronal mass ejection-driven shock acceleration origin of observed non-relativistic electrons.We have also found an increase of electron path lengths with increasing electron energies. The increasing rate of path lengths is correlated with the pitch angle distribution (PAD) of peak electron intensities locally measured, with a higher rate corresponding to a broader PAD. The correlation indicates that the path length enhancement is due to the interplanetary scattering experienced by first arriving electrons. The observed path length consistency implies that the maximum stable time of magnetic flux tubes, along which particles transport, could reach 4.8 hr.

  20. A fast and accurate algorithm for high-frequency trans-ionospheric path length determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijaya, Dudy D.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a fast and accurate algorithm for high-frequency trans-ionospheric path length determination. The algorithm is merely based on the solution of the Eikonal equation that is solved using the conformal theory of refraction. The main advantages of the algorithm are summarized as follows. First, the algorithm can determine the optical path length without iteratively adjusting both elevation and azimuth angles and, hence, the computational time can be reduced. Second, for the same elevation and azimuth angles, the algorithm can simultaneously determine the phase and group of both ordinary and extra-ordinary optical path lengths for different frequencies. Results from numerical simulations show that the computational time required by the proposed algorithm to accurately determine 8 different optical path lengths is almost 17 times faster than that required by a 3D ionospheric ray-tracing algorithm. It is found that the computational time to determine multiple optical path lengths is the same with that for determining a single optical path length. It is also found that the proposed algorithm is capable of determining the optical path lengths with millimeter level of accuracies, if the magnitude of the squared ratio of the plasma frequency to the transmitted frequency is less than 1.33× 10^{-3}, and hence the proposed algorithm is applicable for geodetic applications.

  1. COMPARISON BETWEEN PATH LENGTHS TRAVELED BY SOLAR ELECTRONS AND IONS IN GROUND-LEVEL ENHANCEMENT EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Lun C.; Malandraki, Olga E.; Patsou, Ioanna; Papaioannou, Athanasios; Reames, Donald V.; Ng, Chee K.; Wang, Linghua

    2013-05-01

    We have examined the Wind/3DP/SST electron and Wind/EPACT/LEMT ion data to investigate the path length difference between solar electrons and ions in the ground-level enhancement (GLE) events in solar cycle 23. Assuming that the onset time of metric type II or decameter-hectometric (DH) type III radio bursts is the solar release time of non-relativistic electrons, we have found that within an error range of {+-}10% the deduced path length of low-energy ({approx}27 keV) electrons from their release site near the Sun to the 1 AU observer is consistent with the ion path length deduced by Reames from the onset time analysis. In addition, the solar longitude distribution and IMF topology of the GLE events examined are in favor of the coronal mass ejection-driven shock acceleration origin of observed non-relativistic electrons. We have also found an increase of electron path lengths with increasing electron energies. The increasing rate of path lengths is correlated with the pitch angle distribution (PAD) of peak electron intensities locally measured, with a higher rate corresponding to a broader PAD. The correlation indicates that the path length enhancement is due to the interplanetary scattering experienced by first arriving electrons. The observed path length consistency implies that the maximum stable time of magnetic flux tubes, along which particles transport, could reach 4.8 hr.

  2. Comparison between Path Lengths Traveled by Solar Electrons and Ions in Ground-Level Enhancement Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Lun C.; Malandraki, Olga E.; Reames, Donald V.; Ng, Chee K.; Wang, Linghua; Patsou, Ioanna; Papaioannou, Athanasios

    2013-05-01

    We have examined the Wind/3DP/SST electron and Wind/EPACT/LEMT ion data to investigate the path length difference between solar electrons and ions in the ground-level enhancement (GLE) events in solar cycle 23. Assuming that the onset time of metric type II or decameter-hectometric (DH) type III radio bursts is the solar release time of non-relativistic electrons, we have found that within an error range of ±10% the deduced path length of low-energy (~27 keV) electrons from their release site near the Sun to the 1 AU observer is consistent with the ion path length deduced by Reames from the onset time analysis. In addition, the solar longitude distribution and IMF topology of the GLE events examined are in favor of the coronal mass ejection-driven shock acceleration origin of observed non-relativistic electrons. We have also found an increase of electron path lengths with increasing electron energies. The increasing rate of path lengths is correlated with the pitch angle distribution (PAD) of peak electron intensities locally measured, with a higher rate corresponding to a broader PAD. The correlation indicates that the path length enhancement is due to the interplanetary scattering experienced by first arriving electrons. The observed path length consistency implies that the maximum stable time of magnetic flux tubes, along which particles transport, could reach 4.8 hr.

  3. A microfabricated fixed path length silicon sample holder improves background subtraction for cryoSAXS

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Jesse B.; Katz, Andrea M.; Meisburger, Steve P.; Warkentin, Matthew A.; Thorne, Robert E.; Pollack, Lois

    2015-01-01

    The application of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) for high-throughput characterization of biological macromolecules in solution is limited by radiation damage. By cryocooling samples, radiation damage and required sample volumes can be reduced by orders of magnitude. However, the challenges of reproducibly creating the identically sized vitrified samples necessary for conventional background subtraction limit the widespread adoption of this method. Fixed path length silicon sample holders for cryoSAXS have been microfabricated to address these challenges. They have low background scattering and X-ray absorption, require only 640 nl of sample, and allow reproducible sample cooling. Data collected in the sample holders from a nominal illuminated sample volume of 2.5 nl are reproducible down to q ≃ 0.02 Å−1, agree with previous cryoSAXS work and are of sufficient quality for reconstructions that match measured crystal structures. These sample holders thus allow faster, more routine cryoSAXS data collection. Additional development is required to reduce sample fracturing and improve data quality at low q. PMID:26089749

  4. Pillar cuvettes: capillary-filled, microliter quartz cuvettes with microscale path lengths for optical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Holzner, Gregor; Kriel, Frederik Hermanus; Priest, Craig

    2015-05-01

    The goal of most analytical techniques is to reduce the lower limit of detection; however, it is sometimes necessary to do the opposite. High sample concentrations or samples with high molar absorptivity (e.g., dyes and metal complexes) often require multiple dilution steps or laborious sample preparation prior to spectroscopic analysis. Here, we demonstrate dilution-free, one-step UV-vis spectroscopic analysis of high concentrations of platinum(IV) hexachloride in a micropillar array, that is, "pillar cuvette". The cuvette is spontaneously filled by wicking of the liquid sample into the micropillar array. The pillar height (thus, the film thickness) defines the optical path length, which was reduced to between 10 and 20 μm in this study (3 orders of magnitude smaller than in a typical cuvette). Only one small droplet (∼2 μL) of sample is required, and the dispensed volume need not be precise or even known to the analyst for accurate spectroscopy measurements. For opaque pillars, we show that absorbance is linearly related to platinum concentration (the Beer-Lambert Law). For fully transparent or semitransparent pillars, the measured absorbance was successfully corrected for the fractional surface coverage of the pillars and the transmittance of the pillars and reference. Thus, both opaque and transparent pillars can be applied to absorbance spectroscopy of high absorptivity, microliter samples. It is also shown here that the pillar array has a useful secondary function as an integrated (in-cuvette) filter for particulates. For pillar cuvette measurements of platinum solutions spiked with 6 μm diameter polystyrene spheres, filtered and unfiltered samples gave identical spectra. PMID:25844800

  5. Visual target distance, but not visual cursor path length produces shifts in motor behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wendker, Nike; Sack, Oliver S.; Sutter, Christine

    2014-01-01

    When using tools effects in body space and distant space often do not correspond. Findings so far demonstrated that in this case visual feedback has more impact on action control than proprioceptive feedback. The present study varies the dimensional overlap between visual and proprioceptive action effects and investigates its impact on aftereffects in motor responses. In two experiments participants perform linear hand movements on a covered digitizer tablet to produce ∩-shaped cursor trajectories on the display. The shape of hand motion and cursor motion (linear vs. curved) is dissimilar and therefore does not overlap. In one condition the length of hand amplitude and visual target distance is similar and constant while the length of the cursor path is dissimilar and varies. In another condition the length of the hand amplitude varies while the lengths of visual target distance (similar or dissimilar) and cursor path (dissimilar) are constant. First, we found that aftereffects depended on the relation between hand path length and visual target distance, and not on the relation between hand and cursor path length. Second, increasing contextual interference did not reveal larger aftereffects. Finally, data exploration demonstrated a considerable benefit from gain repetitions across trials when compared to gain switches. In conclusion, dimensional overlap between visual and proprioceptive action effects modulates human information processing in visually controlled actions. However, adjustment of the internal model seems to occur very fast for this kind of simple linear transformation, so that the impact of prior visual feedback is fleeting. PMID:24672507

  6. 47 CFR 74.644 - Minimum path lengths for fixed links.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... fixed link must equal or exceed the value set forth in the table below or the EIRP must be reduced in...,990-7,125 17 12,200-13,250 5 Above 17,700 n/a (b) For paths shorter than those specified in the Table... = Maximum EIRP as set forth in the Table in § 74.636 of this part. A = Minimum path length from the...

  7. Relations between ac-dc components and optical path length in photoplethysmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chungkeun; Sik Shin, Hang; Lee, Myoungho

    2011-07-01

    Photoplethysmography is used in various areas such as vital sign measurement, vascular characteristics analysis, and autonomic nervous system assessment. Photoplethysmographic signals are composed of ac and dc, but it is difficult to find research about the interaction of photoplethysmographic components. This study suggested a model equation combining two Lambert-Beer equations at the onset and peak points of photoplethysmography to evaluate ac characteristics, and verified the model equation through simulation and experiment. In the suggested equation, ac was dependent on dc and optical path length. In the simulation, dc was inversely proportionate to ac sensitivity (slope), and ac and optical path length were proportionate. When dc increased from 10% to 90%, stabilized ac decreased from 1 to 0.89 +/- 0.21, and when optical path length increased from 10% to 90%, stabilized ac increased from 1 to 1.53 +/- 0.40.

  8. Power-Law Distributions for the Free Path Length in Lorentz Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marklof, Jens; Strömbergsson, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that, in the Boltzmann-Grad limit, the distribution of the free path length in the Lorentz gas with disordered scatterer configuration has an exponential density. If, on the other hand, the scatterers are located at the vertices of a Euclidean lattice, the density has a power-law tail proportional to . In the present paper we construct scatterer configurations whose free path lengths have a distribution with tail for any positive integer . We also discuss the properties of the random flight process that describes the Lorentz gas in the Boltzmann-Grad limit. The convergence of the distribution of the free path length follows from equidistribution of large spheres in products of certain homogeneous spaces, which in turn is a consequence of Ratner's measure classification theorem.

  9. Fourier optics analysis of phase-mask-based path-length-multiplexed optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Yin, Biwei; Dwelle, Jordan; Wang, Bingqing; Wang, Tianyi; Feldman, Marc D; Rylander, Henry G; Milner, Thomas E

    2015-11-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique that constructs a depth-resolved image by measuring the optical path-length difference between broadband light backscattered from a sample and a reference surface. For many OCT sample arm optical configurations, sample illumination and backscattered light detection share a common path. When a phase mask is placed in the sample path, features in the detected signal are observed, which suggests that an analysis of a generic common path OCT imaging system is warranted. In this study, we present a Fourier optics analysis using a Fresnel diffraction approximation of an OCT system with a path-length-multiplexing element (PME) inserted in the sample arm optics. The analysis may be generalized for most phase-mask-based OCT systems. A radial-angle-diverse PME is analyzed in detail, and the point spread function, coherent transfer function, sensitivity of backscattering angular diversity detection, and signal formation in terms of sample spatial frequency are simulated and discussed. The analysis reveals important imaging features and application limitations of OCT imaging systems with a phase mask in the sample path optics. PMID:26560931

  10. Optical path switching based differential absorption radiometry for substance detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, Glen W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An optical path switch divides sample path radiation into a time series of alternating first polarized components and second polarized components. The first polarized components are transmitted along a first optical path and the second polarized components along a second optical path. A first gasless optical filter train filters the first polarized components to isolate at least a first wavelength band thereby generating first filtered radiation. A second gasless optical filter train filters the second polarized components to isolate at least a second wavelength band thereby generating second filtered radiation. A beam combiner combines the first and second filtered radiation to form a combined beam of radiation. A detector is disposed to monitor magnitude of at least a portion of the combined beam alternately at the first wavelength band and the second wavelength band as an indication of the concentration of the substance in the sample path.

  11. Optical path switching based differential absorption radiometry for substance detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, Glen W. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An optical path switch divides sample path radiation into a time series of alternating first polarized components and second polarized components. The first polarized components are transmitted along a first optical path and the second polarized components along a second optical path. A first gasless optical filter train filters the first polarized components to isolate at least a first wavelength band thereby generating first filtered radiation. A second gasless optical filter train filters the second polarized components to isolate at least a second wavelength band thereby generating second filtered radiation. A beam combiner combines the first and second filtered radiation to form a combined beam of radiation. A detector is disposed to monitor magnitude of at least a portion of the combined beam alternately at the first wavelength band and the second wavelength band as an indication of the concentration of the substance in the sample path.

  12. On the determination of atmospheric path length by passive microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, W. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Microwave radiometer techniques were evaluated for use in atmospheric path length correction of Pacific Plate Motion Experiment interferometer measurements. It is shown that passive microwave radiometry allows precise measurement of the brightness temperature of the sky. It is also noted that the technological requirements of radiometers are very different from the requirements of radio astronomy. The technology was used in the construction of radiometers which are sufficient for use in the path length correction problem. A simulation study shows that, when combined with surface meteorology data, passive microwave radiometer data would allow a determination of the path length correction to better than 2 cm at the zenith. By a careful choice of frequencies, a dual frequency system would allow a measurement of the path length correction to better than 4 cm at zenith angles as great as 60 deg. Because of the wide range of weather conditions to be expected for the PPME sites (which include Alaska, Hawaii and Massachusetts), it will probably be necessary to use a separate correction algorithm for each site.

  13. Achromatic recirculated chicane with fixed geometry and independently variable path length and momentum compaction

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David R.; Neil, George R.

    2005-04-26

    A particle beam recirculated chicane geometry that, through the inducement of a pair of 180 degree bends directed by the poles of a pair of controllable magnetic fields allows for variation of dipole position, return loop radii and steering/focussing, thereby allowing the implementation of independent variation of path length and momentum compaction.

  14. Path Length Control in a Nulling Coronagraph with a MEMS Deformable Mirror and a Calibration Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti R.; Wallacea, J. Kent; Samuele, Rocco; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy; Hicks, Brian; Jung, Paul; Lane, Benjamin; Levine, B. Martin; Mendillo, Chris; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Shao, Mike; Stewart, Jason B.

    2008-01-01

    We report progress on a nulling coronagraph intended for direct imaging of extrasolar planets. White light is suppressed in an interferometer, and phase errors are measured by a second interferometer. A 1020-pixel MEMS deformable mirror in the first interferometer adjusts the path length across the pupil. A feedback control system reduces deflections of the deformable mirror to order of 1 nm rms.

  15. 47 CFR 74.644 - Minimum path lengths for fixed links.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minimum path lengths for fixed links. 74.644 Section 74.644 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.644...

  16. Genetic Algorithm for Solving Fuzzy Shortest Path Problem in a Network with mixed fuzzy arc lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdavi, Iraj; Tajdin, Ali; Hassanzadeh, Reza; Mahdavi-Amiri, Nezam; Shafieian, Hosna

    2011-06-01

    We are concerned with the design of a model and an algorithm for computing a shortest path in a network having various types of fuzzy arc lengths. First, we develop a new technique for the addition of various fuzzy numbers in a path using α -cuts by proposing a linear least squares model to obtain membership functions for the considered additions. Then, using a recently proposed distance function for comparison of fuzzy numbers. we propose a new approach to solve the fuzzy APSPP using of genetic algorithm. Examples are worked out to illustrate the applicability of the proposed model.

  17. Tapered laser rods as a means of minimizing the path length of trapped barrel mode rays

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Payne, Stephen A.; Mercer, Ian; Perry, Michael D.

    2005-08-30

    By tapering the diameter of a flanged barrel laser rod over its length, the maximum trapped path length of a barrel mode can be dramatically reduced, thereby reducing the ability of the trapped spontaneous emission to negatively impact laser performance through amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). Laser rods with polished barrels and flanged end caps have found increasing application in diode array end-pumped laser systems. The polished barrel of the rod serves to confine diode array pump light within the rod. In systems utilizing an end-pumping geometry and such polished barrel laser rods, the pump light that is introduced into one or both ends of the laser rod, is ducted down the length of the rod via the total internal reflections (TIRs) that occur when the light strikes the rod's barrel. A disadvantage of using polished barrel laser rods is that such rods are very susceptible to barrel mode paths that can trap spontaneous emission over long path lengths. This trapped spontaneous emission can then be amplified through stimulated emission resulting in a situation where the stored energy available to the desired lasing mode is effectively depleted, which then negatively impacts the laser's performance, a result that is effectively reduced by introducing a taper onto the laser rod.

  18. Path-length measurement performance evaluation of polarizing laser interferometer prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-qiong; Luo, Zi-ren; Liu, He-shan; Dong, Yu-hui; Jin, Gang

    2015-02-01

    The space laser interferometer has been considered the most promising means for detecting gravitational waves and improving the accuracy and spatial resolution of the Earth's gravity model. An on-ground polarizing laser interferometer prototype equipped with one reference interferometer and two measurement interferometers having equal-length arms is presented in the paper. The laser interferometer prototype is designed as the demonstration of a Chinese space laser interferometer antenna in the future, of which the path-length measurement performance evaluation and preliminary noise analysis are investigated here. The results show that the path-length measurement sensitivity is better than 200 pm/Hz½ in the frequency band of 10 mHz-1 Hz, and the sensitivity of measuring the motion of a sinusoidally driven testmass is better than 100 pm within the frequency regime of 1 mHz-1 Hz. In this way, laboratory activities have demonstrated the feasibility of this prototype to measure tiny path-length fluctuations of the simulated testmass. As a next step, adopting an integrated design of optics and optical substrate to enhance the stability of the laser interferometer is being planned, and other key techniques included in the space laser interferometer such as laser pointing modulation and laser phase-locking control are to be implanted into this prototype are under consideration.

  19. Terahertz path-length lens composed of oblique metal slit array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togashi, Takahisa; Kitahara, Hideaki; Takano, Keisuke; Hangyo, Masanori; Mita, Mamoru; Young, John C.; Suzuki, Takehito

    2015-02-01

    Need for high-performance and sophisticated optical devices in the terahertz wave band is growing rapidly with terahertz technological progress. This paper presents a lens in the terahertz wave band based on phase control using an oblique metal slit array. A convex oblique slit array can produce a focusing effect. This focusing effect is confirmed by full-wave analysis for the designed terahertz path-length lens. The effective refractive index computed from the full-wave analysis is consistent with analytical expressions and changes from 1.00 to 1.56 with the angle of the metal slit array. Full-wave analysis also confirms that the lamination errors of the path-length lens have limited influence on the focusing effects. The robustness of the lens design is essential for its industrial applications to terahertz optical devices.

  20. Correlation between weighted spectral distribution and average path length in evolving networks.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Bo; Shi, Jianmai; Wu, Xiaoqun; Nie, Yuanping; Huang, Chengdong; Du, Jing; Zhou, Ying; Guo, Ronghua; Tao, Yerong

    2016-02-01

    The weighted spectral distribution (WSD) is a metric defined on the normalized Laplacian spectrum. In this study, synchronic random graphs are first used to rigorously analyze the metric's scaling feature, which indicates that the metric grows sublinearly as the network size increases, and the metric's scaling feature is demonstrated to be common in networks with Gaussian, exponential, and power-law degree distributions. Furthermore, a deterministic model of diachronic graphs is developed to illustrate the correlation between the slope coefficient of the metric's asymptotic line and the average path length, and the similarities and differences between synchronic and diachronic random graphs are investigated to better understand the correlation. Finally, numerical analysis is presented based on simulated and real-world data of evolving networks, which shows that the ratio of the WSD to the network size is a good indicator of the average path length. PMID:26931591

  1. Correlation between weighted spectral distribution and average path length in evolving networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Bo; Shi, Jianmai; Wu, Xiaoqun; Nie, Yuanping; Huang, Chengdong; Du, Jing; Zhou, Ying; Guo, Ronghua; Tao, Yerong

    2016-02-01

    The weighted spectral distribution (WSD) is a metric defined on the normalized Laplacian spectrum. In this study, synchronic random graphs are first used to rigorously analyze the metric's scaling feature, which indicates that the metric grows sublinearly as the network size increases, and the metric's scaling feature is demonstrated to be common in networks with Gaussian, exponential, and power-law degree distributions. Furthermore, a deterministic model of diachronic graphs is developed to illustrate the correlation between the slope coefficient of the metric's asymptotic line and the average path length, and the similarities and differences between synchronic and diachronic random graphs are investigated to better understand the correlation. Finally, numerical analysis is presented based on simulated and real-world data of evolving networks, which shows that the ratio of the WSD to the network size is a good indicator of the average path length.

  2. Modeling the average shortest-path length in growth of word-adjacency networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulig, Andrzej; DroŻdŻ, Stanisław; Kwapień, Jarosław; OświÈ©cimka, Paweł

    2015-03-01

    We investigate properties of evolving linguistic networks defined by the word-adjacency relation. Such networks belong to the category of networks with accelerated growth but their shortest-path length appears to reveal the network size dependence of different functional form than the ones known so far. We thus compare the networks created from literary texts with their artificial substitutes based on different variants of the Dorogovtsev-Mendes model and observe that none of them is able to properly simulate the novel asymptotics of the shortest-path length. Then, we identify the local chainlike linear growth induced by grammar and style as a missing element in this model and extend it by incorporating such effects. It is in this way that a satisfactory agreement with the empirical result is obtained.

  3. Modeling the average shortest-path length in growth of word-adjacency networks.

    PubMed

    Kulig, Andrzej; Drożdż, Stanisław; Kwapień, Jarosław; Oświȩcimka, Paweł

    2015-03-01

    We investigate properties of evolving linguistic networks defined by the word-adjacency relation. Such networks belong to the category of networks with accelerated growth but their shortest-path length appears to reveal the network size dependence of different functional form than the ones known so far. We thus compare the networks created from literary texts with their artificial substitutes based on different variants of the Dorogovtsev-Mendes model and observe that none of them is able to properly simulate the novel asymptotics of the shortest-path length. Then, we identify the local chainlike linear growth induced by grammar and style as a missing element in this model and extend it by incorporating such effects. It is in this way that a satisfactory agreement with the empirical result is obtained. PMID:25871160

  4. A Graduated Cylinder Colorimeter: An Investigation of Path Length and the Beer-Lambert Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, James; Harman, Stephanie

    2002-05-01

    A 10-mL graduated cylinder was used to construct a colorimeter to investigate the relationship between absorbance and path length found in the Beer-Lambert law. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were used as the light sources and filter monochromators. The experiments were conducted on intensely colored permanganate and tetraamminecopper(II) solutions. The device also was useful for demonstrating the relationship between absorbance and concentration.

  5. Short path length pQCD corrections to energy loss in the quark gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbe, Isobel; Horowitz, W. A.

    2016-01-01

    The twin identifications of high-pT enhancement and low-pT collective behaviour in the shockingly small systems of interacting particles created in pA collisions calls for a detailed theoretical energy loss analysis. We study the way in which energy is dissipated in the QGP created in pA collisions by calculating the short path length corrections to the DGLV energy loss formulae that have produced excellent predictions for AA collisions. We find that, shockingly, because of the large formation time assumption (used in the DGLV calculation), a highly non-trivial cancellation of correction terms results in a null short path length correction to the DGLV energy loss formula. We investigate the effect of relaxing the large formation time assumption in the final stages of the calculation and find, because of the separation distance between production and scattering centre is integrated over from 0 to ?, ? 100% corrections, even in the large path length approximation employed by DGLV.

  6. Effect of repetitive pecking at working length for glide path preparation using G-file

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jung-Hong; Jeon, Hyo-Jin; Abed, Rashid El; Chang, Seok-Woo; Kim, Sung-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Glide path preparation is recommended to reduce torsional failure of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments and to prevent root canal transportation. This study evaluated whether the repetitive insertions of G-files to the working length maintain the apical size as well as provide sufficient lumen as a glide path for subsequent instrumentation. Materials and Methods The G-file system (Micro-Mega) composed of G1 and G2 files for glide path preparation was used with the J-shaped, simulated resin canals. After inserting a G1 file twice, a G2 file was inserted to the working length 1, 4, 7, or 10 times for four each experimental group, respectively (n = 10). Then the canals were cleaned by copious irrigation, and lubricated with a separating gel medium. Canal replicas were made using silicone impression material, and the diameter of the replicas was measured at working length (D0) and 1 mm level (D1) under a scanning electron microscope. Data was analysed by one-way ANOVA and post-hoc tests (p = 0.05). Results The diameter at D0 level did not show any significant difference between the 1, 2, 4, and 10 times of repetitive pecking insertions of G2 files at working length. However, 10 times of pecking motion with G2 file resulted in significantly larger canal diameter at D1 (p < 0.05). Conclusions Under the limitations of this study, the repetitive insertion of a G2 file up to 10 times at working length created an adequate lumen for subsequent apical shaping with other rotary files bigger than International Organization for Standardization (ISO) size 20, without apical transportation at D0 level. PMID:25984473

  7. Visibility oscillation in a multimode laser interferometer signal and its use in optimizing path lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruden, E. L.; Camacho, J. F.; Lynn, A. G.

    2013-10-01

    The interference signal visibility V (difference to sum ratio of intensities at maximum and minimum interference) of an interferometer that uses a multimode laser is here derived for a given laser gain profile and spectral mode separation as a function of the difference ZS between the probe and reference beam optical path lengths and the spectral separation kS between the center of the laser gain profile and the nearest laser mode of higher frequency. kS has a significant effect on V for a given ZS. This parameter, in lasers where it sweeps freely across the gain profile, and other effects, such as various misalignments and optical coupling inefficiencies, render V alone an unreliable parameter for quantifying ZS (for the purpose of reducing it, say). However, the difference to sum ratio of the maximum and minimum V due to variations in kS for a given ZS is an intrinsic property of the laser insensitive to configurational details. Parameter W so defined, therefore, proves very useful for balancing path lengths. This is of particular importance for systems where probe and/or reference beams are transmitted via long single mode optical fibers, so this application is detailed. Optical path lengths within such fibers often cannot be measured to sufficient accuracy by spatial path length measurements due to fiber nonuniformity resulting in variations in the mode's group velocity (needed to convert to optical path length). Two examples are provided using different makes and models of 0.633 μm HeNe lasers with similar specifications. In the first case, the function W(ZS) is calculated directly from the laser's published gain profile and mode separation. In the second case, W is determined empirically for a range of ZS values for a laser with an unknown gain profile in a (heterodyned) interferometer whose interference signal oscillates between maximum and minimum intensity at 80 MHz due to the reference beam's optical frequency being acousto-optically upshifted by that amount, while kS spontaneously varies on an acoustic time scale. A single high-bandwidth waveform record for each ZS, therefore, provides all the information needed to determine W. Despite the second laser's gain profile apparently differing in detail, qualitative agreement is achieved between the two methods sufficient to validate the technique.

  8. Multibeam long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy instrument: a device for simultaneous measurements along multiple light paths.

    PubMed

    Pundt, Irene; Mettendorf, Kai Uwe

    2005-08-10

    A novel long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) apparatus for measuring tropospheric trace gases and the first results from its use are presented: We call it the multibeam instrument. It is the first active DOAS device that emits several light beams simultaneously through only one telescope and with only one lamp as a light source, allowing simultaneous measurement along multiple light paths. In contrast to conventional DOAS instruments, several small mirrors are positioned near the lamp, creating multiple virtual light sources that emit one light beam each in one specific direction. The possibility of error due to scattering between the light beams is negligible. The trace-gas detection limits of NO2, SO2, O3, and H2CO are similar to those of the traditional long-path DOAS instrument. PMID:16114540

  9. Length dependent thermal conductivity measurements yield phonon mean free path spectra in nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hang; Hua, Chengyun; Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J

    2015-01-01

    Thermal conductivity measurements over variable lengths on nanostructures such as nanowires provide important information about the mean free paths (MFPs) of the phonons responsible for heat conduction. However, nearly all of these measurements have been interpreted using an average MFP even though phonons in many crystals possess a broad MFP spectrum. Here, we present a reconstruction method to obtain MFP spectra of nanostructures from variable-length thermal conductivity measurements. Using this method, we investigate recently reported length-dependent thermal conductivity measurements on SiGe alloy nanowires and suspended graphene ribbons. We find that the recent measurements on graphene imply that 70% of the heat in graphene is carried by phonons with MFPs longer than 1 micron. PMID:25764977

  10. Length Dependent Thermal Conductivity Measurements Yield Phonon Mean Free Path Spectra in Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hang; Hua, Chengyun; Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J.

    2015-03-01

    Thermal conductivity measurements over variable lengths on nanostructures such as nanowires provide important information about the mean free paths (MFPs) of the phonons responsible for heat conduction. However, nearly all of these measurements have been interpreted using an average MFP even though phonons in many crystals possess a broad MFP spectrum. Here, we present a reconstruction method to obtain MFP spectra of nanostructures from variable-length thermal conductivity measurements. Using this method, we investigate recently reported length-dependent thermal conductivity measurements on SiGe alloy nanowires and suspended graphene ribbons. We find that the recent measurements on graphene imply that 70% of the heat in graphene is carried by phonons with MFPs longer than 1 micron.

  11. Length Dependent Thermal Conductivity Measurements Yield Phonon Mean Free Path Spectra in Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hang; Hua, Chengyun; Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal conductivity measurements over variable lengths on nanostructures such as nanowires provide important information about the mean free paths (MFPs) of the phonons responsible for heat conduction. However, nearly all of these measurements have been interpreted using an average MFP even though phonons in many crystals possess a broad MFP spectrum. Here, we present a reconstruction method to obtain MFP spectra of nanostructures from variable-length thermal conductivity measurements. Using this method, we investigate recently reported length-dependent thermal conductivity measurements on SiGe alloy nanowires and suspended graphene ribbons. We find that the recent measurements on graphene imply that 70% of the heat in graphene is carried by phonons with MFPs longer than 1 micron. PMID:25764977

  12. Measurement of Photon Path Length Distributions For Validation of Radiative Transfer Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, T.; Nägele, U.; Funk, O.; Platt, U.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Lemke, H.; Quante, M.; Sievers, O.; Crewell, S.; Venema, V.

    High resolution DOAS spectroscopy of the Oxygen A-band (760-780 nm) in zenith- scattered light is a powerful tool to infer path length distributions (PDF) of solar pho- tons transmitted to the ground. Solar photon PDF's thus provide information on mul- tiple scattering statistics of cloudy sky radiative transport (RT). When combining so- lar photon PDF's measurements with simultaneous RADAR measurements of the 3D cloud structure and radiometric measurements of the Liquid Water Path (LWP) effects of the 3-D cloud structure on the RT can be studied thoroughly. One strong indicator for 3-D effects on the cloudy sky RT is the investigation of the mean total photon path length ( ) as a function of observed parameters such as the cloud vertical exten- sion (H), and cloud optical thickness () or total LWP, where the asymmetry parame- ter (g) and the effective cloud droplet radius being cloud type dependent parameters. While classical 1-D RT model of homogeneous clouds predict < L >= (1-g)· ·H, real cloud covers often show < L >= [(1 - g) · ] · H with being the Levy- -1

  13. New method for path-length equalization of long single-mode fibers for interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M.; Monnier, J. D.; Ozdowy, K.; Woillez, J.; Perrin, G.

    2014-07-01

    The ability to use single mode (SM) fibers for beam transport in optical interferometry offers practical advantages over conventional long vacuum pipes. One challenge facing fiber transport is maintaining constant differential path length in an environment where environmental thermal variations can lead to cm-level variations from day to night. We have fabricated three composite cables of length 470 m, each containing 4 copper wires and 3 SM fibers that operate at the astronomical H band (1500-1800 nm). Multiple fibers allow us to test performance of a circular core fiber (SMF28), a panda-style polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber, and a lastly a specialty dispersion-compensated PM fiber. We will present experimental results using precision electrical resistance measurements of the of a composite cable beam transport system. We find that the application of 1200 W over a 470 m cable causes the optical path difference in air to change by 75 mm (+/- 2 mm) and the resistance to change from 5.36 to 5.50Ω. Additionally, we show control of the dispersion of 470 m of fiber in a single polarization using white light interference fringes (λc=1575 nm, Δλ=75 nm) using our method.

  14. A volumetric approach to path-length measurements is essential when treating radiotherapy with modulated beams

    SciTech Connect

    Forde, Elizabeth; Booth, Jeremy; Leech, Michelle

    2014-07-01

    The established dosimetric benefits of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy have lead to their increased use in prostate radiotherapy. Complimenting these techniques, volumetric image guidance has supported increased positional accuracy. In addition, 3-dimensional image guidance has also allowed for assessment of potential dosimetric variation that can be attributed to a deformation of either internal or external structures, such as rectal distension or body contour. Compounding these issues is the variation of tissue density through which the new field position passes and also the variation of dose across a modulated beam. Despite the growing level of interest in this area, there are only a limited number of articles that examine the effect of a variation in beam path length, particularly across a modulated field. IMRT and volumetric-modulated radiation therapy (VMAT) fields are dynamic in nature, and the dose gradient within these fields is variable. Assessment of variation of path length away from the beam's central axis and across the entire field is vital where there is considerable variation of dose within the field, such as IMRT and VMAT. In these cases, reliance on the traditional central axis to focus skin distances is no longer appropriate. This article discusses these more subtle challenges that may have a significant clinical effect if left unrecognized and undervalued.

  15. Comparison between solar electron and ion path lengths traveled during the Ground-Level Enhancement events in solar cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malandraki, Olga; Tan, Lun; Reames, Donald; Ng, Chee; Wang, Linghua; Patsou, Ioanna; Papaioannou, Athanasios

    2014-05-01

    The inconsistency of electron and ion path lengths during Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events remains an open issue. In order to investigate the difference between the electron and ion path lengths during the Ground-Level Enhancement (GLE) events in solar cycle 23, electron and ion data from the WIND/3DP/SST and WIND/EPACT/LEMT instruments respectively have been used. The electron path lengths were determined for the GLEs in solar cycle 23 assuming that the solar release time of non-relativistic electrons is well represented by the onset time of metric type II or decametre-hectometric (DH) type III radio bursts. The values estimated for low-energy electrons (~ 27 keV) were compared to the ion path lengths deduced by Reames for the GLEs in solar cycle 23 based on the onset-time analysis and consistency within an error range of 10% was found. In addition, the electron path lengths were found to increase with increasing electron energies, with the increasing rate of path lengths corresponding to broader position angle distribution (PAD) of electrons, which suggests that electron path length enhancement is due to interplanetary scattering experienced by first-arriving electrons. Furthermore, the solar longitude distribution and IMF topology of the GLE events examined support that the non-relativistic electrons observed have been accelerated in shocks driven by CMEs. Finally, it should be stressed that the observed path length consistency leads to stability of magnetic flux tubes along which particles travel, with a maximum stability time of ~ 4.8 hours, which could be very important for forecasting since, based on the observed onset time of the electron event, it is possible to observe the arrival and duration of the proton event.

  16. The Sensitivity of Sediment Path-Lengths to Channel Morphology: Results from Physical Models of Braided Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprak, A.; Ashmore, P.; Peirce, S.; Wheaton, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The travel distances of coarse sediment in gravel-bed rivers during floods, or their path-lengths, exhibit strong dependencies on the arrangement of geomorphic units they are sourced from, routed through or around, and finally deposited on. Despite previous research on both braiding and single-thread meandering streams, a coherent rule set which relates particle path lengths to morphology remains elusive; such a rule set has the potential to vastly simplify models which seek to predict sediment transport or morphodynamics in these channels. Here we seek to understand the sensitivity of particle path-length distributions to morphology via a physical model of a braided stream, by using fluorescent tracer particles to track sediment path-lengths. These flume experiments provide a rich dataset composed of before-and-after bed photogrammetry, along with high-resolution photography and high-speed video documentation of particle deposition and mobility. Initial analyses indicate a strong coupling between particle path-length and the spatial arrangement of in-channel geomorphic units, with bar heads and point bars frequently acting as sink locations for tracer particles. This is interesting as it suggests that morphodynamics are in part contingent on morphology with strong positive feedbacks on hydraulics, deposition and negative feedbacks on path-length. Several mechanisms of braiding were captured in the simulations as erosional source processes for the tracers, including chute cutoff of point bars, bank erosion, channel incision, and bar edge trimming. These results may help inform the development of morphodynamic models for braided rivers which rely on particle path-lengths to simplify sediment transport algorithms, and such relations between channel morphology and path-length hold the potential to benefit numerous other modeling efforts, as well as provide a heuristic framework with which to understand fluvial morphodynamics.

  17. Two Upper Bounds for the Weighted Path Length of Binary Trees. Report No. UIUCDCS-R-73-565.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradels, Jean Louis

    Rooted binary trees with weighted nodes are structures encountered in many areas, such as coding theory, searching and sorting, information storage and retrieval. The path length is a meaningful quantity which gives indications about the expected time of a search or the length of a code, for example. In this paper, two sharp bounds for the total…

  18. Short Path Length Energy Loss in the Quark-Gluon Plasma from pQCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbe, Isobel; Horowitz, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    An outline for research to be done is given. In the heavy ion experiments at RHIC and the LHC, it is widely believed that a state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) has been produced. The so-called hard particles, or particles with very high momentum that are produced as a consequence of the asymptotic freedom of QCD, can be used as tomographic probes of the QGP. We will study the way in which energy is dissipated in this QGP by calculating, in pQCD, short path length corrections to the well-known energy loss formulae. This calculation is necessary to address the discovery at the LHC that shockingly small systems appear to exhibit collective behaviour.

  19. The dynamical halo and the variation of cosmic-ray path length with energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that the dynamical halo model offers a natural explanation for the form of the variation of the cosmic-ray path length with energy. The variation above approximately 1 GeV/nucleon can be understood as due to the variation of the diffusion coefficient, and hence the resident time, with energy. The flattening of the curve below 1 GeV/nucleon is seen to mark a transition to a convection dominated regime where coefficient is no longer the determining parameter. A fit to the observations yields a halo outflow velocity of 8 km sec/1. An attempt is made to determine the overall scale of the halo and the diffusion coefficient using recent Be-10 flux measurements but the data do not agree well enough to pin down these variables to within less than four or five orders of magnitude.

  20. Determining average path length and average trapping time on generalized dual dendrimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Guan, Jihong

    2015-03-01

    Dendrimer has wide number of important applications in various fields. In some cases during transport or diffusion process, it transforms into its dual structure named Husimi cactus. In this paper, we study the structure properties and trapping problem on a family of generalized dual dendrimer with arbitrary coordination numbers. We first calculate exactly the average path length (APL) of the networks. The APL increases logarithmically with the network size, indicating that the networks exhibit a small-world effect. Then we determine the average trapping time (ATT) of the trapping process in two cases, i.e., the trap placed on a central node and the trap is uniformly distributed in all the nodes of the network. In both case, we obtain explicit solutions of ATT and show how they vary with the networks size. Besides, we also discuss the influence of the coordination number on trapping efficiency.

  1. Beam splitter and method for generating equal optical path length beams

    DOEpatents

    Qian, Shinan; Takacs, Peter

    2003-08-26

    The present invention is a beam splitter for splitting an incident beam into first and second beams so that the first and second beams have a fixed separation and are parallel upon exiting. The beam splitter includes a first prism, a second prism, and a film located between the prisms. The first prism is defined by a first thickness and a first perimeter which has a first major base. The second prism is defined by a second thickness and a second perimeter which has a second major base. The film is located between the first major base and the second major base for splitting the incident beam into the first and second beams. The first and second perimeters are right angle trapezoidal shaped. The beam splitter is configured for generating equal optical path length beams.

  2. Correlations between psychometric schizotypy, scan path length, fixations on the eyes and face recognition.

    PubMed

    Hills, Peter J; Eaton, Elizabeth; Pake, J Michael

    2016-04-01

    Psychometric schizotypy in the general population correlates negatively with face recognition accuracy, potentially due to deficits in inhibition, social withdrawal, or eye-movement abnormalities. We report an eye-tracking face recognition study in which participants were required to match one of two faces (target and distractor) to a cue face presented immediately before. All faces could be presented with or without paraphernalia (e.g., hats, glasses, facial hair). Results showed that paraphernalia distracted participants, and that the most distracting condition was when the cue and the distractor face had paraphernalia but the target face did not, while there was no correlation between distractibility and participants' scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Schizotypy was negatively correlated with proportion of time fixating on the eyes and positively correlated with not fixating on a feature. It was negatively correlated with scan path length and this variable correlated with face recognition accuracy. These results are interpreted as schizotypal traits being associated with a restricted scan path leading to face recognition deficits. PMID:25835241

  3. Nearly arc-length tool path generation and tool radius compensation algorithm research in FTS turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Minghui; Zhao, Xuesen; Li, Zengqiang; Sun, Tao

    2014-08-01

    In the non-rotational symmetrical microstrcture surfaces generation using turning method with Fast Tool Servo(FTS), non-uniform distribution of the interpolation data points will lead to long processing cycle and poor surface quality. To improve this situation, nearly arc-length tool path generation algorithm is proposed, which generates tool tip trajectory points in nearly arc-length instead of the traditional interpolation rule of equal angle and adds tool radius compensation. All the interpolation points are equidistant in radial distribution because of the constant feeding speed in X slider, the high frequency tool radius compensation components are in both X direction and Z direction, which makes X slider difficult to follow the input orders due to its large mass. Newton iterative method is used to calculate the neighboring contour tangent point coordinate value with the interpolation point X position as initial value, in this way, the new Z coordinate value is gotten, and the high frequency motion components in X direction is decomposed into Z direction. Taking a typical microstructure with 4μm PV value for test, which is mixed with two 70μm wave length sine-waves, the max profile error at the angle of fifteen is less than 0.01μm turning by a diamond tool with big radius of 80μm. The sinusoidal grid is machined on a ultra-precision lathe succesfully, the wavelength is 70.2278μm the Ra value is 22.81nm evaluated by data points generated by filtering out the first five harmonics.

  4. Multispectral reflectance imaging of brain activation in rodents: methodological study of the differential path length estimations and first in vivo recordings in the rat olfactory bulb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, Rémi; Martin, Claire; Gurden, Hirac; Pain, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic maps of relative changes in blood volume and oxygenation following brain activation are obtained using multispectral reflectance imaging. The technique relies on optical absorption modifications linked to hemodynamic changes. The relative variation of hemodynamic parameters can be quantified using the modified Beer-Lambert Law if changes in reflected light intensities are recorded at two wavelengths or more and the differential path length (DP) is known. The DP is the mean path length in tissues of backscattered photons and varies with wavelength. It is usually estimated using Monte Carlo simulations in simplified semi-infinite homogeneous geometries. Here we consider the use of multilayered models of the somatosensory cortex (SsC) and olfactory bulb (OB), which are common physiological models of brain activation. Simulations demonstrate that specific DP estimation is required for SsC and OB, specifically for wavelengths above 600 nm. They validate the hypothesis of a constant path length during activation and show the need for specific DP if imaging is performed in a thinned-skull preparation. The first multispectral reflectance imaging data recorded in vivo during OB activation are presented, and the influence of DP on the hemodynamic parameters and the pattern of oxymetric changes in the activated OB are discussed.

  5. Multispectral reflectance imaging of brain activation in rodents: methodological study of the differential path length estimations and first in vivo recordings in the rat olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Rmi; Martin, Claire; Gurden, Hirac; Pain, Frdric

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic maps of relative changes in blood volume and oxygenation following brain activation are obtained using multispectral reflectance imaging. The technique relies on optical absorption modifications linked to hemodynamic changes. The relative variation of hemodynamic parameters can be quantified using the modified Beer-Lambert Law if changes in reflected light intensities are recorded at two wavelengths or more and the differential path length (DP) is known. The DP is the mean path length in tissues of backscattered photons and varies with wavelength. It is usually estimated using Monte Carlo simulations in simplified semi-infinite homogeneous geometries. Here we consider the use of multilayered models of the somatosensory cortex (SsC) and olfactory bulb (OB), which are common physiological models of brain activation. Simulations demonstrate that specific DP estimation is required for SsC and OB, specifically for wavelengths above 600 nm. They validate the hypothesis of a constant path length during activation and show the need for specific DP if imaging is performed in a thinned-skull preparation. The first multispectral reflectance imaging data recorded in vivo during OB activation are presented, and the influence of DP on the hemodynamic parameters and the pattern of oxymetric changes in the activated OB are discussed. PMID:22352662

  6. Minority carrier diffusion lengths and absorption coefficients in silicon sheet material

    SciTech Connect

    Dumas, K.A.; Swimm, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    One of the indicators which determine a material's potential for use as a solar cell is the minority carrier diffusion length (L/sub D/) of the material. To determine L/sub D/ a surface photovoltage (SPV) technique is used. This method is dependent upon an accurate knowledge of the optical absorption coefficient as function of wavelength. The results for the absorption coefficients for various types of silicon sheet material are compared to those previously used in the two models. The resultant effect upon the diffusion length is also discussed in detail. 7 refs.

  7. Error Reduction Methods for Integrated-path Differential-absorption Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jeffrey R.; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart T.

    2012-01-01

    We report new modeling and error reduction methods for differential-absorption optical-depth (DAOD) measurements of atmospheric constituents using direct-detection integrated-path differential-absorption lidars. Errors from laser frequency noise are quantified in terms of the line center fluctuation and spectral line shape of the laser pulses, revealing relationships verified experimentally. A significant DAOD bias is removed by introducing a correction factor. Errors from surface height and reflectance variations can be reduced to tolerable levels by incorporating altimetry knowledge and "log after averaging", or by pointing the laser and receiver to a fixed surface spot during each wavelength cycle to shorten the time of "averaging before log".

  8. The extension of the concept of the cosmic-ray path-length distribution to nonrelativistic energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lezniak, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of the cosmic-ray path-length distribution is examined. The corresponding cosmic-ray propagation calculational procedure has been justified theoretically at relativistic energies (Ginzburg and Syrovatskii, 1964) where the effects of ionization energy loss are negligible. The present paper extends the use of the path-length distribution concept in cosmic-ray propagation calculations to nonrelativistic energies. Sufficient constraints to effect this extension are presented. The solution of the cosmic-ray propagation equations in terms of a Green's function approach is also investigated and is used to provide a formulation of the path-length distribution at nonrelativistic as well as relativistic energies in terms of the cosmic-ray source distribution and the propagation characteristics of the interstellar medium. The leaky-box model of cosmic-ray propagation is also examined.

  9. A 2-Micron Pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar Development For Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Reithmaier, Karl; Bai, Yingxin; Trieu, Bo C.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2012-01-01

    A 2-micron pulsed, Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar instrument for ground and airborne atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements via direct detection method is being developed at NASA Langley Research Center. This instrument will provide an alternate approach to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. A high energy pulsed approach provides high-precision measurement capability by having high signal-to-noise level and unambiguously eliminates the contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement.

  10. Optimizing the multiphoton absorption properties of maximally path-entangled number states

    SciTech Connect

    Plick, William N.; Wildfeuer, Christoph F.; Anisimov, Petr M.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2009-12-15

    In this paper we examine the N-photon absorption properties of maximally path-entangled number states (N00N states). We consider two cases. The first involves the N-photon absorption properties of the ideal N00N state, one that does not include spectral information. We study how the N-photon absorption probability of this state scales with N, confirming results presented by others in a previous paper by a different method. We compare this to the absorption probability of various other states. The second case is that of two-photon absorption for an N=2 N00N state generated from a type-II spontaneous down-conversion event. In this situation we find that the absorption probability is both better than analogous coherent light (due to frequency entanglement) and highly dependent on the optical setup. We show that the poor production rates of quantum states of light may be partially mitigated by adjusting the spectral parameters to improve their two-photon absorption rates. This work has application to quantum imaging, particularly quantum lithography, where the N-photon absorbing process in the lithographic resist must be optimized for practical applications.

  11. Finding the biased-shortest path with minimal congestion in networks via linear-prediction of queue length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yi; Ren, Gang; Liu, Yang

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a biased-shortest path method with minimal congestion. In the method, we use linear-prediction to estimate the queue length of nodes, and propose a dynamic accepting probability function for nodes to decide whether accept or reject the incoming packets. The dynamic accepting probability function is based on the idea of homogeneous network flow and is developed to enable nodes to coordinate their queue length to avoid congestion. A path strategy incorporated with the linear-prediction of the queue length and the dynamic accepting probability function of nodes is designed to allow packets to be automatically delivered on un-congested paths with short traveling time. Our method has the advantage of low computation cost because the optimal paths are dynamically self-organized by nodes in the delivering process of packets with local traffic information. We compare our method with the existing methods such as the efficient path method (EPS) and the optimal path method (OPS) on the BA scale-free networks and a real example. The numerical computations show that our method performs best for low network load and has minimum run time due to its low computational cost and local routing scheme.

  12. The enigma of effective path length for (18) O enrichment in leaf water of conifers.

    PubMed

    Roden, John; Kahmen, Ansgar; Buchmann, Nina; Siegwolf, Rolf

    2015-12-01

    The Péclet correction is often used to predict leaf evaporative enrichment and requires an estimate of effective path length (L). Studies to estimate L in conifer needles have produced unexpected patterns based on Péclet theory and leaf anatomy. We exposed seedlings of six conifer species to different vapour pressure deficits (VPD) in controlled climate chambers to produce steady-state leaf water enrichment (in (18) O). We measured leaf gas exchange, stable oxygen isotopic composition (δ(18) O) of input and plant waters as well as leaf anatomical characteristics. Variation in bulk needle water δ(18) O was strongly related to VPD. Conifer needles had large amounts of water within the vascular strand that was potentially unenriched (up to 40%). Both standard Craig-Gordon and Péclet models failed to accurately predict conifer leaf water δ(18) O without taking into consideration the unenriched water in the vascular strand and variable L. Although L was linearly related to mesophyll thickness, large within-species variation prevented the development of generalizations that could allow a broader use of the Péclet effect in predictive models. Our results point to the importance of within needle water pools and isolating mechanisms that need further investigation in order to integrate Péclet corrections with 'two compartment' leaf water concepts. PMID:26037826

  13. Water equivalent path length measurement in proton radiotherapy using time resolved diode dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalk, B.; Tang, S.; Bentefour, E. H.; Cascio, E. W.; Prieels, D.; Lu, H.-M.

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To verify water equivalent path length (WEPL) before treatment in proton radiotherapy using time resolved in vivo diode dosimetry. Methods: Using a passively scattered range modulated proton beam, the output of a diode driving a fast current-to-voltage amplifier is recorded at a number of depths in a water tank. At each depth, a burst of overlapping single proton pulses is observed. The rms duration of the burst is computed and the resulting data set is fitted with a cubic polynomial. Results: When the diode is subsequently set to an arbitrary depth and the polynomial is used as a calibration curve, the ''unknown'' depth is determined within 0.3 mm rms. Conclusions: A diode or a diode array, placed (for instance) in the rectum in conjunction with a rectal balloon, can potentially determine the WEPL at that point, just prior to treatment, with submillimeter accuracy, allowing the beam energy to be adjusted. The associated unwanted dose is about 0.2% of a typical single fraction treatment dose.

  14. Changes in diffusion path length with old age in diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnéry, Clément; Leclerc, Paul-Olivier; Desjardins, Michèle; Hoge, Rick; Bherer, Louis; Pouliot, Philippe; Lesage, Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    Diffuse, optical near infrared imaging is increasingly being used in various neurocognitive contexts where changes in optical signals are interpreted through activation maps. Statistical population comparison of different age or clinical groups rely on the relative homogeneous distribution of measurements across subjects in order to infer changes in brain function. In the context of an increasing use of diffuse optical imaging with older adult populations, changes in tissue properties and anatomy with age adds additional confounds. Few studies investigated these changes with age. Duncan et al. measured the so-called diffusion path length factor (DPF) in a large population but did not explore beyond the age of 51 after which physiological and anatomical changes are expected to occur [Pediatr. Res. 39(5), 889-894 (1996)]. With increasing interest in studying the geriatric population with optical imaging, we studied changes in tissue properties in young and old subjects using both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided Monte-Carlo simulations and time-domain diffuse optical imaging. Our results, measured in the frontal cortex, show changes in DPF that are smaller than previously measured by Duncan et al. in a younger population. The origin of these changes are studied using simulations and experimental measures.

  15. Continuous correction of differential path length factor in near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, Tanveer; Moore, Jason H.; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2013-05-01

    In continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS), changes in the concentration of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin can be calculated by solving a set of linear equations from the modified Beer-Lambert Law. Cross-talk error in the calculated hemodynamics can arise from inaccurate knowledge of the wavelength-dependent differential path length factor (DPF). We apply the extended Kalman filter (EKF) with a dynamical systems model to calculate relative concentration changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin while simultaneously estimating relative changes in DPF. Results from simulated and experimental CW-NIRS data are compared with results from a weighted least squares (WLSQ) method. The EKF method was found to effectively correct for artificially introduced errors in DPF and to reduce the cross-talk error in simulation. With experimental CW-NIRS data, the hemodynamic estimates from EKF differ significantly from the WLSQ (p<0.001). The cross-correlations among residuals at different wavelengths were found to be significantly reduced by the EKF method compared to WLSQ in three physiologically relevant spectral bands 0.04 to 0.15 Hz, 0.15 to 0.4 Hz and 0.4 to 2.0 Hz (p<0.001). This observed reduction in residual cross-correlation is consistent with reduced cross-talk error in the hemodynamic estimates from the proposed EKF method.

  16. Continuous correction of differential path length factor in near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Tanveer; Moore, Jason H; Diamond, Solomon G

    2013-05-01

    In continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS), changes in the concentration of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin can be calculated by solving a set of linear equations from the modified Beer-Lambert Law. Cross-talk error in the calculated hemodynamics can arise from inaccurate knowledge of the wavelength-dependent differential path length factor (DPF). We apply the extended Kalman filter (EKF) with a dynamical systems model to calculate relative concentration changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin while simultaneously estimating relative changes in DPF. Results from simulated and experimental CW-NIRS data are compared with results from a weighted least squares (WLSQ) method. The EKF method was found to effectively correct for artificially introduced errors in DPF and to reduce the cross-talk error in simulation. With experimental CW-NIRS data, the hemodynamic estimates from EKF differ significantly from the WLSQ (p < 0.001). The cross-correlations among residuals at different wavelengths were found to be significantly reduced by the EKF method compared to WLSQ in three physiologically relevant spectral bands 0.04 to 0.15 Hz, 0.15 to 0.4 Hz and 0.4 to 2.0 Hz (p < 0.001). This observed reduction in residual cross-correlation is consistent with reduced cross-talk error in the hemodynamic estimates from the proposed EKF method. PMID:23640027

  17. Airborne Measurements of CO2 Column Absorption and Range Using a Pulsed Direct-Detection Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Riris, Haris; Weaver, Clark J.; Mao, Jianping; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Browell, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    We report on airborne CO2 column absorption measurements made in 2009 with a pulsed direct-detection lidar operating at 1572.33 nm and utilizing the integrated path differential absorption technique. We demonstrated these at different altitudes from an aircraft in July and August in flights over four locations in the central and eastern United States. The results show clear CO2 line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. The lidar measurement statistics were also calculated for each flight as a function of altitude. The optical depth varied nearly linearly with altitude, consistent with calculations based on atmospheric models. The scatter in the optical depth measurements varied with aircraft altitude as expected, and the median measurement precisions for the column varied from 0.9 to 1.2 ppm. The altitude range with the lowest scatter was 810 km, and the majority of measurements for the column within it had precisions between 0.2 and 0.9 ppm.

  18. Airborne measurements of CO2 column absorption and range using a pulsed direct-detection integrated path differential absorption lidar.

    PubMed

    Abshire, James B; Riris, Haris; Weaver, Clark J; Mao, Jianping; Allan, Graham R; Hasselbrack, William E; Browell, Edward V

    2013-07-01

    We report on airborne CO(2) column absorption measurements made in 2009 with a pulsed direct-detection lidar operating at 1572.33 nm and utilizing the integrated path differential absorption technique. We demonstrated these at different altitudes from an aircraft in July and August in flights over four locations in the central and eastern United States. The results show clear CO(2) line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. The lidar measurement statistics were also calculated for each flight as a function of altitude. The optical depth varied nearly linearly with altitude, consistent with calculations based on atmospheric models. The scatter in the optical depth measurements varied with aircraft altitude as expected, and the median measurement precisions for the column varied from 0.9 to 1.2 ppm. The altitude range with the lowest scatter was 8-10 km, and the majority of measurements for the column within it had precisions between 0.2 and 0.9 ppm. PMID:23842238

  19. NO2 measurements in Hong Kong using LED based long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, K. L.; Pöhler, D.; Kuhlmann, G.; Hartl, A.; Platt, U.; Wenig, M. O.

    2012-05-01

    In this study we present the first long term measurements of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using a LED based Long Path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) instrument. This instrument is measuring continuously in Hong Kong since December 2009, first in a setup with a 550 m absorption path and then with a 3820 m path at about 30 m to 50 m above street level. The instrument is using a high power blue light LED with peak intensity at 450 nm coupled into the telescope using a Y-fibre bundle. The LP-DOAS instrument measures NO2 levels in the Kowloon Tong and Mongkok district of Hong Kong and we compare the measurement results to mixing ratios reported by monitoring stations operated by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department in that area. Hourly averages of coinciding measurements are in reasonable agreement (R = 0.74). Furthermore, we used the long-term data set to validate the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 data product. Monthly averaged LP-DOAS and OMI measurements correlate well (R = 0.84) when comparing the data for the OMI overpass time. We analyzed weekly patterns in both data sets and found that the LP-DOAS detects a clear weekly cycle with a reduction on weekends during rush hour peaks, whereas OMI is not able to observe this weekly cycle due to its fix overpass time (13:30-14:30 LT - local time).

  20. Addressing the Path-Length-Dependency Confound in White Matter Tract Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Liptrot, Matthew G.; Sidaros, Karam; Dyrby, Tim B.

    2014-01-01

    We derive the Iterative Confidence Enhancement of Tractography (ICE-T) framework to address the problem of path-length dependency (PLD), the streamline dispersivity confound inherent to probabilistic tractography methods. We show that PLD can arise as a non-linear effect, compounded by tissue complexity, and therefore cannot be handled using linear correction methods. ICE-T is an easy-to-implement framework that acts as a wrapper around most probabilistic streamline tractography methods, iteratively growing the tractography seed regions. Tract networks segmented with ICE-T can subsequently be delineated with a global threshold, even from a single-voxel seed. We investigated ICE-T performance using ex vivo pig-brain datasets where true positives were known via in vivo tracers, and applied the derived ICE-T parameters to a human in vivo dataset. We examined the parameter space of ICE-T: the number of streamlines emitted per voxel, and a threshold applied at each iteration. As few as 20 streamlines per seed-voxel, and a robust range of ICE-T thresholds, were shown to sufficiently segment the desired tract network. Outside this range, the tract network either approximated the complete white-matter compartment (too low threshold) or failed to propagate through complex regions (too high threshold). The parameters were shown to be generalizable across seed regions. With ICE-T, the degree of both near-seed flare due to false positives, and of distal false negatives, are decreased when compared with thresholded probabilistic tractography without ICE-T. Since ICE-T only addresses PLD, the degree of remaining false-positives and false-negatives will consequently be mainly attributable to the particular tractography method employed. Given the benefits offered by ICE-T, we would suggest that future studies consider this or a similar approach when using tractography to provide tract segmentations for tract based analysis, or for brain network analysis. PMID:24797510

  1. A Multi-Baseline 12 GHz Atmospheric Phase Interferometer with One Micron Path Length Sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimberk, Robert S.; Hunter, Todd R.; Leiker, Patrick S.; Blundell, Raymond; Nystrom, George U.; Petitpas, Glen R.; Test, John; Wilson, Robert W.; Yamaguchi, Paul; Young, Kenneth H.

    2012-12-01

    We have constructed a five station 12 GHz atmospheric phase interferometer (API) for the Submillimeter Array (SMA) located near the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Operating at the base of unoccupied SMA antenna pads, each station employs a commercial low noise mixing block coupled to a 0.7 m off-axis satellite dish which receives a broadband, white noise-like signal from a geostationary satellite. The signals are processed by an analog correlator to produce the phase delays between all pairs of stations with projected baselines ranging from 33-261 m. Each baseline's amplitude and phase is measured continuously at a rate of 8 kHz, processed, averaged and output at 10 Hz. Further signal processing and data reduction is accomplished with a Linux computer, including the removal of the diurnal motion of the target satellite. The placement of the stations below ground level with an environmental shield combined with the use of low temperature coefficient, buried fiber optic cables provides excellent system stability. The sensitivity in terms of rms path length is 1.3 microns which corresponds to phase deviations of about 1° of phase at the highest operating frequency of the SMA. The two primary data products are: (1) standard deviations of observed phase over various time scales, and (2) phase structure functions. These real-time statistical data measured by the API in the direction of the satellite provide an estimate of the phase front distortion experienced by the concurrent SMA astronomical observations. The API data also play an important role, along with the local opacity measurements and weather predictions, in helping to plan the scheduling of science observations on the telescope.

  2. Water-equivalent path length calibration of a prototype proton CT scanner

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, R. F.; Schulte, R. W.; Bashkirov, V. A.; Wroe, A. J.; Ghebremedhin, A.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Rykalin, V.; Coutrakon, G.; Koss, P.; Patyal, B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors present a calibration method for a prototype proton computed tomography (pCT) scanner. The accuracy of these measurements depends upon careful calibration of the energy detector used to measure the residual energy of the protons that passed through the object. Methods: A prototype pCT scanner with a cesium iodide (CsI(Tl)) crystal calorimeter was calibrated by measuring the calorimeter response for protons of 200 and 100 MeV initial energies undergoing degradation in polystyrene plates of known thickness and relative stopping power (RSP) with respect to water. Calibration curves for the two proton energies were obtained by fitting a second-degree polynomial to the water-equivalent path length versus calorimeter response data. Using the 100 MeV calibration curve, the RSP values for a variety of tissue-equivalent materials were measured and compared to values obtained from a standard depth-dose range shift measurement using a water-tank. A cylindrical water phantom was scanned with 200 MeV protons and its RSP distribution was reconstructed using the 200 MeV calibration. Results: It is shown that this calibration method produces measured RSP values of various tissue-equivalent materials that agree to within 0.5% of values obtained using an established water-tank method. The mean RSP value of the water phantom reconstruction was found to be 0.995??0.006. Conclusions: The method presented provides a simple and reliable procedure for calibration of a pCT scanner. PMID:22559614

  3. Water-equivalent path length calibration of a prototype proton CT scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, R. F.; Schulte, R. W.; Bashkirov, V. A.; Wroe, A. J.; Ghebremedhin, A.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Rykalin, V.; Coutrakon, G.; Koss, P.; Patyal, B.

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: The authors present a calibration method for a prototype proton computed tomography (pCT) scanner. The accuracy of these measurements depends upon careful calibration of the energy detector used to measure the residual energy of the protons that passed through the object. Methods: A prototype pCT scanner with a cesium iodide (CsI(Tl)) crystal calorimeter was calibrated by measuring the calorimeter response for protons of 200 and 100 MeV initial energies undergoing degradation in polystyrene plates of known thickness and relative stopping power (RSP) with respect to water. Calibration curves for the two proton energies were obtained by fitting a second-degree polynomial to the water-equivalent path length versus calorimeter response data. Using the 100 MeV calibration curve, the RSP values for a variety of tissue-equivalent materials were measured and compared to values obtained from a standard depth-dose range shift measurement using a water-tank. A cylindrical water phantom was scanned with 200 MeV protons and its RSP distribution was reconstructed using the 200 MeV calibration. Results: It is shown that this calibration method produces measured RSP values of various tissue-equivalent materials that agree to within 0.5% of values obtained using an established water-tank method. The mean RSP value of the water phantom reconstruction was found to be 0.995 {+-} 0.006. Conclusions: The method presented provides a simple and reliable procedure for calibration of a pCT scanner.

  4. Influence of neglecting the curved path of the Achilles tendon on Achilles tendon length change at various ranges of motion.

    PubMed

    Fukutani, Atsuki; Hashizume, Satoru; Kusumoto, Kazuki; Kurihara, Toshiyuki

    2014-10-01

    Achilles tendon length has been measured using a straight-line model. However, this model is associated with a greater measurement error compared with a curved-line model. Therefore, we examined the influence of neglecting the curved path of the Achilles tendon on its length change at various ranges of motion. Ten male subjects participated in this study. First, the location of the Achilles tendon was confirmed by using ultrasonography, and markers were attached on the skin over the Achilles tendon path. Then, the three-dimensional coordinates of each marker at dorsiflexion (DF) 15°, plantarflexion (PF) 0°, PF15°, and PF30° were obtained. Achilles tendon length in the curved-line model was calculated as the sum of the distances among each marker. On the other hand, Achilles tendon length in the straight-line model was calculated as the straight distance between the two most proximal and distal markers projected onto the sagittal plane. The difference of the Achilles tendon length change between curved-line and straight-line models was calculated by subtracting the Achilles tendon length change obtained in curved-line model from that obtained in straight-line model with three different ranges of motion (i.e., PF0°, PF15°, and PF30° from DF15°, respectively). As a result, the difference in Achilles tendon length change between the two models increased significantly as the range of motion increased. In conclusion, neglecting the curved path of the Achilles tendon induces substantial overestimation of its length change when the extent of ankle joint angle change is large. PMID:25303951

  5. Airborne measurements of atmospheric methane column abundance using a pulsed integrated-path differential absorption lidar.

    PubMed

    Riris, Haris; Numata, Kenji; Li, Steve; Wu, Stewart; Ramanathan, Anand; Dawsey, Martha; Mao, Jianping; Kawa, Randolph; Abshire, James B

    2012-12-01

    We report airborne measurements of the column abundance of atmospheric methane made over an altitude range of 3-11 km using a direct detection integrated-path differential-absorption lidar with a pulsed laser emitting at 1651 nm. The laser transmitter was a tunable, seeded optical parametric amplifier pumped by a Nd:YAG laser, and the receiver used a photomultiplier detector and photon-counting electronics. The results follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude, and the measured line shapes and optical depths show good agreement with theoretical calculations. PMID:23207402

  6. Measurement of distance changes using a fibre-coupled common-path interferometer with mechanical path length modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, M.; Lehmann, P.

    2013-06-01

    We present a novel type of fibre-coupled interferometric sensor. A micro-optical probe acts as a common-path interferometer and focuses the measuring light emitted by a laser diode onto the surface under investigation. The probe is mounted on a bending beam and deflected periodically by a piezoelectric actuator. This generates a phase-modulated interference signal, which is transformed to an electrical signal by a photo diode. The measurement principle is based on the fact that a distance change between the probe and the measurement object leads to a characteristic phase-shift of the measured signal. The photo diode signal is analysed in different ways in order to enable both high accuracy in the nanometre range and high measurement speeds, where the data rate of the sensor is finally limited by the conversion rate of the used analogue-to-digital converter. In order to extend the range of unambiguity of the sensor and to improve the robustness of measurement, we apply a dual-wavelength technique using two laser diodes emitting at different wavelengths simultaneously. Repeatability measurements, responses to distance changes and, finally, the measurement of calibration specimens with well-defined surface profiles demonstrate the performance of the system.

  7. Error reduction methods for integrated-path differential-absorption lidar measurements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeffrey R; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart T

    2012-07-01

    We report new modeling and error reduction methods for differential-absorption optical-depth (DAOD) measurements of atmospheric constituents using direct-detection integrated-path differential-absorption lidars. Errors from laser frequency noise are quantified in terms of the line center fluctuation and spectral line shape of the laser pulses, revealing relationships verified experimentally. A significant DAOD bias is removed by introducing a correction factor. Errors from surface height and reflectance variations can be reduced to tolerable levels by incorporating altimetry knowledge and "log after averaging", or by pointing the laser and receiver to a fixed surface spot during each wavelength cycle to shorten the time of "averaging before log". PMID:22772254

  8. Minority carrier diffusion lengths and absorption coefficients in silicon sheet material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumas, K. A.; Swimm, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Most of the methods which have been developed for the measurement of the minority carrier diffusion length of silicon wafers require that the material have either a Schottky or an ohmic contact. The surface photovoltage (SPV) technique is an exception. The SPV technique could, therefore, become a valuable diagnostic tool in connection with current efforts to develop low-cost processes for the production of solar cells. The technique depends on a knowledge of the optical absorption coefficient. The considered investigation is concerned with a reevaluation of the absorption coefficient as a function of silicon processing. A comparison of absorption coefficient values showed these values to be relatively consistent from sample to sample, and independent of the sample growth method.

  9. Correlation between seismic events and anomalous `VLF day-length' for west-east and east-west propagation paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Suman; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Sasmal, Sudipta

    We present results of year-long analysis of VLF signals, both for VTX-Malda (`west-east' propagation path) and VTX-Pune (`east-west' propagation path). We analyzed whole year data of 2008 and 2009 for VTX-Malda and VTX-Pune propagation path, respectively. In both the cases we found that `VLF day-length' (defined as time difference between sunset terminator time and sunrise terminator time) became anomalously high 1-2 days before an earthquake. Besides this year-long study we have also done some case by case analysis. On 9th January, 2009 an earthquake of magnitude 5.5 occurred at Carlsberg Ridge (latitude 10.3(°) N, longitude 57.1(°) E). In a separate incident, on 3rd November, 2009, another earthquake of magnitude 5.4 occurred at Andaman Islands (latitude 14.1(°) N, longitude 93.1(°) E). We analyze VLF signals for VTX-Pune (`east-west’ propagation path) propagation path around these two earthquake days and found that for both of these cases, the `VLF-day-length' became anomalously high two days before the event. This agrees well with statistical analysis based on year-long data for VTX-Pune path. Furthermore, during time period of June, 2010, two major earthquakes of low-depth ( 10Km) and high magnitude (M>5) occurred near NWC-Salt Lake (east-west propagation path) propagation paths. First one occurred on 13th June, 2010 at Nicobar Islands, India (latitude 7.8(°) N, longitude 92.0(°) E). Its magnitude was 5.1 (in Richter scale). The second one of magnitude 6.0 (in Richter Scale) occurred on 19th June, 2010 at Andaman Islands, India (latitude 13.4(°) N, longitude 93.0(°) E). For both of these two earthquakes, we found that VLF-day-length, became anomalously high one day before earthquakes. We claim that these were pre-cursors of the earthquakes which occurred in Andaman and Nicober Islands.

  10. Measurement of tropospheric OH by laser long-path absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Michael; Perner, D.

    1994-01-01

    OH-radicals are measured by laser long-path absorption spectroscopy. A tunable Nd:YAG/dye laser system provides broadbanded light at 308 nm. The beam is expanded to 0.3 m and pointed to an array of retroreflectors placed at a distance of 2800 m. The returning beam is separated from the outgoing beam and focused into a spectrometer of 0.3 pm resolution. A 1024 element diode array is used as a detector. The signal is digitized by a 14 bit analog to digital converter. The ultimate aim is a detection limit of 10(exp 5) molecules cm(exp -3) of OH. However the measurements in 1991 allowed only the recognition of OH absorptions corresponding to 3 x 10(exp 6) OH cm(exp -3) with a signal to noise ratio of two. Improvements of the instrument are under way. The advantages of the DOAS method are: the accuracy of detection is guaranteed because loss of OH radicals within the device is avoided, the rate of OH production by the device is negligible, and absorptions of other trace gases could be corrected for; and the calibration procedure for the device is fast and easy. The disadvantages of the system are: time resolution is about minutes because about ten spectra had to be added to keep the noise level down, the OH concentration is averaged along the whole light path, weight (500 kg) and size (4x4 m) of the device; and approximately 10 l/min of coolant and supply of 8 kW electrical power are necessary.

  11. [Open-path online monitoring of ambient atmospheric CO2 based on laser absorption spectrum].

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Kan, Rui-Feng; Xia, Hui; Geng, Hui; Ruan, Jun; Wang, Min; Cui, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Wen-Qing

    2009-01-01

    With the conjunction of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technology (TDLAS) and the open long optical path technology, the system designing scheme of CO2 on-line monitoring based on near infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technology was discussed in detail, and the instrument for large-range measurement was set up. By choosing the infrared absorption line of CO2 at 1.57 microm whose line strength is strong and suitable for measurement, the ambient atmospheric CO2 was measured continuously with a 30 s temporal resolution at an suburb site in the autumn of 2007. The diurnal atmospheric variations of CO2 and continuous monitoring results were presented. The results show that the variation in CO2 concentration has an obvious diurnal periodicity in suburb where the air is free of interference and contamination. The general characteristic of diurnal variation is that the concentration is low in the daytime and high at night, so it matches the photosynthesis trend. The instrument can detect gas concentration online with high resolution, high sensitivity, high precision, short response time and many other advantages, the monitoring requires no gas sampling, the calibration is easy, and the detection limit is about 4.2 x 10(-7). It has been proved that the system and measurement project are feasible, so it is an effective method for gas flux continuous online monitoring of large range in ecosystem based on TDLAS technology. PMID:19385195

  12. Quantifying Path Length: Fourth-Grade Children's Developing Abstractions for Linear Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Jeffrey E.; Clements, Douglas H.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes how children build increasingly abstract knowledge of linear measurement, emphasizing ways they relate space and number. Assessments indicate children struggle to understand measurement, especially concepts related to complex paths as in perimeter tasks. This article draws on developmental accounts of children's knowledge of…

  13. A laser ranging method dedicated to path lengths equalization in diluted telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lintz, M.; Courde, C.

    2014-04-01

    When implementing a diluted telescope with large dimensions, one has to reach the equal path condition to the different segments of the primary mirror. In this work we suggest a way to implement a fast laser ranging method able to provide the error signal, using phase detection of the microwave modulation of a laser beam.

  14. Development of a Pulsed 2-Micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar for CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Refaat, Tamer

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important greenhouse gas that significantly contributes to the carbon cycle and global radiation budget on Earth. Active remote sensing of CO2 is important to address several limitations that contend with passive sensors. A 2-micron double-pulsed, Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar instrument for ground and airborne atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements via direct detection method is being developed at NASA Langley Research Center. This active remote sensing instrument will provide an alternate approach of measuring atmospheric CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. A high energy pulsed approach provides high-precision measurement capability by having high signal-to-noise ratio level and unambiguously eliminates the contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement. Commercial, on the shelf, components are implemented for the detection system. Instrument integration will be presented in this paper as well as a background for CO2 measurement at NASA Langley research Center

  15. Open-path tunable diode laser absorption for eddy correlation flux measurements of atmospheric trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Stuart M.; Zahniser, Mark S.

    1991-01-01

    Biogenic emissions from and dry deposition to terrestrial surfaces are important processes determining the trace gas composition of the atmosphere. An instrument has been developed for flux measurements of gases such as CH4, N2O, and O3 based on the eddy correlation technique which combines trace gas fluctuation measurements with simultaneous windfield measurements. The instrument combines a tunable diode laser infrared light source with an open-path multipass absorption cell in order to provide the fast time response and short base pathlength required for the eddy correlation method. Initial field tests using the instrument to measure methane emissions from a local wetland demonstrate the capability for high precision eddy correlation flux measurements.

  16. Development of a portable active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy system for volcanic gas measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vita, Fabio; Kern, Christoph; Inguaggiato, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) has been an effective tool for measuring atmospheric trace gases for several decades. However, instruments were large, heavy and power-inefficient, making their application to remote environments extremely challenging. Recent developments in fibre-coupling telescope technology and the availability of ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDS) have now allowed us to design and construct a lightweight, portable, low-power LP-DOAS instrument for use at remote locations and specifically for measuring degassing from active volcanic systems. The LP-DOAS was used to measure sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from La Fossa crater, Vulcano, Italy, where column densities of up to 1.2 × 1018 molec cm−2 (~ 500 ppmm) were detected along open paths of up to 400 m in total length. The instrument's SO2 detection limit was determined to be 2 × 1016 molec cm−2 (~ 8 ppmm), thereby making quantitative detection of even trace amounts of SO2 possible. The instrument is capable of measuring other volcanic volatile species as well. Though the spectral evaluation of the recorded data showed that chlorine monoxide (ClO) and carbon disulfide (CS2) were both below the instrument's detection limits during the experiment, the upper limits for the X / SO2 ratio (X = ClO, CS2) could be derived, and yielded 2 × 10−3 and 0.1, respectively. The robust design and versatility of the instrument make it a promising tool for monitoring of volcanic degassing and understanding processes in a range of volcanic systems.

  17. Phrase Length Matters: The Interplay between Implicit Prosody and Syntax in Korean "Garden Path" Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Hyekyung; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    In spoken language comprehension, syntactic parsing decisions interact with prosodic phrasing, which is directly affected by phrase length. Here we used ERPs to examine whether a similar effect holds for the on-line processing of written sentences during silent reading, as suggested by theories of "implicit prosody." Ambiguous Korean sentence…

  18. Radiometric correction of atmospheric path length fluctuations in interferometric experiments. [in radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, G. M.; Hogg, D. E.; Napier, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    To support very long baseline interferometric experiments, a system has been developed for estimating atmospheric water vapor path delay. The system consists of dual microwave radiometers, one operating at 20.7 GHz and the other at 31.4 GHz. The measured atmospheric brightness temperatures at these two frequencies yield the estimate of the precipitable water present in both vapor and droplets. To determine the accuracy of the system, a series of observations were undertaken, comparing the outputs of two water vapor radiometers with the phase variation observed with two connected elements of the very large array (VLA). The results show that: (1) water vapor fluctuations dominate the residual VLA phase and (2) the microwave radiometers can measure and correct these effects. The rms phase error after correction is typically 15 deg at a wavelength of 6 cm, corresponding to an uncertainty in the path delay of 0.25 cm. The residual uncertainty is consistent with the stability of the microwave radiometer but is still considerably larger than the stability of the VLA. The technique is less successful under conditions of heavy cloud.

  19. Investigation of an implantable dosimeter for single-point water equivalent path length verification in proton therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Mann, Greg; Cascio, Ethan

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: In vivo range verification in proton therapy is highly desirable. A recent study suggested that it was feasible to use point dose measurement for in vivo beam range verification in proton therapy, provided that the spread-out Bragg peak dose distribution is delivered in a different and rather unconventional manner. In this work, the authors investigate the possibility of using a commercial implantable dosimeter with wireless reading for this particular application. Methods: The traditional proton treatment technique delivers all the Bragg peaks required for a SOBP field in a single sequence, producing a constant dose plateau across the target volume. As a result, a point dose measurement anywhere in the target volume will produce the same value, thus providing no information regarding the water equivalent path length to the point of measurement. However, the same constant dose distribution can be achieved by splitting the field into a complementary pair of subfields, producing two oppositely ''sloped'' depth-dose distributions, respectively. The ratio between the two distributions can be a sensitive function of depth and measuring this ratio at a point inside the target volume can provide the water equivalent path length to the dosimeter location. Two types of field splits were used in the experiment, one achieved by the technique of beam current modulation and the other by manipulating the location and width of the beam pulse relative to the range modulator track. Eight MOSFET-based implantable dosimeters at four different depths in a water tank were used to measure the dose ratios for these field pairs. A method was developed to correct the effect of the well-known LET dependence of the MOSFET detectors on the depth-dose distributions using the columnar recombination model. The LET-corrected dose ratios were used to derive the water equivalent path lengths to the dosimeter locations to be compared to physical measurements. Results: The implantable dosimeters measured the dose ratios with a reasonable relative uncertainty of 1%-3% at all depths, except when the ratio itself becomes very small. In total, 55% of the individual measurements reproduced the water equivalent path lengths to the dosimeters within 1 mm. For three dosimeters, the difference was consistently less than 1 mm. Half of the standard deviations over the repeated measurements were equal or less than 1 mm. Conclusions: With a single fitting parameter, the LET-correction method worked remarkably well for the MOSFET detectors. The overall results were very encouraging for a potential method of in vivo beam range verification with millimeter accuracy. This is sufficient accuracy to expand range of clinical applications in which the authors could use the distal fall off of the proton depth dose for tight margins.

  20. Simulating the Effect of Modulated Tool-Path Chip Breaking On Surface Texture and Chip Length

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.S.; McFarland, J.T.; Tursky, D. A.; Assaid, T. S.; Barkman, W. E.; Babelay, Jr., E. F.

    2010-04-30

    One method for creating broken chips in turning processes involves oscillating the cutting tool in the feed direction utilizing the CNC machine axes. The University of North Carolina at Charlotte and the Y-12 National Security Complex have developed and are refining a method to reliably control surface finish and chip length based on a particular machine's dynamic performance. Using computer simulations it is possible to combine the motion of the machine axes with the geometry of the cutting tool to predict the surface characteristics and map the surface texture for a wide range of oscillation parameters. These data allow the selection of oscillation parameters to simultaneously ensure broken chips and acceptable surface characteristics. This paper describes the machine dynamic testing and characterization activities as well as the computational method used for evaluating and predicting chip length and surface texture.

  1. Measurement of Urban Air Quality by an Open-Path Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectrometer in Beijing During Summer 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, A. P.; Liu, P. Q.; Yeung, J. K.; Zhang, Y.; Baeck, M. L.; Pan, X.; Dong, H.; Wang, Z.; Smith, J. A.; Gmachl, C. F.

    2009-05-01

    The 2008 Olympic Games focused attention on the air quality of Beijing, China and served as an important test-bed for developing, deploying, and testing new technologies for analysis of air quality and regional climate in urban environments. Poor air quality in urban locations has a significant detrimental effect on the health of residents while also impacting both regional and global climate change. As a result, there exists a great need for highly sensitive trace gas sensors for studying the atmosphere of the urban environment. Open-path remote sensors are of particular interest as they can obtain data on spatial scales similar to those used in regional climate models. Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) can be designed for operation in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) with a central wavelength anywhere between 3 to 24 μm and made tunable over a wavelength interval of over 0.1 μm. The Quantum Cascade Laser Open-Path System (QCLOPS) is a mid-infrared laser absorption spectrometer that uses a tunable, thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed Daylight Solutions Inc. QCL for measurement of trace gases. The system is aimed at applications with path lengths ranging from approximately 0.1 to 1.0 km. The system is designed to continuously monitor multiple trace gases [water vapor (H2O), ozone (O3), ammonia (NH3), and carbon dioxide (CO2)] in the lower atmosphere. A field campaign from July to September 2008 in Beijing used QCLOPS to study trace gas concentrations before, during, and after the Olympic Games in an effort to capture changes induced by emissions reduction methods. QCLOPS was deployed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics - Chinese Academy of Sciences on the roof of a two-story building, at an approximate distance of 2 miles from the Olympic National Stadium ("The Bird's Nest.") QCLOPS operated with an open-path round trip distance of approximately 75 m. The system ran with minimal human interference, twenty-four hours per day for the full campaign period. In order to collect data over numerous absorption peaks belonging to the target gases of H2O, NH3, O3, and CO2, measurements were made at 317 different wavelengths within the full tuning range of the laser (1020 - 1070 cm-1). We present the design of this novel sensor which was successfully built, deployed, and operated with minimal operator intervention for the three month field campaign period. Furthermore, we present the results of the field campaign and the capabilities of the QCLOPS system to measure fluctuations of the trace gases at parts-per-billion levels. The time series data illustrate the changing levels of the trace gases over the campaign period. In addition, data from commercial sensors simultaneously deployed at the field site are presented as a validation of the capabilities of the QCLOPS system. This work was supported by MIRTHE (NSF-ERC #EEC-0540832).

  2. The azimuthal path of myosin V and its dependence on lever-arm length

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, John H.; Beausang, John F.; Sweeney, H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Myosin V (myoV) is a two-headed myosin capable of taking many successive steps along actin per diffusional encounter, enabling it to transport vesicular and ribonucleoprotein cargos in the dense and complex environment within cells. To better understand how myoV navigates along actin, we used polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to examine angular changes of bifunctional rhodamine probes on the lever arms of single myoV molecules in vitro. With a newly developed analysis technique, the rotational motions of the lever arm and the local orientation of each probe relative to the lever arm were estimated from the probe’s measured orientation. This type of analysis could be applied to similar studies on other motor proteins, as well as other proteins with domains that undergo significant rotational motions. The experiments were performed on recombinant constructs of myoV that had either the native-length (six IQ motifs and calmodulins [CaMs]) or truncated (four IQ motifs and CaMs) lever arms. Native-length myoV-6IQ mainly took straight steps along actin, with occasional small azimuthal tilts around the actin filament. Truncated myoV-4IQ showed an increased frequency of azimuthal steps, but the magnitudes of these steps were nearly identical to those of myoV-6IQ. The results show that the azimuthal deflections of myoV on actin are more common for the truncated lever arm, but the range of these deflections is relatively independent of its lever-arm length. PMID:22291144

  3. Enhancing light absorption within the carrier transport length in quantum junction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yulan; Hara, Yukihiro; Miller, Christopher W; Lopez, Rene

    2015-09-10

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells have attracted tremendous attention because of their tunable absorption spectrum window and potentially low processing cost. Recently reported quantum junction solar cells represent a promising approach to building a rectifying photovoltaic device that employs CQD layers on each side of the p-n junction. However, the ultimate efficiency of CQD solar cells is still highly limited by their high trap state density in both p- and n-type CQDs. By modeling photonic structures to enhance the light absorption within the carrier transport length and by ensuring that the carrier generation and collection efficiencies were both augmented, our work shows that overall device current density could be improved. We utilized a two-dimensional numerical model to calculate the characteristics of patterned CQD solar cells based on a simple grating structure. Our calculation predicts a short circuit current density as high as 31  mA/cm2, a value nearly 1.5 times larger than that of the conventional flat design, showing the great potential value of patterned quantum junction solar cells. PMID:26368966

  4. Airborne 2-Micron Double-Pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar for Column CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Remus, Ruben G.; Fay, James J.; Reithmaier, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Double-pulse 2-micron lasers have been demonstrated with energy as high as 600 millijouls and up to 10 Hz repetition rate. The two laser pulses are separated by 200 microseconds and can be tuned and locked separately. Applying double-pulse laser in DIAL system enhances the CO2 measurement capability by increasing the overlap of the sampled volume between the on-line and off-line. To avoid detection complicity, integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar provides higher signal-to-noise ratio measurement compared to conventional range-resolved DIAL. Rather than weak atmospheric scattering returns, IPDA rely on the much stronger hard target returns that is best suited for airborne platforms. In addition, the IPDA technique measures the total integrated column content from the instrument to the hard target but with weighting that can be tuned by the transmitter. Therefore, the transmitter could be tuned to weight the column measurement to the surface for optimum CO2 interaction studies or up to the free troposphere for optimum transport studies. Currently, NASA LaRC is developing and integrating a double-Pulsed 2-micron direct detection IPDA lidar for CO2 column measurement from an airborne platform. The presentation will describe the development of the 2-micron IPDA lidar system and present the airborne measurement of column CO2 and will compare to in-situ measurement for various ground target of different reflectivity.

  5. Design of differential optical absorption spectroscopy long-path telescopes based on fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Merten, André; Tschritter, Jens; Platt, Ulrich

    2011-02-10

    We present a new design principle of telescopes for use in the spectral investigation of the atmosphere and the detection of atmospheric trace gases with the long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. A combination of emitting and receiving fibers in a single bundle replaces the commonly used coaxial-Newton-type combination of receiving and transmitting telescope. This very simplified setup offers a higher light throughput and simpler adjustment and allows smaller instruments, which are easier to handle and more portable. The higher transmittance was verified by ray-tracing calculations, which result in a theoretical factor threefold improvement in signal intensity compared with the old setup. In practice, due to the easier alignment and higher stability, up to factor of 10 higher signal intensities were found. In addition, the use of a fiber optic light source provides a better spectral characterization of the light source, which results in a lower detection limit for trace gases studied with this instrument. This new design will greatly enhance the usability and the range of applications of active DOAS instruments. PMID:21343997

  6. Triple-Pulsed Two-Micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar: A New Active Remote Sensing Capability with Path to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Petros, Mulugeta; Yu, Jirong

    2015-01-01

    The two-micron wavelength is suitable for monitoring atmospheric water vapor and carbon dioxide, the two most dominant greenhouse gases. Recent advances in 2-micron laser technology paved the way for constructing state-of-the-art lidar transmitters for active remote sensing applications. In this paper, a new triple-pulsed 2-micron integrated path differential absorption lidar is presented. This lidar is capable of measuring either two species or single specie with two different weighting functions, simultaneously and independently. Development of this instrument is conducted at NASA Langley Research Center. Instrument scaling for projected future space missions will be discussed.

  7. Leaf morphological effects predict effective path length and enrichment of 18O in leaf water of different Eucalyptus species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahmen, A.; Merchant, A.; Callister, A.; Dawson, T. E.; Arndt, S. K.

    2006-12-01

    Stable isotopes have been a valuable tool to study water or carbon fluxes of plants and ecosystems. In particular oxygen isotopes (δ18O) in leaf water or plant organic material are now beginning to be established as a simple and integrative measure for plant - water relations. Current δ18O models, however, are still limited in their application to a broad range of different species and ecosystems. It remains for example unclear, if species-specific effects such as different leaf morphologies need to be included in the models for a precise understanding and prediction of δ18O signals. In a common garden experiment (Currency Creek Arboretum, South Australia), where over 900 different Eucalyptus species are cultivated in four replicates, we tested effects of leaf morphology and anatomy on δ18O signals in leaf water of 25 different species. In particular, we determined for all species enrichment in 18O of mean lamina leaf water above source water (Δ18O) as related to leaf physiology as well as leaf thickness, leaf area, specific leaf area and weight and selected anatomical properties. Our data revealed that diurnal Δ18O in leaf water at steady state was significantly different among the investigated species and with differences up to 10% at midday. Fitting factors (effective path length) of leaf water Δ18O models were also significantly different among the investigated species and were highly affected by species-specific morphological parameters. For example, leaf area explained a high percentage of the differences in effective path length observed among the investigated species. Our data suggest that leaf water δ18O can act as powerful tool to estimate plant - water relations in comparative studies but that additional leaf morphological parameters need to be considered in existing δ18O models for a better interpretation of the observed δ18O signals.

  8. Constraints on the path-length dependence of jet quenching in nuclear collisions at RHIC and LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, Barbara; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2014-08-01

    Recent data on the high- p T pion nuclear modification factor, R AA ( p T ), and its elliptic azimuthal asymmetry, v 2( p T ), from RHIC/BNL and LHC/CERN are analyzed in terms of a wide class of jet-energy loss models coupled to different (2+1)d transverse plus Bjorken expanding hydrodynamic fields. We test the consistency of each model by demanding a simultaneous account of the azimuthal, the transverse momentum, and the centrality dependence of the data at both 0.2 and 2.76 ATeV energies. We find a rather broad class of jet-energy independent energy-loss models dE/dx = κ( T) x z T 2+ z ζ q that, when coupled to bulk constrained temperature fields T( x, t), can account for the current data at the χ 2 /d .o .f . < 2 level with different temperature-dependent jet-medium couplings, κ( T), and path-length dependence exponents 0 ≤ z ≤ 2. We extend previous studies by including a generic term, 0 < ζ q < 2 + q, to test different scenarios of energy-loss fluctuations. While a previously proposed AdS/CFT jet-energy loss model with a temperature-independent jet-medium coupling as well as a near- T c dominated, pQCD-inspired energy-loss scenario are shown to be inconsistent with the LHC data, once the parameters are constrained by fitting to RHIC results, we find several new solutions with a temperature-dependent κ( T). We conclude that the current level of statistical and systematic uncertainties of the measured data does not allow a constraint on the path-length exponent z to a range narrower than [0 - 2].

  9. Spectroscopic method for Earth-satellite-Earth laser long-path absorption measurements using Retroreflector In Space (RIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugimoto, Nobuo; Minato, Atsushi; Sasano, Yasuhiro

    1992-01-01

    The Retroreflector in Space (RIS) is a single element cube-corner retroreflector with a diameter of 0.5 m designed for earth-satellite-earth laser long-path absorption experiments. The RIS is to be loaded on the Advanced Earth Observing System (ADEOS) satellite which is scheduled for launch in Feb. 1996. The orbit for ADEOS is a sun synchronous subrecurrent polar-orbit with an inclination of 98.6 deg. It has a period of 101 minutes and an altitude of approximately 800 km. The local time at descending node is 10:15-10:45, and the recurrent period is 41 days. The velocity relative to the ground is approximately 7 km/s. In the RIS experiment, a laser beam transmitted from a ground station is reflected by RIS and received at the ground station. The absorption of the intervening atmosphere is measured in the round-trip optical path.

  10. Ground-based Photon Path Measurements from Solar Absorption Spectra of the O2 A-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Z.; Wennberg, P. O.; Cageao, R. P.; Pongetti, T. J.; Toon, G. C.; Sander, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution solar absorption spectra obtained from Table Mountain Facility (TMF, 34.38degN, 117.68degW, 2286 m elevation) have been analyzed in the region of the O2 A-band. The photon paths of direct sunlight in clear sky cases are retrieved from the O2 absorption lines and compared with ray-tracing calculations based on the solar zenith angle and surface pressure. At a given zenith angle, the ratios of retrieved to geometrically derived photon paths are highly precise (approx.0.2%), but they vary as the zenith angle changes. This is because current models of the spectral lineshape in this band do not properly account for the significant absorption that exists far from the centers of saturated lines. For example, use of a Voigt function with Lorentzian far wings results in an error in the retrieved photon path of as much as 5%, highly correlated with solar zenith angle. Adopting a super-Lorentz function reduces, but does not completely eliminate this problem. New lab measurements of the lineshape are required to make further progress.

  11. New method of estimating wavelength-dependent optical path length ratios for oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin measurement using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Umeyama, Shinji; Yamada, Toru

    2009-01-01

    In near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), concentration changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin are calculated using an attenuation change of the measurement light and by solving a linear equation based on the modified Lambert-Beer law. While solving this equation, we need to know the wavelength-dependent mean optical path lengths of the measurement lights. However, it is very difficult to know these values by a continuous-wave-type (CW-type) system. We propose a new method of estimating wavelength-dependent optical path length ratios of the measurement lights based on the data obtained by a triple wavelength CW-type NIRS instrument. The proposed method does not give a path length itself, but it gives a path length ratio. Thus, it is possible to obtain the accurate hemoglobin concentration changes without cross talk, although the method cannot contribute to the quantification of the absolute magnitude of hemoglobin changes. The method is based on the principle that two possible estimations of hemoglobin concentration changes calculated using a triple-wavelength measurement system should be identical. The method was applied to the experimental data of human subjects' foreheads. The estimated path length ratios were very similar to literature values obtained by using picosecond laser pulses and a streak camera detector [M. Essenpreis et al., Appl. Opt. 32(4), 418-425 (1993)]. PMID:19895139

  12. Retrieval of atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane from GOSAT data with the photon path length probability density function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshchepkov, Sergey; Bril, Andrey; Yokota, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Yukio

    2014-05-01

    The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite "IBUKI" (GOSAT) is the world's first spacecraft to measure the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). The satellite has been operating properly from January 23, 2009. This paper presents retrievals of CO2 and CH4 from GOSAT data with the photon pathlength probability density function (PPDF) method that has been developed at the National Institute of Environmental Studies. This paper focus on a validation of the retrievals using satellite data during 38 months of GOSAT operation from June 2009 and ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer measurements from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) as the reference data for the column-averaged dry air mole fractions of the atmospheric gases. The TCCON-GOSAT coincidence criteria for validating the satellite-based retrievals included GOSAT single scan data over land within a 5° radius latitude/ longitude circle centered at each of 12 TCCON stations. The ground-based TCCON data were mean values measured within plus/minus 1 hour of the GOSAT overpass time. We use the latest version of PPDF-based method that retrieves simultaneously gas abundance and light path modification through the atmosphere. The radiance spectra from all three GOSAT SWIR bands (0.76 μm; 1.6 μm and 2.0 μm) were used to retrieve CO2 and basic PPDF parameters that described light path shortening and light path lengthening. The retrieval state vector also included vertical profile of CO2 mixing ratio; scaling factor of prior water vapor profile; and stretch factor for adjusting the position of the wave-number grids. Temperature and surface pressure data were prescribed and provided by Japan Meteorological Agency. For the methane retrievals we processed radiance spectra in 1.67-μm absorption band using PPDF parameters derived from simultaneous CO2 and PPDF retrievals. In particular, a statistical pairwise comparison between GOSAT and TCCON coincident measurements of CO2 column abundance (over 3500 GOSAT single scans) performed with the weighed least squares fit showed a correlation coefficient 0.8; a standard deviation of 1.9 ppm, negative bias of 0.4 ppm; and slope of 1.04 for the slope-intercept form of the linear regression. After a posteriori bias correction these characteristics were 0.9; 1.65 ppm; 0.01 ppm; and 0.99, respectively.

  13. In vivo quantification of photosensitizer concentration using fluorescence differential path-length spectroscopy: influence of photosensitizer formulation and tissue location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Visscher, Sebastiaan A. H. J.; Witjes, Max J. H.; Kaščáková, Slávka; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Robinson, Dominic J.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Amelink, Arjen

    2012-06-01

    In vivo measurement of photosensitizer concentrations may optimize clinical photodynamic therapy (PDT). Fluorescence differential path-length spectroscopy (FDPS) is a non-invasive optical technique that has been shown to accurately quantify the concentration of Foscan® in rat liver. As a next step towards clinical translation, the effect of two liposomal formulations of mTHPC, Fospeg® and Foslip®, on FDPS response was investigated. Furthermore, FDPS was evaluated in target organs for head-and-neck PDT. Fifty-four healthy rats were intravenously injected with one of the three formulations of mTHPC at 0.15 mg kg-1. FDPS was performed on liver, tongue, and lip. The mTHPC concentrations estimated using FDPS were correlated with the results of the subsequent harvested and chemically extracted organs. An excellent goodness of fit (R2) between FDPS and extraction was found for all formulations in the liver (R2=0.79). A much lower R2 between FDPS and extraction was found in lip (R2=0.46) and tongue (R2=0.10). The lower performance in lip and in particular tongue was mainly attributed to the more layered anatomical structure, which influences scattering properties and photosensitizer distribution.

  14. Acyl chain length, saturation, and hydrophobicity modulate the efficiency of dietary fatty acid absorption in adult humans

    PubMed Central

    McKimmie, Ryan L.; Easter, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal fat absorption is known to be, overall, a highly efficient process, but much less is known about the efficiency with which individual dietary fatty acids (FA) are absorbed by the adult small intestine. We therefore measured the absorption efficiency of the major dietary FA using sucrose polybehenate (SPB) as a nonabsorbable marker and analyzed how it is modulated by acyl chain physicochemical properties and polymorphisms of proteins involved in chylomicron assembly. Dietary FA absorption efficiency was measured in 44 healthy subjects fed a standard diet containing 35% fat and 5% SPB. FA and behenic acid (BA) were measured in homogenized diets and stool samples by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, and coefficients of absorption for each FA were calculated as 1 ? [(FA/BA)feces/(FA/BA)diet]. Absorption coefficients for saturated FA decreased with increasing chain length and hydrophobicity (mean SE) and ranged from 0.95 0.02 for myristate (14:0), 0.80 0.03 for stearate (18:0), to 0.26 0.02 for arachidate (20:0). Absorption coefficients for unsaturated FA increased with increasing desaturation from 0.79 0.03 for elaidic acid (18:1t), 0.96 0.01 for linoleate (18:2), to near complete absorption for eicosapentaenoic (20:5) and docosahexaenoic (22:6) acids. Of several common genetic polymorphisms in key proteins involved in the chylomicron assembly pathway, only the intestinal fatty acid-binding protein-2 A54T allele (rs1799883) had any impact on FA absorption. We conclude that acyl chain length, saturation, and hydrophobicity are the major determinants of the efficiency with which dietary FA are absorbed by the adult small intestine. PMID:24008359

  15. Analysis of Atmospheric Composition and Tropospheric Variability With Integrated Open- Path and Ground-Based Solar Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steill, J. D.; Compton, R. N.; Hager, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    Ground-based solar infrared absorption spectroscopy coupled with open-path spectroscopy provides a means for analysis of the highly variable contribution of the boundary layer to problems of radiative transfer and atmospheric chemistry. This is of particular importance in geographic regions of significant local anthropogenic influence and large tropospheric fluctuations in general. A Bomem DA8 FT-IR integrated with a sun-tracking and open-path system (~0.5 km) is located at The University of Tennessee, in downtown Knoxville and near The Great Smoky Mountains National Park, an area known for problematic air quality. From atmospheric absorption spectra, boundary layer concentrations as well as total column abundances and vertical concentration profiles are derived. A record of more than 1000 solar-sourced atmospheric spectra covering a period greater than three years in duration is under analysis to characterize the limit of precision in total column abundance determinations for many gases such as O3, CO, CH4, N2O, HF and CO2. Initial efforts using atmospheric O2 as a calibration indicate the solar-sourced spectra may not meet the precision required for the highly accurate atmospheric CO2 quantification by such global efforts as the OCO and NDSC. However, the determined variability of CO2 and other gas concentrations is statistically significant and is indicative of local concentration fluxes pertinent to the regional atmospheric chemistry. This is therefore an important data record in the southeastern United States, a somewhat under- sampled geographic region. In addition to providing a means to improve the analysis of solar spectra, the open-path data is useful for elucidation of seasonal and diurnal trends in the trace gas concentrations. This provides an urban air quality monitor in addition to improving the description of the total atmospheric composition, as the open-path system is stable and permanent.

  16. OPEN PATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR ACQUISITION OF FUGITIVE EMISSION FLUX DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollutant emission from unconfined sources is an increasingly important environmental issue. The U.S. EPA has developed a gorund-based optical remote sensing method that enables direct measurement of fugitive emission flux from large area sources. Open-path Fourier transfor...

  17. A stochastic simulation of the propagation of Galactic cosmic rays reflecting the discreteness of cosmic ray sources Age and path length distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, S.; Muraishi, H.; Yanagita, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The path length distribution of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) is the fundamental ingredient for modeling the propagation process of GCRs based on the so-called weighted slab method. We try to derive this distribution numerically by taking into account the discreteness in both space and time of occurrences of supernova explosions where GCRs are suspected to be born. The resultant age distribution and ratio of B/C are to be compared with recent observations. Methods: We solve numerically the stochastic differential equations equivalent to the Parker diffusion-convection equation which describes the propagation process of GCR in the Galaxy. We assume the three-dimensional diffusion is an isotropic one without any free escape boundaries. We ignore any energy change of GCRs and the existence of the Galactic wind for simplicity. We also assume axisymmetric configurations for the density distributions of the interstellar matter and for the surface density of supernovae. We have calculated age and path length of GCR protons arriving at the solar system with this stochastic method. The obtained age is not the escape time of GCRs from the Galaxy as usually assumed, but the time spent by GCRs during their journey to the solar system from the supernova remnants where they were born. Results: The derived age and path length show a distribution spread in a wide range even for GCR protons arriving at the solar system with the same energy. The distributions show a cut-off at a lower range in age or path length depending on the energy of GCRs. These cut-offs clearly come from the discreteness of occurrence of supernovae. The mean age of GeV particles obtained from the distributions is consistent with the age obtained by direct observation of radioactive secondary nuclei. The energy dependence of the B/C ratio estimated with the path length distribution reproduces reliably the energy dependence of B/C obtained by recent observations in space.

  18. Optical absorption coefficient and minority carrier diffusion length measurements in low-cost silicon solar cell material

    SciTech Connect

    Swimm, R.T.; Dumas, K.A.

    1982-11-01

    The optical absorption coefficient of silicon solar cell material grown by three low-cost growth methods was measured in the wavelength interval 0.8< or =lambda< or =1.0 ..mu..m, the wavelength region of interest in surface photovoltage measurements of the minority carrier diffusion length. The square root of the absorption coefficient was found to vary linearly with photon energy over the wavelengths studied, and the measured data agree with a linear empirical fit to within 0.5% RMS. The absorption coefficients obtained are slightly lower than those reported by Runyan, with the greatest disagreement at long wavelengths. Minority carrier diffusion lengths computed using the present absorption coefficients are approximately 16% greater than those calculated using Runyan's data. Excellent sample-to-sample agreement within and between lots indicates that for two of the growth methods studied, material quality as judged by optical properties has not been sacrificed by the use of low-cost growth methods. Samples grown by the third growth method studied showed measurably poorer optical quality.

  19. Measurements of atmospheric NO3 radicals in Hefei using LED-based long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Lu; Min, Qin; Pin-Hua, Xie; Jun, Duan; Wu, Fang; Liu-Yi, Ling; Lan-Lan, Shen; Jian-Guo, Liu; Wen-Qing, Liu

    2016-02-01

    NO3 radicals accumulate during the night, thereby being the most critical night oxidant. Owing to the low concentration and dramatic variation, the detection of atmospheric NO3 radicals is still challenging. In this paper, an LED-based Long Path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (LPDOAS) instrument is developed for measuring the atmospheric NO3 radicals. This instrument is composed of a Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope, a combined emitting and receiving fiber, and a red LED equipped with a thermostat, and has a center wavelength of 660 nm, covering the NO3 strongest absorption peak (662 nm). The influence of LED temperature fluctuations is discussed. The temperature of the LED lamp with a home-made thermostat is tested, showing a stability of ±0.1 °C. The principle and fitting analyses of LED-LPDOAS are presented. A retrieval example and a time series of NO3 radical concentrations with good continuity for one night are shown. The detection limit of NO3 for 2.6-km optical path is about 10 ppt. Project supported by the “Strategic Priority Research Program” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant Nos. XDB05040200 and XDB05010500).

  20. An indoor test campaign of the tomography long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy technique.

    PubMed

    Mettendorf, K U; Hartl, A; Pundt, I

    2006-02-01

    In this study we validate the two-dimensional long path DOAS tomography measurement technique by means of an indoor experiment with well-known concentration distributions. The experiment was conducted over an area of 10 m x 15 m using one and two cylindrical polycarbonate containers of diameter 2 m, respectively, filled with NO2. The setup was realized with three of the multibeam instruments recently developed by Pundt and Mettendorf (Appl. Opt., 2005, in press), which allow the simultaneous measurement along at least four light paths each. The configuration consisted of twelve simultaneous light beams, 39 horizontal light paths in total, and 18 different cylinder positions inside the field. It was found that for the discretization and inversion technique shown here reconstructions of the concentration distributions from experimental data agree well with simulated reconstructions. In order to draw conclusions for atmospheric applications, numerical studies including instrumental errors were carried out. It was found that with the presented measurement setup it is possible to measure and reconstruct one or two NO2 plumes of 600 m diameter and average concentrations above 4.2 ppbv each, on a scale of 13.5 km2. Theoretical investigations show that it should be possible to localize and quantify 600 m diameter plumes of SO2 > 1.5 ppbv, H2CO > 6.3 ppbv, HONO > 3.2 ppbv, and ozone > 46.2 ppbv. Larger plumes can be measured with higher precision. PMID:16470260

  1. LONG PATH DIFFERENTIAL OPTICAL ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AND EPA-APPROVED FIXED POINT METHODS INTERCOMPARISON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differential optical absorption spectrometry (DOAS) has been used by a number of investigators over the past 10 years to measure a wide range of gaseous air pollutants. ecently OPSIS AB, Lund, Sweden, has developed and made commercially available DOAS instrument that has a number...

  2. Delivery Path Length and Holding Tree Minimization Method of Securities Delivery among the Registration Agencies Connected as Non-Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamura, Atsushi; Moritsu, Toshiyuki; Someya, Harushi

    To dematerialize the securities such as stocks or cooporate bonds, the securities were registered to account in the registration agencies which were connected as tree. This tree structure had the advantage in the management of the securities those were issued large amount and number of brands of securities were limited. But when the securities such as account receivables or advance notes are dematerialized, number of brands of the securities increases extremely. In this case, the management of securities with tree structure becomes very difficult because of the concentration of information to root of the tree. To resolve this problem, using the graph structure is assumed instead of the tree structure. When the securities are kept with tree structure, the delivery path of securities is unique, but when securities are kept with graph structure, path of delivery is not unique. In this report, we describe the requirement of the delivery path of securities, and we describe selecting method of the path.

  3. N(2)O weak lines observed between 3900 and 4050 cm from long path absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Herbin, Herv; Picqu, Nathalie; Guelachvili, Guy; Sorokin, Evgeni; Sorokina, Irina T

    2006-08-01

    Previously unobserved nitrous oxide transitions around 2.5 ?m are measured by intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy (ICLAS) analyzed by time-resolved Fourier transform (TRFT) spectrometer. With an accuracy of the order of 10(-3) cm(-1), measured positions of 1637 assigned weak transitions are provided. They belong to 42 vibrational transitions, among which 33 are observed for the first time. These data are believed to be useful in particular to monitoring atmosphere purposes. PMID:21151757

  4. AFM-based measurement of the mechanical properties of thin polymer films and determination of the optical path length of nearly index-matched cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieland, Christopher F.

    2008-10-01

    Two technologies, immersion and imprint lithography, represent important stepping stones for the development of the next generation of lithography tools. However, although the two approaches offer important advantages, both pose many significant technological challenges that must be overcome before they can be successfully implemented. For imprint lithography, special care must be taken when choosing an etch barrier because studies have indicated that some physical material properties may be size dependent. Additionally, regarding immersion lithography, proper image focus requires that the optical path length between the lens and substrate be maintained during the entire writing process. The work described in this document was undertaken to address the two challenges described above. A new mathematical model was developed and used in conjunction with AFM nano-indentation techniques to measure the elastic modulus of adhesive, thin polymer films as a function of the film thickness. It was found that the elastic modulus of the polymer tested did not change appreciably from the value determined using bulk measurement techniques in the thickness range probed. Additionally, a method for monitoring and controlling the optical path length within the gap of a nearly index-matching cavity based on coherent broadband interference was developed. In this method, the spectrum reflected for a cavity illuminated with a modelocked Ti:Sapphire laser was collected and analyzed using Fourier techniques. It was found that this method could determine the optical path length of the cavity, quickly and accurately enough to control a servo-based feedback system to correct deviations in the optical path length in real time when coupled with special computation techniques that minimized unnecessary operations.

  5. Development of a sensitive long path absorption photometer to quantify peroxides in aerosol particles (Peroxide-LOPAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertes, P.; Pfaffenberger, L.; Dommen, J.; Kalberer, M.; Baltensperger, U.

    2012-10-01

    A new off-line instrument to quantify peroxides in aerosol particles using iodometry in long path absorption spectroscopy has been developed and is called peroxide long path absorption photometer (Peroxide-LOPAP). The new analytical setup features important technical innovations compared to hitherto published iodometric peroxide measurements. Firstly, the extraction, chemical conversion and measurement of the aerosol samples are performed in a closed oxygen-free (~ 1 ppb) environment. Secondly, a 50-cm optical detection cell is used for an increased photometric sensitivity. The limit of detection was 0.1 μM peroxide in solution or 0.25 nmol m-3 with respect to an aerosol sample volume of 1 m3. The test reaction was done at a constant elevated temperature of 40 °C and the reaction time was 60 min. Calibration experiments showed that the test reaction with all reactive peroxides, i.e. hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peracids and peroxides with vicinal carbonyl groups (e.g. lauroyl peroxide) goes to completion and their sensitivity (slope of calibration curve) varies by only ±5%. However, very inert peroxides have a lower sensitivity. For example, tert-butyl hydroperoxide shows only 37% sensitivity compared to H2O2 after 1 h. A kinetic study revealed that even after 5 h only 85% of this inert compound had reacted. The time trends of the peroxide content in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the ozonolysis and photo-oxidation of α-pinene in smog chamber experiments were measured. The highest mass fraction of peroxides with 34% (assuming a molecular weight of 300 g mol-1) was found in freshly generated SOA from α-pinene ozonolysis. Mass fractions decreased with increasing NO levels in the photo-oxidation experiments. A decrease of the peroxide content was also observed with aging of the aerosol, indicating a decomposition of peroxides in the particles.

  6. Integration of Ground-Based Solar FT-IR Absorption Spectroscopy and Open-Path Systems for Atmospheric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steill, J. D.; Hager, J. S.; Compton, R. N.

    2006-05-01

    Air quality issues in the Knoxville and East Tennessee region are of great concern, particularly as regards the nearby Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Infrared absorption spectroscopy of the atmosphere provides a unique opportunity to analyze the local chemical composition, since many trace atmospheric constituents are open to this analysis, such as O3, CO, CH4, and N2O. Integration of a Bomem DA8 FT-IR spectrometer with rooftop sun-tracking optics and an open-path system provide solar-sourced and boundary- layer atmospheric infrared spectra of these and other relevant atmospheric components. Boundary layer concentrations as well as total column abundances and vertical concentration profiles are derived. Vertical concentration profiles are determined by fitting solar-sourced absorbance lines with the SFIT2 algorithm. Improved fitting of solar spectra has been demonstrated by incorporating the tropospheric concentrations as determined by open-path measurements. A record of solar-sourced atmospheric spectra of greater than two years duration is under analysis to characterize experimental error and thus the limit of precision in the concentration determinations. Initial efforts using atmospheric O2 as a calibration indicate the solar- sourced spectra may not yet meet the precision required for accurate atmospheric CO2 quantification by such efforts as the OCO and NDSC. However, this variability is also indicative of local concentration fluxes pertinent to the regional atmospheric chemistry. In addition to providing a means to improve the analysis of solar spectra, the open-path data is useful for elucidation of seasonal and diurnal trends in the local trace gas concentrations.

  7. NitroMAC: An instrument for the measurement of HONO and intercomparison with a long-path absorption photometer.

    PubMed

    Afif, Charbel; Jambert, Corinne; Michoud, Vincent; Colomb, Aurélie; Eyglunent, Gregory; Borbon, Agnès; Daële, Véronique; Doussin, Jean-François; Perros, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    NitroMAC (French acronym for continuous atmospheric measurements of nitrogenous compounds) is an instrument which has been developed for the semi-continuous measurement of atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO). This instrument relies on wet chemical sampling and detection using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-visible absorption at 540nm. Sampling proceeds by dissolution of gaseous HONO in a phosphate buffer solution followed by derivatization with sulfanilamide/N-(1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine. The performance of this instrument was found to be as follows: a detection limit of around 3ppt with measurement uncertainty of 10% over an analysis time of 10min. Intercomparison was made between the instrument and a long-path absorption photometer (LOPAP) during two experiments in different environments. First, air was sampled in a smog chamber with concentrations up to 18ppb of nitrous acid. NitroMAC and LOPAP measurements showed very good agreement. Then, in a second experiment, ambient air with HONO concentrations below 250ppt was sampled. While NitroMAC showed its capability of measuring HONO in moderate and highly polluted environments, the intercomparison results in ambient air highlighted that corrections must be made for minor interferences when low concentrations are measured. PMID:26969550

  8. Monitoring complex trace-gas mixtures by long-path laser absorption spectrometry. [in long duration manned mission closed environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, B. D.; Steinfeld, J. I.

    1976-01-01

    Laser-based spectrophotometric methods, which have been proposed for the detection of trace concentrations of gaseous contaminants, include Raman and passive radiometry. The paper discusses a simple long-path laser absorption method which is capable of resolving complex mixtures of closely related trace contaminants at ppm levels. A number of species were selected which are most likely to accumulate in closed environments, such as submarines or long-duration manned space flights. Absorption coefficients at CO2 laser wavelengths were measured, accurate to + 3 per cent or better, for each of these species. This data base was then used to determine the presence and concentration of the contaminants in prepared mixtures of 12 to 15 gases. Computer programs have been developed which will permit a real-time analysis of the monitored atmosphere. Minimum detectable concentrations for individual species are generally in the ppm range, and are not seriously degraded by interferences even in complex mixtures. Estimates of the dynamic range of this monitoring technique for various system configurations and comparison with other methods of analysis are discussed

  9. Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar Optimizations Based on Pre-Analyzed Atmospheric Data for ASCENDS Mission Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pliutau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a modeling method based on data reductions is investigated which includes pre analyzed MERRA atmospheric fields for quantitative estimates of uncertainties introduced in the integrated path differential absorption methods for the sensing of various molecules including CO2. This approach represents the extension of our existing lidar modeling framework previously developed and allows effective on- and offline wavelength optimizations and weighting function analysis to minimize the interference effects such as those due to temperature sensitivity and water vapor absorption. The new simulation methodology is different from the previous implementation in that it allows analysis of atmospheric effects over annual spans and the entire Earth coverage which was achieved due to the data reduction methods employed. The effectiveness of the proposed simulation approach is demonstrated with application to the mixing ratio retrievals for the future ASCENDS mission. Independent analysis of multiple accuracy limiting factors including the temperature, water vapor interferences, and selected system parameters is further used to identify favorable spectral regions as well as wavelength combinations facilitating the reduction in total errors in the retrieved XCO2 values.

  10. Förster resonance energy transfer, absorption and emission spectra in multichromophoric systems. III. Exact stochastic path integral evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Moix, Jeremy M.; Ma, Jian; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-03-07

    A numerically exact path integral treatment of the absorption and emission spectra of open quantum systems is presented that requires only the straightforward solution of a stochastic differential equation. The approach converges rapidly enabling the calculation of spectra of large excitonic systems across the complete range of system parameters and for arbitrary bath spectral densities. With the numerically exact absorption and emission operators, one can also immediately compute energy transfer rates using the multi-chromophoric Förster resonant energy transfer formalism. Benchmark calculations on the emission spectra of two level systems are presented demonstrating the efficacy of the stochastic approach. This is followed by calculations of the energy transfer rates between two weakly coupled dimer systems as a function of temperature and system-bath coupling strength. It is shown that the recently developed hybrid cumulant expansion (see Paper II) is the only perturbative method capable of generating uniformly reliable energy transfer rates and emission spectra across a broad range of system parameters.

  11. Two-color absorption spectroscopy strategy for measuring the column density and path average temperature of the absorbing species in nonuniform gases.

    PubMed

    Goldenstein, Christopher S; Schultz, Ian A; Jeffries, Jay B; Hanson, Ronald K

    2013-11-20

    A two-color absorption spectroscopy strategy has been developed for measuring the column density and density-weighted path-average temperature of the absorbing species in nonuniform gases. This strategy uses two transitions with strengths that scale nearly linearly with temperature. In addition, measured lineshapes are used to accurately model absorbance spectra. As a result, the column density and density-weighted path-average temperature of the absorbing species can be inferred from a comparison of signals measured across a nonuniform line of sight (LOS) with simulated signals calculated using a uniform LOS. This strategy is demonstrated with simulations of water-vapor absorption across a nonuniform LOS with temperature and composition gradients comparable to those in hydrogen-air diffusion flames. In this demonstration, both the column density and density-weighted path-average temperature of water vapor are recovered to within 0.5%. PMID:24513746

  12. CHARM-F: An airborne integral path differential absorption lidar for simultaneous measurements of carbon dioxide and methane columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amediek, A.; Büdenbender, H.-C.; Ehret, G.; Fix, A.; Kiemle, C.; Quatrevalet, M.; Wirth, M.; Hoffmann, D.; Löhring, J.; Klein, V.

    2012-04-01

    CHARM-F (CO2 and CH4 Atmospheric Remote Monitoring - Flugzeug) is DLR's airborne Integral Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar for simultaneous measurements of the column-weighted average dry-air mixing ratios of atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane, designed to be flown on DLR's new High-Altitude, LOng-range research aircraft, HALO. It is meant to serve as a demonstrator of the use of spaceborne active optical instruments in inferring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 surface fluxes from total column measurements by inverse modeling. As it will be shown, this is enabled by HALO's high flight altitude and its range of 8000 km, which will make it possible to produce real-world data at truly regional scales with a viewing geometry and vertical weighting function similar to those enabled by a space platform. In addition, CHARM-F has the potential to be used as a validation tool not only for active but also passive spaceborne instruments utilizing scattered solar radiation for remote sensing of greenhouse gases. Building on the expertise from CHARM, a helicopter-borne methane IPDA lidar for pipeline monitoring developed in collaboration with E.ON, and WALES, DLR's water vapour differential absorption lidar, CHARM-F relies on a double-pulse transmitter architecture producing nanosecond pulses which allows for a precise ranging and a clean separation of atmospheric influences from the ground returns leading to an unambiguously defined column. One pulse is tuned to an absorption line of the trace gas under consideration, the other to a nearby wavelength with much less absorption. The close temporal separation of 250 μs within each pulse pair ensures that nearly the same spot on ground is illuminated. The ratio of both return signals is then a direct function of the column-weighted average dry-air mixing ratio. The two laser systems, one for each trace gas, use highly efficient and robust Nd:YAG lasers to pump an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) level which converts the pump radiation to the desired wavelengths. Because typical surface CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks alter the total column only by a few percent, the required precision and accuracy are very stringent. This puts particularly challenging requirements on the spectral properties of the emitted pulses. To achieve single mode operation with very high spectral purity, both pumps and OPOs are injection seeded. Absolute stability of the emitted wavelengths is achieved by locking the seed lasers to the same absorption lines as those used in the atmosphere by means of a single absorption cell filled with a mixture of CO2 and CH4, and monitoring the wavelength deviations between each outgoing laser pulse and the corresponding seed laser to detect and correct for possible mode pulling effects. Another key requirement is the monitoring of the relative outgoing pulse energies with high accuracy, which is based on a specifically designed optical architecture. Assembly and laboratory tests of the instrument are on-going, the first ground tests are planned for summer 2012.

  13. Observation of halogen species in the Amundsen Gulf, Arctic, by active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Phler, Denis; Vogel, Leif; Friess, Udo; Platt, Ulrich

    2010-04-13

    In the polar tropospheric boundary layer, reactive halogen species (RHS) are responsible for ozone depletion as well as the oxidation of elemental mercury and dimethyl sulphide. After polar sunrise, air masses enriched in reactive bromine cover areas of several million square kilometers. Still, the source and release mechanisms of halogens are not completely understood. We report measurements of halogen oxides performed in the Amundsen Gulf, Arctic, during spring 2008. Active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) measurements were set up offshore, several kilometers from the coast, directly on the sea ice, which was never done before. High bromine oxide concentrations were detected frequently during sunlight hours with a characteristic daily cycle showing morning and evening maxima and a minimum at noon. The, so far, highest observed average mixing ratio in the polar boundary layer of 41 pmol/mol (equal to pptv) was detected. Only short sea ice contact is required to release high amounts of bromine. An observed linear decrease of maximum bromine oxide levels with ambient temperature during sunlight, between -24 degrees C and -15 degrees C, provides indications on the conditions required for the emission of RHS. In addition, the data indicate the presence of reactive chlorine in the Arctic boundary layer. In contrast to Antarctica, iodine oxide was not detected above a detection limit of 0.3 pmol/mol. PMID:20160121

  14. Observation of halogen species in the Amundsen Gulf, Arctic, by active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pöhler, Denis; Vogel, Leif; Frieß, Udo; Platt, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    In the polar tropospheric boundary layer, reactive halogen species (RHS) are responsible for ozone depletion as well as the oxidation of elemental mercury and dimethyl sulphide. After polar sunrise, air masses enriched in reactive bromine cover areas of several million square kilometers. Still, the source and release mechanisms of halogens are not completely understood. We report measurements of halogen oxides performed in the Amundsen Gulf, Arctic, during spring 2008. Active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) measurements were set up offshore, several kilometers from the coast, directly on the sea ice, which was never done before. High bromine oxide concentrations were detected frequently during sunlight hours with a characteristic daily cycle showing morning and evening maxima and a minimum at noon. The, so far, highest observed average mixing ratio in the polar boundary layer of 41 pmol/mol (equal to pptv) was detected. Only short sea ice contact is required to release high amounts of bromine. An observed linear decrease of maximum bromine oxide levels with ambient temperature during sunlight, between -24 °C and -15 °C, provides indications on the conditions required for the emission of RHS. In addition, the data indicate the presence of reactive chlorine in the Arctic boundary layer. In contrast to Antarctica, iodine oxide was not detected above a detection limit of 0.3 pmol/mol. PMID:20160121

  15. Development of a new Long Path Absorption Photometer (LOPAP) instrument for the sensitive detection of NO2 in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villena, G.; Bejan, I.; Kurtenbach, R.; Wiesen, P.; Kleffmann, J.

    2011-08-01

    A compact and simple instrument for the sensitive detection of NO2 in the atmosphere has been developed. NO2 is sampled in a stripping coil by a selective chemical reaction, converted into a highly absorbing dye, which is detected by long path absorption in a liquid core waveguide. Several interferences were quantified in the laboratory which so far can all be neglected. The significant interferences against HONO and O3 were suppressed by using an upstream HONO/O3-scrubber. The instrument has a detection limit of 2 pptv, an accuracy of 10 % and a precision of 0.5 % for 3 min time resolution. Thus, the new NO2-LOPAP technique is more sensitive than known commercial NO2 instruments. The new analyzer is much simpler to apply than other highly sensitive and selective NO2 methods, e.g. LIF or REMPI methods. The new instrument allows an absolute calibration that can be easily performed with liquid nitrite standards, which is a significant advantage compared with other NO2 measurement techniques for which NO2 calibration gas mixtures are typically necessary. The new instrument has been validated against the chemiluminescence technique during an urban field campaign and against the FTIR technique in a smog chamber under complex photosmog conditions. The data sets exhibit high correlation and excellent agreement.

  16. Development of a new Long Path Absorption Photometer (LOPAP) instrument for the sensitive detection of NO2 in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villena, G.; Bejan, I.; Kurtenbach, R.; Wiesen, P.; Kleffmann, J.

    2011-03-01

    A compact and simple instrument for the sensitive detection of NO2 in the atmosphere has been developed. NO2 is sampled in a stripping coil by a selective chemical reaction, converted into a highly absorbing dye, which is detected by long path absorption in a liquid core waveguide. Several interferences were quantified in the laboratory which so far can all be neglected. The significant interferences against HONO and O3 were suppressed by using an upstream HONO/O3-scrubber. The instrument has a detection limit of 2 pptv, an accuracy of 10% and a precision of 0.5% for 3 min time resolution. Thus, the new NO2-LOPAP technique is more sensitive than known commercial NO2 instruments. The new analyzer is much simpler to apply than other highly sensitive and selective NO2 methods, e.g. LIF or REMPI methods. The new instrument allows an absolute calibration that can be easily performed with liquid nitrite standards, which is a significant advantage compared with other NO2 measurement techniques for which NO2 calibration gas mixtures are typically necessary. The new instrument has been validated against the chemiluminescence technique during an urban field campaign and against the FTIR technique in a smog chamber under complex photosmog conditions. The data sets exhibit high correlation and excellent agreement.

  17. Analysis of sensitivity and optical path-length in non-invasive measurement of glucose with near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yunhan; Liu, Rong; Chen, Wenliang; Cui, Houxin; Xu, Kexin

    2005-03-01

    Non-invasive glucose monitoring with optical methods has obtained increasing interest, in that the methods have shown great benefit for diabetes. Nevertheless, low sensitivity and signal to noise ratio (ratio of effective photons) are two major difficulties in non-invasively NIR spectral monitoring of blood glucose concentration. Designing the optical probe properly is one of the effective ways to improve measuring sensitivity and ratio of effective photons. In this paper, definition about ratio of effective photons in measurement of glucose is introduced. And then effect of glucose on optical properties of human skin is analyzed, based on this, two kind of sensitivities for diffuse reflectance, namely sensitivity to absorption and that to scattering, is derived. To investigate the ratio of effective photons and sensitivities, Monte Carlo simulations have been performed on a three-layered media with optical parameters similar to those of human skin. The results have shown that (1) high ratio of effective photons, even as high as 60%, can be obtained by choosing proper the separation between source and detector; (2) sensitivity of diffuse reflectance to absorption and scattering has different dependence on source-detector separation, which enables one can have different options by making use of different effect from glucose level changing. In the end, some suggestions have been put forward to improve precision of measurement of blood glucose.

  18. Application of maximum likelihood estimator in nano-scale optical path length measurement using spectral-domain optical coherence phase microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Motaghian Nezam, S. M. R.; Joo, C; Tearney, G. J.; de Boer, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Spectral-domain optical coherence phase microscopy (SD-OCPM) measures minute phase changes in transparent biological specimens using a common path interferometer and a spectrometer based optical coherence tomography system. The Fourier transform of the acquired interference spectrum in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is complex and the phase is affected by contributions from inherent random noise. To reduce this phase noise, knowledge of the probability density function (PDF) of data becomes essential. In the present work, the intensity and phase PDFs of the complex interference signal are theoretically derived and the optical path length (OPL) PDF is experimentally validated. The full knowledge of the PDFs is exploited for optimal estimation (Maximum Likelihood estimation) of the intensity, phase, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in SD-OCPM. Maximum likelihood (ML) estimates of the intensity, SNR, and OPL images are presented for two different scan modes using Bovine Pulmonary Artery Endothelial (BPAE) cells. To investigate the phase accuracy of SD-OCPM, we experimentally calculate and compare the cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of the OPL standard deviation and the square root of the Cramér-Rao lower bound (1/2SNR) over 100 BPAE images for two different scan modes. The correction to the OPL measurement by applying ML estimation to SD-OCPM for BPAE cells is demonstrated. PMID:18957999

  19. Advancements in Algorithms for the Retrieval of CO2 Column Amount and Path Length Using an Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, F. W.; Lin, B.; Ismail, S.; Nehrir, A. R.; Dobler, J. T.; Browell, E. V.; Kooi, S. A.; Campbell, J. F.; Obland, M. D.; Yang, M. M.; Meadows, B.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the methods for the retrieval of carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) column amounts and their associated path lengths measured by the Multi-Functional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL) and the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES). MFLL and ACES are multi-frequency, Intensity-Modulated, Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) Lidar systems developed as proof-of-concept demonstrators for NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The National Research Council identified ASCENDS in 2007 as an important mid-term decadal survey mission to provide measurements critical to improved projections of the Earth's future climate. The ASCENDS measurement requirements have evolved significantly since first proposed by the NRC as has our understanding of the IM-CW measurement technique we propose for use by ASCENDS. To meet these requirements, both MFLL and ACES transmit wavelengths near 1.57 and 1.26 μm modulated with range-encoded signals to minimize bias from thin clouds in the CO2 and O2 column measurements while simultaneously measuring the path length to the surface and to intervening cloud layers. In preparation for the ASCENDS mission, the MFLL has been deployed on 13 airborne field campaigns since 2005, including the latest series of flights in August 2014. NASA also flew the ACES instrument as a technology demonstrator in 2014. In this paper we describe the current ASCENDS retrieval technique and present the accuracy and precision of the measurements obtained using this technique. We also present a reanalysis of the 2011 MFLL measurements and compare the results previously reported to the reanalysis. Reanalysis yields range precisions of less that one meter from an altitude of 12 kilometers from the CO2 offline channel with 1.6 watts of transmitted power.

  20. Direct high-precision measurement of the effective optical path length of multi-pass cell with optical frequency domain reflectometer.

    PubMed

    Du, Z H; Gao, H; Cao, X H

    2016-01-11

    Multi-pass cells (MPCs) are commonly used in trace-gas detection and weak spectrum measurement. It is essential to accomplish a high-precision measurement of MPCs' effective optical path length (EOPL). A direct high-precision measuring method of MPCs' EOPL with optical frequency domain reflectometer (OFDR) was reported and demonstrated in this paper. Several important parameters of a MPC, such as EOPL and base length, were derived with high-precision by identifying the complicated signal of OFDR. The MPC's EOPL was also verified with the prevailing absorbance method. The results showed that the MPC's EOPL measured by each of these two methods is highly consistent. However, the relative uncertainty with the OFDR dramatically decreased 2 orders of magnitude (about 0.0085%) than that with the absorbance method. It demonstrated that the OFDR method with fewer measurement links is more conducive to a direct measurement. The performances of beam spread and stray light in the White-cell were also evaluated with the method. PMID:26832272

  1. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  2. Synchrotron radiation and long path cryogenic cells: New tools and results for modelling SF6 absorption in the 10μm atmospheric window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faye, Mbaye; Boudon, Vincent; Loete, Michel; Roy, Pascale; Manceron, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    Sulfur hexa?uoride (SF6) is a heavy and stable molecule used in many sectors, such as the electrical industry, but also as a gas tracer to model air masse motions in the Earth atmosphere. This anthropogenic species is also an atmospheric pollutant owing to its greenhouse effect capability. Although its six fundamental modes have been largely studied up to now, it is not the case for the numerous hot bands that represent the most important part of the SF6 spectrum at room temperature. So, to model correctly the SF6 atmospheric absorption requires the knowledge of the spectroscopic parameters of all states involved in these hot bands. Nevertheless, due to their overlapping, a direct analysis of the hot bands near the 10,5μm absorption of SF6 in the atmospheric window is not possible. It is necessary to use another strategy, gathering information in the far and mid infrared regions on initial and final states to recompute the relevant total absorption. Here, we present new results of an analysis of spectra recorded at the AILES beam line at the SOLEIL Synchrotron facility. For these measurements, we used a IFS125HR interferometer in the 100 - 3200 cm-1 range, coupled to a cryogenic multiple pass cell [1]. The optical path length was adjusted to 93m; the SF6 sample was cooled down to 153 K. We could record 17 rovibrational bands of SF6 in this region with a resolution of 0.0025 cm-1. These results allowed us to perform the detailed analysis of several bands. Adding to previous knowledge on ν3, ν2, 2ν3 and new results on 3ν3, 2ν1 + ν3, ν1 + ν3, ν2 + ν3, ν3 - ν2 , ν3 - ν1 , we developed a global fit of the ν1, ν2, ν3 parameters, thus permitting the modelling of the ν3 + ν1 - ν1, ν3 + ν2 - ν2 hot bands. New information has also been obtained on ν6 and ν3 + ν5 and another strategy will be detailed to model the more important ν3 + ν5 - ν5 and ν3 + ν6 - ν6 hot band contributions. Including these new parameters in the XTDS model [2], we substantially improved the previous global fit [3] of SF6 parameters. [1] F. Kwabia Tchana, F. Willaert, X. Landsheere, J.- M. Flaud, L. Lago, M. Chapuis, P. Roy, L. Manceron. A new, low temperature long-pass cell for mid-IR to THz Spectroscopy and Synchrotron Radiation Use. Rev. Sci. Inst. 84, 093101, (2013). [2] C. Wenger, V. Boudon, M. Rotger, M. Sanzharov, and J.-P. Champion, 'XTDS and SPVIEW: Graphical tools for Analysis and Simulation of High Resolution Molecular Spectra', J. Mol. Spectrosc. 251, 102 (2008). [3] M. Faye, A. Le Ven, V. Boudon, L. Manceron, P. Asselin, P. Soulard, F. Kwabia Tchana, P. Roy, High-Resolution spectroscopy of difference and combination bands of SF6 to elucidate the ν3 + ν1 - ν1 and ν3+ ν2 - ν2hot band structures in the ν3 region, Mol. Phys. 112, 909059 (2014).

  3. Measurement of tropospheric OH by long-path laser absorption at Fritz Peak Observatory, Colorado, during the OH Photochemistry Experiment, fall 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mount, George H.; Brault, James W.; Johnston, Paul V.; Marovich, Edward; Jakoubek, Roger O.; Volpe, Cassandra J.; Harder, Jerald; Olson, Jane

    1997-03-01

    The determination of the concentration of hydroxyl (OH) in the Earth's troposphere is of fundamental importance to an understanding of the chemistry of the lower atmosphere. This paper describes the results from the laser long-path spectroscopic OH experiment used in the Tropospheric OH Photochemistry Experiment (TOHPE) held at Fritz Peak, Colorado, in fall 1993. A primary goal of TOHPE was to compare the OH concentrations measured using a variety of different techniques: a long-path spectroscopic instrument [Mount, 1992], an in situ ion-assisted chemical conversion instrument (Eisele and Tanner, 1991, 1993), a laser resonance fluorescence instrument [Stevens et al., 1994), and a liquid scrubber instrument (X. Chen and K. Mopper, unpublished data,; 1996), all with sensitivities at or below 1×106 molecules cm-3. In addition to the OH measurements, a nearly complete suite of trace gas species that affect the OH concentration were measured simultaneously, using both in situ and/or long-path techniques, to provide the information necessary to understand the OH variation and concentration differences observed. Measurements of OH, NO2, CH2O, SO2, H2O, and O3 were made using long-path spectroscopic absorption of white light or laser light and OH, NO, NO2, NOy, O3, CO, SO2, CH2O, j(O3), j(NO2), RO2/HO2, HO2, H2O, SO2, PAN, PPN, HNO3, and aerosols (size and composition) and ozone and nitrogen dioxide j-values were measured using in situ instruments. Meteorological parameters at each end of the long path and at the Idaho Hill in situ site were also measured. The comparison of the long-path and in situ species from this set of complementary measurements provides an effective way of interpreting air masses over the long path with those at the in situ site; this is a critical issue since the long-path spectroscopic OH determinations provide a nonchemical and well-calibrated measurement of OH which must be compared in a meaningful manner with the in situ determinations. Over the period of the TOHPE experiment, OH concentrations were typically low during periods of clean and clear airflow, averaging about 4×106 molecules cm-3 at noon. In contrast, during the well-defined pollution episodes which occurred during the campaign, OH concentrations rose as high as 15×106 molecules cm-3.

  4. Integration of Ground-Based Solar FT-IR Absorption Spectroscopy and Open-Path Systems for Atmospheric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steill, J. D.; Hager, J. S.; Compton, R. N.

    2005-12-01

    Air quality issues in the Knoxville and East Tennessee region are of great concern, particularly as regards the nearby Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Integration of a Bomem DA8 FT-IR spectrometer with rooftop sun-tracking optics and an open-path system provides a unique opportunity to analyze the local atmospheric chemical composition. Many trace atmospheric constituents are open to this analysis, such as O3, CO, CH4, and N2O. Boundary layer concentrations as well as total column abundances and vertical concentration profiles are derived. Vertical concentration profiles are determined by fitting solar absorbance lines with the SFIT2 algorithm. Improved fitting of solar spectra has been demonstrated by incorporating the tropospheric concentrations as determined by open-path measurements. In addition to providing a means to improve the analysis of solar spectra, the open-path data is useful for elucidation of diurnal trends in the trace gas concentrations. Anthropogenic influences are of special interest, and seasonal and daily trends in amounts of tropospheric pollutants such as ozone correlate with other sources such as the EPA. Although obviously limited by weather considerations, the technique is suited to the regional climate and a body of data of more than two years extent is available for analysis.

  5. Correlation of electron path lengths observed in the highly wound outer region of magnetic clouds with the slab fraction of magnetic turbulence in the dissipation range

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Lun C.; Shao, Xi; Reames, Donald V.; Ng, Chee K.; Wang, Linghua

    2014-05-10

    Three magnetic cloud events, in which solar impulsive electron events occurred in their outer region, are employed to investigate the difference of path lengths L {sub 0eIII} traveled by non-relativistic electrons from their release site near the Sun to the observer at 1 AU, where L {sub 0eIII} = v {sub l} × (t {sub l} – t {sub III}), v {sub l} and t {sub l} being the velocity and arrival time of electrons in the lowest energy channel (∼27 keV) of the Wind/3DP/SST sensor, respectively, and t {sub III} being the onset time of type III radio bursts. The deduced L {sub 0eIII} value ranges from 1.3 to 3.3 AU. Since a negligible interplanetary scattering level can be seen in both L {sub 0eIII} > 3 AU and ∼1.2 AU events, the difference in L {sub 0eIII} could be linked to the turbulence geometry (slab or two-dimensional) in the solar wind. By using the Wind/MFI magnetic field data with a time resolution of 92 ms, we examine the turbulence geometry in the dissipation range. In our examination, ∼6 minutes of sampled subintervals are used in order to improve time resolution. We have found that, in the transverse turbulence, the observed slab fraction is increased with an increasing L {sub 0eIII} value, reaching ∼100% in the L {sub 0eIII} > 3 AU event. Our observation implies that when only the slab spectral component exists, magnetic flux tubes (magnetic surfaces) are closed and regular for a very long distance along the transport route of particles.

  6. A novel method for patient exit and entrance dose prediction based on water equivalent path length measured with an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device.

    PubMed

    Kavuma, Awusi; Glegg, Martin; Metwaly, Mohamed; Currie, Garry; Elliott, Alex

    2010-01-21

    In vivo dosimetry is one of the quality assurance tools used in radiotherapy to monitor the dose delivered to the patient. Electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images for a set of solid water phantoms of varying thicknesses were acquired and the data fitted onto a quadratic equation, which relates the reduction in photon beam intensity to the attenuation coefficient and material thickness at a reference condition. The quadratic model is used to convert the measured grey scale value into water equivalent path length (EPL) at each pixel for any material imaged by the detector. For any other non-reference conditions, scatter, field size and MU variation effects on the image were corrected by relative measurements using an ionization chamber and an EPID. The 2D EPL is linked to the percentage exit dose table, for different thicknesses and field sizes, thereby converting the plane pixel values at each point into a 2D dose map. The off-axis ratio is corrected using envelope and boundary profiles generated from the treatment planning system (TPS). The method requires field size, monitor unit and source-to-surface distance (SSD) as clinical input parameters to predict the exit dose, which is then used to determine the entrance dose. The measured pixel dose maps were compared with calculated doses from TPS for both entrance and exit depth of phantom. The gamma index at 3% dose difference (DD) and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA) resulted in an average of 97% passing for the square fields of 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm. The exit dose EPID dose distributions predicted by the algorithm were in better agreement with TPS-calculated doses than phantom entrance dose distributions. PMID:20019398

  7. A novel method for patient exit and entrance dose prediction based on water equivalent path length measured with an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavuma, Awusi; Glegg, Martin; Metwaly, Mohamed; Currie, Garry; Elliott, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry is one of the quality assurance tools used in radiotherapy to monitor the dose delivered to the patient. Electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images for a set of solid water phantoms of varying thicknesses were acquired and the data fitted onto a quadratic equation, which relates the reduction in photon beam intensity to the attenuation coefficient and material thickness at a reference condition. The quadratic model is used to convert the measured grey scale value into water equivalent path length (EPL) at each pixel for any material imaged by the detector. For any other non-reference conditions, scatter, field size and MU variation effects on the image were corrected by relative measurements using an ionization chamber and an EPID. The 2D EPL is linked to the percentage exit dose table, for different thicknesses and field sizes, thereby converting the plane pixel values at each point into a 2D dose map. The off-axis ratio is corrected using envelope and boundary profiles generated from the treatment planning system (TPS). The method requires field size, monitor unit and source-to-surface distance (SSD) as clinical input parameters to predict the exit dose, which is then used to determine the entrance dose. The measured pixel dose maps were compared with calculated doses from TPS for both entrance and exit depth of phantom. The gamma index at 3% dose difference (DD) and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA) resulted in an average of 97% passing for the square fields of 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm. The exit dose EPID dose distributions predicted by the algorithm were in better agreement with TPS-calculated doses than phantom entrance dose distributions.

  8. Seismic scattering and absorption mapping of debris flows, feeding paths, and tectonic units at Mount St. Helens volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Siena, L.; Calvet, M.; Watson, K. J.; Jonkers, A. R. T.; Thomas, C.

    2016-05-01

    Frequency-dependent peak-delay times and coda quality factors have been used jointly to separate seismic absorption from scattering quantitatively in Earth media at regional and continental scale; to this end, we measure and map these two quantities at Mount St. Helens volcano. The results show that we can locate and characterize volcanic and geological structures using their unique contribution to seismic attenuation. At 3 Hz a single high-scattering and high-absorption anomaly outlines the debris flows that followed the 1980 explosive eruption, as deduced by comparison with remote sensing imagery. The flows overlay a NNW-SSE interface, separating rocks of significant varying properties down to 2-4 km, and coinciding with the St. Helens Seismic Zone. High-scattering and high-absorption anomalies corresponding to known locations of magma emplacement follow this signature under the volcano, showing the important interconnections between its feeding systems and the regional tectonic boundaries. With frequency increasing from 6 to 18 Hz the NNW-SSE tectonic/feeding trends rotate around an axis centered on the volcano in the direction of the regional-scale magmatic arc (SW-NE). While the aseismic high-scattering region WSW of the volcano shows no evidence of high absorption, the regions of highest-scattering and absorption are consistently located at all frequencies under either the eastern or the south-eastern flank of the volcanic edifice. From the comparison with the available geological and geophysical information we infer that these anomalies mark both the location and the trend of the main feeding systems at depths greater than 4 km.

  9. Evaluation of spin diffusion length of AuW alloys using spin absorption experiments in the limit of large spin-orbit interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laczkowski, P.; Jaffrès, H.; Savero-Torres, W.; Rojas-Sánchez, J.-C.; Fu, Y.; Reyren, N.; Deranlot, C.; Notin, L.; Beigné, C.; Attané, J.-P.; Vila, L.; George, J.-M.; Marty, A.

    2015-12-01

    The knowledge of the spin diffusion length, λA, is a prerequisite for the estimation of the spin Hall angle of given materials. We investigate the spin-current absorption of materials with a short λA using AuW stripes inserted in Cu-based lateral spin valves. Width variations of the AuW stripe lead to drastic changes of the spin absorption which cannot be explained by a conventional analysis. We show that the spin-current polarization and the spin-accumulation attenuation in Cu in the vicinity of the spin absorber must be precisely taken into account for an accurate estimation of λA. We propose an analytical extension of the standard diffusion model of spin transport and spin absorption based on the existence of an effective spin diffusion length for Cu being in direct contact with AuW. The calculations are supported by numerical investigations which allow us to extract proper values of λA.

  10. Relation between bond-length alternation and two-photon absorption of a push pull conjugated molecules: a quantum-chemical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartkowiak, W.; Zaleśny, R.; Leszczynski, J.

    2003-02-01

    The results of the semiempirical study of the structure/property relationships for the two-photon absorption cross-section ( δ) of a series of prototypical π-conjugated push-pull molecules are presented. The calculations of δ for the first charge-transfer (CT) excited state were performed as a function of the bond length alternation (BLA). The molecular hyperpolarizabilities ( β and γ) were calculated using the finite-field (FF) method. The obtained data were analyzed based on the simple two-state models. A strong dependence of δ on the BLA parameter was noticed.

  11. The influence of a probe on the optical path of atomic absorption spectrometer with a graphite tube atomizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Yu. A.; Kokorina, O. B.; Okunev, R. V.

    2014-04-01

    We have studied the influence on the atomic absorption signal of the obscuring of the transmission beam by a probe for the two-stage atomization in a graphite tube atomizer. The following parameters were varied: the thickness of the probe (0.5-1.0 mm), its displacement from the optical axis of the spectrometer (up to 2 mm), the diameter of the transmission beam (1.3-4.0 mm), the slit width of the monochromator, and the shape of the intensity distribution over the cross section of the beam emitted either by a hollow cathode lamp, or a deuterium lamp, or an electrodeless lamp. We have shown that, using a probe with a thickness that is optimal for the two-stage atomization (1 mm), it is possible to register analytical absorption signals from 28 chemical elements out of 56 (except Hg), which can be determined in graphite atomizers, with a maximal sensitivity and with no optical interference. The remaining elements can be determined with a lower sensitivity because of the necessity to lower the temperature of the secondary atomization.

  12. Open-path quantum cascade laser-based system for simultaneous remote sensing of methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapor using chirped-pulse differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Paulo; Diaz, Adrian; Thomas, Benjamin; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2015-10-01

    Methane and Nitrous Oxide are long-lived greenhouse gases in the atmosphere with significant global warming effects. We report on application of chirped-pulsed quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) to simultaneous measurements of these trace gases in both open-path fence-line and backscatter systems. The intra-pulse thermal frequency chip in a QCL can be time resolved and calibrated to allow for high resolution differential optical absorption spectroscopy over the spectral window of the chip, which for a DFB-QCL can be reach ~2cm-1 for a 500 nsec pulse. The spectral line-shape of the output from these lasers are highly stable from pulse to pulse over long period of time (> 1 day), and the system does not require frequent calibrations.

  13. Spectroscopy in an extremely thin vapor cell: Comparing the cell-length dependence in fluorescence and in absorption techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkisyan, D.; Varzhapetyan, T.; Sarkisyan, A.; Malakyan, Yu.; Papoyan, A.; Lezama, A.; Bloch, D.; Ducloy, M.

    2004-06-01

    We compare the behavior of absorption and of resonance fluorescence spectra in an extremely thin Rb vapor cell as a function of the ratio of L/{lambda}, with L the cell thickness (L{approx}150-1800 nm) and {lambda} the wavelength of the Rb D{sub 2} line ({lambda}=780 mn). The Dicke-type coherent narrowing [G. Dutier et al., Europhys. Lett. 63, 35 (2003)] is observed only in transmission measurements, in the linear regime, with its typical collapse and revival, which reaches a maximum for L=(2n+1){lambda}/2 (n integer). It is shown not to appear in fluorescence, whose behavior-amplitude, and spectral width, is more monotonic with L. Conversely, at high-intensity, the sub-Doppler saturation effects are shown to be the most visible in transmission around L=n{lambda}.

  14. Toward stand-off open-path measurements of NO and NO(2) in the sub-parts per million meter range using quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in the intra-pulse absorption mode.

    PubMed

    Reidl-Leuthner, Christoph; Lendl, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    Two thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers operated in pulsed mode have been used for the quasi-simultaneous determination of NO and NO2 in the sub-parts per million meter (sub-ppm-m) range. Using a beam splitter, the beams of the two lasers were combined and sent to a retro-reflector. The returned light was recorded with a thermoelectrically cooled mercury cadmium telluride detector with a rise time of 4 ns. Alternate operation of the lasers with pulse lengths of 300 ns and a repetition rate of 66 kHz allowed quasi-simultaneous measurements. During each pulse the laser temperature increased, causing a thermal chirp of the laser line of up to 1.3 cm(-1). These laser chirps were sufficient to scan rotational bands of NO centered at 1902 cm(-1) and NO2 located at 1632 cm(-1). In that way an absorption spectrum could be recorded from a single laser pulse. Currently achieved limits of detection are 600 parts per billion meter (ppb-m) for NO and 260 ppb-m for NO2 using signal averaging over 1 min. This work presents the first steps toward a portable stand-off, open-path instrument that uses thermoelectrically cooled detector and lasers. PMID:24359649

  15. Probing grain boundary sink strength at the nanoscale: Energetics and length scales of vacancy and interstitial absorption by grain boundaries in α-Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Tschopp, Mark A.; Solanki, K. N.; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Horstemeyer, Mark

    2012-02-10

    The energetics and length scales associated with the interaction between point defects (vacancies and self-interstitial atoms) and grain boundaries in bcc Fe was explored. Molecular statics simulations were used to generate a grain boundary structure database that contained {approx}170 grain boundaries with varying tilt and twist character. Then, vacancy and self-interstitial atom formation energies were calculated at all potential grain boundary sites within 15 {angstrom} of the boundary. The present results provide detailed information about the interaction energies of vacancies and self-interstitial atoms with symmetric tilt grain boundaries in iron and the length scales involved with absorption of these point defects by grain boundaries. Both low- and high-angle grain boundaries were effective sinks for point defects, with a few low-{Sigma} grain boundaries (e.g., the {Sigma}3{l_brace}112{r_brace} twin boundary) that have properties different from the rest. The formation energies depend on both the local atomic structure and the distance from the boundary center. Additionally, the effect of grain boundary energy, disorientation angle, and {Sigma} designation on the boundary sink strength was explored; the strongest correlation occurred between the grain boundary energy and the mean point defect formation energies. Based on point defect binding energies, interstitials have {approx}80% more grain boundary sites per area and {approx}300% greater site strength than vacancies. Last, the absorption length scale of point defects by grain boundaries is over a full lattice unit larger for interstitials than for vacancies (mean of 6-7 {angstrom} versus 10-11 {angstrom} for vacancies and interstitials, respectively).

  16. Changes in Search Path Complexity and Length During Learning of a Virtual Water Maze: Age Differences and Differential Associations with Hippocampal Subfield Volumes.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Ana M; Bender, Andrew R; Yuan, Peng; Raz, Naftali

    2016-06-01

    Impairment of hippocampus-dependent cognitive processes has been proposed to underlie age-related deficits in navigation. Animal studies suggest a differential role of hippocampal subfields in various aspects of navigation, but that hypothesis has not been tested in humans. In this study, we examined the association between volume of hippocampal subfields and age differences in virtual spatial navigation. In a sample of 65 healthy adults (age 19-75 years), advanced age was associated with a slower rate of improvement operationalized as shortening of the search path over 25 learning trials on a virtual Morris water maze task. The deficits were partially explained by greater complexity of older adults' search paths. Larger subiculum and entorhinal cortex volumes were associated with a faster decrease in search path complexity, which in turn explained faster shortening of search distance. Larger Cornu Ammonis (CA)1-2 volume was associated with faster distance shortening, but not in path complexity reduction. Age differences in regional volumes collectively accounted for 23% of the age-related variance in navigation learning. Independent of subfield volumes, advanced age was associated with poorer performance across all trials, even after reaching the asymptote. Thus, subiculum and CA1-2 volumes were associated with speed of acquisition, but not magnitude of gains in virtual maze navigation. PMID:25838036

  17. The effects of forage particle length and exogenous phytase inclusion on phosphorus digestion and absorption in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, J P; Wilson, J W; Ray, P P; Knowlton, K F

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of phosphorus (P) availability from feed are needed to allow P requirements to be met with reduced P intake, thus reducing P excretion by livestock. Exogenous phytase supplementation in poultry and swine diets improves bioavailability of P, and limited research suggests that this strategy may have some application in dairy cattle rations. The effects of exogenous phytase and forage particle length on site and extent of P digestion were evaluated with 5 ruminally and ileally cannulated lactating cows (188 ± 35 d in milk). Cows were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in 2 incomplete Latin squares with four 21-d periods. Diets contained P slightly in excess of National Research Council requirements with all P from feed sources. During the last 4d of each period, total mixed ration, refusals, omasal, ileal, and fecal samples were collected and analyzed for total P, inorganic P (Pi), and phytate (Pp). Total P intake was not influenced by dietary treatments but Pp intake decreased and Pi intake increased with supplemental phytase, suggesting rapid action of the enzyme in the total mixed ration after mixing. Omasal flow of Pi decreased with phytase supplementation, but we observed no effect of diet in ileal flow or small intestinal digestibility of any P fraction. Fecal excretion of total P was slightly higher and Pp excretion was lower for cows receiving diets supplemented with phytase. Milk yield and composition were unaffected by diets. When phytase was added to the mixed ration, dietary Pp was rapidly degraded before intake and total-tract Pp digestion was increased. The lack of effect of phytase supplementation on dietary P utilization was probably because these late-lactation cows had a low P requirement and were fed P-adequate diets. PMID:24210479

  18. Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehret, G.; Kiemle, C.; Wirth, M.; Amediek, A.; Fix, A.; Houweling, S.

    2008-03-01

    CO2, CH4, and N2O are recognised as the most important greenhouse gases, the concentrations of which increase rapidly through human activities. Space-borne integrated path differential absorption lidar allows global observations at day and night over land and water surfaces in all climates. In this study we investigate potential sources of measurement errors and compare them with the scientific requirements. Our simulations reveal that moderate-size instruments in terms of telescope aperture (0.5 1.5 m) and laser average power (0.4 4 W) potentially have a low random error of the greenhouse gas column which is 0.2% for CO2 and 0.4% for CH4 for soundings at 1.6 μm, 0.4% for CO2 at 2.1 μm, 0.6% for CH4 at 2.3 μm, and 0.3% for N2O at 3.9 μm. Coherent detection instruments are generally limited by speckle noise, while direct detection instruments suffer from high detector noise using current technology. The wavelength selection in the vicinity of the absorption line is critical as it controls the height region of highest sensitivity, the temperature cross-sensitivity, and the demands on frequency stability. For CO2, an error budget of 0.08% is derived from our analysis of the sources of systematic errors. Among them, the frequency stability of ± 0.3 MHz for the laser transmitter and spectral purity of 99.9% in conjunction with a narrow-band spectral filter of 1 GHz (FWHM) are identified to be challenging instrument requirements for a direct detection CO2 system operating at 1.6 μm.

  19. CHARM-F: An airborne Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) LIDAR for the simultaneous measurement of CO2 and CH4 Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, M.; Amediek, A.; Büdenbender, C.; Ehret, G.; Fix, A.; Kiemle, C.; Quatrevalet, M.; Hoffmann, D.; Löhring, J.; Klein, V.; Schöggl, R.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) - in collaboration with Fraunhofer-Institut für Lasertechnik (ILT) and Kayser-Threde GmbH (KT) - is developing CHARM-F, an Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) LIDAR for simultaneous measurement of CO2 and CH4 columns. Design goal is a compact and rugged instrument optimized for airborne use on board of DLR's long range research aircraft HALO. The main scientific goal of the instrument is to provide precise column measurements of CO2 and CH4 to infer fluxes of these important greenhouse gases by means of inverse modeling. For this purpose, very stringent requirements concerning accuracy and precision have to be met since typical surface sources and sinks alter the total column only by a few percent. To achieve this, CHARM-F uses laser sources emitting pulse-pairs with nanosecond duration which allows for a precise ranging and a proper separation of atmospheric influences (i.e. aerosol and clouds) from the ground return leading to an unambiguously defined column (no airmass factors involved). Two laser systems - one for each trace gas - are employed using highly efficient and robust Nd:YAG lasers to pump optical parametric oscillators (OPO) which convert the pump radiation to the desired measurement wavelengths in the near infrared. Each laser system emits a pulse pair having different wavelengths. One is tuned to an absorption line of the trace gas under consideration and the other one to a nearby wavelength with much less absorption. The close temporal pulse separation of 250 μs together with a relatively large spot size of 30 m on ground ensures that nearly the same area is illuminated by both pulses. To achieve single-mode operation, both the pump and the OPO are injection seeded. The seed lasers are locked to a gas cell filled with a mixture of CO2 and CH4 to ensure an absolute wavelength calibration. Furthermore, deviations of the wavelength between outgoing laser pulse and the seed lasers are measured to detect and to correct for possible mode pulling effects. A new pulse energy calibration concept using fiber-coupled integrating spheres is employed to allow for a proper normalization of the return signal strength. Assembly and laboratory tests of the instrument will start by end of 2011, the first flight test is planned for fall of 2012. CHARM-F is also intended to serve as an airborne demonstrator for the French-German climate satellite MERLIN that will be launched in 2016.

  20. Self-calibration and laser energy monitor validations for a double-pulsed 2-?m CO2 integrated path differential absorption lidar application.

    PubMed

    Refaat, Tamer F; Singh, Upendra N; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben; Yu, Jirong

    2015-08-20

    Double-pulsed 2-?m integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is well suited for atmospheric CO2 remote sensing. The IPDA lidar technique relies on wavelength differentiation between strong and weak absorbing features of the gas normalized to the transmitted energy. In the double-pulse case, each shot of the transmitter produces two successive laser pulses separated by a short interval. Calibration of the transmitted pulse energies is required for accurate CO2 measurement. Design and calibration of a 2-?m double-pulse laser energy monitor is presented. The design is based on an InGaAs pin quantum detector. A high-speed photoelectromagnetic quantum detector was used for laser-pulse profile verification. Both quantum detectors were calibrated using a reference pyroelectric thermal detector. Calibration included comparing the three detection technologies in the single-pulsed mode, then comparing the quantum detectors in the double-pulsed mode. In addition, a self-calibration feature of the 2-?m IPDA lidar is presented. This feature allows one to monitor the transmitted laser energy, through residual scattering, with a single detection channel. This reduces the CO2 measurement uncertainty. IPDA lidar ground validation for CO2 measurement is presented for both calibrated energy monitor and self-calibration options. The calibrated energy monitor resulted in a lower CO2 measurement bias, while self-calibration resulted in a better CO2 temporal profiling when compared to the in situ sensor. PMID:26368759

  1. Ozone detection using an integrating sphere as an optical absorption cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawe, E.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Chambers, P.; Lewis, E.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a multipass optical absorption cell that is based on a spherical cavity. Ozone concentrations have been detected in the visible region at 603 nm, in the Chappuis band. A 2-inch diameter (50.8 mm) integrating sphere has been modified for use an optical absorption cell. A method of calculating the effective optical path length of the integrating sphere is also presented. It is reported that the effective optical length of the sphere is reduced as the ozone concentration is increased as predicted by the effective path length formula.

  2. Integration of Fluorescence Differential Path-Length Spectroscopy to Photodynamic Therapy of the Head and Neck Tumors is Useful in Monitoring Clinical Outcome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakullukcu, Baris; Kanick, Stephen; Aans, Jan Bonne; Sterenborg, Henricus; Tan, Bing; Amelink, Arjen; Robinson, Dominic

    2015-04-01

    The use of fluorescence differential pathlength spectroscopy (FDPS) has the potential to provide real-time information on photosensitiser pharmacokinetics, vascular physiology and photosensitizer photobleaching based dosimetry of tumors in the oral cavity receiving m-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin (mTHPC) photodynamic therapy (PDT). Reflectance spectra can be used provide quantitative values of oxygen saturation, blood volume fraction, blood vessel diameter, and to determine the local optical properties that can be used to correct raw fluorescence for tissue absorption. Patients and methods: Twenty-seven lesions in the oral cavity, either dysplasias or cancer were interrogated using FDPS, before and immediately after the therapeutic illumination. The average tumor center to normal mucosa ratio of fluorescence was 1.50 ± 0.66. mTHPC photobleaching was observed in 24 of the lesions treated. The average extent of photobleaching was 81% ± 17%. Information from FDPS spectroscopy coupled with the clinical results of the treatment identified 3 types of correctable errors in the application of mTHPC-PDT: Two patients exhibited very low concentrations of photosensitizer in tumour center, indicating an ineffective i.v. injection of photosensitiser or an erroneous systemic distribution of mTHPC. In one in tumor we observed no photobleaching accompanied by a high blood volume fraction in the illuminated tissue, suggesting that the presence of blood prevented therapeutic light reaching the target tissue. All 3 of the these lesions had no clinical response to PDT. In four patients we observed less than 50% photobleaching at the tumor margins , suggesting a possible geographic miss. One patient in this group had a recurrence within 2 months after PDT even though the initial response was good. The integration of FDPS to clinical PDT yields data on tissue physiology, photosensitiser content and photobleaching that can help identify treatment errors that can potentially be corrected.

  3. Azimuthal Anisotropy of pi Production in Au+Au Collisions at s_NN = 200 GeV: Path-length Dependence of Jet-Quenching and the Role of Initial Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.; Awes, Terry C; Cianciolo, Vince; Efremenko, Yuri; Enokizono, Akitomo; Read Jr, Kenneth F; Silvermyr, David O; Sorensen, Soren P; Stankus, Paul W; PHENIX, Collaboration

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the azimuthal anisotropy of {pi}{sup 0} production for 1 < p{sub T} < 18 GeV/c for Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. The observed anisotropy shows a gradual decrease for 3 {approx}< p {approx}< 7-10 GeV/c, but remains positive beyond 10 GeV/c. The magnitude of this anisotropy is underpredicted, up to at least {approx}10 GeV/c, by current perturbative QCD (PQCD) energy-loss model calculations. An estimate of the increase in anisotropy expected from initial-geometry modification due to gluon saturation effects and fluctuations is insufficient to account for this discrepancy. Calculations that implement a path-length dependence steeper than what is implied by current PQCD energy-loss models show reasonable agreement with the data.

  4. Azimuthal Anisotropy of π0 Production in Au+Au Collisions at √sNN=200  GeV: Path-Length Dependence of Jet Quenching and the Role of Initial Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.; PHENIX Collaboration

    2010-10-01

    We have measured the azimuthal anisotropy of {pi}{sup 0} production for 1 < p{sub T} < 18 GeV/c for Au+Au collisions at {radical} s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. The observed anisotropy shows a gradual decrease for 3 {approx}< p{sub T} {approx}< 7-10 GeV/c, but remains positive beyond 10 GeV/c. The magnitude of this anisotropy is underpredicted, up to at least {approx}10 GeV/c, by current perturbative QCD (PQCD) energy-loss model calculations. An estimate of the increase in anisotropy expected from initial-geometry modification due to gluon saturation effects and fluctuations is insufficient to account for this discrepancy. Calculations that implement a path-length dependence steeper than what is implied by current PQCD energy-loss models show reasonable agreement with the data.

  5. Azimuthal anisotropy of π⁰ production in Au+Au collisions at sqrt((s)NN)=200  GeV: path-length dependence of jet quenching and the role of initial geometry.

    PubMed

    Adare, A; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Aoki, K; Aramaki, Y; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bickley, A A; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Chen, C-H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgo, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Hanks, J; Han, R; Hartouni, E P; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; Heffner, M; Hegyi, S; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; He, X; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ide, J; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E J; Kim, E; Kim, S H; Kim, Y J; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K; Lee, K S; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitner, E; Lenzi, B; Liebing, P; Linden Levy, L A; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Li, X; Love, B; Luechtenborg, R; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mignerey, A C; Mikeš, P; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Okada, K; Oka, M; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, A Yu; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Sparks, N A; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Themann, H; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Wood, J P; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Younus, I; You, Z; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zolin, L

    2010-10-01

    We have measured the azimuthal anisotropy of π⁰ production for 1path-length dependence steeper than what is implied by current PQCD energy-loss models show reasonable agreement with the data. PMID:21230825

  6. Azimuthal Anisotropy of {pi}{sup 0} Production in Au+Au Collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV: Path-Length Dependence of Jet Quenching and the Role of Initial Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.; Bickley, A. A.; Ellinghaus, F.; Glenn, A.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Nagle, J. L.; Rosen, C. A.; Seele, J.; Wysocki, M.; Afanasiev, S.; Isupov, A.; Litvinenko, A.; Malakhov, A.; Peresedov, V.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Zolin, L.; Aidala, C.; Datta, A.

    2010-10-01

    We have measured the azimuthal anisotropy of {pi}{sup 0} production for 1path-length dependence steeper than what is implied by current PQCD energy-loss models show reasonable agreement with the data.

  7. Azimuthal Anisotropy of π0 Production in Au+Au Collisions at sNN=200GeV: Path-Length Dependence of Jet Quenching and the Role of Initial Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Aoki, K.; Aramaki, Y.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bickley, A. A.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; David, G.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Ellinghaus, F.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'Yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M., Jr.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Garishvili, I.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Hanks, J.; Han, R.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; Heffner, M.; Hegyi, S.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; He, X.; Hill, J. C.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Isenhower, D.; Ishihara, M.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jin, J.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kochenda, L.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Liebing, P.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Li, X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; Means, N.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Milov, A.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mohanty, A. K.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nouicer, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Okada, K.; Oka, M.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakashita, K.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sato, T.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Slunečka, M.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sziklai, J.; Takagui, E. M.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Themann, H.; Thomas, T. L.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tomášek, L.; Torii, H.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xie, W.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; You, Z.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zolin, L.; PHENIX Collaboration

    2010-10-01

    We have measured the azimuthal anisotropy of π0 production for 1path-length dependence steeper than what is implied by current PQCD energy-loss models show reasonable agreement with the data.

  8. Path Finder

    SciTech Connect

    Rigdon, J. Brian; Smith, Marcus Daniel; Mulder, Samuel A

    2014-01-07

    PathFinder is a graph search program, traversing a directed cyclic graph to find pathways between labeled nodes. Searches for paths through ordered sequences of labels are termed signatures. Determining the presence of signatures within one or more graphs is the primary function of Path Finder. Path Finder can work in either batch mode or interactively with an analyst. Results are limited to Path Finder whether or not a given signature is present in the graph(s).

  9. Method and apparatus for background signal reduction in opto-acoustic absorption measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosengren, L. G. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The sensitivity of an opto-acoustic absorption detector is increased to make it possible to measure trace amounts of constituent gases. A second beam radiation path is created through the sample cell identical to a first path except as to length, alternating the beam through the two paths and minimizing the detected pressure difference for the two paths while the beam wavelength is tuned away from the absorption lines of the sample. Then with the beam wavelength tuned to the absorption line of any constituent of interest, the pressure difference is a measure of trace amounts of the constituent. The same improved detector may also be used for measuring the absorption coefficient of known concentrations of absorbing gases.

  10. Non-reciprocity observed by the VLF reception of NWC (19.8 kHz) over trans-equatorial east-west paths to India with reception over a non-equatorial west-east path of similar length to Dunedin, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynn, Kenneth; Singh, Rajesh; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Veenadhari, Bhasakara; More, Chandrakant; Brundell, James

    2012-07-01

    VLF diurnal phase and amplitude variations from NWC (19.8kHz) received over trans-equatorial east-west VLF paths at a number of sites in India are compared with the diurnal variations of NWC received in Dunedin, New Zealand over a non-equatorial west-east path of similar length. Transequatorial non-reciprocity is evident at the Indian sites as a marked and erratic reduction in night amplitude below the daytime value and changes in the sunrise modal interference minima relative to those in New Zealand. Night amplitudes in New Zealand were relatively steady and uniformly higher than day values. In contrast, the diurnal phase shifts at all sites were consistent with middle latitude values and the slight non-reciprocity known to be present there. The diurnal phase measurements confirm measurements made by Meara (1973) that east-west transequatorial propagation does not affect the phase velocity of the dominant night mode at frequencies at and above 18.6 kHz. This result contrasts with east-west transequatorial VLF measurements at Omega frequencies below 14 kHz which show an apparent increase in average phase velocity at night. Co-authors: James Brundell, Sandip K. Chakrabarti, Sushanta Kumar Mondal, Rajesh Singh, B. Veenadhari, Morris B Cohen, C.T. More

  11. Broadband transient absorption spectroscopy with 1- and 2-photon excitations: Relaxation paths and cross sections of a triphenylamine dye in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J.; Dobryakov, A. L.; Ioffe, I. N.; Granovsky, A. A.; Hecht, S.; Kovalenko, S. A.

    2015-07-01

    1-photon (382 nm) and 2-photon (752 nm) excitations to the S1 state are applied to record and compare transient absorption spectra of a push-pull triphenylamine (TrP) dye in solution. After 1-photon excitation, ultrafast vibrational and structural molecular relaxations are detected on a 0.1 ps time scale in nonpolar hexane, while in polar acetonitrile, the spectral evolution is dominated by dipolar solvation. Upon 2-photon excitation, transient spectra in hexane reveal an unexpected growth of stimulated emission (SE) and excited-state absorption (ESA) bands. The behavior is explained by strong population transfer S1 → Sn due to resonant absorption of a third pump photon. Subsequent Sn → S1 internal conversion (with τ1 = 1 ps) prepares a very hot S1 state which cools down with τ2 = 13 ps. The pump pulse energy dependence proves the 2-photon origin of the bleach signal. At the same time, SE and ESA are strongly affected by higher-order pump absorptions that should be taken into account in nonlinear fluorescence applications. The 2-photon excitation cross sections σ(2) = 32 ṡ 10-50 cm4 s at 752 nm are evaluated from the bleach signal.

  12. Broadband transient absorption spectroscopy with 1- and 2-photon excitations: Relaxation paths and cross sections of a triphenylamine dye in solution.

    PubMed

    Moreno, J; Dobryakov, A L; Ioffe, I N; Granovsky, A A; Hecht, S; Kovalenko, S A

    2015-07-14

    1-photon (382 nm) and 2-photon (752 nm) excitations to the S1 state are applied to record and compare transient absorption spectra of a push-pull triphenylamine (TrP) dye in solution. After 1-photon excitation, ultrafast vibrational and structural molecular relaxations are detected on a 0.1 ps time scale in nonpolar hexane, while in polar acetonitrile, the spectral evolution is dominated by dipolar solvation. Upon 2-photon excitation, transient spectra in hexane reveal an unexpected growth of stimulated emission (SE) and excited-state absorption (ESA) bands. The behavior is explained by strong population transfer S1 → Sn due to resonant absorption of a third pump photon. Subsequent Sn → S1 internal conversion (with τ1 = 1 ps) prepares a very hot S1 state which cools down with τ2 = 13 ps. The pump pulse energy dependence proves the 2-photon origin of the bleach signal. At the same time, SE and ESA are strongly affected by higher-order pump absorptions that should be taken into account in nonlinear fluorescence applications. The 2-photon excitation cross sections σ(2) = 32 ⋅ 10(-50) cm(4) s at 752 nm are evaluated from the bleach signal. PMID:26178109

  13. [Influencing factors in measuring absorption coefficient of suspended particulate matters].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-long; Shen, Fang; Zhang, Jin-fang

    2013-05-01

    Absorption coefficient of suspended particulate matters in natural water is one of the key parameters in ocean color remote sensing. In order to study the influencing factors that affect the measurement, a series of experiments were designed to measure samples using transmittance method (T method), transmittance-reflectance method (T-R method) and absorptance method (A method). The results shows that absorption coefficient measured by the A method has a much lower error compared to the T method and T-R method due to influencing factors,such as filter-to-filter variations, water content of the filter, and homogeneity of filter load and so on. Another factor influence absorption coefficient is path-length amplification induced by multiple scattering inside the filter. To determine the path-length amplification, the true absorption was measured by AC-s (WetLabs). The linear fitting result shows that the mean path-length amplification is much higher for the A method than that of the T-R method and the T method (4.01 versus 2.20 and 2.32), and the corresponding correlation coefficient are 0.90, 0.87 and 0.80. For the A method and the T-R method, higher correlation coefficients are calculated when using polynomial fitting, and the value are 0.95 and 0.94. Analysis of the mean relative error caused by different influencing factors indicates that path-length amplification is the largest error source in measuring the absorption coefficient. PMID:23914523

  14. Imaging of highly turbid media by the absorption method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contini, Daniele; Liszka, Heather; Sassaroli, Angelo; Zaccanti, Giovanni

    1996-05-01

    The results of a study on imaging that is based on the absorption method are presented. This method is based on attenuation measurements carried out in the presence of a sufficiently high absorption coefficient by the use of a continuous-wave source. The benefit of absorption on image quality comes from the strong attenuation of photons traveling along long trajectories. When the absorption coefficient is increased, the received energy decreases, but the mean path length of received photons decreases. The effect of increasing the absorption coefficient is similar to that of decreasing the gating time when the time-gating technique is used. Experimental results showed that the spatial resolution obtained with the absorption technique is similar to that obtained with the time-gating technique. method, spatial resolution, turbid media.

  15. Path discrepancies between great circle and rhumb line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Rajan

    1987-01-01

    A simulation of a mathematical model to compute path discrepancies between great circle and rhumb line flight paths is presented. The model illustrates that the path errors depend on the latitude, the bearing, and the trip length of the flight.

  16. Path ANalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Mark K.

    2007-07-14

    The PANL software determines path through an Adversary Sequence Diagram (ASD) with minimum Probability of Interruption, P(I), given the ASD information and data about site detection, delay, and response force times. To accomplish this, the software generates each path through the ASD, then applies the Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption (EASI) methodology for calculating P(I) to each path, and keeps track of the path with the lowest P(I). Primary use is for training purposes during courses on physical security design. During such courses PANL will be used to demonstrate to students how more complex software codes are used by the US Department of Energy to determine the most-vulnerable paths and, where security needs improvement, how such codes can help determine physical security upgrades.

  17. Path ANalysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-07-14

    The PANL software determines path through an Adversary Sequence Diagram (ASD) with minimum Probability of Interruption, P(I), given the ASD information and data about site detection, delay, and response force times. To accomplish this, the software generates each path through the ASD, then applies the Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption (EASI) methodology for calculating P(I) to each path, and keeps track of the path with the lowest P(I). Primary use is for training purposes duringmore » courses on physical security design. During such courses PANL will be used to demonstrate to students how more complex software codes are used by the US Department of Energy to determine the most-vulnerable paths and, where security needs improvement, how such codes can help determine physical security upgrades.« less

  18. Path integral junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohya, Satoshi

    2012-06-01

    We propose path integral description for quantum mechanical systems on compact graphs consisting of N segments of the same length. Provided the bulk Hamiltonian is segment-independent, scale-invariant boundary conditions given by the self-adjoint extension of a Hamiltonian operator turn out to be in one-to-one correspondence with N × N matrix-valued weight factors on the path integral side. We show that these weight factors are given by N-dimensional unitary representations of the infinite dihedral group.

  19. Path Pascal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. H.; Kolstad, R. B.; Holle, D. F.; Miller, T. J.; Krause, P.; Horton, K.; Macke, T.

    1983-01-01

    Path Pascal is high-level experimental programming language based on PASCAL, which incorporates extensions for systems and real-time programming. Pascal is extended to treat real-time concurrent systems.

  20. Design parameters for enhanced photon absorption in vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Stefan T.; Strehle, Steffen

    2014-09-01

    Superior photon absorption in ordered nanowire arrays has been demonstrated recently. However, systematic studies are still missing to explore the limits of their implementation as functional photonic devices. With emphasis on silicon nanowires, we investigated the effects of nanowire diameter, length, morphology, and pitch on the photon absorption within the visible solar spectrum based on simulations. Our results reveal that these parameters are crucial but disclose a path to improve the absorbance drastically.

  1. Time optimal paths for high speed maneuvering

    SciTech Connect

    Reister, D.B.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent theoretical results have completely solved the problem of determining the minimum length path for a vehicle with a minimum turning radius moving from an initial configuration to a final configuration. Time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle are a subset of the minimum length paths. This paper uses the Pontryagin maximum principle to find time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle. The time optimal paths consist of sequences of axes of circles and straight lines. The maximum principle introduces concepts (dual variables, bang-bang solutions, singular solutions, and transversality conditions) that provide important insight into the nature of the time optimal paths. We explore the properties of the optimal paths and present some experimental results for a mobile robot following an optimal path.

  2. Intracavity absorption spectroscopy with a tunable multimode traveling-wave ring Ti:sapphire laser.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Tomoyuki; Kato, Naoya; Takemura, Akira; Koishi, Hiroyuki; Morinaga, Atsuo

    2012-07-10

    A tunable multimode unidirectional traveling-wave Ti:sapphire laser was developed to measure in situ the atmospheric absorption spectra using intracavity absorption spectroscopy. The effective absorption path length was 2100 km. O2 and H2O vapor lines in atmosphere with absorption coefficients of 10(-6)-10(-8) cm(-1) were measured with uncertainties <5%, and the absorption coefficients were in agreement with those estimated from the HITRAN database. By tuning the wavelength, a weak absorption line with an absorption coefficient of 10(-9) cm(-1) was measured with a sensitivity of 210(-10) cm(-1). The sensitivity was limited by the residual parasitic variation that appeared in the spectrum. PMID:22781240

  3. A comprehensive study on energy absorption and exposure buildup factors for some essential amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates in the energy range 0.015-15 MeV up to 40 mean free path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurudirek, Murat; Özdemir, Yüksel

    2011-01-01

    The gamma ray energy absorption ( EABF) and exposure buildup factors ( EBF) have been calculated for some essential amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates in the energy region 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path). The five parameter geometric progression (G-P) fitting approximation has been used to calculate both EABF and EBF. Variations of EABF and EBF with incident photon energy, penetration depth and weight fraction of elements have been studied. While the significant variations in EABF and EBF for amino acids and fatty acids have been observed at the intermediate energy region where Compton scattering is the main photon interaction process, the values of EABF and EBF appear to be almost the same for all carbohydrates in the continuous energy region. It has been observed that the fatty acids have the largest EABF and EBF at 0.08 and 0.1 MeV, respectively, whereas the maximum values of EABF and EBF have been observed for aminoacids and carbohydrates at 0.1 MeV. At the fixed energy of 1.5 MeV, the variation of EABF with penetration depth appears to be independent of the variations in chemical composition of the amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates. Significant variations were also observed between EABF and EBF which may be due to the variations in chemical composition of the given materials.

  4. Completely automated open-path FT-IR spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Peter R; Shao, Limin; Leytem, April B

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric analysis by open-path Fourier-transform infrared (OP/FT-IR) spectrometry has been possible for over two decades but has not been widely used because of the limitations of the software of commercial instruments. In this paper, we describe the current state-of-the-art of the hardware and software that constitutes a contemporary OP/FT-IR spectrometer. We then describe advances that have been made in our laboratory that have enabled many of the limitations of this type of instrument to be overcome. These include not having to acquire a single-beam background spectrum that compensates for absorption features in the spectra of atmospheric water vapor and carbon dioxide. Instead, an easily measured "short path-length" background spectrum is used for calculation of each absorbance spectrum that is measured over a long path-length. To accomplish this goal, the algorithm used to calculate the concentrations of trace atmospheric molecules was changed from classical least-squares regression (CLS) to partial least-squares regression (PLS). For calibration, OP/FT-IR spectra are measured in pristine air over a wide variety of path-lengths, temperatures, and humidities, ratioed against a short-path background, and converted to absorbance; the reference spectrum of each analyte is then multiplied by randomly selected coefficients and added to these background spectra. Automatic baseline correction for small molecules with resolved rotational fine structure, such as ammonia and methane, is effected using wavelet transforms. A novel method of correcting for the effect of the nonlinear response of mercury cadmium telluride detectors is also incorporated. Finally, target factor analysis may be used to detect the onset of a given pollutant when its concentration exceeds a certain threshold. In this way, the concentration of atmospheric species has been obtained from OP/FT-IR spectra measured at intervals of 1 min over a period of many hours with no operator intervention. PMID:18946664

  5. Tapped-Hole Vent Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Long helical vent path cools and releases hot pyrotechnical gas that exits along its spiraling threads. Current design uses 1/4-28 threads with outer diameter of stud reduced by 0.025 in. (0.62 mm). To open or close gassampler bottle, pyrotechnic charges on either one side or other of valve cylinder are actuated. Gases vented slowly over long path are cool enough to present no ignition hazard. Vent used to meter flow in refrigeration, pneumaticcontrol, and fluid-control systems by appropriately adjusting size and length of vent path.

  6. Optical Path, Phase, and Interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newburgh, Ronald

    2005-11-01

    A powerful tool in wave optics is the concept of optical path length, a notion usually introduced with Fermat's principle.1-3 The analysis of Fermat's principle requires the application of the calculus of variations and the concept of an extremum, ideas too advanced for beginning students. However, the concept has proven its usefulness in the analysis4 of interference experiments such as those of Michelson and Fabry-Perot. In this paper we shall show how optical path length can aid in the analysis of a modified two-slit Young experiment.

  7. Broadband supercontinuum laser absorption spectrometer for multiparameter gas phase combustion diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Göran Blume, Niels; Wagner, Steven

    2015-07-01

    We report on the development and application of a broadband absorption spectrometer utilizing a pulsed supercontinuum laser light source and dispersion compensating fiber with a single-pass absorption path to obtain absolute methane mole fractions in a laminar nonpremixed CH(4)/air flame supported on a Wolfhard-Parker burner. The basic principle of supercontinuum broadband absorption spectroscopy (SCLAS) provides advantageous means of combustion diagnostics since the broad spectral coverage allows for use in high-pressure high-temperature environments. Furthermore, a previously validated tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy fitting algorithm was applied to the recorded spectra and found to be applicable to SCLAS measurements as well, by comparison of fitted methane gas concentrations to reference measurements on the Wolfhard-Parker burner. The spectrometer reached spectral resolutions of up to 0.152  cm(-1), while providing a spectral coverage of over 110  cm(-1), with an absorption path length of only 41 mm. First measurements of absolute CH(4) mole fractions showed the suitability of SCL-based spectroscopy for combustion diagnostics with short absorption path lengths in the nIR spectral region. Here, we achieved in-flame methane mole fraction resolutions of 3%(Vol.) (1210 ppm·m) and optical resolutions of up to 1.1×10(-2). Based on this first validation, this method can now be extended to other species and combustion parameters such as temperature and pressure. PMID:26125387

  8. Large diffusion lengths of excitons in perovskite and TiO2 heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevorkian, Zhyrair; Gasparian, Vladimir; Lozovik, Yurii

    2016-02-01

    Solar cells based on organometal halide perovskites have recently become very promising among other materials because of their cost-effective character and improvements in efficiency. Such performance is primarily associated with effective light absorption and large diffusion length of charge carriers. Our paper is devoted to the explanation of large diffusion lengths in these systems. The transport mean free path of charged carriers in a perovskite/TiO2 heterojunction that is an important constituent of the solar cells have been analyzed. Large transport length is explained by the planar diffusion of indirect excitons. Diffusion length of the coupled system increases by several orders compared to single carrier length due to the correlated character of the effective field acting on the exciton.

  9. Intracavity absorption with a continuous wave dye laser - Quantification for a narrowband absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brobst, William D.; Allen, John E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the dependence of intracavity absorption on factors including transition strength, concentration, absorber path length, and pump power is presented for a CW dye laser with a narrow-band absorber (NO2). A Beer-Lambert type relationship is found over a small but useful range of these parameters. Quantitative measurement of intracavity absorption from the dye laser spectral profiles showed enhancements up to 12,000 (for pump powers near lasing threshold) when compared to extracavity measurements. The definition of an intracavity absorption coefficient allowed the determination of accurate transition strength ratios, demonstrating the reliability of the method.

  10. Computer programs for absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Jones, R N

    1969-03-01

    Brief descriptions are given of twenty-two modular computer programs for performing the basic numerical computations of absorption spectrophotometry. The programs, written in Fortran IV for card input and output, are available from the National Research Council of Canada. The input and output formats are standardized to permit easy interfacing to yield more complex data processing systems. Though these programs were developed for ir spectrophotometry, they are readily modified for use with digitized visual and uv spectrophotometers. The operations covered include ordinate and abscissal unit and scale interconversions, ordinate addition and subtraction, location of band maxima and minima, smoothing and differentiation, slit function convolution and deconvolution, band profile analysis and asymmetry quantification, Fourier transformation to time correlation curves, multiple overlapping band separation in terms of Cauchy (Lorentz), Gauss, Cauchy-Gauss product, and Cauchy-Gauss sum functions and cell path length determination from fringe spacing analysis. PMID:20072266

  11. Near-infrared open-path measurement of CO₂ concentration in the urban atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hayato; Manago, Naohiro; Kuriyama, Kenji; Kuze, Hiroaki

    2015-06-01

    Average concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been measured over a path length of 5.1 km in the lower troposphere by the method of differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) using a near-infrared light source based on amplified spontaneous emission. The analysis of CO2 absorption intensity around 1575 nm observed during 10 days over the Chiba city area has revealed that the CO2 concentration varied in the range of around 360-450 ppmv, with presumable influence of air mass advection from nearby industrial facilities. In addition, a good correlation has been found in relative humidity values between the DOAS and meteorological station data. As a whole, the present result indicates the usefulness of such a DOAS approach for measuring the concentration of CO2 averaged over an optical path of a few kilometers in the lower troposphere. PMID:26030559

  12. Fiber laser intracavity absorption spectroscopy for in situ multicomponent gas analysis in the atmosphere and combustion environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhden, B.; Kuznetsova, S.; Sengstock, K.; Baev, V. M.; Goldman, A.; Cheskis, S.; Pálsdóttir, B.

    2011-02-01

    Intracavity absorption spectroscopy with a broadband Er3+-doped fiber laser is applied for the measurements of several molecular species revealing quantitative information about the gas concentration, temperature and chemical reactions in flames. The spectral range of measurements extends from 6200 cm-1 to 6550 cm-1 with the proper choice of the fiber length and by moving an intracavity lens. With a pulsed laser applied in this experiment, the sensitivity to absorption corresponds to an effective absorption path length of 3 km assuming the cavity is completely filled with the sample. For a cw laser, the effective absorption path length is estimated to be 50 km. Absorption spectra of various molecules such as CO2, CO, H2O, H2S, C2H2 and OH were recorded separately in the cell and/or in low-pressure methane and propane flames. The presented measurements demonstrate simultaneous in situ detection of three molecular products of chemical reactions at different flame locations. Variation of the relative strengths of OH absorption lines with the temperature enables the estimation of the local flame temperature. The sensitivity of this laser does not depend on the broadband cavity losses and it can be used for in situ measurements of absorption spectra in hostile environments such as contaminated samples, flames or combustion engines. The presented technique can be applied for various diagnostic purposes, such as in environmental, combustion and plasma research, in medicine and in the determination of stable isotope ratios.

  13. Shortest Paths between Shortest Paths and Independent Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiński, Marcin; Medvedev, Paul; Milanič, Martin

    We study problems of reconfiguration of shortest paths in graphs. We prove that the shortest reconfiguration sequence can be exponential in the size of the graph and that it is NP-hard to compute the shortest reconfiguration sequence even when we know that the sequence has polynomial length. Moreover, we also study reconfiguration of independent sets in three different models and analyze relationships between these models, observing that shortest path reconfiguration is a special case of independent set reconfiguration in perfect graphs, under any of the three models. Finally, we give polynomial results for restricted classes of graphs (even-hole-free and P 4-free graphs).

  14. Short paths in expander graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinberg, J.; Rubinfeld, R.

    1996-12-31

    Graph expansion has proved to be a powerful general tool for analyzing the behavior of routing algorithms and the interconnection networks on which they run. We develop new routing algorithms and structural results for bounded-degree expander graphs. Our results are unified by the fact that they are all based upon, and extend, a body of work asserting that expanders are rich in short, disjoint paths. In particular, our work has consequences for the disjoint paths problem, multicommodify flow, and graph minor containment. We show: (i) A greedy algorithm for approximating the maximum disjoint paths problem achieves a polylogarithmic approximation ratio in bounded-degree expanders. Although our algorithm is both deterministic and on-line, its performance guarantee is an improvement over previous bounds in expanders. (ii) For a multicommodily flow problem with arbitrary demands on a bounded-degree expander, there is a (1 + {epsilon})-optimal solution using only flow paths of polylogarithmic length. It follows that the multicommodity flow algorithm of Awerbuch and Leighton runs in nearly linear time per commodity in expanders. Our analysis is based on establishing the following: given edge weights on an expander G, one can increase some of the weights very slightly so the resulting shortest-path metric is smooth - the min-weight path between any pair of nodes uses a polylogarithmic number of edges. (iii) Every bounded-degree expander on n nodes contains every graph with O(n/log{sup O(1)} n) nodes and edges as a minor.

  15. Double-beam laser indirect absorption detection in capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Y.; Yeung, E.S. Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA )

    1993-10-15

    The use of a laser for optical detection in capillary electrophoresis (CE) allows efficient light coupling. By increasing the absorption path length and by reducing noise through an all-electronic noise canceller, the performance of indirect absorption detection is substantially enhanced. In 75-[mu]m capillaries, as low as 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] M pyruvate (10[sup [minus]16] mol injected) can be detected. In 14-[mu]m capillaries, 3 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] M (1.5 [times] 10[sup [minus]16] mol injected) can be detected. When a cationic chromophore is used, K[sup +] at 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] M injected is detectable. These represent the best performance to date, by over 1 order of magnitude, for indirect absorption detection in CE without preconcentration. 26 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Opportunity's Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This Long Term Planning graphic was created from a mosaic of navigation camera images overlain by a polar coordinate grid with the center point as Opportunity's original landing site. The blue dots represent the rover position at various locations.

    The red dots represent the center points of the target areas for the instruments on the rover mast (the panoramic camera and miniature thermal emission spectrometer). Opportunity visited Stone Mountain on Feb. 5. Stone Mountain was named after the southernmost point of the Appalachian Mountains outside of Atlanta, Ga. On Earth, Stone Mountain is the last big mountain before the Piedmont flatlands, and on Mars, Stone Mountain is at one end of Opportunity Ledge. El Capitan is a target of interest on Mars named after the second highest peak in Texas in Guadaloupe National Park, which is one of the most visited outcrops in the United States by geologists. It has been a training ground for students and professional geologists to understand what the layering means in relation to the formation of Earth, and scientists will study this prominent point of Opportunity Ledge to understand what the layering means on Mars.

    The yellow lines show the midpoint where the panoramic camera has swept and will sweep a 120-degree area from the three waypoints on the tour of the outcrop. Imagine a fan-shaped wedge from left to right of the yellow line.

    The white contour lines are one meter apart, and each drive has been roughly about 2-3 meters in length over the last few sols. The large white blocks are dropouts in the navigation camera data.

    Opportunity is driving along and taking a photographic panorama of the entire outcrop. Scientists will stitch together these images and use the new mosaic as a 'base map' to decide on geology targets of interest for a more detailed study of the outcrop using the instruments on the robotic arm. Once scientists choose their targets of interest, they plan to study the outcrop for roughly five to fifteen sols. This will include El Capitan and probably one to two other areas.

    Blue Dot Dates Sol 7 / Jan 31 = Egress & first soil data collected by instruments on the arm Sol 9 / Feb 2 = Second Soil Target Sol 12 / Feb 5 = First Rock Target Sol 16 / Feb 9 = Alpha Waypoint Sol 17 / Feb 10 = Bravo Waypoint Sol 19 or 20 / Feb 12 or 13 = Charlie Waypoint

  17. Automatic Control Of Length Of Welding Arc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iceland, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Nonlinear relationships among current, voltage, and length stored in electronic memory. Conceptual microprocessor-based control subsystem maintains constant length of welding arc in gas/tungsten arc-welding system, even when welding current varied. Uses feedback of current and voltage from welding arc. Directs motor to set position of torch according to previously measured relationships among current, voltage, and length of arc. Signal paths marked "calibration" or "welding" used during those processes only. Other signal paths used during both processes. Control subsystem added to existing manual or automatic welding system equipped with automatic voltage control.

  18. Path Separability of Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diot, Emilie; Gavoille, Cyril

    In this paper we investigate the structural properties of k-path separable graphs, that are the graphs that can be separated by a set of k shortest paths. We identify several graph families having such path separability, and we show that this property is closed under minor taking. In particular we establish a list of forbidden minors for 1-path separable graphs.

  19. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, M.E.; Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.

    1986-12-09

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined. 5 figs.

  20. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, Michael E.; Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.

    1986-01-01

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined.

  1. Towards quantitative atmospheric water vapor profiling with differential absorption lidar.

    PubMed

    Dinovitser, Alex; Gunn, Lachlan J; Abbott, Derek

    2015-08-24

    Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) is a powerful laser-based technique for trace gas profiling of the atmosphere. However, this technique is still under active development requiring precise and accurate wavelength stabilization, as well as accurate spectroscopic parameters of the specific resonance line and the effective absorption cross-section of the system. In this paper we describe a novel master laser system that extends our previous work for robust stabilization to virtually any number of multiple side-line laser wavelengths for the future probing to greater altitudes. In this paper, we also highlight the significance of laser spectral purity on DIAL accuracy, and illustrate a simple re-arrangement of a system for measuring effective absorption cross-section. We present a calibration technique where the laser light is guided to an absorption cell with 33 m path length, and a quantitative number density measurement is then used to obtain the effective absorption cross-section. The same absorption cell is then used for on-line laser stabilization, while microwave beat-frequencies are used to stabilize any number of off-line lasers. We present preliminary results using ∼300 nJ, 1 μs pulses at 3 kHz, with the seed laser operating as a nanojoule transmitter at 822.922 nm, and a receiver consisting of a photomultiplier tube (PMT) coupled to a 356 mm mirror. PMID:26368258

  2. Portable open-path chemical sensor using a quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrigan, Paul; Lwin, Maung; Huntley, Reuven; Chhabra, Amandeep; Moshary, Fred; Gross, Barry; Ahmed, Samir

    2009-05-01

    Remote sensing of enemy installations or their movements by trace gas detection is a critical but challenging military objective. Open path measurements over ranges of a few meters to many kilometers with sensitivity in the parts per million or billion regime are crucial in anticipating the presence of a threat. Previous approaches to detect ground level chemical plumes, explosive constituents, or combustion have relied on low-resolution, short range Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), or low-sensitivity near-infrared differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). As mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) sources have improved in cost and performance, systems based on QCL's that can be tailored to monitor multiple chemical species in real time are becoming a viable alternative. We present the design of a portable, high-resolution, multi-kilometer open path trace gas sensor based on QCL technology. Using a tunable (1045-1047cm-1) QCL, a modeled atmosphere and link-budget analysis with commercial component specifications, we show that with this approach, accuracy in parts per billion ozone or ammonia can be obtained in seconds at path lengths up to 10 km. We have assembled an open-path QCL sensor based on this theoretical approach at City College of New York, and we present preliminary results demonstrating the potential of QCLs in open-path sensing applications.

  3. Intracavity absorption with a continuous wave dye laser: quantification for a narowband absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Brobst, W.D.; Allen J.E. Jr.

    1987-09-01

    Although it is recognized as a very sensitive detection technique, the general application of intracavity absorption to areas such as chemical kinetics and photochemistry has been somewhat limited. Concerns are frequently expressed about the nonlinear nature, experimental difficulty, and reliability of the technique. To allay some of these objections, the dependence of intracavity absorption on factors such as transition strength, concentration, absorber path length, and pump power has been investigated experimentally for a cw dye laser with a narrowband absorber (NO/sub 2/). For this case a Beer-Lambert type relationship has been confirmed over a useful range of these parameters. The extent of intracavity absorption was quantitatively measured directly from the dye laser spectral profiles and, when compared to extracavity measurements, indicated enhancements as high as 12,000 for pump powers near lasing threshold. By defining an intracavity absorption coefficient, it was possible to demonstrate the reliability of the method by obtaining accurate transition strength ratios.

  4. Competition for Shortest Paths on Sparse Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Chi Ho; Saad, David

    2012-05-01

    Optimal paths connecting randomly selected network nodes and fixed routers are studied analytically in the presence of a nonlinear overlap cost that penalizes congestion. Routing becomes more difficult as the number of selected nodes increases and exhibits ergodicity breaking in the case of multiple routers. The ground state of such systems reveals nonmonotonic complex behaviors in average path length and algorithmic convergence, depending on the network topology, and densities of communicating nodes and routers. A distributed linearly scalable routing algorithm is also devised.

  5. Continuously variable focal length lens

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  6. The absolute path command

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  7. Spectral Fingerprinting of Individual Cells Visualized by Cavity-Reflection-Enhanced Light-Absorption Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Minamikawa, Takeo; Takamatsu, Tetsuro; Nagai, Takeharu

    2015-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of light is known to be a “molecular fingerprint” that enables analysis of the molecular type and its amount. It would be useful to measure the absorption spectrum in single cell in order to investigate the cellular status. However, cells are too thin for their absorption spectrum to be measured. In this study, we developed an optical-cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopic microscopy method for two-dimensional absorption imaging. The light absorption is enhanced by an optical cavity system, which allows the detection of the absorption spectrum with samples having an optical path length as small as 10 μm, at a subcellular spatial resolution. Principal component analysis of various types of cultured mammalian cells indicates absorption-based cellular diversity. Interestingly, this diversity is observed among not only different species but also identical cell types. Furthermore, this microscopy technique allows us to observe frozen sections of tissue samples without any staining and is capable of label-free biopsy. Thus, our microscopy method opens the door for imaging the absorption spectra of biological samples and thereby detecting the individuality of cells. PMID:25950513

  8. Spectral fingerprinting of individual cells visualized by cavity-reflection-enhanced light-absorption microscopy.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Minamikawa, Takeo; Takamatsu, Tetsuro; Nagai, Takeharu

    2015-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of light is known to be a "molecular fingerprint" that enables analysis of the molecular type and its amount. It would be useful to measure the absorption spectrum in single cell in order to investigate the cellular status. However, cells are too thin for their absorption spectrum to be measured. In this study, we developed an optical-cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopic microscopy method for two-dimensional absorption imaging. The light absorption is enhanced by an optical cavity system, which allows the detection of the absorption spectrum with samples having an optical path length as small as 10 μm, at a subcellular spatial resolution. Principal component analysis of various types of cultured mammalian cells indicates absorption-based cellular diversity. Interestingly, this diversity is observed among not only different species but also identical cell types. Furthermore, this microscopy technique allows us to observe frozen sections of tissue samples without any staining and is capable of label-free biopsy. Thus, our microscopy method opens the door for imaging the absorption spectra of biological samples and thereby detecting the individuality of cells. PMID:25950513

  9. Measurements of NH3 absorption coefficients with a C-13/O-16/2 laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allario, F.; Seals, R. K., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements of NH3 absorption coefficients are presented for several transitions of a C-13(O-16)2 laser for small concentrations of NH3(p less than 1 torr) for absorption lines broadened to 1 atm with N2. NH3 absorption coefficients were determined for laser transitions R(8)(920.2194 wavelengths/cm) to R(28)(933.8808 wavelengths/cm) of the 00 1 - (10 0,02 0)I band. The strongest absorption coefficient K = 36.09 + or - 1.43 per (atm-cm) was measured for the R(18) transition for the NH3 line, aQ(6,6), and is larger than has been found in any previous measurements with a CO2 laser. The dependence of K on total pressure was also obtained for select transitions, and the frequency separation between the R(18) laser transition and the neighboring NH3 line aQ(6,6) was determined to be 550 + or - 50 MHz. These results are significant for long path absorption monitoring of NH3 with CO2 lasers since the path length can be reduced by approximately 40% and for heterodyne detection of NH3 since the relative position of the laser transition to the NH3 absorption line is well within the bandpass of Hg-Cd-Te photomixers.

  10. Carbon dioxide detection at 2 μm using an integrating sphere as an optical absorption cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawe, Eamonn; Chambers, Paul; Fitzpatrick, Colin; Lewis, Elfed

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes a multipass absorption sensor based on an integrating sphere. The sphere has an internal coating which is highly reflective (over 95%) in the near infrared region and this allows the detection of carbon dioxide (CO II) gas at 2 μm. CO II was detected using a light emitting diode as the emitter and a photodiode as the detector. A two inch (50.8 mm) diameter integrating sphere was used as an absorption gas cell. A method of calculating the effective path length of the integrating sphere is also presented. The latter is shown to be dependant on the reflectance of the sphere's internal surface, the sphere's port fraction and the level of attenuation of the optical signal due to the gas present in the sphere. Effective optical path lengths of 40 cm at the 2 μm region are reported. Experimental results demonstrating the detection of CO II using a two inch diameter integrating sphere are presented and these are compared to simulation results based on a CO II absorption over a 40 cm path length at 2 μm.

  11. Two-path plasmonic interferometer with integrated detector

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Shaner, Eric A.; Aizin, Gregory

    2016-03-29

    An electrically tunable terahertz two-path plasmonic interferometer with an integrated detection element can down convert a terahertz field to a rectified DC signal. The integrated detector utilizes a resonant plasmonic homodyne mixing mechanism that measures the component of the plasma waves in-phase with an excitation field that functions as the local oscillator in the mixer. The plasmonic interferometer comprises two independently tuned electrical paths. The plasmonic interferometer enables a spectrometer-on-a-chip where the tuning of electrical path length plays an analogous role to that of physical path length in macroscopic Fourier transform interferometers.

  12. Optimal paths through downbursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Yiyuan; Bryson, A. E.

    1989-01-01

    The control of an aircraft's takeoff path through a downburst is presently formulated as a dynamic optimization problem with minimum-altitude constraint and two different performance measures; a landing path through a downburst is also discussed. Paths are determined which, in addition to maximizing an airspeed/altitude combination immediately after downburst penetration, minimize deviation from the intended flight path. For mild-to-moderate downbursts, the performance strategy maintains altitude at the expense of airspeed loss, while the survival strategy involves a descent of the aircraft to the minimum altitude in order to obtain greater airspeed. For a severe downburst, both optimal paths maintain minimum altitude.

  13. Cooperative organic mine avoidance path planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, Christopher B.; Piatko, Christine D.; Peterson, Adam V.; Donnald, Creighton R.; Cohen, David

    2005-06-01

    The JHU/APL Path Planning team has developed path planning techniques to look for paths that balance the utility and risk associated with different routes through a minefield. Extending on previous years' efforts, we investigated real-world Naval mine avoidance requirements and developed a tactical decision aid (TDA) that satisfies those requirements. APL has developed new mine path planning techniques using graph based and genetic algorithms which quickly produce near-minimum risk paths for complicated fitness functions incorporating risk, path length, ship kinematics, and naval doctrine. The TDA user interface, a Java Swing application that obtains data via Corba interfaces to path planning databases, allows the operator to explore a fusion of historic and in situ mine field data, control the path planner, and display the planning results. To provide a context for the minefield data, the user interface also renders data from the Digital Nautical Chart database, a database created by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency containing charts of the world's ports and coastal regions. This TDA has been developed in conjunction with the COMID (Cooperative Organic Mine Defense) system. This paper presents a description of the algorithms, architecture, and application produced.

  14. A cryogenic circulating advective multi-pass absorption cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockett, M. H.; Lawler, J. E.

    2012-03-01

    A novel absorption cell has been developed to enable a spectroscopic survey of a broad range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) under astrophysically relevant conditions and utilizing a synchrotron radiation continuum to test the still controversial hypothesis that these molecules or their ions could be carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands. The cryogenic circulating advective multi-pass absorption cell resembles a wind tunnel; molecules evaporated from a crucible or injected using a custom gas feedthrough are entrained in a laminar flow of cryogenically cooled buffer gas and advected into the path of the synchrotron beam. This system includes a multi-pass optical White cell enabling absorption path lengths of hundreds of meters and a detection sensitivity to molecular densities on the order of 107 cm-3. A capacitively coupled radio frequency dielectric barrier discharge provides ionized and metastable buffer gas atoms for ionizing the candidate molecules via charge exchange and the Penning effect. Stronger than expected clustering of PAH molecules has slowed efforts to record gas phase PAH spectra at cryogenic temperatures, though such clusters may play a role in other interstellar phenomena.

  15. A cryogenic circulating advective multi-pass absorption cell

    SciTech Connect

    Stockett, M. H.; Lawler, J. E.

    2012-03-15

    A novel absorption cell has been developed to enable a spectroscopic survey of a broad range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) under astrophysically relevant conditions and utilizing a synchrotron radiation continuum to test the still controversial hypothesis that these molecules or their ions could be carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands. The cryogenic circulating advective multi-pass absorption cell resembles a wind tunnel; molecules evaporated from a crucible or injected using a custom gas feedthrough are entrained in a laminar flow of cryogenically cooled buffer gas and advected into the path of the synchrotron beam. This system includes a multi-pass optical White cell enabling absorption path lengths of hundreds of meters and a detection sensitivity to molecular densities on the order of 10{sup 7} cm{sup -3}. A capacitively coupled radio frequency dielectric barrier discharge provides ionized and metastable buffer gas atoms for ionizing the candidate molecules via charge exchange and the Penning effect. Stronger than expected clustering of PAH molecules has slowed efforts to record gas phase PAH spectra at cryogenic temperatures, though such clusters may play a role in other interstellar phenomena.

  16. Optimization of A 2-Micron Laser Frequency Stabilization System for a Double-Pulse CO2 Differential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Songsheng; Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingsin; Koch, Grady; Petros, Mulugeta; Trieu, Bo; Petzar, Paul; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Beyon, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    A carbon dioxide (CO2) Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for accurate CO2 concentration measurement requires a frequency locking system to achieve high frequency locking precision and stability. We describe the frequency locking system utilizing Frequency Modulation (FM), Phase Sensitive Detection (PSD), and Proportional Integration Derivative (PID) feedback servo loop, and report the optimization of the sensitivity of the system for the feed back loop based on the characteristics of a variable path-length CO2 gas cell. The CO2 gas cell is characterized with HITRAN database (2004). The method can be applied for any other frequency locking systems referring to gas absorption line.

  17. Atmospheric absorption of high frequency noise and application to fractional-octave bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, F. D.; Bass, H. E.

    1977-01-01

    Pure tone sound absorption coefficients were measured at 1/12 octave intervals from 4 to 100 KHz at 5.5K temperature intervals between 255.4 and 310.9 K and at 10 percent relative humidity increments between 0 percent and saturation in a large cylindrical tube (i.d., 25.4 cm; length, 4.8 m). Special solid-dielectric capacitance transducers, one to generate bursts of sound waves and one to terminate the sound path and detect the tone bursts, were constructed to fit inside the tube. The absorption was measured by varying the transmitter receiver separation from 1 to 4 m and observing the decay of multiple reflections or change in amplitude of the first received burst. The resulting absorption was compared with that from a proposed procedure for computing sound absorption in still air. Absorption of bands of noise was numerically computed by using the pure tone results. The results depended on spectrum shape, on filter type, and nonlinearly on propagation distance. For some of the cases considered, comparison with the extrapolation of ARP-866A showed a difference as large as a factor of 2. However, for many cases, the absorption for a finite band was nearly equal to the pure tone absorption at the center frequency of the band. A recommended prediction procedure is described for 1/3 octave band absorption coefficients.

  18. A multiple path photonic lab on a chip for parallel protein concentration measurements.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Isaac; Conejero-Muriel, Mayte; Ackermann, Tobias N; Gavira, José A; Llobera, Andreu

    2015-02-21

    We propose a PDMS-based photonic system for the accurate measurement of protein concentration with minute amounts of the sample. As opposed to the state of the art approach, in the multiple path photonic lab on a chip (MPHIL), analyte concentration or molar absorptivity is obtained with a single injection step, by performing simultaneous parallel optical measurements varying the optical path length. Also, as opposed to the standard calibration protocol, the MPHIL approach does not require a series of measurements at different concentrations. MPHIL has three main advantages: firstly the possibility of dynamically selecting the path length, always working in the absorbance vs. concentration linear range for each target analyte. Secondly, a dramatic reduction of the total volume of the sample required to obtain statistically reliable results. Thirdly, since only one injection is required, the measurement time is minimized, reducing both contamination and signal drifts. These characteristics are clearly advantageous when compared to commercial micro-spectrophotometers. The MPHIL concept was validated by testing three commercial proteins, lysozyme (HEWL), glucose isomerase (d-xylose-ketol-isomerase, GI) and Aspergillus sp. lipase L (BLL), as well as two proteins expressed and purified for this study, B. cereus formamidase (FASE) and dihydropyrimidinase from S. meliloti CECT41 (DHP). The use of MPHIL is also proposed for any spectrophotometric measurement in the UV-VIS range, as well as for its integration as a concentration measurement platform in more advanced photonic lab on a chip systems. PMID:25537135

  19. Path optimization with limited sensing ability

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Sung Ha Kim, Seong Jun Zhou, Haomin

    2015-10-15

    We propose a computational strategy to find the optimal path for a mobile sensor with limited coverage to traverse a cluttered region. The goal is to find one of the shortest feasible paths to achieve the complete scan of the environment. We pose the problem in the level set framework, and first consider a related question of placing multiple stationary sensors to obtain the full surveillance of the environment. By connecting the stationary locations using the nearest neighbor strategy, we form the initial guess for the path planning problem of the mobile sensor. Then the path is optimized by reducing its length, via solving a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), while maintaining the complete scan of the environment. Furthermore, we use intermittent diffusion, which converts the ODEs into stochastic differential equations (SDEs), to find an optimal path whose length is globally minimal. To improve the computation efficiency, we introduce two techniques, one to remove redundant connecting points to reduce the dimension of the system, and the other to deal with the entangled path so the solution can escape the local traps. Numerical examples are shown to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Path optimization with limited sensing ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sung Ha; Kim, Seong Jun; Zhou, Haomin

    2015-10-01

    We propose a computational strategy to find the optimal path for a mobile sensor with limited coverage to traverse a cluttered region. The goal is to find one of the shortest feasible paths to achieve the complete scan of the environment. We pose the problem in the level set framework, and first consider a related question of placing multiple stationary sensors to obtain the full surveillance of the environment. By connecting the stationary locations using the nearest neighbor strategy, we form the initial guess for the path planning problem of the mobile sensor. Then the path is optimized by reducing its length, via solving a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), while maintaining the complete scan of the environment. Furthermore, we use intermittent diffusion, which converts the ODEs into stochastic differential equations (SDEs), to find an optimal path whose length is globally minimal. To improve the computation efficiency, we introduce two techniques, one to remove redundant connecting points to reduce the dimension of the system, and the other to deal with the entangled path so the solution can escape the local traps. Numerical examples are shown to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Soliton absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kalashnikov, V. L.; Sorokin, E.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze optical soliton propagation in the presence of weak absorption lines with much narrower linewidths as compared to the soliton spectrum width using the novel perturbation analysis technique based on an integral representation in the spectral domain. The stable soliton acquires spectral modulation that follows the associated index of refraction of the absorber. The model can be applied to ordinary soliton propagation and to an absorber inside a passively modelocked laser. In the latter case, a comparison with water vapor absorption in a femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser yields a very good agreement with experiment. Compared to the conventional absorption measurement in a cell of the same length, the signal is increased by an order of magnitude. The obtained analytical expressions allow further improving of the sensitivity and spectroscopic accuracy making the soliton absorption spectroscopy a promising novel measurement technique. PMID:21151755

  2. Soliton absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kalashnikov, V. L.; Sorokin, E.

    2010-03-15

    We analyze optical soliton propagation in the presence of weak absorption lines with much narrower linewidths as compared to the soliton spectrum width by using a perturbation analysis technique based on an integral representation in the spectral domain. The stable soliton acquires a spectral modulation that follows the associated index of refraction of the absorber. The model can be applied to ordinary soliton propagation and to an absorber inside a passively mode-locked laser. In the latter case, a comparison with water vapor absorption in a femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser yields a very good agreement with experiment. Compared to the conventional absorption measurements in a cell of the same length, the signal is increased by an order of magnitude. The obtained analytical expressions allow further improvement in the sensitivity and spectroscopic accuracy, which makes soliton absorption spectroscopy a promising measurement technique.

  3. Path integral and noncommutative Poisson brackets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtancoli, P.

    2015-06-01

    We find that in presence of noncommutative Poisson brackets, the relation between Lagrangian and Hamiltonian is modified. We discuss this property by using the path integral formalism for non-relativistic systems. We apply this procedure to the harmonic oscillator with a minimal length.

  4. The universal path integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Seth; Dreyer, Olaf

    2016-02-01

    Path integrals calculate probabilities by summing over classical configurations of variables such as fields, assigning each configuration a phase equal to the action of that configuration. This paper defines a universal path integral, which sums over all computable structures. This path integral contains as sub-integrals all possible computable path integrals, including those of field theory, the standard model of elementary particles, discrete models of quantum gravity, string theory, etc. The universal path integral possesses a well-defined measure that guarantees its finiteness. The probabilities for events corresponding to sub-integrals can be calculated using the method of decoherent histories. The universal path integral supports a quantum theory of the universe in which the world that we see around us arises out of the interference between all computable structures.

  5. Limited Path Percolation in Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Eduardo; Parshani, Roni; Cohen, Reuven; Carmi, Shai; Havlin, Shlomo

    2007-11-01

    We study the stability of network communication after removal of a fraction q=1-p of links under the assumption that communication is effective only if the shortest path between nodes i and j after removal is shorter than aℓij(a≥1) where ℓij is the shortest path before removal. For a large class of networks, we find analytically and numerically a new percolation transition at p˜c=(κ0-1)(1-a)/a, where κ0≡⟨k2⟩/⟨k⟩ and k is the node degree. Above p˜c, order N nodes can communicate within the limited path length aℓij, while below p˜c, Nδ (δ<1) nodes can communicate. We expect our results to influence network design, routing algorithms, and immunization strategies, where short paths are most relevant.

  6. Path optimization for oil probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, O'Neil; Rahmes, Mark; Blue, Mark; Peter, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    We discuss a robust method for optimal oil probe path planning inspired by medical imaging. Horizontal wells require three-dimensional steering made possible by the rotary steerable capabilities of the system, which allows the hole to intersect multiple target shale gas zones. Horizontal "legs" can be over a mile long; the longer the exposure length, the more oil and natural gas is drained and the faster it can flow. More oil and natural gas can be produced with fewer wells and less surface disturbance. Horizontal drilling can help producers tap oil and natural gas deposits under surface areas where a vertical well cannot be drilled, such as under developed or environmentally sensitive areas. Drilling creates well paths which have multiple twists and turns to try to hit multiple accumulations from a single well location. Our algorithm can be used to augment current state of the art methods. Our goal is to obtain a 3D path with nodes describing the optimal route to the destination. This algorithm works with BIG data and saves cost in planning for probe insertion. Our solution may be able to help increase the energy extracted vs. input energy.

  7. [Measurement of OH radicals in flame with high resolution differential optical absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Liu, Wen-Qing; Kan, Rui-Feng; Si, Fu-Qi; Xu, Zhen-Yu; Hu, Ren-Zhi; Xie, Pin-Hua

    2011-10-01

    The present paper describes a new developed high resolution differential optical absorption spectroscopy instrument used for the measurement of OH radicals in flame. The instrument consists of a Xenon lamp for light source; a double pass high resolution echelle spectrometer with a resolution of 3.3 pm; a multiple-reflection cell of 20 meter base length, in which the light reflects in the cell for 176 times, so the whole path length of light can achieve 3 520 meters. The OH radicals'6 absorption lines around 308 nm were simultaneously observed in the experiment. By using high resolution DOAS technology, the OH radicals in candles, kerosene lamp, and alcohol burner flames were monitored, and their concentrations were also inverted. PMID:22250529

  8. Robot path planning using a genetic algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleghorn, Timothy F.; Baffes, Paul T.; Wang, Liu

    1988-01-01

    Robot path planning can refer either to a mobile vehicle such as a Mars Rover, or to an end effector on an arm moving through a cluttered workspace. In both instances there may exist many solutions, some of which are better than others, either in terms of distance traversed, energy expended, or joint angle or reach capabilities. A path planning program has been developed based upon a genetic algorithm. This program assumes global knowledge of the terrain or workspace, and provides a family of good paths between the initial and final points. Initially, a set of valid random paths are constructed. Successive generations of valid paths are obtained using one of several possible reproduction strategies similar to those found in biological communities. A fitness function is defined to describe the goodness of the path, in this case including length, slope, and obstacle avoidance considerations. It was found that with some reproduction strategies, the average value of the fitness function improved for successive generations, and that by saving the best paths of each generation, one could quite rapidly obtain a collection of good candidate solutions.

  9. TATP stand-off detection with open path: FTIR techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, C.; Pohl, T.; Weber, K.; Vogel, A.; van Haren, G.; Schweikert, W.

    2012-10-01

    TATP is a very easy to synthesize [9], sensitive, high explosive [10] and high volatile explosive [1, 3, 7] with great absorption in the IR Spectra [4, 5, 6]. In this project we detect TATP gas traces with open path FTIR - techniques. The first project phase was to construct and build a heatable multi-reflection cell with adjustable optical path length and a heatable intake to evaporate solid TATP samples. In this cell reference TATP - spectra were collected under controlled conditions with a Bruker FTIR system (Typ OPAG 33). The next step was to find out how the TATP gas will be diluted in the ambient air and validate some physical properties which are described inconsistently in literature e.g. evaporation rates. We constructed a special double - T shaped chamber with stabile air conditions. In this chamber the dispersion kinetics of the TATP vapour could be tested. It turned out that the TATP vapours has the tendency to drop down. Therefore the highest TATP - concentrations were measured below the TATP sample. During the investigation for this study it turned out, that some materials scrub the TATP- vapour out of the air, e.g. Metals, fabric, leather. In the second phase of the project successful open path FTIR- measurements were taken in ambient air and will be continued with different system configurations of the OPAG 33 to lower the detection limits. Also successful measurements were taken in indoor ambient air with a Hyper spectral camera (passive FTIR with array sensor) to detect TATP in solid and gaseous phase. This technique allows detecting TATP and identifying the TATP source. The poster shows some selected results of the continued research.

  10. Influence of absorption induced thermal initiation pathway on irradiance threshold for laser induced breakdown

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Babu; Bonito, Valentina; Jurna, Martin; Palero, Jonathan; Verhagen, Margaret Hortonand Rieko

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the influence of thermal initiation pathway on the irradiance threshold for laser induced breakdown in transparent, absorbing and scattering phantoms. We observed a transition from laser-induced optical breakdown to laser-induced thermal breakdown as the absorption coefficient of the medium is increased. We found that the irradiance threshold after correction for the path length dependent absorption and scattering losses in the medium is lower due to the thermal pathway for the generation of seed electrons compared to the laser-induced optical breakdown. Furthermore, irradiance threshold gradually decreases with the increase in the absorption properties of the medium. Creating breakdown with lower irradiance threshold that is specific at the target chromophore can provide intrinsic target selectivity and improve safety and efficacy of skin treatment methods that use laser induced breakdown. PMID:25909007

  11. Scramjet Performance Assessment Using Water Absorption Diagnostics (U)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavolowsky, John A.; Loomis, Mark P.; Deiwert, George

    1995-01-01

    Simultaneous multiple path measurements of temperature and H2O concentration will be presented for the AIMHYE test entries in the NASA Ames 16-Inch Shock Tunnel. Monitoring the progress of high temperature chemical reactions that define scramjet combustor efficiencies is a task uniquely suited to nonintrusive optical diagnostics. One application strategy to overcome the many challenges and limitations of nonintrusive measurements is to use laser absorption spectroscopy coupled with optical fibers. Absorption spectroscopic techniques with rapidly tunable lasers are capable of making simultaneous measurements of mole fraction, temperature, pressure, and velocity. The scramjet water absorption diagnostic was used to measure combustor efficiency and was compared to thrust measurements using a nozzle force balance and integrated nozzle pressures to develop a direct technique for evaluating integrated scramjet performance. Tests were initially performed with a diode laser tuning over a water absorption feature at 1391.7 nm. A second diode laser later became available at a wavelength near 1343.3 nm covering an additional water absorption feature and was incorporated in the system for a two-wavelength technique. Both temperature and mole fraction can be inferred from the lineshape analysis using this approach. Additional high temperature spectroscopy research was conducted to reduce uncertainties in the scramjet application. The lasers are optical fiber coupled to ports at the combustor exit and in the nozzle region. The output from the two diode lasers were combined in a single fiber, and the resultant two-wavelength beam was subsequently split into four legs. Each leg was directed through 60 meters of optical fiber to four combustor exit locations for measurement of beam intensity after absorption by the water within the flow. Absorption results will be compared to 1D combustor analysis using RJPA and nozzle CFD computations as well as to data from a nozzle metric balance measuring thrust and integrated pressure measurements along the length of the nozzle. Assessment of its value as a combustor performance evaluation tool will be conducted.

  12. Strategies of Path Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, Lee M.

    The purpose of this paper is to illuminate the advantages of path analysis for the exposition of results in data analytic papers. Probably the greatest advantage is that it provides a means by which the nature of the problem may be handily summarized. The method of path analysis, although conceived over sixty years ago by Sewell Wright, has only…

  13. Substrate and chain length dependencies of the thermal behavior of [CF3(CF2)m(CH2)nCOO]2Cd single monolayers investigated by infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yanzhi; Asanuma, Morito; Iimura, Ken-ichi; Kato, Teiji

    2001-01-01

    Temperature-variable grazing incidence reflection absorption (GIR) spectra were recorded for the single monolayer of [CF3(CF2)m(CH2)nCOO)]2Cd [(m,n)=(7,10), (7,16), (7,22), (5,22), and (3,22)], transferred from aqueous Cd2+ subphase to gold- and aluminum-evaporated glass substrates. The spectra reveal that these monolayers have better thermal stability on Al substrates than on Au. An "interaction band" is identified at 1484˜1480 cm-1, due to the νs(COO-) mode of carboxylate headgroups in ionic bonding with the Al surface. It is found that both the van der Waals interaction between the trans zig-zag hydrocarbon chains and the overlapping interaction between the fluorocarbon helixes are responsible for the systematic variation of the monolayer thermal behavior with (m,n). The thermal behavior of a single monolayer of cadmium stearate, serving as a model system, has been investigated to further confirm the spectral interpretation about the partially fluorinated monolayer. In addition, temperature-dependent friction measurements show that the single monolayers of (m,n)=(7,16), (7,22), (5,22), and (3,22) are potential molecular lubricants that can be used in the range of 25˜140 °C.

  14. Predicting Moisture Absorption in Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Heat transport programs adaptable for absorption analysis. Lightweight sandwich panel specimen used for comparison of water absorption measurements with program predictions. In program model, moisture -- like heat in heat-transport problem moves through variety of materials and structures along complex paths.

  15. Earth's Atmospheric CO2 Saturated IR Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Ernst

    2008-10-01

    Using the on-line SpectraCalc IR absorption simulator, the amount of IR absorption by the 15 μ line of the current atmospheric CO2 was obtained and compared with that of twice the amount of CO2. The simulation required a fixed density equivalent for the atmospheric path length. This was obtained by numerically integrating the NOAA Standard Atmospheric model. While the current line is saturated, doubling the CO2 will cause a slight width increase. Using this and the blackbody radiation curve plus considering the effects of water vapor, the temperature rise of the Earth will be less than 2.5 deg. C. Integrating a NASA Martian atmospheric model, we find that the Martian atmosphere has 45 times more CO2 to penetrate than Earth, and yet, the Martian diurnal temperature swings exceed those of the Sahara desert. I.e., large amounts of CO2 alone do not necessarily cause planetary warming. As the oceans warm from any cause, more CO2 is boiled out, but if they cool, they will absorb more CO2 just as a carbonated drink does, so that temperature and CO2 density will correlate. It is to be noted that the Earth's known petroleum reserves contain only enough CO2 to increase the atmospheric CO2 by some 15%.

  16. Time-Resolved Broadband Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy behind Shock Waves.

    PubMed

    Matsugi, Akira; Shiina, Hiroumi; Oguchi, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    A fast and sensitive broadband absorption technique for measurements of high-temperature chemical kinetics and spectroscopy has been developed by applying broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (BBCEAS) in a shock tube. The developed method has effective absorption path lengths of 60-200 cm, or cavity enhancement factors of 12-40, over a wavelength range of 280-420 nm, and is capable of simultaneously recording absorption time profiles over an ∼32 nm spectral bandpass in a single experiment with temporal and spectral resolutions of 5 μs and 2 nm, respectively. The accuracy of the kinetic and spectroscopic measurements was examined by investigating high-temperature reactions and absorption spectra of formaldehyde behind reflected shock waves using 1,3,5-trioxane as a precursor. The rate constants obtained for the thermal decomposition reactions of 1,3,5-trioxane (to three formaldehyde molecules) and formaldehyde (to HCO + H) agreed well with the literature data. High-temperature absorption cross sections of formaldehyde between 280 and 410 nm have been determined at the post-reflected-shock temperatures of 955, 1265, and 1708 K. The results demonstrate the applicability of the BBCEAS technique to time- and wavelength-resolved sensitive absorption measurements at high temperatures. PMID:26990289

  17. Evaluation of ammonia absorption coefficients by photoacoustic spectroscopy for detection of ammonia levels in human breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitras, D. C.; Dutu, D. C.; Matei, C.; Cernat, R.; Banita, S.; Patachia, M.; Bratu, A. M.; Petrus, M.; Popa, C.

    2011-04-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy represents a powerful technique for measuring extremely low absorptions independent of the path length and offers a degree of parameter control that cannot be attained by other methods. We report precise measurements of the ammonia absorption coefficients at the CO2 laser wavelengths by using a photoacoustic (PA) cell in an extracavity configuration and we compare our results with other values reported in the literature. Ammonia presents a clear fingerprint spectrum and high absorption strengths in the CO2 wavelengths region. Because more than 250 molecular gases of environmental concern for atmospheric, industrial, medical, military, and scientific spheres exhibit strong absorption bands in the region 9.2-10.8 μm, we have chosen a frequency tunable CO2 laser. In the present work, ammonia absorption coefficients were measured at both branches of the CO2 laser lines by using a calibrated mixture of 10 ppm NH3 in N2. We found the maximum absorption in the 9 μm region, at 9R(30) line of the CO2 laser. One of the applications based on the ammonia absorption coefficients is used to measure the ammonia levels in exhaled human breath. This can be used to determine the exact time necessary at every session for an optimal degree of dialysis at patients with end-stage renal disease.

  18. Tornado Intensity Estimated from Damage Path Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Elsner, James B.; Jagger, Thomas H.; Elsner, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    The Newcastle/Moore and El Reno tornadoes of May 2013 are recent reminders of the destructive power of tornadoes. A direct estimate of a tornado's power is difficult and dangerous to get. An indirect estimate on a categorical scale is available from a post-storm survery of the damage. Wind speed bounds are attached to the scale, but the scale is not adequate for analyzing trends in tornado intensity separate from trends in tornado frequency. Here tornado intensity on a continuum is estimated from damage path length and width, which are measured on continuous scales and correlated to the EF rating. The wind speeds on the EF scale are treated as interval censored data and regressed onto the path dimensions and fatalities. The regression model indicates a 25% increase in expected intensity over a threshold intensity of 29 m s−1 for a 100 km increase in path length and a 17% increase in expected intensity for a one km increase in path width. The model shows a 43% increase in the expected intensity when fatalities are observed controlling for path dimensions. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .77 (.34, .93) [95% confidence interval] with a small sample of wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. Research is needed to understand the upward trends in path length and width. PMID:25229242

  19. Tornado intensity estimated from damage path dimensions.

    PubMed

    Elsner, James B; Jagger, Thomas H; Elsner, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    The Newcastle/Moore and El Reno tornadoes of May 2013 are recent reminders of the destructive power of tornadoes. A direct estimate of a tornado's power is difficult and dangerous to get. An indirect estimate on a categorical scale is available from a post-storm survery of the damage. Wind speed bounds are attached to the scale, but the scale is not adequate for analyzing trends in tornado intensity separate from trends in tornado frequency. Here tornado intensity on a continuum is estimated from damage path length and width, which are measured on continuous scales and correlated to the EF rating. The wind speeds on the EF scale are treated as interval censored data and regressed onto the path dimensions and fatalities. The regression model indicates a 25% increase in expected intensity over a threshold intensity of 29 m s(-1) for a 100 km increase in path length and a 17% increase in expected intensity for a one km increase in path width. The model shows a 43% increase in the expected intensity when fatalities are observed controlling for path dimensions. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .77 (.34, .93) [95% confidence interval] with a small sample of wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. Research is needed to understand the upward trends in path length and width. PMID:25229242

  20. Fluorescence and two-photon absorption of push-pull aryl(bi)thiophenes: structure-property relationships.

    PubMed

    Genin, Emilie; Hugues, Vincent; Clermont, Guillaume; Herbivo, Cyril; Castro, M Cidália R; Comel, Alain; Raposo, M Manuela M; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille

    2012-11-01

    Photophysical and TPA properties of series of push-pull aryl(bi)thiophene chromophores bearing electron-donating (D) and electron-withdrawing (A) end-groups of increasing strength are presented. All compounds show an intense intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) absorption band in the visible region. Increasing the D and/or A strength as well as the length of the conjugated path induces bathochromic and hyperchromic shifts of the absorption band as reported for analogous push-pull polyenes. Yet, in contrast with corresponding push-pull polyenes, a significant increase in fluorescence is observed. In particular, chromophores built from a phenyl-bithienyl conjugated path and bearing strong D and A end-groups were found to combine very large one and two-photon brightness as well as strong emission in the red/NIR region. These molecules hold promise as biphotonic fluorescent probes for bioimaging. PMID:23075995

  1. Nonlinear optical propagation in a tandem structure comprising nonlinear absorption and scattering materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kangpeng; Ju, Yongfeng; He, Jin; Zhang, Long E-mail: lzhang@siom.ac.cn; Wang, Jun E-mail: lzhang@siom.ac.cn; Chen, Yu; Blau, Werner J.

    2014-01-13

    Laser propagation in a tandem structure comprising carbon nanotubes and phthalocyanines is studied by Z-scan method. Due to the different mechanisms of the two materials, the laser beam can be attenuated with different absorptivities, by changing the sequence of light passing through each material. Numerical simulations considering the effect of path length and the change of nonlinear coefficient within each material are conducted for understanding the distribution of laser intensity in the tandem system and hence, fitting of the asymmetric Z-scan curves. The results are helpful for the design of nonlinear optical devices comprising multiple nonlinear materials and mechanisms.

  2. A Path to Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegemoller, William; Stegemoller, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    The path taken and the turns made as a turtle traces a polygon are examined to discover an important theorem in geometry. A unique tool, the Angle Adder, is implemented in the investigation. (Contains 9 figures.)

  3. Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Wheeler, David R.; Simonson, Robert J.

    2010-09-21

    A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.

  4. Multi optical path generator for fiber optic strain sensors multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hao; Yuan, Yonggui; Yuan, Libo

    2015-07-01

    A multi optical path generator based on a tunable long Fabry-Perot optical fiber cavity is proposed and demonstrated. It would be used in an optical fiber sensing system which could multiplex a number of fiber sensors with different gauge lengths. Using this optical path generator, we can get a sequence of light beams with different optical paths, which will be coupled to the fiber sensor array in the sensing system. The multi optical path lengths generated by the device are analyzed and discussed. And the relative intensity of the corresponding light beam is calculated. The multiplexing capability caused by the optical path generator is discussed and the experimental results are confirmed this. The system can be used in strain or deformation sensing for smart structure health monitoring.

  5. The reweighted path ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogal, Jutta; Lechner, Wolfgang; Juraszek, Jarek; Ensing, Bernd; Bolhuis, Peter G.

    2010-11-01

    We introduce a reweighting scheme for the path ensembles in the transition interface sampling framework. The reweighting allows for the analysis of free energy landscapes and committor projections in any collective variable space. We illustrate the reweighting scheme on a two dimensional potential with a nonlinear reaction coordinate and on a more realistic simulation of the Trp-cage folding process. We suggest that the reweighted path ensemble can be used to optimize possible nonlinear reaction coordinates.

  6. Quantification and parametrization of non-linearity effects by higher-order sensitivity terms in scattered light differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puķīte, Jānis; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    We address the application of differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) of scattered light observations in the presence of strong absorbers (in particular ozone), for which the absorption optical depth is a non-linear function of the trace gas concentration. This is the case because Beer-Lambert law generally does not hold for scattered light measurements due to many light paths contributing to the measurement. While in many cases linear approximation can be made, for scenarios with strong absorptions non-linear effects cannot always be neglected. This is especially the case for observation geometries, for which the light contributing to the measurement is crossing the atmosphere under spatially well-separated paths differing strongly in length and location, like in limb geometry. In these cases, often full retrieval algorithms are applied to address the non-linearities, requiring iterative forward modelling of absorption spectra involving time-consuming wavelength-by-wavelength radiative transfer modelling. In this study, we propose to describe the non-linear effects by additional sensitivity parameters that can be used e.g. to build up a lookup table. Together with widely used box air mass factors (effective light paths) describing the linear response to the increase in the trace gas amount, the higher-order sensitivity parameters eliminate the need for repeating the radiative transfer modelling when modifying the absorption scenario even in the presence of a strong absorption background. While the higher-order absorption structures can be described as separate fit parameters in the spectral analysis (so-called DOAS fit), in practice their quantitative evaluation requires good measurement quality (typically better than that available from current measurements). Therefore, we introduce an iterative retrieval algorithm correcting for the higher-order absorption structures not yet considered in the DOAS fit as well as the absorption dependence on temperature and scattering processes.

  7. Arc Length Gone Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Gregory M.; Wells, M. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Everyone with a thorough knowledge of single variable calculus knows that integration can be used to find the length of a curve on a given interval, called its arc length. Fortunately, if one endeavors to pose and solve more interesting problems than simply computing lengths of various curves, there are techniques available that do not require an…

  8. Cane Technique: Modifying the Touch Technique for Full Path Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uslan, Mark M.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of height of cane hand, cane length, step size, and forearm length of 17 cane using blind (14-21 years old) Ss were taken for the purpose of testing the hypothesis that the touch technique does not provide 100 percent path coverage. (Author)

  9. Characterization of soil organic matter composition at intact preferential flow path surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leue, M.; Gerke, H. H.; Ellerbrock, R. H.

    2012-04-01

    In structured soils, the interaction of percolating water and reactive solutes with the soil matrix is mostly restricted to surfaces of preferential flow paths. Surfaces of flow paths that are formed by cracks, decayed root channels or worm burrows are often covered by clay-organic coatings (i.e., cutanes), in which the outermost layer is mainly organic matter (OM). The composition of OM finally controls wettability, sorption, and transfer properties. However, the in-situ local distribution of OM properties along such surfaces is largely unknown to date because experimental techniques to study the relatively thin and vulnerable coatings at intact structure surfaces were not available. The objective of this study was to analyze the local mm-scale distribution and composition of SOM at preferential flow paths. The Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance mode (DRIFT) was used to determine spectral information of the intact structural surfaces (cracks and biopores). With the DRIFT-mapping technique, potential flow path types, such as earthworm burrows, root channels, and cracks of structured subsoil horizons were analyzed in 1 mm steps along transects of 15 up to 65 mm length. The distribution of OM composition was characterized by evaluating the ratios of the absorption band intensities of the alkyl- (C-H-) and carbonyl (C=O-) functional groups (CH/CO), which represent a measure of the potential wettability of the OM of the surface. Samples of different soil types (Luvisol, Regosol, Stagnosol, Cambisol), of different geological provenance (till, loess, mudstone, limestone), and of different land use (arable, forest) were analyzed. The CH/CO-ratio was generally higher for earthworm burrows and root channels as compared to crack surfaces and the soil matrix. Differences between flow path types could be observed with respect to soil type, parent material, and land use. The local distribution of the OM properties may affect sorption and mass transfer during preferential flow in structured soils.

  10. Absorption Optics of Aqueous Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Ranjini; Gittings, Alex; Durian, D. J.

    2002-11-01

    Aqueous foams are composed of gas bubbles packed together in a small volume of soapy water. The large number of gas-liquid interfaces in foams results in very strong scattering of light, which explains the opaque nature of conventional aqueous foams such as shaving foams and mousse. For dry foams, the interfaces can take the following three forms: the soap films where two bubbles meet, the triangular plateau borders where three soap films meet and the vertices where four plateau borders meet. Previous experiments have shown that most of the scattering occurs from the plateau borders 2,3 and the transport mean free path of light (l*), the bubble radius (R) and the liquid fraction of foam (epsilon) is related through the relation l*=R/(epsilon0.5). To understand the reflection and scattering of light at the gas-bubble interfaces, we study the absorption of photons in the liquid network as a function of the foam absorptivity. We do this to confirm if the time spent by the photons in the liquid phase is proportional to the liquid fraction of the foam. Our results indicate that for a specific range of liquid fractions (0.05 is less than e is less than 0.1), the photons seem to get trapped in the liquid network. This result is independent of the absorptivity of the foam and leads us to conclude that under appropriate conditions, an aqueous foam behaves very much like an optical fiber network. Aqueous foam is generated in the lab by the method of turbulent mixing of N2 gas with a jet of alpha-olefin-sulfonate (AOS) solution. The foam has been made absorbing by dissolving small quantities of rhodamine dye (R = 0.005 g/l, R = 0.01 g/l and R = 0.0124 g/l) in the AOS solution. The transmission of photons through the foams of liquid fractions 0.0297 is less than e is less than 0.35 has been studied using Diffuse Transmission Spectroscopy (DTS). For each liquid fraction, the transport mean free path l* (the length over which the photon travels before it gets completely randomized) has been estimated from DTS experiments on foams with R = 0.0 g/l. In the liquid fraction range 0.05 is less than epsilon is less than 0.1, the ratio is found to be lower than the theoretical prediction. The deviation of the experimental estimates of (la)foam/(la)soln from the solid line leads us to conclude that at 0.05 is less than e is less than 0.1, the foam behaves like an optical fiber network with the photons getting trapped in and then channeled through the plateau borders. We believe that our results may be explained quantitatively by relating the reflectance of light at liquid-gas and gas-liquid interfaces to the average angles of incidence at these interfaces. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  11. Methods of Cavity-Enhanced Laser Absorption Spectroscopy Using Microresonator Whispering-Gallery Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberger, A. T.

    Theoretical analysis of, and experimental results using, chemical sensing techniques based on microcavity-enhanced optical absorption are presented. Two methods are described in detail, and several extensions and enhancements of these methods are discussed briefly. Both techniques involve novel applications of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy in which cavity enhancement is provided by a dielectric microresonator (<1 mm in diameter) with whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) excited by tapered-fiber coupling. The evanescent component of a WGM allows for interaction with the analyte. The first method is used for the detection of trace gases in the ambient air by measuring the coupling-fiber throughput as the laser scans in frequency. Centimeter effective absorption path lengths are measured, in agreement with theory. The second method employs the observation of thermal bistability to enable measurement of absorption due to a coating applied to, or molecules adsorbed on, the microresonator's surface. Absorption by the water layer on a fused-silica surface agrees with theory, and results for thermal accommodation coefficients and thin-film absorption are also presented.

  12. Path integration in tactile perception of shapes.

    PubMed

    Moscatelli, Alessandro; Naceri, Abdeldjallil; Ernst, Marc O

    2014-11-01

    Whenever we move the hand across a surface, tactile signals provide information about the relative velocity between the skin and the surface. If the system were able to integrate the tactile velocity information over time, cutaneous touch may provide an estimate of the relative displacement between the hand and the surface. Here, we asked whether humans are able to form a reliable representation of the motion path from tactile cues only, integrating motion information over time. In order to address this issue, we conducted three experiments using tactile motion and asked participants (1) to estimate the length of a simulated triangle, (2) to reproduce the shape of a simulated triangular path, and (3) to estimate the angle between two-line segments. Participants were able to accurately indicate the length of the path, whereas the perceived direction was affected by a direction bias (inward bias). The response pattern was thus qualitatively similar to the ones reported in classical path integration studies involving locomotion. However, we explain the directional biases as the result of a tactile motion aftereffect. PMID:25151621

  13. Sampling diffusive transition paths

    SciTech Connect

    F. Miller III, Thomas; Predescu, Cristian

    2006-10-12

    We address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with sampling infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with sampling the coarse features of long paths. The fine-features sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm (FSA), and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. We use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature.

  14. Self Absorption Effects on the Detection of Hg and Cd in an Atmospheric Microwave Sustained Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadidi, Kamal; Woskov, Paul; Flores, Guadalupe; Green, Karen; Thomas, Paul

    1999-10-01

    The detection limits for cadmium and mercury at the 228.8 nm and 253.65 nm transitions, respectively, in an atmospheric 1.5 kW, 2.45 GHz microwave sustained plasma has been found to depend on the path length between the plasma and the detection system. Atomic emission spectroscopy of such microwave plasma is under development as a real-time monitor of EPA regulated hazardous metals in smokestacks. Measurements of the detection limits for axial and radial side views of the discharge show a clear increase of the axial detection limit. Self absorption by unexcited cadmium and mercury along the longer turbulent axial propagation path is shown to be responsible for the increase of the detection limits.

  15. Quantitative infrared absorption cross sections of isoprene for atmospheric measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, Carolyn S.; Blake, Thomas A.; Guenther, Alex B.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Sams, Robert L.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2014-11-19

    The OH- and O3- initiated oxidations of isoprene, which is one of the primary volatile organic compounds produced by vegetation, are a major source of atmospheric formaldehyde and other oxygenated organics, yet little quantitative IR data exists for isoprene. We thus report absorption coefficients and integrated band intensities for isoprene in the 600 - 6500 cm-1 region. The pressure-broadened (1 atmosphere N2) spectra were recorded at 278, 298 and 323 K in a 19.96 cm path length cell at 0.112 cm-1 resolution, using a Bruker 66V FTIR. Composite spectra are derived from a minimum of seven pressures at each temperature.

  16. Topological analysis of polymeric melts: Chain-length effects and fast-converging estimators for entanglement length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoy, Robert S.; Foteinopoulou, Katerina; Kröger, Martin

    2009-09-01

    Primitive path analyses of entanglements are performed over a wide range of chain lengths for both bead spring and atomistic polyethylene polymer melts. Estimators for the entanglement length Ne which operate on results for a single chain length N are shown to produce systematic O(1/N) errors. The mathematical roots of these errors are identified as (a) treating chain ends as entanglements and (b) neglecting non-Gaussian corrections to chain and primitive path dimensions. The prefactors for the O(1/N) errors may be large; in general their magnitude depends both on the polymer model and the method used to obtain primitive paths. We propose, derive, and test new estimators which eliminate these systematic errors using information obtainable from the variation in entanglement characteristics with chain length. The new estimators produce accurate results for Ne from marginally entangled systems. Formulas based on direct enumeration of entanglements appear to converge faster and are simpler to apply.

  17. Interpretation of pressure-temperature-time paths

    SciTech Connect

    England, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    Pressure-temperature-time (PTt) paths inferred from mineral assemblages or compositions in metamorphic rocks are used to place constraints on metamorphic processes on several different scales. The purpose of this paper is to indicate the kind of questions that may be answered, and those that cannot, by interpretation of PTt data. The intensity of regional metamorphism depends both on the intensity of available heat sources and the length of time available for thermal relaxation; consequently the addition of reliable dates to a PT path is a crucial element in containing thermal history. For example, the question as to whether or not Archaean continental thermal regimes were similar to today's cannot be answered without PTt paths dated to a precision of better than 30 Myr. As there is always local perturbation due to tectonic, igneous or other fluid activity it is essential to obtain widespread PTt data before making estimates of thermal budgets for regional metamorphism. However, on the smaller scale, PTt paths may be used to infer tectonic style where structural data are ambiguous or lacking. Particular attention is paid to the problems of inferring extensional events from the PTt paths recorded by rocks from regional metamorphic belts.

  18. Mobile transporter path planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baffes, Paul; Wang, Lui

    1990-01-01

    The use of a genetic algorithm (GA) for solving the mobile transporter path planning problem is investigated. The mobile transporter is a traveling robotic vehicle proposed for the space station which must be able to reach any point of the structure autonomously. Elements of the genetic algorithm are explored in both a theoretical and experimental sense. Specifically, double crossover, greedy crossover, and tournament selection techniques are examined. Additionally, the use of local optimization techniques working in concert with the GA are also explored. Recent developments in genetic algorithm theory are shown to be particularly effective in a path planning problem domain, though problem areas can be cited which require more research.

  19. High-sensitivity near-IR absorption measurements of nanoliter samples in a cavity enhanced fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Anthony L.; Fruetel, Julia A.; Bambha, Ray P.

    2009-08-01

    A compact fiber optic sensor is described using Incoherent Broad-Band Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy for sensitive detection of nanoliter samples of aqueous chemicals and microorganisms in capillaries. Absorption was measured in a 70 μm gap, comparable to the inside diameter of a capillary used for electrophoresis, between the ends of two short segments of multimode fiber. The other ends of the fibers were optically contacted to dielectric mirrors to form an 11-cm cavity resonator. Light from a superluminescent diode (λ=1054 nm, BW=35 nm FWHM) was coupled into one end of the cavity, and transmission through the cavity was measured using a silicon photodiode. Dilute aqueous solutions of near infrared dye were used to determine the minimum detectable absorption change of 4x10-6 for 10 second integration and unity signal-to-noise ratio, which is approximately two orders of magnitude more sensitive than previously published results for systems with comparable sample path lengths.

  20. Sensitive trace gas detection with cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Helden, J. H.; Lang, N.; Macherius, U.; Zimmermann, H.; Röpcke, J.

    2013-09-01

    Trace gas sensing in the mid-infrared using quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) promises high specificity and sensitivity. We report on the performance of a simple cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) sensor using a continuous wave external-cavity QCL at 7.4 μm. A noise-equivalent absorption coefficient αmin of 2.6 × 10-8 cm-1 in 625 s was achieved, which corresponds to a detection limit of 6 ± 1 ppb of CH4 in 15 millibars air for the R(3) transition at 1327.074 cm-1. This is the highest value of noise-equivalent absorption and among the longest effective path length (1780 m) reported to date with QCL-based CEAS.

  1. Leg Length Inequality

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Colin R.

    1983-01-01

    Leg length inequality, a common abnormality, can cause musculoskeletal pain, scoliosis, and osteoarthritis of the hip. Seven percent of the asymptomatic population has a leg length inequality greater than 12 mm; the incidence is considerably higher (13%-22%) in individuals complaining of low back pain. Correction can usually be accomplished by shoe modification, and can result in dramatic relief of pain. Leg length inequality of more than half an inch is considered clinically significant. Leg length measurement should be routine in all patients complaining of low back pain, hip pain, and atypical flank and lower quadrant pain. Correction might prove very cost-effective. PMID:21283327

  2. Leg length inequality.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, C R

    1983-02-01

    Leg length inequality, a common abnormality, can cause musculoskeletal pain, scoliosis, and osteoarthritis of the hip. Seven percent of the asymptomatic population has a leg length inequality greater than 12 mm; the incidence is considerably higher (13%-22%) in individuals complaining of low back pain. Correction can usually be accomplished by shoe modification, and can result in dramatic relief of pain. Leg length inequality of more than half an inch is considered clinically significant. Leg length measurement should be routine in all patients complaining of low back pain, hip pain, and atypical flank and lower quadrant pain. Correction might prove very cost-effective. PMID:21283327

  3. Absorption spectroscopy of RDX monopropellant flames: CN and NH concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, B. E.; Vanderhoff, John A.

    1997-11-01

    UV-visible multi-channel absorption spectroscopy has been used to probe the self-sustained combustion of pressed RDX, a main energetic ingredient found in modern day propellants and explosives. The two dimensional feature of an intensified CCD detector allowed simultaneous recording of multiple, spatially distinct absorption spectra. Between 10 and 12 equally spaced absorption spectra with spatial resolution as small as 0.163 mm have been obtained during 1 ms exposure. The number of absorption spectra and the spatial resolution can easily be set by the detector software, size of the excitation sheet and the focal length of the collection lens. Temporal resolution in the UV region has been increased to 1 ms by pulsing the light source. A 0.54 joule pulse with a duration of 0.75 ms was added to a simmering Xenon arc lamp for the measurement of combustion species. The increase in light intensity of 30 and 70 times the non-pulsed output provided the necessary light flux to achieve single pulse, multiple absorption spectra. To increase the species concentration sensitivity of the experiment, a triple pass optical arrangement was adopted. Partially silvered windows were installed at an angle to the beam providing for three passes across the samples. The corresponding path length was increased by a factor of 2.8 times the sample diameter. Least squares analysis of absorption spectra provide mole fraction profiles for OH, CN and NH along with temperature. Profiles for NC and HN have been determined for self-sustained combustion of RDX in 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 atm air. Peak CN mole fractions of about 200 ppm are observed at 1 atm pressure and the NH mole fraction is about a factor of two lower. As the pressure is increased the reactive CN and HN species peak closer to the combusting surface and reside over a smaller spatial extent. Peak concentrations drop for these higher pressures, but may be due, at least in part, to limitations of the spatial resolution of the absorption experiment.

  4. In situ optical absorption mercury continuous emission monitor.

    PubMed

    Thiebaud, Jérôme; Thomson, Murray J; Mani, Reza; Morrow, William H; Morris, Eric A; Jia, Charles Q

    2009-12-15

    This paper reports the development of an in situ continuous emission monitor (CEM) for measuring elemental mercury (Hg(0)) concentration in the exhaust stream of coal-fired power plants. The instrument is based on the ultraviolet atomic absorption of a mercury lamp emission line by elemental mercury and a light-emitting diode (LED) background correction system. This approach allows an in situ measurement since the absorption of other species such as SO(2) can be removed to monitor the Hg(0) contribution only. Proof of concept was established through a laboratory-based investigation, and a limit of detection, [Hg(0)](min), of 2 microg/m(3) was measured for a 1-min averaged sample and an absorption path length of 49 cm. [Hg(0)](min) is anticipated to be better than 0.2 microg/m(3) across a 7 m diameter stack. Finally, the apparatus was field-tested in a 230 MW coal-fired power plant. The operability of the measurement in real conditions was demonstrated, leading to the first Hg(0) concentration values recorded by the in situ CEM. Comparison with an accepted standard method is required for validation. PMID:19924898

  5. [Retrieval of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with differential optical absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Xie, Pin-Hua; Fu, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Wen-Qing; Qin, Min; Li, Ang; Liu, Shi-Sheng; Wei, Qing-Nong

    2006-09-01

    Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique has been used to measure trace gases in the atmosphere by their strongly structured absorption of radiation in the UV and visible spectral range, e. g. SO2, NO2, O3 etc. However, unlike the absorption spectra of SO2 and NO2, the analysis of aromatic compounds is difficult and strongly suffers from the cross interference of other absorbers (Herzberg bands of oxygen, ozone and sulfur dioxide), especially with relatively low concentrations of aromatic compounds in the atmosphere. In the present paper, the DOAS evaluation of aromatic compounds was performed by nonlinear least square fit with two interpolated oxygen optical density spectra at different path lengths and reference spectra of ozone at different temperature and SO2 cross section to correct the interference from absorbers of O2, O3 and SO2. The measurement of toluene, benzene, (m, p, o) xylene and phenol with a DOAS system showed that DOAS method is suitable for monocyclic aromatic compounds monitoring in the atmosphere. PMID:17112022

  6. Apparatus and method for quantitative measurement of small differences in optical absorptivity between two samples using differential interferometry and the thermooptic effect

    DOEpatents

    Cremers, D.A.; Keller, R.A.

    1984-05-08

    An apparatus and method for the measurement of small differences in optical absorptivity of weakly absorbing solutions using differential interferometry and the thermooptic effect have been developed. Two sample cells are placed in each arm of an interferometer and are traversed by colinear probe and heating laser beams. The interrogation probe beams are recombined forming a fringe pattern, the intensity of which can be related to changes in optical path length of these laser beams through the cells. This in turn can be related to small differences in optical absorptivity which results in different amounts of sample heating when the heating laser beams are turned on, by the fact that the index of refraction of a liquid is temperature dependent. A critical feature of this invention is the stabilization of the optical path of the probe beams against drift. Background (solvent) absorption can then be suppressed by a factor of approximately 400. Solute absorptivities of about 10[sup [minus]5] cm[sup [minus]1] can then be determined in the presence of background absorptions in excess of 10[sup [minus]3] cm[sup [minus]1]. In addition, the smallest absorption measured with the instant apparatus and method is about 5 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] cm[sup [minus]1]. 6 figs.

  7. Paths to Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John B.; Clery, Suzanne B.; Presley, Jennifer B.

    This report uses the national Baccalaureate and Beyond longitudinal database to look at the early career paths of 1993 college graduates. The results provide information on which college graduates became teachers, where they taught, and whether they left teaching within 3 years. Overall, it is not easy to predict who may be potential teachers when…

  8. Gas path seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.; Johnson, R. D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A gas path seal suitable for use with a turbine engine or compressor is described. A shroud wearable or abradable by the abrasion of the rotor blades of the turbine or compressor shrouds the rotor bades. A compliant backing surrounds the shroud. The backing is a yieldingly deformable porous material covered with a thin ductile layer. A mounting fixture surrounds the backing.

  9. An Unplanned Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarvey, Lynn M.; Sterenberg, Gladys Y.; Long, Julie S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors elucidate what they saw as three important challenges to overcome along the path to becoming elementary school mathematics teacher leaders: marginal interest in math, low self-confidence, and teaching in isolation. To illustrate how these challenges were mitigated, they focus on the stories of two elementary school teachers--Laura and

  10. An Unplanned Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarvey, Lynn M.; Sterenberg, Gladys Y.; Long, Julie S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors elucidate what they saw as three important challenges to overcome along the path to becoming elementary school mathematics teacher leaders: marginal interest in math, low self-confidence, and teaching in isolation. To illustrate how these challenges were mitigated, they focus on the stories of two elementary school teachers--Laura and…

  11. Neandertal clavicle length

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik; Holliday, Trenton W.; Auerbach, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    The Late Pleistocene archaic humans from western Eurasia (the Neandertals) have been described for a century as exhibiting absolutely and relatively long clavicles. This aspect of their body proportions has been used to distinguish them from modern humans, invoked to account for other aspects of their anatomy and genetics, used in assessments of their phylogenetic polarities, and used as evidence for Late Pleistocene population relationships. However, it has been unclear whether the usual scaling of Neandertal clavicular lengths to their associated humeral lengths reflects long clavicles, short humeri, or both. Neandertal clavicle lengths, along with those of early modern humans and latitudinally diverse recent humans, were compared with both humeral lengths and estimated body masses (based on femoral head diameters). The Neandertal do have long clavicles relative their humeri, even though they fall within the ranges of variation of early and recent humans. However, when scaled to body masses, their humeral lengths are relatively short, and their clavicular lengths are indistinguishable from those of Late Pleistocene and recent modern humans. The few sufficiently complete Early Pleistocene Homo clavicles seem to have relative lengths also well within recent human variation. Therefore, appropriately scaled clavicular length seems to have varied little through the genus Homo, and it should not be used to account for other aspects of Neandertal biology or their phylogenetic status. PMID:24616525

  12. Multi-path quenchers: efficient quenching of common fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Crisalli, Pete; Kool, Eric T

    2011-11-16

    Fluorescence quenching groups are widely employed in biological detection, sensing, and imaging. To date, a relatively small number of such groups are in common use. Perhaps the most commonly used quencher, dabcyl, has limited efficiency with a broad range of fluorophores. Here, we describe a molecular approach to improve the efficiency of quenchers by increasing their electronic complexity. Multi-Path Quenchers (MPQ) are designed to have multiple donor or acceptor groups in their structure, allowing for a multiplicity of conjugation pathways of varied length. This has the effect of broadening the absorption spectrum, which in turn can increase quenching efficiency and versatility. Six such MPQ derivatives are synthesized and tested for quenching efficiency in a DNA hybridization context. Duplexes placing quenchers and fluorophores within contact distance or beyond this distance are used to measure quenching via contact or FRET mechanisms. Results show that several of the quenchers are considerably more efficient than dabcyl at quenching a wider range of common fluorophores, and two quench fluorescein and TAMRA as well as or better than a Black Hole Quencher. PMID:22034828

  13. Effect of radiometric errors on accuracy of temperature-profile measurement by spectral scanning using absorption-emission pyrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchele, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The spectral-scanning method may be used to determine the temperature profile of a jet- or rocket-engine exhaust stream by measurements of gas radiation and transmittance, at two or more wavelengths. A single, fixed line of sight is used, using immobile radiators outside of the gas stream, and there is no interference with the flow. At least two sets of measurements are made, each set consisting of the conventional three radiometric measurements of absorption-emission pyrometry, but each set is taken over a different spectral interval that gives different weight to the radiation from a different portion of the optical path. Thereby, discrimination is obtained with respect to location along the path. A given radiometric error causes an error in computed temperatures. The ratio between temperature error and radiometric error depends on profile shape, path length, temperature level, and strength of line absorption, and the absorption coefficient and its temperature dependency. These influence the choice of wavelengths, for any given gas. Conditions for minimum temperature error are derived. Numerical results are presented for a two-wavelength measurement on a family of profiles that may be expected in a practical case of hydrogen-oxygen combustion. Under favorable conditions, the fractional error in temperature approximates the fractional error in radiant-flux measurement.

  14. Constrained motion control on a hemispherical surface: path planning.

    PubMed

    Berman, Sigal; Liebermann, Dario G; McIntyre, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    Surface-constrained motion, i.e., motion constraint by a rigid surface, is commonly found in daily activities. The current work investigates the choice of hand paths constrained to a concave hemispherical surface. To gain insight regarding paths and their relationship with task dynamics, we simulated various control policies. The simulations demonstrated that following a geodesic path (the shortest path between 2 points on a sphere) is advantageous not only in terms of path length but also in terms of motor planning and sensitivity to motor command errors. These stem from the fact that the applied forces lie in a single plane (that of the geodesic path). To test whether human subjects indeed follow the geodesic, and to see how such motion compares to other paths, we recorded movements in a virtual haptic-visual environment from 11 healthy subjects. The task comprised point-to-point motion between targets at two elevations (30° and 60°). Three typical choices of paths were observed from a frontal plane projection of the paths: circular arcs, straight lines, and arcs close to the geodesic path for each elevation. Based on the measured hand paths, we applied k-means blind separation to divide the subjects into three groups and compared performance indicators. The analysis confirmed that subjects who followed paths closest to the geodesic produced faster and smoother movements compared with the others. The "better" performance reflects the dynamical advantages of following the geodesic path and may also reflect invariant features of control policies used to produce such a surface-constrained motion. PMID:24259548

  15. Seismic scattering and absorption parameters in the W-Bohemia/Vogtland region from elastic and acoustic radiative transfer theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaebler, Peter J.; Eulenfeld, Tom; Wegler, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    In this study, frequency-dependent seismic scattering and intrinsic attenuation parameters for the crustal structure beneath the W-Bohemia/Vogtland swarm earthquake region close to the border of Czech Republic and Germany are estimated. Synthetic seismogram envelopes are modelled using elastic and acoustic radiative transfer theory. Scattering and absorption parameters are determined by fitting these synthetic envelopes to observed seismogram envelopes from 14 shallow local events from the October 2008 W-Bohemia/Vogtland earthquake swarm. The two different simulation approaches yield similar results for the estimated crustal parameters and show a comparable frequency dependence of both transport mean free path and intrinsic absorption path length. Both methods suggest that intrinsic attenuation is dominant over scattering attenuation in the W-Bohemia/Vogtland region for the investigated epicentral distance range and frequency bands from 3 to 24 Hz. Elastic simulations of seismogram envelopes suggest that forward scattering is required to explain the data, however, the degree of forward scattering is not resolvable. Errors in the parameter estimation are smaller in the elastic case compared to results from the acoustic simulations. The frequency decay of the transport mean free path suggests a random medium described by a nearly exponential autocorrelation function. The fluctuation strength and correlation length of the random medium cannot be estimated independently, but only a combination of the parameters related to the transport mean free path of the medium can be computed. Furthermore, our elastic simulations show, that using our numerical method, it is not possible to resolve the value of the mean free path of the random medium.

  16. On-column double-beam laser absorption detection for capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Y.; Yeung, E.S. )

    1993-08-01

    Double-beam laser absorption detection in capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been developed. This is based on the direct subtraction of reference and signal photocurrents by an electronic circuit, under feedback control, to reduce background noise. A simple equation for calculating concentrations has been proposed and was confirmed by experimental results. A practical noise-to-signal ratio of 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]5] in intensity is achieved. This is 5 times lower than that of commercial CE systems. For absorbance detection, as low as 2 [times] 10[sup [minus]8] M malachite green can be detected. This corresponds to a 25-fold improvement of detection limit over commercial systems. This gain in detectability results from both a reduction in intensity fluctuations (noise) and an increase in the effective absorption path length (signal). 22 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Note: cavity enhanced self-absorption spectroscopy: a new diagnostic tool for light emitting matter.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Anton J; Zhao, Dongfeng; Linnartz, Harold

    2013-02-01

    We introduce the concept of Cavity Enhanced Self-Absorption Spectroscopy (CESAS), a new sensitive diagnostic tool for analyzing light-emitting samples. The technique works without an additional light source and its implementation is straight forward. In CESAS, a sample (plasma, flame, or combustion source) is located in an optically stable cavity consisting of two high reflectivity mirrors, and here it acts both as light source and absorbing medium. A modest portion of the emitted light is trapped inside the cavity, making 10(4)-10(5) cavity round trips while crossing the sample and an artificial augmentation of the path length of the absorbing medium occurs as the light transverses the cavity. Light leaking out of the cavity simultaneously provides emission and absorption features. The performance is illustrated by CESAS results on supersonically expanding pulsed hydrocarbon plasma. We expect CESAS to become a generally applicable analytical tool for real time and in situ diagnostics. PMID:23464270

  18. Broadband Phase Spectroscopy over Turbulent Air Paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgetta, Fabrizio R.; Rieker, Gregory B.; Baumann, Esther; Swann, William C.; Sinclair, Laura C.; Kofler, Jon; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R.

    2015-09-01

    Broadband atmospheric phase spectra are acquired with a phase-sensitive dual-frequency-comb spectrometer by implementing adaptive compensation for the strong decoherence from atmospheric turbulence. The compensation is possible due to the pistonlike behavior of turbulence across a single spatial-mode path combined with the intrinsic frequency stability and high sampling speed associated with dual-comb spectroscopy. The atmospheric phase spectrum is measured across 2 km of air at each of the 70 000 comb teeth spanning 233 cm-1 across hundreds of near-infrared rovibrational resonances of CO2 , CH4 , and H2O with submilliradian uncertainty, corresponding to a 10-13 refractive index sensitivity. Trace gas concentrations extracted directly from the phase spectrum reach 0.7 ppm uncertainty, demonstrated here for CO2 . While conventional broadband spectroscopy only measures intensity absorption, this approach enables measurement of the full complex susceptibility even in practical open path sensing.

  19. Fast orthogonal transforms and generation of Brownian paths

    PubMed Central

    Leobacher, Gunther

    2012-01-01

    We present a number of fast constructions of discrete Brownian paths that can be used as alternatives to principal component analysis and Brownian bridge for stratified Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo. By fast we mean that a path of length n can be generated in O(nlog(n)) floating point operations. We highlight some of the connections between the different constructions and we provide some numerical examples. PMID:23471545

  20. Wide absorption spectrum measuring methods by DFB-LDs in water vapor detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. N.; Chang, J.; Lian, J.; Wang, Q.; Lv, G. P.; Wang, W. J.; Liu, Z.; Liu, X. Z.; Zhang, S. S.; Wang, Z. L.; Jiang, S.; Zhu, C. G.; Wei, W.; Sun, B. N.

    2014-09-01

    Two measuring methods of the wide absorption spectrum by distributed feedback laser diodes (DFB-LDs) are presented in detecting the water vapor absorption line. One is the subsection scanning method, and it takes advantage of the wide spectrum tuning range by the temperature modulation and fast spectrum tuning speed by current modulation. Specifically, this method is realized by dividing a target spectral region into several sections which correspond to the specific temperature of DFB-LD, scanning every section by current modulation for hundreds times, and averaging the data to raise the signal to noise ratio (SNR), then combining all sections to get the whole spectrum. An accuracy of 10 ppmv had been obtained in the measurement of water vapor with a 10-cm path length by this method. Another is data fitting method, based on the absorption line-shape function; the absorption line can be described by fitting with partial measured data. The fitting absorption line was fitted well with the measured data, and the square of correlation coefficient (R-square) was no less than 0.99.

  1. Portable 4.6 Micrometers Laser Absorption Spectrometer for Carbon Monoxide Monitoring and Fire Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Ryan M.; Frez, Clifford; Forouhar, Siamak; May, Randy D.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    The air quality aboard manned spacecraft must be continuously monitored to ensure crew safety and identify equipment malfunctions. In particular, accurate real-time monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO) levels helps to prevent chronic exposure and can also provide early detection of combustion-related hazards. For long-duration missions, environmental monitoring grows in importance, but the mass and volume of monitoring instruments must be minimized. Furthermore, environmental analysis beyond low-Earth orbit must be performed in-situ, as sample return becomes impractical. Due to their small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor-laser-based absorption spectrometers are viable candidates for this purpose. To reduce instrument form factor and complexity, the emission wavelength of the laser source should coincide with strong fundamental absorption lines of the target gases, which occur in the 3 to 5 micrometers wavelength range for most combustion products of interest, thereby reducing the absorption path length required for low-level concentration measurements. To address the needs of current and future NASA missions, we have developed a prototype absorption spectrometer using a semiconductor quantum cascade laser source operating near 4.6 micrometers that can be used to detect low concentrations of CO with a compact single-pass absorption cell. In this study, we present the design of the prototype instrument and report on measurements of CO emissions from the combustion of a variety of aerospace plastics.

  2. H216O absorption spectrum between 22250 and 22800 cm-1: Fourier transform spectroscopy with bright light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serduykov, V. I.; Sinitsa, L. N.; Vasil'chenko, S. S.; Bykov, A. D.; Kruglova, T. V.; Polovtseva, E. R.; Scherbakov, A. P.

    2014-11-01

    Measurements of water vapor absorption spectra in the visible spectral region near 0.44 mkm are performed using FTspectrometer IFS-125M and Light-emitting diode (LED) as source of radiation. Water vapor spectrum has been obtained by averaging over 17136 scans recorded at 34,8 m optical path length, temperature 24 ± 1 C and pressure of sample 24,8 mBar. Due to strong emission of LED source it was possible to achieve signal-to-noise ratio about 104 and to record weak lines with intensities of 6 10-27 cm/molecule. Comparisons with results of early works are made.

  3. Coefficients of Effective Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Under certain conditions, a validity Coefficient of Effective Length (CEL) can produce highly misleading results. A modified coefficent is suggested for use when empirical studies indicate that underlying assumptions have been violated. (Author/BW)

  4. Myofilament length dependent activation

    SciTech Connect

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.

    2010-05-25

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  5. Length Paradox in Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Roberto de A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a thought experiment using a general analysis approach with Lorentz transformations to show that the apparent self-contradictions of special relativity concerning the length-paradox are really non-existant. (GA)

  6. A fuzzy shortest path with the highest reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz, Esmaile; Khorram, Esmaile

    2009-08-01

    This paper concentrates on a shortest path problem on a network where arc lengths (costs) are not deterministic numbers, but imprecise ones. Here, costs of the shortest path problem are fuzzy intervals with increasing membership functions, whereas the membership function of the total cost of the shortest path is a fuzzy interval with a decreasing linear membership function. By the max-min criterion suggested in [R.E. Bellman, L.A. Zade, Decision-making in a fuzzy environment, Management Science 17B (1970) 141-164], the fuzzy shortest path problem can be treated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem. We show that this problem can be simplified into a bi-level programming problem that is very solvable. Here, we propose an efficient algorithm, based on the parametric shortest path problem for solving the bi-level programming problem. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate our proposed algorithm.

  7. Editorial: Redefining Length

    SciTech Connect

    Sprouse, Gene D.

    2011-07-15

    Technological changes have moved publishing to electronic-first publication where the print version has been relegated to simply another display mode. Distribution in HTML and EPUB formats, for example, changes the reading environment and reduces the need for strict pagination. Therefore, in an effort to streamline the calculation of length, the APS journals will no longer use the printed page as the determining factor for length. Instead the journals will now use word counts (or word equivalents for tables, figures, and equations) to establish length; for details please see http://publish.aps.org/authors/length-guide. The title, byline, abstract, acknowledgment, and references will not be included in these counts allowing authors the freedom to appropriately credit coworkers, funding sources, and the previous literature, bringing all relevant references to the attention of readers. This new method for determining length will be easier for authors to calculate in advance, and lead to fewer length-associated revisions in proof, yet still retain the quality of concise communication that is a virtue of short papers.

  8. OPEN PATH AMBIENT MEASUREMENTS OF POLLUTANTS WITH A DOAS SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) has been in operation since August 1991 at the U.S. EPA in RTP, NC. he analyzer unit is located in an environmentally-controlled shelter in the EPA parking lot. our separate open optical paths have been established, ranging fr...

  9. Atmospheric absorption effects in beam delivery for industrial CO lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Quisheng; Baker, Howard J.; Hall, Denis R.

    1997-04-01

    Spectrally resolved atmospheric absorption has been investigated to determine the problems of long path beam delivery of high power industrial CO laser light for material processing. A dry gas purged beam path is found to be essential if the natural CO laser spectrum is used. However, an unpurged beam delivery system may be satisfactory over typical distances when the spectrum is modified to avoid coincidence with strong water lines by the use of an intra- cavity absorption section.

  10. Rapid Swept-Wavelength External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser for Open Path Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Brumfield, Brian E.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2015-07-01

    A rapidly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser system is used for open path sensing. The system permits acquisition of transient absorption spectra over a 125 cm-1 tuning range in less than 0.01 s.

  11. Critical Path Web Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Judith L.; Charles, John B.; Rummel, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, the Agency's lead center for the human elements of spaceflight (the Johnson Space Center), along with the National Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) (which has the lead role in developing countermeasures) initiated an activity to identify the most critical risks confronting extended human spaceflight. Two salient factors influenced this activity: first, what information is needed to enable a "go/no go" decision to embark on extended human spaceflight missions; and second, what knowledge and capabilities are needed to address known and potential health, safety and performance risks associated with such missions. A unique approach was used to first define and assess those risks, and then to prioritize them. This activity was called the Critical Path Roadmap (CPR) and it represents an opportunity to develop and implement a focused and evolving program of research and technology designed from a "risk reduction" perspective to prevent or minimize the risks to humans exposed to the space environment. The Critical Path Roadmap provides the foundation needed to ensure that human spaceflight, now and in the future, is as safe, productive and healthy as possible (within the constraints imposed on any particular mission) regardless of mission duration or destination. As a tool, the Critical Path Roadmap enables the decisionmaker to select from among the demonstrated or potential risks those that are to be mitigated, and the completeness of that mitigation. The primary audience for the CPR Web Site is the members of the scientific community who are interested in the research and technology efforts required for ensuring safe and productive human spaceflight. They may already be informed about the various space life sciences research programs or they may be newcomers. Providing the CPR content to potential investigators increases the probability of their delivering effective risk mitigations. Others who will use the CPR Web Site and its content include program managers and administrators who track the program and are involved in decisions regarding resource allocation and program evaluation.

  12. Critical Path Web Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Judith L.; Charles, John B.; Rummel, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, the Agency's lead center for the human elements of spaceflight (the Johnson Space Center), along with the National Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) (which has the lead role in developing countermeasures) initiated an activity to identify the most critical risks confronting extended human spaceflight. Two salient factors influenced this activity: first, what information is needed to enable a "go/no go" decision to embark on extended human spaceflight missions; and second, what knowledge and capabilities are needed to address known and potential health, safety and performance risks associated with such missions. A unique approach was used to first define and assess those risks, and then to prioritize them. This activity was called the Critical Path Roadmap (CPR) and it represents an opportunity to develop and implement a focused and evolving program of research and technology designed from a "risk reduction" perspective to prevent or minimize the risks to humans exposed to the space environment. The Critical Path Roadmap provides the foundation needed to ensure that human spaceflight, now and in the future, is as safe, productive and healthy as possible (within the constraints imposed on any particular mission) regardless of mission duration or destination. As a tool, the Critical Path Roadmap enables the decision maker to select from among the demonstrated or potential risks those that are to be mitigated, and the completeness of that mitigation. The primary audience for the CPR Web Site is the members of the scientific community who are interested in the research and technology efforts required for ensuring safe and productive human spaceflight. They may already be informed about the various space life sciences research programs or they may be newcomers. Providing the CPR content to potential investigators increases the probability of their delivering effective risk mitigations. Others who will use the CPR Web Site and its content include program managers and administrators who track the program and are involved in decisions regarding resource allocation and program evaluation.

  13. Relativistic Length Agony Continued

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redzic, D. V.

    2014-06-01

    We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redzic 2008b), we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the 'pole in a barn' paradox.

  14. JAVA PathFinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehhtz, Peter

    2005-01-01

    JPF is an explicit state software model checker for Java bytecode. Today, JPF is a swiss army knife for all sort of runtime based verification purposes. This basically means JPF is a Java virtual machine that executes your program not just once (like a normal VM), but theoretically in all possible ways, checking for property violations like deadlocks or unhandled exceptions along all potential execution paths. If it finds an error, JPF reports the whole execution that leads to it. Unlike a normal debugger, JPF keeps track of every step how it got to the defect.

  15. Path Integrals and Supersolids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceperley, D. M.

    2008-11-01

    Recent experiments by Kim and Chan on solid 4He have been interpreted as discovery of a supersolid phase of matter. Arguments based on wavefunctions have shown that such a phase exists, but do not necessarily apply to solid 4He. Imaginary time path integrals, implemented using Monte Carlo methods, provide a definitive answer; a clean system of solid 4He should be a normal quantum solid, not one with superfluid properties. The Kim-Chan phenomena must be due to defects introduced when the solid is formed.

  16. Portage and Path Dependence.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Hoyt; Lin, Jeffrey

    2012-05-01

    We examine portage sites in the U.S. South, Mid-Atlantic, and Midwest, including those on the fall line, a geomorphological feature in the southeastern U.S. marking the final rapids on rivers before the ocean. Historically, waterborne transport of goods required portage around the falls at these points, while some falls provided water power during early industrialization. These factors attracted commerce and manufacturing. Although these original advantages have long since been made obsolete, we document the continuing importance of these portage sites over time. We interpret these results as path dependence and contrast explanations based on sunk costs interacting with decreasing versus increasing returns to scale. PMID:23935217

  17. Portage and Path Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Hoyt; Lin, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    We examine portage sites in the U.S. South, Mid-Atlantic, and Midwest, including those on the fall line, a geomorphological feature in the southeastern U.S. marking the final rapids on rivers before the ocean. Historically, waterborne transport of goods required portage around the falls at these points, while some falls provided water power during early industrialization. These factors attracted commerce and manufacturing. Although these original advantages have long since been made obsolete, we document the continuing importance of these portage sites over time. We interpret these results as path dependence and contrast explanations based on sunk costs interacting with decreasing versus increasing returns to scale. PMID:23935217

  18. APPLYING OPEN-PATH OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY TO HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-dispersive infrared absorption has been used to measure gaseous emissions for both stationary and mobile sources. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used for stationary sources as both extractive and open-path methods. We have applied the open-path method for bo...

  19. (Intrusion Path Analysis)

    SciTech Connect

    Hardwick, R D

    1989-01-01

    The design and implementation of an Intrusion Path Analysis (IPA) function came about as a result of the upgrades to the security systems at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. The stated requirements for IPA were broad, leaving opportunity for creative freedom during design and development. The essential elements were that it: be based on alarm and sensor state data; consider insider as well as outsider threats; be flexible and easily enabled or disabled; not be processor intensive; and provide information to the operator in the event the analysis reveals possible path openings. The final design resulted from many and varied conceptual inputs, and will be implemented in selected test areas at SRS. It fulfils the requirements and: allows selective inclusion of sensors in the analysis; permits the formation of concentric rings of protection around assets; permits the defining of the number of rings which must be breached before issuing an alert; evaluates current sensor states as well as a recent, configurable history of sensor states; considers the sensors' physical location, with respect to the concentric rings; and enables changes for maintenance without software recompilation. 3 figs.

  20. Subpicosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of alkali halide crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, Eben Daniel

    1997-12-01

    Relaxation of fundamental electronic excitation (electron-hole pairs and excitons) in perfect insulators can result in lattice defect formation via self-induced carrier localization (self-trapping). The potential for localization of electronic energy to the unit cell dimension is determined primarily by the strength of charge carrier to lattice phonon coupling. An effective tool for investigating the formation and evolution of radiation induced defects is pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy. In our formulation of this technique, the 2nd,/ 3rd or 4th harmonics of an amplified 855 nm, 130 fs laser pulse are used to create electron-hole pairs in the sample via two-photon absorption. After the pump beam creates the excitation, the leftover fundamental (or 2nd harmonic) is used to generate a white-light continuum which is used as a probe for the excitation induced absorption. Control over the arrival time of the excitation pulse with respect to the pump pulse is achieved via a path length adjustment. Radiation induced absorption can currently be measured for probe delays of 0 to about 250 ps. This technique allows for observation of the evolution of localized species formation and transient behaviors with as high as 100 fs time resolution. This thesis describes the construction and operation of a subpicosecond transient absorption spectrometer. Included in this description are issues of special data interpretation and analysis which must be considered when working with intrinsic excitation of wide-gap metal halides in the high intensity, subpicosecond regime. Specifically, we have realized that a particular nonlinear mixing of the pump and probe laser (TPCCA) can produce a signal which is easily misinterpreted for a radiation induced defect absorption. This phenomena most likely accounts for a misidentification of the initial absorption signal in several of the alkali halides which have been published by other research groups. This misinterpretation leads to an erroneous conclusion on the nature of the initial self-induced carrier localization in these materials. This thesis additionally presents results on time- resolved defect formation in a variety of alkali halide samples including the first published results in the picosecond regimes for SrF2, AgCl, CsBr, and CsI.

  1. [Maintaining telomere length].

    PubMed

    Wysoczańska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres protect the ends of chromosomes maintaining genome stability. The activity of telomerase enzyme, or alternatively the process of recombination, regulates the length of telomeres. In the absence of these mechanisms, excessive shortening of telomeres reach its critical level. Excessively shortened telomeres do not protect chromosome ends, the cell division cycle is stopped while the inactivity of replication process generates cellular senescence and cell death. On the other hand, critically shortened telomeres may promote chromosomal instability. These changes can lead to the development of carcinogenesis. In this process enzymatic activity of telomerase is reactivated. To maintain the protection of the chromosome ends, telomeres bind the stabilizing protein complex (shelterin). The presence of these protective proteins prevents undesirable DNA damage and initiates the repair system pathways. Molecular technologies enable the evaluation of telomere lengths, the analysis of telomerase expression and activity, and detection of mutations, polymorphic and epigenetic changes in telomere--shelterin--telomerase complex related genes. The purpose of research is to describe new mechanisms that affect the biology of telomere lengths, and to determine the impact on bone marrow failures, development of haematological malignancies, neurodegenerative diseases and others disorders associated with chromosomal instability. The model of modern therapies based on telomere biology explains the significance of the maintenance of telomere lengths in the process of cellular senescence and carcinogenesis. PMID:24379272

  2. Mappability and read length

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wentian; Freudenberg, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Power-law distributions are the main functional form for the distribution of repeat size and repeat copy number in the human genome. When the genome is broken into fragments for sequencing, the limited size of fragments and reads may prevent an unique alignment of repeat sequences to the reference sequence. Repeats in the human genome can be as long as 104 bases, or 105 − 106 bases when allowing for mismatches between repeat units. Sequence reads from these regions are therefore unmappable when the read length is in the range of 103 bases. With a read length of 1000 bases, slightly more than 1% of the assembled genome, and slightly less than 1% of the 1 kb reads, are unmappable, excluding the unassembled portion of the human genome (8% in GRCh37/hg19). The slow decay (long tail) of the power-law function implies a diminishing return in converting unmappable regions/reads to become mappable with the increase of the read length, with the understanding that increasing read length will always move toward the direction of 100% mappability. PMID:25426137

  3. ABSORPTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.

    1961-11-14

    A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)

  4. Electromagnetic wave absorption properties of composites with ultrafine hollow magnetic fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Jin Woo; Lee, Sang Bok; Kim, Jin Bong; Lee, Sang Kwan; Park, O. Ok

    2014-06-01

    Ultrafine hollow magnetic fibers were prepared by electroless plating using hydrolyzed polyester fiber as a sacrificial substrate. These hollow fibers can be served for lightweight and efficient electromagnetic (EM) absorbing materials. As observed from SEM and EDS analysis, hollow structures consisting of Ni inner layer and Fe or Fe-Co outer layer were obtained. By introducing Co onto Fe, oxidation of the Fe layer was successfully prevented making it possible to enhance the complex permeability compared to a case in which only Fe was used. Polymeric composites containing the hollow fibers with different weight fractions and fiber lengths were prepared by a simple mixing process. The electromagnetic wave properties of the composites were measured by a vector network analyzer and it was found that the hollow magnetic fibers show a clear resonance peak of the complex permittivity around the X-band range (8-12 GHz) and the resonance frequency strongly depends on the fiber concentration and length. A possible explanation for the unique resonance is that the hollow fibers possess relatively low electrical conductivity and a long mean free path due to their oxidized phase and hollow structure. The calculated EM wave absorption with the measured EM wave properties showed that the composite containing 30 wt% hollow Ni/Fe-Co (7:3) fibers in length of 180 ?m exhibited multiple absorbance peaks resulting in a broad absorption bandwidth of 4.2 GHz. It is obvious that this multiple absorbance is attributed to the resonance characteristic of the composite.

  5. AIR QUALITY MONITORING IN ATLANTA WITH THE DIFFERENTIAL OPTICAL ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    During July and August of 1990, a differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) made by OPSIS Inc. was used to measure gaseous air pollutants over three separate open paths in Atlanta, GA. ver path 1 (1099 m) and path 2 (1824 m), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen d...

  6. "Albedo dome": a method for measuring spectral flux-reflectance in a laboratory for media with long optical paths.

    PubMed

    Light, Bonnie; Carns, Regina C; Warren, Stephen G

    2015-06-10

    A method is presented for accurate measurement of spectral flux-reflectance (albedo) in a laboratory, for media with long optical path lengths, such as snow and ice. The approach uses an acrylic hemispheric dome, which, when placed over the surface being studied, serves two functions: (i) it creates an overcast "sky" to illuminate the target surface from all directions within a hemisphere, and (ii) serves as a platform for measuring incident and backscattered spectral radiances, which can be integrated to obtain fluxes. The fluxes are relative measurements and because their ratio is used to determine flux-reflectance, no absolute radiometric calibrations are required. The dome and surface must meet minimum size requirements based on the scattering properties of the surface. This technique is suited for media with long photon path lengths since the backscattered illumination is collected over a large enough area to include photons that reemerge from the domain far from their point of entry because of multiple scattering and small absorption. Comparison between field and laboratory albedo of a portable test surface demonstrates the viability of this method. PMID:26192823

  7. Absorptance of infrared radiation by methane at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Fuss, S.P.; Ezekoye, O.A.; Hall, M.J.

    1996-11-01

    In large-scale fires and flames, radiative transport can be an important factor determining the rate of fuel volatilization and flame spread in condensed fuels, and in general can affect the amount of soot that is produced by the flame. The radiant flux can be significantly attenuated by core hydrocarbon gases that have absorption features in the infrared. The spectral absorptance of the {upsilon}{sub 3} (centered at approximately 3020 cm{sup -1}) and {upsilon}{sub 4} (centered at approximately 1306 cm{sup -1}) fundamental bands of methane were measured at elevated temperatures. The measurements were made using a FTIR spectrometer coupled to a gas cell that was maintained at a constant temperature in a furnace. The partial pressure of the methane was varied between 5 and 95 percent, yielding pressure path lengths between 1.14 and 21.74 atm-cm. The total pressure was maintained at 1 atm. Measurements were made at temperatures between 296 and 900 K. The effect of spectral resolution on the measurements and derived parameters was examined. Spectral resolutions between 4 and 32 cm{sup -1} were used. The spectral mean parameters of line strength and line shape were determined for the Elsasser narrow band radiation model using the data taken at a resolution of 4 cm{sup -1}. The band model parameters were incorporated into RADCAL, a narrow band model used to predict spectral intensity and transmittance. 13 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  8. 757 Path Loss Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, Kent; Huffman, Mitch; Eppic, Brian; White, Harrison

    2005-01-01

    Path Loss Measurements were obtained on three (3) GPS equipped 757 aircraft. Systems measured were Marker Beacon, LOC, VOR, VHF (3), Glide Slope, ATC (2), DME (2), TCAS, and GPS. This data will provide the basis for assessing the EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) safety margins of comm/nav (communication and navigation) systems to portable electronic device emissions. These Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) include all devices operated in or around the aircraft by crews, passengers, servicing personnel, as well as the general public in the airport terminals. EMI assessment capability is an important step in determining if one system-wide PED EMI policy is appropriate. This data may also be used comparatively with theoretical analysis and computer modeling data sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and others.

  9. Method for Veterbi decoding of large constraint length convolutional codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, In-Shek (Inventor); Truong, Trieu-Kie (Inventor); Reed, Irving S. (Inventor); Jing, Sun (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A new method of Viterbi decoding of convolutional codes lends itself to a pipline VLSI architecture using a single sequential processor to compute the path metrics in the Viterbi trellis. An array method is used to store the path information for NK intervals where N is a number, and K is constraint length. The selected path at the end of each NK interval is then selected from the last entry in the array. A trace-back method is used for returning to the beginning of the selected path back, i.e., to the first time unit of the interval NK to read out the stored branch metrics of the selected path which correspond to the message bits. The decoding decision made in this way is no longer maximum likelihood, but can be almost as good, provided that constraint length K in not too small. The advantage is that for a long message, it is not necessary to provide a large memory to store the trellis derived information until the end of the message to select the path that is to be decoded; the selection is made at the end of every NK time unit, thus decoding a long message in successive blocks.

  10. A new calibration system for lightweight, compact and mobile Cavity-Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielcke, Johannes; Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Frieß, Udo; Platt, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Absorption Spectroscopy has been employed for several decades now to study the earth's atmosphere. While the focus has been on remote sensing for a long time, lately there has been a renewed interest in in-situ methods, as point measurements allow an easier interpretation for highly inhomogeneous distributions of gases of interest compared to the integration approach of most remote sensing methods. One comparatively new method offering both advantages of in-situ measurements as well as being contactless is open-path Cavity-Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS). Broadband open-path CE-DOAS instruments have been used for ten years now, and in the meantime allow the measurement of numerous atmospheric trace gases (e.g. NO2, NO3, IO, CHOCHO, HCHO). While those instruments were bulky and not very mobile at first, recent developments resulted in relatively lightweight (< 30 kg) instruments with a relatively low power consumption allowing mobile open-path measurements at remote field locations. An important operational issue has been the path length calibration in the field, necessary for the determination of the concentration of measured gases. Until now, often calibration gases were used with different scattering properties than air or known concentrations. However this methods has several major shortcomings, being rather inconvenient and cumbersome in the field with the need for compressed gas cylinders, as well as time consuming, preventing a quick check of the state of the instrument in the field after changing measurement locations. Here we present a new wavelength-resolved method for broadband CE-DOAS path length calibration. A small, custom made ring-down system is employed with a pulsed LED as light source. The wavelength is then resolved by tilting a narrow band interference filter. The system not only allows quick, automated path length calibrations without physical interaction on the instrument, but also saves weight, space and the necessity to transport compressed gas cylinders, which is a great advantage e.g. for measurements in remote coastal areas or polar regions. The technical implementation is presented and compared to other CE-DOAS calibration methods.

  11. Resonant absorption and not-so-resonant absorption in short, intense laser irradiated plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Z. Y.; Zhuo, H. B.; Ma, Y. Y.; Yang, X. H.; Yu, T. P.; Zou, D. B.; Yin, Y.; Shao, F. Q.; Yu, W.; Luan, S. X.; Zhou, C. T.; Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 ; Peng, X. J.

    2013-07-15

    An analytical model for laser-plasma interaction during the oblique incidence by an ultrashort ultraintense p-polarized laser on a solid-density plasma is proposed. Both the resonant absorption and not-so-resonant absorption are self-consistently included. Different from the previous theoretical works, the physics of resonant absorption is found to be valid in more general conditions as the steepening of the electron density profile is considered. Even for a relativistic intensity laser, resonant absorption can still exist under certain plasma scale length. For shorter plasma scale length or higher laser intensity, the not-so-resonant absorption tends to be dominant, since the electron density is steepened to a critical level by the ponderomotive force. The laser energy absorption rates for both mechanisms are discussed in detail, and the difference and transition between these two mechanisms are presented.

  12. Hausdorff dimension of a particle path in a quantum manifold

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolini, Piero; Niedner, Benjamin

    2011-01-15

    After recalling the concept of the Hausdorff dimension, we study the fractal properties of a quantum particle path. As a novelty we consider the possibility for the space where the particle propagates to be endowed with a quantum-gravity-induced minimal length. We show that the Hausdorff dimension accounts for both the quantum mechanics uncertainty and manifold fluctuations. In addition the presence of a minimal length breaks the self-similarity property of the erratic path of the quantum particle. Finally we establish a universal property of the Hausdorff dimension as well as the spectral dimension: They both depend on the amount of resolution loss which affects both the path and the manifold when quantum gravity fluctuations occur.

  13. Open-Path High Sensitivity Atmospheric Ammonia Sensing with a Quantum Cascade Laser Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. J.; Dirisu, A.; Rafferty, K.; Parkes, B.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    Atmospheric trace-gas sensing with quantum cascade laser (QCL) spectroscopy offers the potential for high sensitivity, fast, selective mid-infrared absorption measurements of atmospheric species such as ammonia (NH3). As the third most abundant nitrogen species and most gaseous base in the atmosphere, ammonia plays important roles in neutralizing acidic species and as a gas-phase precursor to ammoniated fine particulate matter. High precision gas phase measurements are necessary to constrain highly uncertain emission sources and sinks with implications for understanding how chemical components of fine particulate matter affect air quality and climate as well as nitrogen deposition to ecosystems. Conventional ammonia sensors employing chemical ionization, denuder or filter techniques are labor-intensive, not gas-selective and exhibit low time resolution. As an advantageous alternative to conventional measurement techniques, we develop an open-path quantum cascade laser-based ammonia sensor operating at 9.06 μm for ground-based measurements. A continuous wave, thermoelectrically cooled quantum cascade laser is used to perform wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy (WMS). Room-temperature, unattended operation with minimal surface adsorption effects due to the open-path configuration represent significant improvements over cryogenically cooled, closed path systems. The feasibility of a cylindrical mirror multi-pass optical cell for achieving long path lengths near 50 m in a compact design is also assessed. Meaningful ammonia measurements require fast sub-ppbv detection limits due to ammonia’s large dynamic range and temporal and spatial atmospheric variability. When fully developed, our instrument will achieve high time resolution (up to 10 Hz) measurements with ammonia detection limits in the 100 pptv range. Initial results include ambient laboratory ammonia detection at 58 ppbv relative to a 0.4% ammonia reference cell based on the WMS signal integrated area. We estimate a limit of detection based on our signal to noise ratio of ~400 pptv NH3. Non-cryogenic, unattended operation of this compact sensor offers the potential for applications in particulate matter gas-phase precursor monitoring networks. Future sensor measurements can also be utilized for evaluations of and data assimilation into air quality and aerosol forecast models of particular importance for regions where ammonia plays a critical role in fine particulate matter formation.

  14. Vowel length in Farsi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shademan, Shabnam

    2001-05-01

    This study tests whether Farsi vowels are contrastive with respective to length. Farsi has a six-vowel system with three lax vowels and three tense vowels. Both traditional grammarians and modern linguists believe that Farsi tense vowels are longer than lax vowels, and that there are no vowel pairs that contrast only in length. However, it has been suggested that Farsi exhibits compensatory lengthening, which is triggered by the deletion of glottal consonants in coda position in informal speech (Darzi, 1991). As a result, minimal pairs such as [tar] and [tarh] should contrast only with respect to vowel length. A corpus of 90 words of the form CVC, CVCG, CVGC, and CVCC (where V=a vowel and G=a glottal consonant) was recorded, and durations of vowels in different contexts were measured and compared. Preliminary results show that lax vowel durations fall into three groups with CVCC longer than CVCG/CVGC, and the latter longer than CVC. It remains to be seen whether CVCG/CVGC words show compensatory lengthening when the glottal consonant is deleted.

  15. Analysis for nonlinear inversion technique developed to estimate depth-distribution of absorption by spatially resolved backscattering measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Kazuhiro; Namita, Takeshi; Kato, Yuji; Shimizu, Koichi

    2015-03-01

    We have proposed a new nonlinear inversion technique to estimate the spatial distribution of the absorption coefficient (μa) in the depth direction of a turbid medium by spatially resolved backscattering measurement. With this technique, we can obtain cross-sectional image of μa as deep as the backscattered light traveled even when the transmitted light through the medium cannot be detected. In this technique, the depth distribution of absorption coefficient is determined by iterative calculation using the spatial path-length distribution (SPD) of traveled photons as a function of source-detector distance. In this calculation, the variance of path-length of many photons in each layer is also required. The SPD and the variance of path-length are obtained by Monte Carlo simulation using a known reduced scattering coefficient (μs'). Therefore, we need to know the μs' of the turbid medium beforehand. We have shown in computer simulation that this technique works well when the μs' is the typical values of mammalian body tissue, or 1.0 /mm. In this study, the accuracy of the μa estimation was analyzed and its dependence on the μs' was clarified quantitatively in various situations expected in practice. 10% deviations in μs' resulted in about 30% error in μa estimation, in average. This suggested that the measurement or the appropriate estimation of μs' is required to utilize the proposed technique effectively. Through this analysis, the effectiveness and the limitation of the newly proposed technique were clarified, and the problems to be solved were identified.

  16. [Study of remote sensing the flux of carbon dioxide gas with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Song, Xue-mei; Liu, Jian-guo; Zhang, Yu-jun; Lu, Yi-huai; Zeng, Zong-yong; He, Ying; Cui, Yi-ben; Tian, Yong-zhi; Tian, Lin

    2011-03-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technique is a new method to detect trace gas qualitatively or quantificationally based on the scan characteristic of the diode laser to obtain the absorption spectra in the characteristic absorption region. TDLAS is a highly sensitive, highly selective and fast time response trace gas detection technique. In the present paper, a DFB laser at room temperature was used as the light source, wavelength modulation method was employed, and the second harmonic signal of one absorption line near 1.578 microm of carbon dioxide molecule was measured. A system was built for online monitoring of carbon dioxide concentration within the optical path of more than 700 meters at different heights. Combined with Alonzo Mourning-Obukhov length and characteristic velocity detected by large aperture scintillometer, the flux of carbon dioxide gas calculated by the experiential formula is within -60-60 mg x m(-2) x s(-1). The comparison of the datea detected by TDLAS system and the eddy covariance showed that the change of the data detected by TDLAS had a similar trend to that detected by the eddy covariance, and the best results can be produced by this method, breaking through the phenomenon of only providing the flux of trace gases near the ground at present, and making the measurement of trace gas fluxes within a large area possible. PMID:21595244

  17. Tunable Diode Laser Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for Detection of Potassium under Optically Thick Conditions.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhechao; Steinvall, Erik; Ghorbani, Ramin; Schmidt, Florian M

    2016-04-01

    Potassium (K) is an important element related to ash and fine-particle formation in biomass combustion processes. In situ measurements of gaseous atomic potassium, K(g), using robust optical absorption techniques can provide valuable insight into the K chemistry. However, for typical parts per billion K(g) concentrations in biomass flames and reactor gases, the product of atomic line strength and absorption path length can give rise to such high absorbance that the sample becomes opaque around the transition line center. We present a tunable diode laser atomic absorption spectroscopy (TDLAAS) methodology that enables accurate, calibration-free species quantification even under optically thick conditions, given that Beer-Lambert's law is valid. Analyte concentration and collisional line shape broadening are simultaneously determined by a least-squares fit of simulated to measured absorption profiles. Method validation measurements of K(g) concentrations in saturated potassium hydroxide vapor in the temperature range 950-1200 K showed excellent agreement with equilibrium calculations, and a dynamic range from 40 pptv cm to 40 ppmv cm. The applicability of the compact TDLAAS sensor is demonstrated by real-time detection of K(g) concentrations close to biomass pellets during atmospheric combustion in a laboratory reactor. PMID:26938713

  18. Use of radial symmetry for the calculation of cylindrical absorption coefficients and optimal capillary loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Khalifah, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles θD of 0° to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.

  19. Open multipass absorption cell for in situ monitoring of stratospheric trace gas with telecommunication laser diodes.

    PubMed

    Durry, Georges; Danguy, Théodore; Pouchet, Ivan

    2002-01-20

    A two-mirror multipass absorption cell that is operated open to the atmosphere from a stratospheric balloon to monitor in situ methane (in the 1.65-microm region) and water vapor (in the 1.39-microm region) with telecommunication laser diodes is described. A small Cassegrain-type telescope is used to couple the cell simultaneously with two near-infrared InGaAsP laser diodes by means of optical fibers. The 1-m cell provides an absorption path length of 56 m. The optical cell was carefully designed to be free of incidental fringing in the 10(-5) absorption range. It is used in combination with a dual-beam detector to obtain a detection limit of 10(-5) absorption units, a large dynamic range of the measurements of many orders of magnitude, and a precision error in the concentration determination of a few percents. The optical arrangement of the cell and its ability to be used to detect in situ trace gas in the stratosphere, in severe environmental conditions, are exposed. PMID:11905566

  20. Use of radial symmetry for the calculation of cylindrical absorption coefficients and optimal capillary loadings

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khalifah, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles θD of 0°more » to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.« less

  1. [Concentration retrieving method of SO2 using differential optical absorption spectroscopy based on statistics].

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Sun, Chang-Ku; Zhang, Chi; Zhao, Yu-Mei; Liu, Jun-Ping

    2011-01-01

    A concentration retrieving method using statistics is presented, which is applied in differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) for measuring the concentration of SO2. The method uses the standard deviation of the differential absorption to represents the gas concentration. Principle component analysis (PCA) method is used to process the differential absorption spectrum. In the method, the basis data for the concentration retrieval of SO2 is the combination of the PCA processing result, the correlation coefficient, and the standard deviation of the differential absorption. The method is applied to a continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) with optical path length of 0.3 m. Its measuring range for SO2 concentration is 0-5 800 mg x m(-3). The nonlinear calibration and the temperature compensation for the system were executed. The full scale error of the retrieving concentration is less than 0.7% FS. And the measuring result is -4.54 mg x m(-3) when the concentration of SO2 is zero. PMID:21428087

  2. Interactive cutting path analysis programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiner, J. M.; Williams, D. S.; Colley, S. R.

    1975-01-01

    The operation of numerically controlled machine tools is interactively simulated. Four programs were developed to graphically display the cutting paths for a Monarch lathe, Cintimatic mill, Strippit sheet metal punch, and the wiring path for a Standard wire wrap machine. These programs are run on a IMLAC PDS-ID graphic display system under the DOS-3 disk operating system. The cutting path analysis programs accept input via both paper tape and disk file.

  3. Very high finesse optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer for low concentration water vapor isotope analyses.

    PubMed

    Landsberg, J; Romanini, D; Kerstel, E

    2014-04-01

    So far, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) has been based on optical cavities with a high finesse F that, however, has been limited by mirror reflectivity and by cavity transmission considerations to a few times 10,000. Here, we demonstrate a compact near-infrared optical-feedback CEAS instrument for water vapor isotope ratio measurements, with F>140,000. We show that this very high finesse can be effectively exploited to improve the detection sensitivity to the full extent predicted by the increased effective path length to reach a noise equivalent absorption sensitivity of 5.7×10(-11)  cm(-1) Hz(-1/2) for a full spectrum registration (including possible effects of interference fringes and fit model inadequacies). PMID:24686607

  4. Greenhouse gas measurements over a 144 km open path in the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, J. S. A.; Bernath, P. F.; Kirchengast, G.; Thomas, C. B.; Wang, J.-G.; Tereszchuk, K. A.; González Abad, G.; Hargreaves, R. J.; Beale, C. A.; Harrison, J. J.; Schweitzer, S.; Proschek, V.; Martin, P. A.; Kasyutich, V. L.; Gerbig, C.; Kolle, O.; Loescher, A.

    2012-09-01

    A new technique for the satellite remote sensing of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere via the absorption of short-wave infrared laser signals transmitted between counter-rotating satellites in low Earth orbit has recently been proposed; this would enable the acquisition of a long-term, stable, global set of altitude-resolved concentration measurements. We present the first ground-based experimental demonstration of this new infrared-laser occultation method, in which the atmospheric absorption of CO2 near 2.1 μm was measured over a ~144 km path length between two peaks in the Canary Islands (at an altitude of ~2.4 km), using relatively low power diode lasers (~4 to 10 mW). The retrieved CO2 volume mixing ratio of 400 ppm (±15 ppm) is consistent within experimental uncertainty with simultaneously recorded in situ validation measurements. We conclude that the new method has a sound basis for monitoring CO2 in the free atmosphere; other greenhouse gases such as methane, nitrous oxide and water vapour can be monitored in the same way.

  5. Handbook of Feynman Path Integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosche, Christian, Steiner, Frank

    The Handbook of Feynman Path Integrals appears just fifty years after Richard Feynman published his pioneering paper in 1948 entitled "Space-Time Approach to Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics", in which he introduced his new formulation of quantum mechanics in terms of path integrals. The book presents for the first time a comprehensive table of Feynman path integrals together with an extensive list of references; it will serve the reader as a thorough introduction to the theory of path integrals. As a reference book, it is unique in its scope and will be essential for many physicists, chemists and mathematicians working in different areas of research.

  6. Absolute Intensities and Pressure-Broadening Coefficients of 2-mum CO(2) Absorption Features: Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Geng, J; Lunine, J I; Atkinson, G H

    2001-05-20

    The high detection sensitivity available from intracavity laser spectroscopy (ILS) is extended into the near infrared by solid-state laser systems operating with relatively narrow (~0.002 mum) bandwidths for three CO(2) absorption features of importance to an understanding of planetary atmospheres. The absolute intensities and pressure-broadening properties of the P(12), P(14), and P(16) lines of the ?-? band (12 degrees 1-00 degrees 0) of CO(2) (at 2.0129, 2.0136, and 2.0143 mum) are measured quantitatively by ILS with a Tm:YAG laser operating near 2.0 mum. The temperature dependencies of these absolute intensities and collisional-broadening parameters for these three CO(2) features are also measured over the 110-300 K range. The 3.0-km equivalent absorption path length available from the ILS Tm:YAG system is used to enhance detection sensitivity by more than a factor of 1.5 x 10(4) while maintaining a physical sample cell path length of ~20 cm. The enhanced detection sensitivity of ILS permits absolute intensities and collisional-broadening parameters to be measured from <1-Torr CO(2) over a series of temperatures, conditions that emulate those found in the atmospheres of Mars, Triton, and Venus. PMID:18357269

  7. Long-path measurement of atmospheric NO2 with an obstruction flashlight and a charge-coupled-device spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Yotsumi; Kuze, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Nobuo

    2003-07-20

    A novel method of differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) is proposed and demonstrated to monitor the concentration of atmospheric pollutant gas. In contrast to conventional DOAS measurements with continuous light sources, the present method relies on white flashlights such as aviation obstruction lights that are generally installed on tall constructions. A simple detection system is devised by means of a telescope and a compact CCD spectrometer. A path length of 5.5 km allows us to measure atmospheric NO2 concentration with a detection limit of approximately 1 part per billion. We also discuss the possibility of deriving the aerosol optical thickness through the horizontal atmosphere from this pulsed DOAS measurement. PMID:12921286

  8. Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using room temperature quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welzel, S.; Davies, P. B.; Engeln, R.; Röpcke, J.

    2009-04-01

    Achieving the high sensitivity necessary for trace gas detection generally requires long absorption path lengths. An alternative approach to conventional linear absorption spectroscopy employing multiple pass cells is to use a high finesse cavity. With the help of such cavities the effective path length of the laser beam in the absorbing medium can essentially be increased to more than the 200 m limit usually available from conventional optical multi-pass cells while keeping the sample and pumped volume small. Optical cavity based techniques, Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (CEAS) among them, have been successfully applied as a highly sensitive absorption technique for several years. The majority of cavity based methods have used sources of radiation in the ultraviolet and visible regions. For many years the mid-infrared (MIR) molecular fingerprint region could not be employed either for CRDS or for the CEAS techniques, because of the lack of suitable radiation sources with the required power and tunability and small scale dimensions. Experiments were carried out with optical parametric oscillators, Raman cells or shifters or CO and CO2 lasers. In all these cases sophisticated optical geometries were developed which were more suitable for the research laboratory than for field applications. Attempts to use lead salt lasers clearly suffered from low laser intensity. In addition, for wider application, especially for field measurements, compact and cryogen free spectrometers are definitely preferable. Recent advances in semiconductor laser technology, in particular the advent of quantum cascade lasers (QCL) provides new possibilities for highly sensitive and selective trace gas detection using MIR absorption spectroscopy. Thermoelectrically (TE) cooled pulsed and cw QCLs have therefore been combined with resonant optical cavities. While pulsed QCLs working at room temperature have been commercially available for several years, room-temperature cw QCLs have only recently been introduced. Distributed feedback QCLs combine single-frequency operation with tunability over several wavenumbers, and average powers over a mW. Pulsed lasers seemed to be suitable for CRDS since the QCL needs to be interrupted periodically. However the inherent chirp of the laser pulse with a typical rate of 0.005 cm-1/ns (150 MHz/ns) hampers an sufficient intensity build-up on the cavity modes. Furthermore the spectral coverage of the laser pulse excites too many cavity modes simultaneously. The results achieved by this method do not show significant improvement compared to long path cells and the combination of CRDS with pulsed QCLs has only a limited number of useful applications. In contrast, CEAS employing continuous wave (cw) QCL emitting at 7.66 m and a TE cooled detector yielded path lengths of 1080 m with a ~ 0.5 m long cavity of 0.3 l. The cavity length was not actively changed or dithered nor was the cavity locked to the illuminating light source. With a noise equivalent absorption of 2 Ã- 10-7 cm-1Hz-1•2 the detection limit with a 20 s integration time was found to be 6 Ã- 108 molecules/cm3 for N2O and 2 Ã- 109 molecules/cm3 for CH4 which is good enough for the selective measurement of trace atmospheric constituents at 2.2 mbar. The main limiting factor for achieving even higher sensitivity, such as that found for larger volume multi pass cell spectrometers, is the incomplete averaging over cavity resonances, i.e. the residual mode structure of the cavity. With a 1.3 m long cavity and an optimised averaging over the cavity modes due to a small dither on the QCL current the required integration time and the noise equivalent absorption could be reduced down to the 10-9 cm-1Hz-1•2 range. The advantage of CEAS combined with cw QCLs over CRDS with pulsed QCLs is that the spectral resolution is no longer limited by bandwidth effects of the light source. This enables measurements at low pressure to increase the selectivity in complex gas mixtures or plasma diagnostics at low pressure plasmas.

  9. Lengths on rotating platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaglia, A.

    1999-02-01

    The paper treats the issue of the length of a rotating circumference as seen from on board the moving disk and from an inertial reference frame. It is shown that, properly defining a measuring process, the result is in both cases 2πR thus dissolving the Ehrenfest paradox. The same holds good when considering that, for the rotating observer, the perceived radius coincides with the curvature radius of a space-time helix and a complete round trip corresponds to an angle which differs from the one seen by the inertial observer. The apparent contradiction with the Lorentz contraction is discussed.

  10. Reconfigurable data path processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohoe, Gregory (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A reconfigurable data path processor comprises a plurality of independent processing elements. Each of the processing elements advantageously comprising an identical architecture. Each processing element comprises a plurality of data processing means for generating a potential output. Each processor is also capable of through-putting an input as a potential output with little or no processing. Each processing element comprises a conditional multiplexer having a first conditional multiplexer input, a second conditional multiplexer input and a conditional multiplexer output. A first potential output value is transmitted to the first conditional multiplexer input, and a second potential output value is transmitted to the second conditional multiplexer output. The conditional multiplexer couples either the first conditional multiplexer input or the second conditional multiplexer input to the conditional multiplexer output, according to an output control command. The output control command is generated by processing a set of arithmetic status-bits through a logical mask. The conditional multiplexer output is coupled to a first processing element output. A first set of arithmetic bits are generated according to the processing of the first processable value. A second set of arithmetic bits may be generated from a second processing operation. The selection of the arithmetic status-bits is performed by an arithmetic-status bit multiplexer selects the desired set of arithmetic status bits from among the first and second set of arithmetic status bits. The conditional multiplexer evaluates the select arithmetic status bits according to logical mask defining an algorithm for evaluating the arithmetic status bits.

  11. On the significant enhancement of the continuum-collision induced absorption in H2O+CO2 mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Yu. I.

    2016-05-01

    The IR spectra of water vapor-carbon dioxide mixtures as well as the spectra of pure gas samples have been recorded using a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer at a resolution of 0.1 cm-1 in order to explore the effect of colliding CO2 and H2O molecules on their continuum absorptions. The sample temperatures were 294, 311, 325 and 339 K. Measurements have been conducted at several different water vapor partial pressures depending on the cell temperature. Carbon dioxide pressures were kept close to the three values of 103, 207 and 311 kPa (1.02, 2.04 and 3.07 atm). The path length used in the study was 100 m. It was established that, in the region around 1100 cm-1, the continuum absorption coefficient C H2 O + CO2 is about 20 times stronger than the water-nitrogen continuum absorption coefficient CH2O+N2. On the other hand, in the far wing region (2500 cm-1) of the ν3 CO2 fundamental band, the binary absorption coefficient CCO2+H2O appears to be about one order of magnitude stronger than the absorption coefficient CCO2+CO2 in pure carbon dioxide. The continuum interpretation and the main problem of molecular band shape formation are discussed in light of these experimental facts.

  12. Long-range open-path greenhouse gas monitoring using mid-infrared laser dispersion spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daghestani, Nart; Brownsword, Richard; Weidmann, Damien

    2015-04-01

    Accurate and sensitive methods of monitoring greenhouse gas (GHG) emission over large areas has become a pressing need to deliver improved estimates of both human-made and natural GHG budgets. These needs relate to a variety of sectors including environmental monitoring, energy, oil and gas industry, waste management, biogenic emission characterization, and leak detection. To address the needs, long-distance open-path laser spectroscopy methods offer significant advantages in terms of temporal resolution, sensitivity, compactness and cost effectiveness. Path-integrated mixing ratio measurements stemming from long open-path laser spectrometers can provide emission mapping when combined with meteorological data and/or through tomographic approaches. Laser absorption spectroscopy is the predominant method of detecting gasses over long integrated path lengths. The development of dispersion spectrometers measuring tiny refractive index changes, rather than optical power transmission, may offer a set of specific advantages1. These include greater immunity to laser power fluctuations, greater dynamic range due to the linearity of dispersion, and ideally a zero baseline signal easing quantitative retrievals of path integrated mixing ratios. Chirped laser dispersion spectrometers (CLaDS) developed for the monitoring of atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide will be presented. Using quantum cascade laser as the source, a minimalistic and compact system operating at 7.8 μm has been developed and demonstrated for the monitoring of atmospheric methane over a 90 meter open path2. Through full instrument modelling and error propagation analysis, precision of 3 ppm.m.Hz-0.5 has been established (one sigma precision for atmospheric methane normalized over a 1 m path and 1 s measurement duration). The system was fully functional in the rain, sleet, and moderate fog. The physical model and system concept of CLaDS can be adapted to any greenhouse gas species. Currently we are developing an in-lab instrument that can measure carbon dioxide using a quantum cascade laser operating in the 4 μm range. In this case, the dynamic range benefit of CLaDS is used to provide high precision even when peak absorbance in the CO2 spectrum gets greater than 2. Development for this deployable CO2 measurement system is still at an early stage. So far laboratory gas cell experiments have demonstrated a 9.3 ppm.m.Hz-0.5 for CO2 monitoring. This corresponds to about 0.02% relative precision in measuring CO2 atmospheric background over a 100 m open-path in one second. 1 G. Wysocki and D. Weidmann, "Molecular dispersion spectroscopy for chemical sensing using chirped mid-infrared quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express 18(25), 26123-26140 (2010). 2 N.S. Daghestani, R. Brownsword, D. Weidmann, 'Analysis and demonstration of atmospheric methane monitoring by mid-infrared open-path chirped dispersion spectroscopy' Opt. Express 22(25), A1731-A1743 (2014).

  13. Length of stain dosimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Payload customers for the Space Shuttle have recently expressed concerns about the possibility of their payloads at an adjacent pad being contaminated by plume effluents from a shuttle at an active pad as they await launch on an inactive pad. As part of a study to satisfy such concerns a ring of inexpensive dosimeters was deployed around the active pad at the inter-pad distance. However, following a launch, dosimeters cannot be read for several hours after the exposure. As a consequence factors such as different substrates, solvent systems, and possible volatilization of HCl from the badges were studied. This observation led to the length of stain (LOS) dosimeters of this invention. Commercial passive LOS dosimeters are sensitive only to the extent of being capable of sensing 2 ppm to 20 ppm if the exposure is 8 hours. To map and quantitate the HCl generated by Shuttle launches, and in the atmosphere within a radius of 1.5 miles from the active pad, a sensitivity of 2 ppm HCl in the atmospheric gases on an exposure of 5 minutes is required. A passive length of stain dosimeter has been developed having a sensitivity rendering it capable of detecting a gas in a concentration as low as 2 ppm on an exposure of five minutes.

  14. Collabortive Authoring of Walden's Paths

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuanling; Bogen II, Paul Logasa; Pogue, Daniel; Furuta, Richard Keith; Shipman, Frank Major

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype of an authoring tool to allow users to collaboratively build, annotate, manage, share and reuse collections of distributed resources from the World Wide Web. This extends on the Walden’s Path project’s work to help educators bring resources found on the World Wide Web into a linear contextualized structure. The introduction of collaborative authoring feature fosters collaborative learning activities through social interaction among participants, where participants can coauthor paths in groups. Besides, the prototype supports path sharing, branching and reusing; specifically, individual participant can contribute to the group with private collections of knowledge resources; paths completed by group can be shared among group members, such that participants can tailor, extend, reorder and/or replace nodes to have sub versions of shared paths for different information needs.

  15. Strength of mineral absorption features in the transmitted component of near-infrared reflected light - First results from RELAB. [spectrogoniometer for planetary and lunar surface composition experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Bidirectional reflectance measurements are the only type of reflectance data available to the remote observer. For compositional interpretations, data are desired not only for identification of possible mineral components but also for modal abundance. The latter requires detailed information about the strength of absorption features. Using a new laboratory facility, the RELAB, laboratory data in the near infrared are presented that document effects of particle size, mineral mixtures, and viewing geometry for selected materials with well-developed absorption bands. The commonly observed increase in reflectance with decrease in particle size is also observed for absorption bands as well as a related decrease in absorption strength. For small particles in parts of the spectrum of maximum reflectance, however, a minor decrease in reflectance with a decrese in particle size is sometimes observed. Small particles dominate the observed characteristics of particulate surfaces, which contain a range of particle sizes. The mean optical path length (transmission through particles) of reflected radiation measured for a variety of particle sizes has an apparent upper limit of about 2 mm for particles of less than 250 microns. The typical number of particles involved in the optical path is less than 50.

  16. Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.; Roberts, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences associated with development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in the two less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in the more developed sites. Thematically, people in the two less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community-based solutions, while people in the more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in the two water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in the water-rich sites. Thematically, people in the two water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in the water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.

  17. Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; Roberts, C. M.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences based on development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in more developed sites. Thematically, people in less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community based solutions, while people in more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in water-rich sites. Thematically, people in water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.

  18. Material Effects and Detector Response Corrections for Bunch Length Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zacherl, W.; Blumenfeld, I.; Berry, M.; Decker, F.-J.; Hogan, M.J.; Ischebeck, R.; Iverson, R.; Kirby, N.; Siemann, R.; Walz, D.; Clayton, C.E.; Huang, C.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.B.; Zhou, M.; Katsouleas, T.C.; Muggli, P.; Oz, E.; /Southern California U.

    2007-06-28

    A typical diagnostic used to determine the bunch length of ultra-short electron bunches is the auto-correlation of coherent transition radiation. This technique can produce artificially short bunch length results due to the attenuation of low frequency radiation if corrections for the material properties of the Michelson interferometer and detector response are not made. Measurements were taken using FTIR spectroscopy to determine the absorption spectrum of various materials and the response of a Molectron P1-45 pyroelectric detector. The material absorption data will be presented and limitations on the detector calibration discussed.

  19. Odd Length Contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-09-01

    Let's denote by VE the speed of the Earth and byVR the speed of the rocket. Both travel in the same direction on parallel trajectories. We consider the Earth as a moving (at a constant speed VE -VR) spacecraft of almost spherical form, whose radius is r and thus the diameter 2r, and the rocket as standing still. The non-proper length of Earth's diameter, as measured by the astronaut is: L = 2 r√{ 1 -|/VE -VR|2 c2 } < 2 r . Therefore Earth's diameter shrinks in the direction of motion, thus Earth becomes an ellipsoid - which is untrue. Planet Earth may increase or decrease its diameter (volume), but this would be for other natural reasons, not because of a...flying rocket! Also, let's assume that the astronaut is laying down in the direction of motion. Therefore, he would also shrink, or he would die!

  20. An advanced open-path atmospheric monitor design

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.; Suhre, D.; Mech, S.

    1996-05-01

    The conceptual design of an open-path atmospheric monitor combines an acousto-optic tunable filter for emission spectroscopy (3-14 {mu}m) with a mid-IR (4.6-5.4 {mu}m) for absorption spectroscopy. It utilizes mostly commercially available components, covers a large area ({approximately}4 km radius), measures the distance to any reflecting object, can take measurements along any line-of-sight, and is eye safe. Of twenty test pollutants it is to detect, the concentrations of all twenty will be measurable via emission spectroscopy and ten by the more sensitive absorption spectroscopy.

  1. Pathways with PathWhiz

    PubMed Central

    Pon, Allison; Jewison, Timothy; Su, Yilu; Liang, Yongjie; Knox, Craig; Maciejewski, Adam; Wilson, Michael; Wishart, David S.

    2015-01-01

    PathWhiz (http://smpdb.ca/pathwhiz) is a web server designed to create colourful, visually pleasing and biologically accurate pathway diagrams that are both machine-readable and interactive. As a web server, PathWhiz is accessible from almost any place and compatible with essentially any operating system. It also houses a public library of pathways and pathway components that can be easily viewed and expanded upon by its users. PathWhiz allows users to readily generate biologically complex pathways by using a specially designed drawing palette to quickly render metabolites (including automated structure generation), proteins (including quaternary structures, covalent modifications and cofactors), nucleic acids, membranes, subcellular structures, cells, tissues and organs. Both small-molecule and protein/gene pathways can be constructed by combining multiple pathway processes such as reactions, interactions, binding events and transport activities. PathWhiz's pathway replication and propagation functions allow for existing pathways to be used to create new pathways or for existing pathways to be automatically propagated across species. PathWhiz pathways can be saved in BioPAX, SBGN-ML and SBML data exchange formats, as well as PNG, PWML, HTML image map or SVG images that can be viewed offline or explored using PathWhiz's interactive viewer. PathWhiz has been used to generate over 700 pathway diagrams for a number of popular databases including HMDB, DrugBank and SMPDB. PMID:25934797

  2. Pathways with PathWhiz.

    PubMed

    Pon, Allison; Jewison, Timothy; Su, Yilu; Liang, Yongjie; Knox, Craig; Maciejewski, Adam; Wilson, Michael; Wishart, David S

    2015-07-01

    PathWhiz (http://smpdb.ca/pathwhiz) is a web server designed to create colourful, visually pleasing and biologically accurate pathway diagrams that are both machine-readable and interactive. As a web server, PathWhiz is accessible from almost any place and compatible with essentially any operating system. It also houses a public library of pathways and pathway components that can be easily viewed and expanded upon by its users. PathWhiz allows users to readily generate biologically complex pathways by using a specially designed drawing palette to quickly render metabolites (including automated structure generation), proteins (including quaternary structures, covalent modifications and cofactors), nucleic acids, membranes, subcellular structures, cells, tissues and organs. Both small-molecule and protein/gene pathways can be constructed by combining multiple pathway processes such as reactions, interactions, binding events and transport activities. PathWhiz's pathway replication and propagation functions allow for existing pathways to be used to create new pathways or for existing pathways to be automatically propagated across species. PathWhiz pathways can be saved in BioPAX, SBGN-ML and SBML data exchange formats, as well as PNG, PWML, HTML image map or SVG images that can be viewed offline or explored using PathWhiz's interactive viewer. PathWhiz has been used to generate over 700 pathway diagrams for a number of popular databases including HMDB, DrugBank and SMPDB. PMID:25934797

  3. Transition Path Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    vanden-Eijnden, E.

    The dynamical behavior of many systems arising in physics, chemistry, biology, etc. is dominated by rare but important transition events between long lived states. For over 70 years, transition state theory (TST) has provided the main theoretical framework for the description of these events [17,33,34]. Yet, while TST and evolutions thereof based on the reactive flux formalism [1, 5] (see also [30,31]) give an accurate estimate of the transition rate of a reaction, at least in principle, the theory tells very little in terms of the mechanism of this reaction. Recent advances, such as transition path sampling (TPS) of Bolhuis, Chandler, Dellago, and Geissler [3, 7] or the action method of Elber [15, 16], may seem to go beyond TST in that respect: these techniques allow indeed to sample the ensemble of reactive trajectories, i.e. the trajectories by which the reaction occurs. And yet, the reactive trajectories may again be rather uninformative about the mechanism of the reaction. This may sound paradoxical at first: what more than actual reactive trajectories could one need to understand a reaction? The problem, however, is that the reactive trajectories by themselves give only a very indirect information about the statistical properties of these trajectories. This is similar to why statistical mechanics is not simply a footnote in books about classical mechanics. What is the probability density that a trajectory be at a given location in state-space conditional on it being reactive? What is the probability current of these reactive trajectories? What is their rate of appearance? These are the questions of interest and they are not easy to answer directly from the ensemble of reactive trajectories. The right framework to tackle these questions also goes beyond standard equilibrium statistical mechanics because of the nontrivial bias that the very definition of the reactive trajectories imply - they must be involved in a reaction. The aim of this chapter is to introduce the reader to the probabilistic framework one can use to characterize the mechanism of a reaction and obtain the probability density, current, rate, etc. of the reactive trajectories.

  4. Improving path planning with learning

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.C.

    1991-12-16

    We present a learning algorithm designed to improve robot path planning. The algorithm relies on an existing path planner to provide solutions to difficult tasks. From these solutions, it learns a sparse network of useful robot subgoals which guide and support fast planning. We analyze the algorithm theoretically by developing some general techniques useful in characterizing behaviors of probabilistic learning. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm empirically with an existing path planner in practical environments. The learning algorithm not only reduces the time cost of existing planners, but also increases their capability in solving difficult tasks. 7 refs.

  5. A flight investigation with a STOL airplane flying curved, descending instrument approach paths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, M. S.; Mclaughlin, M. D.; Sawyer, R. H.; Vangunst, R.; Ryan, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    A flight investigation using a De Havilland Twin Otter airplane was conducted to determine the configurations of curved, 6 deg descending approach paths which would provide minimum airspace usage within the requirements for acceptable commercial STOL airplane operations. Path configurations with turns of 90 deg, 135 deg, and 180 deg were studied; the approach airspeed was 75 knots. The length of the segment prior to turn, the turn radius, and the length of the final approach segment were varied. The relationship of the acceptable path configurations to the proposed microwave landing system azimuth coverage requirements was examined.

  6. Slip length crossover on a graphene surface

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Zhi; Keblinski, Pawel

    2015-04-07

    Using equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we study the flow of argon fluid above the critical temperature in a planar nanochannel delimited by graphene walls. We observe that, as a function of pressure, the slip length first decreases due to the decreasing mean free path of gas molecules, reaches the minimum value when the pressure is close to the critical pressure, and then increases with further increase in pressure. We demonstrate that the slip length increase at high pressures is due to the fact that the viscosity of fluid increases much faster with pressure than the friction coefficient between the fluid and the graphene. This behavior is clearly exhibited in the case of graphene due to a very smooth potential landscape originating from a very high atomic density of graphene planes. By contrast, on surfaces with lower atomic density, such as an (100) Au surface, the slip length for high fluid pressures is essentially zero, regardless of the nature of interaction between fluid and the solid wall.

  7. Paths with more turns are perceived as longer: misperceptions with map-based and abstracted path stimuli.

    PubMed

    Brunyé, Tad T; Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A

    2015-04-01

    When navigating, people tend to overestimate distances when routes contain more turns, termed the route-angularity effect. Three experiments examined the source and generality of this effect. The first two experiments examined whether route-angularity effects occur while viewing maps and might be related to sex differences or sense of direction. The third experiment tested whether the route-angularity effect would occur with stimuli devoid of spatial context, reducing influences of environmental experience and visual complexity. In the three experiments, participants (N=1,552; M=32.2 yr.; 992 men, 560 women) viewed paths plotted on maps (Exps. 1 and 2) or against a blank background (Exp. 3). The depicted paths were always the same overall length, but varied in the number of turns (from 1 to 7) connecting an origin and destination. Participants were asked to estimate the time to traverse each path (Exp. 1) or the length of each path (Exps. 2 and 3). The Santa Barbara Sense of Direction questionnaire was administered to assess whether overall spatial sense of direction would be negatively related to the magnitude of the route-angularity effect. Repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) indicated that paths with more turns elicited estimates of greater distance and travel times, whether they were depicted on maps or blank backgrounds. Linear regressions also indicated that these effects were significantly larger in those with a relatively low sense of direction. The results support the route-angularity effect and extend it to paths plotted on map-based stimuli. Furthermore, because the route-angularity effect was shown with paths plotted against blank backgrounds, route-angularity effects are not specific to understanding environments and may arise at the level of visual perception. PMID:25799028

  8. Anhydrous Nitric Acid Integrated Absorption Cross Sections: 820 - 5300 cm-1

    SciTech Connect

    Chackerian, Charles; Sharpe, Steven W.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2003-09-04

    Fourier transform infrared absorbance measurements of small aliquots of anhydrous nitric acid were used to determine regional, integrated cross-sections at 278.2K, 298.22K and 323.15K. Spectra were recorded with pressure broadened samples (1 atmosphere nitrogen), in a 20 cm path length cell at a spectral resolution of 0.112 cm-1. Spectral regions measured included the vibrational bands: v1 ({approx}3575 cm-1), v2 ({approx}1710 cm-1), v3, v4 ({approx}1335 cm-1), and v5, 2v9 ({approx}890 cm-1) and regions of weaker absorption between 820 cm-1 and 5300 cm-1. We observed expected changes in the distribution of rovibrational intensities with temperature, but to the accuracy of our measurements, cross-sections integrated over entire vibrational bands are independent of temperature.

  9. Effective utilization of quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers in absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosterev, A. A.; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F. K.; Gmachl, C.; Capasso, F.; Sivco, D. L.; Baillargeon, J. N.; Hutchinson, A. L.; Cho, A. Y.

    2000-01-01

    A variable duty cycle quasi-cw frequency scanning technique was applied to reduce thermal effects resulting from the high heat dissipation of type I quantum-cascade lasers. This technique was combined with a 100-m path-length multipass cell and a zero-air background-subtraction technique to enhance detection sensitivity to a parts-in-10(9) (ppb) concentration level for spectroscopic trace-gas detection of CH4, N2O, H2O, and C2H5OH in ambient air at 7.9 micrometers. A new technique for analysis of dense high resolution absorption spectra was applied to detection of ethanol in ambient air, yielding a 125-ppb detection limit.

  10. Gas cell for in situ soft X-ray transmission-absorption spectroscopy of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Drisdell, W. S.; Kortright, J. B.

    2014-07-15

    A simple gas cell design, constructed primarily from commercially available components, enables in situ soft X-ray transmission-absorption spectroscopy of materials in contact with gas at ambient temperature. The cell has a minimum X-ray path length of 1 mm and can hold gas pressures up to ∼300 Torr, and could support higher pressures with simple modifications. The design enables cycling between vacuum and gas environments without interrupting the X-ray beam, and can be fully sealed to allow for measurements of air-sensitive samples. The cell can attach to the downstream port of any appropriate synchrotron beamline, and offers a robust and versatile method for in situ measurements of certain materials. The construction and operation of the cell are discussed, as well as sample preparation and proper spectral analysis, illustrated by examples of spectral measurements. Potential areas for improvement and modification for specialized applications are also mentioned.

  11. Active differential optical absorption spectroscopy for NO2 gas pollution using blue light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljalal, Abdulaziz; Gasmi, Khaled; Al-Basheer, Watheq

    2015-05-01

    Availability of high intensity light emitting diodes in the blue region offer excellent opportunity for using them in active Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) to detect air pollution. Their smooth and relatively broad spectral emissions as well as their long life make them almost ideal light sources for active DOAS. In this study, we report the usage of a blue light emitting diode in an active DOAS setup to measure traces of NO2 gas and achieving few parts per billion detection limit for a path length of 300 m. Details of the setup will be presented along with the effects on measurement accuracy due to shifts in the measured spectra calibration and due to using theoretical instrument Gaussian function instead of the measured instrument function.

  12. Using spacer layers to control metal and semiconductor absorption in ultrathin solar cells with plasmonic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Niraj N.; Zhou, Hang; Hawkeye, Matthew; Sinha, Jatin K.; Bartlett, Philip N.; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2012-06-01

    We systematically explore the performance of ultrathin amorphous silicon solar cells integrated on plasmonic substrates of several different morphologies. Angle-resolved reflectance, external quantum efficiency measurements, and finite-difference time-domain simulations highlight the importance of the spacer layer in determining the mode profiles to which light can couple. Coupling mechanisms are found to strongly differ between periodic silver nanovoid arrays and randomly textured silver substrates. Tailoring the spacer thickness leads to 50% higher quantum efficiencies and short-circuit current densities by tuning the coupling between the near-field and trapped modes with enhanced optical path lengths. The balance of absorption for the plasmonic near field at the metal/semiconductor interface is analytically derived for a broad range of leading photovoltaic materials. This yields key design principles for plasmonic thin-film solar cells, predicting strong near-field enhancement only for CdTe, CuInGaSe2, and organic polymer devices.

  13. MOD* Lite: An Incremental Path Planning Algorithm Taking Care of Multiple Objectives.

    PubMed

    Oral, Tugcem; Polat, Faruk

    2016-01-01

    The need for determining a path from an initial location to a target one is a crucial task in many applications, such as virtual simulations, robotics, and computer games. Almost all of the existing algorithms are designed to find optimal or suboptimal solutions considering only a single objective, namely path length. However, in many real life application path length is not the sole criteria for optimization, there are more than one criteria to be optimized that cannot be transformed to each other. In this paper, we introduce a novel multiobjective incremental algorithm, multiobjective D* lite (MOD* lite) built upon a well-known path planning algorithm, D* lite. A number of experiments are designed to compare the solution quality and execution time requirements of MOD* lite with the multiobjective A* algorithm, an alternative genetic algorithm we developed multiobjective genetic path planning and the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm. PMID:25730837

  14. Formal language constrained path problems

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.

    1997-07-08

    In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.

  15. An algorithm to find critical execution paths of software based on complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guoyan; Zhang, Bing; Ren, Rong; Ren, Jiadong

    2015-01-01

    The critical execution paths play an important role in software system in terms of reducing the numbers of test date, detecting the vulnerabilities of software structure and analyzing software reliability. However, there are no efficient methods to discover them so far. Thus in this paper, a complex network-based software algorithm is put forward to find critical execution paths (FCEP) in software execution network. First, by analyzing the number of sources and sinks in FCEP, software execution network is divided into AOE subgraphs, and meanwhile, a Software Execution Network Serialization (SENS) approach is designed to generate execution path set in each AOE subgraph, which not only reduces ring structure's influence on path generation, but also guarantees the nodes' integrity in network. Second, according to a novel path similarity metric, similarity matrix is created to calculate the similarity among sets of path sequences. Third, an efficient method is taken to cluster paths through similarity matrices, and the maximum-length path in each cluster is extracted as the critical execution path. At last, a set of critical execution paths is derived. The experimental results show that the FCEP algorithm is efficient in mining critical execution path under software complex network.

  16. Near infrared cavity enhanced absorption spectra of atmospherically relevant ether-1, 4-Dioxane.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Satheesh; Varma, Ravi

    2016-01-15

    1, 4-Dioxane (DX) is a commonly found ether in industrially polluted atmosphere. The near infrared absorption spectra of this compound has been recorded in the region 5900-8230 cm(-1) with a resolution of 0.08 cm(-1) using a novel Fourier transform incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer (FT-IBBCEAS). All recorded spectra were found to contain regions that are only weakly perturbed. The possible combinations of fundamental modes and their overtone bands corresponding to selected regions in the measured spectra are tabulated. Two interesting spectral regions were identified as 5900-6400 cm(-1) and 8100-8230 cm(-1). No significant spectral interference due to presence of water vapor was observed suggesting the suitability of these spectral signatures for spectroscopic in situ detection of DX. The technique employed here is much more sensitive than standard Fourier transform spectrometer measurements on account of long effective path length achieved. Hence significant enhancement of weaker absorption lines above the noise level was observed as demonstrated by comparison with an available measurement from database. PMID:26474242

  17. Near infrared cavity enhanced absorption spectra of atmospherically relevant ether-1, 4-Dioxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Satheesh; Varma, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    1, 4-Dioxane (DX) is a commonly found ether in industrially polluted atmosphere. The near infrared absorption spectra of this compound has been recorded in the region 5900-8230 cm- 1 with a resolution of 0.08 cm- 1 using a novel Fourier transform incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer (FT-IBBCEAS). All recorded spectra were found to contain regions that are only weakly perturbed. The possible combinations of fundamental modes and their overtone bands corresponding to selected regions in the measured spectra are tabulated. Two interesting spectral regions were identified as 5900-6400 cm- 1 and 8100-8230 cm- 1. No significant spectral interference due to presence of water vapor was observed suggesting the suitability of these spectral signatures for spectroscopic in situ detection of DX. The technique employed here is much more sensitive than standard Fourier transform spectrometer measurements on account of long effective path length achieved. Hence significant enhancement of weaker absorption lines above the noise level was observed as demonstrated by comparison with an available measurement from database.

  18. Combustion exhaust measurements of nitric oxide with an ultraviolet diode-laser-based absorption sensor.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Thomas N; Lucht, Robert P; Barron-Jimenez, Rodolfo; Hanna, Sherif F; Caton, Jerald A; Walther, Thomas; Roy, Sukesh; Brown, Michael S; Gord, James R; Critchley, Ian; Flamand, Luis

    2005-03-10

    A diode-laser-based sensor has been developed for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule. The sensor is based on the sum-frequency mixing (SFM) of the output of a tunable, 395-nm external-cavity diode laser and a 532-nm diode-pumped, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser in a beta-barium borate crystal. The SFM process generates 325 +/- 75 nW of ultraviolet radiation at 226.8 nm, corresponding to the (v' = 0, v" = 0) band of the A2Sigma+-chi2II electronic transition of NO. Results from initial laboratory experiments in a gas cell are briefly discussed, followed by results from field demonstrations of the sensor for measurements in the exhaust streams of a gas turbine engine and a well-stirred reactor. It is demonstrated that the sensor is capable of fully resolving the absorption spectrum and accurately measuring the NO concentration in actual combustion environments. Absorption is clearly visible in the gas turbine exhaust even for the lowest concentrations of 9 parts per million (ppm) for idle conditions and for a path length of 0.51 m. The sensitivity of the current system is estimated at 0.23%, which corresponds to a detection limit of 0.8 ppm in 1 m for 1000 K gas. The estimated uncertainty in the absolute concentrations that we obtained using the sensor is 10%. PMID:15796251

  19. Direct single-mode fibre-coupled miniature White cell for laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnreich, Benjamin; Höh, Matthias; Wagner, Steven; Ebert, Volker

    2016-02-01

    We present the design, setup, and characterization of a new lens-free fibre-coupled miniature White cell for extractive gas analysis using direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (dTDLAS). The construction of this cell is based on a modified White cell design and allows for an easy variation of the absorption length in the range from 29 cm to 146 cm. The design avoids parasitic absorption paths outside the cell by using direct, lensless fibre coupling and allows small physical cell dimensions and cell volumes. To characterize the cell performance, different H2O and CH4 concentration levels were measured using dTDLAS. Detection limits of 2.5 ppm ṡ m for CH4 (at 1.65 μm) and 1.3 ppm ṡ m for H2O (at 1.37 μm) were achieved. In addition, the gas exchange time and its flow-rate dependence were determined for both species and found to be less than 15 s for CH4 and up to a factor of thirteen longer for H2O.

  20. Quantum cascade laser-based multipass absorption system for hydrogen peroxide detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yingchun; Sanchez, Nancy P.; Jiang, Wenzhe; Ren, Wei; Lewicki, Rafal; Jiang, Dongfang; Griffin, Robert J.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a relevant molecular trace gas species, that is related to the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, the production of radical species such as OH, the generation of sulfate aerosol via oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI), and the formation of acid rain. The detection of atmospheric H2O2 involves specific challenges due to its high reactivity and low concentration (ppbv to sub-ppbv level). Traditional methods for measuring atmospheric H2O2 concentration are often based on wet-chemistry methods that require a transfer from the gas- to liquid-phase for a subsequent determination by techniques such as fluorescence spectroscopy, which can lead to problems such as sampling artifacts and interference by other atmospheric constituents. A quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based system for the measurement of atmospheric H2O2 with a detection limit of 75 ppb for 1-s integration time was previously reported. In this paper, an updated H2O2 detection system based on long-optical-path-length absorption spectroscopy by using a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (DFB-QCL) will be described. A 7.73-μm CW-DFB-QCL and a thermoelectrically cooled infrared detector, optimized for a wavelength of 8 μm, are employed for theH2O2 sensor system. A commercial astigmatic Herriott multi-pass cell with an effective optical path-length of 76 m is utilized for the reported QCL multipass absorption system. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) with second harmonic detection is used for enhancing the signal-to-noise-ratio. A minimum detection limit of 13.4 ppb is achieved with a 2 s sampling time. Based on an Allan-Werle deviation analysis the minimum detection limit can be improved to 1.5 ppb when using an averaging time of 300 s.

  1. Dynamical anisotropy of the optical propagation paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenyan, Tatiana I.; Pisklin, Maksim V.; Suhareva, Natalia A.; Zotov, Aleksey M.

    2015-11-01

    Dynamics of laser beam intensity profile spatial modulations over a model tropospheric path with the controlled meteorological parameters was studied. Influence of the underlying surface temperature as well as the side wind load were considered. The increase of dynamic anisotropic disturbances saturation with the path length was observed. Spatio-temporal correlation characteristics of the directivity pattern in the signal beam registration plane were obtained. Proposed method of the experimental samples analysis on the base of chronogram with the following definition of the dynamic structure tensors array allows to estimate local and averaged projections of the flow velocities over the chosen spatio-temporal region and to restore their geometry in the zone of intersection with the signal beam. Additional characteristics suggested for the diagonalized local structure tensors such as local energy capacity and local structuredness are informative for the estimation of the inhomogeneities spatial dimensions, time of access through the section considered, the dynamics of energetic jets. The concepts of rotational and translational dynamic anisotropy are introduced to discriminate the types of the changes of the local ellipsoids axes orientation as well as their values. Rotational anisotropy shows itself in the changes of the local ellipsoids orientation, thus characterizing the illumination variation over the beam cross-section. Translational anisotropy describes the difference between the axes values for local ellipsoids.

  2. Path Generation of Regular Polygon Using a Geared-Parallelogram Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, S.; Fan, Y.; Ren, Z.; Hanke, U.

    The paper proposes a geared-parallelogram mechanism (GPM) for path generation of regular polygon. The model presents the structural features of the mechanism as shown in Fig. 1 which forms the basis for the guiding features of its path and also for the guiding function in its kinematic parameters and dimensions. It is shown from the analysis results that length l2 has an effect on the size of the path, the initial phase θ on path direction and transmission ratio k on number of polygon sides. More important is that length ratio λ plays a crucial role in path curvature and defines indirectly the straightness for the regular polygon of path generation. In order to generate the path of regular polygon, some available value ranges of each parameter have been suggested. An example to solve path generation task with such mechanism using the method presented in this paper is given, through which a practical procedure to develop a synthesis tool for generating a regular polygon path will be provided. Fig. 1 Structural diagram of GPM

  3. Preliminary assignments of 2 ν 3 - ν 4 hot band of 12 CH 4 in the 2 μm transparency window from long-path FTS spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, A. V.; Daumont, L.; Thomas, X.; Régalia, L.; Rey, M.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.; Brown, L. R.

    2011-07-01

    New measurements and assignments for the rovibrational transitions of the hot band 2 v3- v4 of 12CH 4 are reported from 4600 to 4880 cm -1 and refer to lower part of the 2 μm methane transparency window. Three long-path spectra were recorded with a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) in Reims using an L = 1603 m absorption path length at 1, 7, 34 h Pa for the natural samples of CH 4; a spectrum of enriched 13CH 4 was also used. Assignments were made for 196 lines of 2 v3(F 2,E)- v4. These transitions had an integrated intensity of 5 × 10 -24 cm/molecule at 296 K and improved the overall description of absorption in the 2.1 μm region. The empirical upper state levels of these assignments belong to Tetradecad (4800-6200 cm -1). The new analysis provided much better accuracies of badly blended positions of 2 v3(F 2)-ground state manifolds at 1.66 μm.

  4. Design of a simple cryogenic system for ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy with a back-reflectance fiber optic probe.

    PubMed

    Vinyard, Andrew; Hansen, Kaj A; Byrd, Ross; Stuart, Douglas A; Hansen, John E

    2014-01-01

    We report a convenient and inexpensive technique for the rapid acquisition of absorption spectra from small samples at cryogenic temperatures using a home built cryostat with novel collection optics. A cylindrical copper block was constructed with a coaxial bore to hold a 4.00 mm diameter electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) tube and mounted on a copper feed in thermal contact with liquid nitrogen. A 6.35 mm diameter hole was bored into the side of the cylinder so a fiber optic cable bundle could be positioned orthogonally to the EPR tube. The light passing through the sample is reflected off of the opposing surfaces of the EPR tube and surrounding copper, back through the sample. The emergent light is then collected using the fiber optic bundle and analyzed using a dispersive spectrometer. Absorption spectra for KMnO4 were measured between 400 and 700 nm. Absorption intensity at 506, 525, 545, and 567 nm was found to be proportional to concentration, displaying Beer's law-like behavior. The EPR tube had an internal diameter of 3.2 mm; the double pass of the probe beam through the sample affords a central path length of about 6.4 mm. Comparing these measurements with those recorded on a conventional tabletop spectrometer using a cuvette with a 10.00 mm path length, we consistently found a ratio between intensities of 0.58 rather than the anticipated 0.64. These 6% smaller values we attribute to the curvature of the EPR tube and transmission/reflection losses. This system is particularly well-suited to studying the kinetics and dynamics of chemical reactions at cryogenic temperatures. The rapid response (100 ms) and multiplex advantage provided the opportunity of recording simultaneous time courses at several wavelengths following initiation of a chemical reaction with a pulsed laser source. PMID:24405962

  5. Characterizing Reactive Flow Paths in Fractured Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenning, Q. C.; Huerta, N. J.; Hesse, M. A.; Bryant, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration can be a viable method for reducing anthropogenic CO2 flux into the atmosphere. However, the technology must be economically feasible and pose acceptable risk to stakeholders. One key risk is CO2 leakage out of the storage reservoir. Potential driving forces for leakage are the overpressure due to CO2 injection and the buoyancy of free phase CO2. Potential hazards of leakage are contamination of Underground Sources of Drinking Water or the atmosphere and would be deemed an unacceptable risk. Wells potentially provide a fast path for leakage from the reservoir. While the well's cement casing is reactive with CO2 and CO2-saturated brine, the low cement matrix permeability and slow diffusion rate make it unlikely that CO2 will escape through a properly constructed wellbore. However, highly permeable fractures with micrometer scale apertures can occur in cement casings. Reactions that occur in the flow in these fractures can either be self-limiting or self-enhancing. Therefore, understanding the reactive flow is critical to understanding of leakage evolution through these fractures. The goal of our work is to characterize the modification of the flow paths in the fracture due to reaction with acidic brine. With this aim we have characterized both the initial flow path of un-reactive flow and the final flow path after introduction of low-pH acid along the same fracture. Class H cement cores 3-6 cm in length and 2.5 cm diameter are created and a single natural and unique fracture is produced in each core using the Brazilian method. Our experimental fluid is injected at a constant rate into the cement core housed in a Hassler Cell under confining pressure. A solution of red dye and deionized water is pumped through the fracture to stain the un-reactive flow paths. Deionized water is then pumped through the core to limit diffusion of the dye into non-flowing portions of the fracture. After staining the initial flow path, low pH water due to hydrochloric acid (HCL), is pumped through the core at the same rate as the dye. The low pH water is used as a proxy for acidic CO2-saturated brine. Both staining from the un-reactive dye and acid produce visible permanent color alterations on the cement fracture plane. Results show that nearly the entire fracture width is stained by the red dye, with only a few asperities un-dyed. However the low pH HCl forms restricted reacted channels that are a subset of the area open to un-reactive flow, occupying only 10-50% of the entire fracture width. Low pH HCl is believed to be the driving force for the reaction that causes channeling. As acid flows through the fracture, calcium is stripped from the low pH high velocity flow front and precipitates along of the edges of the channel where pH is higher due to the lower flow velocities outside the channel. It is hypothesized that this mineral precipitation restricts the flow into localized channels within the plane of fractures having apertures of tens of micrometers. Reactions restrict the flow path to a smaller fraction of the surface, which may be an indication of self-limiting behavior.

  6. Sensor for headspace pressure and H2O concentration measurements in closed vials by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Tingdong; Wang, Guishi; Cao, Zhensong; Zhang, Weijun; Gao, Xiaoming

    2014-07-01

    The concentration of H2O and the pressure in the headspace of vials are simultaneously measured by a tunable diode laser sensor based on absorption spectroscopy techniques. The 7168.437 cm-1 spectral line of H2O is chosen as the sensing transition for its strong absorption strength and being reasonably far away from its neighboring molecular transitions. In order to prevent interference absorption by ambient water vapor in the room air, a difference between the measured signal and the referenced signal is used to calculate the pressure and H2O concentration in the headspace of vials, eliminating the need for inert gas purges and calibration with known gas. The validation of the sensor is conducted in a static vial, yielding an accuracy of 1.23% for pressure and 3.81% for H2O concentration. The sensitivity of the sensor is estimated to be about 2.5 Torr for pressure and 400 ppm for H2O concentration over a 3 cm absorption path length respectively. Accurate measurements for commercial freeze-dried products demonstrate the in-line applications of the sensor for the pharmaceutical industry.

  7. Development of a Near-Ir Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectrometer for the Detection of Atmospheric Oxidation Products and Organoamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddingsaas, Nathan C.; Jewell, Breanna; Thurnherr, Emily

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 10,000 to 100,000 different compounds have been measured in the atmosphere, each one undergoes many oxidation reactions that may or may not degrade air quality. To date, the fate of even some of the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere is poorly understood. One difficulty is the detection of atmospheric oxidation products that are very labile and decompose during analysis. To study labile species under atmospheric conditions, a highly sensitive, non-destructive technique is needed. Here we describe a near-IR incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) setup that we are developing to meet this end. We have chosen to utilize the near-IR, where vibrational overtone absorptions are observed, due to the clean spectral windows and better spectral separation of absorption features. In one spectral window we can simultaneously and continuously monitor the composition of alcohols, hydroperoxides, and carboxylic acids in an air mass. In addition, we have used our CEAS setup to detect organoamines. The long effective path length of CEAS allows for low detection limits, even of the overtone absorption features, at ppb and ppt levels.

  8. Signatures of Absorption Mechanisms for J{psi} and {psi}` Production in High Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    1997-06-01

    J/psi and psi` produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions are absorbed by their collisions with nucleons and produced soft particles, leading to two distinct absorption mechanisms. The signature of absorption by produced soft particles, as revealed by psi` production data, consists of a gap and a change of the slope in going from the pA line to the nucleus-nucleus line when we make a semi-log plot of the survival probability as a function of the path length. Using this signature, we find from the J/psi production data in pA, O-Cu, O-U, and S-U collisions that the degree of J/psi absorption by produced soft particles is small and cannot account for the J/psi data in Pb-Pb collisions. The anomalous suppression of J/psi production in Pb-Pb collisions can be explained as due to the occurrence of a new phase of strong J/psi absorption, which sets in when the local energy density exceeds about 3.4 GeV/fm3. To probe the chemical content of the new phase, we propose to study the abundance of open-charm mesons and charm hyperons which depends sensitively on the quark chemical potential.

  9. Computing Path Tables for Quickest Multipaths In Computer Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Grimmell, W.C.

    2004-12-21

    We consider the transmission of a message from a source node to a terminal node in a network with n nodes and m links where the message is divided into parts and each part is transmitted over a different path in a set of paths from the source node to the terminal node. Here each link is characterized by a bandwidth and delay. The set of paths together with their transmission rates used for the message is referred to as a multipath. We present two algorithms that produce a minimum-end-to-end message delay multipath path table that, for every message length, specifies a multipath that will achieve the minimum end-to-end delay. The algorithms also generate a function that maps the minimum end-to-end message delay to the message length. The time complexities of the algorithms are O(n{sup 2}((n{sup 2}/logn) + m)min(D{sub max}, C{sub max})) and O(nm(C{sub max} + nmin(D{sub max}, C{sub max}))) when the link delays and bandwidths are non-negative integers. Here D{sub max} and C{sub max} are respectively the maximum link delay and maximum link bandwidth and C{sub max} and D{sub max} are greater than zero.

  10. Logarithmic Sobolev Inequalities on Path Spaces Over Riemannian Manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Elton P.

    Let Wo(M) be the space of paths of unit time length on a connected, complete Riemannian manifold M such that γ(0) =o, a fixed point on M, and ν the Wiener measure on Wo(M) (the law of Brownian motion on M starting at o).If the Ricci curvature is bounded by c, then the following logarithmic Sobolev inequality holds:

  11. CW DFB RT diode laser-based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane using a novel compact multipass gas absorption cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzempek, Karol; Jahjah, Mohammad; Lewicki, Rafał; Stefański, Przemysław; So, Stephen; Thomazy, David; Tittel, Frank K.

    2013-09-01

    The development of a continuous wave, thermoelectrically cooled (TEC), distributed feedback diode laser-based spectroscopic trace-gas sensor for ultra-sensitive and selective ethane (C2H6) concentration measurements is reported. The sensor platform used tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) and wavelength modulation spectroscopy as the detection technique. TDLAS was performed using an ultra-compact 57.6 m effective optical path length innovative spherical multipass cell capable of 459 passes between two mirrors separated by 12.5 cm and optimized for the 2.5-4 μm range TEC mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. For an interference-free C2H6 absorption line located at 2,976.8 cm-1, a 1 σ minimum detection limit of 740 pptv with a 1 s lock-in amplifier time constant was achieved.

  12. Acetylene weak bands at 2.5 ?m from intracavity Cr:ZnSe laser absorption observed with time-resolved Fourier transform spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Girard, Vronique; Farrenq, Robert; Sorokin, Evgeni; Sorokina, Irina T; Guelachvili, Guy; Picqu, Nathalie

    2006-02-26

    The spectral dynamics of a mid-infrared multimode Cr(2+):ZnSe laser located in a vacuum sealed chamber containing acetylene at low pressure is analyzed by a stepping-mode high-resolution time-resolved Fourier transform interferometer. Doppler-limited absorption spectra of C(2)H(2) in natural isotopic abundance are recorded around 4000 cm(-1) with kilometric absorption path lengths and sensitivities better than 3 10(-8) cm(-1). Two cold bands are newly identified and assigned to the ?(1)+?(4) (1) and ?(3)+?(5) (1) transitions of (12)C(13)CH(2). The ?(1)+?(5) (1) band of (12)C(2)HD and fourteen (12)C(2)H(2) bands are observed, among which for the first time ?(2)+2?(4) (2)+?(5) (-1). PMID:21151826

  13. Nonlinear spectroscopy: absorption and refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Stryland, Eric; Hagan, David; Webster, Scott; Padilha, Lazaro

    2009-10-01

    We have been developing tools for nonlinear spectroscopy aimed toward the ultimate goal of building a nonlinear spectrophotometer analogous to the ubiquitous linear spectrophotometer where a sample is placed in the instrument, a button is pushed, and the absorption spectrum is obtained sometime later. This paper describes our progress toward this goal, describing many difficulties and complications as well as opportunities. We also show spectroscopic data and analysis of a variety of materials that we have taken with preliminary nonlinear spectroscopic instrumentation we have already developed. One of the more interesting observations obtained along this research path is the realization that linear dispersion theory can also be applied to nonlinear systems when formulated properly such that Kramers-Kronig relations can be used to connect the dispersion of nonlinear refraction to the spectrum of nonlinear absorption. In some circumstances this can be more easily applied to nonlinear systems than to linear systems since the nonlinear absorption spectrum can be limited in wavelength. In addition, we have developed tools that can simultaneously give the spectrum of nonlinear absorption as well as the dispersion of the nonlinear refraction over an octave spectral range from 400nnm to 800 nm, the so called White-Light-Continuum Z-scan. Much of the research on nonlinear optical materials has been a collaborative effort requiring the skills and expertise of organic chemists and materials manufacturers. The goals of this part of the research are to determine predictive structure-property relation capabilities. The database needed for this research makes the nonlinear spectrophotometer a necessity.

  14. Improving Atmospheric Correction for Visible/Short Wave Infrared (VSWIR) Imaging Spectrometers with Iterative Fitting of Absorption By Three Phases of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennington, E. A.; Thompson, D. R.; Green, R. O.; Gao, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometers like the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) offer valuable insight into the Earth's terrestrial and ocean ecosystems, mineralogy, and land use. Estimating surface reflectance requires accounting for atmospheric absorption, which is sensitive to the local abundance of water vapor. Analysts typically estimate water vapor concentrations using the depths of absorption features, which can be inaccurate by up to 50% over surface features containing liquid water or ice. This can bias the retrieved water vapor maps and create atmospheric artifacts in reflectance spectra. A new retrieval method offers significant accuracy improvements over plant canopies or ice by estimating the path lengths of all three phases of water simultaneously, adjusting absorptions to best fit the measurement over a broader spectral interval. This paper assesses the remaining sources of error for the three-phase retrieval technique. We analyze retrievals for synthetic data when the 940 and 1140 nm wavelength features are fitted, for initial vapor path estimates ranging from 0 to ±50% accuracy. These tests indicate that most error comes from inaccuracy in the initial path estimate used to obtain vapor absorption coefficients. We evaluate a modified algorithm that uses multiple iterations to refine this estimate. Error is found to approach a constant value, demonstrating improved robustness to initialization conditions. We also assess the new iterative method using corrected AVIRIS data over various environments. The iterative method yields significantly better water vapor maps, reducing spurious correlations between vegetation canopy water and vapor estimates. The new iterative method offers accuracy improvements over traditional Visible/Short Wave Infrared (VSWIR) atmospheric correction methods, at modest computational cost.

  15. Dynamic behavior of shortest path routing algorithms for communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsekas, D. P.

    1980-06-01

    Several proposed routing algorithms for store and forward communication networks, including one currently in operation in the ARPANET, route messages along shortest paths computed by using some set of link lengths. When these lengths depend on current traffic conditions as they must in an adaptive algorithm, dynamic behavior questions such as stability convergence, and speed of convergence are of interest. This paper is the first attempt to analyze systematically these issues. It is shown that minimum queuing delay path algorithms tend to exhibit violent oscillatory behavior in the absence of a damping mechanism. The oscillations can be damped by means of several types of schemes, two of which are analyzed in this paper. In the first scheme a constant bias is added to the queuing delay thereby providing a preference towards paths with a small number of links. In the second scheme the effects of several past routings are averaged as, for example, when the link lengths are computed and communicated asynchronously throughout the network.

  16. Enhanced squeezing by absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünwald, P.; Vogel, W.

    2016-04-01

    Absorption is usually expected to be detrimental to quantum coherence effects. However, there have been few studies into the situation for complex absorption spectra. We consider the resonance fluorescence of excitons in a semiconductor quantum well. The creation of excitons requires absorption of the incoming pump-laser light. Thus, the absorption spectrum of the medium acts as a spectral filter for the emitted light. Surprisingly, absorption can even improve quantum effects, as is demonstrated for the squeezing of the resonance fluorescence of the quantum-well system. This effect can be explained by an improved phase matching due to absorption.

  17. Interstellar absorption toward HD 14633

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, L. M.

    1983-01-01

    Observations are reported of optical interstellar absorption lines of Ti II, Ca II, and Na I in the spectrum of HD 14633, a probable runaway O star ejected from the Perseus spiral arm. Unusually high gas-phase abundances of the normally depleted elements Ca and Ti are found in three high-velocity interstellar line components; the light paths to only a few other stars are known to show a comparably strong Routly-Spitzer effect. The greatly reduced heavy-element depletions in these parcels of gas presumably reflect the disruption of interstellar grains in gas which may be located in the lower galactic halo at an absolute value of 2 of about 1 kpc.

  18. Quantitative infrared absorption cross sections of isoprene for atmospheric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, C. S.; Blake, T. A.; Guenther, A. B.; Sharpe, S. W.; Sams, R. L.; Johnson, T. J.

    2014-11-01

    Isoprene (C5H8, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is a volatile organic compound (VOC) and is one of the primary contributors to annual global VOC emissions. Isoprene is produced primarily by vegetation as well as anthropogenic sources, and its OH- and O3-initiated oxidations are a major source of atmospheric oxygenated organics. Few quantitative infrared studies have been reported for isoprene, limiting the ability to quantify isoprene emissions via remote or in situ infrared detection. We thus report absorption cross sections and integrated band intensities for isoprene in the 600-6500 cm-1 region. The pressure-broadened (1 atmosphere N2) spectra were recorded at 278, 298, and 323 K in a 19.94 cm path-length cell at 0.112 cm-1 resolution, using a Bruker IFS 66v/S Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Composite spectra are derived from a minimum of seven isoprene sample pressures, each at one of three temperatures, and the number densities are normalized to 296 K and 1 atm.

  19. Quantitative infrared absorption cross sections of isoprene for atmospheric measurements

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brauer, C. S.; Blake, T. A.; Guenther, A. B.; Sharpe, S. W.; Sams, R. L.; Johnson, T. J.

    2014-11-19

    Isoprene (C5H8, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is a volatile organic compound (VOC) and is one of the primary contributors to annual global VOC emissions. Isoprene is produced primarily by vegetation as well as anthropogenic sources, and its OH- and O3-initiated oxidations are a major source of atmospheric oxygenated organics. Few quantitative infrared studies have been reported for isoprene, limiting the ability to quantify isoprene emissions via remote or in situ infrared detection. We thus report absorption cross sections and integrated band intensities for isoprene in the 600–6500 cm-1 region. The pressure-broadened (1 atmosphere N2) spectra were recorded at 278, 298, and 323 Kmore » in a 19.94 cm path-length cell at 0.112 cm-1 resolution, using a Bruker IFS 66v/S Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Composite spectra are derived from a minimum of seven isoprene sample pressures, each at one of three temperatures, and the number densities are normalized to 296 K and 1 atm.« less

  20. Multiple paths in complex tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galanter, Eugene; Wiegand, Thomas; Mark, Gloria

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between utility judgments of subtask paths and the utility of the task as a whole was examined. The convergent validation procedure is based on the assumption that measurements of the same quantity done with different methods should covary. The utility measures of the subtasks were obtained during the performance of an aircraft flight controller navigation task. Analyses helped decide among various models of subtask utility combination, whether the utility ratings of subtask paths predict the whole tasks utility rating, and indirectly, whether judgmental models need to include the equivalent of cognitive noise.

  1. Speckle imaging over horizontal paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrano, Carmen J.

    2002-09-01

    Atmospheric aberrations reduce the resolution and contrast in surveillance images recorded over horizontal or slant paths. This paper describes our recent horizontal and slant-path imaging experiments of extended scenes as well as the results obtained using speckle imaging. The experiments were performed with an 8-inch diameter telescope placed on either a rooftop or hillside and cover ranges of interest from 0.5 km up to 10 km. The scenery includes resolution targets, people, vehicles, and other structures. The improvement in image quality using speckle imaging is dramatic in many cases, and depends significantly upon the atmospheric conditions. We quantify resolution improvement through modulation transfer function measurement comparisons.

  2. Speckle Imaging Over Horizontal Paths

    SciTech Connect

    Carrano, C J

    2002-05-21

    Atmospheric aberrations reduce the resolution and contrast in surveillance images recorded over horizontal or slant paths. This paper describes our recent horizontal and slant path imaging experiments of extended scenes as well as the results obtained using speckle imaging. The experiments were performed with an 8-inch diameter telescope placed on either a rooftop or hillside and cover ranges of interest from 0.5 km up to 10 km. The scenery includes resolution targets, people, vehicles, and other structures. The improvement in image quality using speckle imaging is dramatic in many cases, and depends significantly upon the atmospheric conditions. We quantify resolution improvement through modulation transfer function measurement comparisons.

  3. Infrared absorption of carbon dioxide at high densitites with application to the atmosphere of Venus. Ph.D. Thesis - Columbia Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. F.

    1971-01-01

    Several new infrared absorptions were found in carbon dioxide. All are normally forbidden, and were collision-induced in an absorbing cell whose combination of pressure and path length has a unique sensitivity for induced absorptions. The new absorptions in the 2.3 micron region are attributed to transitions from ground to the 3(1)1 Fermi pair at 4248 and 4391/cm. Other absorptions are attributed to simultaneous CO2-N2 transitions and to the 00(0)0-00(0)2 transition in CO2 polarizability derivatives and regular progressions in strength versus increasing quantum number. The spectra were used to predict the radiative transfer in a dry CO2 model of the lower Venus atmosphere. The results indicate that the radiation balance in the lower atmosphere is adequately explained by a dry massive atmosphere of CO2 with a layer of infrared-opaque clouds. The absorptions in the 2.3 micron region are significant in accounting for the opacity to sustain Venus' 768 K surface temperature.

  4. Ultrasensitive, real-time analysis of biomarkers in breath using tunable external cavity laser and off-axis cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrakli, Ismail; Akman, Hatice

    2015-03-01

    A robust biomedical sensor for ultrasensitive detection of biomarkers in breath based on a tunable external cavity laser (ECL) and an off-axis cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OA-CEAS) using an amplitude stabilizer is developed. A single-mode, narrow-linewidth, tunable ECL is demonstrated. A broadly coarse wavelength tuning range of 720 cm-1 for the spectral range between 6890 and 6170 cm-1 is achieved by rotating the diffraction grating forming a Littrow-type external-cavity configuration. A mode-hop-free tuning range of 1.85 cm-1 is obtained. The linewidths below 140 kHz are recorded. The ECL is combined with an OA-CEAS to perform laser chemical sensing. Our system is able to detect any molecule in breath at concentrations to the ppbv range that have absorption lines in the spectral range between 1450 and 1620 nm. Ammonia is selected as target molecule to evaluate the performance of the sensor. Using the absorption line of ammonia at 6528.76 cm-1, a minimum detectable absorption coefficient of approximately 1×10-8 cm-1 is demonstrated for 256 averages. This is achieved for a 1.4-km absorption path length and a 2-s data-acquisition time. These results yield a detection sensitivity of approximately 8.6×10-10 cm-1 Hz-1/2. Ammonia in exhaled breath is analyzed and found in a concentration of 870 ppb for our example.

  5. IMPEDANCE OF FINITE LENGTH RESISTOR

    SciTech Connect

    KRINSKY, S.; PODOBEDOV, B.; GLUCKSTERN, R.L.

    2005-05-15

    We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor) of radius a, length g, and conductivity {sigma}, attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency, k >> 1/a. In the equilibrium regime, , the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity {sigma}. In the transient regime, ka{sup 2} >> g, we derive analytic expressions for the impedance and wakefield.

  6. Vehicle path-planning in three dimensions using optics analogs for optimizing visibility and energy cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, Neil C.; Lewis, David H.

    1989-01-01

    Path planning is an important issue for space robotics. Finding safe and energy-efficient paths in the presence of obstacles and other constraints can be complex although important. High-level (large-scale) path planning for robotic vehicles was investigated in three-dimensional space with obstacles, accounting for: (1) energy costs proportional to path length; (2) turn costs where paths change trajectory abruptly; and (3) safety costs for the danger associated with traversing a particular path due to visibility or invisibility from a fixed set of observers. Paths optimal with respect to these cost factors are found. Autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicles were considered operating either in a space environment around satellites and space platforms, or aircraft, spacecraft, or smart missiles operating just above lunar and planetary surfaces. One class of applications concerns minimizing detection, as for example determining the best way to make complex modifications to a satellite without being observed by hostile sensors; another example is verifying there are no paths (holes) through a space defense system. Another class of applications concerns maximizing detection, as finding a good trajectory between mountain ranges of a planet while staying reasonably close to the surface, or finding paths for a flight between two locations that maximize the average number of triangulation points available at any time along the path.

  7. Open-path atmospheric transmission for a diode-pumped cesium laser.

    PubMed

    Rice, Christopher A; Lott, Gordon E; Perram, Glen P

    2012-12-01

    A tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy device was developed to study atmospheric propagation for emerging high-energy laser weapons. The cesium diode-pumped alkali laser operates near 895 nm in the vicinity of several water-vapor absorption lines. Temperature, pressure, and water vapor concentration were determined for 150 m and 1 km open paths with statistical errors of ∼0.2%. Comparison with meteorological instruments yields agreement for the 1 km path to within 0.6% for temperature, 3.7% for pressure, and 2.4% for concentration. PMID:23207380

  8. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) system for measuring atmospheric mercury using differential absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, A.; Obrist, D.; Moosmuller, H.; Moore, C.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric elemental mercury (Hg0) is a globally pervasive element that can be transported and deposited to remote ecosystems where it poses — particularly in its methylated form — harm to many organisms including humans. Current techniques for measurement of atmospheric Hg0 require several liters of sample air and several minutes for each analysis. Fast-response (i.e., 1 second or faster) measurements would improve our ability to understand and track chemical cycling of mercury in the atmosphere, including high frequency Hg0 fluctuations, sources and sinks, and chemical transformation processes. We present theory, design, challenges, and current results of our new prototype sensor based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) for fast-response measurement of Hg0 mass concentrations. CRDS is a direct absorption technique that implements path-lengths of multiple kilometers in a compact absorption cell using high-reflectivity mirrors, thereby improving sensitivity and reducing sample volume compared to conventional absorption spectroscopy. Our sensor includes a frequency-doubled, dye-laser emitting laser pulses tunable from 215 to 280 nm, pumped by a Q-switched, frequency tripled Nd:YAG laser with a pulse repetition rate of 50 Hz. We present how we successfully perform automated wavelength locking and stabilization of the laser to the peak Hg0 absorption line at 253.65 nm using an external isotopically-enriched mercury (202Hg0) cell. An emphasis of this presentation will be on the implementation of differential absorption measurement whereby measurements are alternated between the peak Hg0 absorption wavelength and a nearby wavelength "off" the absorption line. This can be achieved using a piezo electric tuning element that allows for pulse-by-pulse tuning and detuning of the laser "online" and "offline" of the Hg absorption line, and thereby allows for continuous correction of baseline extinction losses. Unexpected challenges with this approach included different efficiencies of laser performance (e.g., frequency doubling) at the two wavelengths and temperature dependence. We will discuss improvements on the control of our system to eliminate drift due to conversion efficiency and temperature dependence. We will detail complications with operating this instrument from a mobile platform for in situ measurements in the field. Finally, we will present data acquisition and processing approaches along with results of calibration curves, and comparisons to conventional mercury analyzers (i.e., a Tekran 2537 mercury vapor analyzer) during ambient air measurements.

  9. Estimation of microwave absorption in the Jupiter atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    A procedure for estimating the microwave absorption loss of the Jupiter atmosphere is presented. Estimation of microwave absorption by planetary atmospheres involves two different investigative disciplines (1) the determination of an acceptable model of the atmosphere itself and (2) the determination of the microwave attenuation rate applicable to each different volume sample of the atmosphere, and the integration of this loss over the varying radio propagation path for any given entry trajectory to obtain the total loss.

  10. Ultraviolet to near-infrared absorption spectrum of carbon dioxide ice from 0.174 to 1.8 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Gary B.

    2005-11-01

    A laboratory experiment was devised to measure transmission at fine spectral resolution through thick, high-quality samples of CO2 ice over an extended wavelength range. The absorption coefficient throughout the ultraviolet and near-infrared spectral ranges 0.174-1.8 μm (5555-57,470 cm-1 in wave number) is presented here. CO2 ice samples were grown at a temperature of 150 K, typical of the Martian polar caps. The path length of the samples varied from 1.6 to 107.5 mm, allowing the measurement of absorption from <0.1 to 4000 m-1. The experiment used both a grating monochromator (with spectral resolution 0.1-0.3 nm) and a Fourier transform spectrometer (with an effective resolution of <1.0 cm-1). The transmission data for five thicknesses are used to estimate both the scattering losses for each sample and the absorption coefficient at each wavelength. The uncertainty in the most transparent wavelength regions (<10 m-1) is due to scattering extinction. Measurement noise and data scatter produce significant uncertainty only where absorption coefficients exceed 1000 m-1. Between 1.0 and 1.8 μm there are several weak to moderate absorption lines. Only an upper limit to the absorption can be determined in many places; e.g., the absorption from ~0.25 to 1.0 μm is below the detection limit. The estimated visible absorption, ~10-2 m-1, is a factor of 1000 smaller than the values reported by Egan and Spagnolo, which have been used previously to compute albedos of CO2 snow. The new results should be useful for studies of the seasonal polar caps of Mars.

  11. The Edge-Disjoint Path Problem on Random Graphs by Message-Passing

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present a message-passing algorithm to solve a series of edge-disjoint path problems on graphs based on the zero-temperature cavity equations. Edge-disjoint paths problems are important in the general context of routing, that can be defined by incorporating under a unique framework both traffic optimization and total path length minimization. The computation of the cavity equations can be performed efficiently by exploiting a mapping of a generalized edge-disjoint path problem on a star graph onto a weighted maximum matching problem. We perform extensive numerical simulations on random graphs of various types to test the performance both in terms of path length minimization and maximization of the number of accommodated paths. In addition, we test the performance on benchmark instances on various graphs by comparison with state-of-the-art algorithms and results found in the literature. Our message-passing algorithm always outperforms the others in terms of the number of accommodated paths when considering non trivial instances (otherwise it gives the same trivial results). Remarkably, the largest improvement in performance with respect to the other methods employed is found in the case of benchmarks with meshes, where the validity hypothesis behind message-passing is expected to worsen. In these cases, even though the exact message-passing equations do not converge, by introducing a reinforcement parameter to force convergence towards a sub optimal solution, we were able to always outperform the other algorithms with a peak of 27% performance improvement in terms of accommodated paths. On random graphs, we numerically observe two separated regimes: one in which all paths can be accommodated and one in which this is not possible. We also investigate the behavior of both the number of paths to be accommodated and their minimum total length. PMID:26710102

  12. Calculating Least Risk Paths in 3d Indoor Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanclooster, A.; De Maeyer, Ph.; Fack, V.; Van de Weghe, N.

    2013-08-01

    Over the last couple of years, research on indoor environments has gained a fresh impetus; more specifically applications that support navigation and wayfinding have become one of the booming industries. Indoor navigation research currently covers the technological aspect of indoor positioning and the modelling of indoor space. The algorithmic development to support navigation has so far been left mostly untouched, as most applications mainly rely on adapting Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm to an indoor network. However, alternative algorithms for outdoor navigation have been proposed adding a more cognitive notion to the calculated paths and as such adhering to the natural wayfinding behaviour (e.g. simplest paths, least risk paths). These algorithms are currently restricted to outdoor applications. The need for indoor cognitive algorithms is highlighted by a more challenged navigation and orientation due to the specific indoor structure (e.g. fragmentation, less visibility, confined areas). As such, the clarity and easiness of route instructions is of paramount importance when distributing indoor routes. A shortest or fastest path indoors not necessarily aligns with the cognitive mapping of the building. Therefore, the aim of this research is to extend those richer cognitive algorithms to three-dimensional indoor environments. More specifically for this paper, we will focus on the application of the least risk path algorithm of Grum (2005) to an indoor space. The algorithm as proposed by Grum (2005) is duplicated and tested in a complex multi-storey building. The results of several least risk path calculations are compared to the shortest paths in indoor environments in terms of total length, improvement in route description complexity and number of turns. Several scenarios are tested in this comparison: paths covering a single floor, paths crossing several building wings and/or floors. Adjustments to the algorithm are proposed to be more aligned to the specific structure of indoor environments (e.g. no turn restrictions, restricted usage of rooms, vertical movement) and common wayfinding strategies indoors. In a later stage, other cognitive algorithms will be implemented and tested in both an indoor and combined indoor-outdoor setting, in an effort to improve the overall user experience during navigation in indoor environments.

  13. D-xylose absorption

    MedlinePlus

    D-xylose absorption is a laboratory test to determine how well the intestines absorb a simple sugar (D-xylose). The test ... test is primarily used to determine if nutrient absorption problems are due to a disease of the ...

  14. Perceived Shrinkage of Motion Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinico, Michele; Parovel, Giulia; Casco, Clara; Anstis, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    We show that human observers strongly underestimate a linear or circular trajectory that a luminous spot follows in the dark. At slow speeds, observers are relatively accurate, but, as the speed increases, the size of the path is progressively underestimated, by up to 35%. The underestimation imposes little memory load and does not require

  15. Career Paths in Environmental Sciences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Career paths, current and future, in the environmental sciences will be discussed, based on experiences and observations during the author's 40 + years in the field. An emphasis will be placed on the need for integrated, transdisciplinary systems thinking approaches toward achie...

  16. Choosing the Path with Honor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arredondo, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The author describes the difficulties of achieving his life-long dream of going to an Ivy League college, and how his Shawnee grandfather advised him to acquire the white man's skills and bring them back to his people. He advises young Native Americans to choose the more difficult, yet honorable path of serving their own people. (TD)

  17. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  18. Status of Fluid and Electrolyte Absorption in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, M.M.; Stutts, M. Jackson

    2013-01-01

    Salt and fluid absorption is a shared function of many of the body’s epithelia, but its use is highly adapted to the varied physiological roles of epithelia-lined organs. These functions vary from control of hydration of outward-facing epithelial surfaces to conservation and regulation of total body volume. In the most general context, salt and fluid absorption is driven by active Na+ absorption. Cl− is absorbed passively through various available paths in response to the electrical driving force that results from active Na+ absorption. Absorption of salt creates a concentration gradient that causes water to be absorbed passively, provided the epithelium is water permeable. Key differences notwithstanding, the transport elements used for salt and fluid absorption are broadly similar in diverse epithelia, but the regulation of these elements enables salt absorption to be tailored to very different physiological needs. Here we focus on salt absorption by exocrine glands and airway epithelia. In cystic fibrosis, salt and fluid absorption by gland duct epithelia is effectively prevented by the loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). In airway epithelia, salt and fluid absorption persists, in the absence of CFTR-mediated Cl− secretion. The contrast of these tissue-specific changes in CF tissues is illustrative of how salt and fluid absorption is differentially regulated to accomplish tissue-specific physiological objectives. PMID:23284077

  19. Enzymatic reaction paths as determined by transition path sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterson, Jean Emily

    Enzymes are biological catalysts capable of enhancing the rates of chemical reactions by many orders of magnitude as compared to solution chemistry. Since the catalytic power of enzymes routinely exceeds that of the best artificial catalysts available, there is much interest in understanding the complete nature of chemical barrier crossing in enzymatic reactions. Two specific questions pertaining to the source of enzymatic rate enhancements are investigated in this work. The first is the issue of how fast protein motions of an enzyme contribute to chemical barrier crossing. Our group has previously identified sub-picosecond protein motions, termed promoting vibrations (PVs), that dynamically modulate chemical transformation in several enzymes. In the case of human heart lactate dehydrogenase (hhLDH), prior studies have shown that a specific axis of residues undergoes a compressional fluctuation towards the active site, decreasing a hydride and a proton donor--acceptor distance on a sub-picosecond timescale to promote particle transfer. To more thoroughly understand the contribution of this dynamic motion to the enzymatic reaction coordinate of hhLDH, we conducted transition path sampling (TPS) using four versions of the enzymatic system: a wild type enzyme with natural isotopic abundance; a heavy enzyme where all the carbons, nitrogens, and non-exchangeable hydrogens were replaced with heavy isotopes; and two versions of the enzyme with mutations in the axis of PV residues. We generated four separate ensembles of reaction paths and analyzed each in terms of the reaction mechanism, time of barrier crossing, dynamics of the PV, and residues involved in the enzymatic reaction coordinate. We found that heavy isotopic substitution of hhLDH altered the sub-picosecond dynamics of the PV, changed the favored reaction mechanism, dramatically increased the time of barrier crossing, but did not have an effect on the specific residues involved in the PV. In the mutant systems, we observed changes in the reaction mechanism and altered contributions of the mutated residues to the enzymatic reaction coordinate, but we did not detect a substantial change in the time of barrier crossing. These results confirm the importance of maintaining the dynamics and structural scaffolding of the hhLDH PV in order to facilitate facile barrier passage. We also utilized TPS to investigate the possible role of fast protein dynamics in the enzymatic reaction coordinate of human dihydrofolate reductase (hsDHFR). We found that sub-picosecond dynamics of hsDHFR do contribute to the reaction coordinate, whereas this is not the case in the E. coli version of the enzyme. This result indicates a shift in the DHFR family to a more dynamic version of catalysis. The second inquiry we addressed in this thesis regarding enzymatic barrier passage concerns the variability of paths through reactive phase space for a given enzymatic reaction. We further investigated the hhLDH-catalyzed reaction using a high-perturbation TPS algorithm. Though we saw that alternate reaction paths were possible, the dominant reaction path we observed corresponded to that previously elucidated in prior hhLDH TPS studies. Since the additional reaction paths we observed were likely high-energy, these results indicate that only the dominant reaction path contributes significantly to the overall reaction rate. In conclusion, we show that the enzymes hhLDH and hsDHFR exhibit paths through reactive phase space where fast protein motions are involved in the enzymatic reaction coordinate and exhibit a non-negligible contribution to chemical barrier crossing.

  20. On the Distribution of Free Path Lengths for the Periodic Lorentz Gas III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caglioti, Emanuele; Golse, François

    For r(0,1), let Zr={xR2|dist(x,Z2)>r/2} and define τr(x,v)=inf{t>0|x+tv∂Zr}. Let Φr(t) be the probability that τr(x,v)>=t for x and v uniformly distributed in Zr and §1 respectively. We prove in this paper that as t-->+∞. This result improves upon the bounds on Φr in Bourgain-Golse-Wennberg [Commun. Math. Phys. 190, 491-508 (1998)]. We also discuss the applications of this result in the context of kinetic theory.

  1. High-Speed Mechanical Actuator for Precision Optical Path Length Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Kosuke; Moriwaki, Shigenori; Mio, Norikatsu

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a high-speed mechanical actuator that can be used for optical systems requiring wide-band feedback control. To attain the wide-band control, we have fabricated a moving-magnet-type electromagnetic actuator with a simple structure. Using this actuator, we achieved a control system for a Michelson interferometer with a servo bandwidth defined by the unity gain frequency of the control loop as large as 30 kHz. We have also measured the amount of wobble motion of the actuator and its long-term stability. Here, we report the characteristics of the actuator.

  2. Influence of Decreasing Nutrient Path Length on the Development of Engineered Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Bian, L.; Angione, S.L.; Ng, K.W.; Lima, E.G.; Williams, D.Y.; Mao, D.Q.; Ateshian, G.A.; Hung, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Chondrocyte-seeded agarose constructs of 4 mm diameter (2.34 mm thickness) develop spatially inhomogeneous material properties with stiffer outer edges and a softer central core suggesting nutrient diffusion limitations to the central construct region1. The effects of reducing construct thickness and creating channels running through the depth of the thick constructs were examined. Methods In Study 1, the properties of engineered cartilage of 0.78mm (thin) or 2.34mm (thick) thickness were compared. In Study 2, a single nutrient channel (1 mm diameter) was created in the middle of each thick construct. In Study 3, the effects of channels on larger 10 mm diameter, thick constructs was examined. Results Thin constructs developed superior mechanical and biochemical properties than thick constructs. The channeled constructs developed significantly higher mechanical properties versus control channel-free constructs while exhibiting similar GAG and collagen content. Collagen staining suggested that channels resulted in a more uniform fibrillar network. Improvements in constructs of 10mm diameter were similarly observed. Conclusions This study demonstrated that more homogeneous tissue engineered cartilage constructs with improved mechanical properties can be achieved by reducing their thickness or incorporating macroscopic nutrient channels. Our data further suggests that these macroscopic channels remain open long enough to promote this enhanced tissue development while exhibiting the potential to refill with cell elaborated matrix with additional culture time. Together with reports that <3 mm defects in cartilage heal in vivo and that irregular holes are associated with clinically used osteochondral graft procedures, we anticipate that a strategy of incorporating macroscopic channels may aid the development of clinically-relevant engineered cartilage with functional properties. PMID:19022685

  3. Experimental simulation of beam propagation over long path lengths using radio-frequency and magnetic traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, H.; Endo, M.; Fukushima, K.; Higaki, H.; Ito, K.; Moriya, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Lund, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    An overview is given of the novel beam-dynamics experiments based on compact non-neutral plasma traps at Hiroshima University. We have designed and constructed two different classes of trap systems, one of which uses a radio-frequency electric field (Paul trap) and the other uses an axial magnetic field (Penning trap) for transverse plasma confinement. These systems are called "S-POD" (Simulator for Particle Orbit Dynamics). The S-POD systems can approximately reproduce the collective motion of a charged-particle beam propagating through long alternating-gradient (AG) quadrupole focusing channels using the Paul trap and long continuous focusing channels using the Penning trap. This allows us to study various beam-dynamics issues in compact and inexpensive experiments without relying on large-scale accelerators. So far, the linear Paul traps have been applied for the study of resonance-related issues including coherent-resonance-induced stop bands and their dependence on AG lattice structures, resonance crossing in fixed-field AG accelerators, ultralow-emittance beam stability, etc. The Penning trap with multi-ring electrodes has been employed primarily for the study of beam halo formation driven by initial distribution perturbations. In this paper, we briefly overview the S-POD systems, and then summarize recent experimental results on resonance effects and halo formation.

  4. Long-path-length experimental studies of longitudinal phenomena in intense beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Intense charged particle beams are nonneutral plasmas and they can support a host of plasma waves and instabilities. For a long beam bunch, the longitudinal physics can often be reasonably described by a 1-D cold-fluid model, with a geometry factor to account for the transverse effects. The plasma physics of such beams has been extensively studied theoretically and computationally for decades, but until recently, the only experimental measurements were carried out on relatively short linacs. This work reviews experimental studies over the past 5 years on the U. Maryland Electron Ring, investigating longitudinal phenomena, for the first time, over time scales of hundreds and thousands of plasma periods. These results are in good agreement with theory and simulation. Topics that will be discussed are: Longitudinal confinement of a long bunch using barrier fields. The generation of space charge waves from barrier field mismatches, their propagation along the bunch and reflection at the beam ends, as well as their long-term dissipation. The characterization of solitary waves from density/velocity perturbations in the center of the bunch. Compression of solitary wave trains with velocity ``tilts'' (head-to-tail gradient). Observation of a multi-stream instability driven by the longitudinal merging of bunches and the characterization of the onset of the instability with a PIC code. The shock-wave compression of a bunch using rapidly-moving barrier fields.

  5. Long path-length experimental studies of longitudinal phenomena in intense beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, B. L.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Bernal, S.; Koeth, T. W.

    2016-05-01

    Intense charged particle beams are nonneutral plasmas as they can support a host of plasma waves and instabilities. The longitudinal physics, for a long beam, can often be reasonably described by a 1-D cold-fluid model with a geometry factor to account for the transverse effects. The plasma physics of such beams has been extensively studied theoretically and computationally for decades, but until recently, the only experimental measurements were carried out on relatively short linacs. This work reviews experimental studies over the past five years on the University of Maryland Electron Ring, investigating longitudinal phenomena over time scales of thousands of plasma periods, illustrating good agreement with simulations.

  6. Students' Development of Length Concepts in a Logo-Based Unit on Geometric Paths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Douglas H.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a study of third-grade students (N=38) that investigates the development of linear measurement concepts. Three levels of strategies were identified: visual guessing, hash marks, and no physical partitioning. Students who connected numeric and spatial representations proved to be the better problem solvers. Contains 22 reference. (DDR)

  7. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of gaseous atmospheric pressure plasmas with 2 mm spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroche, G.; Vallade, J.; Bazinette, R.; van Nijnatten, P.; Hernandez, E.; Hernandez, G.; Massines, F.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm × 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45° beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma.

  8. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of gaseous atmospheric pressure plasmas with 2 mm spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Laroche, G; Vallade, J; Bazinette, R; van Nijnatten, P; Hernandez, E; Hernandez, G; Massines, F

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm × 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45° beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma. PMID:23126767

  9. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of gaseous atmospheric pressure plasmas with 2 mm spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Laroche, G.; Vallade, J.; Bazinette, R.; Hernandez, E.; Hernandez, G.; Massines, F.; Nijnatten, P. van

    2012-10-15

    This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm Multiplication-Sign 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45 Degree-Sign beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma.

  10. Radar-based open-path chemical sensor created.

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalsami, N.; Raptis, A. C.; Energy Technology

    1999-07-01

    Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory developed an interference-free, open-path, radar-based, millimeter-wave sensor to remotely detect trace levels of airborne chemicals. The new sensor works in remote positions, for environmental monitoring (continuous emission and fenceline), leak detection, and arms-control treaty verification. However, the transmitter/detector and a reflector have to sandwich the targeted chemical plume to get accurate measurements. Millimeter-wave absorption spectra of plume chemicals are determined by measuring the swept-frequency radar return signals, with and without the plume being in the beam's path. To determine actual chemical concentrations, users match measured spectra to a spectral library.

  11. An investigation of a mathematical model for atmospheric absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niple, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program that calculates absorption spectra for slant paths through the atmosphere is described. The program uses an efficient convolution technique (Romberg integration) to simulate instrument resolution effects. A brief information analysis is performed on a set of calculated spectra to illustrate how such techniques may be used to explore the quality of the information in a spectrum.

  12. A Two Micron Coherent Differential Absorption Lidar Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Chen, Songsheng; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Trieu, Bo C.; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2010-01-01

    A pulsed, 2-micron coherent Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL)/Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) transceiver, developed under the Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) at NASA, is integrated into a fully functional lidar instrument. This instrument measures atmospheric CO2 profiles (by DIAL) from a ground platform. It allows the investigators to pursue subsequent in science-driven deployments, and provides a unique tool for Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Night, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) validation that was strongly advocated in the recent ASCENDS Workshop. Keywords: Differential Absorption Lidar, Near Infrared Laser,

  13. Electronic Stroke CarePath: Integrated Approach to Stroke Care.

    PubMed

    Katzan, Irene L; Fan, Youran; Speck, Micheal; Morton, Johanna; Fromwiller, Lauren; Urchek, John; Uchino, Ken; Griffith, Sandra D; Modic, Michael

    2015-10-01

    We describe the development, implementation, and outcomes of the first 2 years of the Electronic Stroke CarePath, an initiative developed for management of ischemic stroke patients in an effort to improve efficiency and quality of care for patients. The CarePath consists of care pathways for ischemic stroke that are integrated within the electronic health record. Patient-reported outcomes are collected using an external software platform. Documentation tools, order sets, and clinical decision support were designed to improve efficiency, optimize process measure adherence, and produce clinical data as a byproduct of care that are available for future analyses. Inpatient mortality and length of stay were compared before and after CarePath implementation in ischemic stroke patients after adjustment for case-mix. Postdischarge functional outcomes of patients with ischemic stroke were compared between the first 3 months of rollout and remainder of the study period. From January 2011 to December 2012, there were 1106 patients with ischemic stroke on the CarePath. There was a decline in inpatient mortality in patients with ischemic stroke, but not in control patients with intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Completion rate of patient-reported questionnaires at postdischarge stroke follow-up was 72.9%. There was a trend toward improved functional outcomes at follow-up with CarePath implementation. Implementation of the Electronic Stroke CarePath is feasible and may be associated with a benefit in multiple different outcomes after ischemic stroke. This approach may be an important strategy for optimizing stroke care in the future. PMID:26515207

  14. Physarum can compute shortest paths.

    PubMed

    Bonifaci, Vincenzo; Mehlhorn, Kurt; Varma, Girish

    2012-09-21

    Physarum polycephalum is a slime mold that is apparently able to solve shortest path problems. A mathematical model has been proposed by Tero et al. (Journal of Theoretical Biology, 244, 2007, pp. 553-564) to describe the feedback mechanism used by the slime mold to adapt its tubular channels while foraging two food sources s(0) and s(1). We prove that, under this model, the mass of the mold will eventually converge to the shortest s(0)-s(1) path of the network that the mold lies on, independently of the structure of the network or of the initial mass distribution. This matches the experimental observations by Tero et al. and can be seen as an example of a "natural algorithm", that is, an algorithm developed by evolution over millions of years. PMID:22732274

  15. Colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics: a path forward.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Illan J; Sargent, Edward H

    2011-11-22

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) offer a path toward high-efficiency photovoltaics based on low-cost materials and processes. Spectral tunability via the quantum size effect facilitates absorption of specific wavelengths from across the sun's broad spectrum. CQD materials' ease of processing derives from their synthesis, storage, and processing in solution. Rapid advances have brought colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic solar power conversion efficiencies of 6% in the latest reports. These achievements represent important first steps toward commercially compelling performance. Here we review advances in device architecture and materials science. We diagnose the principal phenomenon-electronic states within the CQD film band gap that limit both current and voltage in devices-that must be cured for CQD PV devices to fulfill their promise. We close with a prescription, expressed as bounds on the density and energy of electronic states within the CQD film band gap, that should allow device efficiencies to rise to those required for the future of the solar energy field. PMID:21967723

  16. Multi-channel absolute distance measurement system with sub ppm-accuracy and 20 m range using frequency scanning interferometry and gas absorption cells.

    PubMed

    Dale, John; Hughes, Ben; Lancaster, Andrew J; Lewis, Andrew J; Reichold, Armin J H; Warden, Matthew S

    2014-10-01

    We present an implementation of an absolute distance measurement system which uses frequency scanning interferometry (FSI). The technique, referred to as dynamic FSI, uses two frequency scanning lasers, a gas absorption cell and a reference interferometer to determine the unknown optical path length difference (OPD) of one or many measurement interferometers. The gas absorption cell is the length reference for the measurement system and is traceable to international standards through knowledge of the frequencies of its absorption features. The OPD of the measurement interferometers can vary during the measurement and the variation is measured at the sampling rate of the system (2.77 MHz in the system described here). The system is shown to measure distances from 0.2 m to 20 m with a combined relative uncertainty of 0.41 10?? at the two sigma level (k = 2). It will be shown that within a scan the change in OPD of the measurement interferometer can be determined to a resolution of 40 nm. PMID:25322060

  17. Word length effects in Hebrew.

    PubMed

    Lavidor, Michal; Whitney, Carol

    2005-06-01

    Numerous lateralization studies have reported that word length has a stronger effect in the left visual field (LVF) than in the right visual field (RVF) for right-handed people due to hemispheric asymmetry for language processing. Alternatively, early perceptual learning theory argued that the length effects might depend on the frequency of having read words at various lengths displayed at different retinal locations. The two alternatives were tested with right-handers participants who were native speakers of Hebrew which is read from right to left, that is Hebrew readers have a different perceptual experience than English readers. We found the predicted interaction between word length and hemifield; however, longer latencies to longer letter strings were found at both visual fields. We argue that these results are best accounted by the SERIOL model of letter-position encoding. PMID:15922165

  18. Computing geodesic paths on manifolds.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, R; Sethian, J A

    1998-07-21

    The Fast Marching Method is a numerical algorithm for solving the Eikonal equation on a rectangular orthogonal mesh in O(M log M) steps, where M is the total number of grid points. In this paper we extend the Fast Marching Method to triangulated domains with the same computational complexity. As an application, we provide an optimal time algorithm for computing the geodesic distances and thereby extracting shortest paths on triangulated manifolds. PMID:9671694

  19. Squeezed states and path integrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daubechies, Ingrid; Klauder, John R.

    1992-01-01

    The continuous-time regularization scheme for defining phase-space path integrals is briefly reviewed as a method to define a quantization procedure that is completely covariant under all smooth canonical coordinate transformations. As an illustration of this method, a limited set of transformations is discussed that have an image in the set of the usual squeezed states. It is noteworthy that even this limited set of transformations offers new possibilities for stationary phase approximations to quantum mechanical propagators.

  20. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, C.

    1998-06-30

    This document was previously referred to as the Draft 2006 Plan. As part of the DOE`s national strategy, the Richland Operations Office`s Paths to Closure summarizes an integrated path forward for environmental cleanup at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site underwent a concerted effort between 1994 and 1996 to accelerate the cleanup of the Site. These efforts are reflected in the current Site Baseline. This document describes the current Site Baseline and suggests strategies for further improvements in scope, schedule and cost. The Environmental Management program decided to change the name of the draft strategy and the document describing it in response to a series of stakeholder concerns, including the practicality of achieving widespread cleanup by 2006. Also, EM was concerned that calling the document a plan could be misconstrued to be a proposal by DOE or a decision-making document. The change in name, however, does not diminish the 2006 vision. To that end, Paths to Closure retains a focus on 2006, which serves as a point in time around which objectives and goals are established.

  1. The Lengths of Admixture Tracts

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Mason; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of admixture tract lengths has received considerable attention, in part because it can be used to infer the timing of past gene flow events between populations. It is commonly assumed that these lengths can be modeled as independently and identically distributed (iid) exponential random variables. This assumption is fundamental for many popular methods that analyze admixture using hidden Markov models. We compare the expected distribution of admixture tract lengths under a number of population-genetic models to the distribution predicted by the Wright–Fisher model with recombination. We show that under the latter model, the assumption of iid exponential tract lengths does not hold for recent or for ancient admixture events and that relying on this assumption can lead to false positives when inferring the number of admixture events. To further investigate the tract-length distribution, we develop a dyadic interval-based stochastic process for generating admixture tracts. This representation is useful for analyzing admixture tract-length distributions for populations with recent admixture, a scenario in which existing models perform poorly. PMID:24770332

  2. Folded path LWIR system for SWAP constrained platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleet, Erin F.; Wilson, Michael L.; Linne von Berg, Dale; Giallorenzi, Thomas; Mathieu, Barry

    2014-06-01

    Folded path reflection and catadioptric optics are of growing interest, especially in the long wave infrared (LWIR), due to continuing demands for reductions in imaging system size, weight and power (SWAP). We present the optical design and laboratory data for a 50 mm focal length low f/# folded-path compact LWIR imaging system. The optical design uses 4 concentric aspheric mirrors, each of which is described by annular aspheric functions well suited to the folded path design space. The 4 mirrors are diamond turned onto two thin air-spaced aluminum plates which can be manually focused onto the uncooled LWIR microbolometer array detector. Stray light analysis will be presented to show how specialized internal baffling can be used to reduce stray light propagation through the folded path optical train. The system achieves near diffraction limited performance across the FOV with a 15 mm long optical train and a 5 mm back focal distance. The completed system is small enough to reside within a 3 inch diameter ball gimbal.

  3. Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 71 NIST Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) for use in quantitative surface analyses by AES and XPS.

  4. Folded-Light-Path Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Koleilat, Ghada I.; Kramer, Illan J.; Wong, Chris T. O.; Thon, Susanna M.; Labelle, André J.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2013-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics combine low-cost solution processing with quantum size-effect tuning to match absorption to the solar spectrum. Rapid advances have led to certified solar power conversion efficiencies of over 7%. Nevertheless, these devices remain held back by a compromise in the choice of quantum dot film thickness, balancing on the one hand the need to maximize photon absorption, mandating a thicker film, and, on the other, the need for efficient carrier extraction, a consideration that limits film thickness. Here we report an architecture that breaks this compromise by folding the path of light propagating in the colloidal quantum dot solid. Using this method, we achieve a substantial increase in short-circuit current, ultimately leading to improved power conversion efficiency. PMID:23835564

  5. Folded-Light-Path Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleilat, Ghada I.; Kramer, Illan J.; Wong, Chris T. O.; Thon, Susanna M.; Labelle, Andr J.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2013-07-01

    Colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics combine low-cost solution processing with quantum size-effect tuning to match absorption to the solar spectrum. Rapid advances have led to certified solar power conversion efficiencies of over 7%. Nevertheless, these devices remain held back by a compromise in the choice of quantum dot film thickness, balancing on the one hand the need to maximize photon absorption, mandating a thicker film, and, on the other, the need for efficient carrier extraction, a consideration that limits film thickness. Here we report an architecture that breaks this compromise by folding the path of light propagating in the colloidal quantum dot solid. Using this method, we achieve a substantial increase in short-circuit current, ultimately leading to improved power conversion efficiency.

  6. Folded-light-path colloidal quantum dot solar cells.

    PubMed

    Koleilat, Ghada I; Kramer, Illan J; Wong, Chris T O; Thon, Susanna M; Labelle, Andr J; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2013-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics combine low-cost solution processing with quantum size-effect tuning to match absorption to the solar spectrum. Rapid advances have led to certified solar power conversion efficiencies of over 7%. Nevertheless, these devices remain held back by a compromise in the choice of quantum dot film thickness, balancing on the one hand the need to maximize photon absorption, mandating a thicker film, and, on the other, the need for efficient carrier extraction, a consideration that limits film thickness. Here we report an architecture that breaks this compromise by folding the path of light propagating in the colloidal quantum dot solid. Using this method, we achieve a substantial increase in short-circuit current, ultimately leading to improved power conversion efficiency. PMID:23835564

  7. LASER-BASED, LONG PATH MONITORING OF AMBIENT GASES, ANALYSIS OF TWO SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    New long path absorption techniques for measurement of ambient O3 and CO have recently been demonstrated using a CO2 laser and a semiconductor diode laser, respectively. For the CO2 laser system the use of closely spaced wavelengths minimizes system drift and simplifies the deter...

  8. Climatic variations of the ionospheric absorption of radio waves in the short-wave range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestorov, G.; Pancheva, D.; Danilov, A. D.

    1991-12-01

    Variations of radio-wave absorption were measured with the A3 method on a France-Bulgaria path during 1959-1986, and a systematic increase of this absorption was found. It is shown that the most probable cause of this increase is a decrease of atmospheric temperature in the mesopause region by 5 K over the time period considered.

  9. [Monitoring the flux of carbon dioxide gas with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Song, Xue-Mei; Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Zeng, Zong-Yong; He, Ying; Cui, Yi-Ben; Chen, Yin; Tian, Yong-Zhi; Zhang, Liang

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse effect exacerbated by the increase of Carbon-containing gases is the more important causes of the climate change, It is very meaningful to the large-scale flux of carbon dioxide detection for the estimate the contributions of the main greenhouse gases in the atmosphere of various errestrial eco-systems. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is a highly sensitive, highly selective and fast time response trace gas detection technique. In the present paper, the authors used a DFB laser was used as the light source, and by employing wavelength modulation method, and measuring the second harmonic signal of one absorption line near 1.573 microm of carbon dioxide molecule, the authors built a system for online monitoring of carbon dioxide concentration within the optical path of more than 700 meters at different heights. Combined with Alonzo Mourning -Obukhov length and characteristic velocity detected by large aperture scintillometer, the flux of carbon dioxide gas within one day calculated by the formula is within--1.5-2.5, breaking through the phenomenon of only providing the flux of trace gases near the ground at present, makking the measurement of trace gas fluxes within a large area possible. PMID:21428084

  10. CO2 monitoring and detection using an integrating sphere as a multipass absorption cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawe, E.; Chambers, P.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Lewis, E.

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes a multipass absorption sensor based on an integrating sphere. The sphere has an internal coating which is highly reflective (over 95%) in the near infrared region and this allows for the detection of CO2 at two regions in the spectrum: 2 µm and 1.57 µm. CO2 was detected around the 2 µm region using a light emitting diode as the emitter and a photodiode as the detector, while detection at the 1.57 µm region took place using a broadband ASE source as the emitter and a miniature spectrometer as a detector. A 2 in diameter (50.8 mm) integrating sphere was used as an absorption gas cell. This paper reports the generation of effective optical path lengths of 114 cm at the 1.57 µm region and 40 cm at the 2 µm region. Experimental results demonstrating the detection of CO2 using a 2 in diameter integrating sphere are presented and simulation results based on larger integrating spheres are also reported. Further simulations conducted in the mid-infrared region suggest the possibility of detecting trace levels of CO2 (less than 200 ppm) using a 2 in diameter integrating sphere.

  11. UV differential optical absorption method for measuring sulfur content in coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Feihu; Xu, Chuanlong; Wang, Shimin

    2012-02-01

    Determining the sulfur content in coal rapidly and accurately can provide a technical basis for the enterprises and the environmental administration departments. A novel method for measuring the sulfur content in coal based on UV differential optical absorption is presented in this paper. However, compared with the applications in atmosphere monitoring, the UV differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) for the sulfur content measurement in coal has the problems that the concentration range of SO2 in the flue gas is wider and the optical path-length of the gas cell is shorter. To solve these problems, an improved DOAS algorithm based on a finite impulse response (FIR) filter and a nonlinear compensation technique is proposed. An experimental measurement system based on the modified DOAS is designed and established. The standard SO2 gas and five kinds of standard coals are experimentally tested. Theoretical and experimental results show that the lower detection limit of the system is better than 0.014%, and the repeatability of the measurement system fairly meets the national standard of China. The system has advantages of low maintenance and shorter measurement duration (4 min).

  12. Propagation and absorption of high-intensity femtosecond laser radiation in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononenko, V. V.; Konov, V. I.; Gololobov, V. M.; Zavedeev, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    Femtosecond interferometry has been used to experimentally study the photoexcitation of the electron subsystem of diamond exposed to femtosecond laser pulses of intensity 1011 to 1014 W cm-2. The carrier concentration has been determined as a function of incident intensity for three harmonics of a Ti : sapphire laser (800, 400 and 266 nm). The results demonstrate that, in a wide range of laser fluences (up to those resulting in surface and bulk graphitisation), a well-defined multiphoton absorption prevails. We have estimated nonlinear absorption coefficients for pulsed radiation at λ = 800 nm (four-photon transition) and at 400 and 266 nm (indirect and direct two-photon transitions, respectively). It has also been shown that, at any considerable path length of a femtosecond pulse in diamond (tens of microns or longer), the laser beam experiences a severe nonlinear transformation, determining the amount of energy absorbed by the lattice, which is important for the development of technology for diamond photostructuring by ultrashort pulses. The competition between wave packet self-focusing and the plasma defocusing effect is examined as a major mechanism governing the propagation of intense laser pulses in diamond.

  13. Propagation and absorption of high-intensity femtosecond laser radiation in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Kononenko, V V; Konov, V I; Gololobov, V M; Zavedeev, E V

    2014-12-31

    Femtosecond interferometry has been used to experimentally study the photoexcitation of the electron subsystem of diamond exposed to femtosecond laser pulses of intensity 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 14} W cm{sup -2}. The carrier concentration has been determined as a function of incident intensity for three harmonics of a Ti : sapphire laser (800, 400 and 266 nm). The results demonstrate that, in a wide range of laser fluences (up to those resulting in surface and bulk graphitisation), a well-defined multiphoton absorption prevails. We have estimated nonlinear absorption coefficients for pulsed radiation at λ = 800 nm (four-photon transition) and at 400 and 266 nm (indirect and direct two-photon transitions, respectively). It has also been shown that, at any considerable path length of a femtosecond pulse in diamond (tens of microns or longer), the laser beam experiences a severe nonlinear transformation, determining the amount of energy absorbed by the lattice, which is important for the development of technology for diamond photostructuring by ultrashort pulses. The competition between wave packet self-focusing and the plasma defocusing effect is examined as a major mechanism governing the propagation of intense laser pulses in diamond. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  14. Multiple paths to encephalization and technical civilizations.

    PubMed

    Schwartzman, David; Middendorf, George

    2011-12-01

    We propose consideration of at least two possible evolutionary paths for the emergence of intelligent life with the potential for technical civilization. The first is the path via encephalization of homeothermic animals; the second is the path to swarm intelligence of so-called superorganisms, in particular the social insects. The path to each appears to be facilitated by environmental change: homeothermic animals by decreased climatic temperature and for swarm intelligence by increased oxygen levels. PMID:22139517

  15. Multiple Paths to Encephalization and Technical Civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartzman, David; Middendorf, George

    2011-12-01

    We propose consideration of at least two possible evolutionary paths for the emergence of intelligent life with the potential for technical civilization. The first is the path via encephalization of homeothermic animals; the second is the path to swarm intelligence of so-called superorganisms, in particular the social insects. The path to each appears to be facilitated by environmental change: homeothermic animals by decreased climatic temperature and for swarm intelligence by increased oxygen levels.

  16. Handbook for the estimation of microwave propagation effects: Link calculations for earth-space paths (path loss and noise estimation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, R. K.; Blood, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    A single model for a standard of comparison for other models when dealing with rain attenuation problems in system design and experimentation is proposed. Refinements to the Global Rain Production Model are incorporated. Path loss and noise estimation procedures as the basic input to systems design for earth-to-space microwave links operating at frequencies from 1 to 300 GHz are provided. Topics covered include gaseous absorption, attenuation by rain, ionospheric and tropospheric scintillation, low elevation angle effects, radome attenuation, diversity schemes, link calculation, and receiver noise emission by atmospheric gases, rain, and antenna contributions.

  17. Evaluation of the Learning Path Specification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Jose; Berlanga, Adriana J.; Koper, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Flexible lifelong learning requires that learners can compare and select learning paths that best meet individual needs, not just in terms of learning goals, but also in terms of planning, costs etc. To this end a learning path specification was developed, which describes both the contents and the structure of any learning path, be it formal,…

  18. Evaluation of the Learning Path Specification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Jose; Berlanga, Adriana J.; Koper, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Flexible lifelong learning requires that learners can compare and select learning paths that best meet individual needs, not just in terms of learning goals, but also in terms of planning, costs etc. To this end a learning path specification was developed, which describes both the contents and the structure of any learning path, be it formal,

  19. Performance Analysis of Path Planning Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhirui; Li, Shuanghong; Zhang, Ying; Du, Qiaoling

    Ant colony system (ACS) algorithm was applied to the path planning for the robot. In the same working environment, path planning based on MAKLINK graph theory and Voronoi diagram were simulated and compared. MAKLINK graph theory is appropriate to apply to precise searching in small-scale district, and Voronoi diagram is suitable for fast path planning in a large area.

  20. Hypergeometric -Functions, Hurwitz Numbers and Enumeration of Paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnad, J.; Orlov, A. Yu.

    2015-08-01

    A multiparametric family of 2D Toda -functions of hypergeometric type is shown to provide generating functions for composite, signed Hurwitz numbers that enumerate certain classes of branched coverings of the Riemann sphere and paths in the Cayley graph of S n . The coefficients in their series expansion over products of power sum symmetric functions in the two sets of Toda flow parameters and powers of the l + m auxiliary parameters are shown to enumerate fold branched covers of the Riemann sphere with specified ramification profiles and at a pair of points, and two sets of additional branch points, satisfying certain additional conditions on their ramification profile lengths. The first group consists of l branch points, with ramification profile lengths fixed to be the numbers ; the second consists of m further groups of "coloured" branch points, of variable number, for which the sums of the complements of the ramification profile lengths within the groups are fixed to equal the numbers . The latter are counted with signs determined by the parity of the total number of such branch points. The coefficients are also shown to enumerate paths in the Cayley graph of the symmetric group S n generated by transpositions, starting, as in the usual double Hurwitz case, at an element in the conjugacy class of cycle type and ending in the class of type , with the first l consecutive subsequences of transpositions strictly monotonically increasing, and the subsequent subsequences of transpositions weakly increasing.

  1. Characterizing the Evolutionary Path(s) to Early Homo

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Lauren; Roseman, Charles C.; Cheverud, James M.; Ackermann, Rebecca R.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies suggest that the transition from Australopithecus to Homo was characterized by evolutionary innovation, resulting in the emergence and coexistence of a diversity of forms. However, the evolutionary processes necessary to drive such a transition have not been examined. Here, we apply statistical tests developed from quantitative evolutionary theory to assess whether morphological differences among late australopith and early Homo species in Africa have been shaped by natural selection. Where selection is demonstrated, we identify aspects of morphology that were most likely under selective pressure, and determine the nature (type, rate) of that selection. Results demonstrate that selection must be invoked to explain an Au. africanus—Au. sediba—Homo transition, while transitions from late australopiths to various early Homo species that exclude Au. sediba can be achieved through drift alone. Rate tests indicate that selection is largely directional, acting to rapidly differentiate these taxa. Reconstructions of patterns of directional selection needed to drive the Au. africanus—Au. sediba—Homo transition suggest that selection would have affected all regions of the skull. These results may indicate that an evolutionary path to Homo without Au. sediba is the simpler path and/or provide evidence that this pathway involved more reliance on cultural adaptations to cope with environmental change. PMID:25470780

  2. Walking on inclines: how do desert ants monitor slope and step length

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Tobias; Wehner, Rüdiger

    2008-01-01

    Background During long-distance foraging in almost featureless habitats desert ants of the genus Cataglyphis employ path-integrating mechanisms (vector navigation). This navigational strategy requires an egocentric monitoring of the foraging path by incrementally integrating direction, distance, and inclination of the path. Monitoring the latter two parameters involves idiothetic cues and hence is tightly coupled to the ant's locomotor behavior. Results In a kinematic study of desert ant locomotion performed on differently inclined surfaces we aimed at pinpointing the relevant mechanisms of estimating step length and inclination. In a behavioral experiment with ants foraging on slippery surfaces we broke the otherwise tightly coupled relationship between stepping frequency and step length and examined the animals' ability to monitor distances covered even under those adverse conditions. We show that the ants' locomotor system is not influenced by inclined paths. After removing the effect of speed, slope had only marginal influence on kinematic parameters. Conclusion From the obtained data we infer that the previously proposed monitoring of angles of the thorax-coxa joint is not involved in inclinometry. Due to the tiny variations in cycle period, we also argue that an efference copy of the central pattern generator coding the step length in its output frequency will most likely not suffice for estimating step length and complementing the pedometer. Finally we propose that sensing forces acting on the ant's legs could provide the desired neuronal correlate employed in monitoring inclination and step length. PMID:18518946

  3. IMF Length Scales and Predictability: The Two Length Scale Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Szabo, Adam; Slavin, James A.; Lepping, R. P.; Kokubun, S.

    1999-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a systematic study using simultaneous data from three spacecraft, Wind, IMP 8 (Interplanetary Monitoring Platform) and Geotail to examine interplanetary length scales and their implications on predictability for magnetic field parcels in the typical solar wind. Time periods were selected when the plane formed by the three spacecraft included the GSE (Ground Support Equipment) x-direction so that if the parcel fronts were strictly planar, the two adjacent spacecraft pairs would determine the same phase front angles. After correcting for the motion of the Earth relative to the interplanetary medium and deviations in the solar wind flow from radial, we used differences in the measured front angle between the two spacecraft pairs to determine structure radius of curvature. Results indicate that the typical radius of curvature for these IMF parcels is of the order of 100 R (Sub E). This implies that there are two important IMF (Interplanetary Magnetic Field) scale lengths relevant to predictability: (1) the well-established scale length over which correlations observed by two spacecraft decay along a given IMF parcel, of the order of a few tens of Earth radii and (2) the scale length over which two spacecraft are unlikely to even observe the same parcel because of its curvature, of the order of a hundred Earth radii.

  4. Attention trees and semantic paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura

    2007-02-01

    In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial results will be shown.

  5. Evaluation of guidewire path reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Kenneth R; Nol, Peter B; Ionita, Ciprian N; Dmochowski, Jacek

    2008-05-01

    The number of minimally invasive vascular interventions is increasing. In these interventions, a variety of devices are directed to and placed at the site of intervention. The device used in almost all of these interventions is the guidewire, acting as a monorail for all devices which are delivered to the intervention site. However, even with the guidewire in place, clinicians still experience difficulties during the interventions. As a first step toward understanding these difficulties and facilitating guidewire and device guidance, we have investigated the reproducibility of the final paths of the guidewire in vessel phantom models on different factors: user, materials and geometry. Three vessel phantoms (vessel diameters approximately 4 mm) were constructed having tortuousity similar to the internal carotid artery from silicon tubing and encased in Sylgard elastomer. Several trained users repeatedly passed two guidewires of different flexibility through the phantoms under pulsatile flow conditions. After the guidewire had been placed, rotational c-arm image sequences were acquired (9 in. II mode, 0.185 mm pixel size), and the phantom and guidewire were reconstructed (512(3), 0.288 mm voxel size). The reconstructed volumes were aligned. The centerlines of the guidewire and the phantom vessel were then determined using region-growing techniques. Guidewire paths appear similar across users but not across materials. The average root mean square difference of the repeated placement was 0.17 +/- 0.02 mm (plastic-coated guidewire), 0.73 +/- 0.55 mm (steel guidewire) and 1.15 +/- 0.65 mm (steel versus plastic-coated). For a given guidewire, these results indicate that the guidewire path is relatively reproducible in shape and position. PMID:18561663

  6. Communication path for extreme environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Betts, Bradley J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Methods and systems for using one or more radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs), or other suitable signal transmitters and/or receivers, to provide a sensor information communication path, to provide location and/or spatial orientation information for an emergency service worker (ESW), to provide an ESW escape route, to indicate a direction from an ESW to an ES appliance, to provide updated information on a region or structure that presents an extreme environment (fire, hazardous fluid leak, underwater, nuclear, etc.) in which an ESW works, and to provide accumulated thermal load or thermal breakdown information on one or more locations in the region.

  7. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  8. Overview of bunch length measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-02-19

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed.

  9. Slip length measurement using BBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadzadegan, Adib; Snoeyink, Craig

    2015-11-01

    We will be presenting experimental characterizations of slip lengths of fluids in nano/micro channels. These channels are becoming increasingly important in sensor and separations applications. However, crucial questions still remain on the mechanisms that govern slip-length behavior. We used Bessel Beam microscopy (BBM), a novel super-resolution imaging system, in conjunction with TIRF system. These two, together led us to be able to do Particle Tracking Velocimetry with significantly higher accuracy than previously possible. We will be presenting results demonstrating the feasibility of this approach and advantages that make this method unique.

  10. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  11. Relations between Coherence and Path Information.

    PubMed

    Bagan, Emilio; Bergou, János A; Cottrell, Seth S; Hillery, Mark

    2016-04-22

    We find two relations between coherence and path information in a multipath interferometer. The first builds on earlier results for the two-path interferometer, which used minimum-error state discrimination between detector states to provide the path information. For visibility, which was used in the two-path case, we substitute a recently defined l_{1} measure of quantum coherence. The second is an entropic relation in which the path information is characterized by the mutual information between the detector states and the outcome of the measurement performed on them, and the coherence measure is one based on relative entropy. PMID:27152780

  12. Relations between Coherence and Path Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagan, Emilio; Bergou, János A.; Cottrell, Seth S.; Hillery, Mark

    2016-04-01

    We find two relations between coherence and path information in a multipath interferometer. The first builds on earlier results for the two-path interferometer, which used minimum-error state discrimination between detector states to provide the path information. For visibility, which was used in the two-path case, we substitute a recently defined l1 measure of quantum coherence. The second is an entropic relation in which the path information is characterized by the mutual information between the detector states and the outcome of the measurement performed on them, and the coherence measure is one based on relative entropy.

  13. Solar absorption surface panel

    DOEpatents

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  14. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

  15. Electron Mean Free Path in Epitaxial Ta(001) Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Daniel

    Epitaxial tantalum layers were grown on MgO(001) by ultrahigh vacuum magnetron sputter deposition at 650 °C to thicknesses d ranging from 5 nm to 2 mum. X-ray diffraction including o-2theta, o rocking curve, and φ scans confirm that the layers are Ta(001) single crystals, while X-ray reflectivity indicates that their roughness is < 0.1 nm for short lateral length scales. The measured room temperature resistivity increases from 12.6+/-0.6 muO-cm for large d to 42.1+/-0.9 muO-cm for d = 5 nm. This increase is well described by the Fuchs-Sondheimer model, yielding a Ta room temperature bulk electron mean free path of lambda294K = 28+/-1 nm. Corresponding measurements in liquid nitrogen yield lambda77K = 65+/-5 nm. These values are approximately an order of magnitude larger than 2.35 and 8.36 nm, respectively, expected from the free electron model. This large discrepancy is attributed to the highly non-spherical Ta Fermi surface. More importantly, the ratio of the measured mean free path lambda77K/ lambda 294K= 2.32 is 1.5x smaller than the ratio of the measured bulk resistivities rho294Krho77K. This suggests that either (i) the mean free path is strongly band dependent, (ii) surface roughness contributes greatly to electron scattering at low temperatures in films of thickness on the order of the mean free path, or (iii) the electron mean free path at low temperature is restricted by the presence of impurities, evidenced by a measured residual resistivity.

  16. Persistent Criminality and Career Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapanen, Rudy; Britton, Lee; Croisdale, Tim

    2007-01-01

    This study is an examination of persistent offending and its implications for the understanding and investigation of desistance and career length. Persistence, especially as it is operationalized using official measures, is characterized as fundamentally a measure of resistance to formal social control: continued crime in the face of increasingly…

  17. Incubation length of dabbling ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Prince, H.H.; Arnold, T.W.

    2005-01-01

    We collected unincubated eggs from wild Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Gadwall (A. strepera), Blue-winged Teal (A. discors), and Northern Shoveler (A. clypeata) nests and artificially incubated them at 37.5??C. Average incubation lengths of Mallard, Gadwall, and Northern Shoveler eggs did not differ from their wild-nesting counterparts, but artificially incubated Blue-winged Teal eggs required an additional 1.7 days to hatch, suggesting that wild-nesting teal incubated more effectively. A small sample of Mallard, Gadwall, and Northern Shoveler eggs artificially incubated at 38.3??C hatched 1 day sooner, indicating that incubation temperature affected incubation length. Mean incubation length of Blue-winged Teal declined by 1 day for each 11-day delay in nesting, but we found no such seasonal decline among Mallards, Gadwalls, or Northern Shovelers. There is no obvious explanation for the seasonal reduction in incubation length for Blue-winged Teal eggs incubated in a constant environment, and the phenomenon deserves further study. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2005.

  18. Seismic Hazard and Fault Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, N. M.; Jackson, D. D.; Mualchin, L.

    2005-12-01

    If mx is the largest earthquake magnitude that can occur on a fault, then what is mp, the largest magnitude that should be expected during the planned lifetime of a particular structure? Most approaches to these questions rely on an estimate of the Maximum Credible Earthquake, obtained by regression (e.g. Wells and Coppersmith, 1994) of fault length (or area) and magnitude. Our work differs in two ways. First, we modify the traditional approach to measuring fault length, to allow for hidden fault complexity and multi-fault rupture. Second, we use a magnitude-frequency relationship to calculate the largest magnitude expected to occur within a given time interval. Often fault length is poorly defined and multiple faults rupture together in a single event. Therefore, we need to expand the definition of a mapped fault length to obtain a more accurate estimate of the maximum magnitude. In previous work, we compared fault length vs. rupture length for post-1975 earthquakes in Southern California. In this study, we found that mapped fault length and rupture length are often unequal, and in several cases rupture broke beyond the previously mapped fault traces. To expand the geologic definition of fault length we outlined several guidelines: 1) if a fault truncates at young Quaternary alluvium, the fault line should be inferred underneath the younger sediments 2) faults striking within 45° of one another should be treated as a continuous fault line and 3) a step-over can link together faults at least 5 km apart. These definitions were applied to fault lines in Southern California. For example, many of the along-strike faults lines in the Mojave Desert are treated as a single fault trending from the Pinto Mountain to the Garlock fault. In addition, the Rose Canyon and Newport-Inglewood faults are treated as a single fault line. We used these more generous fault lengths, and the Wells and Coppersmith regression, to estimate the maximum magnitude (mx) for the major faults in southern California. Then we compared our mx values with those proposed by CALTRANS, and those assumed in the 2002 USGS/CGS hazard model. To calculate the planning magnitude mp we assumed a truncated Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with parameters a, b, and mx. We fixed b and solved for the a-value in terms of mx, b, and the tectonic moment rate. For many faults mp is relatively insensitive to mx and typically falls off at higher magnitudes because the a-value decreases with increasing mx when the moment rate is constrained. Furthermore, we find that by increasing mx the cumulative earthquake rate actually decreases for smaller magnitude (5 and 6) events. This suggests that fewer magnitude 5 and 6 earthquakes are required to balance the moment budget if larger, but highly infrequent, earthquakes are allowed to occur.

  19. Cosmic absorption of ultra high energy particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffini, R.; Vereshchagin, G. V.; Xue, S.-S.

    2016-02-01

    This paper summarizes the limits on propagation of ultra high energy particles in the Universe, set up by their interactions with cosmic background of photons and neutrinos. By taking into account cosmic evolution of these backgrounds and considering appropriate interactions we derive the mean free path for ultra high energy photons, protons and neutrinos. For photons the relevant processes are the Breit-Wheeler process as well as the double pair production process. For protons the relevant reactions are the photopion production and the Bethe-Heitler process. We discuss the interplay between the energy loss length and mean free path for the Bethe-Heitler process. Neutrino opacity is determined by its scattering off the cosmic background neutrino. We compute for the first time the high energy neutrino horizon as a function of its energy.

  20. Characteristic length of glass transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donth, E.

    1996-03-01

    The characteristic length of the glass transition (ξ _α ) is based on the concept of cooperatively rearranging regions (CRR's) by Adam & Gibbs (1965): ξ _α is the diameter of one CRR. In the theoretical part of the talk a formula is derived how this length can be calculated from calorimetric data of the transformation interval. The approach is based on fluctuations in natural functional subsystems. The corresponding thermodynamics is represented e.g. in a book of the author (E. Donth, Relaxation and Thermodynamics in Polymers. Glass Transition, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1992). A typical value for this length is 3 nanometers. In the experimental part several examples are reported to enlarge the experimental evidence for such a length: Squeezing the glass transition in the amorphous layers of partially crystallized PET (C. Schick, Rostock), glass transition of small-molecule glass formers in a series of nanoscaled pores of porous glasses (F. Kremer, Leipzig), comparison with a concentration fluctuation model in homogeneous polymer mixtures (E.W. Fischer, Mainz), and, from our laboratory, backscaling to ξ _α across the main transition from the entanglement spacing in several amorphous polymers such as PVAC, PS, NR, and some polymer networks. Rouse backscaling was possible in the α β splitting region of several poly(n alkyl methacrylates) resulting in small characteristic lengths of order 1 nanometer near the onset of α cooperativity. In a speculative outlook a dynamic density pattern is presented, having a cellular structure with higher density and lower mobility of the cell walls. It will be explained, with the aid of different thermal expansion of wall and clusters, how the clusters within the cells maintain a certain mobility far below the glass temperature.

  1. Time-multiplexed open-path TDLAS spectrometer for dynamic, sampling-free, interstitial H2 18O and H2 16O vapor detection in ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnreich, B.; Wagner, S.; Habig, J. C.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Ebert, V.

    2015-04-01

    An advanced in situ diode laser hygrometer for simultaneous, sampling-free detection of interstitial H2 16O and H2 18O vapor was developed and tested in the aerosol interaction and dynamics in atmosphere (AIDA) cloud chamber during dynamic cloud formation processes. The spectrometer to measure isotope-resolved water vapor concentrations comprises two rapidly time-multiplexed DFB lasers near 1.4 and 2.7 µm and an open-path White cell with 227-m absorption path length and 4-m mirror separation. A dynamic water concentration range from 2.6 ppb to 87 ppm for H2 16O and 87 ppt to 3.6 ppm for H2 18O could be achieved and was used to enable a fast and direct detection of dynamic isotope ratio changes during ice cloud formation in the AIDA chamber at temperatures between 190 and 230 K. Relative changes in the H2 18O/H2 16O isotope ratio of 1 % could be detected and resolved with a signal-to-noise ratio of 7. This converts to an isotope ratio resolution limit of 0.15 % at 1-s time resolution.

  2. Advanced Sine Wave Modulation of Continuous Wave Laser System for Atmospheric CO2 Differential Absorption Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with ITT Exelis have been experimenting with Continuous Wave (CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) as a means of performing atmospheric CO2 column measurements from space to support the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission.Because range resolving Intensity Modulated (IM) CW lidar techniques presented here rely on matched filter correlations, autocorrelation properties without side lobes or other artifacts are highly desirable since the autocorrelation function is critical for the measurements of lidar return powers, laser path lengths, and CO2 column amounts. In this paper modulation techniques are investigated that improve autocorrelation properties. The modulation techniques investigated in this paper include sine waves modulated by maximum length (ML) sequences in various hardware configurations. A CW lidar system using sine waves modulated by ML pseudo random noise codes is described, which uses a time shifting approach to separate channels and make multiple, simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Unlike the pure ML sequence, this technique is useful in hardware that is band pass filtered as the IM sine wave carrier shifts the main power band. Both amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated IM carriers are investigated that exibit perfect autocorrelation properties down to one cycle per code bit. In addition, a method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a Gaussian filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions that does not seriously degrade the resolution or introduce side lobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth.

  3. Integrated assignment and path planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphey, Robert A.

    2005-11-01

    A surge of interest in unmanned systems has exposed many new and challenging research problems across many fields of engineering and mathematics. These systems have the potential of transforming our society by replacing dangerous and dirty jobs with networks of moving machines. This vision is fundamentally separate from the modern view of robotics in that sophisticated behavior is realizable not by increasing individual vehicle complexity, but instead through collaborative teaming that relies on collective perception, abstraction, decision making, and manipulation. Obvious examples where collective robotics will make an impact include planetary exploration, space structure assembly, remote and undersea mining, hazardous material handling and clean-up, and search and rescue. Nonetheless, the phenomenon driving this technology trend is the increasing reliance of the US military on unmanned vehicles, specifically, aircraft. Only a few years ago, following years of resistance to the use of unmanned systems, the military and civilian leadership in the United States reversed itself and have recently demonstrated surprisingly broad acceptance of increasingly pervasive use of unmanned platforms in defense surveillance, and even attack. However, as rapidly as unmanned systems have gained acceptance, the defense research community has discovered the technical pitfalls that lie ahead, especially for operating collective groups of unmanned platforms. A great deal of talent and energy has been devoted to solving these technical problems, which tend to fall into two categories: resource allocation of vehicles to objectives, and path planning of vehicle trajectories. An extensive amount of research has been conducted in each direction, yet, surprisingly, very little work has considered the integrated problem of assignment and path planning. This dissertation presents a framework for studying integrated assignment and path planning and then moves on to suggest an exact mathematical model and solution techniques. The approach adopted is based upon the very flexible New Product Development model but also blends many features from other approaches. Solution methods using branch and bound and construction heuristics are developed and tested on several example problems, including a military scenario featuring unmanned air vehicles.

  4. Quasar Absorption Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  5. Path statistics, memory, and coarse-graining of continuous-time random walks on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manhart, Michael; Kion-Crosby, Willow; Morozov, Alexandre V.

    2015-12-01

    Continuous-time random walks (CTRWs) on discrete state spaces, ranging from regular lattices to complex networks, are ubiquitous across physics, chemistry, and biology. Models with coarse-grained states (for example, those employed in studies of molecular kinetics) or spatial disorder can give rise to memory and non-exponential distributions of waiting times and first-passage statistics. However, existing methods for analyzing CTRWs on complex energy landscapes do not address these effects. Here we use statistical mechanics of the nonequilibrium path ensemble to characterize first-passage CTRWs on networks with arbitrary connectivity, energy landscape, and waiting time distributions. Our approach can be applied to calculating higher moments (beyond the mean) of path length, time, and action, as well as statistics of any conservative or non-conservative force along a path. For homogeneous networks, we derive exact relations between length and time moments, quantifying the validity of approximating a continuous-time process with its discrete-time projection. For more general models, we obtain recursion relations, reminiscent of transfer matrix and exact enumeration techniques, to efficiently calculate path statistics numerically. We have implemented our algorithm in PathMAN (Path Matrix Algorithm for Networks), a Python script that users can apply to their model of choice. We demonstrate the algorithm on a few representative examples which underscore the importance of non-exponential distributions, memory, and coarse-graining in CTRWs.

  6. Path statistics, memory, and coarse-graining of continuous-time random walks on networks.

    PubMed

    Manhart, Michael; Kion-Crosby, Willow; Morozov, Alexandre V

    2015-12-01

    Continuous-time random walks (CTRWs) on discrete state spaces, ranging from regular lattices to complex networks, are ubiquitous across physics, chemistry, and biology. Models with coarse-grained states (for example, those employed in studies of molecular kinetics) or spatial disorder can give rise to memory and non-exponential distributions of waiting times and first-passage statistics. However, existing methods for analyzing CTRWs on complex energy landscapes do not address these effects. Here we use statistical mechanics of the nonequilibrium path ensemble to characterize first-passage CTRWs on networks with arbitrary connectivity, energy landscape, and waiting time distributions. Our approach can be applied to calculating higher moments (beyond the mean) of path length, time, and action, as well as statistics of any conservative or non-conservative force along a path. For homogeneous networks, we derive exact relations between length and time moments, quantifying the validity of approximating a continuous-time process with its discrete-time projection. For more general models, we obtain recursion relations, reminiscent of transfer matrix and exact enumeration techniques, to efficiently calculate path statistics numerically. We have implemented our algorithm in PathMAN (Path Matrix Algorithm for Networks), a Python script that users can apply to their model of choice. We demonstrate the algorithm on a few representative examples which underscore the importance of non-exponential distributions, memory, and coarse-graining in CTRWs. PMID:26646868

  7. Modulated Tool-Path (MTP) Chip Breaking System

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, K. B.

    2010-04-01

    The Modulated Tool-Path (MTP) Chip Breaking System produces user-selectable chip lengths and workpiece finishes and is compatible with any material, workpiece shape, and depth of cut. The MTP chip breaking system consistently creates the desired size of chips regardless of workpiece size, shape, or material, and the machine operator does not need to make any adjustments during the machining operation. The system's programmer configures the part program that commands the machine tool to move in a specific fashion to deliver the desired part size, shape, chip length, and workpiece surface finish. The MTP chip breaking system helps manufacturers avoid the detrimental effects of continuous chips, including expensive repair costs, delivery delays, and hazards to personnel.

  8. Finding the complete path and weight enumerators of convolutional codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onyszchuk, I.

    1990-01-01

    A method for obtaining the complete path enumerator T(D, L, I) of a convolutional code is described. A system of algebraic equations is solved, using a new algorithm for computing determinants, to obtain T(D, L, I) for the (7,1/2) NASA standard code. Generating functions, derived from T(D, L, I) are used to upper bound Viterbi decoder error rates. This technique is currently feasible for constraint length K less than 10 codes. A practical, fast algorithm is presented for computing the leading nonzero coefficients of the generating functions used to bound the performance of constraint length K less than 20 codes. Code profiles with about 50 nonzero coefficients are obtained with this algorithm for the experimental K = 15, rate 1/4, code in the Galileo mission and for the proposed K = 15, rate 1/6, 2-dB code.

  9. Spectral dynamics of intracavity absorption in a pulsed Cr{sup 2+}:ZnSe laser

    SciTech Connect

    Akimov, V A; Kozlovskii, Vladimir I; Korostelin, Yurii V; Landman, Aleksandr I; Podmar'kov, Yu P; Frolov, M P

    2005-05-31

    The growth dynamics of intracavity absorption is studied during recording line absorption spectra by the method of intracavity laser spectroscopy using a pulsed Cr{sup 2+}:ZnSe laser tunable between 2.1 and 3.1 {mu}m. In the lasing duration range from 0 to 235 {mu}s, an intracavity absorption signal increases linearly with time, providing the effective absorption length of 70km. (laser spectroscopy)

  10. Path integral simulations for nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumway, John

    2007-10-01

    As computer circuits shrink, devices are entering the nanoscale regime and quantum physics is becoming important. The biggest barrier to further decreases in size and increases in clock speed is excessive heat generation. Some physicists are proposing that many-body correlated quantum states of electrons may be exploited to make more energy efficient switches. In our research we are developing new simulation techniques to study highly correlated electron states in realistic device geometries and finite temperatures. The simulations are based on Feynman path integrals, which cast quantum statistical mechanics as a sum over worldlines, a mathematically equivalent alternative Schroedinger's differetial equation. Using Monte Carlo sampling on dozens to hundreds of electrons, we can simulate properties of an interacting electron fluid in a nanowire. Linear response theory relates fluctuations about equilibrium to conductivity. This gives us a new perspective on quantum phenomena, including quantized conductance steps and spin-charge separation.

  11. The path to adaptive microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolper, John C.; Biercuk, Michael J.

    2006-05-01

    Scaling trends in microsystems are discussed frequently in the technical community, providing a short-term perspective on the future of integrated microsystems. This paper looks beyond the leading edge of technological development, focusing on new microsystem design paradigms that move far beyond today's systems based on static components. We introduce the concept of Adaptive Microsystems and outline a path to realizing these systems-on-a-chip. The role of DARPA in advancing future components and systems research is discussed, and specific DARPA efforts enabling and producing adaptive microsystems are presented. In particular, we discuss efforts underway in the DARPA Microsystems Technology Office (MTO) including programs in novel circuit architectures (3DIC), adaptive imaging and sensing (AFPA, VISA, MONTAGE, A-to-I) and reconfigurable RF/Microwave devices (SMART, TFAST, IRFFE).

  12. Flexible-Path Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, B.; Adler, M.; Alkalai, L.; Burdick, G.; Coulter, D.; Jordan, F.; Naderi, F.; Graham, L.; Landis, R.; Drake, B.; Hoffman, S.; Grunsfeld, J.; Seery, B. D.

    2010-01-01

    In the fourth quarter of 2009 an in-house, multi-center NASA study team briefly examined "Flexible Path" concepts to begin understanding characteristics, content, and roles of potential missions consistent with the strategy proposed by the Augustine Committee. We present an overview of the study findings. Three illustrative human/robotic mission concepts not requiring planet surface operations are described: assembly of very large in-space telescopes in cis-lunar space; exploration of near Earth objects (NEOs); exploration of Mars' moon Phobos. For each, a representative mission is described, technology and science objectives are outlined, and a basic mission operations concept is quantified. A fourth type of mission, using the lunar surface as preparation for Mars, is also described. Each mission's "capability legacy" is summarized. All four illustrative missions could achieve NASA's stated human space exploration objectives and advance human space flight toward Mars surface exploration. Telescope assembly missions would require the fewest new system developments. NEO missions would offer a wide range of deep-space trip times between several months and two years. Phobos exploration would retire several Marsclass risks, leaving another large remainder set (associated with entry, descent, surface operations, and ascent) for retirement by subsequent missions. And extended lunar surface operations would build confidence for Mars surface missions by addressing a complementary set of risks. Six enabling developments (robotic precursors, ISS exploration testbed, heavy-lift launch, deep-space-capable crew capsule, deep-space habitat, and reusable in-space propulsion stage) would apply across multiple program sequence options, and thus could be started even without committing to a specific mission sequence now. Flexible Path appears to be a viable strategy, with meaningful and worthy mission content.

  13. Softness Correlations Across Length Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancic, Robert; Shavit, Amit; Rieser, Jennifer; Schoenholz, Samuel; Cubuk, Ekin; Durian, Douglas; Liu, Andrea; Riggleman, Robert

    In disordered systems, it is believed that mechanical failure begins with localized particle rearrangements. Recently, a machine learning method has been introduced to identify how likely a particle is to rearrange given its local structural environment, quantified by softness. We calculate the softness of particles in simulations of atomic Lennard-Jones mixtures, molecular Lennard-Jones oligomers, colloidal systems and granular systems. In each case, we find that the length scale characterizing spatial correlations of softness is approximately a particle diameter. These results provide a rationale for why localized rearrangements--whose size is presumably set by the scale of softness correlations--might occur in disordered systems across many length scales. Supported by DOE DE-FG02-05ER46199.

  14. Welding arc length control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iceland, William F. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a welding arc length control system. The system includes, in its broadest aspects, a power source for providing welding current, a power amplification system, a motorized welding torch assembly connected to the power amplification system, a computer, and current pick up means. The computer is connected to the power amplification system for storing and processing arc weld current parameters and non-linear voltage-ampere characteristics. The current pick up means is connected to the power source and to the welding torch assembly for providing weld current data to the computer. Thus, the desired arc length is maintained as the welding current is varied during operation, maintaining consistent weld penetration.

  15. Variable focal length deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Headley, Daniel; Ramsey, Marc; Schwarz, Jens

    2007-06-12

    A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

  16. Fluid absorption solar energy receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A conventional solar dynamic system transmits solar energy to the flowing fluid of a thermodynamic cycle through structures which contain the gas and thermal energy storage material. Such a heat transfer mechanism dictates that the structure operate at a higher temperature than the fluid. This investigation reports on a fluid absorption receiver where only a part of the solar energy is transmitted to the structure. The other part is absorbed directly by the fluid. By proportioning these two heat transfer paths the energy to the structure can preheat the fluid, while the energy absorbed directly by the fluid raises the fluid to its final working temperature. The surface temperatures need not exceed the output temperature of the fluid. This makes the output temperature of the gas the maximum temperature in the system. The gas can have local maximum temperatures higher than the output working temperature. However local high temperatures are quickly equilibrated, and since the gas does not emit radiation, local high temperatures do not result in a radiative heat loss. Thermal radiation, thermal conductivity, and heat exchange with the gas all help equilibrate the surface temperature.

  17. Critical Length Limiting Superlow Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ming; Benassi, Andrea; Vanossi, Andrea; Urbakh, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Since the demonstration of superlow friction (superlubricity) in graphite at nanoscale, one of the main challenges in the field of nano- and micromechanics was to scale this phenomenon up. A key question to be addressed is to what extent superlubricity could persist, and what mechanisms could lead to its failure. Here, using an edge-driven Frenkel-Kontorova model, we establish a connection between the critical length above which superlubricity disappears and both intrinsic material properties and experimental parameters. A striking boost in dissipated energy with chain length emerges abruptly due to a high-friction stick-slip mechanism caused by deformation of the slider leading to a local commensuration with the substrate lattice. We derived a parameter-free analytical model for the critical length that is in excellent agreement with our numerical simulations. Our results provide a new perspective on friction and nanomanipulation and can serve as a theoretical basis for designing nanodevices with superlow friction, such as carbon nanotubes.

  18. Critical length limiting superlow friction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming; Benassi, Andrea; Vanossi, Andrea; Urbakh, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Since the demonstration of superlow friction (superlubricity) in graphite at nanoscale, one of the main challenges in the field of nano- and micromechanics was to scale this phenomenon up. A key question to be addressed is to what extent superlubricity could persist, and what mechanisms could lead to its failure. Here, using an edge-driven Frenkel-Kontorova model, we establish a connection between the critical length above which superlubricity disappears and both intrinsic material properties and experimental parameters. A striking boost in dissipated energy with chain length emerges abruptly due to a high-friction stick-slip mechanism caused by deformation of the slider leading to a local commensuration with the substrate lattice. We derived a parameter-free analytical model for the critical length that is in excellent agreement with our numerical simulations. Our results provide a new perspective on friction and nanomanipulation and can serve as a theoretical basis for designing nanodevices with superlow friction, such as carbon nanotubes. PMID:25699452

  19. Sequential Path Entanglement for Quantum Metrology

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xian-Min; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Deng, Youjin; Barbieri, Marco; Nunn, Joshua; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    Path entanglement is a key resource for quantum metrology. Using path-entangled states, the standard quantum limit can be beaten, and the Heisenberg limit can be achieved. However, the preparation and detection of such states scales unfavourably with the number of photons. Here we introduce sequential path entanglement, in which photons are distributed across distinct time bins with arbitrary separation, as a resource for quantum metrology. We demonstrate a scheme for converting polarization Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entanglement into sequential path entanglement. We observe the same enhanced phase resolution expected for conventional path entanglement, independent of the delay between consecutive photons. Sequential path entanglement can be prepared comparably easily from polarization entanglement, can be detected without using photon-number-resolving detectors, and enables novel applications.

  20. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.