Fabrication of multi-layered absorption structure for high quantum efficiency photon detectors
Fujii, Go; Fukuda, Daiji; Numata, Takayuki; Yoshizawa, Akio; Tsuchida, Hidemi; Fujino, Hidetoshi; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Itatani, Taro; Zama, Tatsuya; Inoue, Shuichiro
2009-12-16
We report on some efforts to improve a quantum efficiency of titanium-based optical superconducting transition edge sensors using the multi-layered absorption structure for maximizing photon absorption in the Ti layer. Using complex refractive index values of each film measured by a Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, we designed and optimized by a simulation code. An absorption measurement of fabricated structure was in good agreement with the design and was higher than 99% at optimized wavelength of 1550 nm.
Li, Tian E-mail: dage@ece.umd.edu; Dagenais, Mario E-mail: dage@ece.umd.edu; Lu, Haofeng; Fu, Lan; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati
2015-02-02
Reduced quantum dot (QD) absorption due to state filling effects and enhanced electron transport in doped QDs are demonstrated to play a key role in solar energy conversion. Reduced QD state absorption with increased n-doping is observed in the self-assembled In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As/GaAs QDs from high resolution below-bandgap external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurement, which is a direct consequence of the Pauli exclusion principle. We also show that besides partial filling of the quantum states, electron-doping produces negatively charged QDs that exert a repulsive Coulomb force on the mobile electrons, thus altering the electron trajectory and reducing the probability of electron capture, leading to an improved collection efficiency of photo-generated carriers, as indicated by an absolute above-bandgap EQE measurement. The resulting redistribution of the mobile electron in the planar direction is further validated by the observed photoluminescence intensity dependence on doping.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chengao; Hasselbeck, Michael P.; Li, Chia-Yeh; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor
2010-02-01
The state of current research in laser cooling of semiconductors is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the characterization of external quantum efficiency and absorption efficiency in GaAs/InGaP double heterostuctures. New experimental results will be presented that characterize device operation as a function of laser excitation power and temperature. Optimum carrier density is obtained independently and used as a screening tool for sample quality. The crucial importance of parasitic background absorption is discussed.
Multistage quantum absorption heat pumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Correa, Luis A.
2014-04-01
It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized N-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging N -2 elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the absorption chiller mode between given hot and cold baths and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of N. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration.
Multistage quantum absorption heat pumps.
Correa, Luis A
2014-04-01
It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized N-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging N-2 elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the absorption chiller mode between given hot and cold baths and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of N. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration. PMID:24827213
Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators
Correa, Luis A.; Palao, José P.; Alonso, Daniel; Adesso, Gerardo
2014-01-01
Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators. PMID:24492860
Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Correa, Luis A.; Palao, José P.; Alonso, Daniel; Adesso, Gerardo
2014-02-01
Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators.
Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators.
Correa, Luis A; Palao, José P; Alonso, Daniel; Adesso, Gerardo
2014-01-01
Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators. PMID:24492860
Sorting quantum systems efficiently
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ionicioiu, Radu
2016-05-01
Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) – which direct photons according to their polarization – and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation.
Sorting quantum systems efficiently.
Ionicioiu, Radu
2016-01-01
Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) - which direct photons according to their polarization - and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation. PMID:27142705
Sorting quantum systems efficiently
Ionicioiu, Radu
2016-01-01
Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) – which direct photons according to their polarization – and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation. PMID:27142705
Dunn, J; Steel, A B
2012-05-06
We report a method to determine the quantum detection efficiency and the absorbing layers on a front-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD). The CCD under study, as part of a crystal spectrometer, measures intense continuum x-ray emission from a picosecond laser-produced plasma and spectrally resolves the Si K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure features due to the electrode gate structure of the device. The CCD response across the Si K-edge shows a large discontinuity as well as a number of oscillations that are identified individually and uniquely from Si, SiO{sub 2}, and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layers. From the spectral analysis of the structure and K-edge discontinuity, the active layer thickness and the different absorbing layers thickness can be determined precisely. A precise CCD detection model from 0.2-10 keV can be deduced from this highly sensitive technique.
Efficient quantum secret sharing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei
2016-05-01
An efficient quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the dealer generates some single particles and then uses the operations of quantum-controlled-not and Hadamard gate to encode a determinate secret into these particles. The participants get their shadows by performing the single-particle measurements on their particles, and even the dealer cannot know their shadows. Compared to the existing schemes, our scheme is more practical within the present technologies.
Performance bound for quantum absorption refrigerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Correa, Luis A.; Palao, José P.; Adesso, Gerardo; Alonso, Daniel
2013-04-01
An implementation of quantum absorption chillers with three qubits has been recently proposed that is ideally able to reach the Carnot performance regime. Here we study the working efficiency of such self-contained refrigerators, adopting a consistent treatment of dissipation effects. We demonstrate that the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling power is upper bounded by 3/4 of the Carnot performance. The result is independent of the details of the system and the equilibrium temperatures of the external baths. We provide design prescriptions that saturate the bound in the limit of a large difference between the operating temperatures. Our study suggests that delocalized dissipation, which must be taken into account for a proper modeling of the machine-baths interaction, is a fundamental source of irreversibility which prevents the refrigerator from approaching the Carnot performance arbitrarily closely in practice. The potential role of quantum correlations in the operation of these machines is also investigated.
Small quantum absorption refrigerator with reversed couplings.
Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Brunner, Nicolas
2015-07-01
Small quantum absorption refrigerators have recently attracted renewed attention. Here we present a missing design of a two-qubit fridge, the main feature of which is that one of the two machine qubits is itself maintained at a temperature colder than the cold bath. This is achieved by "reversing" the couplings to the baths compared to previous designs, where only a transition is maintained cold. We characterize the working regime and the efficiency of the fridge. We demonstrate the soundness of the model by deriving and solving a master equation. Finally, we discuss the performance of the fridge, in particular the heat current extracted from the cold bath. We show that our model performs comparably to the standard three-level quantum fridge and thus appears appealing for possible implementations of nanoscale thermal machines. PMID:26274153
Small quantum absorption refrigerator with reversed couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Brunner, Nicolas
2015-07-01
Small quantum absorption refrigerators have recently attracted renewed attention. Here we present a missing design of a two-qubit fridge, the main feature of which is that one of the two machine qubits is itself maintained at a temperature colder than the cold bath. This is achieved by "reversing" the couplings to the baths compared to previous designs, where only a transition is maintained cold. We characterize the working regime and the efficiency of the fridge. We demonstrate the soundness of the model by deriving and solving a master equation. Finally, we discuss the performance of the fridge, in particular the heat current extracted from the cold bath. We show that our model performs comparably to the standard three-level quantum fridge and thus appears appealing for possible implementations of nanoscale thermal machines.
Quantum efficiency of a double quantum dot microwave photon detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Clement; Vavilov, Maxim
Motivated by recent interest in implementing circuit quantum electrodynamics with semiconducting quantum dots, we study charge transfer through a double quantum dot (DQD) capacitively coupled to a superconducting cavity subject to a microwave field. We analyze the DQD current response using input-output theory and determine the optimal parameter regime for complete absorption of radiation and efficient conversion of microwave photons to electric current. For experimentally available DQD systems, we show that the cavity-coupled DQD operates as a photon-to-charge converter with quantum efficiencies up to 80% C.W. acknowledges support by the Intelligence Community Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program.
Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor.
Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Wang, Jingbo B; Matthews, Jonathan C F
2016-01-01
The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor. PMID:27146471
Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor
Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Wang, Jingbo B.; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.
2016-01-01
The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor. PMID:27146471
Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Wang, Jingbo B.; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.
2016-05-01
The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor.
Efficient Quantum Information Processing via Quantum Compressions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Y.; Luo, M. X.; Ma, S. Y.
2016-01-01
Our purpose is to improve the quantum transmission efficiency and reduce the resource cost by quantum compressions. The lossless quantum compression is accomplished using invertible quantum transformations and applied to the quantum teleportation and the simultaneous transmission over quantum butterfly networks. New schemes can greatly reduce the entanglement cost, and partially solve transmission conflictions over common links. Moreover, the local compression scheme is useful for approximate entanglement creations from pre-shared entanglements. This special task has not been addressed because of the quantum no-cloning theorem. Our scheme depends on the local quantum compression and the bipartite entanglement transfer. Simulations show the success probability is greatly dependent of the minimal entanglement coefficient. These results may be useful in general quantum network communication.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zijun; Dai, Nengli; Yang, Luyun; Li, Jinyan
2015-05-01
We report that Eu2+-Yb3+ system with high luminescent quantum efficiency and broadband excitation could be playing a significant role in solar cells. This borosilicate glass used as conversion layer can efficiently minimize the energy loss of thermalization. The cooperative energy transfer between Eu2+ and Yb3+ realized the emission of greenish and near-infrared light simultaneously with the blue light of xenon lamp excitation. The emission peaks located at 980 nm and 1,030 nm are the characteristic emission of Yb3+ with the energy matches well with the bandgap of silicon solar cells. The luminescent quantum efficiency is up to 163.5 % with the radiation rate being considered. Given the broad excitation band, high quantum efficiency and excellent mechanical, thermal and chemical stability, this system can be useful as down-conversion layer for solar cells.
Yoshikawa, H. Kotani, T.; Kuzumoto, Y.; Izumi, M.; Tomomura, Y.; Hamaguchi, C.
2014-07-07
We present a theoretical study of the electronic structures and polarized absorption properties of quantum dot superlattices (QDSLs) using wide–gap matrix material, InAs/In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P QDSLs, for realizing intermediate–band solar cells (IBSCs) with two–step photon–absorption. The plane–wave expanded Burt–Foreman operator ordered 8–band k·p theory is used for this calculation, where strain effect and piezoelectric effect are taken into account. We find that the absorption spectra of the second transitions of two–step photon–absorption can be shifted to higher energy region by using In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P, which is lattice–matched material to GaAs substrate, as a matrix material instead of GaAs. We also find that the transverse magnetic polarized absorption spectra in InAs/In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P QDSL with a separate IB from the rest of the conduction minibands can be shifted to higher energy region by decreasing the QD height. As a result, the second transitions of two–step photon–absorption by the sunlight occur efficiently. These results indicate that InAs/In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P QDSLs are suitable material combination of IBSCs toward the realization of ultrahigh efficiency solar cells.
Efficient Quantum Pseudorandomness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Harrow, Aram W.; Horodecki, Michał
2016-04-01
Randomness is both a useful way to model natural systems and a useful tool for engineered systems, e.g., in computation, communication, and control. Fully random transformations require exponential time for either classical or quantum systems, but in many cases pseudorandom operations can emulate certain properties of truly random ones. Indeed, in the classical realm there is by now a well-developed theory regarding such pseudorandom operations. However, the construction of such objects turns out to be much harder in the quantum case. Here, we show that random quantum unitary time evolutions ("circuits") are a powerful source of quantum pseudorandomness. This gives for the first time a polynomial-time construction of quantum unitary designs, which can replace fully random operations in most applications, and shows that generic quantum dynamics cannot be distinguished from truly random processes. We discuss applications of our result to quantum information science, cryptography, and understanding the self-equilibration of closed quantum dynamics.
Efficient Quantum Pseudorandomness.
Brandão, Fernando G S L; Harrow, Aram W; Horodecki, Michał
2016-04-29
Randomness is both a useful way to model natural systems and a useful tool for engineered systems, e.g., in computation, communication, and control. Fully random transformations require exponential time for either classical or quantum systems, but in many cases pseudorandom operations can emulate certain properties of truly random ones. Indeed, in the classical realm there is by now a well-developed theory regarding such pseudorandom operations. However, the construction of such objects turns out to be much harder in the quantum case. Here, we show that random quantum unitary time evolutions ("circuits") are a powerful source of quantum pseudorandomness. This gives for the first time a polynomial-time construction of quantum unitary designs, which can replace fully random operations in most applications, and shows that generic quantum dynamics cannot be distinguished from truly random processes. We discuss applications of our result to quantum information science, cryptography, and understanding the self-equilibration of closed quantum dynamics. PMID:27176509
Quantum Entanglement Molecular Absorption Spectrum Simulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Kojima, Jun
2006-01-01
Quantum Entanglement Molecular Absorption Spectrum Simulator (QE-MASS) is a computer program for simulating two photon molecular-absorption spectroscopy using quantum-entangled photons. More specifically, QE-MASS simulates the molecular absorption of two quantum-entangled photons generated by the spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) of a fixed-frequency photon from a laser. The two-photon absorption process is modeled via a combination of rovibrational and electronic single-photon transitions, using a wave-function formalism. A two-photon absorption cross section as a function of the entanglement delay time between the two photons is computed, then subjected to a fast Fourier transform to produce an energy spectrum. The program then detects peaks in the Fourier spectrum and displays the energy levels of very short-lived intermediate quantum states (or virtual states) of the molecule. Such virtual states were only previously accessible using ultra-fast (femtosecond) laser systems. However, with the use of a single-frequency continuous wave laser to produce SPDC photons, and QEMASS program, these short-lived molecular states can now be studied using much simpler laser systems. QE-MASS can also show the dependence of the Fourier spectrum on the tuning range of the entanglement time of any externally introduced optical-path delay time. QE-MASS can be extended to any molecule for which an appropriate spectroscopic database is available. It is a means of performing an a priori parametric analysis of entangled photon spectroscopy for development and implementation of emerging quantum-spectroscopic sensing techniques. QE-MASS is currently implemented using the Mathcad software package.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchleitner, Andreas; Burghardt, Irene; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Scholes, Gregory D.; Schwarz, Ulrich T.; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Wellens, Thomas
2014-10-01
Technologies which convert light into energy, and vice versa, rely on complex, microscopic transport processes in the condensed phase, which obey the laws of quantum mechanics, but hitherto lack systematic analysis and modeling. Given our much improved understanding of multicomponent, disordered, highly structured, open quantum systems, this ‘focus on’ collection collects cutting-edge research on theoretical and experimental aspects of quantum transport in truly complex systems as defined, e.g., by the macromolecular functional complexes at the heart of photosynthesis, by organic quantum wires, or even photovoltaic devices. To what extent microscopic quantum coherence effects can (be made to) impact on macroscopic transport behavior is an equally challenging and controversial question, and this ‘focus on’ collection provides a setting for the present state of affairs, as well as for the ‘quantum opportunities’ on the horizon.
Absorption spectroscopy with quantum cascade lasers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kosterev, A. A.; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F. K.; Gmachl, C.; Capasso, F.; Sivco, D. L.; Baillargeon, J. N.; Hutchinson, A. L.; Cho, A. Y.
2001-01-01
Novel pulsed and cw quantum cascade distributed feedback (QC-DFB) lasers operating near lambda=8 micrometers were used for detection and quantification of trace gases in ambient air by means of sensitive absorption spectroscopy. N2O, 12CH4, 13CH4, and different isotopic species of H2O were detected. Also, a highly selective detection of ethanol vapor in air with a sensitivity of 125 parts per billion by volume (ppb) was demonstrated.
Absorption-based quantum communication with NV centres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scharfenberger, Burkhard; Kosaka, Hideo; Munro, William J.; Nemoto, Kae
2015-10-01
We propose a scheme for performing an entanglement-swapping operation within a quantum communications hub (a Bell like measurement) using an NV-centre’s | +/- 1> ≤ftrightarrow | {A}2> optical transition. This is based on the heralded absorption of a photon resonant with that transition. The quantum efficiency of a single photon absorption is low but can be improved by placing the NV centre inside a micro cavity to boost the interaction time and further by recycling the leaked photon back into the cavity after flipping its phase and/or polarization. Throughout this process, the NV is repeatedly monitored via a QND measurement that heralds whether or not the photon absorption has succeeded. Upon success we know a destructive Bell measurement has occurred between that photon and NV centre. Given low losses and high per-pass absorption probability, this scheme should allow the total success probability to approach unity. With long electron spin coherence times possible at low temperatures, this component could be useful within a memory-based quantum repeater or relay.
Two-dimensional probe absorption in coupled quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Ningwu; Zhang, Yan; Kang, Chengxian; Wang, Zhiping; Yu, Benli
2016-07-01
We investigate the two-dimensional (2D) probe absorption in coupled quantum dots. It is found that, due to the position-dependent quantum interference effect, the 2D optical absorption spectrum can be easily controlled via adjusting the system parameters. Thus, our scheme may provide some technological applications in solid-state quantum communication.
Quantum efficiency and false positive rate
Hallett, P. E.
1969-01-01
1. This paper presents an analysis of the efficiency of performance at the absolute threshold of human vision. The data are from the same series as the previous papers (Hallett, 1969b, c) and consist of frequency-of-seeing curves, thresholds, false positive rates and equivalent background measurements, accumulated as small samples over a number of days. 2. Quantum efficiency is defined here as the ratio of the thresholds of an ideal and a real detector performing the same task with the same sampling error. This avoids the problem as to whether the frequency-of-seeing curve of the real detector is exactly a Poisson sum or not. 3. The long-term quantum efficiency can be low (about 0·04) as a result of drifts in the mean threshold. 4. The average short-term quantum efficiency is in the region of 0·1, which is roughly the physiological limit set by Rushton's (1956b) measurements of rhodopsin density in the living rods. If this is correct, then the absorption of a quantum, and not the bleaching of a rhodopsin molecule, is sufficient for the generation of a neural event. 5. Application of a simple signal/noise theory to the data gives solutions close to those suggested by Barlow (1956) and shows that false positives almost invariably arise from errors subsequent to the signal/noise decision process. PMID:5784295
Asahi, S.; Teranishi, H.; Kasamatsu, N.; Kada, T.; Kaizu, T.; Kita, T.
2014-08-14
We investigated the effects of an increase in the barrier height on the enhancement of the efficiency of two-step photo-excitation in InAs quantum dot (QD) solar cells with a dot-in-well structure. Thermal carrier escape of electrons pumped in QD states was drastically reduced by sandwiching InAs/GaAs QDs with a high potential barrier of Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As. The thermal activation energy increased with the introduction of the barrier. The high potential barrier caused suppression of thermal carrier escape and helped realize a high electron density in the QD states. We observed efficient two-step photon absorption as a result of the high occupancy of the QD states at room temperature.
Efficient quantum memory for light.
Hedges, Morgan P; Longdell, Jevon J; Li, Yongmin; Sellars, Matthew J
2010-06-24
Storing and retrieving a quantum state of light on demand, without corrupting the information it carries, is an important challenge in the field of quantum information processing. Classical measurement and reconstruction strategies for storing light must necessarily destroy quantum information as a consequence of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. There has been significant effort directed towards the development of devices-so-called quantum memories-capable of avoiding this penalty. So far, successful demonstrations of non-classical storage and on-demand recall have used atomic vapours and have been limited to low efficiencies, of less than 17 per cent, using weak quantum states with an average photon number of around one. Here we report a low-noise, highly efficient (up to 69 per cent) quantum memory for light that uses a solid-state medium. The device allows the storage and recall of light more faithfully than is possible using a classical memory, for weak coherent states at the single-photon level through to bright states of up to 500 photons. For input coherent states containing on average 30 photons or fewer, the performance exceeded the no-cloning limit. This guaranteed that more information about the inputs was retrieved from the memory than was left behind or destroyed, a feature that will provide security in communications applications. PMID:20577210
Quantum wells for high-efficiency photovoltaics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso-Álvarez, Diego; Ekins-Daukes, Nicholas
2016-03-01
Over the last couple of decades, there has been an intense research on strain balanced semiconductor quantum wells (QW) to increase the efficiency of multi-junction solar (MJ) solar cells grown monolithically on germanium. So far, the most successful application of QWs have required just to tailor a few tens of nanometers the absorption edge of a given subcell in order to reach the optimum spectral position. However, the demand for higher efficiency devices requiring 3, 4 or more junctions, represents a major difference in the challenges QWs must face: tailoring the absorption edge of a host material is not enough, but a complete new device, absorbing light in a different spectral region, must be designed. Among the most important issues to solve is the need for an optically thick structure to absorb enough light while keeping excellent carrier extraction using highly strained materials. Improvement of the growth techniques, smarter device designs - involving superlattices and shifted QWs, for example - or the use of quantum wires rather than QWs, have proven to be very effective steps towards high efficient MJ solar cells based on nanostructures in the last couple of years. But more is to be done to reach the target performances. This work discusses all these challenges, the limitations they represent and the different approaches that are being used to overcome them.
Duality quantum computer and the efficient quantum simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Shi-Jie; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-03-01
Duality quantum computing is a new mode of a quantum computer to simulate a moving quantum computer passing through a multi-slit. It exploits the particle wave duality property for computing. A quantum computer with n qubits and a qudit simulates a moving quantum computer with n qubits passing through a d-slit. Duality quantum computing can realize an arbitrary sum of unitaries and therefore a general quantum operator, which is called a generalized quantum gate. All linear bounded operators can be realized by the generalized quantum gates, and unitary operators are just the extreme points of the set of generalized quantum gates. Duality quantum computing provides flexibility and a clear physical picture in designing quantum algorithms, and serves as a powerful bridge between quantum and classical algorithms. In this paper, after a brief review of the theory of duality quantum computing, we will concentrate on the applications of duality quantum computing in simulations of Hamiltonian systems. We will show that duality quantum computing can efficiently simulate quantum systems by providing descriptions of the recent efficient quantum simulation algorithm of Childs and Wiebe (Quantum Inf Comput 12(11-12):901-924, 2012) for the fast simulation of quantum systems with a sparse Hamiltonian, and the quantum simulation algorithm by Berry et al. (Phys Rev Lett 114:090502, 2015), which provides exponential improvement in precision for simulating systems with a sparse Hamiltonian.
Exciton absorption of entangled photons in semiconductor quantum wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, Ferney; Guzman, David; Salazar, Luis; Quiroga, Luis; Condensed Matter Physics Group Team
2013-03-01
The dependence of the excitonic two-photon absorption on the quantum correlations (entanglement) of exciting biphotons by a semiconductor quantum well is studied. We show that entangled photon absorption can display very unusual features depending on space-time-polarization biphoton parameters and absorber density of states for both bound exciton states as well as for unbound electron-hole pairs. We report on the connection between biphoton entanglement, as quantified by the Schmidt number, and absorption by a semiconductor quantum well. Comparison between frequency-anti-correlated, unentangled and frequency-correlated biphoton absorption is addressed. We found that exciton oscillator strengths are highly increased when photons arrive almost simultaneously in an entangled state. Two-photon-absorption becomes a highly sensitive probe of photon quantum correlations when narrow semiconductor quantum wells are used as two-photon absorbers. Research funds from Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de los Andes
Efficient universal blind quantum computation.
Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo; Morimae, Tomoyuki; Rudolph, Terry G
2013-12-01
We give a cheat sensitive protocol for blind universal quantum computation that is efficient in terms of computational and communication resources: it allows one party to perform an arbitrary computation on a second party's quantum computer without revealing either which computation is performed, or its input and output. The first party's computational capabilities can be extremely limited: she must only be able to create and measure single-qubit superposition states. The second party is not required to use measurement-based quantum computation. The protocol requires the (optimal) exchange of O(Jlog2(N)) single-qubit states, where J is the computational depth and N is the number of qubits needed for the computation. PMID:24476238
Efficient Universal Blind Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo; Morimae, Tomoyuki; Rudolph, Terry G.
2013-12-01
We give a cheat sensitive protocol for blind universal quantum computation that is efficient in terms of computational and communication resources: it allows one party to perform an arbitrary computation on a second party’s quantum computer without revealing either which computation is performed, or its input and output. The first party’s computational capabilities can be extremely limited: she must only be able to create and measure single-qubit superposition states. The second party is not required to use measurement-based quantum computation. The protocol requires the (optimal) exchange of O(Jlog2(N)) single-qubit states, where J is the computational depth and N is the number of qubits needed for the computation.
Enhanced refractive index without absorption in semiconductor quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Nan; Shui, Tao; Qian, Biqi; Wang, Zhiping; Yu, Benli
2015-07-01
We investigate the absorptive-dispersive properties of a weak probe field in a ladder-type quantum dot. It is found that the enhanced refraction index without absorption can be easily controlled via adjusting properly the corresponding parameters of the system. Our scheme may provide some new possibilities for technological applications in dispersion compensation and solid-state quantum communication for quantum information processing.
Electro-absorption of silicene and bilayer graphene quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdelsalam, Hazem; Talaat, Mohamed H.; Lukyanchuk, Igor; Portnoi, M. E.; Saroka, V. A.
2016-07-01
We study numerically the optical properties of low-buckled silicene and AB-stacked bilayer graphene quantum dots subjected to an external electric field, which is normal to their surface. Within the tight-binding model, the optical absorption is calculated for quantum dots, of triangular and hexagonal shapes, with zigzag and armchair edge terminations. We show that in triangular silicene clusters with zigzag edges a rich and widely tunable infrared absorption peak structure originates from transitions involving zero energy states. The edge of absorption in silicene quantum dots undergoes red shift in the external electric field for triangular clusters, whereas blue shift takes place for hexagonal ones. In small clusters of bilayer graphene with zigzag edges the edge of absorption undergoes blue/red shift for triangular/hexagonal geometry. In armchair clusters of silicene blue shift of the absorption edge takes place for both cluster shapes, while red shift is inherent for both shapes of the bilayer graphene quantum dots.
Efficiency and formalism of quantum games
Lee, C.F.; Johnson, Neil F.
2003-02-01
We show that quantum games are more efficient than classical games and provide a saturated upper bound for this efficiency. We also demonstrate that the set of finite classical games is a strict subset of the set of finite quantum games. Our analysis is based on a rigorous formulation of quantum games, from which quantum versions of the minimax theorem and the Nash equilibrium theorem can be deduced.
Microscopic Theory and Simulation of Quantum-Well Intersubband Absorption
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Jianzhong; Ning, C. Z.
2004-01-01
We study the linear intersubband absorption spectra of a 15 nm InAs quantum well using the intersubband semiconductor Bloch equations with a three-subband model and a constant dephasing rate. We demonstrate the evolution of intersubband absorption spectral line shape as a function of temperature and electron density. Through a detailed examination of various contributions, such as the phase space filling effects, the Coulomb many-body effects and the non-parabolicity effect, we illuminate the underlying physics that shapes the spectra. Keywords: Intersubband transition, linear absorption, semiconductor heterostructure, InAs quantum well
Avetissian, H K; Ghazaryan, A G; Matevosyan, H H; Mkrtchian, G F
2015-10-01
The microscopic quantum theory of plasma nonlinear interaction with the coherent shortwave electromagnetic radiation of arbitrary intensity is developed. The Liouville-von Neumann equation for the density matrix is solved analytically considering a wave field exactly and a scattering potential of plasma ions as a perturbation. With the help of this solution we calculate the nonlinear inverse-bremsstrahlung absorption rate for a grand canonical ensemble of electrons. The latter is studied in Maxwellian, as well as in degenerate quantum plasma for x-ray lasers at superhigh intensities and it is shown that one can achieve the efficient absorption coefficient in these cases. PMID:26565352
Blackbody absorption efficiencies for six lamp pumped Nd laser materials.
Cross, P L; Barnes, N P; Skolaut, M W; Storm, M E
1990-02-20
Utilizing high resolution spectra, the absorption efficiency for six Nd laser materials was calculated as functions of the effective blackbody temperature of the lamp and laser crystal size. The six materials were Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF, Nd:Q-98 Glass, Nd:YVO(4), Nd:BEL, and Nd:Cr:GSGG. Under the guidelines of this study, Nd:Cr:GSGG's absorption efficiency is twice the absorption efficiency of any of the other laser materials. PMID:20556185
Blackbody absorption efficiencies for six lamp pumped Nd laser materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cross, Patricia L.; Barnes, Norman P.; Skolaut, Milton W., Jr.; Storm, Mark E.
1990-01-01
Utilizing high resolution spectra, the absorption efficiencies for six Nd laser materials were calculated as functions of the effective blackbody temperature of the lamp and laser crystal size. The six materials were Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF, Nd:Q-98 Glass, Nd:YVO4, Nd:BEL, and Nd:Cr:GSGG. Under the guidelines of this study, Nd:Cr:GSGG's absorption efficiency is twice the absorption efficiency of any of the other laser materials.
Negative refraction without absorption via quantum coherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Ai-Ping; Ge, Wenchao; Wang, Meng; Li, Fu-li; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2016-02-01
Negative refraction of a probe field is studied in a dense gas consisting of cascade-type four-level atoms. By coupling the magnetic component of the probe field to a Λ scheme with initially prepared coherence in the two lower levels, strong negative permeability with minimal absorption can be obtained. The permittivity of the gas to the electric component of the probe field can be made negative by taking into account the local field effect of the dense atoms. Strong negative refraction with zero absorption can be achieved in a wide range of parameters in our scheme. A possible experimental realization is also discussed.
Photosensor with enhanced quantum efficiency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Janesick, James R. (Inventor); Elliott, Stythe T. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
A method to significantly increase the quantum efficiency (QE) of a CCD (or similar photosensor) applied in the UV, far UV and low energy x-ray regions of the spectrum. The increase in QE is accomplished by overthinning the backside of a CCD substrate beyond the epitaxial interface and UV flooding the sensor prior to use. The UV light photoemits electrons to the thinned surface and charges the backside negatively. This in turn forms an accumulation layer of holes near the Si-SiO.sub.2 interface creating an electric field gradient in the silicon which directs the photogenerated signal to the frontside where they are collected in pixel locations and later transferred. An oxide film, in which the backside charge resides, must have quality equivalent to a well aged native oxide which typically takes several years to form under ambient conditions. To reduce the amount of time in growing an oxide of sufficient quality, a process has been developed to grow an oxide by using deionized steam at 95.degree. C. which takes less than one hour to grow.
Robust and efficient in situ quantum control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrie, Christopher; Moussa, Osama
2015-05-01
Precision control of quantum systems is the driving force for both quantum technology and the probing of physics at the quantum and nanoscale levels. We propose an implementation-independent method for in situ quantum control that leverages recent advances in the direct estimation of quantum gate fidelity. Our algorithm takes account of the stochasticity of the problem, is suitable for closed-loop control, and requires only a constant number of fidelity-estimating experiments per iteration independent of the dimension of the control space. It is efficient and robust to both statistical and technical noise.
Nonlinear intersubband optical absorption in a semiconductor quantum well
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahn, D.; Chuang, S. L.
1987-01-01
The third-order nonlinear intersubband absorption in a semiconductor quantum well is studied theoretically using the density matrix formalism including intrasubband relaxation. It is shown that the peak absorption is reduced by half for an optical intensity 1 MW/sq cm for the well size L = 126.5 A with 3.0 x 10 to the 16th/cu cm electrons.
Quantum efficiencies of bacteriorhodopsin photochemical reactions
Xie, A.H. )
1990-11-01
Determination of quantum efficiencies of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) photoreactions is an essential step toward a full understanding of its light-driven proton-pumping mechanism. The bR molecules can be photoconverted into and from a K state, which is stable at 110 K. I measured the absorption spectra of pure bR, and the photoequilibrium states of bR and K generated with 420, 460, 500, 510, 520, 540, 560, 570, 580, 590, and 600 nm illumination at 110 K. The fraction of the K population in the photoequilibrium state, fk, is determined by AbR and AK the absorbances of the bR and K states at the excitation wavelengths, and also by phi 1 and phi 2, the quantum efficiencies for the bR to K and K to bR photoconversion: fK = phi 1 AbR/(phi 1AbR + phi 2Ak). By assuming that the ratio phi 1/phi 2 is the same at two different but close wavelengths, for example 570 and 580 nm, the value of phi 1/phi 2 at 570 and 580 nm was determined to be 0.55 +/- 0.02, and the spectrum of the K state was obtained with the peak absorbance at 607 nm. The values of phi 1/phi 2 at the other excitation wavelengths were then evaluated using the known K spectrum, and show almost no dependence on the excitation wavelength within the main band. The result phi 1/phi 2 = 0.55 +/- 0.02 disagrees with those of many other groups. The advantages of this method over others are its minimal assumptions and its straightforward procedure.
Counterfactual quantum key distribution with high efficiency
Sun Ying; Wen Qiaoyan
2010-11-15
In a counterfactual quantum key distribution scheme, a secret key can be generated merely by transmitting the split vacuum pulses of single particles. We improve the efficiency of the first quantum key distribution scheme based on the counterfactual phenomenon. This scheme not only achieves the same security level as the original one but also has higher efficiency. We also analyze how to achieve the optimal efficiency under various conditions.
Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory
Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman
2016-01-01
Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution. PMID:27241946
Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory.
Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman
2016-01-01
Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution. PMID:27241946
Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman
2016-05-01
Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution.
La Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy for Applications in Quantum Information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becker, Patrick; Donoghue, Liz; Dungan, Kristina; Liu, Jackie; Olmschenk, Steven
2015-05-01
Quantum information may revolutionize computation and communication by utilizing quantum systems based on matter quantum bits and entangled light. Ions are excellent candidates for quantum bits as they can be well-isolated from unwanted external influences by trapping and laser cooling. Doubly-ionized lanthanum in particular shows promise for use in quantum information as it has infrared transitions in the telecom band, with low attenuation in standard optical fiber, potentially allowing for long distance information transfer. However, the hyperfine splittings of the lowest energy levels, required for laser cooling, have not been measured. We present progress and recent results towards measuring the hyperfine splittings of these levels in lanthanum by saturated absorption spectroscopy with a hollow cathode lamp. This research is supported by the Army Research Office, Research Corporation for Science Advancement, and Denison University.
Direct determination of absorption anisotropy in colloidal quantum rods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamal, John Sundar; Gomes, Raquel; Hens, Zeger; Karvar, Masoumeh; Neyts, Kristiaan; Compernolle, Sien; Vanhaecke, Frank
2012-01-01
We propose a direct method to determine absorption anisotropy of colloidal quantum rods. In this method, the rods are aligned in solution by using an alternating electric field and we measure simultaneously the resulting average change in absorption. We show that a frequency window for the electric field exists in which the change in absorbance as a function of field strength can be analyzed in terms of the quantum-rod dipole moment and the absorption coefficient for light that is polarized parallel or perpendicular to the long axis of the rod. The approach is verified by measuring the absorbance change of CdSe rods at 400 nm as a function of field strength, where we demonstrate excellent agreement between experiment and theory. This enables us to propose improved values for the CdSe quantum-rod extinction coefficient. Next, we analyze CdSe/CdS dot-in-rods and find that the absorption of the first exciton transition is fully anisotropic, with a vanishing absorption coefficient for light that is polarized perpendicularly to the long axis of the rods.
Applications of absorption spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers.
Zhang, Lizhu; Tian, Guang; Li, Jingsong; Yu, Benli
2014-01-01
Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) is a promising modern technique for sensing trace gases with high sensitivity, selectivity, and high time resolution. Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers, operating in a pulsed or continuous wave mode, have potential as spectroscopic sources because of their narrow linewidths, single mode operation, tunability, high output power, reliability, low power consumption, and compactness. This paper reviews some important developments in modern laser absorption spectroscopy based on the use of quantum cascade laser (QCL) sources. Among the various laser spectroscopic methods, this review is focused on selected absorption spectroscopy applications of QCLs, with particular emphasis on molecular spectroscopy, industrial process control, combustion diagnostics, and medical breath analysis. PMID:25239063
Efficient Toffoli Gate in Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reed, Matthew; Dicarlo, Leonardo; Sun, Luyan; Frunzio, Luigi; Schoelkopf, Robert
2011-03-01
The fidelity of quantum gates in circuit quantum electrodynamics is typically limited by qubit decoherence. As such, significant improvements can be realized by shortening gate duration. The three-qubit Toffoli gate, also called the controlled-controlled NOT, is an important operation in basic quantum error correction. We report a scheme for a Toffoli gate that exploits interactions with non-computational excited states of transmon qubits which can be executed faster than an equivalent construction using one- and two-qubit gates. The application of this gate to efficient measurement-free quantum error correction will be discussed. Research supported by NSF, NSA, and ARO.
Efficient networks for quantum factoring
Beckman, D.; Chari, A.N.; Devabhaktuni, S.; Preskill, J.
1996-08-01
We consider how to optimize memory use and computation time in operating a quantum computer. In particular, we estimate the number of memory quantum bits (qubits) and the number of operations required to perform factorization, using the algorithm suggested by Shor [in {ital Proceedings} {ital of} {ital the} 35{ital th} {ital Annual} {ital Symposium} {ital on} {ital Foundations} {ital of} {ital Computer} {ital Science}, edited by S. Goldwasser (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, 1994), p. 124]. A {ital K}-bit number can be factored in time of order {ital K}{sup 3} using a machine capable of storing 5{ital K}+1 qubits. Evaluation of the modular exponential function (the bottleneck of Shor{close_quote}s algorithm) could be achieved with about 72{ital K}{sup 3} elementary quantum gates; implementation using a linear ion trap would require about 396{ital K}{sup 3} laser pulses. A proof-of-principle demonstration of quantum factoring (factorization of 15) could be performed with only 6 trapped ions and 38 laser pulses. Though the ion trap may never be a useful computer, it will be a powerful device for exploring experimentally the properties of entangled quantum states. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Broadband quantum efficiency enhancement in high index nanowire resonators.
Yang, Yiming; Peng, Xingyue; Hyatt, Steven; Yu, Dong
2015-05-13
Light trapping in subwavelength semiconductor nanowires (NWs) offers a promising approach to simultaneously reducing material consumption and enhancing photovoltaic performance. Nevertheless, the absorption efficiency of a NW, defined by the ratio of optical absorption cross section to the NW diameter, lingers around 1 in existing NW photonic devices, and the absorption enhancement suffers from a narrow spectral width. Here, we show that the absorption efficiency can be significantly improved in NWs with higher refractive indices, by an experimental observation of up to 350% apparent external quantum efficiency in lead sulfide NW resonators, a 3-fold increase compared to Si NWs. Furthermore, broadband absorption enhancement is achieved in single tapered NWs, where light of various wavelengths is absorbed at segments with different diameters. Overall, the single NW Schottky junction solar cells benefit from optical resonance, near bandgap open circuit voltage, and long minority carrier diffusion length, demonstrating power conversion efficiency comparable to Si and III-V single NW coaxial p-n junction cells but with much simpler fabrication processes. PMID:25919358
Conditional efficient multiuser quantum cryptography network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, Peng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2002-02-01
We propose a conditional quantum key distribution scheme with three nonorthogonal states. Combined with the idea presented by Lo et al. (H.-K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, e-print arXiv: quant-ph/0011056), the efficiency of this scheme is increased to tend to 100%. Also, such a refined data analysis guarantees the security of our scheme against the most general eavesdropping strategy. Then, based on the scheme, we present a quantum cryptography network with the addition of a device called ``space optical switch.'' Moreover, we give out a realization of a quantum random number generator. Thus, a feasible experimental scheme of this efficient quantum cryptography network is completely given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komatsu, Yu; Umemura, Masayuki; Shoji, Mitsuo; Kayanuma, Megumi; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Shiraishi, Kenji
2015-07-01
For detecting life from reflection spectra on extrasolar planets, trace of photosynthesis is one of the indicators. However, it is not yet clear what kind of radiation environments is acceptable for photosynthesis. Light absorption in photosystems on the Earth occurs using limited photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophylls (Chls) and bacteriochlorophylls (BChls). Efficiencies of light absorption for the pigments were evaluated by calculating the specific molecular absorption spectra at the high accuracy-quantum mechanical level. We used realistic stellar radiation spectra such as F, G, K and M-type stars to investigate the efficiencies. We found that the efficiencies are increased with the temperature of stars, from M to F star. Photosynthetic pigments have two types of absorption bands, the Q y and Soret. In higher temperature stars like F star, contributions from the Soret region of the pigments are dominant for the efficiency. On the other hand, in lower temperature stars like M stars, the Q y band is crucial. Therefore, differences on the absorption intensity and the wavelength between the Q y and Soret band are the most important to characterize the photosynthetic pigments. Among photosynthetic pigments, Chls tend to be efficient in higher temperature stars, while BChls are efficient for M stars. Blueward of the 4000 Å break, the efficiencies of BChls are smaller than Chls in the higher temperature stars.
Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes
Xiao Li; Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu; Pan Jianwei
2004-05-01
In this work, we generalize the quantum-secret-sharing scheme of Hillery, Buzek, and Berthiaume [Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829 (1999)] into arbitrary multiparties. Explicit expressions for the shared secret bit is given. It is shown that in the Hillery-Buzek-Berthiaume quantum-secret-sharing scheme the secret information is shared in the parity of binary strings formed by the measured outcomes of the participants. In addition, we have increased the efficiency of the quantum-secret-sharing scheme by generalizing two techniques from quantum key distribution. The favored-measuring-basis quantum-secret-sharing scheme is developed from the Lo-Chau-Ardehali technique [H. K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, e-print quant-ph/0011056] where all the participants choose their measuring-basis asymmetrically, and the measuring-basis-encrypted quantum-secret-sharing scheme is developed from the Hwang-Koh-Han technique [W. Y. Hwang, I. G. Koh, and Y. D. Han, Phys. Lett. A 244, 489 (1998)] where all participants choose their measuring basis according to a control key. Both schemes are asymptotically 100% in efficiency, hence nearly all the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states in a quantum-secret-sharing process are used to generate shared secret information.
Non-resonant below-bandgap two-photon absorption in quantum dot solar cells
Li, Tian; Dagenais, Mario
2015-04-27
We study the optically nonlinear sub-bandgap photocurrent generation facilitated by an extended tailing distribution of states in an InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) solar cell. The tailing states function as both the energy states for low energy photon absorption and the photocarriers extraction pathway. One of the biggest advantages of our method is that it can clearly differentiate the photocurrent due to one-photon absorption (1PA) process and two-photon absorption (2PA) process. Both 1PA and 2PA photocurrent generation efficiency in an InAs/GaAs QD device operated at 1550 nm have been quantitatively evaluated. A two-photon absorption coefficient β = 5.7 cm/GW is extracted.
A fluorescent benzothiazole probe with efficient two-photon absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Echevarria, Lorenzo; Moreno, Iván; Camacho, José; Salazar, Mary Carmen; Hernández, Antonio
2012-11-01
In this work, we report the two-photon absorption of 2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-1,3-benzothiazole-6-carbonitrile (DBC) in DMSO solution pumping at 779 nm with a 10 ns pulse laser-Nd:YAG system. The obtained two-photon absorption cross-section in DBC (407 ± 18 GM) is considerably high. Because DBC is a novel compound and have high values of fluorescence quantum yield, this result is expected to have an impact in biomolecules detection, diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Similar structures have previously been reported to show remarkable antitumour effects.
Light absorption in silicon quantum dots embedded in silica
Mirabella, S.; Agosta, R.; Franzo, G.; Crupi, I.; Miritello, M.; Lo Savio, R.; Terrasi, A.; Di Stefano, M. A.; Di Marco, S.; Simone, F.
2009-11-15
The photon absorption in Si quantum dots (QDs) embedded in SiO{sub 2} has been systematically investigated by varying several parameters of the QD synthesis. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or magnetron cosputtering (MS) have been used to deposit, upon quartz substrates, single layer, or multilayer structures of Si-rich-SiO{sub 2} (SRO) with different Si content (43-46 at. %). SRO samples have been annealed for 1 h in the 450-1250 deg. C range and characterized by optical absorption measurements, photoluminescence analysis, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and x-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. After annealing up to 900 deg. C SRO films grown by MS show a higher absorption coefficient and a lower optical bandgap (approx2.0 eV) in comparison with that of PECVD samples, due to the lower density of Si-Si bonds and to the presence of nitrogen in PECVD materials. By increasing the Si content a reduction in the optical bandgap has been recorded, pointing out the role of Si-Si bonds density in the absorption process in small amorphous Si QDs. Both the photon absorption probability and energy threshold in amorphous Si QDs are higher than in bulk amorphous Si, evidencing a quantum confinement effect. For temperatures higher than 900 deg. C both the materials show an increase in the optical bandgap due to the amorphous-crystalline transition of the Si QDs. Fixed the SRO stoichiometry, no difference in the optical bandgap trend of multilayer or single layer structures is evidenced. These data can be profitably used to better implement Si QDs for future PV technologies.
Increasing efficiency in intermediate band solar cells with overlapping absorptions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishna, Akshay; Krich, Jacob J.
2016-07-01
Intermediate band (IB) materials are promising candidates for realizing high efficiency solar cells. In IB photovoltaics, photons are absorbed in one of three possible electronic transitions—valence to conduction band, valence to intermediate band, or intermediate to conduction band. With fully concentrated sunlight, when the band gaps have been chosen appropriately, the highest efficiency IB solar cells require that these three absorptions be non-overlapping, so absorbed photons of fixed energy contribute to only one transition. The realistic case of overlapping absorptions, where the transitions compete for photons, is generally considered to be a source of loss. We show that overlapping absorptions can in fact lead to significant improvements in IB solar cell efficiencies, especially for IB that are near the middle of the band gap. At low to moderate concentration, the highest efficiency requires overlapping absorptions. We use the detailed-balance method and indicate how much overlap of the absorptions is required to achieve efficiency improvements, comparing with some known cases. These results substantially broaden the set of materials that can be suitable for high-efficiency IB solar cells.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slooff, L. H.; Veenstra, S. C.; Kroon, J. M.; Moet, D. J. D.; Sweelssen, J.; Koetse, M. M.
2007-04-01
A power conversion efficiency of 4.2% (AM1.5, 1000W/m2) is measured for an organic solar cell based on an active layer of an alternating copolymer, containing a fluorene and a benzothiadiazole unit with two neighboring thiophene rings, and a fullerene derivative. Using optical modeling, the absorption profile in the active layer of the solar cell is calculated and used to calculate the maximum short circuit current. The calculated currents are compared with measured currents from current-voltage measurements for various film thicknesses. From this the internal quantum efficiency is estimated to be 75% at the maximum for the best device.
Highly efficient metallic optical incouplers for quantum well infrared photodetectors
Liu, Long; Chen, Yu; Huang, Zhong; Du, Wei; Zhan, Peng; Wang, Zhenlin
2016-01-01
Herein, we propose a highly efficient metallic optical incoupler for a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) operating in the spectrum range of 14~16 μm, which consists of an array of metal micropatches and a periodically corrugated metallic back plate sandwiching a semiconductor active layer. By exploiting the excitations of microcavity modes and hybrid spoof surface plasmons (SSPs) modes, this optical incoupler can convert infrared radiation efficiently into the quantum wells (QWs) layer of semiconductor region with large electrical field component (Ez) normal to the plane of QWs. Our further numerical simulations for optimization indicate that by tuning microcavity mode to overlap with hybrid SSPs mode in spectrum, a coupled mode is formed, which leads to 33-fold enhanced light absorption for QWs centered at wavelength of 14.5 μm compared with isotropic absorption of QWs without any metallic microstructures, as well as a large value of coupling efficiency (η) of |Ez|2 ~ 6. This coupled mode shows a slight dispersion over ~40° and weak polarization dependence, which is quite beneficial to the high performance infrared photodetectors. PMID:27456691
Highly efficient metallic optical incouplers for quantum well infrared photodetectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Long; Chen, Yu; Huang, Zhong; Du, Wei; Zhan, Peng; Wang, Zhenlin
2016-07-01
Herein, we propose a highly efficient metallic optical incoupler for a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) operating in the spectrum range of 14~16 μm, which consists of an array of metal micropatches and a periodically corrugated metallic back plate sandwiching a semiconductor active layer. By exploiting the excitations of microcavity modes and hybrid spoof surface plasmons (SSPs) modes, this optical incoupler can convert infrared radiation efficiently into the quantum wells (QWs) layer of semiconductor region with large electrical field component (Ez) normal to the plane of QWs. Our further numerical simulations for optimization indicate that by tuning microcavity mode to overlap with hybrid SSPs mode in spectrum, a coupled mode is formed, which leads to 33-fold enhanced light absorption for QWs centered at wavelength of 14.5 μm compared with isotropic absorption of QWs without any metallic microstructures, as well as a large value of coupling efficiency (η) of |Ez|2 ~ 6. This coupled mode shows a slight dispersion over ~40° and weak polarization dependence, which is quite beneficial to the high performance infrared photodetectors.
Highly efficient metallic optical incouplers for quantum well infrared photodetectors.
Liu, Long; Chen, Yu; Huang, Zhong; Du, Wei; Zhan, Peng; Wang, Zhenlin
2016-01-01
Herein, we propose a highly efficient metallic optical incoupler for a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) operating in the spectrum range of 14~16 μm, which consists of an array of metal micropatches and a periodically corrugated metallic back plate sandwiching a semiconductor active layer. By exploiting the excitations of microcavity modes and hybrid spoof surface plasmons (SSPs) modes, this optical incoupler can convert infrared radiation efficiently into the quantum wells (QWs) layer of semiconductor region with large electrical field component (Ez) normal to the plane of QWs. Our further numerical simulations for optimization indicate that by tuning microcavity mode to overlap with hybrid SSPs mode in spectrum, a coupled mode is formed, which leads to 33-fold enhanced light absorption for QWs centered at wavelength of 14.5 μm compared with isotropic absorption of QWs without any metallic microstructures, as well as a large value of coupling efficiency (η) of |Ez|(2) ~ 6. This coupled mode shows a slight dispersion over ~40° and weak polarization dependence, which is quite beneficial to the high performance infrared photodetectors. PMID:27456691
Lead Telluride Quantum Dot Solar Cells Displaying External Quantum Efficiencies Exceeding 120%.
Böhm, Marcus L; Jellicoe, Tom C; Tabachnyk, Maxim; Davis, Nathaniel J L K; Wisnivesky-Rocca-Rivarola, Florencia; Ducati, Caterina; Ehrler, Bruno; Bakulin, Artem A; Greenham, Neil C
2015-12-01
Multiple exciton generation (MEG) in semiconducting quantum dots is a process that produces multiple charge-carrier pairs from a single excitation. MEG is a possible route to bypass the Shockley-Queisser limit in single-junction solar cells but it remains challenging to harvest charge-carrier pairs generated by MEG in working photovoltaic devices. Initial yields of additional carrier pairs may be reduced due to ultrafast intraband relaxation processes that compete with MEG at early times. Quantum dots of materials that display reduced carrier cooling rates (e.g., PbTe) are therefore promising candidates to increase the impact of MEG in photovoltaic devices. Here we demonstrate PbTe quantum dot-based solar cells, which produce extractable charge carrier pairs with an external quantum efficiency above 120%, and we estimate an internal quantum efficiency exceeding 150%. Resolving the charge carrier kinetics on the ultrafast time scale with pump-probe transient absorption and pump-push-photocurrent measurements, we identify a delayed cooling effect above the threshold energy for MEG. PMID:26488847
Lead Telluride Quantum Dot Solar Cells Displaying External Quantum Efficiencies Exceeding 120%
2015-01-01
Multiple exciton generation (MEG) in semiconducting quantum dots is a process that produces multiple charge-carrier pairs from a single excitation. MEG is a possible route to bypass the Shockley-Queisser limit in single-junction solar cells but it remains challenging to harvest charge-carrier pairs generated by MEG in working photovoltaic devices. Initial yields of additional carrier pairs may be reduced due to ultrafast intraband relaxation processes that compete with MEG at early times. Quantum dots of materials that display reduced carrier cooling rates (e.g., PbTe) are therefore promising candidates to increase the impact of MEG in photovoltaic devices. Here we demonstrate PbTe quantum dot-based solar cells, which produce extractable charge carrier pairs with an external quantum efficiency above 120%, and we estimate an internal quantum efficiency exceeding 150%. Resolving the charge carrier kinetics on the ultrafast time scale with pump–probe transient absorption and pump–push–photocurrent measurements, we identify a delayed cooling effect above the threshold energy for MEG. PMID:26488847
Quantum Otto cycle efficiency on coupled qudits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanchenko, E. A.
2015-09-01
Properties of the coupled particles with spin 3/2 (quartits) in a constant magnetic field, as a working substance in the quantum Otto cycle of the heat engine, are considered. It is shown that this system as a converter of heat energy in work (i) shows the efficiency 1 at the negative absolute temperatures of heat baths, (ii) at the temperatures of the opposite sign the efficiency approaches 1, (iii) at the positive temperatures of heat baths antiferromagnetic interaction raises efficiency threefold in comparison with uncoupled particles.
Quantum Otto cycle efficiency on coupled qudits.
Ivanchenko, E A
2015-09-01
Properties of the coupled particles with spin 3/2 (quartits) in a constant magnetic field, as a working substance in the quantum Otto cycle of the heat engine, are considered. It is shown that this system as a converter of heat energy in work (i) shows the efficiency 1 at the negative absolute temperatures of heat baths, (ii) at the temperatures of the opposite sign the efficiency approaches 1, (iii) at the positive temperatures of heat baths antiferromagnetic interaction raises efficiency threefold in comparison with uncoupled particles. PMID:26465443
Absorption-reduced waveguide structure for efficient terahertz generation
Pálfalvi, L.; Fülöp, J. A.; Hebling, J.
2015-12-07
An absorption-reduced planar waveguide structure is proposed for increasing the efficiency of terahertz (THz) pulse generation by optical rectification of femtosecond laser pulses with tilted-pulse-front in highly nonlinear materials with large absorption coefficient. The structure functions as waveguide both for the optical pump and the generated THz radiation. Most of the THz power propagates inside the cladding with low THz absorption, thereby reducing losses and leading to the enhancement of the THz generation efficiency by up to more than one order of magnitude, as compared with a bulk medium. Such a source can be suitable for highly efficient THz pulse generation pumped by low-energy (nJ-μJ) pulses at high (MHz) repetition rates delivered by compact fiber lasers.
Absorption-reduced waveguide structure for efficient terahertz generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pálfalvi, L.; Fülöp, J. A.; Hebling, J.
2015-12-01
An absorption-reduced planar waveguide structure is proposed for increasing the efficiency of terahertz (THz) pulse generation by optical rectification of femtosecond laser pulses with tilted-pulse-front in highly nonlinear materials with large absorption coefficient. The structure functions as waveguide both for the optical pump and the generated THz radiation. Most of the THz power propagates inside the cladding with low THz absorption, thereby reducing losses and leading to the enhancement of the THz generation efficiency by up to more than one order of magnitude, as compared with a bulk medium. Such a source can be suitable for highly efficient THz pulse generation pumped by low-energy (nJ-μJ) pulses at high (MHz) repetition rates delivered by compact fiber lasers.
Holmium fibre laser with record quantum efficiency
Kurkov, Andrei S; Sholokhov, E M; Tsvetkov, V B; Marakulin, A V; Minashina, L A; Medvedkov, O I; Kosolapov, A F
2011-06-30
We report holmium-doped fibre lasers with a Ho{sup 3+} concentration of 1.6 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} and lasing wavelengths of 2.02, 2.05, 2.07 and 2.1 {mu}m at a pump wavelength of 1.15 {mu}m. The slope efficiency of the lasers has been measured. The maximum efficiency, 0.455, has been obtained at a lasing wavelength of 2.05 {mu}m. The laser efficiency is influenced by both the optical loss in the wing of a vibrational absorption band of silica and active-ion clustering. (lasers)
Efficient Biologically Inspired Photocell Enhanced by Delocalized Quantum States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Creatore, C.; Parker, M. A.; Emmott, S.; Chin, A. W.
2013-12-01
Artificially implementing the biological light reactions responsible for the remarkably efficient photon-to-charge conversion in photosynthetic complexes represents a new direction for the future development of photovoltaic devices. Here, we develop such a paradigm and present a model photocell based on the nanoscale architecture and molecular elements of photosynthetic reaction centers. Quantum interference of photon absorption and emission induced by the dipole-dipole interaction between molecular excited states guarantees an enhanced light-to-current conversion and power generation for a wide range of electronic, thermal, and optical parameters for optimized dipolar geometries. This result opens a promising new route for designing artificial light-harvesting devices inspired by biological photosynthesis and quantum technologies.
Enhancing light absorption within the carrier transport length in quantum junction solar cells.
Fu, Yulan; Hara, Yukihiro; Miller, Christopher W; Lopez, Rene
2015-09-10
Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells have attracted tremendous attention because of their tunable absorption spectrum window and potentially low processing cost. Recently reported quantum junction solar cells represent a promising approach to building a rectifying photovoltaic device that employs CQD layers on each side of the p-n junction. However, the ultimate efficiency of CQD solar cells is still highly limited by their high trap state density in both p- and n-type CQDs. By modeling photonic structures to enhance the light absorption within the carrier transport length and by ensuring that the carrier generation and collection efficiencies were both augmented, our work shows that overall device current density could be improved. We utilized a two-dimensional numerical model to calculate the characteristics of patterned CQD solar cells based on a simple grating structure. Our calculation predicts a short circuit current density as high as 31 mA/cm^{2}, a value nearly 1.5 times larger than that of the conventional flat design, showing the great potential value of patterned quantum junction solar cells. PMID:26368966
Room-temperature efficient light detection by amorphous Ge quantum wells
2013-01-01
In this work, ultrathin amorphous Ge films (2 to 30 nm in thickness) embedded in SiO2 layers were grown by magnetron sputtering and employed as proficient light sensitizer in photodetector devices. A noteworthy modification of the visible photon absorption is evidenced due to quantum confinement effects which cause both a blueshift (from 0.8 to 1.8 eV) in the bandgap and an enhancement (up to three times) in the optical oscillator strength of confined carriers. The reported quantum confinement effects have been exploited to enhance light detection by Ge quantum wells, as demonstrated by photodetectors with an internal quantum efficiency of 70%. PMID:23496870
Efficient quantum optical state engineering and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCusker, Kevin T.
Over a century after the modern prediction of the existence of individual particles of light by Albert Einstein, a reliable source of this simple quantum state of one photon does not exist. While common light sources such as a light bulb, LED, or laser can produce a pulse of light with an average of one photon, there is (currently) no way of knowing the number of photons in that pulse without first absorbing (and thereby destroying) them. Spontaneous parametric down-conversion, a process in which one high-energy photon splits into two lower-energy photons, allows us to prepare a single-photon state by detecting one of the photons, which then heralds the existence of its twin. This process has been the workhorse of quantum optics, allowing demonstrations of a myriad of quantum processes and protocols, such as entanglement, cryptography, superdense coding, teleportation, and simple quantum computing demonstrations. All of these processes would benefit from better engineering of the underlying down-conversion process, but despite significant effort (both theoretical and experimental), optimization of this process is ongoing. The focus of this work is to optimize certain aspects of a down-conversion source, and then use this tool in novel experiments not otherwise feasible. Specifically, the goal is to optimize the heralding efficiency of the down-conversion photons, i.e., the probability that if one photon is detected, the other photon is also detected. This source is then applied to two experiments (a single-photon source, and a quantum cryptography implementation), and the detailed theory of an additional application (a source of Fock states and path-entangled states, called N00N states) is discussed, along with some other possible applications.
Multi-domain electromagnetic absorption of triangular quantum rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sitek, Anna; Thorgilsson, Gunnar; Gudmundsson, Vidar; Manolescu, Andrei
2016-06-01
We present a theoretical study of the unielectronic energy spectra, electron localization, and optical absorption of triangular core–shell quantum rings. We show how these properties depend on geometric details of the triangle, such as side thickness or corners’ symmetry. For equilateral triangles, the lowest six energy states (including spin) are grouped in an energy shell, are localized only around corner areas, and are separated by a large energy gap from the states with higher energy which are localized on the sides of the triangle. The energy levels strongly depend on the aspect ratio of the triangle sides, i.e., thickness/length ratio, in such a way that the energy differences are not monotonous functions of this ratio. In particular, the energy gap between the group of states localized in corners and the states localized on the sides strongly decreases with increasing the side thickness, and then slightly increases for thicker samples. With increasing the thickness the low-energy shell remains distinct but the spatial distribution of these states spreads. The behavior of the energy levels and localization leads to a thickness-dependent absorption spectrum where one transition may be tuned in the THz domain and a second transition can be tuned from THz to the infrared range of electromagnetic spectrum. We show how these features may be further controlled with an external magnetic field. In this work the electron–electron Coulomb repulsion is neglected.
Mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haibach, Fred; Erlich, Adam; Deutsch, Erik
2011-06-01
Block Engineering has developed an absorption spectroscopy system based on widely tunable Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL). The QCL spectrometer rapidly cycles through a user-selected range in the mid-infrared spectrum, between 6 to 12 μm (1667 to 833 cm-1), to detect and identify substances on surfaces based on their absorption characteristics from a standoff distance of up to 2 feet with an eye-safe laser. It can also analyze vapors and liquids in a single device. For military applications, the QCL spectrometer has demonstrated trace explosive, chemical warfare agent (CWA), and toxic industrial chemical (TIC) detection and analysis. The QCL's higher power density enables measurements from diffuse and highly absorbing materials and substrates. Other advantages over Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy include portability, ruggedness, rapid analysis, and the ability to function from a distance through free space or a fiber optic probe. This paper will discuss the basic technology behind the system and the empirical data on various safety and security applications.
Multi-domain electromagnetic absorption of triangular quantum rings.
Sitek, Anna; Thorgilsson, Gunnar; Gudmundsson, Vidar; Manolescu, Andrei
2016-06-01
We present a theoretical study of the unielectronic energy spectra, electron localization, and optical absorption of triangular core-shell quantum rings. We show how these properties depend on geometric details of the triangle, such as side thickness or corners' symmetry. For equilateral triangles, the lowest six energy states (including spin) are grouped in an energy shell, are localized only around corner areas, and are separated by a large energy gap from the states with higher energy which are localized on the sides of the triangle. The energy levels strongly depend on the aspect ratio of the triangle sides, i.e., thickness/length ratio, in such a way that the energy differences are not monotonous functions of this ratio. In particular, the energy gap between the group of states localized in corners and the states localized on the sides strongly decreases with increasing the side thickness, and then slightly increases for thicker samples. With increasing the thickness the low-energy shell remains distinct but the spatial distribution of these states spreads. The behavior of the energy levels and localization leads to a thickness-dependent absorption spectrum where one transition may be tuned in the THz domain and a second transition can be tuned from THz to the infrared range of electromagnetic spectrum. We show how these features may be further controlled with an external magnetic field. In this work the electron-electron Coulomb repulsion is neglected. PMID:27102909
Ahn, Tai-Sang; Al-Kaysi, Rabih O; Müller, Astrid M; Wentz, Katherine M; Bardeen, Christopher J
2007-08-01
A new method is presented for analyzing the effects of self-absorption on photoluminescence integrating sphere quantum yield measurements. Both the observed quantum yield and luminescence spectrum are used to determine the self-absorption probability, taking into account both the initial emission and subsequent absorption and reemission processes. The analysis is experimentally validated using the model system of the laser dye perylene red dispersed in a polymer film. This approach represents an improvement over previous methods that tend to overestimate the true quantum yield, especially in cases with high sample absorbance or quantum yield values. PMID:17764365
Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of silanized silicon quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuntermann, Volker; Cimpean, Carla; Brehm, Georg; Sauer, Guido; Kryschi, Carola; Wiggers, Hartmut
2008-03-01
Excitonic properties of colloidal silicon quantum dots (Si qdots) with mean sizes of 4nm were examined using stationary and time-resolved optical spectroscopy. Chemically stable silicon oxide shells were prepared by controlled surface oxidation and silanization of HF-etched Si qdots. The ultrafast relaxation dynamics of photogenerated excitons in Si qdot colloids were studied on the picosecond time scale from 0.3psto2.3ns using femtosecond-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. The time evolution of the transient absorption spectra of the Si qdots excited with a 150fs pump pulse at 390nm was observed to consist of decays of various absorption transitions of photoexcited electrons in the conduction band which overlap with both the photoluminescence and the photobleaching of the valence band population density. Gaussian deconvolution of the spectroscopic data allowed for disentangling various carrier relaxation processes involving electron-phonon and phonon-phonon scatterings or arising from surface-state trapping. The initial energy and momentum relaxation of hot carriers was observed to take place via scattering by optical phonons within 0.6ps . Exciton capturing by surface states forming shallow traps in the amorphous SiOx shell was found to occur with a time constant of 4ps , whereas deeper traps presumably localized in the Si-SiOx interface gave rise to exciton trapping processes with time constants of 110 and 180ps . Electron transfer from initially populated, higher-lying surface states to the conduction band of Si qdots (>2nm) was observed to take place within 400 or 700fs .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thibert, Arthur Joseph, III
Semiconductor nanoparticles are tiny crystalline structures (typically range from 1 - 100 nm) whose shape in many cases can be dictated through tailored chemical synthesis with atomic scale precision. The small size of these nanoparticles often results in quantum confinement (spatial confinement of wave functions), which imparts the ability to manipulate band-gap energies thus allowing them to be optimally engineered for different applications (i.e., photovoltaics, photocatalysis, imaging). However, charge carriers excited within these nanoparticles are often involved in many different processes: trapping, trap migration, Auger recombination, non-radiative relaxation, radiative relaxation, oxidation / reduction, or multiple exciton generation. Broadband ultrafast transient absorption laser spectroscopy is used to spectrally resolve the fate of excited charge carriers in both wavelength and time, providing insight as to what synthetic developments or operating conditions will be necessary to optimize their efficiency for certain applications. This thesis outlines the effort of resolving the dynamics of excited charge carriers for several Cd and Si based nanoparticle systems using this experimental technique. The thesis is organized into five chapters and two appendices as indicated below. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to the photophysics of semiconductor nanoparticles. It begins by defining what nanoparticles, semiconductors, charge carriers, and quantum confinement are. From there it details how the study of charge carrier dynamics within nanoparticles can lead to increased efficiency in applications such as photocatalysis. Finally, the experimental methodology associated with ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy is introduced and its power in mapping charge carrier dynamics is established. Chapter 2 (JPCC, 19647, 2011) introduces the first of the studied samples: water-solubilized 2D CdSe nanoribbons (NRs), which were synthesized in the Osterloh
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Chengxian; Wang, Zhiping; Yu, Benli
2016-03-01
We investigate the absorptive-dispersive properties of a weak probe field in a four-level asymmetrical double semiconductor quantum well. It is found that the enhanced refraction index without absorption can be easily controlled via adjusting properly the corresponding parameters of the system. Our scheme may provide some new possibilities for technological applications in dispersion compensation and solid-state quantum communication for quantum information processing.
Recent Progress Towards Quantum Dot Solar Cells with Enhanced Optical Absorption.
Zheng, Zerui; Ji, Haining; Yu, Peng; Wang, Zhiming
2016-12-01
Quantum dot solar cells, as a promising candidate for the next generation solar cell technology, have received tremendous attention in the last 10 years. Some recent developments in epitaxy growth and device structures have opened up new avenues for practical quantum dot solar cells. Unfortunately, the performance of quantum dot solar cells is often plagued by marginal photon absorption. In this review, we focus on the recent progress made in enhancing optical absorption in quantum dot solar cells, including optimization of quantum dot growth, improving the solar cells structure, and engineering light trapping techniques. PMID:27216604
Recent Progress Towards Quantum Dot Solar Cells with Enhanced Optical Absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Zerui; Ji, Haining; Yu, Peng; Wang, Zhiming
2016-05-01
Quantum dot solar cells, as a promising candidate for the next generation solar cell technology, have received tremendous attention in the last 10 years. Some recent developments in epitaxy growth and device structures have opened up new avenues for practical quantum dot solar cells. Unfortunately, the performance of quantum dot solar cells is often plagued by marginal photon absorption. In this review, we focus on the recent progress made in enhancing optical absorption in quantum dot solar cells, including optimization of quantum dot growth, improving the solar cells structure, and engineering light trapping techniques.
Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patwardhan, Siddharth; Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
2016-03-01
We study controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC), a cryptographic scheme where a sender can send a secret bit-string to an intended recipient, without any secure classical channel, who can obtain the complete bit-string only with the permission of a controller. We report an efficient protocol to realize CQSDC using Cluster state and then go on to construct a (2-3)-CQSDC using Brown state, where a coalition of any two of the three controllers is required to retrieve the complete message. We argue both protocols to be unconditionally secure and analyze the efficiency of the protocols to show it to outperform the existing schemes while maintaining the same security specifications.
Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patwardhan, Siddharth; Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
2016-07-01
We study controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC), a cryptographic scheme where a sender can send a secret bit-string to an intended recipient, without any secure classical channel, who can obtain the complete bit-string only with the permission of a controller. We report an efficient protocol to realize CQSDC using Cluster state and then go on to construct a (2-3)-CQSDC using Brown state, where a coalition of any two of the three controllers is required to retrieve the complete message. We argue both protocols to be unconditionally secure and analyze the efficiency of the protocols to show it to outperform the existing schemes while maintaining the same security specifications.
Determination of quantum efficiency in fluorescing turbid media.
Coppel, Ludovic Gustafsson; Andersson, Mattias; Edström, Per
2011-06-10
A method is proposed to estimate the optical parameters in a fluorescing turbid medium with strong absorption for which traditional Kubelka-Munk theory is not applicable, using a model for the radiative properties of optically thick fluorescent turbid media of finite thickness proposed in 2009 [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A26, 1896 (2009)]. The method is successfully applied to uncoated papers with different thicknesses. It is found that the quantum efficiency of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) is nearly independent of the fiber type, FWA type, FWA concentration, and filler additive concentration used in this study. The results enable an estimation of the model parameters as function of the FWA concentration and substrate composition. This is necessary in order to use the model for optimizing fluorescence in the paper and textile industries. PMID:21673784
High Quantum Efficiency OLED Lighting Systems
Shiang, Joseph
2011-09-30
The overall goal of the program was to apply improvements in light outcoupling technology to a practical large area plastic luminaire, and thus enable the product vision of an extremely thin form factor high efficiency large area light source. The target substrate was plastic and the baseline device was operating at 35 LPW at the start of the program. The target LPW of the program was a >2x improvement in the LPW efficacy and the overall amount of light to be delivered was relatively high 900 lumens. Despite the extremely difficult challenges associated with scaling up a wet solution process on plastic substrates, the program was able to make substantial progress. A small molecule wet solution process was successfully implemented on plastic substrates with almost no loss in efficiency in transitioning from the laboratory scale glass to large area plastic substrates. By transitioning to a small molecule based process, the LPW entitlement increased from 35 LPW to 60 LPW. A further 10% improvement in outcoupling efficiency was demonstrated via the use of a highly reflecting cathode, which reduced absorptive loss in the OLED device. The calculated potential improvement in some cases is even larger, ~30%, and thus there is considerable room for optimism in improving the net light coupling efficacy, provided absorptive loss mechanisms are eliminated. Further improvements are possible if scattering schemes such as the silver nanowire based hard coat structure are fully developed. The wet coating processes were successfully scaled to large area plastic substrate and resulted in the construction of a 900 lumens luminaire device.
Intersubband absorption of silicon-based quantum wells for infrared imaging
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, Chan-Ion; Pan, Dee-Son
1988-01-01
The 10-micron intersubband absorption in quantum wells made of the silicon-based system, Si/Si(1-x)Ge(x), has been calculated. The necessary details of the effective-mass anisotropy are included in the present analysis. It is found that it is readily possible to achieve an absorption constant of order of 10,000/cm in Si quantum wells with current doping technology. For 110-line and 111-line growth directions, a further advantage of Si quantum wells is pointed out, namely, an allowed absorption at normal incidence due to the anisotropic effective mass in Si.
Measurements of light absorption efficiency in InSb nanowires
Jurgilaitis, A.; Enquist, H.; Harb, M.; Dick, K. A.; Borg, B. M.; Nüske, R.; Wernersson, L.-E.; Larsson, J.
2013-01-01
We report on measurements of the light absorption efficiency of InSb nanowires. The absorbed 70 fs light pulse generates carriers, which equilibrate with the lattice via electron-phonon coupling. The increase in lattice temperature is manifested as a strain that can be measured with X-ray diffraction. The diffracted X-ray signal from the excited sample was measured using a streak camera. The amount of absorbed light was deduced by comparing X-ray diffraction measurements with simulations. It was found that 3.0(6)% of the radiation incident on the sample was absorbed by the nanowires, which cover 2.5% of the sample. PMID:26913673
Duality quantum algorithm efficiently simulates open quantum systems
Wei, Shi-Jie; Ruan, Dong; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-01-01
Because of inevitable coupling with the environment, nearly all practical quantum systems are open system, where the evolution is not necessarily unitary. In this paper, we propose a duality quantum algorithm for simulating Hamiltonian evolution of an open quantum system. In contrast to unitary evolution in a usual quantum computer, the evolution operator in a duality quantum computer is a linear combination of unitary operators. In this duality quantum algorithm, the time evolution of the open quantum system is realized by using Kraus operators which is naturally implemented in duality quantum computer. This duality quantum algorithm has two distinct advantages compared to existing quantum simulation algorithms with unitary evolution operations. Firstly, the query complexity of the algorithm is O(d3) in contrast to O(d4) in existing unitary simulation algorithm, where d is the dimension of the open quantum system. Secondly, By using a truncated Taylor series of the evolution operators, this duality quantum algorithm provides an exponential improvement in precision compared with previous unitary simulation algorithm. PMID:27464855
Duality quantum algorithm efficiently simulates open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Shi-Jie; Ruan, Dong; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-07-01
Because of inevitable coupling with the environment, nearly all practical quantum systems are open system, where the evolution is not necessarily unitary. In this paper, we propose a duality quantum algorithm for simulating Hamiltonian evolution of an open quantum system. In contrast to unitary evolution in a usual quantum computer, the evolution operator in a duality quantum computer is a linear combination of unitary operators. In this duality quantum algorithm, the time evolution of the open quantum system is realized by using Kraus operators which is naturally implemented in duality quantum computer. This duality quantum algorithm has two distinct advantages compared to existing quantum simulation algorithms with unitary evolution operations. Firstly, the query complexity of the algorithm is O(d3) in contrast to O(d4) in existing unitary simulation algorithm, where d is the dimension of the open quantum system. Secondly, By using a truncated Taylor series of the evolution operators, this duality quantum algorithm provides an exponential improvement in precision compared with previous unitary simulation algorithm.
Duality quantum algorithm efficiently simulates open quantum systems.
Wei, Shi-Jie; Ruan, Dong; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-01-01
Because of inevitable coupling with the environment, nearly all practical quantum systems are open system, where the evolution is not necessarily unitary. In this paper, we propose a duality quantum algorithm for simulating Hamiltonian evolution of an open quantum system. In contrast to unitary evolution in a usual quantum computer, the evolution operator in a duality quantum computer is a linear combination of unitary operators. In this duality quantum algorithm, the time evolution of the open quantum system is realized by using Kraus operators which is naturally implemented in duality quantum computer. This duality quantum algorithm has two distinct advantages compared to existing quantum simulation algorithms with unitary evolution operations. Firstly, the query complexity of the algorithm is O(d(3)) in contrast to O(d(4)) in existing unitary simulation algorithm, where d is the dimension of the open quantum system. Secondly, By using a truncated Taylor series of the evolution operators, this duality quantum algorithm provides an exponential improvement in precision compared with previous unitary simulation algorithm. PMID:27464855
High Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Phosphors
Kahen, Keith
2013-12-31
The project showed that non-Cd containing, InP-based nanocrystals (semiconductor materials with dimensions of ~6 nm) have high potential for enabling next-generation, nanocrystal-based, on chip phosphors for solid state lighting. Typical nanocrystals fall short of the requirements for on chip phosphors due to their loss of quantum efficiency under the operating conditions of LEDs, such as, high temperature (up to 150 °C) and high optical flux (up to 200 W/cm2). The InP-based nanocrystals invented during this project maintain high quantum efficiency (>80%) in polymer-based films under these operating conditions for emission wavelengths ranging from ~530 to 620 nm. These nanocrystals also show other desirable attributes, such as, lack of blinking (a common problem with nanocrystals which limits their performance) and no increase in the emission spectral width from room to 150 °C (emitters with narrower spectral widths enable higher efficiency LEDs). Prior to these nanocrystals, no nanocrystal system (regardless of nanocrystal type) showed this collection of properties; in fact, other nanocrystal systems are typically limited to showing only one desirable trait (such as high temperature stability) but being deficient in other properties (such as high flux stability). The project showed that one can reproducibly obtain these properties by generating a novel compositional structure inside of the nanomaterials; in addition, the project formulated an initial theoretical framework linking the compositional structure to the list of high performance optical properties. Over the course of the project, the synthetic methodology for producing the novel composition was evolved to enable the synthesis of these nanomaterials at a cost approximately equal to that required for forming typical conventional nanocrystals. Given the above results, the last major remaining step prior to scale up of the nanomaterials is to limit the oxidation of these materials during the tens of
Fast and efficient photodetection in nanoscale quantum-dot junctions.
Prins, Ferry; Buscema, Michele; Seldenthuis, Johannes S; Etaki, Samir; Buchs, Gilles; Barkelid, Maria; Zwiller, Val; Gao, Yunan; Houtepen, Arjan J; Siebbeles, Laurens D A; van der Zant, Herre S J
2012-11-14
We report on a photodetector in which colloidal quantum dots directly bridge nanometer-spaced electrodes. Unlike in conventional quantum-dot thin film photodetectors, charge mobility no longer plays a role in our quantum-dot junctions as charge extraction requires only two individual tunnel events. We find an efficient photoconductive gain mechanism with external quantum efficiencies of 38 electrons-per-photon in combination with response times faster than 300 ns. This compact device-architecture may open up new routes for improved photodetector performance in which efficiency and bandwidth do not go at the cost of one another. PMID:23094869
Magneto-absorption in conical quantum dot ensemble: Possible applications for QD LED
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayrapetyan, D. B.; Kazaryan, E. M.; Sarkisyan, H. A.
2016-07-01
In the framework of the adiabatic approximation, the energy states of electron, as well as the direct light absorption are investigated in conical quantum dot under the external magnetic field. Analytical expressions for the particle wave function and energy spectrum are obtained. The dependence of the absorption edge on the geometrical parameters of conical quantum dot is obtained. Selection rules are revealed for transitions between levels with different quantum numbers. Absorption coefficient dependence on the frequency of the incident light is revealed taking into account dispersion of conical quantum dot's base radius for both cases of symmetric and asymmetric distribution functions. Such structures are very promising and can be used for the element base quantum dots LEDs.
Absorption and photoluminescence of ultrathin pseudomorphic InAs/GaAs quantum wells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ksendzov, A.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Liu, J. K.; Rich, D. H.; Terhune, R. W.; Wilson, B. A.
1991-01-01
Absorption data are presented for 2-4-monolayer InAs/GaAs single quantum wells obtained at 77 K using a polarization-based measurement technique. The special contribution of the optical loss features arising from bulk GaAs was minimized using the polarization selectivity of absorption in single quantum wells. The double structure observed in the spectra is attributed to transitions involving confined heavy holes and both confined and unconfined electron states.
Enhanced quantum efficiency bialkali photo multiplier tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirzoyan, Razmick; Goebel, Florian; Hose, Juergen; Hsu, Ching Cheng; Ninković, Jelena; Paneque, David; Rudert, Agnes; Teshima, Masahiro
2007-03-01
Currently, the classical PMTs with semitransparent bialkali photo cathode show peak quantum efficiency (QE) of ˜25-27%. Although the above-mentioned peak QE was achieved already ˜40 years ago, nevertheless one cannot report any significant increase since then. A couple of years ago we started a development program with the main PMT manufacturers Photonis, Electron Tubes and Hamamatsu, aiming to boost-up the peak QE of the (1-2)″ size bialkali PMTs. Today we want to report that our efforts were successful: all of the three above-mentioned companies succeeded to boost the peak QE of bialkali PMTs to the level of 30-35%. In this report, we want to show the QE measurements of different tubes and discuss the future prospects. For example, it shall be possible to use the diffuse-scattering matt lacquer coating technique in order to enhance further the QE. In our previous experience application of that coating provided ˜15% increase in QE for 1-1.5″ hemispherical tubes.
Design of microresonator quantum well intensity modulators based on an absorption blue-shift
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Y.; Pile, B.; Taylor, G. W.
2011-09-01
A micro resonator quantum well intensity modulator for operation in the wavelength band around 1μm is described. High efficiency 90° bends are used to form the resonator and also provide optimal coupling to the external waveguide. The benefits are to reduce loss, to relax the lithography requirements and to provide more flexible contact designs to the modulator. The characteristics of modulator are analyzed using optical simulation tools and based on measured absorption parameters. The modulator operates with two distinctly different electrode configurations which are both based on the index change calculated using Kramers-Kronig relations. A model including parasitic is developed for HSPICE transient simulations and run in the AGILENT ADS environment. The performance parameters are determined to be an extinction ratio of 10.4dB, a bandwidth of 33GHz, and a dc power less than 1mW for device dimensions of 16×6μm2.
Mid-infrared intersubband absorption from p-Ge quantum wells grown on Si substrates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallacher, K.; Ballabio, A.; Millar, R. W.; Frigerio, J.; Bashir, A.; MacLaren, I.; Isella, G.; Ortolani, M.; Paul, D. J.
2016-02-01
Mid-infrared intersubband absorption from p-Ge quantum wells with Si0.5Ge0.5 barriers grown on a Si substrate is demonstrated from 6 to 9 μm wavelength at room temperature and can be tuned by adjusting the quantum well thickness. Fourier transform infra-red transmission and photoluminescence measurements demonstrate clear absorption peaks corresponding to intersubband transitions among confined hole states. The work indicates an approach that will allow quantum well intersubband photodetectors to be realized on Si substrates in the important atmospheric transmission window of 8-13 μm.
Control of the probe absorption in coupled quantum wells in two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Chengxian; Ma, Yangcheng; Wang, Zhiping; Yu, Benli
2016-06-01
We investigate the probe absorption of a weak probe field in two dimensions (the so-called two-dimensional probe absorption) in an asymmetric two coupled quantum wells. It is found that, due to the joint quantum interference induced by the standing-wave and coherent coupling fields, the probe absorption can be easily controlled via adjusting the system parameters in two dimensions. Most importantly, the pattern of probe absorption can be localized at a particular position and the maximal probability of finding the pattern in one period of the standing-wave fields reaches unity by properly adjusting the system parameters. Thus, our scheme may provide some technological applications in solid-state optoelectronics and quantum information science.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phuc, Huynh Vinh; Hien, Nguyen Dinh; Dinh, Le; Phong, Tran Cong
2016-06-01
The effect of confined phonons on the phonon-assisted cyclotron resonance (PACR) via both one and two photon absorption processes in a quantum well is theoretically studied. We consider cases when electrons are scattered by confined optical phonons described by the Fuchs-Kliewer slab, Ridley's guided, and Huang-Zhu models. The analytical expression of the magneto-optical absorption coefficient (MOAC) is obtained by relating it to the transition probability for the absorption of photons. It predicts resonant peaks caused by transitions between Landau levels and electric subband accompanied by confined phonons emission in the absorption spectrum. The MOAC and the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) for the intra- and inter-subband transitions are given as functions of the magnetic field, temperature, and quantum well width. In narrow quantum wells, the phonon confinement becomes more important and should be taken into account in studying FWHM.
A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knill, E.; Laflamme, R.; Milburn, G. J.
2001-01-01
Quantum computers promise to increase greatly the efficiency of solving problems such as factoring large integers, combinatorial optimization and quantum physics simulation. One of the greatest challenges now is to implement the basic quantum-computational elements in a physical system and to demonstrate that they can be reliably and scalably controlled. One of the earliest proposals for quantum computation is based on implementing a quantum bit with two optical modes containing one photon. The proposal is appealing because of the ease with which photon interference can be observed. Until now, it suffered from the requirement for non-linear couplings between optical modes containing few photons. Here we show that efficient quantum computation is possible using only beam splitters, phase shifters, single photon sources and photo-detectors. Our methods exploit feedback from photo-detectors and are robust against errors from photon loss and detector inefficiency. The basic elements are accessible to experimental investigation with current technology.
GENERAL: Efficient quantum secure communication with a publicly known key
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Xi-Han; Deng, Fu-Guo; Zhou, Hong-Yu
2008-07-01
This paper presents a simple way for an eavesdropper to eavesdrop freely the secret message in the experimental realization of quantum communication protocol proposed by Beige et al (2002 Acta Phys. Pol. A 101 357). Moreover, it introduces an efficient quantum secure communication protocol based on a publicly known key with decoy photons and two biased bases by modifying the original protocol. The total efficiency of this new protocol is double that of the original one. With a low noise quantum channel, this protocol can be used for transmitting a secret message. At present, this protocol is good for generating a private key efficiently.
Design parameters of a resonant infrared photoconductor with unity quantum efficiency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farhoomand, Jam; Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr.
1991-01-01
This paper proposes a concept of a resonant infrared photoconductor that has characteristics of 100 percent quantum efficiency, high photoconductive gain, and very low noise equivalent power. Central to this concept is an establishment of a high-finesse absorption cavity internal to the detector element. A theoretical analysis is carried out, demonstrating this concept and providing some design guidelines. A Ge:Ga FIR detector is presently being fabricated using this approach.
A high-efficiency double quantum dot heat engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Y. S.; Yang, X. F.; Hong, X. K.; Si, M. S.; Chi, F.; Guo, Y.
2013-08-01
High-efficiency heat engine requires a large output power at the cost of less input heat energy as possible. Here we propose a heat engine composed of serially connected two quantum dots sandwiched between two metallic electrodes. The efficiency of the heat engine can approach the maximum allowable Carnot efficiency ηC. We also find that the strong intradot Coulomb interaction can induce additional work regions for the heat engine, whereas the interdot Coulomb interaction always suppresses the efficiency. Our results presented here indicate a way to fabricate high-efficiency quantum-dot thermoelectric devices.
Efficient self-consistent quantum transport simulator for quantum devices
Gao, X. Mamaluy, D.; Nielsen, E.; Young, R. W.; Lilly, M. P.; Bishop, N. C.; Carroll, M. S.; Muller, R. P.; Shirkhorshidian, A.
2014-04-07
We present a self-consistent one-dimensional (1D) quantum transport simulator based on the Contact Block Reduction (CBR) method, aiming for very fast and robust transport simulation of 1D quantum devices. Applying the general CBR approach to 1D open systems results in a set of very simple equations that are derived and given in detail for the first time. The charge self-consistency of the coupled CBR-Poisson equations is achieved by using the predictor-corrector iteration scheme with the optional Anderson acceleration. In addition, we introduce a new way to convert an equilibrium electrostatic barrier potential calculated from an external simulator to an effective doping profile, which is then used by the CBR-Poisson code for transport simulation of the barrier under non-zero biases. The code has been applied to simulate the quantum transport in a double barrier structure and across a tunnel barrier in a silicon double quantum dot. Extremely fast self-consistent 1D simulations of the differential conductance across a tunnel barrier in the quantum dot show better qualitative agreement with experiment than non-self-consistent simulations.
Efficient self-consistent quantum transport simulator for quantum devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, X.; Mamaluy, D.; Nielsen, E.; Young, R. W.; Shirkhorshidian, A.; Lilly, M. P.; Bishop, N. C.; Carroll, M. S.; Muller, R. P.
2014-04-01
We present a self-consistent one-dimensional (1D) quantum transport simulator based on the Contact Block Reduction (CBR) method, aiming for very fast and robust transport simulation of 1D quantum devices. Applying the general CBR approach to 1D open systems results in a set of very simple equations that are derived and given in detail for the first time. The charge self-consistency of the coupled CBR-Poisson equations is achieved by using the predictor-corrector iteration scheme with the optional Anderson acceleration. In addition, we introduce a new way to convert an equilibrium electrostatic barrier potential calculated from an external simulator to an effective doping profile, which is then used by the CBR-Poisson code for transport simulation of the barrier under non-zero biases. The code has been applied to simulate the quantum transport in a double barrier structure and across a tunnel barrier in a silicon double quantum dot. Extremely fast self-consistent 1D simulations of the differential conductance across a tunnel barrier in the quantum dot show better qualitative agreement with experiment than non-self-consistent simulations.
Determination of the Quantum Efficiency of a Light Detector
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kraftmakher, Yaakov
2008-01-01
The "quantum efficiency" (QE) is an important property of a light detector. This quantity can be determined in the undergraduate physics laboratory. The experimentally determined QE of a silicon photodiode appeared to be in reasonable agreement with expected values. The experiment confirms the quantum properties of light and seems to be a useful…
Efficient quantum circuits for Toeplitz and Hankel matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahasinghe, A.; Wang, J. B.
2016-07-01
Toeplitz and Hankel matrices have been a subject of intense interest in a wide range of science and engineering related applications. In this paper, we show that quantum circuits can efficiently implement sparse or Fourier-sparse Toeplitz and Hankel matrices. This provides an essential ingredient for solving many physical problems with Toeplitz or Hankel symmetry in the quantum setting with deterministic queries.
Wide-Band, High-Quantum-Efficiency Photodetector
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, Deborah; Wilson, Daniel; Stern, Jeffrey
2007-01-01
A design has been proposed for a photodetector that would exhibit a high quantum efficiency (as much as 90 percent) over a wide wavelength band, which would typically be centered at a wavelength of 1.55 m. This and similar photodetectors would afford a capability for detecting single photons - a capability that is needed for research in quantum optics as well as for the practical development of secure optical communication systems for distribution of quantum cryptographic keys. The proposed photodetector would be of the hot-electron, phonon-cooled, thin-film superconductor type. The superconducting film in this device would be a meandering strip of niobium nitride. In the proposed photodetector, the quantum efficiency would be increased through incorporation of optiA design has been proposed for a photodetector that would exhibit a high quantum efficiency (as much as 90 percent) over a wide wavelength band, which would typically be centered at a wavelength of 1.55 m. This and similar photodetectors would afford a capability for detecting single photons - a capability that is needed for research in quantum optics as well as for the practical development of secure optical communication systems for distribution of quantum cryptographic keys. The proposed photodetector would be of the hot-electron, phonon-cooled, thin-film superconductor type. The superconducting film in this device would be a meandering strip of niobium nitride. In the proposed photodetector, the quantum efficiency would be increased through incorporation of opti-
The Quantum Efficiency and Thermal Emittance of Metal Photocathodes
Dowell, David H.; Schmerge, John F.; /SLAC
2009-03-04
Modern electron beams have demonstrated the brilliance needed to drive free electron lasers at x-ray wavelengths, with the principle improvements occurring since the invention of the photocathode gun. The state-of-the-art normalized emittance electron beams are now becoming limited by the thermal emittance of the cathode. In both DC and RF photocathode guns, details of the cathode emission physics strongly influence the quantum efficiency and the thermal emittance. Therefore improving cathode performance is essential to increasing the brightness of beams. It is especially important to understand the fundamentals of cathode quantum efficiency and thermal emittance. This paper investigates the relationship between the quantum efficiency and the thermal emittance of metal cathodes using the Fermi-Dirac model for the electron distribution. We derive the thermal emittance and its relationship to the quantum efficiency, and compare our results to those of others.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lloyd, Seth
2014-03-01
Femtosecond spectroscopy reveals significant quantum coherence in excitonic transport in photosynthetic organisms. How and why are living systems using quantum mechanics? This talk presents a simple theory of how to optimize energy transport in quantum systems that possess noise and disorder. Too much quantum coherence leads to destructive interference and localization, while too little coherence prevents energy from moving at all, via the watchdog or quantum Zeno effect. With just the right amount of quantum coherence, however, energy can move through photosynthetic complexes with almost 100% efficiency. This talk explains how plants and photosynthetic bacteria attain such high efficiencies for energy transport, and discusses how human-made systems could be designed to attain similar efficiencies.
Absolute biphoton meter of the quantum efficiency of photomultipliers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ginzburg, V. M.; Keratishvili, N. G.; Korzhenevich, E. L.; Lunev, G. V.; Sapritskii, V. I.
1992-07-01
An biphoton absolute meter of photomultiplier quantum efficiency is presented which is based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Calculation and experiment results were obtained which made it possible to choose the parameters of the setup that guarantee a linear dependence of wavelength on the Z coordinate (along the axicon axis). Results of a series of absolute measurements of the quantum efficiency of a specific photomultiplier (FEU-136) are presented.
Direct determination of quantum efficiency of semiconducting films
Faughnan, B.W.; Hanak, J.J.
Photovoltaic quantum efficiency of semiconductor samples is determined directly, without requiring that a built-in photovoltage be generated by the sample. Electrodes are attached to the sample so as to form at least one Schottky barrier therewith. When illuminated, the generated photocurrent carriers are collected by an external bias voltage impressed across the electrodes. The generated photocurrent is measured, and photovoltaic quantum efficiency is calculated therefrom.
Direct determination of quantum efficiency of semiconducting films
Faughnan, Brian W.; Hanak, Joseph J.
1986-01-01
Photovoltaic quantum efficiency of semiconductor samples is determined directly, without requiring that a built-in photovoltage be generated by the sample. Electrodes are attached to the sample so as to form at least one Schottky barrier therewith. When illuminated, the generated photocurrent carriers are collected by an external bias voltage impressed across the electrodes. The generated photocurrent is measured, and photovoltaic quantum efficiency is calculated therefrom.
Quantum Efficient Detectors for Use in Absolute Calibration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Faust, Jessica; Eastwood, Michael; Pavri, Betina; Raney, James
1998-01-01
The trap or quantum efficient detector has a quantum efficiency of greater than 0.98 for the region from 450 to 900 nm. The region of flattest response is from 600 to 900 nm. The QED consists of three windowless Hamamatsu silicon detectors. The QED was mounted below AVIRIS to monitor the Spectralon panel for changes in radiance during radiometric calibration. The next step is to permanently mount the detector to AVIRIS and monitor the overall radiance of scenes along with calibration.
Optimal entanglement generation for efficient hybrid quantum repeaters
Azuma, Koji; Sota, Naoya; Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Namiki, Ryo; Oezdemir, Sahin Kaya
2009-12-15
We propose a realistic protocol to generate entanglement between quantum memories at neighboring nodes in hybrid quantum repeaters. Generated entanglement includes only one type of error, which enables efficient entanglement distillation. In contrast to the known protocols with such a property, our protocol with ideal detectors achieves the theoretical limit of the success probability and the fidelity to a Bell state, promising higher efficiencies in the repeaters. We also show that the advantage of our protocol remains even with realistic threshold detectors.
Efficient Measurement of Multiparticle Entanglement with Embedding Quantum Simulator.
Chen, Ming-Cheng; Wu, Dian; Su, Zu-En; Cai, Xin-Dong; Wang, Xi-Lin; Yang, Tao; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-02-19
The quantum measurement of entanglement is a demanding task in the field of quantum information. Here, we report the direct and scalable measurement of multiparticle entanglement with embedding photonic quantum simulators. In this embedding framework [R. Di Candia et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240502 (2013)], the N-qubit entanglement, which does not associate with a physical observable directly, can be efficiently measured with only two (for even N) and six (for odd N) local measurement settings. Our experiment uses multiphoton quantum simulators to mimic dynamical concurrence and three-tangle entangled systems and to track their entanglement evolutions. PMID:26943520
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakhidov, Erkin; Kokhkharov, Abdumutallib; Kuvondikov, Vakhobjon; Nematov, Sherzod; Nusretov, Rafael
2015-10-01
The efficiency of solar radiation conversion in a model system of artificial photosynthesis, the porphyrin-fullerene assembly, is analyzed. A study of the optical absorption spectra of the porphyrin and the fullerene molecules, as well as their assembly in organic solutions, made it possible to estimate the energy efficiency of the conversion. Numerical values of the energy efficiency, defined as the fraction of the light quantum energy converted to the chemical potential of separated charges, are calculated for low- and high-concentration solutions of such a supramolecular system. The possibility of the efficient utilization of long-wavelength solar radiation in the high-concentration porphyrin-fullerene assembly solution in toluene and benzene is shown. In the photovoltaic system consisting of such a supramolecular active element, a thin ZnO film with a nanostructured surface may be introduced as a secondary acceptor of electrons from fullerene molecules. An enhancement of the transformation of separated charges of the porphyrin-fullerene assembly into electrical current by means of the ZnO film deposited on the surface of the anode electrode in such a heterogenic photovoltaic unit is proposed.
Quantum effects improve the energy efficiency of feedback control.
Horowitz, Jordan M; Jacobs, Kurt
2014-04-01
The laws of thermodynamics apply equally well to quantum systems as to classical systems, and because of this, quantum effects do not change the fundamental thermodynamic efficiency of isothermal refrigerators or engines. We show that, despite this fact, quantum mechanics permits measurement-based feedback control protocols that are more thermodynamically efficient than their classical counterparts. As part of our analysis, we perform a detailed accounting of the thermodynamics of unitary feedback control and elucidate the sources of inefficiency in measurement-based and coherent feedback. PMID:24827219
Coherence-assisted single-shot cooling by quantum absorption refrigerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitchison, Mark T.; Woods, Mischa P.; Prior, Javier; Huber, Marcus
2015-11-01
The extension of thermodynamics into the quantum regime has received much attention in recent years. A primary objective of current research is to find thermodynamic tasks which can be enhanced by quantum mechanical effects. With this goal in mind, we explore the finite-time dynamics of absorption refrigerators composed of three quantum bits (qubits). The aim of this finite-time cooling is to reach low temperatures as fast as possible and subsequently extract the cold particle to exploit it for information processing purposes. We show that the coherent oscillations inherent to quantum dynamics can be harnessed to reach temperatures that are colder than the steady state in orders of magnitude less time, thereby providing a fast source of low-entropy qubits. This effect demonstrates that quantum thermal machines can surpass classical ones, reminiscent of quantum advantages in other fields, and is applicable to a broad range of technologically important scenarios.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosenfeld, D.; Bahir, G.
1993-01-01
A theoretical study of the effect of the direction of the incident light on the quantum efficiency of homogeneous HgCdTe photodiodes suitable for sensing infrared radiation in the 8-12 microns atmospheric window is presented. The probability of an excess minority carrier to reach the junction is derived as a function of its distance from the edge of the depletion region. Accordingly, the quantum efficiency of photodiodes is presented for two geometries. In the first, the light is introduced directly to the area in which it is absorbed (opaque region), while in the second, the light passes through a transparent region before it reaches the opaque region. Finally, the performance of the two types of diodes is analyzed with the objective of finding the optimal width of the absorption area. The quantum efficiency depends strongly on the way in which the light is introduced. The structure in which the radiation is absorbed following its crossing the transparent region is associated with both higher quantum efficiency and homogeneity. In addition, for absorption region widths higher than a certain minimum, the quantum efficiency in this case is insensitive to the width of the absorption region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebrahimipour, Bahareh Alsadat; Askari, Hassan Ranjbar; Ramezani, Ali Behjat
2016-09-01
The interlevel absorption coefficient of CdSe/ZnS and ZnS/CdSe core-shell Quantum Dot (QD) in luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) is reported. By considering the quantum confinement effects, the wave functions and eigenenergies of electrons in the nonperturebative system consists of a core-shell QD have been numerically calculated under the frame work of effective-mass approximation by solving a three-dimensional Schrӧdinger equation. And then the absorption coefficient is obtained under density matrix approximation considering in the polymer sheets of the concentrator including the core-shell QDs. The effect of the hetero-structure geometry upon the energy spectrum and absorption coefficient associated to interlevel transitions was also considered. The results show that the core-shell QDs can absorb the photons with higher energy in solar spectrum as compared to the inverted core-shell. And with a small shell layer diameter, the core-shell QDs produce larger linear absorption coefficients and consequently higher efficiency values, however it is inversed for inverted core-shell QDs. The work described here gives a detailed insight into the promise of QD-based LSCs and the optoelectronic devices applications.
Efficient Luminescence from Perovskite Quantum Dot Solids.
Kim, Younghoon; Yassitepe, Emre; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Walters, Grant; Gong, Xiwen; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Nogueira, Ana F; Sargent, Edward H
2015-11-18
Nanocrystals of CsPbX3 perovskites are promising materials for light-emitting optoelectronics because of their colloidal stability, optically tunable bandgap, bright photoluminescence, and excellent photoluminescence quantum yield. Despite their promise, nanocrystal-only films of CsPbX3 perovskites have not yet been fabricated; instead, highly insulating polymers have been relied upon to compensate for nanocrystals' unstable surfaces. We develop solution chemistry that enables single-step casting of perovskite nanocrystal films and overcomes problems in both perovskite quantum dot purification and film fabrication. Centrifugally cast films retain bright photoluminescence and achieve dense and homogeneous morphologies. The new materials offer a platform for optoelectronic applications of perovskite quantum dot solids. PMID:26529572
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aziz-Aghchegala, V. L.; Mughnetsyan, V. N.; Kirakosyan, A. A.
2015-06-01
The effect of interdiffusion on electronic states and nonlinear light absorption in Gaussian-shaped double quantum rings is studied. The confining potential, electron energy spectrum, wave functions and absorption coefficient are obtained for different values of diffusion parameter. The effect of the variation of Gaussian parameters is considered as well. The selection rules for the intraband transitions in the cases of the light polarization parallel and perpendicular to the quantum rings' axis are obtained. It is shown that the interdiffusion can be used as an effective tool for the purposeful manipulation of the electric and optical properties of the considered structure.
Efficient Sub-Bandgap Light Absorption and Signal Amplification in Silicon Photodetectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yu-Hsin
This thesis focuses on two areas in silicon photodetectors, the first being enhancing the sub-bandgap light absorption of IR wavelenghts in silicon, and the second being intrinsic signal amplification in silicon photodetectors. Both of these are achieved using heavily doped p-n junction devices which create localized states that relax the k-selection rule of indirect bandgap material. The probability of transitions between impurity band and the conduction/valence band would be much more efficient than the one between band-to-band transition. The waveguide-coupled epitaxial p-n photodetector was demonstrated for 1310 nm wavelength detection. Incorporated with the Franz-Keldysh effect and the quasi-confined epitaxial layer design, an absorption coefficient around 10 cm-1 has been measured and internal quantum efficiency nearly 100% at -2.5V. The absorption coefficient is calculated from the wave function of the electron and hole in p-n diode. The heavily doped impurity wave function can be formulated as a delta function, and the quasi-confined conduction band energy states, and the wave function on each level can be obtained from the Silvaco software. The calculated theoretical absorption coefficient increases with the increasing applied bias and the doping concentration, which matches the experimental results. To solve the issues of large excess noise and high operation bias for avalanche photodiodes based on impact ionization, I presented a detector using the Cycling Excitation Process (CEP) for signal amplification. This can be realized in a heavily doped and highly compensated Si p-n junction, showing ultra high gain about 3000 at very low bias (<4 V), and possessing an intrinsic, phonon-mediated regulation process to keep the device stable without any quenching device required in today's Geiger-mode avalanche detectors. The CEP can be formulated with the rate equations in conduction bands and impurity states. The gain expression, which is a function of the
Quantum dot thermometry evaluation of geometry dependent heating efficiency in gold nanoparticles.
Maestro, Laura M; Haro-González, Patricia; Sánchez-Iglesias, Ana; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; García Solé, José; Jaque, Daniel
2014-02-18
Quantum dot based thermometry, in combination with double beam confocal microscopy, was used to investigate the absorption/heating efficiency of gold nanoparticles with different morphologies (nanorods, nanocages, nanoshells, and nanostars), all of them with an intense localized surface plasmon resonance within the first biological window, at around 808 nm. The heating efficiency was found to be strongly dependent on the geometry of the nanostructure, with the largest values found for gold nanorods and long-edge gold nanostars, both of them with heating efficiencies close to 100%. Gold nanorods and nanocages were found to have the largest absorption cross section per unit mass among all the studied geometries, emerging as optimum photothermal agents with minimum metal loading for biosystems. PMID:24495155
Transient gain-absorption of the probe field in triple quantum dots coupled by double tunneling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Si-Cong; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Wan, Ren-Gang; Zhao, Shuai; Wu, Hao; Shu, Shi-Li; Wang, Li-Jie; Tong, Cun-Zhu
2016-06-01
The transient gain-absorption property of the probe field in a linear triple quantum dots coupled by double tunneling is investigated. It is found that the additional tunneling can dramatically affect the transient behaviors under the transparency condition. The dependence of transient behaviors on other parameters, such as probe detuning, the pure dephasing decay rate of the quantum dots and the initial conditions of the population, are also discussed. The results can be explained by the properties of the dressed states generated by the additional tunneling. The scheme may have important application in quantum information network and communication.
Electro-absorption of an ensemble of close-packed CdSe quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurinovich, Leonid I.; Artemyev, Mikhail V.
2002-05-01
Highly monodisperse CdSe quantum dots 1.8 nm in size were synthesized capped with surface monolayer of 1-thioglycerol. The optical absorption of thin films of matrix free close- packed and isolated in PMMA matrix quantum dots was studied at various electric field biases. The broadening and red shift of optical transitions in close-packed ensemble against isolated is attributed to the formation of collective electronic submini-bands between interacting nanocrystals. The reversible collapse of collective electronic subminibands has been achieved by applying of strong electric field to the thin film of close-packed quantum dots.
Precision, all-optical measurement of external quantum efficiency in semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chengao; Li, Chia-Yeh; Hasselbeck, Michael P.; Imangholi, Babak; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor
2011-05-01
External quantum efficiency of semiconductor photonic devices is directly measured by wavelength-dependent laser-induced temperature change (scanning laser calorimetry) with very high accuracy. Maximum efficiency is attained at an optimum photo-excitation level that can be determined with an independent measurement of power-dependent temperature or power-dependent photoluminescence. Time-resolved photoluminescence lifetime and power-dependent photoluminescence measurements are used to evaluate unprocessed heterostructures for critical performance parameters. The crucial importance of parasitic background absorption is discussed.
Popescu-Rohrlich correlations imply efficient instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broadbent, Anne
2016-08-01
In instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation, two parties cooperate in order to perform a quantum computation on their joint inputs, while being restricted to a single round of simultaneous communication. Previous results showed that instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation is possible, at the cost of an exponential amount of prior shared entanglement (in the size of the input). Here, we show that a linear amount of entanglement suffices, (in the size of the computation), as long as the parties share nonlocal correlations as given by the Popescu-Rohrlich box. This means that communication is not required for efficient instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation. Exploiting the well-known relation to position-based cryptography, our result also implies the impossibility of secure position-based cryptography against adversaries with nonsignaling correlations. Furthermore, our construction establishes a quantum analog of the classical communication complexity collapse under nonsignaling correlations.
Efficient arbitrated quantum signature and its proof of security
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qin; Li, Chengqing; Long, Dongyang; Chan, Wai Hong; Wang, Changji
2013-07-01
In this paper, an efficient arbitrated quantum signature scheme is proposed by combining quantum cryptographic techniques and some ideas in classical cryptography. In the presented scheme, the signatory and the receiver can share a long-term secret key with the arbitrator by utilizing the key together with a random number. While in previous quantum signature schemes, the key shared between the signatory and the arbitrator or between the receiver and the arbitrator could be used only once, and thus each time when a signatory needs to sign, the signatory and the receiver have to obtain a new key shared with the arbitrator through a quantum key distribution protocol. Detailed theoretical analysis shows that the proposed scheme is efficient and provably secure.
Behaghel, B.; Tamaki, R.; Watanabe, K.; Sodabanlu, H.; Vandamme, N.; Dupuis, C.; Bardou, N.; Cattoni, A.; Okada, Y.; Sugiyama, M.; Collin, S.; Guillemoles, J.-F.
2015-02-23
We study light management in a 430 nm-thick GaAs p-i-n single junction solar cell with 10 pairs of InGaAs/GaAsP multiple quantum wells (MQWs). The epitaxial layer transfer on a gold mirror improves light absorption and increases the external quantum efficiency below GaAs bandgap by a factor of four through the excitation of Fabry-Perot resonances. We show a good agreement with optical simulation and achieve around 10% conversion efficiency. We demonstrate numerically that this promising result can be further improved by anti-reflection layers. This study paves the way to very thin MQWs solar cells.
Quantum Efficiency Enhancement in CsI/Metal Photocathodes
Kong, Lingmei; Joly, Alan G.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Hess, Wayne P.
2015-02-01
High quantum efficiency enhancement is found for hybrid metal-insulator photocathodes consisting of thin films of CsI deposited on Cu(100), Ag(100), Au(111) and Au films irradiated by 266 nm laser pulses. Low work functions (near or below 2 eV) are observed following ultraviolet laser activation. Work functions are reduced by roughly 3 eV from that of clean metal surfaces. We discuss various mechanisms of quantum efficiency enhancement for alkali halide/metal photocathode systems and conclude that the large change in work function, due to Cs accumulation of Cs metal at the metal-alkali halide interface, is the dominant mechanism for quantum efficiency enhancement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, X. Y.; Huang, X. L.; Shang, Y. F.; Wang, X. Y.
2015-04-01
Superposition principle plays a crucial role in quantum mechanics, thus its effects on thermodynamics is an interesting topic. Here, the effects of superpositions of quantum states on isoenergetic cycle are studied. We find superposition can improve the heat engine efficiency and release the positive work condition in general case. In the finite time process, we find the efficiency at maximum power output in superposition case is lower than the nonsuperposition case. This efficiency depends on one index of the energy spectrum of the working substance. This result does not mean the superposition discourages the heat engine performance. For fixed efficiency or fixed power, the superposition improves the power or efficiency respectively. These results show how quantum mechanical properties affect the thermodynamical cycle.
Characterization of Si nanostructures using internal quantum efficiency measurements
ZAIDI,SALEEM H.
2000-04-01
Hemispherical reflectance and internal quantum efficiency measurements have been employed to evaluate the response of Si nanostructured surfaces formed by using random and periodic reactive ion etching techniques. Random RIE-textured surfaces have demonstrated solar weighted reflectance of {approx} 3% over 300--1,200-nm spectral range even without the benefit of anti-reflection films. Random RIE-texturing has been found to be applicable over large areas ({approximately} 180 cm{sup 2}) of both single and multicrystalline Si surfaces. Due to the surface contamination and plasma-induced damage, RIE-textured surfaces did not initially provide increased short circuit current as expected from the enhanced absorption. Improved processing combined with wet-chemical damage removal etches resulted in significant improvement in the short circuit current with IQEs comparable to the random, wet-chemically textured surfaces. An interesting feature of the RIE-textured surfaces was their superior performance in the near IR spectral range. The response of RIE-textured periodic surfaces can be broadly classified into three distinct regimes. One-dimensional grating structures with triangular profiles are characterized by exceptionally low, polarization-independent reflective behavior. The reflectance response of such surfaces is similar to a graded-index anti-reflection film. The IQE response from these surfaces is severely degraded in the UV-Visible spectral region due to plasma-induced surface damage. One-dimensional grating structures with rectangular profiles exhibit spectrally selective absorptive behavior with somewhat similar IQE response. The third type of grating structure combines broadband anti-reflection behavior with significant IQE enhancement in 800--1,200-nm spectral region. The hemispherical reflectance of these 2D grating structures is comparable to random RIE-textured surfaces. The IQE enhancement in the long wavelength spectral region can be attributed to
Efficient passivated phthalocyanine-quantum dot solar cells.
Blas-Ferrando, Vicente M; Ortiz, Javier; González-Pedro, Victoria; Sánchez, Rafael S; Mora-Seró, Iván; Fernández-Lázaro, Fernando; Sastre-Santos, Ángela
2015-01-31
The power conversion efficiency of CdSe and CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells is enhanced by passivation with asymmetrically substituted phthalocyanines. The introduction of the phthalocyanine dye increases the efficiency up to 45% for CdSe and 104% for CdS. The main mechanism causing this improvement is the quantum dot passivation. This study highlights the possibilities of a new generation of dyes designed to be directly linked to QDs instead of the TiO2 electrodes. PMID:25519050
Verification of Absolute Calibration of Quantum Efficiency for LSST CCDs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coles, Rebecca; Chiang, James; Cinabro, David; Gilbertson, Woodrow; Haupt, justine; Kotov, Ivan; Neal, Homer; Nomerotski, Andrei; O'Connor, Paul; Stubbs, Christopher; Takacs, Peter
2016-01-01
We describe a system to measure the Quantum Efficiency in the wavelength range of 300nm to 1100nm of 40x40 mm n-channel CCD sensors for the construction of the 3.2 gigapixel LSST focal plane. The technique uses a series of instruments to create a very uniform flux of photons of controllable intensity in the wavelength range of interest across the face of the sensor. This allows the absolute Quantum Efficiency to be measured with an accuracy in the 1% range. This system will be part of a production facility at Brookhaven National Lab for the basic components of the LSST camera.
Pure sources and efficient detectors for optical quantum information processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zielnicki, Kevin
Over the last sixty years, classical information theory has revolutionized the understanding of the nature of information, and how it can be quantified and manipulated. Quantum information processing extends these lessons to quantum systems, where the properties of intrinsic uncertainty and entanglement fundamentally defy classical explanation. This growing field has many potential applications, including computing, cryptography, communication, and metrology. As inherently mobile quantum particles, photons are likely to play an important role in any mature large-scale quantum information processing system. However, the available methods for producing and detecting complex multi-photon states place practical limits on the feasibility of sophisticated optical quantum information processing experiments. In a typical quantum information protocol, a source first produces an interesting or useful quantum state (or set of states), perhaps involving superposition or entanglement. Then, some manipulations are performed on this state, perhaps involving quantum logic gates which further manipulate or entangle the intial state. Finally, the state must be detected, obtaining some desired measurement result, e.g., for secure communication or computationally efficient factoring. The work presented here concerns the first and last stages of this process as they relate to photons: sources and detectors. Our work on sources is based on the need for optimized non-classical states of light delivered at high rates, particularly of single photons in a pure quantum state. We seek to better understand the properties of spontaneous parameteric downconversion (SPDC) sources of photon pairs, and in doing so, produce such an optimized source. We report an SPDC source which produces pure heralded single photons with little or no spectral filtering, allowing a significant rate enhancement. Our work on detectors is based on the need to reliably measure single-photon states. We have focused on
An efficient quantum search engine on unsorted database
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Songfeng; Zhang, Yingyu; Liu, Fang
2013-10-01
We consider the problem of finding one or more desired items out of an unsorted database. Patel has shown that if the database permits quantum queries, then mere digitization is sufficient for efficient search for one desired item. The algorithm, called factorized quantum search algorithm, presented by him can locate the desired item in an unsorted database using O() queries to factorized oracles. But the algorithm requires that all the attribute values must be distinct from each other. In this paper, we discuss how to make a database satisfy the requirements, and present a quantum search engine based on the algorithm. Our goal is achieved by introducing auxiliary files for the attribute values that are not distinct, and converting every complex query request into a sequence of calls to factorized quantum search algorithm. The query complexity of our algorithm is O() for most cases.
Magnetic field control of the intraband optical absorption in two-dimensional quantum rings
Olendski, O.; Barakat, T.
2014-02-28
Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of the two-dimensional semiconductor ring in the perpendicular magnetic field B are calculated within independent electron approximation. Characteristic feature of the energy spectrum are crossings of the levels with adjacent nonpositive magnetic quantum numbers as the intensity B changes. It is shown that the absorption coefficient of the associated optical transition is drastically decreased at the fields corresponding to the crossing. Proposed model of the Volcano disc allows to get simple mathematical analytical results, which provide clear physical interpretation. An interplay between positive linear and intensity-dependent negative cubic absorption coefficients is discussed; in particular, critical light intensity at which additional resonances appear in the total absorption dependence on the light frequency is calculated as a function of the magnetic field and levels' broadening.
Perfect photon absorption in the nonlinear regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, G. S.; Di, Ke; Wang, Liyong; Zhu, Yifu
2016-06-01
It has been shown that perfect photon absorption can occur in the linear excitation regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED), in which photons from two identical light fields coupled into two ends of the cavity are completely absorbed and result in excitation of the polariton state of the CQED system. The output light from the cavity is totally suppressed by destructive interference and the polariton state can only decay incoherently back to the ground state. Here we analyze perfect photon absorption and the onset of optical bistability in the nonlinear regime of the CQED and show that perfect photon absorption persists in the nonlinear regime of the CQED below the threshold of optical bistability. Therefore perfect photon absorption is a phenomenon that can be observed in both linear and nonlinear regimes of CQED. Furthermore, our study reveals that optical bistability is influenced by input-light interference and can be manipulated by varying the relative phase of the two input fields.
Russian roulette efficiency in Monte Carlo resonant absorption calculations
Ghassoun; Jehouani
2000-10-01
The resonant absorption calculation in media containing heavy resonant nuclei is one of the most difficult problems treated in reactor physics. Deterministic techniques need many approximations to solve this kind of problem. On the other hand, the Monte Carlo method is a reliable mathematical tool for evaluating the neutron resonance escape probability. But it suffers from large statistical deviations of results and long computation times. In order to overcome this problem, we have used the Splitting and Russian Roulette technique coupled separately to the survival biasing and to the importance sampling for the energy parameter. These techniques have been used to calculate the neutron resonance absorption in infinite homogenous media containing hydrogen and uranium characterized by the dilution (ratio of the concentrations of hydrogen to uranium). The punctual neutron source energy is taken at Es = 2 MeV and Es = 676.45 eV, whereas the energy cut-off is fixed at Ec = 2.768 eV. The results show a large reduction of computation time and statistical deviation, without altering the mean resonance escape probability compared to the usual analog simulation. The Splitting and Russian Roulette coupled to the survival biasing method is found to be the best methods for studying the neutron resonant absorption, particularly for high energies. A comparison is done between the Monte Carlo and deterministic methods based on the numerical solution of the neutron slowing down equations by the iterative method results for several dilutions. PMID:11003535
Implanted Silicon Resistor Layers for Efficient Terahertz Absorption
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chervenak, J. A.; Abrahams, J.; Allen, C. A.; Benford, D. J.; Henry, R.; Stevenson, T.; Wollack, E.; Moseley, S. H.
2005-01-01
Broadband absorption structures are an essential component of large format bolometer arrays for imaging GHz and THz radiation. We have measured electrical and optical properties of implanted silicon resistor layers designed to be suitable for these absorbers. Implanted resistors offer a low-film-stress, buried absorber that is robust to longterm aging, temperature, and subsequent metals processing. Such an absorber layer is readily integrated with superconducting integrated circuits and standard micromachining as demonstrated by the SCUBA II array built by ROE/NIST (1). We present a complete characterization of these layers, demonstrating frequency regimes in which different recipes will be suitable for absorbers. Single layer thin film coatings have been demonstrated as effective absorbers at certain wavelengths including semimetal (2,3), thin metal (4), and patterned metal films (5,6). Astronomical instrument examples include the SHARC II instrument is imaging the submillimeter band using passivated Bi semimetal films and the HAWC instrument for SOFIA, which employs ultrathin metal films to span 1-3 THz. Patterned metal films on spiderweb bolometers have also been proposed for broadband detection. In each case, the absorber structure matches the impedance of free space for optimal absorption in the detector configuration (typically 157 Ohms per square for high absorption with a single or 377 Ohms per square in a resonant cavity or quarter wave backshort). Resonant structures with -20% bandwidth coupled to bolometers are also under development; stacks of such structures may take advantage of instruments imaging over a wide band. Each technique may enable effective absorbers in imagers. However, thin films tend to age, degrade or change during further processing, can be difficult to reproduce, and often exhibit an intrinsic granularity that creates complicated frequency dependence at THz frequencies. Thick metal films are more robust but the requirement for
Limits to solar power conversion efficiency with applications to quantum and thermal systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Smith, B. T.
1983-01-01
An analytical framework is presented that permits examination of the limit to the efficiency of various solar power conversion devices. Thermodynamic limits to solar power efficiency are determined for both quantum and thermal systems, and the results are applied to a variety of devices currently considered for use in space systems. The power conversion efficiency for single-threshold energy quantum systems receiving unconcentrated air mass zero solar radiation is limited to 31 percent. This limit applies to photovoltaic cells directly converting solar radiation, or indirectly, as in the case of a thermophotovoltaic system. Photoelectrochemical cells rely on an additional chemical reaction at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which introduces additional second-law demands and a reduction of the solar conversion efficiency. Photochemical systems exhibit even lower possible efficiencies because of their relatively narrow absorption bands. Solar-powered thermal engines in contact with an ambient reservoir at 300 K and operating at maximum power have a peak conversion efficiency of 64 percent, and this occurs for a thermal reservoir at a temperature of 2900 K. The power conversion efficiency of a solar-powered liquid metal magnetohydrodydnamic generator, a solar-powered steam turbine electric generator, and an alkali metal thermoelectric converter is discussed.
Limits to solar power conversion efficiency with applications to quantum and thermal systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Smith, B. T.
1983-12-01
An analytical framework is presented that permits examination of the limit to the efficiency of various solar power conversion devices. Thermodynamic limits to solar power efficiency are determined for both quantum and thermal systems, and the results are applied to a variety of devices currently considered for use in space systems. The power conversion efficiency for single-threshold energy quantum systems receiving unconcentrated air mass zero solar radiation is limited to 31 percent. This limit applies to photovoltaic cells directly converting solar radiation, or indirectly, as in the case of a thermophotovoltaic system. Photoelectrochemical cells rely on an additional chemical reaction at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which introduces additional second-law demands and a reduction of the solar conversion efficiency. Photochemical systems exhibit even lower possible efficiencies because of their relatively narrow absorption bands. Solar-powered thermal engines in contact with an ambient reservoir at 300 K and operating at maximum power have a peak conversion efficiency of 64 percent, and this occurs for a thermal reservoir at a temperature of 2900 K. The power conversion efficiency of a solar-powered liquid metal magnetohydrodydnamic generator, a solar-powered steam turbine electric generator, and an alkali metal thermoelectric converter is discussed.
Zu, Feng-Shuo; Shi, Xiao-Bo; Liang, Jian; Xu, Mei-Feng; Wang, Zhao-Kui E-mail: zkwang@suda.edu.cn Liao, Liang-Sheng E-mail: zkwang@suda.edu.cn; Lee, Chun-Sing E-mail: zkwang@suda.edu.cn
2014-06-16
We have investigated the effects induced by periodic nanosphere arrays on the performance of organic solar cells (OSCs). Two-dimensional periodic arrays of polystyrene nanospheres were formed by using a colloidal lithography method together with plasma etching to trim down the size to various degrees on the substrates of OSCs. It is found that the devices prepared on such substrates can have improved light harvesting, resulting in as high as 35% enhancement in power conversion efficiency over that of the reference devices. The measured external quantum efficiency and finite-difference time-domain simulation reveal that the controlled periodic morphology of the substrate can efficiently increase light scattering in the device and thus enhance the absorption of incident light.
High-quantum efficiency, long-lived luminescing refractory oxides
Chen, Y.; Gonzalez, R.; Summers, G.P.
A crystal having a high-quantum efficiency and a long period of luminescence is formed of MgO or CaO and possessing a concentration ratio of H/sup -/ ions to F centers in the range of about 0.05 to about 10.
High-quantum efficiency, long-lived luminescing refractory oxides
Chen, Yok; Gonzalez, Roberto; Summers, Geoffrey P.
1984-01-01
A crystal having a high-quantum efficiency and a long period of luminescence is formed of an oxide selected from the group consisting of magnesium oxide and calcium oxide and possessing a concentration ratio of H.sup.- ions to F centers in the range of about 0.05 to about 10.
Origins of low energy-transfer efficiency between patterned GaN quantum well and CdSe quantum dots
Xu, Xingsheng
2015-03-02
For hybrid light emitting devices (LEDs) consisting of GaN quantum wells and colloidal quantum dots, it is necessary to explore the physical mechanisms causing decreases in the quantum efficiencies and the energy transfer efficiency between a GaN quantum well and CdSe quantum dots. This study investigated the electro-luminescence for a hybrid LED consisting of colloidal quantum dots and a GaN quantum well patterned with photonic crystals. It was found that both the quantum efficiency of colloidal quantum dots on a GaN quantum well and the energy transfer efficiency between the patterned GaN quantum well and the colloidal quantum dots decreased with increases in the driving voltage or the driving time. Under high driving voltages, the decreases in the quantum efficiency of the colloidal quantum dots and the energy transfer efficiency can be attributed to Auger recombination, while those decreases under long driving time are due to photo-bleaching and Auger recombination.
High-efficiency tomographic reconstruction of quantum states by quantum nondemolition measurements
Huang, J. S.; Wei, L. F.; Oh, C. H.
2011-03-15
We propose a high-efficiency scheme to tomographically reconstruct an unknown quantum state by using a series of quantum nondemolition (QND) measurements. The proposed QND measurements of the qubits are implemented by probing the stationary transmissions through a driven dispersively coupled resonator. It is shown that only one kind of QND measurement is sufficient to determine all the diagonal elements of the density matrix of the detected quantum state. The remaining nondiagonal elements can be similarly determined by transferring them to the diagonal locations after a series of unitary operations. Compared with the tomographic reconstructions based on the usual destructive projective measurements (wherein one such measurement can determine only one diagonal element of the density matrix), the present reconstructive approach exhibits significantly high efficiency. Specifically, our generic proposal is demonstrated by the experimental circuit quantum electrodynamics systems with a few Josephson charge qubits.
Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectroscopy as a Plasma Diagnostic Tool: An Overview
Welzel, Stefan; Hempel, Frank; Hübner, Marko; Lang, Norbert; Davies, Paul B.; Röpcke, Jürgen
2010-01-01
The recent availability of thermoelectrically cooled pulsed and continuous wave quantum and inter-band cascade lasers in the mid-infrared spectral region has led to significant improvements and new developments in chemical sensing techniques using in-situ laser absorption spectroscopy for plasma diagnostic purposes. The aim of this article is therefore two-fold: (i) to summarize the challenges which arise in the application of quantum cascade lasers in such environments, and, (ii) to provide an overview of recent spectroscopic results (encompassing cavity enhanced methods) obtained in different kinds of plasma used in both research and industry. PMID:22163581
III-V photocathode with nitrogen doping for increased quantum efficiency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
James, L. W. (Inventor)
1976-01-01
An increase in the quantum efficiency of a 3-5 photocathode is achieved by doping its semiconductor material with an acceptor and nitrogen, a column-5 isoelectronic element, that introduces a spatially localized energy level just below the conduction band similar to a donor level to which optical transitions can occur. This increases the absorption coefficient, alpha without compensation of the acceptor dopant. A layer of a suitable 1-5, 1-6 or 1-7 compound is included as an activation layer on the electron emission side to lower the work function of the photocathode.
Coherence-enhanced efficiency of feedback-driven quantum engines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandner, Kay; Bauer, Michael; Schmid, Michael T.; Seifert, Udo
2015-06-01
A genuine feature of projective quantum measurements is that they inevitably alter the mean energy of the observed system if the measured quantity does not commute with the Hamiltonian. Compared to the classical case, Jacobs proved that this additional energetic cost leads to a stronger bound on the work extractable after a single measurement from a system initially in thermal equilibrium (2009 Phys. Rev. A 80 012322). Here, we extend this bound to a large class of feedback-driven quantum engines operating periodically and in finite time. The bound thus implies a natural definition for the efficiency of information to work conversion in such devices. For a simple model consisting of a laser-driven two-level system, we maximize the efficiency with respect to the observable whose measurement is used to control the feedback operations. We find that the optimal observable typically does not commute with the Hamiltonian and hence would not be available in a classical two level system. This result reveals that periodic feedback engines operating in the quantum realm can exploit quantum coherences to enhance efficiency.
Efficient computations of quantum canonical Gibbs state in phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bondar, Denys I.; Campos, Andre G.; Cabrera, Renan; Rabitz, Herschel A.
2016-06-01
The Gibbs canonical state, as a maximum entropy density matrix, represents a quantum system in equilibrium with a thermostat. This state plays an essential role in thermodynamics and serves as the initial condition for nonequilibrium dynamical simulations. We solve a long standing problem for computing the Gibbs state Wigner function with nearly machine accuracy by solving the Bloch equation directly in the phase space. Furthermore, the algorithms are provided yielding high quality Wigner distributions for pure stationary states as well as for Thomas-Fermi and Bose-Einstein distributions. The developed numerical methods furnish a long-sought efficient computation framework for nonequilibrium quantum simulations directly in the Wigner representation.
Intermediate Band Solar Cell with Extreme Broadband Spectrum Quantum Efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Datas, A.; López, E.; Ramiro, I.; Antolín, E.; Martí, A.; Luque, A.; Tamaki, R.; Shoji, Y.; Sogabe, T.; Okada, Y.
2015-04-01
We report, for the first time, about an intermediate band solar cell implemented with InAs/AlGaAs quantum dots whose photoresponse expands from 250 to ˜6000 nm . To our knowledge, this is the broadest quantum efficiency reported to date for a solar cell and demonstrates that the intermediate band solar cell is capable of producing photocurrent when illuminated with photons whose energy equals the energy of the lowest band gap. We show experimental evidences indicating that this result is in agreement with the theory of the intermediate band solar cell, according to which the generation recombination between the intermediate band and the valence band makes this photocurrent detectable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Ming; Chang, Shoude; Grover, Chander P.
2004-06-01
Further to the optical coding based on fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), a concept of using mixtures of multiple single-color QDs for creating highly secret cryptograms based on their absorption/emission properties was demonstrated. The key to readout of the optical codes is a group of excitation lights with the predetermined wavelengths programmed in a secret manner. The cryptograms can be printed on the surfaces of different objects such as valuable documents for security purposes.
Not Available
2011-12-01
A new device that produces and collects multiple electrons per photon could yield inexpensive, high-efficiency photovoltaics. A new device developed through research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reduces conventional losses in photovoltaic (PV) solar cells, potentially increasing the power conversion efficiency-but not the cost-of the solar cells. Solar cells convert optical energy from the sun into usable electricity; however, almost 50% of the incident energy is lost as heat with present-day technologies. High-efficiency, multi-junction cells reduce this heat loss, but their cost is significantly higher. NREL's new device uses excess energy in solar photons to create extra charges rather than heat. This was achieved using 5-nanometer-diameter quantum dots of lead selenide (PbSe) tightly packed into a film. The researchers chemically treated the film, and then fabricated a device that yielded an external quantum efficiency (number of electrons produced per incident photon) exceeding 100%, a value beyond that of all current solar cells for any incident photon. Quantum dots are known to efficiently generate multiple excitons (a bound electron-hole pair) per absorbed high-energy photon, and this device definitively demonstrates the collection of multiple electrons per photon in a PV cell. The internal quantum efficiency corrects for photons that are not absorbed in the photoactive layer and shows that the PbSe film generates 30% to 40% more electrons in the high-energy spectral region than is possible with a conventional solar cell. While the unoptimized overall power conversion efficiency is still low (less than 5%), the results have important implications for PV because such high quantum efficiency can lead to more electrical current produced than possible using present technologies. Furthermore, this fabrication is also amenable to inexpensive, high-throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing.
Analysis of the efficiency of intermediate band solar cells based on quantum dot supercrystals
Heshmati, S; Golmohammadi, S; Abedi, K; Taleb, H
2014-03-28
We have studied the influence of the quantum-dot (QD) width and the quantum-dot conduction band (QD-CB) offset on the efficiency of quantum-dot intermediate band solar cells (QD-IBSCs). Simulation results demonstrate that with increasing QD-CB offset and decreasing QD width, the maximum efficiency is achieved. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
Biexciton Dissociation Efficiency at Quantum Dot-Oxide Interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonn, Mischa; Wang, Hai; Canovas, Enrique
Harvesting multiexcitons populating semiconductor quantum dots (generated by carrier multiplication, CM) has been proposed as a path towards higher efficiencies in photovoltaic devices. Although CM efficiency has been widely interrogated in colloidal QD solutions, less focus has been placed on the physics regarding biexciton collection at electrodes. We investigate interfacial biexciton transfer dynamics from PbS quantum dots directly nucleated onto mesoporous SnO2 films as a function of impinging photon flux and photon energy. A priori, this system seems very well-suited for achieving efficient biexciton dissociation, as the ultrafast QD-to-oxide transfer rate for 800nm excitation is substantially faster than Auger relaxation. Remarkably, the biexciton dissociation efficiency is below the detection efficiency, i.e. essentially zero. This seemingly counterintuitive result can be understood by noting that efficient hot electron transfer at the QD-oxide interface can compete with CM within the QDs. Hot electron transfer is observed to occur on sub-100 fs timescales, nulling the CM efficiency. Implications of these results for solar energy conversion are discussed.
Absolute 1* quantum yields for the ICN A state by diode laser gain versus absorption spectroscopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hess, Wayne P.; Leone, Stephen R.
1987-01-01
Absolute I* quantum yields were measured as a function of wavelength for room temperature photodissociation of the ICN A state continuum. The temperature yields are obtained by the technique of time-resolved diode laser gain-versus-absorption spectroscopy. Quantum yields are evaluated at seven wavelengths from 248 to 284 nm. The yield at 266 nm is 66.0 +/- 2% and it falls off to 53.4 +/- 2% and 44.0 +/- 4% at 284 and 248 respectively. The latter values are significantly higher than those obtained by previous workers using infrared fluorescence. Estimates of I* quantum yields obtained from analysis of CN photofragment rotational distributions, as discussed by other workers, are in good agreement with the I* yields. The results are considered in conjunction with recent theoretical and experimental work on the CN rotational distributions and with previous I* yield results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Jian-Zhong; Kolokolov, Kanstantin I.; Ning, Cun-Zheng
2003-01-01
Linear absorption spectra arising from intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum well heterostructures are analyzed using quantum kinetic theory by treating correlations to the first order within Hartree-Fock approximation. The resulting intersubband semiconductor Bloch equations take into account extrinsic dephasing contributions, carrier-longitudinal optical phonon interaction and carrier-interface roughness interaction which is considered with Ando s theory. As input for resonance lineshape calculation, a spurious-states-free 8-band kp Hamiltonian is used, in conjunction with the envelop function approximation, to compute self-consistently the energy subband structure of electrons in type II InAs/AlSb single quantum well structures. We demonstrate the interplay of nonparabolicity and many-body effects in the mid-infrared frequency range for such heterostructures.
A scalable quantum architecture using efficient non-local gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brennen, Gavin
2003-03-01
Many protocols for quantum information processing use a control sequence or circuit of interactions between qubits and control fields wherein arbitrary qubits can be made to interact with one another. The primary problem with many ``physically scalable" architectures is that the qubits are restricted to nearest neighbor interactions and quantum wires between distant qubits do not exist. Because of errors, nearest neighbor interactions often present difficulty with scalability. We describe a protocol that efficiently performs non-local gates between elements of separated static logical qubits using a bus of dynamic qubits as a refreshable entanglement resource. Imperfect resource preparation due to error propagation from noisy gates and measurement errors can purified within the bus channel. Because of the inherent parallelism of entanglement swapping, communication latency within the quantum computer can be significantly reduced.
Optical nonlinear properties of InAs quantum dots by means of transient absorption measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, H.; Nishikawa, S.; Kohmoto, S.; Kanamoto, K.; Asakawa, K.
2003-07-01
The optical nonlinear properties of self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) were experimentally verified by means of transient absorption measurements. A saturation pulse energy Ps of 13 fJ/μm2 and an absorption recovery time τr of 55 ps were obtained from transmission bleaching and pump/probe measurements for a waveguide sample with ten-layer-stacked QDs. An absorption saturation intensity Is of 2.5×104W/cm2, calculated from Ps and τr, was found. The saturation pulse energy is up to an order of magnitude smaller than, or at least comparable with, the reported values for excitons in quantum wells of III-V compound semiconductors. The dipole length, as calculated from the absorption cross section, is of the same order as the lattice constant of the InAs QDs. The results are expected to experimentally verify that QDs show a delta-function-like density of states.
Above 30% external quantum efficiency in green delayed fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes.
Lee, Dong Ryun; Kim, Bo Seong; Lee, Chil Won; Im, Yirang; Yook, Kyoung Soo; Hwang, Seok-Ho; Lee, Jun Yeob
2015-05-13
Highly efficient green thermally activated delayed fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes with an external quantum efficiency of 31.2% were investigated by using 3-(3-(carbazole-9-yl)phenyl) pyrido[3',2':4,5]furo[2,3-b]pyridine (3CzPFP) derived from carbazole and pyrido[3',2':4,5]furo[2,3-b]pyridine. The host material showed well-matched photoluminescence emission with absorption of the green dopant material, (4s,6s)-2,4,5,6-tetra(9H-carbazol-9-yl)isophthalonitrile (4CzIPN) and harvested all excitons of 4CzIPN. The 3CzPFP:4CzIPN film exhibited high photoluminescence quantum yield of 100%, and the green delayed fluorescence device employing the 3CzPFP host showed high maximum quantum efficiency of 31.2 ± 0.5% at 1% doping after optimization of the device structure. PMID:25924007
Rate-loss analysis of an efficient quantum repeater architecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guha, Saikat; Krovi, Hari; Fuchs, Christopher A.; Dutton, Zachary; Slater, Joshua A.; Simon, Christoph; Tittel, Wolfgang
2015-08-01
We analyze an entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) architecture that uses a linear chain of quantum repeaters employing photon-pair sources, spectral-multiplexing, linear-optic Bell-state measurements, multimode quantum memories, and classical-only error correction. Assuming perfect sources, we find an exact expression for the secret-key rate, and an analytical description of how errors propagate through the repeater chain, as a function of various loss-and-noise parameters of the devices. We show via an explicit analytical calculation, which separately addresses the effects of the principle nonidealities, that this scheme achieves a secret-key rate that surpasses the Takeoka-Guha-Wilde bound—a recently found fundamental limit to the rate-vs-loss scaling achievable by any QKD protocol over a direct optical link—thereby providing one of the first rigorous proofs of the efficacy of a repeater protocol. We explicitly calculate the end-to-end shared noisy quantum state generated by the repeater chain, which could be useful for analyzing the performance of other non-QKD quantum protocols that require establishing long-distance entanglement. We evaluate that shared state's fidelity and the achievable entanglement-distillation rate, as a function of the number of repeater nodes, total range, and various loss-and-noise parameters of the system. We extend our theoretical analysis to encompass sources with nonzero two-pair-emission probability, using an efficient exact numerical evaluation of the quantum state propagation and measurements. We expect our results to spur formal rate-loss analysis of other repeater protocols and also to provide useful abstractions to seed analyses of quantum networks of complex topologies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Praveena, M.; Mukherjee, Arnab; Venkatapathi, Murugesan; Basu, J. K.
2015-12-01
We present experimental and theoretical results on monolayer colloidal cadmium selenide quantum dot films embedded with tiny gold nanoparticles. By varying the density of the embedded gold nanoparticles, we were able to engineer a plasmon-mediated crossover from emission quenching to enhancement regime at interparticle distances for which only quenching of emission is expected. This crossover and a nonmonotonic variation of photoluminescence intensity and decay rate, in experiments, is explained in terms of a model for plasmon-mediated collective emission of quantum emitters which points to the emergence of a new regime in plasmon-exciton interactions. The presented methodology to achieve enhancement in optical quantum efficiency for optimal doping of gold nanoparticles in such ultrathin high-density quantum dot films can be beneficial for new-generation displays and photodetectors.
Efficient tools for quantum metrology with uncorrelated noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kołodyński, Jan; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafał
2013-07-01
Quantum metrology offers enhanced performance in experiments on topics such as gravitational wave-detection, magnetometry or atomic clock frequency calibration. The enhancement, however, requires a delicate tuning of relevant quantum features, such as entanglement or squeezing. For any practical application, the inevitable impact of decoherence needs to be taken into account in order to correctly quantify the ultimate attainable gain in precision. We compare the applicability and the effectiveness of various methods of calculating the ultimate precision bounds resulting from the presence of decoherence. This allows us to place a number of seemingly unrelated concepts into a common framework and arrive at an explicit hierarchy of quantum metrological methods in terms of the tightness of the bounds they provide. In particular, we show a way to extend the techniques originally proposed in Demkowicz-Dobrzański et al (2012 Nature Commun. 3 1063), so that they can be efficiently applied not only in the asymptotic but also in the finite number of particles regime. As a result, we obtain a simple and direct method, yielding bounds that interpolate between the quantum enhanced scaling characteristic for a small number of particles and the asymptotic regime, where quantum enhancement amounts to a constant factor improvement. Methods are applied to numerous models, including noisy phase and frequency estimation, as well as the estimation of the decoherence strength itself.
High-efficiency gas heat pump air-conditioner equipped with absorption refrigerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imai, Yosuke; Ohashi, Toshinori; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Hihara, Eiji; Kawakami, Ryuichiro
On conventional gas heat pump(GHP), waste heat from gas engine that uses as driving source is emitted into outside. So from the standpoint of efficient use of waste heat, it is assumed that waste heat from gas engine is used as driving source of absorption chiller, and high temperature condensate refrigerant in GHP is subcooled to middle temperature by cold source from absorption cycle, and as a result, GHP makes more efficiency. However, in equipping GHP with absorption cycle, downsizing and high-efficiency of absorption cycle is required. In this study, air-cooled subcooled adiabatic absorber is focused and physical phenomenon in it is analyzed, and finally one perception of the optimized designing is shown.
Green synthesis of highly efficient CdSe quantum dots for quantum-dots-sensitized solar cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Bing; Shen, Chao; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Mengya; Yuan, Shuanglong; Yang, Yunxia; Chen, Guorong
2014-05-01
Green synthesis of CdSe quantum dots for application in the quantum-dots-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) is investigated in this work. The CdSe QDs were prepared with glycerol as the solvent, with sharp emission peak, full width at half maximum around 30 nm, and absorption peak from 475 nm to 510 nm. The reaction is environmental friendly and energy saving. What's more, the green synthesized CdSe QDs are coherence to the maximum remittance region of the solar spectrum and suitable as sensitizers to assemble onto TiO2 electrodes for cell devices application. What's more, the dynamic procedure of the carriers' excitation, transportation, and recombination in the QDSCs are discussed. Because the recombination of the electrons from the conduction band of TiO2's to the electrolyte affects the efficiency of the solar cells greatly, 3-Mercaptopropionic acid capped water-dispersible QDs were used to cover the surface of TiO2. The resulting green synthesized CdSe QDSCs with Cu2S as the electrode show a photovoltaic performance with a conversion efficiency of 3.39%.
Investigation of the quantum efficiency of optical heterodyne detectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batchman, T. E.
1984-01-01
The frequency response and quantum efficiency of optical photodetectors for heterodyne receivers is investigated. The measurements utilized two spectral lines from the output of two lasers as input to the photodetectors. These lines are easily measurable in power and frequency and hence serve as known inputs. By measuring the output current of the photodetector the quantum efficiency is determined as a function of frequency separation between the two input signals. An investigation of the theoretical basis and accuracy of this type of measurement relative to similar measurements utilizing risetime is undertaken. A theoretical study of the heterodyne process in photodetectors based on semiconductor physics is included so that higher bandwidth detectors may be designed. All measurements are made on commercially available detectors and manufacturers' specifications for normal photodetector operation are compared to the measured heterodyne characteristics.
Enhanced quantum efficiency from hybrid cesium halide/copper photocathodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Lingmei; Joly, Alan G.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Gong, Yu; Hess, Wayne P.
2014-04-01
The quantum efficiency (QE) of Cu is found to increase dramatically when coated by a CsI film and then irradiated by a UV laser. Over three orders of magnitude quantum efficiency enhancement at 266 nm is observed in CsI/Cu(100), indicating potential application in future photocathode devices. Upon laser irradiation, a large work function reduction to a value less than 2 eV is also observed, significantly greater than for similarly treated CsBr/Cu(100). The initial QE enhancement, prior to laser irradiation, is attributed to interface interaction and the intrinsic properties of the Cs halide film. Further QE enhancement following activation is attributed to formation of inter-band states and Cs metal accumulation at the interface induced by laser irradiation.
Resonant infrared detector with substantially unit quantum efficiency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farhoomand, Jam (Inventor); Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)
1994-01-01
A resonant infrared detector includes an infrared-active layer which has first and second parallel faces and which absorbs radiation of a given wavelength. The detector also includes a first tuned reflective layer, disposed opposite the first face of the infrared-active layer, which reflects a specific portion of the radiation incident thereon and allows a specific portion of the incident radiation at the given wavelength to reach the infrared-active layer. A second reflective layer, disposed opposite the second face of the infrared-active layer, reflects back into the infrared-active layer substantially all of the radiation at the given wavelength which passes through the infrared-active layer. The reflective layers have the effect of increasing the quantum efficiency of the infrared detector relative to the quantum efficiency of the infrared-active layer alone.
Enhanced Quantum Efficiency From Hybrid Cesium Halide/Copper Photocathode
Kong, Lingmei; Joly, Alan G.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Gong, Yu; Hess, Wayne P.
2014-04-28
The quantum efficiency of Cu is found to increase dramatically when coated by a CsI film and then irradiated by a UV laser. Over three orders of magnitude quantum efficiency enhancement at 266 nm is observed in CsI/Cu(100), indicating potential application in future photocathode devices. Upon laser irradiation, a large work function reduction to a value less than 2 eV is also observed, significantly greater than for similarly treated CsBr/Cu(100). The initial QE enhancement, prior to laser irradiation, is attributed to interface interaction, surface cleanliness and the intrinsic properties of the Cs halide film. Further QE enhancement following activation is attributed to formation of inter-band states and Cs metal accumulation at the interface induced by laser irradiation.
Enhanced quantum efficiency from hybrid cesium halide/copper photocathodes
Kong, Lingmei; Joly, Alan G.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Gong, Yu; Hess, Wayne P.
2014-04-28
The quantum efficiency (QE) of Cu is found to increase dramatically when coated by a CsI film and then irradiated by a UV laser. Over three orders of magnitude quantum efficiency enhancement at 266 nm is observed in CsI/Cu(100), indicating potential application in future photocathode devices. Upon laser irradiation, a large work function reduction to a value less than 2 eV is also observed, significantly greater than for similarly treated CsBr/Cu(100). The initial QE enhancement, prior to laser irradiation, is attributed to interface interaction and the intrinsic properties of the Cs halide film. Further QE enhancement following activation is attributed to formation of inter-band states and Cs metal accumulation at the interface induced by laser irradiation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spearrin, R. M.; Goldenstein, C. S.; Schultz, I. A.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.
2014-07-01
A mid-infrared laser absorption sensor was developed for gas temperature and carbon oxide (CO, CO2) concentrations in high-enthalpy, hydrocarbon combustion flows. This diagnostic enables non-intrusive, in situ measurements in harsh environments produced by hypersonic propulsion ground test facilities. The sensing system utilizes tunable quantum cascade lasers capable of probing the fundamental mid-infrared absorption bands of CO and CO2 in the 4-5 µm wavelength domain. A scanned-wavelength direct absorption technique was employed with two lasers, one dedicated to each species, free-space fiber-coupled using a bifurcated hollow-core fiber for remote light delivery on a single line of sight. Scanned-wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection was utilized to extend the dynamic range of the CO measurement. The diagnostic was field-tested on a direct-connect scramjet combustor for ethylene-air combustion. Simultaneous, laser-based measurements of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide provide a basis for evaluating combustion completion or efficiency with temporal and spatial resolution in practical hydrocarbon-fueled engines.
Fully efficient time-parallelized quantum optimal control algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riahi, M. K.; Salomon, J.; Glaser, S. J.; Sugny, D.
2016-04-01
We present a time-parallelization method that enables one to accelerate the computation of quantum optimal control algorithms. We show that this approach is approximately fully efficient when based on a gradient method as optimization solver: the computational time is approximately divided by the number of available processors. The control of spin systems, molecular orientation, and Bose-Einstein condensates are used as illustrative examples to highlight the wide range of applications of this numerical scheme.
Internal quantum efficiency analysis of solar cell by genetic algorithm
Xiong, Kanglin; Yang, Hui; Lu, Shulong; Zhou, Taofei; Wang, Rongxin; Qiu, Kai; Dong, Jianrong; Jiang, Desheng
2010-11-15
To investigate factors limiting the performance of a GaAs solar cell, genetic algorithm is employed to fit the experimentally measured internal quantum efficiency (IQE) in the full spectra range. The device parameters such as diffusion lengths and surface recombination velocities are extracted. Electron beam induced current (EBIC) is performed in the base region of the cell with obtained diffusion length agreeing with the fit result. The advantage of genetic algorithm is illustrated. (author)
Efficiency improvement by near infrared quantum dots for luminescent solar concentrators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chunhua; Shcherbatyuk, Georgiy; Inman, Richard; Pelka, Dave; Zhang, Weiya; Rodriguez, Yvonne; Carter, Sue; Winston, Roland; Ghosh, Sayantani
2010-08-01
Quantum dot (QD) luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) uses a sheet of highly transparent materials doped with luminescent QDs materials. Sunlight is absorbed by these quantum dots and emitted through down conversion process. The emitted light is trapped in the sheet and travels to the edges where it can be collected by photovoltaic solar cells. In this study, we investigate the performance of LSCs fabricated with near infrared QDs (lead sulfide) and compared with the performance of LSCs containing normal visible QDs (CdSe/ZnS), and LSCs containing organic dye (Rhodamine B). Effects of materials concentrations (related to re-absorption) on the power conversion efficiency are also analyzed. The results show that near infrared QDs LSCs can generate nearly twice as much as the output current from normal QDs and organic dye LSCs. This is due to their broad absorption spectra. If stability of QDs is further improved, the near infrared QDs will dramatically improve the efficiency of LSCs for solar energy conversion with lower cost per Wp.
A hybrid absorption-adsorption method to efficiently capture carbon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Huang; Liu, Bei; Lin, Li-Chiang; Chen, Guangjin; Wu, Yuqing; Wang, Jin; Gao, Xueteng; Lv, Yining; Pan, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Xianren; Yang, Lanying; Sun, Changyu; Smit, Berend; Wang, Wenchuan
2014-10-01
Removal of carbon dioxide is an essential step in many energy-related processes. Here we report a novel slurry concept that combines specific advantages of metal-organic frameworks, ion liquids, amines and membranes by suspending zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 in glycol-2-methylimidazole solution. We show that this approach may give a more efficient technology to capture carbon dioxide compared to conventional technologies. The carbon dioxide sorption capacity of our slurry reaches 1.25 mol l-1 at 1 bar and the selectivity of carbon dioxide/hydrogen, carbon dioxide/nitrogen and carbon dioxide/methane achieves 951, 394 and 144, respectively. We demonstrate that the slurry can efficiently remove carbon dioxide from gas mixtures at normal pressure/temperature through breakthrough experiments. Most importantly, the sorption enthalpy is only -29 kJ mol-1, indicating that significantly less energy is required for sorbent regeneration. In addition, from a technological point of view, unlike solid adsorbents slurries can flow and be pumped. This allows us to use a continuous separation process with heat integration.
Internal quantum efficiency enhancement of GaInN/GaN quantum-well structures using Ag nanoparticles
Iida, Daisuke; Fadil, Ahmed Ou, Yiyu; Kopylov, Oleksii; Ou, Haiyan; Chen, Yuntian; Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Akasaki, Isamu
2015-09-15
We report internal quantum efficiency enhancement of thin p-GaN green quantum-well structure using self-assembled Ag nanoparticles. Temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements are conducted to determine the internal quantum efficiency. The impact of excitation power density on the enhancement factor is investigated. We obtain an internal quantum efficiency enhancement by a factor of 2.3 at 756 W/cm{sup 2}, and a factor of 8.1 at 1 W/cm{sup 2}. A Purcell enhancement up to a factor of 26 is estimated by fitting the experimental results to a theoretical model for the efficiency enhancement factor.
Determination of a quantum efficiency of A^II B^VI compounds on the basis of photoacoustic spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maliński, M.; Bychto, L.; Zakrzewski, J.
2005-10-01
The method of determination of the quantum efficiency η of irradiative relaxation processes in semiconductors is introduced and discussed. The correlation of the amplitude photoacoustic spectra in the high absorption region with the annealing process is used to estimate the values of η. The values of η, both for as grown and annealed crystals were determined and have been discussed. The results are presented for microphone and piezoelectric detection methods.
Lei, Fengcai; Liu, Wei; Sun, Yongfu; Xu, Jiaqi; Liu, Katong; Liang, Liang; Yao, Tao; Pan, Bicai; Wei, Shiqiang; Xie, Yi
2016-01-01
Ultrathin metal layers can be highly active carbon dioxide electroreduction catalysts, but may also be prone to oxidation. Here we construct a model of graphene confined ultrathin layers of highly reactive metals, taking the synthetic highly reactive tin quantum sheets confined in graphene as an example. The higher electrochemical active area ensures 9 times larger carbon dioxide adsorption capacity relative to bulk tin, while the highly-conductive graphene favours rate-determining electron transfer from carbon dioxide to its radical anion. The lowered tin-tin coordination numbers, revealed by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, enable tin quantum sheets confined in graphene to efficiently stabilize the carbon dioxide radical anion, verified by 0.13 volts lowered potential of hydroxyl ion adsorption compared with bulk tin. Hence, the tin quantum sheets confined in graphene show enhanced electrocatalytic activity and stability. This work may provide a promising lead for designing efficient and robust catalysts for electrolytic fuel synthesis. PMID:27585984
Thermodynamic limits to the efficiency of solar energy conversion by quantum devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buoncristiani, A. M.; Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.
1981-01-01
The second law of thermodynamics imposes a strict limitation to the energy converted from direct solar radiation to useful work by a quantum device. This limitation requires that the amount of energy converted to useful work (energy in any form other than heat) can be no greater than the change in free energy of the radiation fields. Futhermore, in any real energy conversion device, not all of this available free energy in the radiation field can be converted to work because of basic limitations inherent in the device itself. A thermodynamic analysis of solar energy conversion by a completely general prototypical quantum device is presented. This device is completely described by two parameters, its operating temperature T sub R and the energy threshold of its absorption spectrum. An expression for the maximum thermodynamic efficiency of a quantum solar converter was derived in terms of these two parameters and the incident radiation spectrum. Efficiency curves for assumed solar spectral irradiance corresponding to air mass zero and air mass 1.5 are presented.
Efficient quantum trajectory representation of wavefunctions evolving in imaginary time
Garashchuk, Sophya; Mazzuca, James; Vazhappilly, Tijo
2011-07-21
The Boltzmann evolution of a wavefunction can be recast as imaginary-time dynamics of the quantum trajectory ensemble. The quantum effects arise from the momentum-dependent quantum potential - computed approximately to be practical in high-dimensional systems - influencing the trajectories in addition to the external classical potential [S. Garashchuk, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 014112 (2010)]. For a nodeless wavefunction represented as {psi}(x, t) = exp ( -S(x, t)/({Dirac_h}/2{pi})) with the trajectory momenta defined by {nabla}S(x, t), analysis of the Lagrangian and Eulerian evolution shows that for bound potentials the former is more accurate while the latter is more practical because the Lagrangian quantum trajectories diverge with time. Introduction of stationary and time-dependent components into the wavefunction representation generates new Lagrangian-type dynamics where the trajectory spreading is controlled improving efficiency of the trajectory description. As an illustration, different types of dynamics are used to compute zero-point energy of a strongly anharmonic well and low-lying eigenstates of a high-dimensional coupled harmonic system.
Efficient quantum trajectory representation of wavefunctions evolving in imaginary time.
Garashchuk, Sophya; Mazzuca, James; Vazhappilly, Tijo
2011-07-21
The Boltzmann evolution of a wavefunction can be recast as imaginary-time dynamics of the quantum trajectory ensemble. The quantum effects arise from the momentum-dependent quantum potential--computed approximately to be practical in high-dimensional systems--influencing the trajectories in addition to the external classical potential [S. Garashchuk, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 014112 (2010)]. For a nodeless wavefunction represented as ψ(x, t) = exp(-S(x, t)/ħ) with the trajectory momenta defined by ∇S(x, t), analysis of the Lagrangian and Eulerian evolution shows that for bound potentials the former is more accurate while the latter is more practical because the Lagrangian quantum trajectories diverge with time. Introduction of stationary and time-dependent components into the wavefunction representation generates new Lagrangian-type dynamics where the trajectory spreading is controlled improving efficiency of the trajectory description. As an illustration, different types of dynamics are used to compute zero-point energy of a strongly anharmonic well and low-lying eigenstates of a high-dimensional coupled harmonic system. PMID:21786984
Colloidal CdTe/HgTe quantum dots with high photoluminescence quantum efficiency at room temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kershaw, Stephen V.; Burt, Mike; Harrison, Mike; Rogach, Andrey; Weller, Horst; Eychmüller, Alex
1999-09-01
We have used an aqueous colloidal growth technique to form hybrid CdTe/HgTe quantum dots with a broad, strong fluorescence in the infrared (800-1200 nm). The quantum efficiency is high, around 44%, when pumped in the visible (488 nm), and the excited state lifetime is around 130 ns, making the material interesting as an optical amplifier medium. Using a pump-probe experiment, we have demonstrated weak optical amplification in a dilute aqueous suspension of CdTe/HgTe dots in the short wavelength wing of the emission spectrum at 808 nm.
Cadmium sulfide and lead sulfide quantum dots in glass: Processing, growth, and optical absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, Pratima Gattu Naga
Glasses containing cadmium sulfide and lead sulfide particles were prepared, and their properties were studied. These particles exhibit quantum confinement behavior when they are smaller than their Bohr exciton radii. Quantum confinement leads to size dependence in the optical absorption of particles. This size dependence can tune the optical absorption of the material to a particular wavelength or energy and possibly enhances the nonlinear optical absorption of the particles. These properties have potential applications in photonic devices. To control the growth of these semiconductor particles in glass, the glass processing conditions were studied. CdS-doped glasses were initially prepared with CdO and ZnS. The sublimation temperature for ZnS is at 1185°C; whereas, CdO sublimes at 1559°C, and CdS at 980°C. Loss of both cadmium and sulfur was observed in open crucible melts, even when CdO and ZnS were used. Improvements in glass processing were made by use of preheat and a cover during the glass melting, resulting in better retention of both dopants. Direct CdS addition to the glasses was possible with these improvements, thus eliminating complications of zinc incorporation during the growth of the semiconductor particles. These methods were successfully applied to the synthesis of PbS-doped glasses. CdS and PbS particles were grown in alkali borosilicate glasses, and their optical absorption spectra were measured as a function of heat treatment temperature and time. The position of the absorption peak and edge shifted to longer wave-lengths, or lower energies, with longer heat treatments at a constant temperature. Both CdS and PbS particles exhibited quantum confinement. These measurements were used to calculate particle sizes from quantum confinement models. Comparisons with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that the 1-term effective-mass approximation was appropriate for estimating CdS particle sizes. A sophisticated four-band envelope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lian, Tianquan
Quantum confined semiconductor nanocrystals (0D quantum dots, 1D quantum rods and 2D quantum platlets) have been intensively investigated as light harvesting and charge separation materials for photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications. The efficiency of these semiconductor nanocrystal-based devices depends on many fundamental processes, including light harvesting, carrier relaxation, exciton localization and transport, charge separation and charge recombination. The competition between these processes determines the overall solar energy conversion (solar to electricity or fuel) efficiency. Semiconductor nano-heterostructures, combining two or more material components, offer unique opportunities to control their charge separation properties by tailoring their compositions, dimensions and spatial arrangement. Further integration of catalysts (heterogeneous or homogeneous) to these materials form multifunctional nano-heterostructures. Using 0D, 1D and 2D CdSe/CdS/Pt heterostructures as model systems, we directly probe the above-mentioned fundamental exciton and carrier processes by transient absorption and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. We are examining how to control these fundamental processes through the design of heterostructures to achieve long-lived charge separation and efficient H2 generation. In this talk, we will discuss a new model for exciton dissociation by charge transfer in quantum dots (i.e. Auger assisted electron transfer), mechanism of 1D and 2D exciton transport and dissociation in nanorods, and key factors limiting H2 generation efficiency in CdSe/CdS/Pt nanorod heterostructures.
Kabi, Sanjib; Perera, A. G. Unil
2015-03-28
The intersublevel absorption peak energy and absorption coefficient of non-uniform quantum dot (QD) ensembles are calculated analytically. The effect of size variations and size distribution of QDs on their energy states is analyzed. The dots are considered as a quantum box with finite potential at the barriers and the size distribution described by a Gaussian function. The influence of the aspect ratio (base to height ratio) of the QDs on the optical transitions is studied. Our model predicts the dot size (height and base) accurately to determine the absorption peaks and corresponding absorption coefficient. We also compute the absorption coefficient of the QD with different size distributions to verify the results calculated using this model with the reported experimental and other theoretical results.
Brask, Jonatan Bohr; Brunner, Nicolas
2015-12-01
A small quantum absorption refrigerator, consisting of three qubits, is discussed in the transient regime. We discuss time scales for coherent dynamics, damping, and approach to the steady state, and we study cooling and entanglement. We observe that cooling can be enhanced in the transient regime, in the sense that lower temperatures can be achieved compared to the steady-state regime. This is a consequence of coherent dynamics but can occur even when this dynamics is strongly damped by the dissipative thermal environment, and we note that precise control over couplings or timing is not needed to achieve enhanced cooling. We also show that the amount of entanglement present in the refrigerator can be much larger in the transient regime compared to the steady state. These results are of relevance to future implementations of quantum thermal machines. PMID:26764626
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brask, Jonatan Bohr; Brunner, Nicolas
2015-12-01
A small quantum absorption refrigerator, consisting of three qubits, is discussed in the transient regime. We discuss time scales for coherent dynamics, damping, and approach to the steady state, and we study cooling and entanglement. We observe that cooling can be enhanced in the transient regime, in the sense that lower temperatures can be achieved compared to the steady-state regime. This is a consequence of coherent dynamics but can occur even when this dynamics is strongly damped by the dissipative thermal environment, and we note that precise control over couplings or timing is not needed to achieve enhanced cooling. We also show that the amount of entanglement present in the refrigerator can be much larger in the transient regime compared to the steady state. These results are of relevance to future implementations of quantum thermal machines.
Huard; Cox; Saminadayar; Arnoult; Tatarenko
2000-01-01
The dependence of the optical absorption spectrum of a semiconductor quantum well on two-dimensional electron concentration n(e) is studied using CdTe samples. The trion peak (X-) seen at low n(e) evolves smoothly into the Fermi edge singularity at high n(e). The exciton peak (X) moves off to high energy, weakens, and disappears. The X,X- splitting is linear in n(e) and closely equal to the Fermi energy plus the trion binding energy. For Cd0.998Mn0.002Te quantum wells in a magnetic field, the X,X- splitting reflects unequal Fermi energies for M = +/-1/2 electrons. The data are explained by Hawrylak's theory of the many-body optical response including spin effects. PMID:11015866
Intermediate band solar cell with extreme broadband spectrum quantum efficiency.
Datas, A; López, E; Ramiro, I; Antolín, E; Martí, A; Luque, A; Tamaki, R; Shoji, Y; Sogabe, T; Okada, Y
2015-04-17
We report, for the first time, about an intermediate band solar cell implemented with InAs/AlGaAs quantum dots whose photoresponse expands from 250 to ∼6000 nm. To our knowledge, this is the broadest quantum efficiency reported to date for a solar cell and demonstrates that the intermediate band solar cell is capable of producing photocurrent when illuminated with photons whose energy equals the energy of the lowest band gap. We show experimental evidence indicating that this result is in agreement with the theory of the intermediate band solar cell, according to which the generation recombination between the intermediate band and the valence band makes this photocurrent detectable. PMID:25933339
Noise performance of high-efficiency germanium quantum dot photodetectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siontas, Stylianos; Liu, Pei; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Pacifici, Domenico
2016-08-01
We report on the noise analysis of high performance germanium quantum dot (Ge QD) photodetectors with responsivity up to ˜2 A/W and internal quantum efficiency up to ˜400%, over the 400-1100 nm wavelength range and at a reverse bias of -10 V. Photolithography was performed to define variable active-area devices that show suppressed dark current, leading to a higher signal-to-noise ratio, up to 105, and specific detectivity D * ≃ 6 × 10 12 cm Hz 1 / 2 W-1. These figures of merit suggest Ge QDs as a promising alternative material for high-performance photodetectors working in the visible to near-infrared spectral range.
Phillips, Mark C.; Craig, Ian M.; Blake, Thomas A.
2013-02-04
We present experimental demonstrations using a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) to perform Reflection-Absorption InfraRed Spectroscopy (RAIRS) of thin layers and residues on surfaces. The ECQCL compliance voltage was used to measure fluctuations in the ECQCL output power and improve the performance of the RAIRS measurements. Absorption spectra from self-assembled monolayers of a fluorinated alkane thiol and a thiol carboxylic acid were measured and compared with FTIR measurements. RAIRS spectra of the explosive compounds PETN, RDX, and tetryl deposited on gold substrates were also measured. Rapid measurement times and low noise were demonstrated, with < 1E-3 absorbance noise for a 10 second measurement time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillips, Mark C.; Craig, Ian M.; Blake, Thomas A.
2013-01-01
We present experimental demonstrations using a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) to perform Reflection-Absorption InfraRed Spectroscopy (RAIRS) of thin layers and residues on surfaces. The ECQCL compliance voltage was used to measure fluctuations in the ECQCL output power and improve the performance of the RAIRS measurements. Absorption spectra from self-assembled monolayers of a fluorinated alkane thiol and a thiol carboxylic acid were measured and compared with FTIR measurements. RAIRS spectra of the explosive compounds PETN, RDX, and tetryl deposited on gold substrates were also measured. Rapid measurement times and low noise were demonstrated, with <1E-3 absorbance noise for a 10 second measurement time.
On the bathochromic shift of the absorption by astaxanthin in crustacyanin: a quantum chemical study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durbeej, Bo; Eriksson, Leif A.
2003-06-01
The structural origin of the bathochromic shift assumed by the electronic absorption spectrum of protein-bound astaxanthin, the carotenoid that upon binding to crustacyanin is responsible for the blue colouration of lobster shell, is investigated by means of quantum chemical methods. The calculations suggest that the bathochromic shift is largely due to one of the astaxanthin C4 keto groups being hydrogen-bonded to a histidine residue of the surrounding protein, and that the effect of this histidine is directly dependent on its protonation state. Out of the different methodologies (CIS, TD-DFT, and ZINDO/S) employed to calculate wavelengths of maximum absorption, the best agreement with experimental data is obtained using the semiempirical ZINDO/S method.
Intra-cavity absorption spectroscopy with narrow-ridge microfluidic quantum cascade lasers.
Belkin, Mikhail A; Loncar, Marko; Lee, Benjamon G; Pflugl, Christian; Audet, Ross; Diehl, Laurent; Capasso, Federico; Bour, David; Corzine, Scott; Hofler, Gloria
2007-09-01
We demonstrate microfluidic laser intra-cavity absorption spectroscopy with mid-infrared lambda approximately 9mum quantum cascade lasers. A deepetched narrow ridge waveguide laser is placed in a microfluidic chamber. The evanescent tails of the laser mode penetrate into a liquid on both sides of the ridge. The absorption lines of the liquid modify the laser waveguide loss, resulting in significant changes in the laser emission spectrum and the threshold current. A volume of liquid as small as ~10pL may, in principle, be sufficient for sensing using the proposed technique. This method, similar to the related gas-phase technique, shows promise as a sensitive means of detecting chemicals in small volumes of solutions. PMID:19547483
Quantum Coherence in Photosynthesis for Efficient Solar Energy Conversion
Romero, Elisabet; Augulis, Ramunas; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.; Ferretti, Marco; Thieme, Jos; Zigmantas, Donatas; van Grondelle, Rienk
2014-01-01
The crucial step in the conversion of solar to chemical energy in Photosynthesis takes place in the reaction center where the absorbed excitation energy is converted into a stable charge separated state by ultrafast electron transfer events. However, the fundamental mechanism responsible for the near unity quantum efficiency of this process is unknown. Here we elucidate the role of coherence in determining the efficiency of charge separation in the plant photosystem II reaction centre (PSII RC) by comprehensively combining experiment (two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy) and theory (Redfield theory). We reveal the presence of electronic coherence between excitons as well as between exciton and charge transfer states which we argue to be maintained by vibrational modes. Furthermore, we present evidence for the strong correlation between the degree of electronic coherence and efficient and ultrafast charge separation. We propose that this coherent mechanism will inspire the development of new energy technologies. PMID:26870153
Enhancing energy absorption in quantum dot solar cells via periodic light-trapping microstructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Christopher Wayne; Fu, Yulan; Lopez, Rene
2016-09-01
Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells prove to be promising devices for optoelectronic applications due to their tunable absorption range, deep infrared absorption capabilities, and straightforward processability. However, there remains a need to further enhance their device performance—particularly when one has to adhere to strict physical limitations on their physical structure. Here we present a three-dimensional numerical model of CQD solar cells in COMSOL Multiphysics based on the finite element method. With this model we have simulated the optical characteristics of several CQD solar cells across varying photonic structures and physical parameters to investigate how distinct photonic structures may enhance the light absorption and current output of CQD solar cells using identical physical parameters. Of the many cells simulated, one notable model increased the predicted current in the active layer PbS by 69.33% as compared to a flat solar cell with identical physical parameters, and produced a current of 24.18 mA cm‑2 by implementing a cross-shaped photonic structure built on top of a flat substrate of glass and ITO. This cross-shaped model serves as a key example of how unique photonic structures can be implemented to further enhance light absorption.
Neuschl, B. Helbing, J.; Thonke, K.
2014-11-14
The optical absorption of indium gallium nitride (InGaN)/GaN multi quantum wells (QWs) is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. For different sample structures, either planar or three-dimensional, including QWs with different tilts relative to the (0001) plane of the wurtzite crystal, the room temperature absorption spectra were measured. We observe increasing absorption for larger indium content in the active zone and for increasing QW thickness. The semipolar structures with their reduced internal electric field are favorable with respect to the spectral absorption when compared with polar samples. Numerical k ⋅ p based simulations for quantum wells with variable thickness, indium content, and orientation are in accordance with the experimental results. By taking all QW energy eigenstates in all bands as well as the orientation dependent transition probabilities into account, the spectral absorption for arbitrary sample structures can be calculated.
Quantum Dot Solar Cells: High Efficiency through Multiple Exciton Generation
Hanna, M. C.; Ellingson, R. J.; Beard, M.; Yu, P.; Micic, O. I.; Nozik, A. J.; c.
2005-01-01
Impact ionization is a process in which absorbed photons in semiconductors that are at least twice the bandgap can produce multiple electron-hole pairs. For single-bandgap photovoltaic devices, this effect produces greatly enhanced theoretical thermodynamic conversion efficiencies that range from 45-85%, depending upon solar concentration, the cell temperature, and the number of electron-hole pairs produced per photon. For quantum dots (QDs), electron-hole pairs exist as excitons. We have observed astoundingly efficient multiple exciton generation (MEG) in QDs of PbSe (bulk Eg = 0.28 eV), ranging in diameter from 3.9 to 5.7nm (Eg = 0.73, 0.82, and 0.91 eV, respectively). The effective masses of electron and holes are about equal in PbSe, and the onset for efficient MEG occurs at about three times the QD HOMO-LUMO transition (its ''bandgap''). The quantum yield rises quickly after the onset and reaches 300% at 4 x Eg (3.64 eV) for the smallest QD; this means that every QD in the sample produces three electron-hole pairs/photon.
Two-photon Absorption In Quantum Dots,quantum Dashes And Related Materials
Jain, Ravinder
2009-08-31
We have proposed the use of USQDs for various deep-tissue biological imaging applications, notably wavelength-multiplexed multicolor imaging and intra-nuclear studies such as those involving cell apoptosis, and have studied the issue of maximizing two-photon absorption-induced fluorescence (TPAF) signals from CdSe/ZnS USQDs to be used for this application. In particular, using 2 nm USQDs, we have shown that the TPAF signal at 780 nm is ~ 8 times that at 850 nm and 68 times that at 900 nm, two wavelengths that have been used in previous studies using CdSe/ZnS SQDs for deep-tissue imaging of biological studies via TPAF .
Efficient Quantum Compression for Ensembles of Identically Prepared Mixed States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yuxiang; Chiribella, Giulio; Ebler, Daniel
2016-02-01
We present one-shot compression protocols that optimally encode ensembles of N identically prepared mixed states into O (log N ) qubits. In contrast to the case of pure-state ensembles, we find that the number of encoding qubits drops down discontinuously as soon as a nonzero error is tolerated and the spectrum of the states is known with sufficient precision. For qubit ensembles, this feature leads to a 25% saving of memory space. Our compression protocols can be implemented efficiently on a quantum computer.
High quantum efficiency S-20 photocathodes in photon counting detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlov, D. A.; DeFazio, J.; Duarte Pinto, S.; Glazenborg, R.; Kernen, E.
2016-04-01
Based on conventional S-20 processes, a new series of high quantum efficiency (QE) photocathodes has been developed that can be specifically tuned for use in the ultraviolet, blue or green regions of the spectrum. The QE values exceed 30% at maximum response, and the dark count rate is found to be as low as 30 Hz/cm2 at room temperature. This combination of properties along with a fast temporal response makes these photocathodes ideal for application in photon counting detectors, which is demonstrated with an MCP photomultiplier tube for single and multi-photoelectron detection.
Surface and bulk contribution to Cu(111) quantum efficiency
Pedersoli, Emanuele; Greaves, Corin Michael Ricardo; Wan, Weishi; Coleman-Smith, Christopher; Padmore, Howard A.; Pagliara, Stefania; Cartella, Andrea; Lamarca, Fabrizio; Ferrini, Gabriele; Galimberti, Gianluca; Montagnese, Matteo; dal Conte, Stefano; Parmigiani, Fulvio
2008-11-04
The quantum efficiency (QE) of Cu(111) is measured for different impinging light angles with photon energies just above the work function. We observe that the vectorial photoelectric effect, an enhancement of the QE due to illumination with light with an electric vector perpendicular to the sample surface, is stronger in the more surface sensitive regime. This can be explained by a contribution to photoemission due to the variation in the electromagnetic potential at the surface. The contributions of bulk and surface electrons can then be determined.
Deterministic and efficient quantum cryptography based on Bell's theorem
Chen Zengbing; Pan Jianwei; Zhang Qiang; Bao Xiaohui; Schmiedmayer, Joerg
2006-05-15
We propose a double-entanglement-based quantum cryptography protocol that is both efficient and deterministic. The proposal uses photon pairs with entanglement both in polarization and in time degrees of freedom; each measurement in which both of the two communicating parties register a photon can establish one and only one perfect correlation, and thus deterministically create a key bit. Eavesdropping can be detected by violation of local realism. A variation of the protocol shows a higher security, similar to the six-state protocol, under individual attacks. Our scheme allows a robust implementation under the current technology.
Modeling the quantum efficiency of controlled porosity dispenser photocathodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Z.; Jensen, K.; O'Shea, P.
2012-01-01
A theoretical model of diffusion, evaporation, and rejuvenation of cesium on the surface of a controlled porosity dispenser photocathode is developed. The model applies a novel hexagonal meshgrid for increased numerical accuracy. For activation temperatures within the range of 400 K-1000 K, simulation found differences of less than 5% between the quantum efficiency (QE) maximum and minimum over ideal homogenous surfaces. Simulations suggest more variation for real cases to include real surface non uniformity. Changes in the QE map across the surface suggest that the emittance can change depending on temperature. Extensions to the model as well as connections to experiment are discussed.
Efficient teleportation between remote single-atom quantum memories.
Nölleke, Christian; Neuzner, Andreas; Reiserer, Andreas; Hahn, Carolin; Rempe, Gerhard; Ritter, Stephan
2013-04-01
We demonstrate teleportation of quantum bits between two single atoms in distant laboratories. Using a time-resolved photonic Bell-state measurement, we achieve a teleportation fidelity of (88.0 ± 1.5)%, largely determined by our entanglement fidelity. The low photon collection efficiency in free space is overcome by trapping each atom in an optical cavity. The resulting success probability of 0.1% is almost 5 orders of magnitude larger than in previous experiments with remote material qubits. It is mainly limited by photon propagation and detection losses and can be enhanced with a cavity-based deterministic Bell-state measurement. PMID:25166964
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maliński, M.; Chrobak, Ł.; Zakrzewski, J.; Strzałkowski, K.
2011-06-01
This paper presents step by step the procedure of determination of the quantum efficiency of luminescence of Mn2+ ions in the Zn1-x-yBexMnySe crystals. The method is based on the photoacoustic spectroscopy approach. In the paper, the experimental spectra of absorbance, transmission, absorption and photoacoustic spectra of the samples are presented and analyzed from the point of view of the possibility of determination of the quantum efficiency of Mn2+ ion luminescence at room temperature. It was determined experimentally that in the investigated crystals the quantum efficiency of luminescence in the Mn2+ ions is about 35%, 40%, 32% for the absorption peaks at 430 nm, 470 nm, and 510 nm, respectively, for Zn0.75Be0.2Mn0.05Se crystal.
Role of metallic absorption on enhancing the light emitting efficiency by plasmonic gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gou, Yuchun; Xuan, Yimin
2013-09-01
Due to the adoption of the metallic materials in the surface-plasmon-based light emitting diodes (SP-LEDs), strong absorption of the metal can result in the dissipation of the most photons in the form of thermal energy. In order to investigate the role of the metallic absorption in the SP-LEDs, by means of a series of computational examples of our proposed structure, the effects of several features on the absorptivity of the metal and the light extraction efficiency (LEE) of the chips have been analyzed in detail. The results indicate that the chips with combined metallic and dielectric gratings can exhibit relatively the highest LEE, whereas the absorption of the metal in the chips is very strong, and the absorptivity is several times of LEE. It is concluded that to reduce the absorption and keep high light extraction, proper structure in which the odd mode of surface plasmons can be stimulated at the desired wavelength should be used. In addition, the hexagonal gratings show relatively larger light extraction enhancement and stronger absorption than the rectangular ones.
Matsukuma, Hiraku Hosoda, Tatsuya; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Sunahara, Atsushi; Yanagida, Tatsuya; Tomuro, Hiroaki; Kouge, Kouichiro; Kodama, Takeshi
2015-09-21
The correlation between the laser absorption and the conversion efficiency (CE) for 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light in a laser-produced tin plasma was investigated. The absorption rate α and the CE were measured simultaneously for a laser-pre-formed low-density tin target as a function of the time delay between the pre-pulse and the main laser pulse. A clear and positive correlation between α and CE was found with increasing delay time; however, the CE decreases rapidly at longer delay times. This result is partly attributed to a reduction in the absorption rate, but is mainly attributed to the self-absorption of EUV light in excessively long-scale plasmas.
All-Optical Wavelength Conversion by Picosecond Burst Absorption in Colloidal PbS Quantum Dots.
Geiregat, Pieter; Houtepen, Arjan J; Van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger
2016-01-26
All-optical approaches to change the wavelength of a data signal are considered more energy- and cost-effective than current wavelength conversion schemes that rely on back and forth switching between the electrical and optical domains. However, the lack of cost-effective materials with sufficiently adequate optoelectronic properties hampers the development of this so-called all-optical wavelength conversion. Here, we show that the interplay between intraband and band gap absorption in colloidal quantum dots leads to a very strong and ultrafast modulation of the light absorption after photoexcitation in which slow components linked to exciton recombination are eliminated. This approach enables all-optical wavelength conversion at rates matching state-of-the-art convertors in speed, yet with cost-effective solution-processable materials. Moreover, the stronger light-matter interaction allows for implementation in small-footprint devices with low switching energies. Being a generic property, the demonstrated effect opens a pathway toward low-power integrated photonics based on colloidal quantum dots as the enabling material. PMID:26692112
Beck, Annelise R; Bernhardt, Birgitta; Warrick, Erika R.; Wu, Mengxi; Chen, Shaohao; Gaarde, Mette B.; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.
2014-11-07
Electronic wavepackets composed of multiple bound excited states of atomic neon lying between 19.6 and 21.5 eV are launched using an isolated attosecond pulse. Individual quantum beats of the wavepacket are detected by perturbing the induced polarization of the medium with a time-delayed few-femtosecond near-infrared (NIR) pulse via coupling the individual states to multiple neighboring levels. All of the initially excited states are monitored simultaneously in the attosecond transient absorption spectrum, revealing Lorentzian to Fano lineshape spectral changes as well as quantum beats. The most prominent beating of the several that were observed was in the spin–orbit split 3d absorption features, which has a 40 femtosecond period that corresponds to the spin–orbit splitting of 0.1 eV. The few-level models and multilevel calculations confirm that the observed magnitude of oscillation depends strongly on the spectral bandwidth and tuning of the NIR pulse and on the location of possible coupling states.
CdSe Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cell with ~100% Internal Quantum Efficiency
Fuke, Nobuhiro; Hoch, Laura B.; Koposov, Alexey Y.; Manner, Virginia W.; Werder, Donald J.; Fukui, Atsushi; Koide, Naoki; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sykora, Milan
2010-10-20
We have constructed and studied photoelectrochemical solar cells (PECs) consisting of a photoanode prepared by direct deposition of independently synthesized CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) onto a nanocrystalline TiO_{2} film (NQD/TiO_{2}), aqueous Na_{2}S or Li_{2}S electrolyte, and a Pt counter electrode. We show that light harvesting efficiency (LHE) of the NQD/TiO_{2} photoanode is significantly enhanced when the NQD surface passivation is changed from tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) to 4-butylamine (BA). In the PEC the use of NQDs with a shorter passivating ligand, BA, leads to a significant enhancement in both the electron injection efficiency at the NQD/TiO_{2} interface and charge collection efficiency at the NQD/electrolyte interface, with the latter attributed mostly to a more efficient diffusion of the electrolyte through the pores of the photoanode. We show that by utilizing BA-capped NQDs and aqueous Li_{2}S as an electrolyte, it is possible to achieve ~100% internal quantum efficiency of photon-to-electron conversion, matching the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hemmatzadeh, Reza; Mohammadi, Ahmad
2013-11-01
Efficient and cheap dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using natural dyes from Pastinaca sativa and Beta vulgaris. Natural dyes are environmentally and economically superior to ruthenium-based dyes because they are nontoxic and cheap. However, the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural dyes is low. One way to improve the DSSC performance is to enhance the absorptivity of extracted dyes. We investigated the influence of various factors in the extraction process, such as utilization of different extraction approaches, the acidity of extraction solvent, and different compounds of solvents on the optical absorption spectra. It was found that we could considerably enhance the optical absorptivity of dye and consequently the performance of DSSC by choosing a proper mixture of ethanol and water for extracting solvent and also the acidity of dye solution.
Dynamical decoupling efficiency versus quantum non-Markovianity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Addis, Carole; Ciccarello, Francesco; Cascio, Michele; Massimo Palma, G.; Maniscalco, Sabrina
2015-12-01
We investigate the relationship between non-Markovianity and the effectiveness of a dynamical decoupling (DD) protocol for qubits undergoing pure dephasing. We consider an exact model in which dephasing arises due to a bosonic environment with a spectral density of the Ohmic class. This is parametrized by an Ohmicity parameter by changing which we can model both Markovian and non-Markovian environments. Interestingly, we find that engineering a non-Markovian environment is detrimental to the efficiency of the DD scheme, leading to a worse coherence preservation. We show that each DD pulse reverses the flow of quantum information and, on this basis, we investigate the connection between DD efficiency and the reservoir spectral density. Finally, in the spirit of reservoir engineering, we investigate the optimum system-reservoir parameters for achieving maximum stationary coherences.
Jefferson Lab IR demo FEL photocathode quantum efficiency scanner
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gubeli, J.; Evans, R.; Grippo, A.; Jordan, K.; Shinn, M.; Siggins, T.
2001-12-01
Jefferson Laboratory's Free Electron Laser (FEL) incorporates a cesiated gallium arsenide (GaAs) DC photocathode gun as its electron source. By using a set of scanning mirrors, the surface of the GaAs wafer is illuminated with a 543.5nm helium-neon laser. Measuring the current flow across the biased photocathode generates a quantum efficiency (QE) map of the 1-in. diameter wafer surface. The resulting QE map provides a very detailed picture of the efficiency of the wafer surface. By generating a QE map in a matter of minutes, the photocathode scanner has proven to be an exceptional tool in quickly determining sensitivity and availability of the photocathode for operation.
Fully depleted, thick, monolithic CMOS pixels with high quantum efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clarke, A.; Stefanov, K.; Johnston, N.; Holland, A.
2015-04-01
The Centre for Electronic Imaging (CEI) has an active programme of evaluating and designing Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors with high quantum efficiency, for applications in near-infrared and X-ray photon detection. This paper describes the performance characterisation of CMOS devices made on a high resistivity 50 μ m thick p-type substrate with a particular focus on determining the depletion depth and the quantum efficiency. The test devices contain 8 × 8 pixel arrays using CCD-style charge collection, which are manufactured in a low voltage CMOS process by ESPROS Photonics Corporation (EPC). Measurements include determining under which operating conditions the devices become fully depleted. By projecting a spot using a microscope optic and a LED and biasing the devices over a range of voltages, the depletion depth will change, causing the amount of charge collected in the projected spot to change. We determine if the device is fully depleted by measuring the signal collected from the projected spot. The analysis of spot size and shape is still under development.
Efficient quantum modeling of inelastic interactions in nanodevices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Y.; Lannoo, M.; Cavassilas, N.; Luisier, M.; Bescond, M.
2016-05-01
This paper presents an efficient direct quantum method to model inelastic scattering in nanoelectronic structures including degenerate band extrema. It couples the Born series expansion of the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) to an analytic continuation based on the Padé approximant technique. Using a two-band k .p Hamiltonian, we analyze the electron transport through a linear chain in the presence of both optical and acoustic phonons. Results are consistently compared with the usual, computationally expensive, self-consistent Born approximation (SCBA). We find that our approach provides a much better convergence for both types of phonons in the presence of strong multiband coupling. The calculation of the current to the fifth order in the interactions is sufficient to reproduce the influence of all considered phonon interactions. We also show that the method can be applied to the calculation of the density of carriers which depicts however a slower convergence rate than the current. The capability to efficiently calculate both current and carrier density represents a clear advantage in a context of increasing request for atomistic quantum simulations.
Evaluation of new large area PMT with high quantum efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Xiang-Cui; Heng, Yue-Kun; Qian, Sen; Xia, Jing-Kai; Liu, Shu-Lin; Wu, Zhi; Yan, Bao-Jun; Xu, Mei-Hang; Wang, Zheng; Li, Xiao-Nan; Ruan, Xiang-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Zhuang; Yang, Yu-Zhen; Wang, Wen-Wen, Wang; Can, Fang; Feng-Jiao, Luo; Liang, Jing-Jing; Yang, Lu-Ping; Yang, Biao
2016-02-01
The neutrino detector of the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is designed to use 20 kilotons of liquid scintillator and approximately 16 000 20 inch photomultipliers (PMTs). One of the options is to use the 20 inch R12860 PMT with high quantum efficiency which has recently been developed by Hamamatsu Photonics. The performance of the newly developed PMT preproduction samples is evaluated. The results show that its quantum efficiency is 30% at 400 nm. Its Peak/Valley (P/V) ratio for the single photoelectron is 4.75 and the dark count rate is 27 kHz at the threshold of 3 mV while the gain is at 1 × 107. The transit time spread of a single photoelectron is 2.86 ns. Generally the performances of this new 20 inch PMT are improved over the old one of R3600. Supported by Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (X-DA10010200), Key Deployment Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences and CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP)
Exciton Absorption in Semiconductor Quantum Wells Driven by a Strong Intersubband Pump Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Ansheng; Ning, Cun-Zheng
1999-01-01
Optical interband excitonic absorption of semiconductor quantum wells (QW's) driven by a coherent pump field is investigated based on semiconductor Bloch equations. The pump field has a photon energy close to the intersubband spacing between the first two conduction subbands in the QW's. An external weak optical field probes the interband transition. The excitonic effects and pump-induced population redistribution within the conduction subbands in the QW system are included. When the density of the electron-hole pairs in the QW structure is low, the pump field induces an Autler-Townes splitting of the exciton absorption spectrum. The split size and the peak positions of the absorption doublet depend not only on the pump frequency and intensity but also on the carrier density. As the density of the electron-hole pairs is increased, the split contrast (the ratio between the maximum and minimum values) is decreased because the exciton effect is suppressed at higher densities due to the many-body screening.
High Efficiency Quantum Well Waveguide Solar Cells and Methods for Constructing the Same
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welser, Roger E. (Inventor); Sood, Ashok K. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
Photon absorption, and thus current generation, is hindered in conventional thin-film solar cell designs, including quantum well structures, by the limited path length of incident light passing vertically through the device. Optical scattering into lateral waveguide structures provides a physical mechanism to increase photocurrent generation through in-plane light trapping. However, the insertion of wells of high refractive index material with lower energy gap into the device structure often results in lower voltage operation, and hence lower photovoltaic power conversion efficiency. The voltage output of an InGaAs quantum well waveguide photovoltaic device can be increased by employing a III-V material structure with an extended wide band gap emitter heterojunction. Analysis of the light IV characteristics reveals that non-radiative recombination components of the underlying dark diode current have been reduced, exposing the limiting radiative recombination component and providing a pathway for realizing solar-electric conversion efficiency of 30% or more in single junction cells.
Characterization of pixel crosstalk and impact of Bayer patterning by quantum efficiency measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaillant, Jérôme; Mornet, Clémence; Decroux, Thomas; Hérault, Didier; Schanen, Isabelle
2011-01-01
Development of small pixels for high resolution image sensors implies a lot of challenges. A high level of performance should be guaranteed whereas the overall size must be reduced and so the degree of freedom in design and process. One key parameter of this constant improvement is the knowledge and the control of the crosstalk between pixels. In this paper, we present an advance in crosstalk characterization method based on the design of specific color patterns and the measurement of quantum efficiency. In a first part, we describe the color patterns designed to isolate one pixel or to simulate un-patterned colored pixels. These patterns have been implemented on test-chip and characterized. The second part deals with the characterization setup for quantum efficiency. Indeed, the use of spectral measurements allows us to discriminate pixels based on the color filter placed on top of them and to probe the crosstalk as a function of the depth in silicon, thanks to the photon absorption length variation with the wavelength. In the last part, results are presented showing the impact of color filters patterning, i.e. pixels in a Bayer pattern versus un-patterned pixels. The crosstalk directions and amplitudes are also analyzed in relation to pixel layout.
Giant Up-Conversion Efficiency of InGaAs Quantum Dots in a Planar Microcavity
Xu, Qinfeng; Piermarocchi, Carlo; Pershin, Yuriy V.; Salamo, G. J.; Xiao, Min; Wang, Xiaoyong; Shih, Chih-Kang
2014-01-01
Self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) were fabricated inside a planar microcavity with two vertical cavity modes. This allowed us to excite the QDs coupled to one of the vertical cavity modes through two propagating cavity modes to study their down- and up-converted photoluminescence (PL). The up-converted PL increased continuously with the increasing temperature, reaching an intensity level comparable to that of the down-converted PL at ~120 K. This giant efficiency in the up-converted PL of InGaAs QDs was enhanced by about 2 orders of magnitude with respect to a similar structure without cavity. We tentatively explain the enhanced up-converted signal as a direct consequence of the modified spontaneous emission properties of the QDs in the microcavity, combined with the phonon absorption and emission effects. PMID:24492329
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barseghyan, M. G.; Manaselyan, A. Kh.; Laroze, D.; Kirakosyan, A. A.
2016-07-01
In this work we study the electronic states in quantum dot-ring complex nanostructures with an on-center hydrogenic impurity. The influence of the impurity on Aharonov-Bohm energy spectra oscillations and intraband optical absorption is investigated. It is shown that in the presence of a hydrogenic donor impurity the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in quantum dot-ring structures become highly tunable. Furthermore, the presence of the impurity drastically changes the intraband absorption spectra due to the strong controllability of the electron localization type.
Kim, T.; Liu, B.; Smith, R.; Athanasiou, M.; Gong, Y.; Wang, T.
2014-04-21
A “coherent” nanocavity structure has been designed on two-dimensional well-ordered InGaN/GaN nanodisk arrays with an emission wavelength in the green spectral region, leading to a massive enhancement in resonance mode in the green spectra region. By means of a cost-effective nanosphere lithography technique, we have fabricated such a structure on an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well epiwafer and have observed the “coherent” nanocavity effect, which leads to an enhanced spontaneous emission (SE) rate. The enhanced SE rate has been confirmed by time resolved photoluminescence measurements. Due to the coherent nanocavity effect, we have achieved a massive improvement in internal quantum efficiency with a factor of 88, compared with the as-grown sample, which could be significant to bridge the “green gap” in solid-state lighting.
Forrest, S R
1997-03-01
The principal project objective is to demonstrate relatively high solar conversion efficiency using extremely low-cost, thin-film technology based on crystalline organic multiple quantum well (MQW) photovoltaic cells. The authors base their work on recent observations both in the laboratory and elsewhere that have indicated the quantum efficiency of organic photoconductors based on vacuum-deposited thin films can be increased by at least two orders of magnitude (to at least 10%) if the organic films are grown in a highly ordered manner, and if organic multiple quantum wells are used in the absorption region. The authors are investigating the physical origin of this phenomenon, and they are growing thin-film MQW cells that demonstrate relatively high quantum efficiencies to determine the practicality of crystalline organic thin-film cells for solar power applications. The investigations are based on a unique, ultrahigh-vacuum organic molecular beam deposition system in the laboratory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Kangxian; Zhang, Zhongmin; Mou, Sen; Xiao, Bo
2015-05-01
The analytical expressions of linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a quantum dot with a hydrogenic impurity are obtained by using the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method. The wave functions and the energy levels are obtained by using the variational method. Numerical results show that the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes are strongly affected by the hydrogenic impurity.
Pseudospectral Gaussian quantum dynamics: Efficient sampling of potential energy surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heaps, Charles W.; Mazziotti, David A.
2016-04-01
Trajectory-based Gaussian basis sets have been tremendously successful in describing high-dimensional quantum molecular dynamics. In this paper, we introduce a pseudospectral Gaussian-based method that achieves accurate quantum dynamics using efficient, real-space sampling of the time-dependent basis set. As in other Gaussian basis methods, we begin with a basis set expansion using time-dependent Gaussian basis functions guided by classical mechanics. Unlike other Gaussian methods but characteristic of the pseudospectral and collocation methods, the basis set is tested with N Dirac delta functions, where N is the number of basis functions, rather than using the basis function as test functions. As a result, the integration for matrix elements is reduced to function evaluation. Pseudospectral Gaussian dynamics only requires O ( N ) potential energy calculations, in contrast to O ( N 2 ) evaluations in a variational calculation. The classical trajectories allow small basis sets to sample high-dimensional potentials. Applications are made to diatomic oscillations in a Morse potential and a generalized version of the Henon-Heiles potential in two, four, and six dimensions. Comparisons are drawn to full analytical evaluation of potential energy integrals (variational) and the bra-ket averaged Taylor (BAT) expansion, an O ( N ) approximation used in Gaussian-based dynamics. In all cases, the pseudospectral Gaussian method is competitive with full variational calculations that require a global, analytical, and integrable potential energy surface. Additionally, the BAT breaks down when quantum mechanical coherence is particularly strong (i.e., barrier reflection in the Morse oscillator). The ability to obtain variational accuracy using only the potential energy at discrete points makes the pseudospectral Gaussian method a promising avenue for on-the-fly dynamics, where electronic structure calculations become computationally significant.
Pseudospectral Gaussian quantum dynamics: Efficient sampling of potential energy surfaces.
Heaps, Charles W; Mazziotti, David A
2016-04-28
Trajectory-based Gaussian basis sets have been tremendously successful in describing high-dimensional quantum molecular dynamics. In this paper, we introduce a pseudospectral Gaussian-based method that achieves accurate quantum dynamics using efficient, real-space sampling of the time-dependent basis set. As in other Gaussian basis methods, we begin with a basis set expansion using time-dependent Gaussian basis functions guided by classical mechanics. Unlike other Gaussian methods but characteristic of the pseudospectral and collocation methods, the basis set is tested with N Dirac delta functions, where N is the number of basis functions, rather than using the basis function as test functions. As a result, the integration for matrix elements is reduced to function evaluation. Pseudospectral Gaussian dynamics only requires O(N) potential energy calculations, in contrast to O(N(2)) evaluations in a variational calculation. The classical trajectories allow small basis sets to sample high-dimensional potentials. Applications are made to diatomic oscillations in a Morse potential and a generalized version of the Henon-Heiles potential in two, four, and six dimensions. Comparisons are drawn to full analytical evaluation of potential energy integrals (variational) and the bra-ket averaged Taylor (BAT) expansion, an O(N) approximation used in Gaussian-based dynamics. In all cases, the pseudospectral Gaussian method is competitive with full variational calculations that require a global, analytical, and integrable potential energy surface. Additionally, the BAT breaks down when quantum mechanical coherence is particularly strong (i.e., barrier reflection in the Morse oscillator). The ability to obtain variational accuracy using only the potential energy at discrete points makes the pseudospectral Gaussian method a promising avenue for on-the-fly dynamics, where electronic structure calculations become computationally significant. PMID:27131532
Chen, Shih-Chen; Chen, Yi-Ju; Chen, Wei Ting; Yen, Yu-Ting; Kao, Tsung Sheng; Chuang, Tsung-Yeh; Liao, Yu-Kuang; Wu, Kaung-Hsiung; Yabushita, Atsushi; Hsieh, Tung-Po; Charlton, Martin D B; Tsai, Din Ping; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chueh, Yu-Lun
2014-09-23
We have successfully demonstrated a great advantage of plasmonic Au nanoparticles for efficient enhancement of Cu(In,Ga)Se2(CIGS) flexible photovoltaic devices. The incorporation of Au NPs can eliminate obstacles in the way of developing ink-printing CIGS flexible thin film photovoltaics (TFPV), such as poor absorption at wavelengths in the high intensity region of solar spectrum, and that occurs significantly at large incident angle of solar irradiation. The enhancement of external quantum efficiency and photocurrent have been systematically analyzed via the calculated electromagnetic field distribution. Finally, the major benefits of the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in visible wavelength have been investigated by ultrabroadband pump-probe spectroscopy, providing a solid evidence on the strong absorption and reduction of surface recombination that increases electron-hole generation and improves the carrier transportation in the vicinity of pn-juction. PMID:25093682
Enhanced pump absorption efficiency in coiled and twisted double-clad thulium-doped fibers.
Koška, Pavel; Peterka, Pavel; Aubrecht, Jan; Podrazký, Ondřej; Todorov, Filip; Becker, Martin; Baravets, Yauhen; Honzátko, Pavel; Kašík, Ivan
2016-01-11
Results of the first experimental demonstration of the recently proposed technique for improvement of the pump absorption in double-clad fibers by their simultaneous coiling and twisting are reported. The peak absorption (14 dB) of 3-m long hexagonal thulium-doped fiber was increased by 8 dB by its simultaneous coiling and twisting. Explanation of the effect is given by numerical modelling of the pump absorption in hexagonal and panda-type double-clad fibers. Improvement of fiber laser performance was also proved. The slope efficiency increased from 19.6% of the straight fiber to 23.9% of the coiled only fiber and 29.4% of the simultaneously coiled and twisted fiber. PMID:26832241
Efficiency of Absorption of Solar Radiation By Liquids Containing Metallic Nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astafyeva, L. G.; Pustovalov, V. K.
2016-05-01
We present the results of a comparative analysis of the optical properties of metallic nanoparticles that allows us to select their parameters for effective applications. The optical properties of several metallic (Ni, Ti, Pt, Zn, Mo, and Pd) monodisperse nanoparticles of radii 25 nm, 50 nm, and 75 nm were theoretically studied and analyzed in the spectral range 200-2500 nm. We studied the influence of the nanoparticle parameters (type of metal, radius and concentration of the nanoparticles, etc.) and the surrounding liquid (water) on the optical absorption cross section, scattering cross section, and extinction cross section for absorption, scattering, and extinction of radiation by the nanoparticles. We have established that titanium, nickel, and to a lesser extent molybdenum nanoparticles of radii ~75 nm can be used for efficient absorption and extinction of solar radiation by heterogeneous liquids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mappé, I.; Joly, L.; Durry, G.; Thomas, X.; Decarpenterie, T.; Cousin, J.; Dumelie, N.; Roth, E.; Chakir, A.; Grillon, P. G.
2013-02-01
This paper describes a Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectrometer, called "QCLAS" that was developed to monitor in situ greenhouse gases like N2O and CH4, at high temporal resolution and with a high accuracy. The design of the laser sensor is reported as well as its performances in terms of precision error and field deployment capabilities. Finally, to demonstrate the efficiency and the robustness of QCLAS and its suitability for gas emission monitoring and for the determination of fluxes, we report the results from a field campaign, that took place in the Wallis and Futuna Islands in 2011, to investigate the impact of environmental intensive pig farming.
The engineering of quantum dots for efficient solar energy capture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pietryga, Jeffrey
Over the past decade, exciting advances have been made in the use of semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) for capture of solar energy, including efficient and inexpensive solar cells based on simple, single-component lead chalcogenide QDs. Such devices take advantage of key advantages offered by QDs, including the ability to control bandgap with particle size, and to alter carrier concentrations using surface modification. Remaining essentially untapped, however, is the much larger potential offered by heterostructured QDs to exhibit new functionality that will enable truly unprecedented device performance. In this talk, I will present recent results from our efforts in application-inspired band-structure engineering of heterostructured QDs. Specifically, I will examine how the selective combination of semiconductor materials in a simple core/shell geometry can result in QDs with radically altered properties optimized for use in applications such as carrier-multiplication-enhanced solar cells, and highly efficient luminescent solar concentrators. I will use these examples to demonstrate the general ability of solution-synthesized nanomaterials to contribute to the overall goal of efficient solar energy capture and conversion in a variety of roles. This work was performed within the Center for Advanced Solar Photophysics, a DOE Energy Frontier Research Center.
Kushwaha, Manvir S.
2014-12-15
Semiconducting quantum dots – more fancifully dubbed artificial atoms – are quasi-zero dimensional, tiny, man-made systems with charge carriers completely confined in all three dimensions. The scientific quest behind the synthesis of quantum dots is to create and control future electronic and optical nanostructures engineered through tailoring size, shape, and composition. The complete confinement – or the lack of any degree of freedom for the electrons (and/or holes) – in quantum dots limits the exploration of spatially localized elementary excitations such as plasmons to direct rather than reciprocal space. Here we embark on a thorough investigation of the magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots characterized by a confining harmonic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. This is done within the framework of Bohm-Pines’ random-phase approximation that enables us to derive and discuss the full Dyson equation that takes proper account of the Coulomb interactions. As an application of our theoretical strategy, we compute various single-particle and many-particle phenomena such as the Fock-Darwin spectrum; Fermi energy; magneto-optical transitions; probability distribution; and the magneto-optical absorption in the quantum dots. It is observed that the role of an applied magnetic field on the absorption spectrum is comparable to that of a confining potential. Increasing (decreasing) the strength of the magnetic field or the confining potential is found to be analogous to shrinking (expanding) the size of the quantum dots: resulting into a blue (red) shift in the absorption spectrum. The Fermi energy diminishes with both increasing magnetic-field and dot-size; and exhibits saw-tooth-like oscillations at large values of field or dot-size. Unlike laterally confined quantum dots, both (upper and lower) magneto-optical transitions survive even in the extreme instances. However, the intra-Landau level
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kushwaha, Manvir S.
2014-12-01
Semiconducting quantum dots - more fancifully dubbed artificial atoms - are quasi-zero dimensional, tiny, man-made systems with charge carriers completely confined in all three dimensions. The scientific quest behind the synthesis of quantum dots is to create and control future electronic and optical nanostructures engineered through tailoring size, shape, and composition. The complete confinement - or the lack of any degree of freedom for the electrons (and/or holes) - in quantum dots limits the exploration of spatially localized elementary excitations such as plasmons to direct rather than reciprocal space. Here we embark on a thorough investigation of the magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots characterized by a confining harmonic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. This is done within the framework of Bohm-Pines' random-phase approximation that enables us to derive and discuss the full Dyson equation that takes proper account of the Coulomb interactions. As an application of our theoretical strategy, we compute various single-particle and many-particle phenomena such as the Fock-Darwin spectrum; Fermi energy; magneto-optical transitions; probability distribution; and the magneto-optical absorption in the quantum dots. It is observed that the role of an applied magnetic field on the absorption spectrum is comparable to that of a confining potential. Increasing (decreasing) the strength of the magnetic field or the confining potential is found to be analogous to shrinking (expanding) the size of the quantum dots: resulting into a blue (red) shift in the absorption spectrum. The Fermi energy diminishes with both increasing magnetic-field and dot-size; and exhibits saw-tooth-like oscillations at large values of field or dot-size. Unlike laterally confined quantum dots, both (upper and lower) magneto-optical transitions survive even in the extreme instances. However, the intra-Landau level transitions are seen
Mahpeykar, Seyed Milad; Xiong, Qiuyang; Wang, Xihua
2014-10-20
The application of nanostructured indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes as diffraction gratings for light absorption enhancement in colloidal quantum dot solar cells is numerically investigated using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. Resonant coupling of the incident diffracted light with supported waveguide modes in light absorbing layer at particular wavelengths predicted by grating far-field projection analysis is shown to provide superior near-infrared light trapping for nanostructured devices as compared to the planar structure. Among various technologically feasible nanostructures, the two-dimensional nano-branch array is demonstrated as the most promising polarization-independent structure and proved to be able to maintain its performance despite structural imperfections common in fabrication. PMID:25607315
Intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy using mid-IR quantum cascade laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medhi, G.; Muravjov, A. V.; Saxena, H.; Fredricksen, C. J.; Brusentsova, T.; Peale, R. E.; Edwards, O.
2011-06-01
Intracavity Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (ICLAS) at IR wavelengths offers an opportunity for spectral sensing with sufficient sensitivity to detect vapors of low vapor pressure compounds such as explosives. Reported here are key enabling technologies for this approach, including multi-mode external-cavity quantum cascade lasers and a scanning Fabry-Perot spectrometer to analyze the laser mode spectrum in the presence of a molecular intracavity absorber. Reported also is the design of a compact integrated data acquisition and control system. Applications include military and commercial sensing for threat compounds, chemical gases, biological aerosols, drugs, and banned or invasive plants or animals, bio-medical breath analysis, and terrestrial or planetary atmosphere science.
Effective utilization of quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers in absorption spectroscopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kosterev, A. A.; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F. K.; Gmachl, C.; Capasso, F.; Sivco, D. L.; Baillargeon, J. N.; Hutchinson, A. L.; Cho, A. Y.
2000-01-01
A variable duty cycle quasi-cw frequency scanning technique was applied to reduce thermal effects resulting from the high heat dissipation of type I quantum-cascade lasers. This technique was combined with a 100-m path-length multipass cell and a zero-air background-subtraction technique to enhance detection sensitivity to a parts-in-10(9) (ppb) concentration level for spectroscopic trace-gas detection of CH4, N2O, H2O, and C2H5OH in ambient air at 7.9 micrometers. A new technique for analysis of dense high resolution absorption spectra was applied to detection of ethanol in ambient air, yielding a 125-ppb detection limit.