Science.gov

Sample records for abstract orthographic codes

  1. Phonological Codes Constrain Output of Orthographic Codes via Sublexical and Lexical Routes in Chinese Written Production

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    To what extent do phonological codes constrain orthographic output in handwritten production? We investigated how phonological codes constrain the selection of orthographic codes via sublexical and lexical routes in Chinese written production. Participants wrote down picture names in a picture-naming task in Experiment 1or response words in a symbol—word associative writing task in Experiment 2. A sublexical phonological property of picture names (phonetic regularity: regular vs. irregular) in Experiment 1and a lexical phonological property of response words (homophone density: dense vs. sparse) in Experiment 2, as well as word frequency of the targets in both experiments, were manipulated. A facilitatory effect of word frequency was found in both experiments, in which words with high frequency were produced faster than those with low frequency. More importantly, we observed an inhibitory phonetic regularity effect, in which low-frequency picture names with regular first characters were slower to write than those with irregular ones, and an inhibitory homophone density effect, in which characters with dense homophone density were produced more slowly than those with sparse homophone density. Results suggested that phonological codes constrained handwritten production via lexical and sublexical routes. PMID:25879662

  2. Differential cognitive processing of Kanji and Kana words: do orthographic and semantic codes function in parallel in word matching task.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, A; Hatta, T; Kogure, T

    2001-12-01

    Relative engagements of the orthographic and semantic codes in Kanji and Hiragana word recognition were investigated. In Exp. 1, subjects judged whether the pairs of Kanji words (prime and target) presented sequentially were physically identical to each other in the word condition. In the sentence condition, subjects decided whether the target word was valid for the prime sentence presented in advance. The results showed that the response times to the target swords orthographically similar (to the prime) were significantly slower than to semantically related target words in the word condition and that this was also the case in the sentence condition. In Exp. 2, subjects judged whether the target word written in Hiragana was physically identical to the prime word in the word condition. In the sentence condition, subjects decided if the target word was valid for the previously presented prime sentence. Analysis indicated that response times to orthographically similar words were slower than to semantically related words in the word condition but not in the sentence condition wherein the response times to the semantically and orthographically similar words were largely the same. Based on these results, differential contributions of orthographic and semantic codes in cognitive processing of Japanese Kanji and Hiragana words was discussed. PMID:11806593

  3. Coding the Eggen Cards (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2014-06-01

    (Abstract only) A look at the Eggen Portal for accessing the Eggen cards. And a call for volunteers to help code the cards: 100,000 cards must be looked at and their star references identified and coded into the database for this to be a valuable resource.

  4. Orthographically Influenced Abstract Phonological Representation: Evidence from Non-Rhotic Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    It is typically assumed that when orthography is translated silently into phonology (i.e., when reading silently), the phonological representation is equivalent to the spoken form or, at least, the surface phonemic form. The research presented here demonstrates that the phonological representation is likely to be more abstract than this, and is…

  5. The role of orthographic and phonological codes in the word and the pseudoword superiority effect: an analysis by means of multinomial processing tree models.

    PubMed

    Maris, Eric

    2002-12-01

    Central to the current accounts of the word and the pseudoword superiority effect (WSE and PWSE, respectively) is the concept of a unitized code that is less susceptible to masking than single-letter codes. Current explanations of the WSE and PWSE assume that this unitized code is orthographic, explaining these phenomena by the assumption of dual read-out from unitized and single-letter codes. In this article, orthographic dual read-out models are compared with a phonological dual read-out model (which is based on the assumption that the 1st unitized code is phonological). From this phonological code, an orthographic code is derived, through either lexical access or assembly. Comparison of the orthographic and phonological dual read-out models was performed by formulating both models as multinomial processing tree models. From an application of these models to the data of 2 letter identification experiments, it was clear that the orthographic dual read-out models are insufficient as an explanation of the PWSE, whereas the phonological dual read-out model is sufficient. PMID:12542135

  6. Contrasting Five Different Theories of Letter Position Coding: Evidence from Orthographic Similarity Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Colin J.; Bowers, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    Five theories of how letter position is coded are contrasted: position-specific slot-coding, Wickelcoding, open-bigram coding (discrete and continuous), and spatial coding. These theories make different predictions regarding the relative similarity of three different types of pairs of letter strings: substitution neighbors,…

  7. Orthographic Reform in Kope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, John M.

    The role of local attitudes in recent orthographic reform in Kope is examined. The previous Kope orthographic tradition is outlined, and two areas apparently requiring reform (nasal/fricative variation and vowel clusters versus semivowels). The concerns and the greater awareness among the locals regarding these orthographic changes are explored.…

  8. Orthographic Neighborhood and Concreteness Effects in the Lexical Decision Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Dana; Pillon, Agnesa

    2004-01-01

    The experiment reported here investigated the sensitivity of concreteness effects to orthographic neighborhood density and frequency in the visual lexical decision task. The concreteness effect was replicated with a sample of concrete and abstract words that were not matched for orthographic neighborhood features and in which concrete words turned…

  9. Orthographic and semantic processing in young readers

    PubMed Central

    Polse, Lara R.; Reilly, Judy S.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined orthographic and semantic processing during reading acquisition. Children in first through fourth grade were presented with a target word and two response alternatives, and were asked to identify the semantic match. Words were presented in four conditions: an exact match and unrelated foil (STONE – STONE – EARS), an exact match and an orthographic neighbor foil (STONE – STONE – STOVE), a synonym match and an unrelated foil (STONE – ROCK – EARS), and a synonym match and an orthographic neighbor foil (STONE – ROCK – STOVE). Accuracy and reaction time results suggest that orthographic and semantic processing follow a two-step acquisition pattern. First, the orthographic component of reading develops quickly, however, forming strong conceptual links from orthographic to semantic representations follows a protracted trajectory, which matures between the third and fourth grade. These results are consistent with research that suggests younger children rely on more concrete, perceptual systems and then transition to more flexible, abstract cognition. PMID:25750465

  10. The Temporal Courses of Phonological and Orthographic Encoding in Handwritten Production in Chinese: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingfang; Wang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    A central issue in written production concerns how phonological codes influence the output of orthographic codes. We used a picture-word interference paradigm combined with the event-related potential technique to investigate the temporal courses of phonological and orthographic activation and their interplay in Chinese writing. Distractors were orthographically related, phonologically related, orthographically plus phonologically related, or unrelated to picture names. The behavioral results replicated the classic facilitation effect for all three types of relatedness. The ERP results indicated an orthographic effect in the time window of 370-500 ms (onset latency: 370 ms), a phonological effect in the time window of 460-500 ms (onset latency: 464 ms), and an additive pattern of both effects in both time windows, thus indicating that orthographic codes were accessed earlier than, and independent of, phonological codes in written production. The orthographic activation originates from the semantic system, whereas the phonological effect results from the activation spreading from the orthographic lexicon to the phonological lexicon. These findings substantially strengthen the existing evidence that shows that access to orthographic codes is not mediated by phonological information, and they provide important support for the orthographic autonomy hypothesis. PMID:27605911

  11. The Temporal Courses of Phonological and Orthographic Encoding in Handwritten Production in Chinese: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingfang; Wang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    A central issue in written production concerns how phonological codes influence the output of orthographic codes. We used a picture-word interference paradigm combined with the event-related potential technique to investigate the temporal courses of phonological and orthographic activation and their interplay in Chinese writing. Distractors were orthographically related, phonologically related, orthographically plus phonologically related, or unrelated to picture names. The behavioral results replicated the classic facilitation effect for all three types of relatedness. The ERP results indicated an orthographic effect in the time window of 370–500 ms (onset latency: 370 ms), a phonological effect in the time window of 460–500 ms (onset latency: 464 ms), and an additive pattern of both effects in both time windows, thus indicating that orthographic codes were accessed earlier than, and independent of, phonological codes in written production. The orthographic activation originates from the semantic system, whereas the phonological effect results from the activation spreading from the orthographic lexicon to the phonological lexicon. These findings substantially strengthen the existing evidence that shows that access to orthographic codes is not mediated by phonological information, and they provide important support for the orthographic autonomy hypothesis. PMID:27605911

  12. The Orthographic Consistency Effect in the Recognition of French Spoken Words: An Early Developmental Shift from Sublexical to Lexical Orthographic Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Morais, Jose; De Vylder, Olivia; Ventura, Paulo; Kolinsky, Regine

    2009-01-01

    The generality of the orthographic consistency effect in speech recognition tasks previously reported for Portuguese beginning readers was assessed in French-speaking children, as the French orthographic code presents a higher degree of inconsistency than the Portuguese one. Although the findings obtained with the French second graders replicated…

  13. Dual Coding Theory, Word Abstractness, and Emotion: A Critical Review of Kousta et al. (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paivio, Allan

    2013-01-01

    Kousta, Vigliocco, Del Campo, Vinson, and Andrews (2011) questioned the adequacy of dual coding theory and the context availability model as explanations of representational and processing differences between concrete and abstract words. They proposed an alternative approach that focuses on the role of emotional content in the processing of…

  14. How Does Reading Performance Modulate the Impact of Orthographic Knowledge on Speech Processing? A Comparison of Normal Readers and Dyslexic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Nelis, Aubéline; Kolinsky, Régine

    2014-01-01

    Studies on proficient readers showed that speech processing is affected by knowledge of the orthographic code. Yet, the automaticity of the orthographic influence depends on task demand. Here, we addressed this automaticity issue in normal and dyslexic adult readers by comparing the orthographic effects obtained in two speech processing tasks that…

  15. Orthographic Learning in Spanish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In order to read fluently, children have to form orthographic representations. Despite numerous investigations, there is no clear answer to the question of the number of times they need to read a word to form an orthographic representation. We used length effect on reading times as a measure, because there are large differences between long and…

  16. A Global View Programming Abstraction for Transitioning MPI Codes to PGAS Languages

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, Tiffany M; Hernandez, Oscar R; Bernholdt, David E

    2014-01-01

    The multicore generation of scientific high performance computing has provided a platform for the realization of Exascale computing, and has also underscored the need for new paradigms in coding parallel applications. The current standard for writing parallel applications requires programmers to use languages designed for sequential execution. These languages have abstractions that only allow programmers to operate on the process centric local view of data. To provide suitable languages for parallel execution, many research efforts have designed languages based on the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model. Chapel is one of the more recent languages to be developed using this model. Chapel supports multithreaded execution with high-level abstractions for parallelism. With Chapel in mind, we have developed a set of directives that serve as intermediate expressions for transitioning scientific applications from languages designed for sequential execution to PGAS languages like Chapel that are being developed with parallelism in mind.

  17. Unattentive speech processing is influenced by orthographic knowledge: evidence from mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Morais, José; Colin, Cécile; Kolinsky, Régine

    2014-10-01

    How far can acquired knowledge such as orthographic knowledge affect pre-existing abilities such as speech perception? This controversial issue was addressed by investigating the automaticity of the influence of orthographic knowledge on speech processing. Many studies demonstrated this influence in active, lexico-semantic speech processing tasks. However, it has never been observed when speech is unattended. Here, the Mismatch Negativity (MMN), an automatic index of experience-dependent auditory traces, was recorded in an unattended oddball paradigm manipulating the orthographic congruency between frequent and deviant spoken riming words. Both orthographically congruent and incongruent deviant words elicited a typical MMN over the fronto-central regions, with a stronger response in the incongruent condition. The finding showed that the orthographic dimension of spoken words influences a physiological marker of speech processing although participants were required not to attend to the auditory input. This provides evidence for an impact of acquiring a written code on speech processing. PMID:25190330

  18. Orthographic and phonological contributions to reading development: tracking developmental trajectories using masked priming.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Johannes C; Bertrand, Daisy; Lété, Bernard; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-04-01

    The present study used a variant of masked priming to track the development of 2 marker effects of orthographic and phonological processing from Grade 1 through Grade 5 in a cross-sectional study. Pseudohomophone (PsH) priming served as a marker for phonological processing, whereas transposed-letter (TL) priming was a marker for coarse-grained orthographic processing. The results revealed a clear developmental picture. First, the PsH priming effect was significant and remained stable across development, suggesting that phonology not only plays an important role in early reading development but continues to exert a robust influence throughout reading development. This finding challenges the view that more advanced readers should rely less on phonological information than younger readers. Second, the TL priming effect increased monotonically with grade level and reading age, which suggests greater reliance on coarse-grained orthographic coding as children become better readers. Thus, TL priming effects seem to be a good marker effect for children's ability to use coarse-grained orthographic coding to speed up direct lexical access in alphabetic languages. The results were predicted by the dual-route model of orthographic processing, which suggests that direct orthographic access is achieved through coarse-grained orthographic coding that tolerates some degree of flexibility in letter order. PMID:24294878

  19. Boosting Orthographic Learning during Independent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that phonological decoding is critical for orthographic learning of new words during independent reading. Moreover, correlational studies have demonstrated that the strength of orthographic learning is related to the orthographic knowledge with which readers approach a text. The present training study was conducted to assess…

  20. A new magnetic bar code system based on a magnetic anisotropy detection (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasada, I.; Watanabe, N.

    1996-04-01

    Magnetic bar codes can be used in unclean environments, where widely used optical bar code systems cannot be applied. Readout system for magnetic bar codes can also be made much simpler than optical ones. A new magnetic bar code system is proposed, in which binary information is coded in the sign of tilted angles of magnetic strips from a given standard direction. This scheme is unique compared to the conventional optical bar code, where width or space of the parallel pattern carries information, or an already reported magnetic bar code, where cross sectional shapes of pattern engraved in a ferromagnetic body carries information. Each of the magnetic strips brings about magnetic anisotropy due to its shape effect, hence angular dependent permeability in the proximity of the strip. The sign of the tilted angle of each magnetic strip is detected inductively through the angular dependent permeability by using a magnetic pickup head with a pair of cross-coupled figure-eight coils, where the sign of mutual inductance between the primary and the secondary figure-eight coil has one to one relationship to the sign of the tilted angle. Because the detection of the tilted angle is independent of scanning speed, variation in the scanning speed of the readout head does not affect the performance. In our preliminary study, the proposed magnetic bar code system was examined using pickup head consisting of a pair of cross-coupled 10-turn figure-eight coils which was embedded in a rectangular ferrite rod with cross-shape groove on the top surface of 6.5×3 mm dimension. The head was made thinner in the scanning direction to allow dense alignment of the pattern. Two kinds of pattern were made: the one was by aligning short amorphous wires (5 mm in length and 120 μm in diameter) on the plastic film and the other by using a thin (10 μm in thickness) copper film with tilted slits backed by an amorphous ribbon. These samples of magnetic bar code patterns were scanned with lift-off of

  1. Orthographic Learning during Oral and Silent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Peter F.; Share, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined orthographic learning in oral and silent reading conditions. Dutch third graders read, either aloud or silently, short texts containing novel target (pseudo) words. The acquisition of new word-specific orthographic knowledge was assessed several days later by comparing target spellings with homophonic spellings in tasks…

  2. Orthographic Learning in Dyslexic Spanish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Ramos, Sara; Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Reading fluency is one of the basic processes of learning to read. Children begin to develop fluency when they are able to form orthographic representations of words, which provide direct, smooth, and fast reading. Dyslexic children of transparent orthographic systems are mainly characterized by poor reading fluency (Cuetos & Suárez-Coalla…

  3. Getting to the bottom of orthographic depth.

    PubMed

    Schmalz, Xenia; Marinus, Eva; Coltheart, Max; Castles, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Orthographic depth has been studied intensively as one of the sources of cross-linguistic differences in reading, and yet there has been little detailed analysis of what is meant by orthographic depth. Here we propose that orthographic depth is a conglomerate of two separate constructs: the complexity of print-to-speech correspondences and the unpredictability of the derivation of the pronunciations of words on the basis of their orthography. We show that on a linguistic level, these two concepts can be dissociated. Furthermore, we make different predictions about how the two concepts would affect skilled reading and reading acquisition. We argue that refining the definition of orthographic depth opens up new research questions. Addressing these can provide insights into the specific mechanisms by which language-level orthographic properties affect cognitive processes underlying reading. PMID:25893713

  4. The Feedback-related Negativity Codes Components of Abstract Inference during Reward-based Decision-making.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Andrea M F; Koch, Stefan P; Schröger, Erich; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Deserno, Lorenz; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2016-08-01

    Behavioral control is influenced not only by learning from the choices made and the rewards obtained but also by "what might have happened," that is, inference about unchosen options and their fictive outcomes. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the neural signatures of direct learning from choices that are actually made and their associated rewards via reward prediction errors (RPEs). However, electrophysiological correlates of abstract inference in decision-making are less clear. One seminal theory suggests that the so-called feedback-related negativity (FRN), an ERP peaking 200-300 msec after a feedback stimulus at frontocentral sites of the scalp, codes RPEs. Hitherto, the FRN has been predominantly related to a so-called "model-free" RPE: The difference between the observed outcome and what had been expected. Here, by means of computational modeling of choice behavior, we show that individuals employ abstract, "double-update" inference on the task structure by concurrently tracking values of chosen stimuli (associated with observed outcomes) and unchosen stimuli (linked to fictive outcomes). In a parametric analysis, model-free RPEs as well as their modification because of abstract inference were regressed against single-trial FRN amplitudes. We demonstrate that components related to abstract inference uniquely explain variance in the FRN beyond model-free RPEs. These findings advance our understanding of the FRN and its role in behavioral adaptation. This might further the investigation of disturbed abstract inference, as proposed, for example, for psychiatric disorders, and its underlying neural correlates. PMID:27031567

  5. Three stages during the evolution of the genetic code. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, U.; Oro, J.

    1994-01-01

    A diversification of the genetic code based on the number of codons available for the proteinous amino acids is established. Three groups of amino acids during evolution of the code are distinguished. On the basis of their chemical complexity and a small codon number those amino acids emerging later in a translation process are derived. Both criteria indicate that His, Phe, Tyr, Cys and either Lys or Asn were introduced in the second stage, whereas the number of codons alone gives evidence that Trp and Met were introduced in the third stage. The amino acids of stage one use purines rich codons, thus purines have been retained in their third codon position. All the amino acids introduced in the second stage, in contrast, use pyrimidines in this codon position. A low abundance of pyrimidines during early translation is derived. This assumption is supported by experiments on non enzymatic replication and interactions of DNA hairpin loops with a complementary strand. A back extrapolation concludes a high purine content of the first nucleic acids which gradually decreased during their evolution. Amino acids independently available form prebiotic synthesis were thus correlated to purine rich codons. Conclusions on prebiotic replication are discussed also in the light of recent codon usage data.

  6. Oblique orthographic projections and contour plots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    Oblique orthographic projections allow model to be viewed in any selected orientation specified by Euler-angle transformation. This transformation resolves coordinate system of model to principal plane on which display is to be plotted.

  7. Orthographic influences in spoken word recognition: the consistency effect in semantic and gender categorization tasks.

    PubMed

    Peereman, Ronald; Dufour, Sophie; Burt, Jennifer S

    2009-04-01

    According to current models, spoken word recognition is driven by the phonological properties of the speech signal. However, several studies have suggested that orthographic information also influences recognition in adult listeners. In particular, it has been repeatedly shown that, in the lexical decision task, words that include rimes with inconsistent spellings (e.g., /-ip/ spelled -eap or -eep) are disadvantaged, as compared with words with consistent rime spelling. In the present study, we explored whether the orthographic consistency effect extends to tasks requiring people to process words beyond simple lexical access. Two different tasks were used: semantic and gender categorization. Both tasks produced reliable consistency effects. The data are discussed as suggesting that orthographic codes are activated during word recognition, or that the organization of phonological representations of words is affected by orthography during literacy acquisition. PMID:19293108

  8. Does a Visual-Orthographic Deficit Contribute to Reading Disability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badian, Nathlie A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, visual-orthographic skills were defined as the ability to recognize whether letters and numerals are correctly oriented. Aims were to investigate whether visual-orthographic skills would contribute independent variance to reading, and whether children with a visual-orthographic deficit would be more impaired readers than similar…

  9. The Developmental Trend of Orthographic Awareness in Chinese Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Yi; Song, Yao-Wu; Zhao, Jing; Bi, Hong-Yan

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored the developmental trend of orthographic awareness in Chinese-speaking preschoolers. A total of 184 children between 3 and 5 years of age participated in the study. Two developmental patterns of orthographic awareness were obtained. One pattern was dependent on a traditional Chinese orthographic hierarchy, with a sequence…

  10. Orthographic Facilitation in Chinese Spoken Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Lijuan; Desroches, Amy S.; Liu, Youyi; Xia, Zhichao; Shu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Orthographic influences in spoken word recognition have been previously examined in alphabetic languages. However, it is unknown whether orthographic information affects spoken word recognition in Chinese, which has a clean dissociation between orthography (O) and phonology (P). The present study investigated orthographic effects using event…

  11. An Adaptive Resonance Theory account of the implicit learning of orthographic word forms.

    PubMed

    Glotin, H; Warnier, P; Dandurand, F; Dufau, S; Lété, B; Touzet, C; Ziegler, J C; Grainger, J

    2010-01-01

    An Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) network was trained to identify unique orthographic word forms. Each word input to the model was represented as an unordered set of ordered letter pairs (open bigrams) that implement a flexible prelexical orthographic code. The network learned to map this prelexical orthographic code onto unique word representations (orthographic word forms). The network was trained on a realistic corpus of reading textbooks used in French primary schools. The amount of training was strictly identical to children's exposure to reading material from grade 1 to grade 5. Network performance was examined at each grade level. Adjustment of the learning and vigilance parameters of the network allowed us to reproduce the developmental growth of word identification performance seen in children. The network exhibited a word frequency effect and was found to be sensitive to the order of presentation of word inputs, particularly with low frequency words. These words were better learned with a randomized presentation order compared with the order of presentation in the school books. These results open up interesting perspectives for the application of ART networks in the study of the dynamics of learning to read. PMID:19903528

  12. Orthographic learning in dyslexic Spanish children.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Ramos, Sara; Alvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    Reading fluency is one of the basic processes of learning to read. Children begin to develop fluency when they are able to form orthographic representations of words, which provide direct, smooth, and fast reading. Dyslexic children of transparent orthographic systems are mainly characterized by poor reading fluency (Cuetos & Suárez-Coalla 2009; Spinelli, De Luca, Di Filippo, Mancini, Martelli, & Zoccolotti, 2005; Wimmer, 1993). Therefore, the main problem for these children could be the difficulty in developing orthographic representations of the words they read. The aim of this study was to test the ability of dyslexic Spanish-speaking children (whose native language is Spanish) to develop orthographic representations and determine if the context helps them. For this, two experiments were conducted with a group of 100 children, 7-12 years of age. The groups were comprised of 20 dyslexics, 40 chronological age-matched controls and 40 reading level-matched controls. In the first experiment, eight unfamiliar words (four short and four long) were presented six times within the context of a story. In the second experiment, eight pseudowords were presented on a computer and the children had to read them aloud. In both experiments, the reading and articulation times of experimental and control stimuli were compared, before and after the training. Children without dyslexia showed a decrease of the influence of length of word on reading speed, indicating a lexical reading, while for dyslexic children, the influence of length remained unchanged. These results appeared when the stimuli were presented in the context of a story as well as when presented in isolation. In short, our results describe that dyslexic children of transparent orthographic systems have problems in developing orthographic representations of words. PMID:25056668

  13. Phonological or orthographic training for children with phonological or orthographic decoding deficits.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Stefan; Ferreira, Janna; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2007-08-01

    In a longitudinal intervention study, Swedish reading disabled children in grades 2-3 received either a phonological (n = 41) or an orthographic (n = 39) training program. Both programs were computerized and interventions took place in ordinary school settings with trained special instruction teachers. Two comparison groups, ordinary special instruction and normal readers, were also included in the study. Results showed strong average training effects on text reading and general word decoding for both phonological and orthographic training, but not significantly higher improvements than for the comparison groups. The main research finding was a double dissociation: children with pronounced phonological problems improved their general word decoding skill more from phonological than from orthographic training, whereas the opposite was observed for children with pronounced orthographic problems. Thus, in this population of children, training should focus on children's relative weakness rather than their relative strength in word decoding. PMID:17624906

  14. Orthographic and Phonological Processes in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagiliassis, Nick; Pratt, Chris; Johnston, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Investigations of reading have focused largely on two component processes, phonological processing and orthographic processing. However, a number of unresolved issues have hampered progress in the investigation of these abilities. Three such issues that formed the focus of the present study were (1) the extent to which tasks used to operationalize…

  15. Orthographic and Semantic Processing in Young Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polse, Lara R.; Reilly, Judy S.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examined orthographic and semantic processing during reading acquisition. Children in first to fourth grade were presented with a target word and two response alternatives, and were asked to identify the semantic match. Words were presented in four conditions: an exact match and unrelated foil (STONE-STONE-EARS), an exact match…

  16. Orthographic vs. Phonologic Syllables in Handwriting Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Sonia; Herault, Lucie; Grosjacques, Geraldine; Lambert, Eric; Fayol, Michel

    2009-01-01

    French children program the words they write syllable by syllable. We examined whether the syllable the children use to segment words is determined phonologically (i.e., is derived from speech production processes) or orthographically. Third, 4th and 5th graders wrote on a digitiser words that were mono-syllables phonologically (e.g. "barque" =…

  17. An Implicit Test of Chinese Orthographic Satiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chao-Ming; Lan, Ying-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    In this research, an implicit test using a lexical-decision task, in which words were discriminated from homophonic pseudo-words, was developed to detect the phenomenon of "Chinese orthographic satiation." The phenomenon is defined as a sense of uncertainty of the composition of a well-learned Chinese character through a prolonged visual…

  18. Orthographic Processing in Visual Word Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Glyn W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A series of 6 experiments involving 210 subjects from a college subject pool examined orthographic priming effects between briefly presented pairs of letter strings. A theory of othographic priming is presented, and the implications of the findings for understanding word recognition and reading are discussed. (SLD)

  19. Chinese Orthographic Decomposition and Logographic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chao-Ming; Lin, Shan-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    "Chinese orthographic decomposition" refers to a sense of uncertainty about the writing of a well-learned Chinese character following a prolonged inspection of the character. This study investigated the decomposition phenomenon in a test situation in which Chinese characters were repeatedly presented in a word context and assessed…

  20. The SERIOL2 Model of Orthographic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Carol; Marton, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    The SERIOL model of orthographic analysis proposed mechanisms for converting visual input into a serial encoding of letter order, which involved hemisphere-specific processing at the retinotopic level. As a test of SERIOL predictions, we conducted a consonant trigram-identification experiment, where the trigrams were briefly presented at various…

  1. Gene-environment interaction on neural mechanisms of orthographic processing in Chinese children

    PubMed Central

    Su, Mengmeng; Wang, Jiuju; Maurer, Urs; Zhang, Yuping; Li, Jun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Liu, Youyi; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The ability to process and identify visual words requires efficient orthographic processing of print, consisting of letters in alphabetic languages or characters in Chinese. The N170 is a robust neural marker for orthographic processes. Both genetic and environmental factors, such as home literacy, have been shown to influence orthographic processing at the behavioral level, but their relative contributions and interactions are not well understood. The present study aimed to reveal possible gene-by-environment interactions on orthographic processing at the behavioral and neural level in a normal children sample. Sixty 12 year old Chinese children from a 10-year longitudinal sample underwent an implicit visual-word color decision task on real words and stroke combinations. The ERP analysis focused on the increase of the occipito-temporal N170 to words compared to stroke combinations. The genetic analysis focused on two SNPs (rs1419228, rs1091047) in the gene DCDC2 based on previous findings linking these 2 SNPs to orthographic coding. Home literacy was measured previously as the number of children's books at home, when the children were at the age of 3. Relative to stroke combinations, real words evoked greater N170 in bilateral posterior brain regions. A significant interaction between rs1091047 and home literacy was observed on the changes of N170 comparing real words to stroke combinations in the left hemisphere. Particularly, children carrying the major allele “G” showed a similar N170 effect irrespective of their environment, while children carrying the minor allele “C” showed a smaller N170 effect in low home-literacy environment than those in good environment. PMID:26294811

  2. A test of the orthographic recoding hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaygen, Daniel E.

    2003-04-01

    The Orthographic Recoding Hypothesis [D. E. Gaygen and P. A. Luce, Percept. Psychophys. 60, 465-483 (1998)] was tested. According to this hypothesis, listeners recognize spoken words heard for the first time by mapping them onto stored representations of the orthographic forms of the words. Listeners have a stable orthographic representation of words, but no phonological representation, when those words have been read frequently but never heard or spoken. Such may be the case for low frequency words such as jargon. Three experiments using visually and auditorily presented nonword stimuli tested this hypothesis. The first two experiments were explicit tests of memory (old-new tests) for words presented visually. In the first experiment, the recognition of auditorily presented nonwords was facilitated when they previously appeared on a visually presented list. The second experiment was similar, but included a concurrent articulation task during a visual word list presentation, thus preventing covert rehearsal of the nonwords. The results were similar to the first experiment. The third experiment was an indirect test of memory (auditory lexical decision task) for visually presented nonwords. Auditorily presented nonwords were identified as nonwords significantly more slowly if they had previously appeared on the visually presented list accompanied by a concurrent articulation task.

  3. The Effect of Orthographic Neighborhood in the Reading Span Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Christelle; Postal, Virginie; Mathey, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at examining whether and to what extent orthographic neighborhood of words influences performance in a working memory span task. Twenty-five participants performed a reading span task in which final words to be memorized had either no higher frequency orthographic neighbor or at least one. In both neighborhood conditions, each…

  4. Identifiable Orthographically Similar Word Primes Interfere in Visual Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    University students participated in five experiments concerning the effects of unmasked, orthographically similar, primes on visual word recognition in the lexical decision task (LDT) and naming tasks. The modal prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 350 ms. When primes were words that were orthographic neighbors of the targets, and…

  5. Masked Priming from Orthographic Neighbors: An ERP Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massol, Stephanie; Grainger, Jonathan; Dufau, Stephane; Holcomb, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments combined masked priming with event-related potential (ERP) recordings to examine effects of primes that are orthographic neighbors of target words. Experiment 1 compared effects of repetition primes with effects of primes that were high-frequency orthographic neighbors of low-frequency targets (e.g., faute-faune [error-wildlife]),…

  6. Orthographic Word Knowledge Growth in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagovich, Stacy A.; Pak, Youngju; Miller, Margaret D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Natural reading experiences provide an opportunity for the development of orthographic word knowledge as well as other forms of partial word knowledge. The purpose of this study was to compare the orthographic word knowledge growth of school-age children with relatively low language skills (LL group) to that of age- and gender-matched…

  7. Spelling Deficits in Dyslexia: Evaluation of an Orthographic Spelling Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ise, Elena; Schulte-Korne, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    Orthographic spelling is a major difficulty in German-speaking children with dyslexia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an orthographic spelling training in spelling-disabled students (grade 5 and 6). In study 1, ten children (treatment group) received 15 individually administered weekly intervention sessions (60…

  8. A Dissociation between Orthographic Awareness and Spelling Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Conrad; Ziegler, Johannes C.; Coltheart, Max

    2002-01-01

    Two nonword spelling and two orthographic awareness experiments examined production and awareness of sound-spelling relationships. Results of the nonword spelling experiments suggest people use phoneme-grapheme sized relationships when spelling nonwords. Orthographic awareness experiments suggest, under some circumstances, people can use larger…

  9. Orthographic Facilitation Effects on Spoken Word Production: Evidence from Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qingfang; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the time course of orthographic facilitation on picture naming in Chinese. We used a picture-word paradigm to investigate orthographic and phonological facilitation on monosyllabic spoken word production in native Mandarin speakers. Both the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) and the picture-word…

  10. Orthographic familiarity, phonological legality and number of orthographic neighbours affect the onset of ERP lexical effects

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice M; Adorni, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that the variability among studies in the onset of lexical effects may be due to a series of methodological differences. In this study we investigated the role of orthographic familiarity, phonological legality and number of orthographic neighbours of words in determining the onset of word/non-word discriminative responses. Methods ERPs were recorded from 128 sites in 16 Italian University students engaged in a lexical decision task. Stimuli were 100 words, 100 quasi-words (obtained by the replacement of a single letter), 100 pseudo-words (non-derived) and 100 illegal letter strings. All stimuli were balanced for length; words and quasi-words were also balanced for frequency of use, domain of semantic category and imageability. SwLORETA source reconstruction was performed on ERP difference waves of interest. Results Overall, the data provided evidence that the latency of lexical effects (word/non-word discrimination) varied as a function of the number of a word's orthographic neighbours, being shorter to non-derived than to derived pseudo-words. This suggests some caveats about the use in lexical decision paradigms of quasi-words obtained by transposing or replacing only 1 or 2 letters. Our findings also showed that the left-occipito/temporal area, reflecting the activity of the left fusiform gyrus (BA37) of the temporal lobe, was affected by the visual familiarity of words, thus explaining its lexical sensitivity (word vs. non-word discrimination). The temporo-parietal area was markedly sensitive to phonological legality exhibiting a clear-cut discriminative response between illegal and legal strings as early as 250 ms of latency. Conclusion The onset of lexical effects in a lexical decision paradigm depends on a series of factors, including orthographic familiarity, degree of global lexical activity, and phonologic legality of non-words. PMID:18601726

  11. Deep Learning of Orthographic Representations in Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Hannagan, Thomas; Ziegler, Johannes C.; Dufau, Stéphane; Fagot, Joël; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    What is the origin of our ability to learn orthographic knowledge? We use deep convolutional networks to emulate the primate's ventral visual stream and explore the recent finding that baboons can be trained to discriminate English words from nonwords [1]. The networks were exposed to the exact same sequence of stimuli and reinforcement signals as the baboons in the experiment, and learned to map real visual inputs (pixels) of letter strings onto binary word/nonword responses. We show that the networks' highest levels of representations were indeed sensitive to letter combinations as postulated in our previous research. The model also captured the key empirical findings, such as generalization to novel words, along with some intriguing inter-individual differences. The present work shows the merits of deep learning networks that can simulate the whole processing chain all the way from the visual input to the response while allowing researchers to analyze the complex representations that emerge during the learning process. PMID:24416300

  12. Deep learning of orthographic representations in baboons.

    PubMed

    Hannagan, Thomas; Ziegler, Johannes C; Dufau, Stéphane; Fagot, Joël; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    What is the origin of our ability to learn orthographic knowledge? We use deep convolutional networks to emulate the primate's ventral visual stream and explore the recent finding that baboons can be trained to discriminate English words from nonwords. The networks were exposed to the exact same sequence of stimuli and reinforcement signals as the baboons in the experiment, and learned to map real visual inputs (pixels) of letter strings onto binary word/nonword responses. We show that the networks' highest levels of representations were indeed sensitive to letter combinations as postulated in our previous research. The model also captured the key empirical findings, such as generalization to novel words, along with some intriguing inter-individual differences. The present work shows the merits of deep learning networks that can simulate the whole processing chain all the way from the visual input to the response while allowing researchers to analyze the complex representations that emerge during the learning process. PMID:24416300

  13. The curious case of orthographic distinctiveness: Disruption of categorical processing.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Mark A; Cahill, Michael J; Bugg, Julie M

    2016-01-01

    How does orthographic distinctiveness affect recall of structured (categorized) word lists? On one theory, enhanced item-specific information (e.g., more distinct encoding) in concert with robust relational information (e.g., categorical information) optimally supports free recall. This predicts that for categorically structured lists, orthographically distinct (OD) word lists should be recalled better than orthographically common (OC) word lists. Another possibility is that OD items produce a far-reaching impairment in relational processing, including that of categorical information. This view anticipates an advantage in recall for OC items relative to OD lists. In Experiment 1 categorically structured OC lists produced better recall performance and higher clustering than did categorically structured OD lists. When words were presented in capital letters, thereby minimizing orthographic distinctiveness, OC and OD lists showed equivalent recall and category clustering (Experiment 2). When recall was cued with category labels, OC items were still better recalled than OD items (Experiment 3). These patterns, along with category access and items-per-category recalled, are consistent with the interpretation that orthographic distinctiveness creates a disruption in encoding of inter-item associations within a category. This interpretation expands previous work indicating that orthographic distinctiveness disrupts encoding of serial order information, another kind of inter-item association. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26237617

  14. Phonological and Orthographic Overlap Effects in Fast and Masked Priming

    PubMed Central

    Frisson, Steven; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how orthographic and phonological information is activated during reading, using a fast priming task, and during single word recognition, using masked priming. Specifically, different types of overlap between prime and target were contrasted: high orthographic and high phonological overlap (track-crack), high orthographic and low phonological overlap (bear-gear), or low orthographic and high phonological overlap (fruit-chute). In addition, we examined whether (orthographic) beginning overlap (swoop-swoon) yielded the same priming pattern as end (rhyme) overlap (track-crack). Prime durations were 32 and 50ms in the fast priming version, and 50ms in the masked priming version, and mode of presentation (prime and target in lower case) was identical. The fast priming experiment showed facilitatory priming effects when both orthography and phonology overlapped, with no apparent differences between beginning and end overlap pairs. Facilitation was also found when prime and target only overlapped orthographically. In contrast, the masked priming experiment showed inhibition for both types of end overlap pairs (with and without phonological overlap), and no difference for begin overlap items. When prime and target only shared principally phonological information, facilitation was only found with a long prime duration in the fast priming experiment, while no differences were found in the masked priming version. These contrasting results suggest that fast priming and masked priming do not necessarily tap into the same type of processing. PMID:24365065

  15. Phonological and orthographic overlap effects in fast and masked priming.

    PubMed

    Frisson, Steven; Bélanger, Nathalie N; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how orthographic and phonological information is activated during reading, using a fast priming task, and during single-word recognition, using masked priming. Specifically, different types of overlap between prime and target were contrasted: high orthographic and high phonological overlap (track-crack), high orthographic and low phonological overlap (bear-gear), or low orthographic and high phonological overlap (fruit-chute). In addition, we examined whether (orthographic) beginning overlap (swoop-swoon) yielded the same priming pattern as end (rhyme) overlap (track-crack). Prime durations were 32 and 50 ms in the fast priming version and 50 ms in the masked priming version, and mode of presentation (prime and target in lower case) was identical. The fast priming experiment showed facilitatory priming effects when both orthography and phonology overlapped, with no apparent differences between beginning and end overlap pairs. Facilitation was also found when prime and target only overlapped orthographically. In contrast, the masked priming experiment showed inhibition for both types of end overlap pairs (with and without phonological overlap) and no difference for begin overlap items. When prime and target only shared principally phonological information, facilitation was only found with a long prime duration in the fast priming experiment, while no differences were found in the masked priming version. These contrasting results suggest that fast priming and masked priming do not necessarily tap into the same type of processing. PMID:24365065

  16. Learner-generated drawing for phonological and orthographic dyslexic readers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming; Tasi, Hung-Ju; Chan, Shih-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an examination of learner-generated drawing for different reading comprehension subtypes of dyslexic students and control students. The participants were 22 phonological dyslexic students, 20 orthographic dyslexic students, 21 double-deficit dyslexic students, and 45 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched control students. The major evaluation tools included word recognition task, orthographic task, phonological awareness task, and scenery texts and questions. Comparisons of the four groups of students showed differences among phonological dyslexia, orthographic dyslexia, double-deficit dyslexia, and the chronological age control groups in pre- and posttest performance of scenery texts. Differences also existed in relevant questions and the effect of the learner-generated drawing method. The pretest performance showed problems in the dyslexic samples in reading the scenery texts and answering relevant questions. The posttest performance revealed certain differences among phonological dyslexia, orthographic dyslexia, double-deficit dyslexia, and the chronological age control group. Finally, all dyslexic groups obtained a great effect from using the learner-generated drawing, particularly orthographic dyslexia. These results suggest that the learner-generated drawing was also useful for dyslexic students, with the potential for use in the classroom for teaching text reading to dyslexic students. PMID:22982467

  17. Does Sensitivity to Orthographic Regularities Influence Reading and Spelling Acquisition? A 1-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, Josefine; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Ise, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies focused on the influence of orthographic processing on reading and spelling performance. It was found that orthographic processing is an independent predictor of reading and spelling performance in different languages and children of different ages. This study investigated sensitivity to orthographic regularities in German-speaking…

  18. Sensitivity to orthographic familiarity in the occipito-temporal region.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Jennifer Lynn; Zumberge, Allison; Manis, Franklin R; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Goldman, Jason G

    2008-02-15

    The involvement of the left hemisphere occipito-temporal (OT) junction in reading has been established, yet there is current controversy over the region's specificity for reading and the nature of its role in the reading process. Recent neuroimaging findings suggest that the region is sensitive to orthographic familiarity [Kronbichler, M., Bergmann, J., Hutzler, F., Staffen, W., Mair, A., Ladurner, G., Wimmer, H. 2007. Taxi vs. Taksi: on orthographic word recognition in the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 19, 1-11], and the present study tested that hypothesis. Using fMRI, the OT region and other regions in the reading network were localized in 28 adult, right-handed participants. The BOLD signal in these regions was measured during a phonological judgment task (i.e., "Does it sound like a word?"). Stimuli included words, pseudohomophones (phonologically familiar yet orthographically unfamiliar), and pseudowords (phonologically and orthographically unfamiliar) that were matched on lexical properties including sublexical orthography. Relative to baseline, BOLD signal in the OT region was greater for pseudohomophones than for words, suggesting that the region is sensitive to orthographic familiarity at the whole-word level. Further contrasts of orthographic frequency within the word condition revealed increased BOLD signal for low- than high-frequency words. Specialization in the OT region for recognition of frequent letter strings may support the development of reading expertise. Additionally, BOLD signal in the OT region correlates positively with reading efficiency, supporting the idea that this region is a skill zone for reading printed words. BOLD signal in the IFG and STG correlates negatively with reading efficiency, indicating that processing effort in these classic phonological regions is inversely related to reading efficiency. PMID:18180168

  19. Modulation of Orthographic Decoding by Frontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Whaley, Meagan Lee; Kadipasaoglu, Cihan Mehmet; Cox, Steven James

    2016-01-01

    Opinions are divided on whether word reading processes occur in a hierarchical, feedforward fashion or within an interactive framework. To critically evaluate these competing theories, we recorded electrocorticographic (ECoG) data from 15 human patients with intractable epilepsy during a word completion task and evaluated brain network dynamics across individuals. We used a novel technique of analyzing multihuman ECoG recordings to identify cortical regions most relevant to processing lexical information. The mid fusiform gyrus showed the strongest, earliest response after stimulus onset, whereas activity was maximal in frontal, dorsal lateral prefrontal, and sensorimotor regions toward articulation onset. To evaluate interregional functional connectivity, ECoG data from electrodes situated over specific cortical regions of interest were fit into linear multivariate autoregressive (MVAR) models. Spectral characteristics of the MVAR models were used to precisely reveal the timing and the magnitude of information flow between localized brain regions. This is the first application of MVAR for developing a comprehensive account of interregional interactions from a word reading ECoG dataset. Our comprehensive findings revealed both top-down and bottom-up influences between higher-level language areas and the mid fusiform gyrus. Our findings thus challenge strictly hierarchical, feedforward views of word reading and suggest that orthographic processes are modulated by prefrontal and sensorimotor regions via an interactive framework. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Word reading is a critical part of everyday life. When the ability to read is disrupted, it can lead to learning disorders, as well as emotional and academic difficulties. The neural mechanisms underlying word reading are not well understood due to limitations in the spatial and temporal specificity of prior word reading studies. Our research analyzed data recorded from sensors implanted directly from surface of human

  20. Attitudes Towards Modifications in the Orthographic Representation of Modern Greek.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papapavlou, Andreas N.

    A survey investigated the attitudes of educated Greeks about possible modifications in the orthographic representation of written Greek. Subjects were 82 students enrolled in the Bachelor of Arts program in English Language and Literature offered at the University of Cyprus. The subjects were administered a 20-item Likert-type questionnaire…

  1. Learner-Generated Drawing for Phonological and Orthographic Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming; Tasi, Hung-Ju; Chan, Shih-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an examination of learner-generated drawing for different reading comprehension subtypes of dyslexic students and control students. The participants were 22 phonological dyslexic students, 20 orthographic dyslexic students, 21 double-deficit dyslexic students, and 45 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched control students. The major…

  2. Reading Spoken Words: Orthographic Effects in Auditory Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chereau, Celine; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Dumay, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments examined the involvement of orthography in spoken word processing using a task--unimodal auditory priming with offset overlap--taken to reflect activation of prelexical representations. Two types of prime-target relationship were compared; both involved phonological overlap, but only one had a strong orthographic overlap (e.g.,…

  3. Facilitative Orthographic Neighborhood Effects: The SERIOL Model Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Carol; Lavidor, Michal

    2005-01-01

    A large orthographic neighborhood (N) facilitates lexical decision for central and left visual field/right hemisphere (LVF/RH) presentation, but not for right visual field/left hemisphere (RVF/LH) presentation. Based on the SERIOL model of letter-position encoding, this asymmetric N effect is explained by differential activation patterns at the…

  4. Automatization and Orthographic Development in Second Language Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kida, Shusaku

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated second language (L2) learners' acquisition of automatic word recognition and the development of L2 orthographic representation in the mental lexicon. Participants in the study were Japanese university students enrolled in a compulsory course involving a weekly 30-minute sustained silent reading (SSR) activity with…

  5. Interpretation of Orthographic Uniqueness Point Effects in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamberts, Koen

    2005-01-01

    The orthographic uniqueness point (OUP) of a word is the position of the first letter from the left that distinguishes a word from all other words. In 2 recent studies (P. J. Kwantes & D. J. K. Mewhort, 1999a; A. K. Lindell, M. E. R. Nicholls, & A. E. Castles, 2003), it has been observed that words with an early OUP were processed more quickly…

  6. Orthographic and Phonological Form Interference during Silent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Iya Khelm; Witzel, Naoko; Witzel, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This study reports 2 eye-tracking experiments investigating form interference during sentence-level silent reading. The items involved reduced and unreduced relative clauses (RCs) with words that were orthographically and phonologically similar "(injection-infection"; O+P+, Experiment 1) as well as with words that were orthographically…

  7. The Curious Case of Orthographic Distinctiveness: Disruption of Categorical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Cahill, Michael J.; Bugg, Julie M.

    2016-01-01

    How does orthographic distinctiveness affect recall of structured (categorized) word lists? On one theory, enhanced item-specific information (e.g., more distinct encoding) in concert with robust relational information (e.g., categorical information) optimally supports free recall. This predicts that for categorically structured lists,…

  8. Strategic Deployment of Orthographic Knowledge in Phoneme Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Anne; Treiman, Rebecca; van Ooijen, Brit

    2010-01-01

    The phoneme detection task is widely used in spoken-word recognition research. Alphabetically literate participants, however, are more used to explicit representations of letters than of phonemes. The present study explored whether phoneme detection is sensitive to how target phonemes are, or may be, orthographically realized. Listeners detected…

  9. Context Effects on Orthographic Learning of Regular and Irregular Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hua-Chen; Castles, Anne; Nickels, Lyndsey; Nation, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The self-teaching hypothesis proposes that orthographic learning takes place via phonological decoding in meaningful texts, that is, in context. Context is proposed to be important in learning to read, especially when decoding is only partial. However, little research has directly explored this hypothesis. The current study looked at the effect of…

  10. The Developmental Turnpoint of Orthographic Consistency Effects in Speech Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Paulo; Kolinsky, Regine; Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Morais, Jose

    2008-01-01

    The influence of orthography on children's online auditory word recognition was studied from the end of Grade 4 to the end of Grade 9 by examining the orthographic consistency effect in auditory lexical decision. Fourth-graders showed evidence of a widespread influence of orthography in their spoken word recognition system; words with rimes that…

  11. Orthographic Quality in English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Learning new vocabulary words in a second language is a challenge for the adult learner, especially when the second language writing system differs from the first language writing system. According to the lexical quality hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2001), there are three constituents to word-level knowledge: orthographic, phonological, and…

  12. Spelling as a Self-Teaching Mechanism in Orthographic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahar-Yames, Daphna; Share, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the possibility that spelling fulfils a self-teaching function in the acquisition of orthographic knowledge because, like decoding, it requires close attention to letter order and identity as well as to word-specific spelling-sound mapping. We hypothesised that: (i) spelling would lead to significant (i.e. above-chance)…

  13. Training Orthographic and Sentence Structures Helps Poor Readers in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan; Ho, Man Koon

    2012-01-01

    We trained 36 12-year-old Chinese students with reading disorders in the analysis, synthesis and integration of orthographic constituents of semantic and phonetic "bujians" (radicals); and also their writing (spelling and composing) skills. These target students were compared with 37 age-controls in a pre-test and post-test design on a number of…

  14. Orthographic Directionality and Thematic Role Illustration in English and Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Lori J. P.; Saleem, Ahmad; Kendall, Diane; Heilman, Kenneth M.; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that people had a bias for drawing agents on the left of a picture when given a verb stimulus targeting an active or passive event (e.g., "kicked" or "is kicked") and that orthographic directionality would influence the way events were illustrated. Monolingual English speakers, who read and write left-to-right, and…

  15. Discrimination of English and French Orthographic Patterns by Biliterate Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether young English-French biliterate children can distinguish between English and French orthographic patterns. Children in French immersion programs were asked to play a dictionary game when they were in Grade 2 and again when they were in Grade 3. They were shown pseudowords that contained either an English spelling pattern or…

  16. Children Develop Initial Orthographic Knowledge during Storybook Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apel, Kenn; Brimo, Danielle; Wilson-Fowler, Elizabeth B.; Vorstius, Christian; Radach, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether young children acquire orthographic knowledge during structured adult-led storybook reading even though minimal viewing time is devoted to print. Sixty-two kindergarten children were read 12 storybook "chapters" while their eye movements were tracked. Results indicated that the children quickly acquired initial mental…

  17. Reading Skills in Down Syndrome: An Examination of Orthographic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveall, Susan J.; Conners, Frances A.

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the word identification domain of the Simple View of Reading in participants with Down syndrome (DS) by comparing them to participants with typical development (TD) matched on word identification ability. Two subskills, phonological recoding and orthographic knowledge, were measured. Results revealed…

  18. Abstract Painting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkes, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Abstract art provokes numerous interpretations, and as many misunderstandings. The adolescent reaction is no exception. The procedure described here can help the student to understand the abstract from at least one direction. (Author/RK)

  19. Sensitivity to Orthographic Familiarity in the Occipito-Temporal Region

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Jennifer Lynn; Zumberge, Allison; Manis, Franklin R.; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Goldman, Jason G.

    2008-01-01

    The involvement of the left hemisphere occipito-temporal (OT) junction in reading has been established, yet there is current controversy over the region’s specificity for reading and the nature of its role in the reading process. Recent neuroimaging findings suggest that the region is sensitive to orthographic familiarity (Kronbichler et al., 2007), and the present study tested that hypothesis. Using fMRI, the OT region and other regions in the reading network were localized in 28 adult, right-handed participants. The BOLD signal in these regions was measured during a phonological judgment task (i.e., “Does it sound like a word?”). Stimuli included words, pseudohomophones (phonologically familiar yet orthographically unfamiliar), and pseudowords (phonologically and orthographically unfamiliar) that were matched on lexical properties including sublexical orthography. Relative to baseline, BOLD signal in the OT region was greater for pseudohomophones than for words, suggesting that the region is sensitive to orthographic familiarity at the whole-word level. Further contrasts of orthographic frequency within the word condition revealed increased BOLD signal for low- than high-frequency words. Specialization in the OT area for recognition of frequent letter strings may support the development of reading expertise. Additionally, BOLD signal in the OT region correlates positively with reading efficiency, supporting the idea that this region is a skill zone for reading printed words. BOLD signal in the IFG and STG correlate negatively with reading efficiency, indicating that processing effort in these classic phonological regions is inversely related to reading efficiency. PMID:18180168

  20. Tracking orthographic learning in children with different profiles of reading difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua-Chen; Marinus, Eva; Nickels, Lyndsey; Castles, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have found that children with reading difficulties need more exposures to acquire the representations needed to support fluent reading than typically developing readers (e.g., Ehri and Saltmarsh, 1995). Building on existing orthographic learning paradigms, we report on an investigation of orthographic learning in poor readers using a new learning task tracking both the accuracy (untimed exposure duration) and fluency (200 ms exposure duration) of learning novel words over trials. In study 1, we used the paradigm to examine orthographic learning in children with specific poor reader profiles (nine with a surface profile, nine a phonological profile) and nine age-matched controls. Both profiles showed improvement over the learning cycles, but the children with surface profile showed impaired orthographic learning in spelling and orthographic choice tasks. Study 2 explored predictors of orthographic learning in a group of 91 poor readers using the same outcome measures as in Study 1. Consistent with earlier findings in typically developing readers, phonological decoding skill predicted orthographic learning. Moreover, orthographic knowledge significantly predicted orthographic learning over and beyond phonological decoding. The two studies provide insights into how poor readers learn novel words, and how their learning process may be compromised by less proficient orthographic and/or phonological skills. PMID:25071504

  1. The nature of orthographic learning in self-teaching: Testing the extent of transfer.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Rebecca; Castles, Anne; Laroche, Annie; Deacon, S Hélène

    2016-05-01

    The current study was designed to test how orthographic learning, or the learning of the spelling patterns of words, happens within the self-teaching paradigm. One possibility is that orthographic learning occurs on a word-specific basis. Two other possibilities are that orthographic learning transfers specifically to the processing of novel words that are morphologically related or that it transfers to novel words that are orthographically similar, regardless of morphological relationship. In an orthographic learning paradigm, we asked children in Grades 3 and 5 to read nonwords embedded in short stories. In a between-participants design, some children read nonwords that were base forms, others read nonwords that were morphologically complex forms, and others read nonwords that were orthographically complex forms (e.g., feap, feaper, and feaple, respectively). Children completed an orthographic choice task with the same items as in the stories. To evaluate transfer of learning, children also completed orthographic choices for the two forms of the nonwords not seen in the stories. Results indicated that children's orthographic learning affected processing of novel items that appeared to be morphologically related as well as those that shared only orthographic structure (e.g., both feaper and feaple). Additional analyses showed that these effects were held across cases when children did and did not successfully decode the novel words in the learning experience, although successful decoding did lead to higher levels of orthographic learning and transfer. Together, the findings suggest that children's prior experiences affect their processing of novel words that share orthographic similarity, likely reflecting a role for orthographic analogies in the self-teaching process. PMID:26826469

  2. How orthographic transparency affects morphological processing in young readers with and without reading disability.

    PubMed

    Lázaro, Miguel; García, Laura; Burani, Cristina

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates how orthographic modifications to the stems of complex words affect morphological processing in proficient young Spanish readers and children with reading deficits. In a definition task all children, irrespective of their reading skill, were worse at defining derived words that had an orthographic alteration of the base stem than words with no orthographic alteration. In a go/no-go lexical decision task, an interaction between base frequency and orthographic alteration was found: base frequency affected derived words with no orthographic alteration more than words with alterations, irrespective of reading skill. Overall, results show that all children benefit from a high frequency base, skilled children outperform children with reading deficits and morphological processing is affected by orthographic alterations similarly in proficient and impaired readers. PMID:25899060

  3. Processing orthographic structure: associations between print and fingerspelling.

    PubMed

    Emmorey, Karen; Petrich, Jennifer A F

    2012-01-01

    Two lexical decision experiments are reported that investigate whether the same segmentation strategies are used for reading printed English words and fingerspelled words (in American Sign Language). Experiment 1 revealed that both deaf and hearing readers performed better when written words were segmented with respect to an orthographically defined syllable (the Basic Orthographic Syllable Structure [BOSS]) than with a phonologically defined syllable. Correlation analyses revealed that better deaf readers were more sensitive to orthographic syllable representations, whereas segmentation strategy did not differentiate the better hearing readers. In contrast to Experiment 1, Experiment 2 revealed better performance by deaf participants when fingerspelled words were segmented at the phonological syllable boundary. We suggest that English mouthings that often accompany fingerspelled words promote a phonological parsing preference for fingerspelled words. In addition, fingerspelling ability was significantly correlated with reading comprehension and vocabulary skills. This pattern of results indicates that the association between fingerspelling and print for adult deaf readers is not based on shared segmentation strategies. Rather, we suggest that both good readers and good fingerspellers have established strong representations of English and that fingerspelling may aid in the development and maintenance of English vocabulary. PMID:22170294

  4. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilitiesmore » to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Code also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  5. A Comparison of Orthographic Processing in Children with and without Reading and Spelling Disorder in a Regular Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, Josefine; Cornell, Sonia; Ise, Elena; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Orthographic processing is a construct that encompasses the skills of recognizing, storing, accessing, and applying the print conventions of a writing system. Few studies have investigated orthographic processing in dyslexic children and it is not yet clear whether lexical and sublexical orthographic processing are both impaired in these children.…

  6. Relationship Between Orthographic-Motor Integration And Computer Use For The Production Of Creative And Well-Structured Written Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Carol A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Orthographic-motor integration refers to the way in which orthographic knowledge is integrated with fine-motor demands of handwriting. A strong relationship has shown to exist between orthographic-motor integration and students' ability to produce creative and well-structured written text (De La Paz & Graham, 1995). This relationship…

  7. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  8. Predictors of Word Decoding and Reading Fluency across Languages Varying in Orthographic Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Parilla, Rauno; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.

    2008-01-01

    Very few studies have directly compared reading acquisition across different orthographies. The authors examined the concurrent and longitudinal predictors of word decoding and reading fluency in children learning to read in an orthographically inconsistent language (English) and in an orthographically consistent language (Greek). One hundred ten…

  9. Pre-Orthographic Character String Processing and Parietal Cortex: A Role for Visual Attention in Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobier, Muriel; Peyrin, Carole; Le Bas, Jean-Francois; Valdois, Sylviane

    2012-01-01

    The visual front-end of reading is most often associated with orthographic processing. The left ventral occipito-temporal cortex seems to be preferentially tuned for letter string and word processing. In contrast, little is known of the mechanisms responsible for pre-orthographic processing: the processing of character strings regardless of…

  10. Unfamiliar Orthographic Information and Second Language Word Learning: A Novel Lexicon Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showalter, Catherine E.; Hayes-Harb, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Recent research indicates that knowledge of words' spellings can influence knowledge of the phonological forms of second language (L2) words when the first and second languages use the same orthographic symbols. It is yet unknown whether learners can make similar use of unfamiliar orthographic symbols. In this study we investigate whether native…

  11. Orthographic Transparency Modulates the Functional Asymmetry in the Fusiform Cortex: An Artificial Language Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Qinghua; Zhang, Mingxia; Xue, Feng; Chen, Chuansheng; Dong, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The laterality difference in the occipitotemporal region between Chinese (bilaterality) and alphabetic languages (left laterality) has been attributed to their difference in visual appearance. However, these languages also differ in orthographic transparency. To disentangle the effect of orthographic transparency from visual appearance, we trained…

  12. Early Orthographic Influences on Phonemic Awareness Tasks: Evidence from a Preschool Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castles, Anne; Wilson, Katherine; Coltheart, Max

    2011-01-01

    Experienced readers show influences of orthographic knowledge on tasks ostensibly tapping phonemic awareness. Here we draw on data from an experimental training study to demonstrate that even preschoolers show influences of their emerging orthographic abilities in such tasks. A total of 40 children were taught some letter-sound correspondences but…

  13. Does Poor Spelling Equate to Slow Reading? The Relationship between Reading, Spelling, and Orthographic Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Chang, Sandra; Ouellette, Gene; Madden, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    High quality lexical representations in memory, characterized by accuracy and stability, are said to underpin fluent reading. Here, the relationship between orthographic quality and reading speed was examined by asking undergraduates (N = 74) to repeatedly read and spell words. Spelling performance over five trials indicated orthographic quality.…

  14. Orthographic Influences, Vocabulary Development, and Phonological Awareness in Deaf Children Who Use Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Deborah; Rajput, Kaukab; Brinton, Julie; Goswami, Usha

    2009-01-01

    In the current study, we explore the influence of orthographic knowledge on phonological awareness in children with cochlear implants and compare developmental associations to those found for hearing children matched for word reading level or chronological age. We show an influence of orthographic knowledge on syllable and phoneme awareness in…

  15. Development of Orthographic Knowledge in German-Speaking Children: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ise, Elena; Arnoldi, Carolin Judith; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that children develop orthographic knowledge from the very beginning of literacy acquisition. This study investigated the development of German-speaking children's orthographic knowledge with a nonword choice task. One nonword in each pair contained a frequent consonant doublet ("zommul") and the other…

  16. Influence of First Language Orthographic Experience on Second Language Decoding and Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamada, Megumi; Koda, Keiko

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the influence of first language (L1) orthographic experiences on decoding and semantic information retention of new words in a second language (L2). Hypotheses were that congruity in L1 and L2 orthographic experiences determines L2 decoding efficiency, which, in turn, affects semantic information encoding and retention.…

  17. Enemies and Friends in the Neighborhood: Orthographic Similarity Effects in Semantic Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, Rene; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2005-01-01

    Studies investigating orthographic similarity effects in semantic tasks have produced inconsistent results. The authors investigated orthographic similarity effects in animacy decision and in contrast with previous studies, they took semantic congruency into account. In Experiments 1 and 2, performance to a target (cat) was better if a previously…

  18. Eye Movement Control during Reading: Effects of Word Frequency and Orthographic Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sarah J.

    2008-01-01

    Word frequency and orthographic familiarity were independently manipulated as readers' eye movements were recorded. Word frequency influenced fixation durations and the probability of word skipping when orthographic familiarity was controlled. These results indicate that lexical processing of words can influence saccade programming (as shown by…

  19. Cerebral Asymmetries in Early Orthographic and Phonological Reading Processes: Evidence from Backward Masking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halderman, Laura K.; Chiarello, Christine

    2005-01-01

    A lateralized backward masking paradigm was used to examine hemisphere differences in orthographic and phonological processes at an early time course of word recognition. Targets (e.g., bowl) were presented and backward masked by either pseudohomophones of the target word (orthographically and phonologically similar, e.g., BOAL), orthographically…

  20. Acquiring Orthographic Processing through Word Reading: Evidence from Children Learning to Read French and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Deacon, Helene; Chen, Becky X.; Commissaire, Eva; Au-Yeung, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the within-language and cross-language relationships between orthographic processing and word reading in French and English across Grades 1 and 2. Seventy-three children in French Immersion completed measures of orthographic processing and word reading in French and English in Grade 1 and Grade 2, as well as a series of control…

  1. Phono-Orthographic Interaction and Attentional Control in Children with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone, Nadia Elise

    2012-01-01

    Fluent reading requires the effective integration of orthographic and phonological information in addition to intact processing of either type. The current study used a rhyme decision task to examine phono-orthographic interaction in children with reading disabilities (RD) as compared to typically achieving (TA) children. Word pairs were presented…

  2. Orthographic Learning and the Role of Text-to-Speech Software in Dutch Disabled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staels, Eva; Van den Broeck, Wim

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether orthographic learning can be demonstrated in disabled readers learning to read in a transparent orthography (Dutch). In addition, we tested the effect of the use of text-to-speech software, a new form of direct instruction, on orthographic learning. Both research goals were investigated by replicating…

  3. Children's Orthographic Knowledge and Their Word Reading Skill: Testing Bidirectional Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Nicole J.; Deacon, S. Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Prominent models of word reading concur that the development of efficient word reading depends on the establishment of lexical orthographic representations in memory. In turn, word reading skills are conceptualised as supporting the development of these orthographic representations. As such, models of word reading development make clear…

  4. On-Line Orthographic Influences on Spoken Language in a Semantic Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Perre, Laetitia; Dufau, Stephane; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2009-01-01

    Literacy changes the way the brain processes spoken language. Most psycholinguists believe that orthographic effects on spoken language are either strategic or restricted to meta-phonological tasks. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate the locus and the time course of orthographic effects on spoken word recognition in a…

  5. Deficits in Orthographic Knowledge in Children Poor at Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Daisy; Stainthorp, Rhona; Stuart, Morag

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which orthographic knowledge accounts for the link between rapid automatized naming (RAN) and reading is contested, with mixed results reported. This longitudinal study compared two groups of 10- and 11-year-old children, a low RAN group (N = 69) and matched controls (N = 74), on various measures of orthographic knowledge. The low…

  6. Correlates of Orthographic Learning in Third-Grade Children's Silent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowey, Judith A.; Miller, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    This study examined word identification, phonological recoding efficiency, familiar word reading efficiency, orthographic choice for familiar words and serial naming speed as potential correlates of orthographic learning following silent reading in third-grade children. Children silently read a series of short stories, each containing six…

  7. Functional and anatomical dissociation between the orthographic lexicon and the orthographic buffer revealed in reading and writing Chinese characters by fMRI.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Chang, Erik C; Chen, Sinead H Y; Lin, Yi-Chen; Wu, Denise H

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of orthographic representations to reading and writing has been intensively investigated in the literature. However, the distinction between neuronal correlates of the orthographic lexicon and the orthographic (graphemic) buffer has rarely been examined in alphabetic languages and never been explored in non-alphabetic languages. To determine whether the neural networks associated with the orthographic lexicon and buffer of logographic materials are comparable to those reported in the literature, the present fMRI experiment manipulated frequency and the stroke number of Chinese characters in the tasks of form judgment and stroke judgment, which emphasized the processing of character recognition and writing, respectively. It was found that the left fusiform gyrus exhibited higher activation when encountering low-frequency than high-frequency characters in both tasks, which suggested this region to be the locus of the orthographic lexicon that represents the knowledge of character forms. On the other hand, the activations in the posterior part of the left middle frontal gyrus and in the left angular gyrus were parametrically modulated by the stroke number of target characters only in the stroke judgment task, which suggested these regions to be the locus of the orthographic buffer that represents the processing of stroke sequence in writing. These results provide the first evidence for the functional and anatomical dissociation between the orthographic lexicon and buffer in reading and writing Chinese characters. They also demonstrate the critical roles of the left fusiform area and the frontoparietal network to the long-term and short-term representations of orthographic knowledge, respectively, across different orthographies. PMID:26777478

  8. Orthographic terrain views using data derived from digital elevation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubayah, R. O.; Dozier, J.

    1986-01-01

    A fast algorithm for producing three-dimensional orthographic terrain views uses digital elevation data and co-registered imagery. These views are created using projective geometry and are designed for display on high-resolution raster graphics devices. The algorithm's effectiveness is achieved by (1) the implementation of two efficient gray-level interpolation routines that offer the user a choice between speed and smoothness, and (2) a unique visible surface determination procedure based on horizon angles derived from the elevation data set.

  9. INVENTORY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ragan

    2001-12-19

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M&O 2000e for ICN 02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [spent nuclear fuel] are released from the EBS [engineered barrier system] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (NRC 1999, Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the

  10. Distinctions between orthographic long-term memory and working memory

    PubMed Central

    Buchwald, Adam; Rapp, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Research in the cognitive and neural sciences has long posited a distinction between the long-term memory (LTM) storage of information and the short-term buffering of information that is being actively manipulated in working memory (WM). This basic type of distinction has been posited in a variety of domains, including written language production—spelling. In the domain of spelling, the primary source of empirical evidence regarding this distinction has been cognitive neuropsychological studies reporting deficits selectively affecting what the cognitive neuropsychological literature has referred to as the orthographic lexicon (LTM) or the graphemic buffer (WM). Recent papers have reexamined several of the hallmark characteristics of impairment affecting the graphemic buffer, with implications for our understanding of the nature of the orthographic LTM and WM systems. In this paper, we present a detailed case series study of 4 individuals with acquired spelling deficits and report evidence from both error types and factors influencing error rates that support the traditional distinction between these cognitive systems involved in spelling. In addition, we report evidence indicating possible interaction between these systems, which is consistent with a variety of recent findings in research on spelling. PMID:20425660

  11. Error-Related Negativities During Spelling Judgments Expose Orthographic Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Lindsay N.; Perfetti, Charles A.; Rickles, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments, we demonstrate that error-related negativities (ERNs) recorded during spelling decisions can expose individual differences in lexical knowledge. The first experiment found that the ERN was elicited during spelling decisions and that its magnitude was correlated with independent measures of subjects’ spelling knowledge. In the second experiment, we manipulated the phonology of misspelled stimuli and observed that ERN magnitudes were larger when misspelled words altered the phonology of their correctly spelled counterparts than when they preserved it. Thus, when an error is made in a decision about spelling, the brain processes indexed by the ERN reflect both phonological and orthographic input to the decision process. In both experiments, ERN effect sizes were correlated with assessments of lexical knowledge and reading, including offline spelling ability and spelling-mediated vocabulary knowledge. These results affirm the interdependent nature of orthographic, semantic, and phonological knowledge components while showing that spelling knowledge uniquely influences the ERN during spelling decisions. Finally, the study demonstrates the value of ERNs in exposing individual differences in lexical knowledge. PMID:24389506

  12. Visual, orthographic, phonological, and lexical influences in reading.

    PubMed

    Massaro, D W; Cohen, M M

    1994-12-01

    The fuzzy logical model of perception (FLMP), used as a framework to analyze phenomena in reading, asserts that there are multiple influences on reading performance. Experiments on the dynamic interaction of letter information and orthographic context are presented. Previous results have supported the FLMP over a variety of interactive activation models. These findings indicated that lateral masking and the time course of processing must be accounted for in the theoretical prediction of letter and word recognition. A new finding is that the word superiority effect is not influenced by the nature of the backward masking stimulus, nor is it diminished with letter and word masks, contrary to the predictions of several extant explanations. The FLMP is extended to account for reaction time in reading. Perceptual recognition, naming, and lexical decision tasks reflect the influence of multiple sources of information. These include orthographic structure, spelling-to-speech correspondences, and word frequency. Reading can be productively analyzed as a prototypical pattern recognition situation in which the reader exploits multiple sources of information in perception and action. PMID:7844509

  13. Discrimination of English and French orthographic patterns by biliterate children.

    PubMed

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2013-04-01

    We investigated whether young English-French biliterate children can distinguish between English and French orthographic patterns. Children in French immersion programs were asked to play a dictionary game when they were in Grade 2 and again when they were in Grade 3. They were shown pseudowords that contained either an English spelling pattern or a French spelling pattern, and they were asked to decide whether each pseudoword should go in an English dictionary or a French dictionary if it became a real word. Comparison groups of monolingual English children, monolingual French children, and English-French bilingual university students were also tested on the task. French immersion students in both grades were above chance in discriminating between the two types of pseudowords but were well below adult performance on the task. Measures obtained in kindergarten showed that early print knowledge had some ability to predict later ability to discriminate between the orthographic patterns of the two languages. Further analyses indicated that exposure to print in each language in Grades 1 to 3 was strongly related to discrimination performance. The findings are interpreted as being consistent with the statistical learning hypothesis. PMID:23270794

  14. Development of the 3D Parallel Particle-In-Cell Code IMPACT to Simulate the Ion Beam Transport System of VENUS (Abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, J.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.S.; Ryne, R.D.

    2005-03-15

    The superconducting ECR ion source VENUS serves as the prototype injector ion source for the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac. The RIA driver linac requires a great variety of high charge state ion beams with up to an order of magnitude higher intensity than currently achievable with conventional ECR ion sources. In order to design the beam line optics of the low energy beam line for the RIA front end for the wide parameter range required for the RIA driver accelerator, reliable simulations of the ion beam extraction from the ECR ion source through the ion mass analyzing system are essential. The RIA low energy beam transport line must be able to transport intense beams (up to 10 mA) of light and heavy ions at 30 keV.For this purpose, LBNL is developing the parallel 3D particle-in-cell code IMPACT to simulate the ion beam transport from the ECR extraction aperture through the analyzing section of the low energy transport system. IMPACT, a parallel, particle-in-cell code, is currently used to model the superconducting RF linac section of RIA and is being modified in order to simulate DC beams from the ECR ion source extraction. By using the high performance of parallel supercomputing we will be able to account consistently for the changing space charge in the extraction region and the analyzing section. A progress report and early results in the modeling of the VENUS source will be presented.

  15. Development of the 3D Parallel Particle-In-Cell Code IMPACT to Simulate the Ion Beam Transport System of VENUS (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, J.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D. S.; Ryne, R. D.

    2005-03-01

    The superconducting ECR ion source VENUS serves as the prototype injector ion source for the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac. The RIA driver linac requires a great variety of high charge state ion beams with up to an order of magnitude higher intensity than currently achievable with conventional ECR ion sources. In order to design the beam line optics of the low energy beam line for the RIA front end for the wide parameter range required for the RIA driver accelerator, reliable simulations of the ion beam extraction from the ECR ion source through the ion mass analyzing system are essential. The RIA low energy beam transport line must be able to transport intense beams (up to 10 mA) of light and heavy ions at 30 keV. For this purpose, LBNL is developing the parallel 3D particle-in-cell code IMPACT to simulate the ion beam transport from the ECR extraction aperture through the analyzing section of the low energy transport system. IMPACT, a parallel, particle-in-cell code, is currently used to model the superconducting RF linac section of RIA and is being modified in order to simulate DC beams from the ECR ion source extraction. By using the high performance of parallel supercomputing we will be able to account consistently for the changing space charge in the extraction region and the analyzing section. A progress report and early results in the modeling of the VENUS source will be presented.

  16. Effects of orthographic consistency and homophone density on Chinese spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Fan; Chao, Pei-Chun; Chang, Ya-Ning; Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Studies of alphabetic language have shown that orthographic knowledge influences phonological processing during spoken word recognition. This study utilized the Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to differentiate two types of phonology-to-orthography (P-to-O) mapping consistencies in Chinese, namely homophone density and orthographic consistency. The ERP data revealed an orthographic consistency effect in the frontal-centrally distributed N400, and a homophone density effect in central-posteriorly distributed late positive component (LPC). Further source analyses using the standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) demonstrated that the orthographic effect was not only localized in the frontal and temporal-parietal regions for phonological processing, but also in the posterior visual cortex for orthographic processing, while the homophone density effect was found in middle temporal gyrus for lexical-semantic selection, and in the temporal-occipital junction for orthographic processing. These results suggest that orthographic information not only shapes the nature of phonological representations, but may also be activated during on-line spoken word recognition. PMID:27174851

  17. The effect of orthographic and emotional neighbourhood in a colour categorization task.

    PubMed

    Camblats, Anna-Malika; Mathey, Stéphanie

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated whether and how the strength of reading interference in a colour categorization task can be influenced by lexical competition and the emotional characteristics of words not directly presented. Previous findings showed inhibitory effects of high-frequency orthographic and emotional neighbourhood in the lexical decision task. Here, we examined the effect of orthographic neighbour frequency according to the emotional valence of the higher-frequency neighbour in an emotional orthographic Stroop paradigm. Stimuli were coloured neutral words that had either (1) no orthographic neighbour (e.g. PISTIL [pistil]), (2) one neutral higher-frequency neighbour (e.g. tirade [tirade]/TIRAGE [draw]) or (3) one negative higher-frequency neighbour (e.g. idiome [idiom]/IDIOTE [idiotic]). The results showed that colour categorization times were longer for words with no orthographic neighbour than for words with one neutral neighbour of higher frequency and even longer when the higher-frequency neighbour was neutral rather than negative. Thus, it appears not only that the orthographic neighbourhood of the coloured stimulus words intervenes in a colour categorization task, but also that the emotional content of the neighbour contributes to response times. These findings are discussed in terms of lexical competition between the stimulus word and non-presented orthographic neighbours, which in turn would modify the strength of reading interference on colour categorization times. PMID:26553271

  18. Orthographic Activation in L2 Spoken Word Recognition Depends on Proficiency: Evidence from Eye-Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Veivo, Outi; Järvikivi, Juhani; Porretta, Vincent; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    The use of orthographic and phonological information in spoken word recognition was studied in a visual world task where L1 Finnish learners of L2 French (n = 64) and L1 French native speakers (n = 24) were asked to match spoken word forms with printed words while their eye movements were recorded. In Experiment 1, French target words were contrasted with competitors having a longer ( vs. ) or a shorter word initial phonological overlap ( vs. ) and an identical orthographic overlap. In Experiment 2, target words were contrasted with competitors of either longer ( vs. ) or shorter word initial orthographic overlap ( vs. ) and of an identical phonological overlap. A general phonological effect was observed in the L2 listener group but not in the L1 control group. No general orthographic effects were observed in the L2 or L1 groups, but a significant effect of proficiency was observed for orthographic overlap over time: higher proficiency L2 listeners used also orthographic information in the matching task in a time-window from 400 to 700 ms, whereas no such effect was observed for lower proficiency listeners. These results suggest that the activation of orthographic information in L2 spoken word recognition depends on proficiency in L2. PMID:27512381

  19. The development of the abilities to acquire novel detailed orthographic representations and maintain them in long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Binamé, Florence; Poncelet, Martine

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have clearly demonstrated that the development of orthographic representations relies on phonological recoding. However, substantial questions persist about the remaining unexplained variance in the acquisition of word-specific orthographic knowledge that is still underspecified. The main aim of this study was to explore whether two cognitive factors-sensitivity to orthographic regularities and short-term memory (STM) for serial order-make independent contributions to the acquisition of novel orthographic representations beyond that of the phonological core component and the level of preexisting word-specific orthographic knowledge. To this end, we had children from second to sixth grades learn novel written word forms using a repeated spelling practice paradigm. The speed at which children learned the word forms and their long-term retention (1week and 1month later) were assessed. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that phonological recoding, preexisting word-specific orthographic knowledge, and order STM explained a portion of the variance in orthographic learning speed, whereas phonological recoding, preexisting word-specific orthographic knowledge, and orthographic sensitivity each explained a portion of variance in the long-term retention of the newly created orthographic representations. A secondary aim of the study was to determine the developmental trajectory of the abilities to acquire novel orthographic word forms over the course of primary schooling. As expected, results showed an effect of age on both learning speed and long-term retention. The specific roles of orthographic sensitivity and order STM as independent factors involved in different steps of orthographic learning are discussed. PMID:26600080

  20. A New Pose Estimation Algorithm Using a Perspective-Ray-Based Scaled Orthographic Projection with Iteration

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pengfei; Sun, Changku; Li, Wenqiang; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Pose estimation aims at measuring the position and orientation of a calibrated camera using known image features. The pinhole model is the dominant camera model in this field. However, the imaging precision of this model is not accurate enough for an advanced pose estimation algorithm. In this paper, a new camera model, called incident ray tracking model, is introduced. More importantly, an advanced pose estimation algorithm based on the perspective ray in the new camera model, is proposed. The perspective ray, determined by two positioning points, is an abstract mathematical equivalent of the incident ray. In the proposed pose estimation algorithm, called perspective-ray-based scaled orthographic projection with iteration (PRSOI), an approximate ray-based projection is calculated by a linear system and refined by iteration. Experiments on the PRSOI have been conducted, and the results demonstrate that it is of high accuracy in the six degrees of freedom (DOF) motion. And it outperforms three other state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of accuracy during the contrast experiment. PMID:26197272

  1. Functional neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia: the role of orthographic depth

    PubMed Central

    Richlan, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Orthographic depth (OD) (i.e., the complexity, consistency, or transparency of grapheme-phoneme correspondences in written alphabetic language) plays an important role in the acquisition of reading skills. Correspondingly, developmental dyslexia is characterized by different behavioral manifestations across languages varying in OD. This review focuses on the question of whether these different behavioral manifestations are associated with different functional neuroanatomical manifestations. It provides a review and critique of cross-linguistic brain imaging studies of developmental dyslexia. In addition, it includes an analysis of state-of-the-art functional neuroanatomical models of developmental dyslexia together with orthography-specific predictions derived from these models. These predictions should be tested in future brain imaging studies of typical and atypical reading in order to refine the current neurobiological understanding of developmental dyslexia, especially with respect to orthography-specific and universal aspects. PMID:24904383

  2. The initial capitalization superiority effect in German: evidence for a perceptual frequency variant of the orthographic cue hypothesis of visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Arthur M; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Graf, Ralf; Braun, Mario; Nazir, Tatjana A

    2008-11-01

    A perceptual frequency variant of the orthographic cue (OC) hypothesis (Peressotti, Cubelli, & Job, 2003) was tested in two perceptual identification experiments using the variable viewing position technique: German nouns and non-nouns that are most frequently perceived with or without initial letter capitalization, respectively, were tachistoscopically presented in upper-case, lower-case, or with initial capitalization. The results indicated that words were best recognized in the form they are most frequently perceived in, which suggests that during reading acquisition abstract as well as case- and item-specific OCs may be learned and used for recognition. PMID:18841389

  3. Words with and without internal structure: what determines the nature of orthographic and morphological processing?

    PubMed

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2011-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that basic effects which are markers of visual word recognition in Indo-European languages cannot be obtained in Hebrew or in Arabic. Although Hebrew has an alphabetic writing system, just like English, French, or Spanish, a series of studies consistently suggested that simple form-orthographic priming, or letter-transposition priming are not found in Hebrew. In four experiments, we tested the hypothesis that this is due to the fact that Semitic words have an underlying structure that constrains the possible alignment of phonemes and their respective letters. The experiments contrasted typical Semitic words which are root-derived, with Hebrew words of non-Semitic origin, which are morphologically simple and resemble base-words in European languages. Using RSVP, TL priming, and form-priming manipulations, we show that Hebrew readers process Hebrew words which are morphologically simple similar to the way they process English words. These words indeed reveal the typical form-priming and TL priming effects reported in European languages. In contrast, words with internal structure are processed differently, and require a different code for lexical access. We discuss the implications of these findings for current models of visual word recognition. PMID:21163472

  4. Development of neural basis for chinese orthographic neighborhood size effect.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Li, Qing-Lin; Ding, Guo-Sheng; Bi, Hong-Yan

    2016-02-01

    The brain activity of orthographic neighborhood size (N size) effect in Chinese character naming has been studied in adults, meanwhile behavioral studies have revealed a developmental trend of Chinese N-size effect in developing readers. However, it is unclear whether and how the neural mechanism of N-size effect changes in Chinese children along with development. Here we address this issue using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Forty-four students from the 3(rd) , 5(th) , and 7(th) grades were scanned during silent naming of Chinese characters. After scanning, all participants took part in an overt naming test outside the scanner, and results of the naming task showed that the 3(rd) graders named characters from large neighborhoods faster than those from small neighborhoods, revealing a facilitatory N-size effect; the 5(th) graders showed null N-size effect while the 7(th) graders showed an inhibitory N-size effect. Neuroimaging results revealed that only the 3(rd) graders exhibited a significant N-size effect in the left middle occipital activity, with greater activation for large N-size characters. Results of 5(th) and 7(th) graders showed significant N-size effects in the left middle frontal gyrus, in which 5(th) graders induced greater activation in large N-size condition than in small N-size condition, while 7(th) graders exhibited an opposite effect which was similar to the adult pattern reported in a previous study. The current findings suggested the transition from broadly tuned to finely tuned orthographic representation with reading development, and the inhibition from neighbors' phonology for higher graders. Hum Brain Mapp 37:632-647, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26777875

  5. Effective connectivity of visual word recognition and homophone orthographic errors

    PubMed Central

    Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan; Peró-Cebollero, Maribel; Zarabozo-Hurtado, Daniel; González-Garrido, Andrés A.; Gudayol-Ferré, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    The study of orthographic errors in a transparent language like Spanish is an important topic in relation to writing acquisition. The development of neuroimaging techniques, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has enabled the study of such relationships between brain areas. The main objective of the present study was to explore the patterns of effective connectivity by processing pseudohomophone orthographic errors among subjects with high and low spelling skills. Two groups of 12 Mexican subjects each, matched by age, were formed based on their results in a series of ad hoc spelling-related out-scanner tests: a high spelling skills (HSSs) group and a low spelling skills (LSSs) group. During the f MRI session, two experimental tasks were applied (spelling recognition task and visuoperceptual recognition task). Regions of Interest and their signal values were obtained for both tasks. Based on these values, structural equation models (SEMs) were obtained for each group of spelling competence (HSS and LSS) and task through maximum likelihood estimation, and the model with the best fit was chosen in each case. Likewise, dynamic causal models (DCMs) were estimated for all the conditions across tasks and groups. The HSS group’s SEM results suggest that, in the spelling recognition task, the right middle temporal gyrus, and, to a lesser extent, the left parahippocampal gyrus receive most of the significant effects, whereas the DCM results in the visuoperceptual recognition task show less complex effects, but still congruent with the previous results, with an important role in several areas. In general, these results are consistent with the major findings in partial studies about linguistic activities but they are the first analyses of statistical effective brain connectivity in transparent languages. PMID:26042070

  6. Stress Assignment Errors in Surface Dyslexia: Evidence from Two Italian Patients with a Selective Deficit of the Orthographic Input Lexicon

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Anna; Cubelli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Surface dyslexia designates a selective impairment in reading irregular words, with spared ability to read regular and novel words, following a cerebral damage usually located in the left dominant hemisphere. In Italian language, which is regular at the segmental level, surface dyslexia is characterized by stress assignment errors. Here we report on two cases of Italian surface dyslexic patients who produced stress assignment errors, mainly in reading irregular words. In reading nonwords they usually applied the regular stress pattern. Both patients were also impaired in lexical decision and in semantic discrimination tasks when the processing of homophones was required. Our patients' performance relied almost exclusively on the phonological coding of the stimulus, revealing a deficit in accessing the orthographical input lexicon. In addition, one patient showed a cerebral lesion limited to the right thalamus, providing evidence of a possible role of the right hemisphere in the reading process. PMID:26063963

  7. Orthographic neighborhood effects as a function of word frequency: An event-related potential study

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2012-01-01

    The present study assessed the mechanisms and time course by which orthographic neighborhood size (ON) influences visual word recognition. ERPs were recorded to words that varied in ON and in word frequency while participants performed a semantic categorization task. ON was measured with the Orthographic Levenshtein Distance (OLD20), a richer metric of orthographic similarity than the traditional Coltheart’s N metric. The N400 effects of ON (260–500 ms) were larger and showed a different scalp distribution for low than for high frequency words, which is consistent with proposals that suggest lateral inhibitory mechanisms at a lexical level. The ERP ON effects had a shorter duration and different scalp distribution than the effects of word frequency (mainly observed between 380–600 ms) suggesting a transient activation of the subset of orthographically similar words in the lexical network compared to the impact of properties of the single words. PMID:22803612

  8. Associative and orthographic neighborhood density effects in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Marín, Alejandro; Carreiras, Manuel

    2009-11-01

    A group of patients with Alzheimer's disease and a group of healthy elderly controls were tested with a lexical-decision task that included words with dense or sparse orthographic and associative neighborhoods to investigate whether there is automatic orthographic and semantic activation of related representations in these populations similar to that found with younger samples. Although some studies support the idea of deteriorated connections in semantic networks in Alzheimer's disease, other studies propose that the automatic spread of activation at lexicosemantic levels remains intact and that intergroup differences are a consequence of impaired retrieval or attentional deficits. In this study, participants responded to words with dense orthographic and associative neighborhoods faster than they did to words with sparse neighborhoods, providing evidence in favor of a preserved automatic spread of activation through intact orthographic and semantic representations. Furthermore, no differences were found between the two groups regarding the magnitude of the effects, although control participants responded significantly faster than patients. PMID:19899834

  9. Naming in Noise: The Contribution of Orthographic Knowledge to Speech Repetition

    PubMed Central

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; De Morais, José Junça; Kolinsky, Régine

    2011-01-01

    While the influence of orthographic knowledge on lexical and postlexical speech processing tasks has been consistently observed, it is not the case in tasks that can be performed at the prelexical level. The present study re-examined the orthographic consistency effect in such a task, namely in shadowing. Comparing the situation where the acoustic signal was clearly presented to the situation where it was embedded in noise, we observed that the orthographic effect was restricted to the latter situation and only to high-frequency words. This finding supports the lexical account of the orthographic effects in speech recognition tasks and illustrates the ability of the cognitive system to adjust itself as a function of task difficulty by resorting to the appropriate processing mechanism and information in order to maintain a good level of performance. PMID:22164152

  10. A Simplified Work Scheme for Using Block Diagrams With the Orthographic Net.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisle, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Presents the steps for drawing a block-diagram from a map in the area of structural geology. The author recommends first platting on the orthographic net, all directional data with respect to geographical reference axes. (Author/SA)

  11. Orthographic transparency modulates the functional asymmetry in the fusiform cortex: An artificial language training study

    PubMed Central

    MEI, Leilei; XUE, Gui; LU, Zhong-Lin; HE, Qinghua; ZHANG, Mingxia; XUE, Feng; CHEN, Chuansheng; DONG, Qi

    2012-01-01

    The laterality difference in the occipitotemporal region between Chinese (bilaterality) and alphabetic languages (left laterality) has been attributed to their difference in visual appearance. However, these languages also differ in orthographic transparency. To disentangle the effect of orthographic transparency from visual appearance, we trained subjects to read the same artificial script either as an alphabetic (i.e., transparent orthography) or a logographic (i.e., nontransparent orthography) language. Consistent with our previous results, both types of phonological training enhanced activations in the left fusiform gyrus. More interestingly, the laterality in the fusiform gyrus (especially the posterior region) was modulated by the orthographic transparency of the artificial script (more left-lateralized activation after alphabetic training than after logographic training). These results provide an alternative account (i.e., orthographic transparency) for the laterality difference between Chinese and alphabetic languages, and may have important implications for the role of the fusiform in reading. PMID:22434043

  12. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  13. Children like dense neighborhoods: Orthographic neighborhood density effects in novel readers.

    PubMed

    Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo

    2008-05-01

    Previous evidence with English beginning readers suggests that some orthographic effects, such as the orthographic neighborhood density effects, could be stronger for children than for adults. Particularly, children respond more accurately to words with many orthographic neighbors than to words with few neighbors. The magnitude of the effects for children is much higher than for adults, and some researchers have proposed that these effects could be progressively modulated according to reading expertise. The present paper explores in depth how children from 1st to 6th grade perform a lexical decision with words that are from dense or sparse orthographic neighborhoods, attending not only to accuracy measures, but also to response latencies, through a computer-controlled task. Our results reveal that children (like adults) show clear neighborhood density effects, and that these effects do not seem to depend on reading expertise. Contrarily to previous claims, the present work shows that orthographic neighborhood effects are not progressively modulated by reading skill. Further, these data strongly support the idea of a general language-independent preference for using the lexical route instead of grapheme-to-phoneme conversions, even in beginning readers. The implications of these results for developmental models in reading and for models in visual word recognition and orthographic encoding are discussed. PMID:18630645

  14. The analysis of perseverations in acquired dysgraphia reveals the internal structure of orthographic representations

    PubMed Central

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; Rapp, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    At a minimum, our long-term memory representations of word spellings consist of ordered strings of single letter identities. While letter identity and position must certainly be represented, it is by no means obvious that this is the only information that is included in orthographic representations, nor that representations necessarily have a one-dimensional “flat” structure. Evidence favors the alternative hypothesis that orthographic representations, much like phonological ones, are internally rich, complex multi-dimensional structures, though many questions remain regarding the precise nature of the internal complexity of orthographic representations. In this investigation, we test competing accounts of the internal structure of orthographic representations by analyzing the perseveration errors produced by an individual with acquired dysgraphia, LSS. The analysis of preservation errors provides a novel and powerful method for investigating the question of the independence of different representational components. The results provide clear support the hypothesis that letter quantity and syllabic role information are associated with, but separable from, letter identity information. Furthermore, the results indicate that digraphs, letter pairs associated with a single phoneme (e.g. the SH in FISH) are units of orthographic representation. These results contribute substantially to the further development of the multi-dimensional hypothesis, providing both new and converging evidence regarding the nature of the internal complexity of orthographic representations. PMID:24499188

  15. Early use of orthographic information in spoken word recognition: Event-related potential evidence from the Korean language.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Youan; Choi, Sungmook; Lee, Yoonhyoung

    2016-04-01

    This study examines whether orthographic information is used during prelexical processes in spoken word recognition by investigating ERPs during spoken word processing for Korean words. Differential effects due to orthographic syllable neighborhood size and sound-to-spelling consistency on P200 and N320 were evaluated by recording ERPs from 42 participants during a lexical decision task. The results indicate that P200 was smaller for words whose orthographic syllable neighbors are large in number rather than those that are small. In addition, a word with a large orthographic syllable neighborhood elicited a smaller N320 effect than a word with a small orthographic syllable neighborhood only when the word had inconsistent sound-to-spelling mapping. The results provide support for the assumption that orthographic information is used early during the prelexical spoken word recognition process. PMID:26669620

  16. Humor, abstraction, and disbelief.

    PubMed

    Hoicka, Elena; Jutsum, Sarah; Gattis, Merideth

    2008-09-01

    We investigated humor as a context for learning about abstraction and disbelief. More specifically, we investigated how parents support humor understanding during book sharing with their toddlers. In Study 1, a corpus analysis revealed that in books aimed at 1-to 2-year-olds, humor is found more often than other forms of doing the wrong thing including mistakes, pretense, lying, false beliefs, and metaphors. In Study 2, 20 parents read a book containing humorous and non-humorous pages to their 19-to 26-month-olds. Parents used a significantly higher percentage of high abstraction extra-textual utterances (ETUs) when reading the humorous pages. In Study 3, 41 parents read either a humorous or non-humorous book to their 18-to 24-month-olds. Parents reading the humorous book made significantly more ETUs coded for a specific form of high abstraction: those encouraging disbelief of prior utterances. Sharing humorous books thus increases toddlers' exposure to high abstraction and belief-based language. PMID:21585438

  17. Reading Difficulties in Adult Deaf Readers of French: Phonological Codes, Not Guilty!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Nathalie N.; Baum, Shari R.; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2012-01-01

    Deaf people often achieve low levels of reading skills. The hypothesis that the use of phonological codes is associated with good reading skills in deaf readers is not yet fully supported in the literature. We investigated skilled and less skilled adult deaf readers' use of orthographic and phonological codes in reading. Experiment 1 used a masked…

  18. Orthographic Projection Capillary Array Fluorescent Sensor for mHealth

    PubMed Central

    Balsam, Joshua; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    To overcome the limited sensitivity of phone cameras for mobile health (mHealth) fluorescent detection, we have previously developed a capillary array which enables a ~100× increase in detection sensitivity. However, for an effective detection platform, the optical configuration must allow for uniform measurement sensitivity between channels when using such a capillary array sensor. This is a challenge due to the parallax inherent in imaging long parallel capillary tubes with typical lens configurations. To enable effective detection, we have developed an orthographic projection system in this work which forms parallel light projection images from the capillaries using an object-space telecentric lens configuration. This optical configuration results in a significantly higher degree of uniformity in measurement between channels, as well as a significantly reduced focal distance, which enables a more compact sensor. A plano-convex lens (f = 150 mm) was shown to produce a uniform orthographic projection when properly combined with the phone camera’s built in lens (f = 4 mm), enabling measurements of long capillaries (125 mm) to be made from a distance of 160 mm. The number of parallel measurements which can be made is determined by the size of the secondary lens. Based on these results, a more compact configuration with shorter 32 mm capillaries and a plano-convex lens with a shorter focal length (f = 10 mm) was constructed. This optical system was used to measure serial dilutions of fluorescein with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10 nM, similar to the LOD of a commercial plate reader. However, many plate readers based on standard 96 well plate requires sample volumes of 100 ul for measurement, while the capillary array requires a sample volume of less than 10 ul. This optical configuration allows for a device to make use of the ~100× increase in fluorescent detection sensitivity produced by capillary amplification while maintaining a compact size and capability

  19. Orthographic and morphemic effects in the written syllable counting task.

    PubMed

    Chetail, Fabienne; Quémart, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    According to a recent hypothesis, the organization of letters into groups of successive consonants and vowels (i.e., CV pattern) constrains the orthographic structure of words. Here, we examined to what extent the morphological structure of words modifies the influence of the CV pattern in a syllable counting task. Participants were presented with written words matched for the number of syllables and comprising either one vowel cluster less than the number of syllables (hiatus words, e.g., création) or the same number of vowel clusters (control words, e.g., crépiter). Participants were slower and less accurate for hiatus than control stimuli, be it words (Experiments 1, 3) or pseudowords (Experiment 2). More importantly, this hiatus effect was present even when the stimuli had a morphemic boundary falling within the hiatus (e.g., ré-agir). The results suggest that the CV pattern of items more strongly influences performance in the syllable counting task than the morphological structure. PMID:25270561

  20. Learning Orthographic Structure With Sequential Generative Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Testolin, Alberto; Stoianov, Ivilin; Sperduti, Alessandro; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Learning the structure of event sequences is a ubiquitous problem in cognition and particularly in language. One possible solution is to learn a probabilistic generative model of sequences that allows making predictions about upcoming events. Though appealing from a neurobiological standpoint, this approach is typically not pursued in connectionist modeling. Here, we investigated a sequential version of the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM), a stochastic recurrent neural network that extracts high-order structure from sensory data through unsupervised generative learning and can encode contextual information in the form of internal, distributed representations. We assessed whether this type of network can extract the orthographic structure of English monosyllables by learning a generative model of the letter sequences forming a word training corpus. We show that the network learned an accurate probabilistic model of English graphotactics, which can be used to make predictions about the letter following a given context as well as to autonomously generate high-quality pseudowords. The model was compared to an extended version of simple recurrent networks, augmented with a stochastic process that allows autonomous generation of sequences, and to non-connectionist probabilistic models (n-grams and hidden Markov models). We conclude that sequential RBMs and stochastic simple recurrent networks are promising candidates for modeling cognition in the temporal domain. PMID:26073971

  1. Misperception of orthographic neighbors during silent and oral reading.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Julie; Inhoff, Albrecht W

    2016-06-01

    The study examined whether words are misperceived during natural fluent reading and the extent to which contextual and lexical properties bias perception. Target words were pairs of orthographic neighbors that differed in frequency. Pretarget context was neutral (Experiment 1) or biased toward the higher frequency member of the pair (Experiments 2 and 3), and posttarget context was neutral, congruent, or incongruent. Critically, incongruent context was constructed so that it was congruent with the target's neighbor. First-pass viewing showed only effects of target frequency. During silent reading (Experiments 1 and 2), rereading measures showed that the target frequency effect was smaller in the incongruent posttarget context condition than in the neutral and congruent conditions, and this occurred irrespective of prior context. Presumably, lower frequency words were less impeded by incongruent context because they were often misperceived as a congruent higher frequency neighbor. An oral reading task (Experiment 3) showed that the lower frequency target was more often misread than the higher frequency neighbor, and this proneness to error was influenced by posttarget context. Although target frequency influenced proneness to error, biased prior sentence context appeared to influence the construal of sentence meaning to accommodate incongruent targets and posttarget context. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26727017

  2. The effect of decreased interletter spacing on orthographic processing.

    PubMed

    Montani, Veronica; Facoetti, Andrea; Zorzi, Marco

    2015-06-01

    There is growing interest in how perceptual factors such as the spacing between letters within words modulate performance in visual word recognition and reading aloud. Extra-large letter spacing can strongly improve the reading performance of dyslexic children, and a small increase with respect to the standard spacing seems beneficial even for skilled word recognition in adult readers. In the present study we examined the effect of decreased letter spacing on perceptual identification and lexical decision tasks. Identification in the decreased spacing condition was slower than identification of normally spaced strings, thereby confirming that the reciprocal interference among letters located in close proximity (crowding) poses critical constraints on visual word processing. Importantly, the effect of spacing was not modulated by string length, suggesting that the locus of the spacing effect is at the level of letter detectors. Moreover, the processing of crowded letters was facilitated by top-down support from orthographic lexical representation as indicated by the fact that decreased spacing affected pseudowords significantly more than words. Conversely, in the lexical decision task only word responses were affected by the spacing manipulation. Overall, our findings support the hypothesis that increased crowding is particularly harmful for phonological decoding, thereby adversely affecting reading development in dyslexic children. PMID:25361820

  3. Uncovering phonological and orthographic selectivity across the reading network using fMRI-RA.

    PubMed

    Glezer, Laurie S; Eden, Guinevere; Jiang, Xiong; Luetje, Megan; Napoliello, Eileen; Kim, Judy; Riesenhuber, Maximilian

    2016-09-01

    Reading has been shown to rely on a dorsal brain circuit involving the temporoparietal cortex (TPC) for grapheme-to-phoneme conversion of novel words (Pugh et al., 2001), and a ventral stream involving left occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) (in particular in the so-called "visual word form area", VWFA) for visual identification of familiar words. In addition, portions of the inferior frontal cortex (IFC) have been posited to be an output of the dorsal reading pathway involved in phonology. While this dorsal versus ventral dichotomy for phonological and orthographic processing of words is widely accepted, it is not known if these brain areas are actually strictly sensitive to orthographic or phonological information. Using an fMRI rapid adaptation technique we probed the selectivity of the TPC, OTC, and IFC to orthographic and phonological features during single word reading. We found in two independent experiments using different task conditions in adult normal readers, that the TPC is exclusively sensitive to phonology and the VWFA in the OTC is exclusively sensitive to orthography. The dorsal IFC (BA 44), however, showed orthographic but not phonological selectivity. These results support the theory that reading involves a specific phonological-based temporoparietal region and a specific orthographic-based ventral occipitotemporal region. The dorsal IFC, however, was not sensitive to phonological processing, suggesting a more complex role for this region. PMID:27252037

  4. Modeling the relationship between rapid automatized naming and literacy skills across languages varying in orthographic consistency.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, George K; Aro, Mikko; Liao, Chen-Huei; Parrila, Rauno

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to contrast the prominent theoretical explanations of the rapid automatized naming (RAN)-reading relationship across languages varying in orthographic consistency (Chinese, English, and Finnish) and (b) to examine whether the same accounts can explain the RAN-spelling relationship. In total, 304 Grade 4 children (102 Chinese-speaking Taiwanese children, 117 English-speaking Canadian children, and 85 Finnish-speaking children) were assessed on measures of RAN, speed of processing, phonological processing, orthographic processing, reading fluency, and spelling. The results of path analysis indicated that RAN had a strong direct effect on reading fluency that was of the same size across languages and that only in English was a small proportion of its predictive variance mediated by orthographic processing. In contrast, RAN did not exert a significant direct effect on spelling, and a substantial proportion of its predictive variance was mediated by phonological processing (in Chinese and Finnish) and orthographic processing (in English). Given that RAN predicted reading fluency equally well across languages and that phonological/orthographic processing had very little to do with this relationship, we argue that the reason why RAN is related to reading fluency should be sought in domain-general factors such as serial processing and articulation. PMID:26615467

  5. Neural bases of orthographic long-term memory and working memory in dysgraphia.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Brenda; Purcell, Jeremy; Hillis, Argye E; Capasso, Rita; Miceli, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Spelling a word involves the retrieval of information about the word's letters and their order from long-term memory as well as the maintenance and processing of this information by working memory in preparation for serial production by the motor system. While it is known that brain lesions may selectively affect orthographic long-term memory and working memory processes, relatively little is known about the neurotopographic distribution of the substrates that support these cognitive processes, or the lesions that give rise to the distinct forms of dysgraphia that affect these cognitive processes. To examine these issues, this study uses a voxel-based mapping approach to analyse the lesion distribution of 27 individuals with dysgraphia subsequent to stroke, who were identified on the basis of their behavioural profiles alone, as suffering from deficits only affecting either orthographic long-term or working memory, as well as six other individuals with deficits affecting both sets of processes. The findings provide, for the first time, clear evidence of substrates that selectively support orthographic long-term and working memory processes, with orthographic long-term memory deficits centred in either the left posterior inferior frontal region or left ventral temporal cortex, and orthographic working memory deficits primarily arising from lesions of the left parietal cortex centred on the intraparietal sulcus. These findings also contribute to our understanding of the relationship between the neural instantiation of written language processes and spoken language, working memory and other cognitive skills. PMID:26685156

  6. Evidence for a Preserved Sensitivity to Orthographic Redundancy and an Impaired Access to Phonological Syllables in French Developmental Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doignon-Camus, Nadège; Seigneuric, Alix; Perrier, Emeline; Sisti, Aurélie; Zagar, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the orthographic and phonological processing skills of developmental dyslexics, we (a) examined their abilities to exploit properties of orthographic redundancy and (b) tested whether their phonological deficit extends to spelling-to-sound connections for large-grain size units such as syllables. To assess the processing skills in…

  7. Cross-Language Transfer of Orthographic Processing Skills: A Study of French Children Who Learn English at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commissaire, Eva; Duncan, Lynne G.; Casalis, Severine

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the nature of orthographic processing skills among French-speaking children in Grades 6 and 8 who are learning English at school as a second language (L2). Two aspects of orthographic processing skills are thought to form a convergent construct in monolingual beginning readers: word-specific knowledge (e.g. "rain-rane") and…

  8. Orthographic Learning via Self-Teaching in Children Learning to Read English: Effects of Exposure, Durability, and Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Kate; Angell, Philip; Castles, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This experiment investigated orthographic learning via self-teaching in 8- and 9-year-olds learning to read English. Children were exposed to novel words, and following a 1- or 7-day delay interval, orthographic learning was assessed by asking children to select previously seen novel words from an array of visually and phonologically similar…

  9. The Development of Sensitivity to Sublexical Orthographic Constraints: An Investigation of Positional Frequency and Consistency Using a Wordlikeness Choice Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    The developmental sequence of the types of orthographic knowledge that children acquire early in reading development is unclear. Following findings of skilled reading, the orthographic constraints of positional frequency and feedback consistency were explored with a wordlikeness judgement task for grades 1-3 English-speaking children. The data…

  10. Effects of Synthetic Speech Output and Orthographic Feedback on Spelling in a Student with Autism: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Blischak, Doreen M.; Belfiore, Phillip J.; Bartley, Clair; Barnett, Nanette

    1998-01-01

    A nonspeaking student (age 10) with autism was taught to spell words under three feedback conditions using a voice output communication aid. Results found that the provision of speech output alone and in combination with orthographic feedback resulted in more efficient spelling than the provision of orthographic feedback alone. (Author/CR)

  11. A validation of the role of preschool phonological and orthographic skills in the prediction of reading.

    PubMed

    Badian, N A

    1998-01-01

    Two cohorts of children were followed to determine whether tests of phonological awareness (Syllable Tapping), orthographic processing (Visual Matching), and serial naming speed (RAN Objects), added to a preschool battery, would improve prediction of reading. The major predictors of first-grade reading and spelling were preschool letter naming and sentence memory for both cohorts, but the orthographic and serial naming tasks added a small amount of additional variance. Sentence memory accounted for the most variance in second-grade reading for both cohorts, and Visual Matching made contributions to reading and spelling for each cohort. Sentence memory, Visual Matching, and color naming together yielded an 87% to 90% hit rate in predicting which individual children would be good or poor readers. The orthographic and serial naming speed tasks are useful additions to a preschool predictive battery, but recommendations are that alternative preschool phonological tasks, not based on syllable recognition, should be used to predict reading. PMID:9763776

  12. A dual-route perspective on poor reading in a regular orthography: Evidence from phonological and orthographic lexical decisions

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Jürgen; Wimmer, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Impairments of the lexical and the nonlexical reading route were examined for German-speaking dyslexic readers by measuring accuracy and speed of phonological and orthographic lexical decisions. Different from English-based findings, we found little difficulty with the phonological distinction between pseudohomophones and nonwords, but a major difficulty with the orthographic distinction between words and pseudohomophones. Subtyping identified pure surface dyslexia cases but no case of pure phonological dyslexia. Dyslexic speed impairments were traced to three loci in the dual-route model: an impoverished orthographic lexicon, slow access from orthographic to phonological lexicon entries (lexical route) and from graphemes to phonemes (nonlexical route). A review of distal cognitive deficits suggested that the orthographic lexicon is affected by phonological deficits and that the slow functioning of the lexical and the nonlexical route reflects a general visual-verbal speed impairment and not a purely visual-attentional deficit. PMID:18642138

  13. Phonological coding during reading

    PubMed Central

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  14. Phonological coding during reading.

    PubMed

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-11-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  15. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    PubMed Central

    Dandurand, Frédéric; Grainger, Jonathan; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Granier, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations) and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity. PMID:21734901

  16. Longitudinal Predictors of Reading and Spelling across Languages Varying in Orthographic Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Torppa, Minna; Manolitsis, George; Lyytinen, Heikki; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    We examined the longitudinal predictors of nonword decoding, reading fluency, and spelling in three languages that vary in orthographic depth: Finnish, Greek, and English. Eighty-two English-speaking, 70 Greek, and 88 Finnish children were followed from the age of 5.5 years old until Grade 2. Prior to any reading instruction, they were…

  17. Orthographe: la fin d'un tabou (Orthography: The End of a Taboo).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivieri, Claude

    1990-01-01

    Significant features of the official October 1990 orthographic reforms in French are outlined and their pedagogical implications are discussed briefly. The changes, primarily simplifications and not major changes, affect use of the hyphen, plurals, diacritical markings, verb tenses, and correction of anomalies. (MSE)

  18. Electrophysiological evidence of inhibited orthographic regularity effect on the recognition of real Chinese characters.

    PubMed

    He, Weiqi; Fan, Cong; Ren, Jie; Liu, Tiantian; Zhang, Mingming; Luo, Wenbo

    2016-01-01

    Orthographic regularity is important for processing Chinese characters. However, the issues how orthographic regularity influences the visual recognition of real Chinese characters and whether common processes related to the potential effect exist between successive (SUCC) and concurrent (CONC) conditions with asynchronous presentation of S1 and S2 are still unclear. In the current study, event-related potential (ERP) technique was adopted to investigate electrophysiological correlates of the orthographic regularity effect. Behaviorally, we found fewer errors and shorter response times for SUCC and CONC conditions compared to simultaneous (SIM) condition with synchronous presentation and disappearance of S1 and S2, which demonstrates similarities between SUCC and CONC and their differences from SIM. We found bilaterally smaller N170 responses for real Chinese characters preceded by false characters compared to real characters, demonstrating that orthographic regularity may inhibit the recognition of real Chinese characters. Additionally, the inhibition effect was present in SUCC and CONC rather than SIM, which shows that smaller N170 responses may have been due to asynchronous presentations of S1 and S2 and common inhibition processes in the SUCC and CONC conditions. PMID:27006190

  19. Testing for Lexical Competition during Reading: Fast Priming with Orthographic Neighbors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Mariko; Sears, Christopher R.; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have found that masked word primes that are orthographic neighbors of the target inhibit lexical decision latencies (Davis & Lupker, 2006; Nakayama, Sears, & Lupker, 2008), consistent with the predictions of lexical competition models of visual word identification (e.g., Grainger & Jacobs, 1996). In contrast, using the fast priming…

  20. Orthographic Processing and Reading Comprehension among Arabic Speaking Mainstream and LD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbeheri, Gad; Everatt, John; Mahfoudhi, Abdessatar; Al-Diyar, Mosaad Abu; Taibah, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    Two cohorts of mainstream children (grades 2-5) and one cohort of children with learning disabilities (LD; grades 3-5), all Arabic speaking children in Kuwait, were given measures of reading comprehension fluency and orthographic discrimination to assess the relationship between the two. Additional measures of phonological processing (decoding and…

  1. More than Words: Fast Acquisition and Generalization of Orthographic Regularities during Novel Word Learning in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Matti; Polonyi, Tünde; Abari, Kálmán

    2014-01-01

    In literates, reading is a fundamental channel for acquiring new vocabulary both in the mother tongue and in foreign languages. By using an artificial language learning task, we examined the acquisition of novel written words and their embedded regularities (an orthographic surface feature and a syllabic feature) in three groups of university…

  2. A Developmental Study of the Processing of Orthographic Information in Children with Varying Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Evelyne; Willows, Dale M.

    A study investigated the development of information processing as it relates to the development of reading skills by studying how good readers and poor readers utilized orthographic information. Subjects, 90 good and poor readers from grades 2, 4, and 6, participated in four 30-minute sessions in which they were required to make a same/different…

  3. Training Letter and Orthographic Pattern Recognition in Children with Slow Naming Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Nicole J.; Levy, Betty Ann

    2011-01-01

    Although research has established that performance on a rapid automatized naming (RAN) task is related to reading, the nature of this relationship is unclear. Bowers (2001) proposed that processes underlying performance on the RAN task and orthographic knowledge make independent and additive contributions to reading performance. We examined the…

  4. Hemispheric differences in orthographic and semantic processing as revealed by event-related potentials

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Danielle S.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in how the right and left hemispheres (RH, LH) apprehend visual words were examined using event-related potentials (ERPs) in a repetition paradigm with visual half-field (VF) presentation. In both hemispheres (RH/LVF, LH/RVF), initial presentation of items elicited similar and typical effects of orthographic neighborhood size, with larger N400s for orthographically regular items (words and pseudowords) than for irregular items (acronyms and meaningless illegal strings). However, hemispheric differences emerged on repetition effects. When items were repeated in the LH/RVF, orthographically regular items, relative to irregular items, elicited larger repetition effects on both the N250, a component reflecting processing at the level of visual form (orthography), and on the N400, which has been linked to semantic access. In contrast, in the RH/LVF, repetition effects were biased toward irregular items on the N250 and were similar in size across item types for the N400. The results suggest that processing in the LH is more strongly affected by wordform regularity than in the RH, either due to enhanced processing of familiar orthographic patterns or due to the fact that regular forms can be more readily mapped onto phonology. PMID:25278134

  5. Neural Correlates of Priming Effects in Children during Spoken Word Processing with Orthographic Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Fan; Khalid, Kainat; Zaveri, Rishi; Bolger, Donald J.; Bitan, Tali; Booth, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Priming effects were examined in 40 children (9-15 years old) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An orthographic judgment task required participants to determine if two sequentially presented spoken words had the same spelling for the rime. Four lexical conditions were designed: similar orthography and phonology (O[superscript…

  6. N300 Indexes Deficient Integration of Orthographic and Phonological Representations in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasko, Sandra; Bruder, Jennifer; Bartling, Jurgen; Schulte-Korne, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    In transparent orthographies, like German, children with developmental dyslexia (DD) are mainly characterized by a reading fluency deficit. The reading fluency deficit might be traced back to a scarce integration of orthographic and phonological representations. In order to address this question, the present study used EEG to investigate the N300,…

  7. Language Policy and Orthographic Harmonization across Linguistic, Ethnic and National Boundaries in Southern Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on online and daily newspapers, speakers' language and writing practices, official government documents and prescribed spelling systems in Southern Africa, the paper explores the challenges and possibilities of orthographic reforms allowing for mobility across language clusters, ethnicity, regional and national borders. I argue that this…

  8. Words with and without Internal Structure: What Determines the Nature of Orthographic and Morphological Processing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that basic effects which are markers of visual word recognition in Indo-European languages cannot be obtained in Hebrew or in Arabic. Although Hebrew has an alphabetic writing system, just like English, French, or Spanish, a series of studies consistently suggested that simple form-orthographic priming, or…

  9. A Behaviour-Genetic Analysis of Orthographic Learning, Spelling and Decoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Brian; Coventry, William L.; Olson, Richard K.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Wadsworth, Sally; DeFries, John C.; Corley, Robin; Willcutt, Erik G.; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal twin study of literacy and language, we conducted a behaviour-genetic analysis of orthographic learning, spelling and decoding in Grade 2 children (225 identical and 214 fraternal twin pairs) in the United States and Australia. Each variable showed significant genetic and unique environment influences. Multivariate…

  10. Modelling relations between sensory processing, speech perception, orthographic and phonological ability, and literacy achievement.

    PubMed

    Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid; De Smedt, Bert; Ghesquière, Pol

    2008-07-01

    The general magnocellular theory postulates that dyslexia is the consequence of a multimodal deficit in the processing of transient and dynamic stimuli. In the auditory modality, this deficit has been hypothesized to interfere with accurate speech perception, and subsequently disrupt the development of phonological and later reading and spelling skills. In the visual modality, an analogous problem might interfere with literacy development by affecting orthographic skills. In this prospective longitudinal study, we tested dynamic auditory and visual processing, speech-in-noise perception, phonological ability and orthographic ability in 62 five-year-old preschool children. Predictive relations towards first grade reading and spelling measures were explored and the validity of the global magnocellular model was evaluated using causal path analysis. In particular, we demonstrated that dynamic auditory processing was related to speech perception, which itself was related to phonological awareness. Similarly, dynamic visual processing was related to orthographic ability. Subsequently, phonological awareness, orthographic ability and verbal short-term memory were unique predictors of reading and spelling development. PMID:18207564

  11. Revisiting the Home Literacy Model of Reading Development in an Orthographically Consistent Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manolitsis, George; Georgiou, George K.; Parrila, Rauno

    2011-01-01

    We examined the applicability of the Home Literacy Model in an orthographically transparent language (Greek). Seventy Greek children were followed from kindergarten until grade 4. In kindergarten they were tested in non-verbal intelligence, vocabulary, phonological sensitivity, rapid naming, and letter knowledge. The parents of the children also…

  12. Chinese Children's Statistical Learning of Orthographic Regularities: Positional Constraints and Character Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Xiuli; McBride, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how Chinese children acquire the untaught positional constraints of stroke patterns that are embedded in left-right structured and top-bottom structured characters. Using an orthographic regularity pattern elicitation paradigm, 536 Hong Kong Chinese children at different levels of reading (kindergarten, 2nd, and 5th grades)…

  13. The Role of Orthographic Neighborhood Size Effects in Chinese Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Meng-Feng; Lin, Wei-Chun; Chou, Tai-Li; Yang, Fu-Ling; Wu, Jei-Tun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies about the orthographic neighborhood size (NS) in Chinese have overlooked the morphological processing, and the co-variation between the character frequency and the the NS. The present study manipulated the word frequency and the NS simultaneously, with the leading character frequency controlled, to explore their influences on word…

  14. The Effect of Prime Duration in Masked Orthographic Priming Depends on Neighborhood Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Christelle; Mathey, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    A lexical decision task was used with a masked priming procedure to investigate whether and to what extent neighborhood distribution influences the effect of prime duration in masked orthographic priming. French word targets had two higher frequency neighbors that were either distributed over two letter positions (e.g., "LOBE/robe-loge") or…

  15. Orthographic Depth and Spelling Acquisition in Estonian and English: A Comparison of Two Diverse Alphabetic Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viise, Neva M.; Richards, Herbert C.; Pandis, Meeli

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the link between the orthographic transparency of a language and the ease or difficulty of acquiring spelling proficiency in that language. The two languages compared are English, with a highly irregular sound-to-print correspondence, and Estonian, a Finno-Ugric language that has one of the most highly regular…

  16. Stroop interference associated with efficient reading fluency and prelexical orthographic processing.

    PubMed

    Mano, Quintino R; Williamson, Brady J; Pae, Hye K; Osmon, David C

    2016-01-01

    The Stroop Color-Word Test involves a dynamic interplay between reading and executive functioning that elicits intuitions of word reading automaticity. One such intuition is that strong reading skills (i.e., more automatized word reading) play a disruptive role within the test, contributing to Stroop interference. However, evidence has accumulated that challenges this intuition. The present study examined associations among Stroop interference, reading skills (i.e., isolated word identification, grapheme-to-phoneme mapping, phonemic awareness, reading fluency) measured on standardized tests, and orthographic skills measured on experimental computerized tasks. Among university students (N = 152), correlational analyses showed greater Stroop interference to be associated with (a) relatively low scores on all standardized reading tests, and (b) longer response latencies on orthographic tasks. Hierarchical regression demonstrated that reading fluency and prelexical orthographic processing predicted unique and significant variance in Stroop interference beyond baseline rapid naming. Results suggest that strong reading skills, including orthographic processing, play a supportive role in resolving Stroop interference. PMID:26653862

  17. Orthographic Mapping in the Acquisition of Sight Word Reading, Spelling Memory, and Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehri, Linnea C.

    2014-01-01

    Orthographic mapping (OM) involves the formation of letter-sound connections to bond the spellings, pronunciations, and meanings of specific words in memory. It explains how children learn to read words by sight, to spell words from memory, and to acquire vocabulary words from print. This development is portrayed by Ehri (2005a) as a sequence of…

  18. Explicit Instruction in Orthographic Structure and Word Morphology Helps Chinese Children Learn to Write Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Jerome L.; Chen, Xi; Li, Wenling; Wu, Xinchun; Gaffney, Janet S.; Li, Hong; Anderson, Richard C.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research in alphabetic languages had shown that children learning to write are sensitive to morphological information, and that it serves as a resource that they draw upon as they acquire writing skills. In Chinese as well, sensitivity to morphological and orthographic information had been found to predict children's ability to read…

  19. Impaired Phonological and Orthographic Word Representations among Adult Dyslexic Readers: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyler, Ann; Breznitz, Zvia

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the processing of phonological and orthographic word representations among 17 dyslexic and 16 normal college-level readers using Event-Related Potential measures. They focused on 2 early components--the P200 and the P300. The results revealed P200 and P300 components of lower amplitude and later latency among dyslexic readers…

  20. Science Education Researchers as Orthographers: Documenting Keiyo (Kenya) Knowledge, Learning and Narratives about Snakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Advances the argument that science educators have a pivotal role as orthographers in preserving and promoting science for all. Interviews Keiyo elders and students (n=748) to determine indigenous names for snakes and how Keiyo oral narratives of snakes are used in teaching and learning. Uses the data to document Keiyo language and construct…

  1. Orthographic Knowledge Important in Comprehending Elementary Chinese Text by Users of Alphasyllabaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan; Tse, Shek Kam; Loh, Ka Yee; Ki, Wing Wah

    2011-01-01

    Orthographic knowledge in Chinese was hypothesized to affect elementary Chinese text comprehension (four essays) by 80 twelve-year-old ethnic alphasyllabary language users compared with 74 native Chinese speakers at similar reading level. This was tested with two rapid automatized naming tasks; two working memory tasks; three orthographic…

  2. Frequency, Orthographic Regularity, and Lexical Status in Letter and Word Perception. Technical Report No. 550.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massaro, Dominic W.; And Others

    A study assessed the role of orthographic structure in college students' perceptual recognition and judgment of letter strings. Lexical status, word frequency, bigram frequency, log bigram frequency, and regularity of letter sequencing were orthogonally varied across a series of experiments. Six-letter words and their anagrams were used as test…

  3. Reading Ability and the Utilization of Orthographic Structure in Reading. Technical Report No. 515.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massaro, Dominic W.; Taylor, Glen A.

    Previous research has demonstrated that readers utilize orthographic structure in their perceptual recognition of letter strings. Two experiments were conducted to assess whether this utilization varied with reading ability. Anagrams of words were made to create strings that orthogonally combined high and low single letter positional frequency and…

  4. Chicken or Egg? Untangling the Relationship between Orthographic Processing Skill and Reading Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, S. Helene; Benere, Jenna; Castles, Anne

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of a relationship between orthographic processing skill, or the ability to form, store and access word representations, and reading ability. Empirical research to date has not, however, clarified the direction of this relationship. We examined this question in a three-year longitudinal study of children from Grades 1…

  5. Supporting Orthographic Learning at the Beginning Stage of Learning to Read Chinese as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Li-Yun; Xu, Yi; Perfetti, Charles A.; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Learning to read a second language (L2) is especially challenging when a target L2 requires learning new graphic forms. Learning Chinese, which consists of thousands of characters composed of hundreds of basic writing units, presents such a challenge of orthographic learning for adult English speakers at the beginning stages of learning. In this…

  6. Differential Disadvantage of Anglophone Weak Readers Due to English Orthographic Complexity and Cognitive Processing Weakness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galletly, Susan A.; Knight, Bruce Allen

    2011-01-01

    The highly regular orthographies (spelling systems) of many nations expedite literacy development, and their children experience a rapid transition from early literacy (learning to read and write) to sophisticated literacy (reading and writing to learn). In contrast, English orthographic complexity impedes literacy development, particularly for…

  7. Differential Effects of Orthographic and Phonological Consistency in Cortex for Children with and without Reading Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolger, Donald J.; Minas, Jennifer; Burman, Douglas D.; Booth, James R.

    2008-01-01

    One of the central challenges in mastering English is becoming sensitive to consistency from spelling to sound (i.e. phonological consistency) and from sound to spelling (i.e. orthographic consistency). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the neural correlates of consistency in 9-15-year-old Normal and Impaired Readers…

  8. Is the Orthographic/Phonological Onset a Single Unit in Reading Aloud?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mousikou, Petroula; Coltheart, Max; Saunders, Steven; Yen, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Two main theories of visual word recognition have been developed regarding the way orthographic units in printed words map onto phonological units in spoken words. One theory suggests that a string of single letters or letter clusters corresponds to a string of phonemes (Coltheart, 1978; Venezky, 1970), while the other suggests that a string of…

  9. The Acquisition of Mental Orthographic Representations for Reading and Spelling Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apel, Kenn

    2009-01-01

    Word-level reading and spelling skills support reading comprehension and writing composition. Accurate and fluent word-level reading and spelling are facilitated when individuals have clear mental orthographic representations (MOR) that permit them to quickly recognize and recall the visual representation of a word, freeing up memory and…

  10. Syllables and Bigrams: Orthographic Redundancy and Syllabic Units Affect Visual Word Recognition at Different Processing Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Markus; Carreiras, Manuel; Tamm, Sascha; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increasing evidence for syllabic processing during visual word recognition. If syllabic effects prove to be independent from orthographic redundancy, this would seriously challenge the ability of current computational models to account for the processing of polysyllabic words. Three experiments are presented to…

  11. Training for Phonological Awareness in an Orthographically Transparent Language in Two Different Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Günizi; Babür, Nalan; Erçetin, Gülcan

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of an experimental program designed to develop the phonological awareness (PA) skills of beginning readers in Turkish, an orthographically transparent language. We administered pre-, post-, and follow-up tests to assess the PA skills of 113 first graders and kindergartners in 2…

  12. Orthographic Characteristics Speed Hindi Word Naming but Slow Urdu Naming: Evidence from Hindi/Urdu Biliterates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Chaitra; Vaid, Jyotsna; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Chen, Hsin-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Two primed naming experiments tested the orthographic depth hypothesis in skilled biliterate readers of Hindi and Urdu. These languages are very similar on the spoken level but differ greatly in script; Hindi is a highly transparent script, whereas Urdu is more opaque. It was accordingly hypothesized that form-based priming would be greater for…

  13. The Effect of Visual Word Features on the Acquisition of Orthographic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Vanessa E. G.; de Jong, Peter F.

    2006-01-01

    Research with adults has shown that the distortion of visual word features, and in particular of the multiletter features within words, hampers word recognition. In this study, "CaSe MiXiNg" was employed to examine the effect of disrupting visual word features on the acquisition of orthographic knowledge in children. During the training, 18…

  14. Development of Phonological, Morphological, and Orthographic Knowledge in Young Spellers: The Case of Inflected Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Joanne; Hauerwas, Laura Boynton

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to simultaneously investigate the influence of phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness skills on the ability to spell inflected verbs in structured spelling tasks. Children in grades 1, 2, and 3 (n = 103) spelled inflected past and progressive tense verbs and completed awareness tasks. Developmental changes…

  15. Orthographic Learning in Learning to Spell: The Roles of Semantics and Type of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Gene

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relevance of type of practice and presence of semantic representation for orthographic learning in learning to spell. A total of 36 students in Grade 2 (mean age = 7 years 10 months) were exposed to 10 novel nonwords, 5 of which were paired with semantic information. Half of the participants practiced reading these new…

  16. Beyond Language Orders: Orthographic Processing and Word Reading in Spanish-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, S. Helene; Chen, Xi; Luo, Yang; Ramirez, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of an empirical test of the hypothesis that transfer of orthographic processing to reading occurs when the scripts under acquisition are written with the same unit (specifically, the same alphabet). We tested 97 Spanish-English bilingual children in Grades 4 and 7. We measured mother's education level, verbal and nonverbal…

  17. Learning the Phonological Forms of New Words: Effects of Orthographic and Auditory Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Nicol, Janet; Barker, Jason

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the phonological and orthographic representations of new words for adult learners. Three groups of native English speakers learned a set of auditorily-presented pseudowords along with pictures indicating their "meanings". They were later tested on their memory of the words via an auditory word-picture…

  18. Electrophysiological evidence of inhibited orthographic regularity effect on the recognition of real Chinese characters

    PubMed Central

    He, Weiqi; Fan, Cong; Ren, Jie; Liu, Tiantian; Zhang, Mingming; Luo, Wenbo

    2016-01-01

    Orthographic regularity is important for processing Chinese characters. However, the issues how orthographic regularity influences the visual recognition of real Chinese characters and whether common processes related to the potential effect exist between successive (SUCC) and concurrent (CONC) conditions with asynchronous presentation of S1 and S2 are still unclear. In the current study, event-related potential (ERP) technique was adopted to investigate electrophysiological correlates of the orthographic regularity effect. Behaviorally, we found fewer errors and shorter response times for SUCC and CONC conditions compared to simultaneous (SIM) condition with synchronous presentation and disappearance of S1 and S2, which demonstrates similarities between SUCC and CONC and their differences from SIM. We found bilaterally smaller N170 responses for real Chinese characters preceded by false characters compared to real characters, demonstrating that orthographic regularity may inhibit the recognition of real Chinese characters. Additionally, the inhibition effect was present in SUCC and CONC rather than SIM, which shows that smaller N170 responses may have been due to asynchronous presentations of S1 and S2 and common inhibition processes in the SUCC and CONC conditions. PMID:27006190

  19. Orthographic and Phonological Contributions to Reading Development: Tracking Developmental Trajectories Using Masked Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Bertrand, Daisy; Lété, Bernard; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a variant of masked priming to track the development of 2 marker effects of orthographic and phonological processing from Grade 1 through Grade 5 in a cross-sectional study. Pseudohomophone (PsH) priming served as a marker for phonological processing, whereas transposed-letter (TL) priming was a marker for coarse-grained…

  20. Korean-English Biliteracy Acquisition: Cross-Language Phonological and Orthographic Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Min; Park, Yoonjung; Lee, Kyoung Rang

    2006-01-01

    Cross-language phonological and orthographic relationship in the biliteracy acquisition of children learning to read Korean and English was investigated in this study. Forty-five Korean-English bilingual children were tested in first-language (L1; Korean) and 2nd-language (L2; English) reading skills focusing on 2 reading processes--phonological…

  1. A Comparison of Two Approaches to Teaching Orthographic Projection at the College Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papp, Alexander George

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether or not the whole method or the part method of solving orthographic projection problems made any significant difference in student performance scores, and more specifically, to ascertain the relative effectiveness of these two approaches on seven criterion variables. The research design was…

  2. The Role of Phonological Awareness, Rapid Automatized Naming, and Orthographic Processing in Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Jason; McIntosh, David; Huffman, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of three subskills associated with word decoding. The skills utilized for this study were phonological, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and orthographic processing. To do this, six separate models were utilized to define different ways that these three subskills (represented as factors)…

  3. Orthographic Analogies and Early Reading: Evidence from a Multiple Clue Word Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Robert S.; Deault, Louise; Daki, Julia; Aouad, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments using a variation of the clue word analogy task (Goswami, 1986) explored whether children can make orthographic analogies when given multiple clue words, beyond the known effects of purely phonological activation. In Experiment 1, 42 children (mean age 6 years and 8 months) were first taught 3 "clue" words (e.g., "fail", "mail",…

  4. Investigating Orthographic and Semantic Aspects of Word Learning in Poor Comprehenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Jessie; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Nation, Kate

    2008-01-01

    This study compared orthographic and semantic aspects of word learning in children who differed in reading comprehension skill. Poor comprehenders and controls matched for age (9-10 years), nonverbal ability and decoding skill were trained to pronounce 20 visually presented nonwords, 10 in a consistent way and 10 in an inconsistent way. They then…

  5. The Effect of Orthographic Structure on the Perception of Letter Sequencies by Deaf and Hearing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Judith B.; Gillooly, William B.

    To investigate the development of the process whereby deaf Ss attend to the orthographic structure of written materials, the perception of words and letter sequences by 108 deaf and hearing Ss matched at three grade levels (grades 1, 2, and 4) of word reading was studied. Ss were shown three sets of structured/unstructured stimuli (such as "VUNS"…

  6. The write way to spell: printing vs. typing effects on orthographic learning

    PubMed Central

    Ouellette, Gene; Tims, Talisa

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has shown superior orthographic learning resulting from spelling practice relative to repeated reading. One mechanism proposed to underlie this advantage of spelling in establishing detailed orthographic representations in memory is the motoric component of the manual movements evoked in printing or writing. This study investigated this contention directly by testing the effects of typing vs. printing on the orthographic learning achieved through spelling practice, and further evaluated whether practice modality interacts with pre-existing individual characteristics. Forty students in grade 2 (mean age 7 years 5 months) were introduced to 10 novel non-words. Some of the students practiced spelling the items by printing, while the others practiced spelling them on a keyboard. Participants were tested for recognition and spelling of these items 1 and 7 days later. Results revealed high rates of orthographic learning with no main effects of practice modality, testing time, or post-test modality. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed an interaction between typing proficiency and practice modality, such that pre-existing keyboarding skills constrained or facilitated learning within the typing-practice group. A similar interaction was not found between printing skills and learning within the printing group. Results are discussed with reference to both prominent reading theory and educational applications. PMID:24592247

  7. Growth in Phonological, Orthographic, and Morphological Awareness in Grades 1 to 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.; Nagy, William; Carlisle, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Growth curve analyses showed that (a) word-level phonological and orthographic awareness show greatest growth during the primary grades but some additional growth thereafter, and (b) three kinds of morphological awareness show greatest growth in the first three or four grades but one--derivation--continues to show substantial growth after fourth…

  8. Independent Effects of Orthographic and Phonological Facilitation on Spoken Word Production in Mandarin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qingfang; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; Weekes, Brendan Stuart; Yang, Yufang

    2009-01-01

    A picture-word interference paradigm with visually presented distractors was used to investigate the independent effects of orthographic and phonological facilitation on Mandarin monosyllabic word production. Both the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) and the picture-word relationship along different lexical dimensions were varied. We observed a…

  9. Orthographic Effects in the Word Substitutions of Aphasic Patients: An Epidemic of Right Neglect Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Rita Sloan; Haendiges, Anne N.; Mitchum, Charlotte C.

    2005-01-01

    Aphasic patients with reading impairments frequently substitute incorrect real words for target words when reading aloud. Many of these word substitutions have substantial orthographic overlap with their targets and are classified as ''visual errors'' (i.e., sharing 50% of targets' letters in the same relative position). Fifteen chronic aphasic…

  10. Orthographic-Phonological Links in the Lexicon: When Lexical and Sublexical Information Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeesun; Taft, Marcus; Davis, Chris

    2004-01-01

    At what level of orthographic representation is phonology linked in the lexicon? Is it at the whole word level, the syllable level, letter level, etc.? This question can be addressed by comparing the two scripts used in Korean, logographic "hanja" and alphabetic/syllabic "hangul," on a task where judgments must be made about the phonology of a…

  11. Training in Mental Rotation and Spatial Visualization and Its Impact on Orthographic Drawing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samsudin, Khairulanuar; Rafi, Ahmad; Hanif, Abd Samad

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from an experimental study based on the pretest posttest research design that studied mental rotation (MR) and spatial visualization (SV) training outcomes and their impact on orthographic drawing performance. The sample of the study comprised 98 secondary school students (36 girls, 62 boys, Mage = 15.5 years, age…

  12. Orthographic Influence on the Phonological Development of L2 Learners of Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sooyeon

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the influence of L2 orthographic representation on the phonological development of American English speakers learning Korean, addressing specifically the syllabification and resyllabification of Korean intervocalic obstruents and the intervocalic liquid phoneme. Although Korean and English both employ alphabetic writing…

  13. Do Italian Dyslexic Children Use the Lexical Reading Route Efficiently? An Orthographic Judgment Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Angelelli, Paola; Notarnicola, Alessandra; Luzzatti, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    The study uses an orthographic judgment task to evaluate the efficiency of the lexical reading route in Italian dyslexic children. It has been suggested that Italian dyslexic children rely prevalently on the sub-word-level routine for reading. However, it is not easy to test the lexical reading route in Italian directly because of the lack of…

  14. Learning to Read in Spanish: Contributions of Phonological Awareness, Orthographic Coding, and Rapid Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Amanda; Christo, Catherine; Shriberg, David

    2013-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, many respective reading processes have been delineated, and much is now known about reading acquisition in children. Most of this research has been completed using English-dominant subjects. As such, the literature focuses on an opaque orthography and aspects of learning to read in this context. In this study, predictors…

  15. Influence of context-sensitive rules on the formation of orthographic representations in Spanish dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Avdyli, Rrezarta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Spanish-speaking developmental dyslexics are mainly characterized by poor reading fluency. One reason for this lack of fluency could be a difficulty in creating and accessing lexical representations, because, as the self-teaching theory suggest, it is necessary to develop orthographic representations to use direct reading (Share, 1995). It is possible that this difficulty to acquire orthographic representations can be specifically related to words that contain context-sensitive graphemes, since it has been demonstrated that reading is affected by this kind of graphemes (Barca et al., 2007). In order to test this possibility we compared a group of dyslexic children with a group of normal readers (9-13 years), in a task of repeated reading. Pseudo-words (half short and half long) with simple and contextual dependent rules were used. The length effect reduction on the reading speed, after repeated exposure, was considered an indicator of orthographic representation development, as the length effect is strong when reading unknown words, but absent when reading familiar words. The results show that dyslexic children have difficulties in developing orthographic representations, not only with context-sensitive graphemes, but also with simple graphemes. In contrast to the control children, in the dyslexic group differences between reading times for short and long stimuli remained without significant changes after six presentations. Besides, this happened with sensitive context rules and also with simple grapheme-phoneme conversion rules. On the other hand, response and articulation times were greatly affected by length in dyslexic children, indicating the use of serial reading. Results suggest that the problems related to storing orthographic representations could be caused by a learning deficit, independently of whether the word contained context-sensitive rules or not. PMID:25538659

  16. Influence of context-sensitive rules on the formation of orthographic representations in Spanish dyslexic children

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Avdyli, Rrezarta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Spanish-speaking developmental dyslexics are mainly characterized by poor reading fluency. One reason for this lack of fluency could be a difficulty in creating and accessing lexical representations, because, as the self-teaching theory suggest, it is necessary to develop orthographic representations to use direct reading (Share, 1995). It is possible that this difficulty to acquire orthographic representations can be specifically related to words that contain context-sensitive graphemes, since it has been demonstrated that reading is affected by this kind of graphemes (Barca et al., 2007). In order to test this possibility we compared a group of dyslexic children with a group of normal readers (9–13 years), in a task of repeated reading. Pseudo-words (half short and half long) with simple and contextual dependent rules were used. The length effect reduction on the reading speed, after repeated exposure, was considered an indicator of orthographic representation development, as the length effect is strong when reading unknown words, but absent when reading familiar words. The results show that dyslexic children have difficulties in developing orthographic representations, not only with context-sensitive graphemes, but also with simple graphemes. In contrast to the control children, in the dyslexic group differences between reading times for short and long stimuli remained without significant changes after six presentations. Besides, this happened with sensitive context rules and also with simple grapheme–phoneme conversion rules. On the other hand, response and articulation times were greatly affected by length in dyslexic children, indicating the use of serial reading. Results suggest that the problems related to storing orthographic representations could be caused by a learning deficit, independently of whether the word contained context-sensitive rules or not. PMID:25538659

  17. Piaget on Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moessinger, Pierre; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    1981-01-01

    Reviews and discusses Piaget's recent work on abstract reasoning. Piaget's distinction between empirical and reflective abstraction is presented; his hypotheses are considered to be metaphorical. (Author/DB)

  18. Ambiguity and Relatedness Effects in Semantic Tasks: Are They Due to Semantic Coding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hino, Yasushi; Pexman, Penny M.; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    According to parallel distributed processing (PDP) models of visual word recognition, the speed of semantic coding is modulated by the nature of the orthographic-to-semantic mappings. Consistent with this idea, an ambiguity disadvantage and a relatedness-of-meaning (ROM) advantage have been reported in some word recognition tasks in which semantic…

  19. Re(de)fining the orthographic neighborhood: the role of addition and deletion neighbors in lexical decision and reading.

    PubMed

    Davis, Colin J; Perea, Manuel; Acha, Joana

    2009-10-01

    The influence of addition and deletion neighbors on visual word identification was investigated in four experiments. Experiments 1 and 2 used Spanish stimuli. In Experiment 1, lexical decision latencies were slower and less accurate for words and nonwords with higher-frequency deletion neighbors (e.g., jugar in juzgar), relative to control stimuli. Experiment 2 showed a similar interference effect for words and nonwords with higher-frequency addition neighbors (e.g., conejo, which has the addition neighbor consejo), relative to control stimuli. Experiment 3 replicated this addition neighbor interference effect in a lexical decision experiment with English stimuli. Across all three experiments, interference effects were always evident for addition/deletion neighbors with word-outer overlap, usually present for those with word-initial overlap, but never present for those with word-final overlap. Experiment 4 replicated the addition/deletion neighbor inhibitory effects in a Spanish sentence reading task in which the participants' eye movements were monitored. These findings suggest that conventional orthographic neighborhood metrics should be redefined. In addition to its methodological implications, this conclusion has significant theoretical implications for input coding schemes and the mechanisms underlying word recognition. PMID:19803656

  20. Orthographic Reading Deficits in Dyslexic Japanese Children: Examining the Transposed-Letter Effect in the Color-Word Stroop Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shino; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Isomura, Tomoko; Masataka, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    In orthographic reading, the transposed-letter effect (TLE) is the perception of a transposed-letter position word such as "cholocate" as the correct word "chocolate." Although previous studies on dyslexic children using alphabetic languages have reported such orthographic reading deficits, the extent of orthographic reading impairment in dyslexic Japanese children has remained unknown. This study examined the TLE in dyslexic Japanese children using the color-word Stroop paradigm comprising congruent and incongruent Japanese hiragana words with correct and transposed-letter positions. We found that typically developed children exhibited Stroop effects in Japanese hiragana words with both correct and transposed-letter positions, thus indicating the presence of TLE. In contrast, dyslexic children indicated Stroop effects in correct letter positions in Japanese words but not in transposed, which indicated an absence of the TLE. These results suggest that dyslexic Japanese children, similar to dyslexic children using alphabetic languages, may also have a problem with orthographic reading. PMID:27303331

  1. Plot Scale Factor Models for Standard Orthographic Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osakue, Edward E.

    2007-01-01

    Geometric modeling provides graphic representations of real or abstract objects. Realistic representation requires three dimensional (3D) attributes since natural objects have three principal dimensions. CAD software gives the user the ability to construct realistic 3D models of objects, but often prints of these models must be generated on two…

  2. The influence of orthographic depth on reading networks in simultaneous biliterate children.

    PubMed

    Cherodath, S; Singh, N C

    2015-04-01

    Children in bilingual societies often simultaneously acquire reading skills in distinct writing systems that vary in consistency of sound-letter mapping or orthographic depth. To investigate its effect on cortical reading networks in children, we performed functional imaging on 34 simultaneous Hindi-English biliterate children as they read word and nonword stimuli. In contrast to Hindi which is consistent and relies on phonological assembly for both stimuli, English is inconsistent which necessitates lexical retrieval for words, but phonological assembly for nonwords. While children recruited a shared reading network for both languages, factorial analysis revealed stimulus effects (word/nonword) in bilateral frontal, parietal and left angular regions. Subsequent analyses showed that the stimulus effect was significant in English, which has a deep orthography, in comparison to Hindi, which is transparent. Our results provide novel evidence that orthographic depth shapes cortical reading processes during development. PMID:25747965

  3. The benefit of orthographic support for oral vocabulary learning in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mengoni, Silvana E; Nash, Hannah; Hulme, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome typically have weaknesses in oral language, but it has been suggested that this domain may benefit from learning to read. Amongst oral language skills, vocabulary is a relative strength, although there is some evidence of difficulties in learning the phonological form of spoken words. This study investigated the effect of orthographic support on spoken word learning with seventeen children with Down syndrome aged seven to sixteen years and twenty-seven typically developing children aged five to seven years matched for reading ability. Ten spoken nonwords were paired with novel pictures; for half the nonwords the written form was also present. The spoken word learning of both groups did not differ and benefited to the same extent from the presence of the written word. This suggests that compared to reading-matched typically developing children, children with Down syndrome are not specifically impaired in phonological learning and benefit equally from orthographic support. PMID:23217296

  4. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Papers abstracted represent those submitted to the distribution center at the 83rd American Society for Engineering Education Convention. Abstracts are grouped under headings corresponding to the main topic of the paper. (Editor/CP)

  5. Orthographic learning and self-teaching in a bilingual and biliterate context.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Mila; Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Share, David L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine self-teaching in the context of English as a foreign language literacy acquisition. Three groups comprising 88 sixth-grade children participated. The first group consisted of Russian-Hebrew-speaking bilinguals who had acquired basic reading skills in Russian as their first language (L1) and literacy and who were literate in Hebrew as a second language. The second group consisted of Russian-Hebrew-speaking bilinguals who had not learned to read in their native Russian but had acquired Hebrew as their first literate language. The third group consisted of Hebrew-speaking monolingual children who were literate in Hebrew. This design facilitated examining the effect of biliteracy and bilingualism on basic English reading skills. We hypothesized that due to the proximity between the Russian and English orthographies as opposed to the Hebrew-English "distance," the Russian-Hebrew-speaking biliterate group who acquired basic reading and spelling skills in L1 Russian would have superior self-teaching in English as opposed to the two other groups. The standard two-session self-teaching paradigm was employed with naming (speed and accuracy) and orthographic choice as posttest measures of orthographic learning. Results showed that after 4 years of English instruction, all three groups showed evidence of self-teaching on naming speed and orthographic recognition. The Russian-Hebrew-speaking biliterate group, moreover, showed a partial advantage over the comparison groups for initial decoding of target pseudowords and clear-cut superiority for measures of later orthographic learning, thereby showing self-teaching while supporting the script dependence hypothesis. PMID:24140992

  6. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  7. Differentiation of perceptual and semantic subsequent memory effects using an orthographic paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Michael C C; Liu, Karen P Y; Ting, Kin Hung; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2012-11-27

    This study aimed to differentiate perceptual and semantic encoding processes using subsequent memory effects (SMEs) elicited by the recognition of orthographs of single Chinese characters. Participants studied a series of Chinese characters perceptually (by inspecting orthographic components) or semantically (by determining the object making sounds), and then made studied or unstudied judgments during the recognition phase. Recognition performance in terms of d-prime measure in the semantic condition was higher, though not significant, than that of the perceptual condition. The between perceptual-semantic condition differences in SMEs at P550 and late positive component latencies (700-1000ms) were not significant in the frontal area. An additional analysis identified larger SME in the semantic condition during 600-1000ms in the frontal pole regions. These results indicate that coordination and incorporation of orthographic information into mental representation is essential to both task conditions. The differentiation was also revealed in earlier SMEs (perceptual>semantic) at N3 (240-360ms) latency, which is a novel finding. The left-distributed N3 was interpreted as more efficient processing of meaning with semantically learned characters. Frontal pole SMEs indicated strategic processing by executive functions, which would further enhance memory. PMID:23063888

  8. Orthographic processing in balanced bilingual children: Cross-language evidence from cognates and false friends.

    PubMed

    Schröter, Pauline; Schroeder, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether beginning bilingual readers activate orthographic as well as semantic representations in both of their languages while reading in one of them. Balanced bilingual third graders who were learning to read concurrently in German and English completed two lexical decision tasks, one in each language, including cognates, false friends, and matched control words. Results showed a processing advantage for cognates over controls in both languages, indicating that the facilitation effect is driven by the level of balanced language proficiency rather than by experience with print. Except for lower accuracy scores in German, false friends did not differ in their processing from controls, pointing to the presence of semantic-to-orthographic feedback already in the beginning of reading acquisition. Confirming assumptions by the bilingual interactive activation plus (BIA+) model as well as the revised hierarchical model (RHM), findings suggest that in their strategy to resolve orthographic ambiguity, balanced bilingual children are more comparable to bilingual adults than to child second-language (L2) learners. PMID:26456673

  9. Reading and spelling acquisition in French: the role of phonological mediation and orthographic factors.

    PubMed

    Sprenger-Charolles, L; Siegel, L S; Bonnet, P

    1998-02-01

    The objective of this research was to study the development of reading and spelling in French. The two main hypotheses were that (1) phonological mediation is the primary process in the acquisition of these skills and that (2) the use of phonological mediation may allow the construction of the orthographic lexicon. In January and June, first graders (n = 57) were required to read and spell items designed to assess the variables of regularity, graphemic complexity, frequency, lexicality and analogy. The findings of the January session partially corroborated the first hypothesis as a regularity effect, but no frequency effect and no word superiority, were found both in reading and spelling. The main contradictory finding was the presence, in early reading only, of a facilitative effect of analogy. The changes in the frequency and the lexicality effects between the two sessions in reading and in spelling indicated that the children were able to rapidly construct an orthographic lexicon. However, this procedure did not entirely replace phonological mediation since a regularity effect and regularization errors were observed and increased between sessions. The second hypothesis was supported as relationships were found to exist between early phonological skills and subsequent orthographic skills. Finally, we observed that French children were using graphemes (not only letters), in the early stage of reading, and, to a lesser extent, in the early stage of spelling. The findings are discussed in the context of developmental models of reading and spelling. PMID:9503649

  10. Growth in phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness in grades 1 to 6.

    PubMed

    Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D; Nagy, William; Carlisle, Joanne

    2010-04-01

    Growth curve analyses showed that (a) word-level phonological and orthographic awareness show greatest growth during the primary grades but some additional growth thereafter, and (b) three kinds of morphological awareness show greatest growth in the first three or four grades but one-derivation-continues to show substantial growth after fourth grade. Implications of the findings for the role of three kinds of linguistic awareness-phonological, orthographic, and morphological-in learning to read and spell words are discussed. A case is made that phonological awareness, while necessary, is not sufficient for learning to read English-all three kinds of linguistic awareness that are growing during the primary grades need to be coordinated and applied to literacy learning. This finding and a review of the research on linguistic awareness support the conclusion that the recommendations of the National Reading Panel need to be amended so that the research evidence supporting the importance of both orthographic and morphological awareness, and not only phonological awareness, is acknowledged. Moreover, evidence-based strategies for teaching each of these kinds of linguistic awareness and their interrelationships need to be disseminated to educational practitioners. PMID:19826956

  11. Abstraction and Problem Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunchiglia, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are

  12. Abstraction in mathematics.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2003-07-29

    Some current interpretations of abstraction in mathematical settings are examined from different perspectives, including history and learning. It is argued that abstraction is a complex concept and that it cannot be reduced to generalization or decontextualization only. In particular, the links between abstraction processes and the emergence of new objects are shown. The role that representations have in abstraction is discussed, taking into account both the historical and the educational perspectives. As languages play a major role in mathematics, some ideas from functional linguistics are applied to explain to what extent mathematical notations are to be considered abstract. Finally, abstraction is examined from the perspective of mathematics education, to show that the teaching ideas resulting from one-dimensional interpretations of abstraction have proved utterly unsuccessful. PMID:12903658

  13. Loving Those Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2004-01-01

    The author describes a lesson she did on abstract art with her high school art classes. She passed out a required step-by-step outline of the project process. She asked each of them to look at abstract art. They were to list five or six abstract artists they thought were interesting, narrow their list down to the one most personally intriguing,…

  14. Influence of lexical status and orthographic similarity on the multi-voxel response of the Visual Word Form Area

    PubMed Central

    Baeck, Annelies; Kravitz, Dwight

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that a region in the left fusiform gyrus, often referred to as the “visual word form area” (VWFA), is responsive to written words, but the precise functional role of VWFA remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the influence of orthographic similarity, and lexical factors on the multivoxel response patterns to written stimuli. Using high-resolution fMRI at 7 Tesla, we compared the organization of visual word representations in VWFA to the organization in early visual cortex and a language region in the superior temporal gyrus. Sets of four letter words and pseudowords were presented, in which orthographic similarity was parametrically manipulated. We found that during a lexical decision task VWFA is responsive to the lexical status of a stimulus, but both real words and pseudowords were further processed in terms of orthographic similarity. In contrast, early visual cortex was only responsive to the visual aspects of the stimuli and in the left superior temporal gyrus there was an interaction between lexical status and orthography such that only real words were processed in terms of orthographic similarity. These findings indicate that VWFA represents the word/non-word status of letter strings as well as their orthographic similarity. PMID:25665965

  15. Phonological and orthographic cues enhance the processing of inflectional morphology. ERP evidence from L1 and L2 French

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Ortiz, Haydee; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of two event-related potential (ERP) experiments in which Spanish learners of French and native French controls show graded sensitivity to verbal inflectional errors as a function of the presence of orthographic and/or phonological cues when reading silently in French. In both experiments, verbal agreement was manipulated in sentential context such that subject verb agreement was either correct, ill-formed and orally realized, involving both orthographic and phonological cues, or ill-formed and silent which involved only orthographic cues. The results of both experiments revealed more robust ERP responses to orally realized than to silent inflectional errors. This was true for L2 learners as well as native controls, although the effect in the learner group was reduced in comparison to the native group. In addition, the combined influence of phonological and orthographic cues led to the largest differences between syntactic/phonological conditions. Overall, the results suggest that the presence of phonological cues may enhance L2 readers’ sensitivity to morphology but that such may appear in L2 processing only when sufficient proficiency is attained. Moreover, both orthographic and phonological cues are used when available. PMID:25165460

  16. The effect of orthographic uniqueness and deviation points on lexical decisions: evidence from unilateral and bilateral-redundant presentations.

    PubMed

    Lindell, Annukka K; Nicholls, Michael E R; Castles, Anne E

    2003-02-01

    Words with an early or late orthographic uniqueness point and nonwords with an early or late orthographic deviation point were presented to the left, right, or both visual fields simultaneously. In Experiment 1, 20 participants made lexical decision judgements to horizontal stimulus presentations. In Experiment 2, a further 20 participants completed the task using vertical presentations to control for attentional biases. Consistent with previous research, words with earlier orthographic uniqueness points prompted faster responses across visual fields, regardless of stimulus orientation. Although research has suggested that the left hemisphere's superiority for language processing stems from a comparatively parallel processing strategy, with the right hemisphere reliant upon a serial mechanism, left and right visual field presentations were not differentially affected by orthographic uniqueness point. This suggests that differential sequential effects previously reported result during processes other than retrieval from the lexicon. The overall right visual field advantage observed using horizontal presentations disappeared when stimuli were presented vertically. Contrary to expectations, there was a facilitatory effect of late orthographic deviation point for horizontal nonword presentations. Overall, the results were interpreted as being consistent with predictions of a cohort model of word recognition, and they highlighted the effect of stimulus orientation on left and right hemisphere word recognition. PMID:12613565

  17. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  18. Leadership Abstracts, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 9 for 1996 includes the following 12 abstracts: (1) "Tech-Prep + School-To-Work: Working Together To Foster Educational Reform," (Roderick F. Beaumont); (2)…

  19. Community Development Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This volume of 1,108 abstracts summarizes the majority of important works on community development during the last ten years. Part I contains abstracts of periodical literature and is classified into 19 sections, including general history, communications, community and area studies, decision-making, leadership, migration and settlement, social…

  20. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  1. Has Abstractness Been Resolved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omoush, Ahmad

    1989-01-01

    A discussion focusing on the abstractness of analysis in phonology, debated since the 1960s, describes the issue, reviews the literature on the subject, cites specific natural language examples, and examines the extent to which the issue has been resolved. An underlying representation is said to be abstract if it is different from the derived one,…

  2. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  3. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  4. Journalism Abstracts. Vol. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovich, Mark N., Ed.

    This book, the fifteenth volume of an annual publication, contains 373 abstracts of 52 doctoral and 321 master's theses from 50 colleges and universities. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by author, with the doctoral dissertations appearing first. These cover such topics as advertising, audience analysis, content analysis of news issues…

  5. Knowledge-Based Abstracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of automatic abstracting of technical papers focuses on a knowledge-based method that uses two sets of rules. Topics discussed include anaphora; text structure and discourse; abstracting techniques, including the keyword method and the indicator phrase method; and tools for text skimming. (27 references) (LRW)

  6. Leadership Abstracts, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, and teaching in community colleges. The 12 abstracts for Volume 8, 1995, are: (1) "Redesigning the System To Meet the Workforce Training Needs of the Nation," by Larry Warford; (2) "The College President, the Board, and the Board Chair: A…

  7. Mathematical Abstraction through Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih; Roper, Tom

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the role of scaffolding in the process of abstraction. An activity-theoretic approach to abstraction in context is taken. This examination is carried out with reference to verbal protocols of two 17 year-old students working together on a task connected to sketching the graph of |f|x|)|. Examination of the data suggests that…

  8. Learning about Print: The Development of Orthographic Processing and Its Relationship to Word Reading in First Grade Children in French Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, S. Hélène; Commissaire, Eva; Chen, Xi; Pasquarella, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    As children learn to read, they become sensitive to the patterns that exist in the ways in which their language(s) are represented in print. This skill is known as orthographic processing. We examined the nature of orthographic processing in English and French for children in the first grade of a French immersion program, and the relationship…

  9. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  10. Abstract coherent categories.

    PubMed

    Rehder, B; Ross, B H

    2001-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the importance of the knowledge that interrelates features in people's mental representation of categories and that makes our conception of categories coherent. This article focuses on abstract coherent categories, coherent categories that are also abstract because they are defined by relations independently of any features. Four experiments demonstrate that abstract coherent categories are learned more easily than control categories with identical features and statistical structure, and also that participants induced an abstract representation of the category by granting category membership to exemplars with completely novel features. The authors argue that the human conceptual system is heavily populated with abstract coherent concepts, including conceptions of social groups, societal institutions, legal, political, and military scenarios, and many superordinate categories, such as classes of natural kinds. PMID:11550753