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Sample records for abundance carbon isotope

  1. Carbonate abundances and isotopic compositions in chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, C. M. O'd.; Bowden, R.; Fogel, M. L.; Howard, K. T.

    2015-04-01

    We report the bulk C abundances, and C and O isotopic compositions of carbonates in 64 CM chondrites, 14 CR chondrites, 2 CI chondrites, LEW 85332 (C2), Kaba (CV3), and Semarkona (LL3.0). For the unheated CMs, the total ranges of carbonate isotopic compositions are δ13C ≈ 25-75‰ and δ18O ≈ 15-35‰, and bulk carbonate C contents range from 0.03 to 0.60 wt%. There is no simple correlation between carbonate abundance and isotopic composition, or between either of these parameters and the extent of alteration. Unless accretion was very heterogeneous, the uncorrelated variations in extent of alteration and carbonate abundance suggests that there was a period of open system behavior in the CM parent body, probably prior to or at the start of aqueous alteration. Most of the ranges in CM carbonate isotopic compositions can be explained by their formation at different temperatures (0-130 °C) from a single fluid in which the carbonate O isotopes were controlled by equilibrium with water (δ18O ≈ 5‰) and the C isotopes were controlled by equilibrium with CO and/or CH4 (δ13C ≈ -33‰ or -20‰ for CO- or CH4-dominated systems, respectively). However, carbonate formation would have to have been inefficient, otherwise carbonate compositions would have resembled those of the starting fluid. A quite similar fluid composition (δ18O ≈ -5.5‰, and δ13C ≈ -31‰ or -17‰ for CO- or CH4-dominated systems, respectively) can explain the carbonate compositions of the CIs, although the formation temperatures would have been lower (~10-40 °C) and the relative abundances of calcite and dolomite may play a more important role in determining bulk carbonate compositions than in the CMs. The CR carbonates exhibit a similar range of O isotopes, but an almost bimodal distribution of C isotopes between more (δ13C ≈ 65-80‰) and less altered samples (δ13C ≈ 30-40‰). This bimodality can still be explained by precipitation from fluids with the same isotopic

  2. Abundances in red giant stars - Carbon and oxygen isotopes in carbon-rich molecular envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wannier, P. G.; Sahai, R.

    1987-01-01

    Millimeter-wave observations have been made of isotopically substituted CO toward the envelopes of 11 carbon-rich stars. In every case, C-13O was detected and model calculations were used to estimate the C-12/C-13 abundance ratio. C-17O was detected toward three, and possibly four, envelopes, with sensitive upper limits for two others. The CO-18 variant was detected in two envelopes. New results include determinations of oxygen isotopic ratios in the two carbon-rich protoplanetary nebulae CRL 26688 and CRL 618. As with other classes of red giant stars, the carbon-rich giants seem to be significantly, though variably, enriched in O-17. These results, in combination with observations in interstellar molecular clouds, indicate that current knowledge of stellar production of the CNO nuclides is far from satisfactory.

  3. Natural abundances of carbon isotopes in acetate from a coastal marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, N. E.; Martens, C. S.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the natural abundances of carbon isotopes were made in acetate samples isolated from the anoxic marine sediment of Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina. The typical value of the total acetate carbon isotope ratio (delta 13C) was -16.1 +/- 0.2 per mil. The methyl and carboxyl groups were determined to be -26.4 +/- 0.3 and -6.0 +/- 0.3 per mil, respectively, for one sample. The isotopic composition of the acetate is thought to have resulted from isotopic discriminations that occurred during the cycling of that molecule. Measurements of this type, which have not been made previously in the natural environment, may provide information about the dominant microbial pathways in anoxic sediments as well as the processes that influence the carbon isotopic composition of biogenic methane from many sources.

  4. Carbon and nitrogen biogeochemistry in the ocean: A study using stable isotope natural abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rau, G. H.; Desmarais, David J.

    1985-01-01

    Determining the biogeochemical pathways traveled by carbon and nitrogen in the ocean is fundamental to the understanding of how the ocean participates in the cycling of these elements within the biosphere. Because biological production, metabolism, and respiration can significantly alter the natural abundance of C-13 and N-15, these abundances can provide important information about the nature of these biological processes and their variability in the marine environment. The research initially seeks to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of stable isotope abundances in organic matter, and to relate these abundances to C and N biogeochemical processes within selected areas of the northeastern Pacific Ocean.

  5. Investigating microbial carbon cycling using natural abundance isotope analysis of PLFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, G. G.; Brady, A.; Cowie, B.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding microbial carbon sources and cycling is fundamental to our conceptualization of microbial ecosystems and their role in biogeochemical cycling in natural systems. Achieving this understanding requires application of a wide range of approaches. Natural abundance isotope analysis of individual compounds, particularly cellular components such as Phospholipids Fatty Acids (PLFA) can provide insights into the carbon sources and metabolic activities of the in situ microbial community from environmental samples. This is primarily because specific PLFA can be well resolved by gas chromatography even from complex matrices where confounding biological/organic compound abound. These PLFA can then be attributed to the viable microbial community, in some cases to specific components of this community and due to characteristic biosynthetic fractionations of stable isotope ratios, δ13C analysis of PLFA can: differentiate isotopically distinct primary carbon sources of heterotrophic communities; identify isotopic patterns characteristic of autotrophic versus heterotrophic processes; and elucidate microbial biosynthetic pathways. In cases where there δ13C cannot provide resolution of carbon sources, new approaches in Δ14C of PLFA can be applied. The vast range in Δ14C of ancient and modern carbon provides an easily traceable signal that can differentiate uptake and utilization of these carbon sources. This is particularly useful in cases such as contaminated sites where petroleum based contamination has occurred, or in natural systems where microbial communities may be utilizing geologic versus recently photosynthetically fixed carbon. This talk will present several examples demonstrating the utility of this approach.

  6. Carbon Isotope Abundances in Lichen Deposits Might Reflect Past Moisture Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russ, J.; Beazley, M. J.; Rickman, R. D.; Ingram, D. K.; Boutton, T. W.

    2002-12-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of lichens is governed primarily by moisture conditions. Lichens lack water transport systems that are characteristic of higher plants; therefore, maximum productivity occurs during periods when an equilibrium has been established between the water content of the organism and the environment. The amount of water required to initiate and maintain photosynthesis influences the carbon isotope content due to fractionation caused by diffusion of carbon dioxide through the water filled membranes, as well as morphological changes in the lichen thallus. Thus, lichens growing in relatively wet conditions have a lower carbon 13 content than those growing in drier conditions. We suggest that the carbon isotope composition of stable lichen byproducts, such as calcium oxalate that is common on rock surfaces, can be used to predict past fluctuations in moisture conditions. We are exploring this hypothesis via studies of living, oxalate producing lichens, and calcium oxalate deposits from on rock surfaces in the Lower Pecos River region. The results of these studies demonstrate that (1) lichens growing on limestone do not incorporate carbon from carbonate substrates; thus ambient carbon dioxide is the dominant, if not sole source of metabolized carbon; and (2) calcium oxalate produced by lichens is consistently enriched in carbon 13 by 6.5 permil compared to the lichen tissues. We also present here a plot of oxalate carbon 14 ages versus the stable carbon isotope ratios from analyses of 19 calcium oxalate rock coating samples from the Lower Pecos region. This graph shows a general increase in the oxalate carbon 13 content through the middle Holocene that peaks about 3000 years ago, followed by a rapid decrease in the abundance of the heavier isotope. We suggest that the increased carbon 13 content corresponds to a decrease in the amount of moisture transported to the region during this period, a trend that rapidly reversed about 3000 years

  7. Abundances in red giant stars - Nitrogen isotopes in carbon-rich molecular envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wannier, P. G.; Andersson, B.-G.; Olofsson, H.; Ukita, N.; Young, K.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of millimeter- and submillimeter-wave observations of HCN and HCCCN that were made of the circmustellar envelopes of eight carbon stars, including the two protoplanetary nebulae CRL 618 and CRL 2688. The observations yield a measure of the double ratio (N-14)(C-13)/(N-15)(C-12). Measured C-12/C-13 ratios are used to estimate the N-14/N-15 abundance ratio, with the resulting lower limits in all eight envelopes and possible direct determinations in two envelopes. The two determinations and four of the remaining six lower limits are found to be in excess of the terrestrial value of N-14/N-15 = 272, indicating an evolution of the nitrogen isotope ratio, which is consistent with stellar CNO processing. Observations of thermal SiO (v = 0, J = 2-1) emission show that the Si-29/Si-28 ratio can be determined in carbon stars, and further observations are indicated.

  8. C, N, O abundances and carbon isotope ratios in evolved stars of the open clusters Collinder 261 and NGC 6253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolaitis, Š.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Gratton, R.; Bragaglia, A.; Carretta, E.

    2012-05-01

    Context. Investigations of abundances of carbon and nitrogen in the atmospheres of evolved stars of open clusters may provide comprehensive information on chemical composition changes caused by stellar evolution. Aims: Our main aim is to increase the number of open clusters with determined carbon-to nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios. Methods: High-resolution spectra were analysed using a differential model atmosphere method. Abundances of carbon were derived using the C2 Swan (0, 1) band head at 5635.5 Å (FEROS spectra) and the C2 Swan (1, 0) band head at 4737 Å (UVES spectra). The wavelength interval 7980-8130 Å, with strong CN features was analysed to determine nitrogen abundances and 12C/13C isotope ratios. The oxygen abundances were determined from the [O i] line at 6300 Å. Results: The average value of 12C/13C isotope ratios of Cr 261 is equal to 18 ± 2 in four giants and to 12 ± 1 in two clump stars; it is equal to 16 ± 1 in four clump stars of the open cluster NGC 6253. The mean C/N ratios in Cr 261 and NGC 6253 are equal to 1.67 ± 0.06 and 1.37 ± 0.09, respectively. Conclusions: The 12C/13C and C/N values in Cr 261 and NGC 6253 within limits of uncertainties agree with the theoretical model of thermohaline-induced mixing as well as with the cool-bottom processing model. Based on observations collected at ESO telescopes under programmes 65.N-0286, 169.D-0473.

  9. Carbon, nitrogen and sulfur in lunar fines 15012 and 15013 - Abundances, distributions and isotopic compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S.; Lawless, J.; Romiez, M.; Kaplan, I. R.; Petrowski, C.; Sakai, H.; Smith, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Lunar fines 15012,16 and 15013,3 were analyzed by stepwise pyrolysis and acid hydrolysis as well as complete combustion in oxygen to determine carbon, nitrogen and sulfur. In addition, hydrogen was analysed during pyrolysis as well as during hydrolysis. By comparison of the distribution frequencies of C, N, S, H2 and Fe with He-4, considered to have arisen from solar wind contribution, it is concluded that nitrogen and hydrogen have largely a solar origin. Carbon has a significant solar contribution, and metallic iron may have resulted from solar wind interaction with ferrous minerals on the lunar surface. Sulfur probably has a predominantly lunar origin. There is no direct evidence for meteorotic contribution to these samples. Solar wind interaction also has a marked effect on the stable isotope distribution of C-13/C-12, N-15/N-14, and S-34/S-32. In all cases, the heavy isotope was most enriched in the smallest grain-size fraction.

  10. Natural-abundance stable carbon isotopes of small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) from Guaymas Basin (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, B. J.; Mendlovitz, H.; Albert, D.; Teske, A. P.

    2012-12-01

    Small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) is a phylogenetically informative molecule found in all species. Because it is poorly preserved in most environments, it is a useful marker for active microbial populations. We are using the natural-abundance stable carbon isotopic composition of specific microbial groups to help identify the carbon substrates contributing to microbial biomass in a variety of marine environments. At Guaymas Basin, hydrothermal fluids interact with abundant sedimentary organic carbon to produce natural gas and petroleum. Where this reaches the sediment surface, it can support dense patches of seafloor life, including Beggiatoa mats. We report here on the stable carbon isotopic composition of SSU rRNA from a Beggiatoa mat transect, a cold background site, a warm site with high oil concentration, and a second Beggiatoa mat. The central part of the transect mat overlay the steepest temperature gradient, and was visually dominated by orange Beggiatoa. This was fringed by white Beggiatoa mat and bare, but still warm, sediment. Methane concentrations were saturating beneath the orange and white mats and at the oily site, lower beneath bare sediment, and below detection at the background site. Our initial hypotheses were that rRNA isotopic composition would be strongly influenced by methane supply, and that archaeal rRNA might be lighter than bacterial due to contributions from methanogens and anaerobic methane oxidizers. We used biotin-labeled oligonucleotides to capture Bacterial and Archaeal SSU rRNA for isotopic determination. Background-site rRNA was isotopically heaviest, and bacterial RNA from below 2 cm at the oily site was lightest, consistent with control by methane. Within the transect mat, however, the pattern was more complicated; at some sediment depths, rRNA from the mat periphery was isotopically lightest. Part of this may be due to the spatially and temporally variable paths followed by hydrothermal fluid, which can include horizontal

  11. Temporal variation in mycorrhizal diversity and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope abundance in the wintergreen meadow orchid Anacamptis morio.

    PubMed

    Ercole, Enrico; Adamo, Martino; Rodda, Michele; Gebauer, Gerhard; Girlanda, Mariangela; Perotto, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    Many adult orchids, especially photoautotrophic species, associate with a diverse range of mycorrhizal fungi, but little is known about the temporal changes that might occur in the diversity and functioning of orchid mycorrhiza during vegetative and reproductive plant growth. Temporal variations in the spectrum of mycorrhizal fungi and in stable isotope natural abundance were investigated in adult plants of Anacamptis morio, a wintergreen meadow orchid. Anacamptis morio associated with mycorrhizal fungi belonging to Tulasnella, Ceratobasidium and a clade of Pezizaceae (Ascomycetes). When a complete growing season was investigated, multivariate analyses indicated significant differences in the mycorrhizal fungal community. Among fungi identified from manually isolated pelotons, Tulasnella was more common in autumn and winter, the pezizacean clade was very frequent in spring, and Ceratobasidium was more frequent in summer. By contrast, relatively small variations were found in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope natural abundance, A. morio samples showing similar (15)N enrichment and (13)C depletion at the different sampling times. These observations suggest that, irrespective of differences in the seasonal environmental conditions, the plant phenological stages and the associated fungi, the isotopic content in mycorrhizal A. morio remains fairly constant over time. PMID:25382295

  12. Tracing the source of cooking oils with an integrated approach of using stable carbon isotope and fatty acid abundance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiguo; Yang, Hong; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Jinzhao

    2012-08-15

    We report a new approach to identify swill-cooked oils that are recycled from tainted food and livestock waste from commercial vegetable and animal oils by means of carbon isotope values and relative abundance of fatty acids. We test this method using 40 cooking oil samples of different types with known sources. We found significant differences in both total organic carbon isotope as well as compound-specific isotope values and fatty acid C(14)/C(18) ratios between commercial vegetable oils refined from C(3) plants (from -35.7 to -27.0‰ and from 0 to 0.15) and animal oils (from -28.3 to -14.3‰ and from 0.1 to 0.6). Tested swill-cooked oils, which were generally refined by mixing with animal waste illegally, fall into a narrow δ(13)C/fatty acid ratio distribution: from -25.9 to -24.1‰ and from 0.1 to 0.2. Our data demonstrate that the index of a cross-plotting between fatty acid δ(13)C values and C(14)/C(18) ratios can be used to distinguish clean commercial cooking oils from illegal swill-cooked oils. PMID:22813234

  13. Determination of site-specific carbon isotope ratios at natural abundance by carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Caer, V; Trierweiler, M; Martin, G J; Martin, M L

    1991-10-15

    Site-specific natural isotope fractionation of hydrogen studied by deuterium NMR (SNIF-NMR) spectroscopy is a powerful source of information on hydrogen pathways occurring in biosyntheses in natural conditions. The potential of the carbon counterpart of this method has been investigated and compared. Three typical molecular species, ethanol, acetic acid, and vanillin, have been considered. Taking into account the requirements of quantitative 13C NMR, appropriate experimental procedures have been defined and the repeatability and reproducibility of the isotope ratio determinations have been checked in different conditions. It is shown that the carbon version of the SNIF-NMR method is capable of detecting small differences in the carbon-13 content of the ethyl fragment of ethanols from different botanical or synthetic origins. These results are in agreement with mass spectrometry determinations of the overall carbon isotope ratios. Deviations with respect to a statistical distribution of 13C have been detected in the case of acetic acid and vanillin. However, since the method is very sensitive to several kinds of systematic error, only a relative significance can be attached at present to the internal parameters directly accessible. Isotope dilution experiments have also been carried out in order to check the consistency of the results. In the present state of experimental accuracy, the 13C NMR method is of more limited potential than 2H SNIF-NMR spectroscopy. However it may provide complementary information. Moreover it is particularly efficient for detecting and quantifying adulterations that aim to mimic the overall carbon-13 content of a natural compound by adding a selectivity enriched species to a less expensive substrate from a different origin. PMID:1759714

  14. Millimeter-scale variations of stable isotope abundances in carbonates from banded iron-formations in the Hamersley Group of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Baur, M E; Hayes, J M; Studley, S A; Walter, M R

    1985-01-01

    Several diamond drill cores from formations within the Hamersley Group of Western Australia have been studied for evidence of short-range variations in the isotopic compositions of the carbonates. For a set of 32 adjacent microbands analyzed in a specimen from the Marra Mamba Iron Formation, carbon isotope compositions of individual microbands ranged from -2.8 to -19.8 per mil compared to PDB and oxygen isotope compositions ranged from 10.2 to 20.8 per mil compared to SMOW. A pattern of alternating abundances was present, with the average isotopic contrasts between adjacent microbands being 3.0 per mil for carbon and 3.1 per mil for oxygen. Similar results were obtained for a suite of 34 microbands (in four groups) from the Bruno's Band unit of the Mount Sylvia Formation. Difficulties were experienced in preparing samples of single microbands from the Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron Formation, but overall isotopic compositions were in good agreement with values reported by previous authors. Chemical analyses showed that isotopically light carbon and oxygen were correlated with increased concentrations of iron. The preservation of these millimeter-scale variations in isotopic abundances is interpreted as inconsistent with a metamorphic origin for the isotopically light carbon in the BIF carbonates. A biological origin is favored for the correlated variations in 13C and Fe, and it is suggested that the 13C-depleted carbonates may derive either from fermentative metabolism or from anaerobic respiration. A model is presented in which these processes occur near the sediment-water interface and are coupled with an initial oxidative precipitation of the iron. PMID:11539027

  15. Millimeter-scale variations of stable isotope abundances in carbonates from banded iron-formations in the Hamersley Group of Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baur, M. E.; Hayes, J. M.; Studley, S. A.; Walter, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    Several diamond drill cores from formations within the Hamersley Group of Western Australia have been studied for evidence of short-range variations in the isotopic compositions of the carbonates. For a set of 32 adjacent microbands analyzed in a specimen from the Marra Mamba Iron Formation, carbon isotope compositions of individual microbands ranged from -2.8 to -19.8 per mil compared to PDB and oxygen isotope compositions ranged from 10.2 to 20.8 per mil compared to SMOW. A pattern of alternating abundances was present, with the average isotopic contrasts between adjacent microbands being 3.0 per mil for carbon and 3.1 per mil for oxygen. Similar results were obtained for a suite of 34 microbands (in four groups) from the Bruno's Band unit of the Mount Sylvia Formation. Difficulties were experienced in preparing samples of single microbands from the Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron Formation, but overall isotopic compositions were in good agreement with values reported by previous authors. Chemical analyses showed that isotopically light carbon and oxygen were correlated with increased concentrations of iron. The preservation of these millimeter-scale variations in isotopic abundances is interpreted as inconsistent with a metamorphic origin for the isotopically light carbon in the BIF carbonates. A biological origin is favored for the correlated variations in 13C and Fe, and it is suggested that the 13C-depleted carbonates may derive either from fermentative metabolism or from anaerobic respiration. A model is presented in which these processes occur near the sediment-water interface and are coupled with an initial oxidative precipitation of the iron.

  16. Evaluating microbial carbon sources in Athabasca oil sands tailings ponds using natural abundance stable and radiocarbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahad, J. M.; Pakdel, H.

    2013-12-01

    Natural abundance stable (δ13C) and radiocarbon (Δ14C) isotopes of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were used to evaluate the carbon sources utilized by the active microbial populations in surface sediments from Athabasca oil sands tailings ponds. The absence of algal-specific PLFAs at three of the four sites investigated, in conjunction with δ13C signatures for PLFAs that were generally within ~3‰ of that reported for oil sands bitumen (~ -30‰), indicated that the microbial communities growing on petroleum constituents were dominated by aerobic heterotrophs. The Δ14C values of PLFAs ranged from -906 to -586‰ and pointed to a significant uptake of fossil carbon (up to ~90% of microbial carbon derived from petroleum), particularly in PLFAs (e.g., cy17:0 and cy19:0) often associated with petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. The comparatively higher levels of 14C in other, less specific PLFAs (e.g., 16:0) indicated the preferential uptake of younger organic matter by the general microbial population (~50-80% of microbial carbon derived from petroleum). Since the main carbon pools in tailings sediment were essentially 'radiocarbon dead' (i.e., no detectable 14C), the principal source for this modern carbon is considered to be the Athabasca River, which provides the bulk of the water used in the bitumen extraction process. The preferential uptake of the minor amount of young and presumably more biodegradable material present in systems otherwise dominated by recalcitrant petroleum constituents has important implications for remediation strategies. On the one hand, it implies that mining-related organic contaminants could persist in the environment long after tailings pond reclamation has begun. Alternatively, it may be that the young, labile organic matter provided by the Athabasca River plays an important role in stimulating or supporting the microbial utilization of petroleum carbon in oil sands tailings ponds via co-metabolism or priming processes

  17. Changes in carbon sources fueling benthic secondary production over depth and time: coupling Chironomidae stable carbon isotopes to larval abundance.

    PubMed

    Frossard, Victor; Verneaux, Valérie; Millet, Laurent; Magny, Michel; Perga, Marie-Elodie

    2015-06-01

    Stable C isotope ratio (δ(13)C) values of chironomid remains (head capsules; HC) were used to infer changes in benthic C sources over the last 150 years for two French sub-Alpine lakes. The HCs were retrieved from a series of sediment cores from different depths. The HC δ(13)C values started to decrease with the onset of eutrophication. The HC δ(13)C temporal patterns varied among depths, which revealed spatial differences in the contribution of methanotrophic bacteria to the benthic secondary production. The estimates of the methane (CH4)-derived C contribution to chironomid biomass ranged from a few percent prior to the 1930s to up to 30 % in recent times. The chironomid fluxes increased concomitantly with changes in HC δ(13)C values before a drastic decrease due to the development of hypoxic conditions. The hypoxia reinforced the implication for CH4-derived C transfer to chironomid production. In Lake Annecy, the HC δ(13)C values were negatively correlated to total organic C (TOC) content in the sediment (Corg), whereas no relationship was found in Lake Bourget. In Lake Bourget, chironomid abundances reached their maximum with TOC contents between 1 and 1.5 % Corg, which could constitute a threshold for change in chironomid abundance and consequently for the integration of CH4-derived C into the lake food webs. Our results indicated that the CH4-derived C contribution to the benthic food webs occurred at different depths in these two large, deep lakes (deep waters and sublittoral zone), and that the trophic transfer of this C was promoted in sublittoral zones where O2 gradients were dynamic. PMID:25630956

  18. Consistency of NMR and mass spectrometry determinations of natural-abundance site-specific carbon isotope ratios. The case of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B L; Trierweiler, M; Jouitteau, C; Martin, G J

    1999-07-01

    Quantitative determinations of natural-abundance carbon isotope ratios by nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) have been optimized by appropriate selection of the experimental conditions and by signal analysis based on a dedicated algorithm. To check the consistency of the isotopic values obtained by NMR and mass spectrometry (IRMS) the same glycerol samples have been investigated by both techniques. To have access to site-specific isotope ratios by IRMS, the products have been degraded and transformed into two derivatives, one of which contains carbons 1 and 3 and the other carbon 2 of glycerol. The sensitivity of the isotopic parameters determined by IRMS to fractionation effects possibly occurring in the course of the chemical transformations has been investigated, and the repeatability and reproducibility of both analytical chains have been estimated. The good agreement observed between the two series of isotopic results supports the reliability of the two different approaches. SNIF-NMR is therefore a very attractive tool for routine determination, in a single nondestructive experiment, of the carbon isotope distribution in glycerol, and the method can be applied to other compounds. Using this method, the isotopic distributions have been compared for glycerol samples, obtained from plant or animal oils, extracted from fermented media, or prepared by chemical synthesis. Typical behaviors are characterized. PMID:21662780

  19. Evolution, Abundance and Biocalcification of Calcareous Nannoplankton During the Aptian (Early Cretaceous): Causes and Consequences for C Isotopic Anomalies, Climate Changes and the Carbon Cycle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erba, E.

    2005-12-01

    The mid Cretaceous is marked by extreme greenhouse conditions, coeval with emplacement of large igneous provinces, C isotopic anomalies, major changes in structure and composition of the oceans, and accelerated rates in the evolutionary history of calcareous plankton. The Aptian is a crucial interval to decipher links between biotic evolution and environmental pressure: it is appealing for understanding nannofloral biocalcification and feedbacks in the carbonate system and in the global carbon cycle. Ontong Java, Manihiki and Kerguelen Plateaus formed in the Aptian affecting the ocean-atmosphere system with excess CO2, changes in Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations, and varying nutrient cycling. Two large C isotopic anomalies are associated with episodes of prolonged high primary productivity, changes in alkality, global warming and cooling, anoxia, speciations and extinctions in planktonic communities. Nannofossil diversity, abundance and biocalcification are quantified in continuous, complete, pelagic sections to derive biosphere-geosphere interactions at short and long time scales. The early Aptian C isotopic anomaly interrupts a speciation episode in calcareous nannoplankton paralleled by a drastic reduction in nannofossil paleofluxes culminating in the nannoconid crisis preceding the Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a and the negative C isotopic spike linked to clathrate melting presumably triggered by the thermal maximum at the onset of the mid Cretaceous greenhouse climate. No extinctions are recorded. In the early late Aptian resumption of nannoconid production and appearance of several taxa are coeval with a return to normal C isotopic values. The occurrence of calpionellids and diversified planktonic foraminifers indicate successful biocalcification and restoration of the thermocline. In the late Aptian a drop in nannofossil abundance and accelerated extinction rates are associated with another C isotopic excursion under cool conditions possibly due to a prolonged volcanic

  20. Abundances of isotopes in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.

    1978-01-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotopes show no large anomalies on Venus (no more than 10-15%) or Mars (less than 5%); the high value of N-15/N-14 found on Mars is explained by nonthermal escape of nitrogen. The isotopes of nonradiogenic noble gases in the atmosphere of Mars exhibit abundance patterns similar to those in the primordial component of meteoritic gases and in the earth's atmosphere. This implies that gas fractionation took place in the inner solar nebula prior to planet formation. The relatively high value of Xe-129 on Mars emphasizes its deficiency on earth, implying a difference in accretion histories of volatiles for the two planets. In the outer solar system, normal isotope ratios for nitrogen and carbon on Jupiter, and for carbon on Saturn are found, but precision is low (+ or - 15% at best). Controversy exists about the correct value of D/H, with current estimates ranging from 2.3 plus or minus 1.1 to 5.1 plus or - 0.7 times 10 to the minus 5th. Planetary missions planned for the next few years should add considerably to the quantity and quality of these data.

  1. Carbon isotope geochemistry and geobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmarais, D.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon isotope fractionation values were used to understand the history of the biosphere. For example, plankton analyses confirmed that marine extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous period were indeed severe (see Hsu's article in Sundquist and Broeker, 1984). Variations in the isotopic compositions of carbonates and evaporitic sulfates during the Paleozoic reflect the relative abundances of euxinic (anoxic) marine environments and organic deposits from terrestrial flora. The carbon isotopic composition of Precambrian sediments suggest that the enzyme ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase has existed for perhaps 3.5 billion years.

  2. Absolute isotopic abundances of TI in meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederer, F. R.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1985-03-01

    The absolute isotope abundance of Ti has been determined in Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende and Leoville meteorites and in samples of whole meteorites. The absolute Ti isotope abundances differ by a significant mass dependent isotope fractionation transformation from the previously reported abundances, which were normalized for fractionation using 46Ti/48Ti. Therefore, the absolute compositions define distinct nucleosynthetic components from those previously identified or reflect the existence of significant mass dependent isotope fractionation in nature. The authors provide a general formalism for determining the possible isotope compositions of the exotic Ti from the measured composition, for different values of isotope fractionation in nature and for different mixing ratios of the exotic and normal components.

  3. The carbon abundance and 12C/13C isotopic ratio in the atmosphere of Arcturus from 2.3 µm CO bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, Ya. V.

    2008-09-01

    We have modeled absorption lines of the 12CO and 13CO (Δ υ = 2) molecular bands at λλ 2.29 2.45 µm in the spectrum of Arcturus (K2III). A grid of model atmospheres and synthetic spectra were computed for the red giant using T eff = 4300, log g = 1.5, and the elemental abundances of Peterson et al. (1993), with the exception of the abundances of carbon, log N(C), and oxygen, log N(O) and the carbon isotopic ratio, 12C/13C, which were varied in our computations. The computed spectra were compared to the observed spectrum of Arcturus from the atlas of Hinkle et al. (1976). The best fit between the synthetic and observed spectra is achieved for log N(C) = -3.78, 12C/13C = 8 ± 0.5. We discuss the dependence of 12C/13C on log N(C) and log N(O) in the atmosphere of the red giant.

  4. Micron-scale coupled carbon isotope and nitrogen abundance variations in diamonds: Evidence for episodic diamond formation beneath the Siberian Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggers de Vries, D. F.; Bulanova, G. P.; De Corte, K.; Pearson, D. G.; Craven, J. A.; Davies, G. R.

    2013-01-01

    The internal structure and growth history of six macro-diamonds from kimberlite pipes in Yakutia (Russia) were investigated with cathodoluminescence imaging and coupled carbon isotope and nitrogen abundance analyses along detailed core to rim traverses. The diamonds are characterised by octahedral zonation with layer-by-layer growth. High spatial resolution SIMS profiles establish that there is no exchange of the carbon isotope composition across growth boundaries at the μm scale and that isotopic variations observed between (sub)zones within the diamonds are primary. The macro-diamonds have δ13C values that vary within 2‰ of -5.3‰ and their nitrogen contents range between 0-1334 at. ppm. There are markedly different nitrogen aggregation states between major growth zones within individual diamonds that demonstrate Yakutian diamonds grew in multiple growth events. Growth intervals were punctuated by stages of dissolution now associated with <10 μm wide zones of nitrogen absent type II diamond. Across these resorption interfaces carbon isotope ratios and nitrogen contents record shifts between 0.5-2.3‰ and up to 407 at. ppm, respectively. Co-variation in δ13C value-nitrogen content suggests that parts of individual diamonds precipitated in a Rayleigh process from either oxidised or reduced fluids/melts, with two single diamonds showing evidence of both fluid types. Modelling the co-variation establishes that nitrogen is a compatible element in diamond relative to its growth medium and that the nitrogen partition coefficient is different between oxidised (3-4.1) and reduced (3) sources. The reduced sources have δ13C values between -7.3‰ and -4.6‰, while the oxidised sources have higher δ13C values between -5.8‰ and -1.8‰ (if grown from carbonatitic media) or between -3.8‰ and +0.2‰ (if grown from CO2-rich media). It is therefore concluded that individual Yakutian diamonds originate from distinct fluids/melts of variable compositions. The

  5. Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios of Individual Pollen Grains as a Proxy for C3- Versus C4-Grass Abundance in Paleorecords: A Validation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, D. M.; Hu, F.; Pearson, A.

    2007-12-01

    C3 and C4 grasses have distinct influences on major biogeochemical processes and unique responses to important environmental controls. Difficulties in distinguishing between these two functional groups of grasses have hindered paleoecological studies of grass-dominated ecosystems. We recently developed a technique to analyze the stable carbon isotope composition of individual grass-pollen grains using a spooling- wire microcombustion device interfaced with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (Nelson et al. 2007). This technique holds promise for improving C3 and C4 grass reconstructions. It requires ~90% fewer grains than typical methods and avoids assumptions associated with mixing models. However, our previous work was based on known C3 and C4 grasses from herbarium specimens and field collections and the technique had not been test using geological samples. To test the ability of this technique to reproduce the abundance of C3 and C4 grasses on the landscape, we measured δ13C values of >1500 individual grains of grass pollen isolated from the surface sediments of 10 North American lakes that span a large gradient of C3 and C4 grass abundance. Results indicate a strong positive correlation (r=0.94) between % C4-grass pollen (derived from classifying δ13C values from single grains as C3 and C4) and the literature-reported abundance of C4 grasses on the landscape. However, the measured % C4-grass pollen shows some deviation from the actual abundance at sites with high proportions of C4 grasses. This is likely caused by uncertainty in the magnitude, composition, and variability of the analytical blank associated with these measurements. Correcting for this deviation using regression analysis improves the estimation of the abundance of C4 grasses on the landscape. Comparison of the % C4-grass pollen with C/N and δ13C measurements of total organic matter in the same lake-sediment samples illustrates the distinct advantage of grass-pollen δ13C as a proxy for

  6. Carbon isotope techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, D.C. ); Fry, B. )

    1991-01-01

    This book is a hands-on introduction to using carbon isotope tracers in experimental biology and ecology. It is a bench-top reference with protocols for the study of plants, animals, and soils. The {sup 11}C, {sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, and {sup 14}C carbon isotopes are considered and standard techniques are described by established authors. The compilation includes the following features: specific, well-established, user-oriented techniques; carbon cycles in plants, animals, soils, air, and water; isotopes in ecological research; examples and sample calculations.

  7. NITROGEN AND CARBON STABLE ISOTOPE ABUNDANCES SUPPORT THE MYCO-HETEROTROPHIC NATURE AND HOST-SPECIFICITY OF CERTAIN ACHLOROPHYLLOUS PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    ? Over 400 species of achlorophyllous vascular plants are thought to obtain all carbon from symbiotic fungi. Consequently, they are termed ?myco-heterotrophic.' However, direct evidence of myco-heterotrophy in these plants is limited.
    ? During an investigation of the pat...

  8. Distribution, abundance and carbon isotopic composition of gaseous hydrocarbons in Big Soda Lake, Nevada - An alkaline, meromictic lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oremland, R. S.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The study of the distribution and isotopic composition of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases at the Big Soda Lake, Nevada, has shown that while neither ethylene nor propylene were found in the lake, ethane, propane, isobutane and n-butane concentrations all increased with water column depth. It is concluded that methane has a biogenic origin in both the sediments and the anoxic water column, and that C2-C4 alkanes have biogenic origins in the monimolimnion water and shallow sediments. The changes observed in delta C-13/CH4/ and CH4/(C2H6 + C3H8) with depth in the water column and sedimeents are probably due to bacterial processes, which may include anaerobic methane oxidation and different rates of methanogenesis, and C2-to-C4 alkane production by microorganisms.

  9. Helium isotopic abundance variation in nature

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1993-08-01

    The isotopic abundance of helium in nature has been reviewed. This atomic weight value is based on the value of helium in the atmosphere, which is invariant around the world and up to a distance of 100,000 feet. Helium does vary in natural gas, volcanic rocks and gases, ocean floor sediments, waters of various types and in radioactive minerals and ores due to {alpha} particle decay of radioactive nuclides.

  10. Carbon Isotope Ratiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Anthony O'Keefe

    2001-05-07

    This Report details the design of a optical analyzer capable of measuring and recording the carbon 13/12 isotope ratio in atmospheric carbon dioxide. The system can operate in remote modes for long duration and will transmit real-time data via wireless contact.

  11. Isotope-abundance variations of selected elements (IUPAC technical report)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, T.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; De Bievre, P.; Ding, T.; Holden, N.E.; Hopple, J.A.; Krouse, H.R.; Lamberty, A.; Peiser, H.S.; Revesz, K.; Rieder, S.E.; Rosman, K.J.R.; Roth, E.; Taylor, P.D.P.; Vocke, R.D., Jr.; Xiao, Y.K.

    2002-01-01

    Documented variations in the isotopic compositions of some chemical elements are responsible for expanded uncertainties in the standard atomic weights published by the Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. This report summarizes reported variations in the isotopic compositions of 20 elements that are due to physical and chemical fractionation processes (not due to radioactive decay) and their effects on the standard atomic-weight uncertainties. For 11 of those elements (hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, copper, and selenium), standard atomic-weight uncertainties have been assigned values that are substantially larger than analytical uncertainties because of common isotope-abundance variations in materials of natural terrestrial origin. For 2 elements (chromium and thallium), recently reported isotope-abundance variations potentially are large enough to result in future expansion of their atomic-weight uncertainties. For 7 elements (magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, molybdenum, palladium, and tellurium), documented isotope variations in materials of natural terrestrial origin are too small to have a significant effect on their standard atomic-weight uncertainties. This compilation indicates the extent to which the atomic weight of an element in a given material may differ from the standard atomic weight of the element. For most elements given above, data are graphically illustrated by a diagram in which the materials are specified in the ordinate and the compositional ranges are plotted along the abscissa in scales of (1) atomic weight, (2) mole fraction of a selected isotope, and (3) delta value of a selected isotope ratio.

  12. Distribution, abundance and carbon isotopic composition of gaseous hydrocarbons in Big Soda Lake, Nevada: An alkaline, meromictic lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Des Marais, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Distribution and isotopic composition (??13C) of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases were studied in Big Soda Lake (depth = 64 m), an alkaline, meromictic lake with permanently anoxic bottom waters. Methane increased with depth in the anoxic mixolimnion (depth = 20-35 m), reached uniform concentrations (55 ??M/l) in the monimolimnion (35-64 m) and again increased with depth in monimolimnion bottom sediments (>400 ??M/kg below 1 m sub-bottom depth). The ??13C[CH4] values in bottom sediment below 1 m sub-bottom depth (<-70 per mil) increased with vertical distance up the core (??13C[CH4] = -55 per mil at sediment surface). Monimolimnion ??13C[CH4] values (-55 to -61 per mil) were greater than most ??13C[CH4] values found in the anoxic mixolimnion (92% of samples had ??13C[CH4] values between -20 and -48 per mil). No significant concentrations of ethylene or propylene were found in the lake. However ethane, propane, isobutane and n-butane concentrations all increased with water column depth, with respective maximum concentrations of 260, 80, 23 and 22 nM/l encountered between 50-60 m depth. Concentrations of ethane, propane and butanes decreased with depth in the bottom sediments. Ratios of CH4 [C2H6 + C3H8] were high (250-620) in the anoxic mixolimnion, decreased to ~161 in the monimolimnion and increased with depth in the sediment to values as high as 1736. We concluded that methane has a biogenic origin in both the sediments and the anoxic water column and that C2-C4 alkanes have biogenic origins in the monimolimnion water and shallow sediments. The changes observed in ??13C[CH4] and CH4 (C2H6 + C3H8) with depth in the water column and sediments are probably caused by bacteria] processes. These might include anaerobic methane oxidation and different rates of methanogenesis and C2 to C4 alkane production by microorganisms. ?? 1983.

  13. Study of the Role of Terrestrial Processes in the Carbon Cycle Based on Measurements of the Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, Stephen C; Keeling, Ralph F

    2012-01-03

    The main objective of this project was to continue research to develop carbon cycle relationships related to the land biosphere based on remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentration and its isotopic ratios 13C/12C, 18O/16O, and 14C/12C. The project continued time-series observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and isotopic composition begun by Charles D. Keeling at remote sites, including Mauna Loa, the South Pole, and eight other sites. Using models of varying complexity, the concentration and isotopic measurements were used to study long-term change in the interhemispheric gradients in CO2 and 13C/12C to assess the magnitude and evolution of the northern terrestrial carbon sink, to study the increase in amplitude of the seasonal cycle of CO2, to use isotopic data to refine constraints on large scale changes in isotopic fractionation which may be related to changes in stomatal conductance, and to motivate improvements in terrestrial carbon cycle models. The original proposal called for a continuation of the new time series of 14C measurements but subsequent descoping to meet budgetary constraints required termination of measurements in 2007.

  14. Hydrogen and carbon abundances and isotopic ratios in apatite from alkaline intrusive complexes, with a focus on carbonatites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, Serge L.; Epstein, Samuel; Stolper, Edward

    1999-06-01

    We report H and C contents and δD and δ 13C values of apatites from 15 alkaline intrusive complexes ranging in age from 110 Ma to 2.6 Ga. Sampling focused on carbonatites, but included silicate rocks as well. Heating at temperatures up to 1500°C is needed to extract fully H 2O and CO 2 from these apatites. Apatites from carbonatite-rich intrusive complexes contain 0.2-1.1 wt% H 2O and 0.05-0.70 wt% CO 2; apatites from two silicate-rich alkaline complexes with little or no carbonatite are generally poorer in both volatile components (0.1-0.2% H 2O and 0.01-0.11% CO 2). D/H ratios in apatites from these rocks are bimodally distributed: group I (δD = -51 to -74‰) and group II (δD = -88 to -104‰). We suggest that the δD values of group I apatites represent primitive, mantle-derived values and that the group II apatites crystallized from degassed magmas, resulting in lower H 2O contents and δD values. Although many factors influence the extent of degassing, the depth of emplacement could represent a major control. In contrast to H 2O contents and δD values, CO 2 contents and δ 13C values of gas released at high temperatures from multiple aliquots of these apatite samples are variable. This suggests the presence of more than one C-bearing component in these apatites, one of which is proposed to be dissolved carbonate; the other, with δ 13C ˜<-25‰, could be associated with hydrocarbons. Group I apatites have δD values similar to those of primitive, mantle-derived basaltic magmas and overlap with (but cover a narrower range than) mantle-derived mica, amphibole, and whole rocks. δ 13C values also overlap typical upper mantle. These results suggest that igneous apatites can retain their primary δD and δ 13C values.

  15. Raman scattering method and apparatus for measuring isotope ratios and isotopic abundances

    DOEpatents

    Harney, Robert C.; Bloom, Stewart D.

    1978-01-01

    Raman scattering is used to measure isotope ratios and/or isotopic abundances. A beam of quasi-monochromatic photons is directed onto the sample to be analyzed, and the resulting Raman-scattered photons are detected and counted for each isotopic species of interest. These photon counts are treated mathematically to yield the desired isotope ratios or isotopic abundances.

  16. Carbon isotope and abundance systematics of Icelandic geothermal gases, fluids and subglacial basalts with implications for mantle plume-related CO2 fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, P. H.; Hilton, D. R.; Füri, E.; Halldórsson, S. A.; Grönvold, K.

    2014-06-01

    We report new carbon dioxide (CO2) abundance and isotope data for 71 geothermal gases and fluids from both high-temperature (HT > 150 °C at 1 km depth) and low-temperature (LT < 150 °C at 1 km depth) geothermal systems located within neovolcanic zones and older segments of the Icelandic crust, respectively. These data are supplemented by CO2 data obtained by stepped heating of 47 subglacial basaltic glasses collected from the neovolcanic zones. The sample suite has been characterized previously for He-Ne (geothermal) and He-Ne-Ar (basalt) systematics (Füri et al., 2010), allowing elemental ratios to be calculated for individual samples. Geothermal fluids are characterized by a wide range in carbon isotope ratios (δ13C), from -18.8‰ to +4.6‰ (vs. VPDB), and CO2/3He values that span eight orders of magnitude, from 1 × 104 to 2 × 1012. Extreme geothermal values suggest that original source compositions have been extensively modified by hydrothermal processes such as degassing and/or calcite precipitation. Basaltic glasses are also characterized by a wide range in δ13C values, from -27.2‰ to -3.6‰, whereas CO2/3He values span a narrower range, from 1 × 108 to 1 × 1012. The combination of both low δ13C values and low CO2 contents in basalts indicates that magmas are extensively and variably degassed. Using an equilibrium degassing model, we estimate that pre-eruptive basaltic melts beneath Iceland contain ∼531 ± 64 ppm CO2 with δ13C values of -2.5 ± 1.1‰, in good agreement with estimates from olivine-hosted melt inclusions (Metrich et al., 1991) and depleted MORB mantle (DMM) CO2 source estimates (Marty, 2012). In addition, pre-eruptive CO2 compositions are estimated for individual segments of the Icelandic axial rift zones, and show a marked decrease from north to south (Northern Rift Zone = 550 ± 66 ppm; Eastern Rift Zone = 371 ± 45 ppm; Western Rift Zone = 206 ± 24 ppm). Notably, these results are model dependent, and selection of a lower

  17. Carbon isotopic fractionation in heterotrophic microbial metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, N.; Leu, A.; Munoz, E.; Olsen, J.; Kwong, E.; Des Marais, D.

    1985-01-01

    Differences in the natural-abundance carbon stable isotopic compositions between products from aerobic cultures of Escherichia coli K-12 were measured. Respired CO2 was 3.4 percent depleted in C-13 relative to the glucose used as the carbon source, whereas the acetate was 12.3 percent enriched in C-13. The acetate C-13 enrichment was solely in the carboxyl group. Even though the total cellular carbon was only 0.6 percent depleted in C-13, intracellular components exhibited a significant isotopic heterogeneity. The protein and lipid fractions were -1.1 and -2.7 percent, respectively. Aspartic and glutamic acids were -1.6 and +2.7 percent, respectively, yet citrate was isotopically identical to the glucose. Probable sites of carbon isotopic fractionation include the enzyme, phosphotransacetylase, and the Krebs cycle.

  18. Carbon isotopic fractionation in heterotrophic microbial metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Blair, N; Leu, A; Muñoz, E; Olsen, J; Kwong, E; Des Marais, D

    1985-01-01

    Differences in the natural-abundance carbon stable isotopic compositions between products from aerobic cultures of Escherichia coli K-12 were measured. Respired CO2 was 3.4% depleted in 13C relative to the glucose used as the carbon source, whereas the acetate was 12.3% enriched in 13C. The acetate 13C enrichment was solely in the carboxyl group. Even though the total cellular carbon was only 0.6% depleted in 13C, intracellular components exhibited a significant isotopic heterogeneity. The protein and lipid fractions were -1.1 and -2.7%, respectively. Aspartic and glutamic acids were -1.6 and +2.7%, respectively, yet citrate was isotopically identical to the glucose. Probable sites of carbon isotopic fractionation include the enzyme, phosphotransacetylase, and the Krebs cycle. PMID:2867741

  19. Carbon isotopic fractionation in heterotrophic microbial metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N.; Leu, A.; Munoz, E.; Olsen, J.; Kwong, E.; Des Marais, D.

    1985-10-01

    Differences in the natural-abundance carbon stable isotopic compositions between products from aerobic cultures of Escherichia coli K-12 were measured. Respired CO2 was 3.4 percent depleted in C-13 relative to the glucose used as the carbon source, whereas the acetate was 12.3 percent enriched in C-13. The acetate C-13 enrichment was solely in the carboxyl group. Even though the total cellular carbon was only 0.6 percent depleted in C-13, intracellular components exhibited a significant isotopic heterogeneity. The protein and lipid fractions were -1.1 and -2.7 percent, respectively. Aspartic and glutamic acids were -1.6 and +2.7 percent, respectively, yet citrate was isotopically identical to the glucose. Probable sites of carbon isotopic fractionation include the enzyme, phosphotransacetylase, and the Krebs cycle. 38 references.

  20. Variable Carbon Isotopes in ALH84001 Carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niles, P. B.; Leshin, L. A.; Guan, Y.

    2002-12-01

    The Martian meteorite ALH84001 contains a small amount of carbonate that was deposited from aqueous fluids on the Martian surface approximately 3.9 Ga.. McKay et al. (1996) proposed evidence for the existence of life preserved within the carbonate grains. In order to determine the nature of the ancient Martian aqueous system we have combined previously collected oxygen isotopic data with new carbon isotopic measurements performed on the Cameca 6f ion microprobe at Arizona State University. Isotopic measurements were made at high mass resolution with a spot size of 10 microns. The measured carbon isotopic values range from 29.2‰ to 64.5‰ (PDB) with an average uncertainty of +/-1.6‰ (1σ ). These data agree very well with previous acid dissolution and stepped combustion experiments which range from a δ13C of +32‰ to +41‰ . As observed with the oxygen isotopic data, the carbon isotopic composition is correlated with the chemical composition of the carbonates. This allows us to establish that the earliest (Ca-rich) carbonates had the lightest carbon isotopic composition while the latest forming (Mg-rich) carbonates had the heaviest carbon isotopic composition. The large range of carbon isotopic compositions measured in this study cannot be explained by previously proposed models. Temperature change or a Rayleigh distillation process caused by progressive carbonate precipitation are insufficient to create the observed carbon isotopic compositions. Furthermore, processes such as evaporation or photosynthesis will not produce large carbon isotopic variations due to rapid isotopic equilibration with the atmosphere. We propose two possible models for the formation of the ALH84001 carbonates consistent with the isotopic data collected thus far. Carbonates could have formed from an evolving system where the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of the carbonates reflects a mixing between magmatic hydrothermal fluids and fluids in equilibrium with an isotopically

  1. THE ATOMIC WEIGHTS COMMISSION AND ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCE RATIO DETERMINATIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-08-07

    Following Thomson's discovery of stable isotopes in non-radioactive chemical elements, the derivation of atomic weight values from mass spectrometric measurements of isotopic abundance ratios moved very slowly. Forty years later, only 3 1/2 % of the recommended values were based on mass spectrometric measurements and only 38% in the first half century. It might be noted that two chemical elements (tellurium and mercury) are still based on chemical measurements, where the atomic weight value calculated from the relative isotopic abundance measurement either agrees with the value from the chemical measurement or the atomic weight value calculated from the relative isotopic abundance measurement falls within the uncertainty of the chemical measurement of the atomic weight. Of the 19 chemical elements, whose atomic weight is based on non-corrected relative isotopic abundance measurements, five of these are two isotope systems (indium, iridium, lanthanum, lutetium and tantalum) and one is a three-isotope system (oxygen).

  2. Assessment of marine-derived nutrients in the Copper River Delta, Alaska, using natural abundance of the stable isotopes of nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kline, Thomas C.; Woody, Carol Ann; Bishop, Mary Anne; Powers, Sean P.; Knudsen, E. Eric

    2007-01-01

    We performed nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon stable isotope analysis (SIA) on maturing and juvenile anadromous sockeye and coho salmon, and periphyton in two Copper River delta watersheds of Alaska to trace salmonderived nutrients during 2003–2004. Maturing salmon were isotopically enriched relative to alternate freshwater N, S, and C sources as expected, with differences consistent with species trophic level differences, and minor system, sex, and year-to-year differences, enabling use of SIA to trace these salmon-derived nutrients. Periphyton naturally colonized, incubated, and collected using Wildco Periphtyon Samplers in and near spawning sites was 34S- and 15N-enriched, as expected, and at all freshwater sites was 13C-depleted. At nonspawning and coho-only sites, periphyton 34S and 15N was generally low. However, 34S was low enough at some sites to be suggestive of sulfate reduction, complicating the use of S isotopes. Juvenile salmon SIA ranged in values consistent with using production derived from re-mineralization as well as direct utilization, but only by a minority fraction of coho salmon. Dependency on salmon-derived nutrients ranged from relatively high to relatively low, suggesting a space-limited system. No one particular isotope was found to be superior for determining the relative importance of salmon-derived nutrients.

  3. Carbon isotopes in bulk carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbout, J.; Mayeda, T. K.; Clayton, R. N.

    1985-01-01

    The chemical and physical processes involved in the formation of the solar system are examined. Primitive matter has been found on a microscopic scale in a variety of meteorites: fragments of small solar system bodies that were never part of a large planet. This primitive matter has, in most cases, been identified by the presence of anomalous abundances of some isotopes of the chemical elements. Of particular interest for carbon isotope studies are the primitive meteorites known as carbonaceous chondrites. Using a selective oxidation technique to sort out the carbon contained in different chemical forms (graphite, carbonates, and organic matter), four carbonaceous chondrites are analyzed. The presence of the (13) C-rich component was confirmed and additional carbon components with different, but characteristic, isotopic signatures were resolved.

  4. Climatic/Hydrologic Oscillations since 155,000 yr B.P. at Owens Lake, California, Reflected in Abundance and Stable Isotope Composition of Sediment Carbonate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menking, K.M.; Bischoff, J.L.; Fitzpatrick, J.A.; Burdette, J.W.; Rye, R.O.

    1997-01-01

    Sediment grain size, carbonate content, and stable isotopes in 70-cm-long (???1500-yr) channel samples from Owens Lake core OL-92 record many oscillations representing climate change in the eastern Sierra Nevada region since 155,000 yr B.P. To first order, the records match well the marine ??18O record. At Owens Lake, however, the last interglaciation appears to span the entire period from 120,000 to 50,000 yr B.P., according to our chronology, and was punctuated by numerous short periods of wetter conditions during an otherwise dry climate. Sediment proxies reveal that the apparent timing of glacial-interglacial transitions, notably the penultimate one, is proxy-dependent. In the grain-size and carbonate-content records this transition is abrupt and occurs at ??? 120,000 yr B.P. In contrast, in the isotopic records the transition is gradual and occurs between 145,000 and 120,000 yr B. P. Differences in timing of the transition are attributed to variable responses by proxies to climate change. ?? 1997 University of Washington.

  5. Carbon Isotope Chemistry in Molecular Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Amy N.; Willacy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Few details of carbon isotope chemistry are known, especially the chemical processes that occur in astronomical environments like molecular clouds. Observational evidence shows that the C-12/C-13 abundance ratios vary due to the location of the C-13 atom within the molecular structure. The different abundances are a result of the diverse formation pathways that can occur. Modeling can be used to explore the production pathways of carbon molecules in an effort to understand and explain the chemical evolution of molecular clouds.

  6. Organic chemistry of Murchison meteorite: Carbon isotopic fractionation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, G. U.; Blair, N. E.; Desmarais, D. J.; Cronin, J. R.; Chang, S.

    1986-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of individual organic compounds of meteoritic origin remains unknown, as most reported carbon isotopic ratios are for bulk carbon or solvent extractable fractions. The researchers managed to determine the carbon isotopic ratios for individual hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids isolated from a Murchison sample by a freeze-thaw-ultrasonication technique. The abundances of monocarboxylic acids and saturated hydrocarbons decreased with increasing carbon number and the acids are more abundant than the hydrocarbon with the same carbon number. For both classes of compounds, the C-13 to C-12 ratios decreased with increasing carbon number in a roughly parallel manner, and each carboxylic acid exhibits a higher isotopic number than the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms. These trends are consistent with a kinetically controlled synthesis of higher homologues for lower ones.

  7. Isotopic abundance in atom trap trace analysis

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Zheng-Tian; Hu, Shiu-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Mueller, Peter

    2014-03-18

    A method and system for detecting ratios and amounts of isotopes of noble gases. The method and system is constructed to be able to measure noble gas isotopes in water and ice, which helps reveal the geological age of the samples and understand their movements. The method and system uses a combination of a cooled discharge source, a beam collimator, a beam slower and magneto-optic trap with a laser to apply resonance frequency energy to the noble gas to be quenched and detected.

  8. LITERATURE SURVEY ON ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCE RATIO MEASUREMENTS - 2001-2005

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-08-13

    Along with my usual weekly review of the published literature for new nuclear data, I also search for new candidates for best measurements of isotopic abundances from a single source. Most of the published articles, that I previously had found in the Research Library at the Brookhaven Lab, have already been sent to the members of the Atomic Weights Commission, by either Michael Berglund or Thomas Walczyk. In the last few days, I checked the published literature for any other articles in the areas of natural variations in isotopic abundance ratios, measurements of isotopic abundance ratios on samples of extra-terrestrial material and isotopic abundance ratio measurements performed using ICPMS instruments. Hopefully this information will be of interest to members of the Commission, the sub-committee on isotopic abundance measurements (SIAM), members of the former sub-committee on natural isotopic fractionation (SNIF), the sub-committee on extra-terrestrial isotope ratios (SETIR), the RTCE Task Group and the Guidelines Task Group, who are dealing with ICPMS and TIMS comparisons. In the following report, I categorize the publications in one of four areas. Measurements performed using either positive or negative ions with Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer, TIMS, instruments; measurements performed on Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer, ICPMS, instruments; measurements of natural variations of the isotopic abundance ratios; and finally measurements on extra-terrestrial samples with instrumentation of either type. There is overlap in these areas. I selected out variations and ET results first and then categorized the rest of the papers by TIMS and ICPMS.

  9. Synthetic isotope mixtures for the calibration of isotope amount ratio measurements of carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russe, K.; Valkiers, S.; Taylor, P. D. P.

    2004-07-01

    Synthetic isotope mixtures for the calibration of carbon isotope amount ratio measurements have been prepared by mixing carbon tetrafluoride highly enriched in 13C with carbon tetrafluoride depleted in 13C. Mixing procedures based on volumetry and gravimetry are described. The mixtures served as primary measurement standards for the calibration of isotope amount ratio measurements of the Isotopic Reference Materials PEF1, NBS22 and USGS24. Thus SI-traceable measurements of absolute carbon isotope amount ratios have been performed for the first time without any hypothesis needed for a correction of oxygen isotope abundances, such as is the case for measurements on carbon dioxide. As a result, "absolute" carbon isotope amount ratios determined via carbon tetrafluoride have smaller uncertainties than those published for carbon dioxide. From the measurements of the Reference Materials concerned, the absolute carbon isotope amount ratio of Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB)--the hypothetical material upon which the scale for relative carbon isotope ratio measurements is based--was calculated to be R13(VPDB) = (11 101 +/- 16) × 10-6.

  10. (Carbon isotope fractionation inplants)

    SciTech Connect

    O'Leary, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: To develop a theoretical and experimental framework for understanding isotope fractionations in plants; and to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation for understanding the dynamics of CO{sub 2} fixation in plants. Progress is described.

  11. Carbon isotopes in mollusk shell carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnaughey, Ted A.; Gillikin, David Paul

    2008-10-01

    Mollusk shells contain many isotopic clues about calcification physiology and environmental conditions at the time of shell formation. In this review, we use both published and unpublished data to discuss carbon isotopes in both bivalve and gastropod shell carbonates. Land snails construct their shells mainly from respired CO2, and shell δ13C reflects the local mix of C3 and C4 plants consumed. Shell δ13C is typically >10‰ heavier than diet, probably because respiratory gas exchange discards CO2, and retains the isotopically heavier HCO3 -. Respired CO2 contributes less to the shells of aquatic mollusks, because CO2/O2 ratios are usually higher in water than in air, leading to more replacement of respired CO2 by environmental CO2. Fluid exchange with the environment also brings additional dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into the calcification site. Shell δ13C is typically a few ‰ lower than ambient DIC, and often decreases with age. Shell δ13C retains clues about processes such as ecosystem metabolism and estuarine mixing. Ca2+ ATPase-based models of calcification physiology developed for corals and algae likely apply to mollusks, too, but lower pH and carbonic anhydrase at the calcification site probably suppress kinetic isotope effects. Carbon isotopes in biogenic carbonates are clearly complex, but cautious interpretation can provide a wealth of information, especially after vital effects are better understood.

  12. Comprehensive study of carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions, trace element abundances, and cathodoluminescence intensities of calcite in the Murchison CM chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiya, Wataru; Sugiura, Naoji; Marrocchi, Yves; Takahata, Naoto; Hoppe, Peter; Shirai, Kotaro; Sano, Yuji; Hiyagon, Hajime

    2015-07-01

    We have performed in situ analyses of C and O isotopic compositions, trace element concentrations, and cathodoluminescence (CL) intensities on calcite in Murchison, a weakly altered CM chondrite. We found that the trace element (Mg, Mn, and Fe) concentrations are heterogeneous within single calcite grains. Grain to grain heterogeneity is even more pronounced. The analyzed calcite grains can be separated into two distinct types with respect to their C isotopic ratios, trace element concentrations, and CL characteristics: Calcite grains with higher δ13CPDB values (∼75‰) have low trace element concentrations and uniformly dark CL, while grains with lower δ13C values (∼35‰) have higher trace element concentrations and CL zoning. In contrast to the C isotopic ratios, O isotopic ratios are similar for both types of calcites (δ18OSMOW ∼ 34‰). The O isotopic ratios, trace element concentrations, and CL characteristics provide no evidence for C-isotope evolution in fluids from a single C reservoir by Rayleigh-type isotope fractionation (i.e., removal of C-bearing gaseous species). Also, it seems difficult to explain the O and C isotopic compositions of the two types of calcites by their formation at different temperatures from a single fluid. Instead, the δ13C variation suggests the presence of at least two C reservoirs with different isotopic ratios in the aqueous fluids from which the calcites precipitated. The C reservoirs with lower δ13C values are likely to be organic matter. The same holds for the C reservoirs with higher δ13C values which might have significant contributions from the 13C-enriched grains identified in meteoritic insoluble organic matter. Thermodynamic calculations show that calcite with lower Fe concentrations formed under more reduced conditions than calcite with higher Fe concentrations. If this is the case, the 13C-rich organic grains may have been destroyed and dissolved in the fluids under more reduced conditions than other

  13. Literature survey of isotopic abundance data for 1987-1989

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E. )

    1989-08-09

    I have compiled all of the data on isotopic abundance measurements and their variation in nature for the time period since the last General Assembly. Most of the data deals with the variations in the abundances as given by per mil deviations from some standard. As such, they are not of major interest to the Atomic Weights Commission. However, there were some measurements which are of general interest in this list.

  14. Carbon-13 isotopic abundance and concentration of atmospheric methane for background air in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres from 1978 to 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, C.M.; Sepanski; Morris, L.J.

    1995-03-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH{sub 4}) may become an increasingly important contributor to global warming in future years. Its atmospheric concentration has risen, doubling over the past several hundred years, and additional methane is thought to have a much greater effect on climate, on a per molecule basis, than additional C0{sub 2} at present day concentrations (Shine et al. 1990). The causes of the increase of atmospheric CH{sub 4} have been difficult to ascertain because of a lack of quantitative knowledge of the fluxes (i.e., net emissions) from the numerous anthropogenic and natural sources. The goal of CH{sub 4} isotopic studies is to provide a constraint (and so reduce the uncertainties) in estimating the relative fluxes from the various isotopically distinct sources, whose combined fluxes must result in the measured atmospheric isotopic composition, after the fractionating effect of the atmospheric removal process is considered. In addition, knowledge of the spatial and temporal changes in the isotopic composition of atmospheric CH{sub 4}, along with estimates of the fluxes from some of the major sources, makes it possible to calculate growth rates for sources whose temporal emissions trends would be difficult to measure directly.

  15. 13 ENDOR studies of organic radicals in natural isotopic abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirste, Burkhard

    13C ENDOR studies of phenoxyls, galvinoxyls, triphenylmethyl radicals, nitroxides, and cyclosilane and semiquinone radical anions with natural isotopic distribution are reported. The method is described, and it is shown that 13C coupling constants can be measured precisely; in favorable cases even the determination of signs is possible by general TRIPLE resonance. Studies of the relaxation behavior of 13C ENDOR signals or measurements of hyperfine shifts in liquid-crystalline solutions yield information about dipolar hyperfine interactions and hence π spin populations which is of aid in assignments to molecular positions. Complete sets of 13C coupling constants have been determined for 2,4,6-tri- tert-butylphenoxyl and Coppinger's radical. For the central carbon atoms of tert-butyl groups, a Q parameter of Qτ-Bu C = -34 MHz is proposed, and for a 29Si atom in trimethylsilyl groups, QTMSSi = +49 MHz. Favorable conditions for natural-abundance 13C ENDOR experiments, e.g., small hyperfine anisotropies and use of deuterated compounds, and limitations of the method are discussed.

  16. The abundance and isotopic composition of water in eucrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, T. J.; Barnes, J. J.; TartèSe, R.; Anand, M.; Franchi, I. A.; Greenwood, R. C.; Charlier, B. L. A.; Grady, M. M.

    2016-05-01

    Volatile elements play a key role in the dynamics of planetary evolution. Extensive work has been carried out to determine the abundance, distribution, and source(s) of volatiles in planetary bodies such as the Earth, Moon, and Mars. A recent study showed that the water in apatite from eucrites has similar hydrogen isotopic compositions compared to water in terrestrial rocks and carbonaceous chondrites, suggesting that water accreted very early in the inner solar system given the ancient crystallization ages (~4.5 Ga) of eucrites. Here, the measurements of water (reported as equivalent H2O abundances) and the hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) of apatite from five basaltic eucrites and one cumulate eucrite are reported. Apatite H2O abundances range from ~30 to ~3500 ppm and are associated with a weighted average δD value of -34 ± 67‰. No systematic variations or correlations are observed in H2O abundance or δD value with eucrite geochemical trend or metamorphic grade. These results extend the range of previously published hydrogen isotope data for eucrites and confirm the striking homogeneity in the H-isotopic composition of water in eucrites, which is consistent with a common source for water in the inner solar system.

  17. The abundance and isotopic composition of water in eucrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, T. J.; Barnes, J. J.; TartèSe, R.; Anand, M.; Franchi, I. A.; Greenwood, R. C.; Charlier, B. L. A.; Grady, M. M.

    2016-06-01

    Volatile elements play a key role in the dynamics of planetary evolution. Extensive work has been carried out to determine the abundance, distribution, and source(s) of volatiles in planetary bodies such as the Earth, Moon, and Mars. A recent study showed that the water in apatite from eucrites has similar hydrogen isotopic compositions compared to water in terrestrial rocks and carbonaceous chondrites, suggesting that water accreted very early in the inner solar system given the ancient crystallization ages (~4.5 Ga) of eucrites. Here, the measurements of water (reported as equivalent H2O abundances) and the hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) of apatite from five basaltic eucrites and one cumulate eucrite are reported. Apatite H2O abundances range from ~30 to ~3500 ppm and are associated with a weighted average δD value of -34 ± 67‰. No systematic variations or correlations are observed in H2O abundance or δD value with eucrite geochemical trend or metamorphic grade. These results extend the range of previously published hydrogen isotope data for eucrites and confirm the striking homogeneity in the H-isotopic composition of water in eucrites, which is consistent with a common source for water in the inner solar system.

  18. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic inventory of the most abundant demersal fish captured by benthic gears in southwestern Iceland (North Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarà, Gianluca; de Pirro, Maurizio; Sprovieri, Mario; Rumolo, Paola; Halldórsson, Halldór Pálmar; Svavarsson, Jörundur

    2009-12-01

    Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) were used to examine the origin of organic matter for the most representative demersal species of the SW Icelandic fishery, accounting for over 70% of landings of those species in the North Atlantic. Samples were collected during a 2-week period in early September 2004 from landings and directly during fishing cruises. Stable isotopes showed that particulate organic matter and sedimentary organic matter were at the base of the food web and appeared to fill two different compartments: the pelagic and the benthic. The pelagic realm was composed of only capelin and sandeel; krill and redfish occupied an intermediate position between pelagic and benthic realms; while anglerfish, haddock, cod and ling resulted as the true demersal species while tusk, rays and plaice were strongly linked to the benthic habitat.

  19. Developing Model Constraints on Northern Extra-Tropical Carbon Cycling Based on measurements of the Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, Ralph

    2014-12-12

    The objective of this project was to perform CO2 data syntheses and modeling activities to address two central questions: 1) how much has the seasonal cycle in atmospheric CO2 at northern high latitudes changed since the 1960s, and 2) how well do prognostic biospheric models represent these changes. This project also supported the continuation of the Scripps time series of CO2 isotopes and concentration at ten baseline stations distributed globally.

  20. Report on carbon and nitrogen abundance studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the proposal was to determine the nitrogen to carbon abundance ratios from transition layer lines in stars with different T(sub eff) and luminosities. The equations which give the surface emission line fluxes and the measured ratio of the NV to CIV emission line fluxes are presented and explained. The abundance results are compared with those of photospheric abundance studies for stars in common with the photospheric investigations. The results show that the analyses are at least as accurate as the photospheric determinations. These studies can be extended to F and early G stars for which photospheric abundance determinations for giants are hard to do because molecular bands become too weak. The abundance determination in the context of stellar evolution is addressed. The N/C abundance ratio increases steeply at the point of evolution for which the convection zone reaches deepest. Looking at the evolution of the rotation velocities v sin i, a steep decrease in v sin i is related to the increasing depth of the convection zone. It is concluded that the decrease in v sin i for T(sub eff) less than or approximately = 5800 K is most probably due to the rearrangement of the angular momentum in the stars due to deep convective mixing. It appears that the convection zone is rotating with nearly depth independent angular momentum. Other research results and ongoing projects are discussed.

  1. The Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Hg in Extraterrestrial Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauretta, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    During the past three year grant period we made excellent progress in our study of the abundances and isotopic compositions of Hg and other volatile trace elements in extraterrestrial materials. As part of my startup package I received funds to construct a state-of-the-art experimental facility to study gas-solid reaction kinetics. Much of our effort was spent developing the methodology to measure the abundance and isotopic composition of Hg at ultratrace levels in solid materials. In our first study, the abundance and isotopic composition of Hg was determined in bulk samples of the Murchison (CM) and Allende (CV) carbonaceous chondrites. We have continued our study of mercury in primitive meteorites and expanded the suite of meteorites to include other members of the CM and CV chondrite group as well as CI and CO chondrites. Samples of the CI chondrite Orgueil, the CM chondrites Murray, Nogoya, and Cold Bokkeveld, the CO chondrites Kainsaz, Omans, and Isna, and the CV chondrites Vigarano, Mokoia, and Grosnaja were tested. We have developed a thermal analysis ICP-MS technique and applied it to the study of a suite of thermally labile elements (Zn, As, Se, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Hg, Au, Tl, Pb, and Bi) in geologic materials as well.

  2. Mass Spectrometric Measurement of Martian Krypton and Xenon Isotopic Abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P.; Mauersberger, K.

    1993-01-01

    The Viking gas chromatograph mass spectrometer experiment provided significant data on the atmospheric composition at the surface of Mars, including measurements of several isotope ratios. However, the limited dynamic range of this mass spectrometer resulted in marginal measurements for the important Kr and Xe isotopic abundance. The Xe-129 to Xe-132 ratio was measured with an uncertainty of 70%, but none of the other isotope ratios for these species were obtained. Accurate measurement of the Xe and Kr isotopic abundance in this atmosphere provides an important data point in testing theories of planetary formation and atmospheric evolution. The measurement is also essential for a stringent test for the Martian origin of the SNC meteorites, since the Kr and Xe fractionation pattern seen in gas trapped in glassy nodules of an SNC (EETA 79001) is unlike any other known solar system resevoir. Current flight mass spectrometer designs combined with the new technology of a high-performance vacuum pumping system show promise for a substantial increase in gas throughput and the dynamic range required to accurately measure these trace species. Various aspects of this new technology are discussed.

  3. Carbon and oxygen isotope microanalysis of carbonate.

    PubMed

    Velivetskaya, Tatiana A; Ignatiev, Alexander V; Gorbarenko, Sergey A

    2009-08-30

    Technical modification of the conventional method for the delta(13)C and delta(18)O analysis of 10-30 microg carbonate samples is described. The CO(2) extraction is carried out in vacuum using 105% phosphoric acid at 95 degrees C, and the isotopic composition of CO(2) is measured in a helium flow by gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS). The feed-motion of samples to the reaction vessel provides sequential dropping of only the samples (without the sample holder) into the acid, preventing the contamination of acid and allowing us to use the same acid to carry out very large numbers of analyses. The high accuracy and high reproducibility of the delta(13)C and delta(18)O analyses were demonstrated by measurements of international standards and comparison of results obtained by our method and by the conventional method. Our method allows us to analyze 10 microg of the carbonate with a standard deviation of +/-0.05 per thousand for delta(13)C and delta(18)O. The method has been used successfully for the analyses of the oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of the planktonic and benthic foraminifera in detailed palaeotemperature reconstructions of the Okhotsk Sea. PMID:19603476

  4. The carbon monoxide abundance in interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The steady-state abundance of carbon monoxide in interstellar clouds is calculated as a function of optical depth, density, and temperature. The molecular reactions which lead to CO can be initiated by the following ion-molecule reactions: H(+) + O yields O(+) + H, C(+) + H2 yields CH2(+) + a photon, and H3(+) + C and O. As the ultraviolet radiation field is attenuated, C(+) is transformed primarily into CO and C I. There are characteristic column densities for the transition to CO corresponding to the optical depths for attenuating this field at different wavelengths. For thick, low-temperature clouds the attenuation of the fields which ionize carbon, sulfur, and heavy metals is important for CO production initiated by H3(+). Complete conversion to CO does not necessarily occur, and considerable neutral carbon may be expected even in optically thick clouds. Comparison of integrated column densities of CO with extinction are in reasonable agreement with observations.

  5. The abundances of elements and isotopes in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Gloeckler, G. ); Geiss, J. )

    1989-03-01

    Solar wind abundances have now been measured for eleven elements and the isotopes of the noble gases. The composition of all elements up to and including Ni, as well as most of their isotopes, should become known when new high-mass-resolution solar wind spectrometers are launched in the next decade. Aside from solar wind protons and alpha particles, which have been studied extensively since the 1960's, our information for heavier elements is limited. Nevertheless, two effects stand out. First is the enrichment of abundances of elements with low first ionizaiton potential (FIP), most likely the combined result of (a) an atom-ion separation process in the upper chromosphere, and (b) a marginal coupling of low-charge-state heavy ions to protons and alphas during the acceleration of the solar wind. Second, there is variability in the solar wind composition over a whole range of time scales. Recent measurements carried out in the Earth's magnetosheath during times that included high-speed coronal-hole-associated flows indicate a significantly lower overabundance of low FIP elements. Given the fact that the He/H ratio is remarkably constant in the coronal hole solar wind, this result suggests that both enrichment and variability are reduced in such flows. Studies by the ULYSSES spacecraft of the characteristics and composition of the least complicated solar wind, i.e., the flow emanating from the polar coronal holes, should significantly increase our understanding of coronal processes and solar wind acceleration. By combining these studies with measurements of the complete elemental and isotopic composition of the solar wind, we will be able to derive solar abundances for elements and isotopes that otherwise are poorly known.

  6. Resonance ionization mass spectrometry for isotopic abundance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) is a relatively new laser-based technique for the determination of isotopic abundances. The resonance ionization process depends upon the stepwise absorption of photons from the laser, promoting atoms of the element of interest through progressively higher electronic states until an ion is formed. Sensitivity arises from the efficiency of the resonant absorption process when coupled with the power available from commercial laser sources. Selectivity derives naturally from the distinct electronic structure of different elements. This isobaric discrimination has provided the major impetus for development of the technique. Resonance ionization mass spectrometry was used for analysis of the isotopic abundances of the rare earth lutetium. Isobaric interferences from ytterbium severely effect the ability to measure small amounts of the neutron-deficient Lu isotopes by conventional mass spectrometric techniques. Resonance ionization for lutetium is performed using a continuous-wave laser operating at 452 nm, through a sequential two-photon process, with one photon exciting the intermediate resonance and the second photon causing ionization. Ion yields for microgram-sized quantities of lutetium lie between 10(6) and 10(7) ions per second, at overall ionization efficiencies approaching 10(-4). Discrimination factors against ytterbium greater than 10(6) have been measured. Resonance ionization for technetium is also being explored, again in response to an isobaric interference, molybdenum. Because of the relatively high ionization potential for Tc, three-photon, two-color RIMS processes are being developed.

  7. Isotope tracers of organic carbon during artificial recharge

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M.L.

    1998-02-09

    This project developed an analytical technique for measuring the isotope abundance for 14C and 13C in total organic carbon (TOC) in order to test whether these measurements can trace TOC interaction with sedimentary material at the bottom of rivers and lakes, soils, and subsurface aquifer rocks.

  8. Carbon and oxygen abundances in stellar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, P. E.; Chen, Y. Q.; Carigi, L.; Schuster, W. J.; Zhao, G.

    2014-08-01

    Context. Carbon and oxygen abundances in stars are important in many fields of astrophysics including nucleosynthesis, stellar structure, evolution of galaxies, and formation of planetary systems. Still, our knowledge of the abundances of these elements in different stellar populations is uncertain because of difficulties in observing and analyzing atomic and molecular lines of C and O. Aims: Abundances of C, O, and Fe are determined for F and G main-sequence stars in the solar neighborhood with metallicities in the range -1.6 < [Fe/H] < +0.4 in order to study trends and possible systematic differences in the C/Fe, O/Fe, and C/O ratios for thin- and thick-disk stars as well as high- and low-alpha halo stars. In addition, we investigate if there is any connection between C and O abundances in stellar atmospheres and the occurrence of planets. Methods: Carbon abundances are determined from the λλ 5052,5380 C i lines and oxygen abundances from the λ7774 O i triplet and the forbidden [O i] line at 6300 Å. MARCS model atmospheres are applied and non-LTE corrections for the O i triplet are included. Results: Systematic differences between high- and low-alpha halo stars and between thin- and thick-disk stars are seen in the trends of [C/Fe] and [O/Fe]. The two halo populations and thick-disk stars show the same trend of [C/O] versus [O/H], whereas the thin-disk stars are shifted to higher [C/O] values. Furthermore, we find some evidence of higher C/O and C/Fe ratios in stars hosting planets than in stars for which no planets have been detected. Conclusions: The results suggest that C and O in both high- and low-alpha halo stars and in thick-disk stars are made mainly in massive (M> 8 M⊙) stars, whereas thin-disk stars have an additional carbon contribution from low-mass AGB and massive stars of high metallicity causing a rising trend of the C/O ratio with increasing metallicity. However, at the highest metallicities investigated ([Fe/H] ≃ + 0.4), C/O does not

  9. Carbon isotopic composition of Amazon shelf sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Showers, W.J.; Angle, D.G.; Nittrouer, C.A.; Demaster, D.J.

    1985-02-01

    The distribution of carbon isotopes in Amazon shelf sediment is controlled by the same processes that are forming the modern subaqueous delta. The terrestrial (-27 to -25 per thousand) isotopic carbon signal observed in surficial sediments near the river mouth extends over 400 km northwest along the shelf. Terrestrial carbon is associated with areas of rapid sediment accumulation (topset and foreset regions). A sharp boundary between terrestrial (-27 to -25 per thousand) and marine (-23 to -22 per thousand) isotopic carbon values in surficial sediments is associated with a change in depositional conditions (foreset to bottomset regions) and a decrease in sediment accumulation rate. POC water-column isotopic values (-27 per thousand) near the river mouth are similar to the underlying surficial-sediment TOC isotopic values, but POC water-column samples collected 20 km off the river mouth have marine carbon isotopic values (-22 to -19 per thousand) and differ from the underlying surficial-sediment TOC isotopic values. These water column observations are related to variations in turbidity and productivity. Down-core isotopic variation is only observed in cores taken in areas of lower sediment accumulation rates. These observations indicate that the organic carbon in Amazon shelf sediment is dominantly terrestrial in composition, and the location of deposition of this carbon is controlled by modern processes of sediment accumulation. The modern Amazon shelf is similar to large clinoform shale deposits of the Cretaceous in North America. Thus, the stratigraphic setting may help predict the isotopic variations of carbon in ancient deposits.

  10. Carbon isotope effects in carbonate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deines, Peter

    2004-06-01

    Global carbon cycle models require a complete understanding of the δ 13C variability of the Earth's C reservoirs as well as the C isotope effects in the transfer of the element among them. An assessment of δ 13C changes during CO 2 loss from degassing magmas requires knowledge of the melt-CO 2 carbon isotope fractionation. In order to examine the potential size of this effect for silicate melts of varying composition, 13C reduced partition functions were computed in the temperature range 275 to 4000 K for carbonates of varying bond strengths (Mg, Fe, Mn, Sr, Ba, Pb, Zn, Cd, Li, and Na) and the polymorphs of calcite. For a given cation and a given pressure the 13C content increases with the density of the carbonate structure. For a given structure the tendency to concentrate 13C increases with pressure. The effect of pressure (‰/10 kbar) on the size of the reduced partition function of aragonite varies with temperature; in the pressure range 1 to 10 5 bars the change is given by: Δ 13C p average=-0.01796+0.06635∗ 10 3/T+0.006875∗ 10 6/T2 For calcite III the pressure effect is on average 1.4× larger than that for aragonite at all temperatures. The nature of the cation in a given structure type has a significant effect on the carbon isotope fractionation properties. The tendency to concentrate 13C declines in the series magnesite, aragonite, dolomite, strontianite, siderite, calcite, smithonite, witherite, rhodochrosite, otavite, cerrusite. For divalent cations a general expression for an estimation of the reduced partition function (β) from the reduced mass (μ = [M Cation × M Carbonate]/[M Cation + M Carbonate]) is: 1000 lnβ=(0.032367-0.072563∗ 10 3/T-0.01073∗ 10 6/T2)∗μ-14.003+29.953∗ 10 3/T+9.4610∗ 10 6/T2 For Mg-calcite the 13C content varies with the Mg concentration. The fractionation between Mg-calcite (X = mole fraction of MgCO 3) and calcite is given by: 1000 ln(α MgCalite- Calcite)=[0.013702-0.10957× 10 3/T+1.35940× 10 6/T2

  11. Metallicity-Dependent Isotopic Abundances and the Impact of Helium Rate Uncertainties in Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    model compared to the linear interpolation method, for the six s--only isotopes along the weak s--process path. As a second project, we study the sensitivity of presupernova evolution and supernova nucleosynthesis yields of massive stars to variations of the helium-burning reaction rates within the range of their uncertainties. The current solar abundances from Lodders (2010) are used for the initial stellar composition. We compute a grid of 12 initial stellar masses and 176 models per stellar mass to explore the effects of independently varying the 12C(alpha,gamma)16O and 3alpha reaction rates, denoted Ralpha,12 and R3alpha, respectively. The production factors of both the intermediate-mass elements (A=16--40) and the s--only isotopes along the weak s--process path ( 70Ge, 76Se, 80Kr, 82Kr, 86Sr, and 87Sr) were found to be in reasonable agreement with predictions for variations of R3alpha and Ralpha,12 of +/-25%; the s--only isotopes, however, tend to favor higher values of R3alpha than the intermediate-mass isotopes. The experimental uncertainty (one standard deviation) in R3alpha(Ralpha,12 ) is approximately +/-10%(+/-25%). The results show that a more accurate measurement of one of these rates would decrease the uncertainty in the other as inferred from the present calculations. We also observe sharp changes in production factors and standard deviations for small changes in the reaction rates, due to differences in the convection structure of the star. The compactness parameter was used to assess which models would likely explode as successful supernovae, and hence contribute explosive nucleosynthesis yields. We also provide the approximate remnant masses for each model and the carbon mass fractions at the end of core-helium burning as a key parameter for later evolution stages.

  12. The Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Hg in Extraterrestrial Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, J. D.; Klaue, Bjorn

    2005-01-01

    During the three year grant period we made excellent progress in our study of the abundances and isotopic compositions of Hg and other volatile trace elements in extraterrestrial materials. At the time the grant started, our collaborating PI, Dante Lauretts, was a postdoctoral research associate working with Peter Buseck at Arizona State University. The work on chondritic Hg was done in collaboration with Dante Lauretta and Peter Buseck and this study was published in Lauretta et a1 (2001a). In July, 2001 Dante Lauretta accepted a position as an Assistant Professor in the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona. His funding was transferred and this grant has supported much of his research activities during his first two years at the U of A. Several other papers are in preparation and will be published soon. We presented papers on this topic at Goldschmidt Conferences, the Lunar and Planetary Science Conferences, and the Annual Meetings of the Meteoritical Society. The work done under this grant has spurred several new directions of inquiry, which we are still pursuing. Included in this paper are the studies of bulk abundances and isotopic compositions of metreoritic Mercury, and the development of a thermal analysis ICP-MS technique applied to thermally liable elements.

  13. Nitrogen isotope abundances in the recent solar wind.

    PubMed

    Kim, J S; Kim, Y; Marti, K; Kerridge, J F

    1995-06-01

    Although lunar crystalline rocks are essentially devoid of nitrogen, the same is not true of the lunar regolith. The nitrogen contents of individual regolith samples (which can be as high as 0.012% by mass) correlate strongly with abundances of noble gases known to be implanted in the lunar surface by solar radiation, indicating that lunar regolith nitrogen is also predominantly of solar origin. The large variability in 15N/14N ratios measured in different regolith samples may thus reflect long-term changes in the isotopic composition of the solar radiation. But attempts to explain these variations have been hampered by the lack of any firm constraint on 15N/14N in the present solar wind. Here we report measurements of nitrogen isotopes from two lunar samples that have had simple (and relatively recent) exposure histories. We find that nitrogen implanted in the lunar surface during the past 10(5) to 5 x 10(7) years has a 15N/14N ratio approximately 40% higher than that in the terrestrial atmosphere, which is substantially lower than most previous estimates. This isotopic signature probably represents the best measure of 15N/14N in the present-day solar wind. PMID:7760930

  14. Elemental and isotopic abundances in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiss, J.

    1972-01-01

    The use of collecting foils and lunar material to assay the isotopic composition of the solar wind is reviewed. Arguments are given to show that lunar surface correlated gases are likely to be most useful in studying the history of the solar wind, though the isotopic abundances are thought to give a good approximation to the solar wind composition. The results of the analysis of Surveyor material are also given. The conditions leading to a significant component of the interstellar gas entering the inner solar system are reviewed and suggestions made for experimental searches for this fraction. A critical discussion is given of the different ways in which the basic solar composition could be modified by fractionation taking place between the sun's surface and points of observation such as on the Moon or in interplanetary space. An extended review is made of the relation of isotopic and elemental composition of the interplanetary gas to the dynamic behavior of the solar corona, especially processes leading to fractionation. Lastly, connection is made between the subject of composition, nucleosynthesis and the convective zone of the sun, and processes leading to modification of initial accretion of certain gases on the Earth and Moon.

  15. Probing the Isotopic Composition of Surface Waters Across Isotopic Extremes of Cryogenian Carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosak, T.; Matys, E. D.; Bird, L. R.; Macdonald, F. A.; Freeman, K. H.

    2012-12-01

    Neoproterozoic carbonate strata record unusually large and positive carbon isotope values (δ13Ccarb from 4 to 10 per mil), and stratigraphically extensive large negative carbon isotope excursions (δ13Ccarb < -5 per mil). Mechanisms that account for the magnitude, the facies distribution and the global abundance of these isotopically extreme carbonates in Neoproterozoic successions remain poorly understood. Little is also known about organisms and metabolisms that cycled carbon in these carbonate strata, because they rarely contain well-preserved organic-rich fossils. To better understand the cycling of carbon during the deposition of the 715-635 Ma Tayshir member of the Tsagaan Oloom Formation, Mongolia, we analyzed δ13Cfossil of two types of organic fossils that occur in 13C- enriched carbonates (+ 5 to 9.9 per mil) and within 13C-depleted carbonates of the Tayshir anomaly (-3 to -6 per mil). Because these organic microfossils are remarkably similar to the tests of modern planktonic, herbivorous tintinnid ciliates and benthic macroscopic red algae, respectively, they can be used as tracers of organic matter production in surface waters. Fossil tests were extracted by acid maceration, cleaned and analyzed morphologically and microscopically. Their carbon isotopic composition was measured using a nano-scaled elemental analyzer inlet (nano-EA-IRMS), with ±1 per mil analytical precision. To date, we analyzed 12 samples of 100-150 organic tests, representing 3 different fossiliferous parts of the Tayshir anomaly (δ13Ccarb < -3 per mil) and 3 different strata predating the Tayshir anomaly (δ13Ccarb > +5 per mil), respectively. More samples, including those of fossil algae and tests from the carbonate strata overlying the Tayshir anomaly, are currently being analyzed. Initial data reveal a rather constant isotopic composition of organic carbon in fossil tests (δ13Cfossil), with values of -23 ±1 per mil both within 13C-enriched and 13C-depleted carbonates. The

  16. A Clumped Isotope Calibration for Lacustrine Carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsunaga, B. A.; Mering, J. A.; Petryshyn, V. A.; Dunbar, R. B.; Cohen, A. S.; Liu, X.; Kaufman, D. S.; Eagle, R.; Tripati, A.

    2014-12-01

    Our capacity to understand Earth's environmental history is highly dependent on the accuracy of past climate reconstructions. Unfortunately, many terrestrial proxies—tree rings, speleothems, leaf margin analyses, etc.—are influenced by the effects of both temperature and precipitation. Methods that can isolate the effects of temperature alone are needed, and clumped isotope thermometry has the potential to be a useful tool for determining terrestrial climates. Multiple studies have shown that the fraction of 13C—18O bonds in carbonates is inversely related to the temperature at which the rocks formed and may be a useful proxy for reconstructing temperatures on land. An in-depth survey of lacustrine carbonates, however, has not yet been published. Therefore we have been measuring the abundance of 13C18O16O in the CO2 produced by the dissolution of modern lake samples' carbonate minerals in phosphoric acid and comparing results to independently known estimates of lake water temperature and air temperature. Some of the sample types we have investigated include endogenic carbonates, freshwater gastropods, bivalves, microbialites, and ooids.

  17. Carbon isotope effects associated with aceticlastic methanogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelwicks, J. T.; Risatti, J. B.; Hayes, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The carbon isotope effects associated with synthesis of methane from acetate have been determined for Methanosarcina barkeri 227 and for methanogenic archaea in sediments of Wintergreen Lake, Michigan. At 37 degrees C, the 13C isotope effect for the reaction acetate (methyl carbon) --> methane, as measured in replicate experiments with M. barkeri, was - 21.3% +/- 0.3%. The isotope effect at the carboxyl portion of acetate was essentially equal, indicating participation of both positions in the rate-determining step, as expected for reactions catalyzed by carbon monoxide dehydrogenase. A similar isotope effect, - 19.2% +/- 0.3% was found for this reaction in the natural community (temperature = 20 degrees C). Given these observations, it has been possible to model the flow of carbon to methane within lake sediment communities and to account for carbon isotope compositions of evolving methane. Extension of the model allows interpretation of seasonal fluctuations in 13C contents of methane in other systems.

  18. Carbon isotope effects associated with aceticlastic methanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gelwicks, J T; Risatti, J B; Hayes, J M

    1994-02-01

    The carbon isotope effects associated with synthesis of methane from acetate have been determined for Methanosarcina barkeri 227 and for methanogenic archaea in sediments of Wintergreen Lake, Michigan. At 37 degrees C, the 13C isotope effect for the reaction acetate (methyl carbon) --> methane, as measured in replicate experiments with M. barkeri, was - 21.3% +/- 0.3%. The isotope effect at the carboxyl portion of acetate was essentially equal, indicating participation of both positions in the rate-determining step, as expected for reactions catalyzed by carbon monoxide dehydrogenase. A similar isotope effect, - 19.2% +/- 0.3% was found for this reaction in the natural community (temperature = 20 degrees C). Given these observations, it has been possible to model the flow of carbon to methane within lake sediment communities and to account for carbon isotope compositions of evolving methane. Extension of the model allows interpretation of seasonal fluctuations in 13C contents of methane in other systems. PMID:11536629

  19. Carbon isotope effects associated with aceticlastic methanogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Gelwicks, J T; Risatti, J B; Hayes, J M

    1994-01-01

    The carbon isotope effects associated with synthesis of methane from acetate have been determined for Methanosarcina barkeri 227 and for methanogenic archaea in sediments of Wintergreen Lake, Michigan. At 37 degrees C, the 13C isotope effect for the reaction acetate (methyl carbon) --> methane, as measured in replicate experiments with M. barkeri, was - 21.3% +/- 0.3%. The isotope effect at the carboxyl portion of acetate was essentially equal, indicating participation of both positions in the rate-determining step, as expected for reactions catalyzed by carbon monoxide dehydrogenase. A similar isotope effect, - 19.2% +/- 0.3% was found for this reaction in the natural community (temperature = 20 degrees C). Given these observations, it has been possible to model the flow of carbon to methane within lake sediment communities and to account for carbon isotope compositions of evolving methane. Extension of the model allows interpretation of seasonal fluctuations in 13C contents of methane in other systems. PMID:11536629

  20. Biomarker and Carbon Isotope Signals from Leaf to Terrestrial Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, K. H.

    2012-12-01

    Biomarker and isotopic signatures of terrestrial organic matter are increasingly used to discern organic matter provenance in transport systems as well as to reconstruct environmental conditions of ancient landscapes. Such tools help scholars evaluate river transport and the influence of climate on terrestrial biomass and soil carbon, the largest reduced carbon inventories within the global surface environment. These signals reflect isotopic fractionation during photosynthesis and the abundance and composition of plant lipids, which are ultimately influenced by plant community, ecosystem structure and climate. Case studies and literature data for plants, biomarkers, litter carbon and soil organic matter refine the framework for evaluating and interpreting ancient terrestrial environments. Such studies reveal isotopic and biomarker patterns primarily track woody cover and moisture gradients in ancient landscapes. This emerging approach is currently limited by a lack of supporting and critical information about carbon isotopic differences between lipids and leaves, which appear to vary with environment as well as plant type. Environmental reconstructions and carbon-cycle studies are also limited by incomplete understanding of carbon isotopic relationships between modern litter, mineral soil, leaf waxes, and ancient archives of these properties. The net imprint of diagenesis on bulk carbon archives can potentially be constrained with companion biomarker studies, provided biomass production, litter delivery and lipid isotopic characteristics are constrained. Soil organic matter isotopic diagenesis is not fully understood, especially on geologic timescales, but appears to vary with both climate and ecosystem properties. This presentation will highlight recent findings and current knowledge gaps in understanding biomarker and ancient soil organic carbon as landscape tracers of past vegetation and climate.

  1. On the abundances of carbon dioxide isotopologues in the atmospheres of mars and earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shved, G. M.

    2016-03-01

    The isotopic composition of carbon dioxide in the Martian atmosphere from the measurements of Mars Science Laboratory have been used to estimate the relative abundances of CO2 isotopologues in the Martian atmosphere. Concurrently, this study has revealed long-standing errors in the amounts of some of low-abundance CO2 isotopologues in the Earth's atmosphere in the databases of spectroscopic parameters of gases (HITRAN, etc.).

  2. The abundance of carbon in HU 2-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    A logarithmic carbon abundance of 8.61 + or - 0.3 is derived for the planetary nebula Hu 2-1 using data taken with the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite. This value is close to the logarithmic carbon abundance of 8.67 + or - 0.1, found for the sun by other investigators. The carbon abundance of Hu 2-1 is compared to those of other planetary nebulae and to the predictions of stellar evolution calculations.

  3. Carbon isotope effects associated with autotrophic acetogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gelwicks, J.T.; Risatti, J.B.; Hayes, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The carbon kinetic isotope effects associated with synthesis of acetate from CO2 and H2 during autotrophic growth of Acetobacterium woodii at 30??C have been measured by isotopic analyses of CO2, methyl-carbon, and total acetate. Closed systems allowing construction of complete mass balances at varying stages of growth were utilized, and the effects of the partitioning of carbon between CO2 and HCO3- were taken into account. For the overall reaction, total carbonate ??? total acetate, isotope effects measured in replicate experiments ranged from -59.0 ?? 0.9% to - 57.2 ?? 2.3z%. Taking into account all measurements, the weighted mean and standard deviation are -58.6 ?? 0.7%. There is no evidence for intramolecular ordering in the acetate. The carbon isotopic composition of sedimentary acetate, otherwise expected to be near that of sedimentary organic carbon, is likely to be depleted in environments in which autotrophic acetogenesis is occurring. ?? 1989.

  4. Carbon isotope effects associated with autotrophic acetogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gelwicks, J T; Risatti, J B; Hayes, J M

    1989-01-01

    The carbon kinetic isotope effects associated with synthesis of acetate from CO2 and H2 during autotrophic growth of Acetobacterium woodii at 30 degrees C have been measured by isotopic analyses of CO2, methyl-carbon, and total acetate. Closed systems allowing construction of complete mass balances at varying stages of growth were utilized, and the effects of the partitioning of carbon between CO2 and HCO3- were taken account. For the overall reaction, total carbonate --> total acetate, isotope effects measured in replicate experiments ranged from -59.0 +/- 0.9% to -57.2 +/- 2.3%. Taking into account all measurements, the weighted mean and standard deviation are -58.6 +/- 0.7%. There is no evidence for intramolecular ordering in the acetate. The carbon isotopic composition of sedimentary acetate, otherwise expected to be near that of sedimentary organic carbon, is likely to be depleted in environments in which autotrophic acetogenesis is occurring. PMID:11542159

  5. Carbon isotope effects associated with autotrophic acetogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelwicks, J. T.; Risatti, J. B.; Hayes, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    The carbon kinetic isotope effects associated with synthesis of acetate from CO2 and H2 during autotrophic growth of Acetobacterium woodii at 30 degrees C have been measured by isotopic analyses of CO2, methyl-carbon, and total acetate. Closed systems allowing construction of complete mass balances at varying stages of growth were utilized, and the effects of the partitioning of carbon between CO2 and HCO3- were taken account. For the overall reaction, total carbonate --> total acetate, isotope effects measured in replicate experiments ranged from -59.0 +/- 0.9% to -57.2 +/- 2.3%. Taking into account all measurements, the weighted mean and standard deviation are -58.6 +/- 0.7%. There is no evidence for intramolecular ordering in the acetate. The carbon isotopic composition of sedimentary acetate, otherwise expected to be near that of sedimentary organic carbon, is likely to be depleted in environments in which autotrophic acetogenesis is occurring.

  6. Carbon and nitrogen isotope studies in an arctic ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.M.

    1989-12-31

    This proposal requests funding for the completion of our current ecological studies at the MS-117 research site at Toolik Lake, Alaska. We have been using a mix of stable and radioisotope techniques to assess the fluxes of carbon and nitrogen within the ecosystem and the implications for long-term carbon storage or loss from the tundra. Several tentative conclusions have emerged from our study including: Tundra in the foothills is no longer accumulating carbon. Surficial radiocarbon abundances show little or no accumulation since 1000--2500 yrs BP. Coastal plain tundra is still accumulating carbon, but the rate of accumulation has dropped in the last few thousand years. Carbon export from watersheds in the Kuparuk and Imnavait Creek drainages are in excess of that expected from estimated primary productivity; and Nitrogen isotope abundances vary between species of plants and along hydrologic gradients.

  7. Carbon and nitrogen isotope studies in an arctic ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    This proposal requests funding for the completion of our current ecological studies at the MS-117 research site at Toolik Lake, Alaska. We have been using a mix of stable and radioisotope techniques to assess the fluxes of carbon and nitrogen within the ecosystem and the implications for long-term carbon storage or loss from the tundra. Several tentative conclusions have emerged from our study including: Tundra in the foothills is no longer accumulating carbon. Surficial radiocarbon abundances show little or no accumulation since 1000--2500 yrs BP. Coastal plain tundra is still accumulating carbon, but the rate of accumulation has dropped in the last few thousand years. Carbon export from watersheds in the Kuparuk and Imnavait Creek drainages are in excess of that expected from estimated primary productivity; and Nitrogen isotope abundances vary between species of plants and along hydrologic gradients.

  8. Potassium isotope abundances in Australasian tektites and microtektites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, G. F.; O'D. Alexander, C. M.; Berger, E. L.; Delaney, J. S.; Glass, B. P.

    2008-10-01

    We report electron microprobe determinations of the elemental compositions of 11 Australasian layered tektites and 28 Australasian microtektites; and ion microprobe determinations of the 41K/39K ratios of all 11 tektites and 13 of the microtektites. The elemental compositions agree well with literature values, although the average potassium concentrations measured here for microtektites, 1.1 1.6 wt%, are lower than published average values, 1.9 2.9 wt%. The potassium isotope abundances of the Australasian layered tektites vary little. The average value of δ41K, 0.02 ± 0.12‰ (1σ mean), is indistinguishable from the terrestrial value (= 0 by definition) as represented by our standard, thereby confirming four earlier tektite analyses of Humayun and Koeberl (2004). In agreement with those authors, we conclude that evaporation has significantly altered neither the isotopic nor the elemental composition of Australasian layered tektites for elements less volatile than potassium. Although the average 41K/39K ratio of the microtektites, 1.1 ± 1.7‰ (1σ mean), is also statistically indistinguishable from the value for the standard, the individual ratios vary over a very large range, from -10.6 ± 1.4‰ to +13.8 ± 1.5‰ and at least three of them are significantly different from zero. We interpret these larger variations in terms of the evaporation of isotopically light potassium; condensation of potassium in the vapor plume; partial or complete stirring and quenching of the melts; and the possible uptake of potassium from seawater. That the average 41K/39K ratio of the microtektites equals the terrestrial value suggests that the microtektite-forming system was compositionally closed with respect to potassium and less volatile elements. The possibility remains open that 41K/39K ratios of microtektites vary systematically with location in the strewn field.

  9. The abundances of elements and isotopes in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, George; Geiss, Johannes

    1989-01-01

    Solar wind abundances have now been measured for eleven elements and the isotopes of the noble gases. Aside from solar wind protons and alpha particles, which have been studied extensively since the 1960's, information for heavier elements is limited. Nevertheless, two effects stand out. First is the enrichment of abundances of elements with low first ionization potential (FIP), most likely the combined result of an atom-ion separation process in the upper chromosphere, and a marginal coupling of low-charge-state heavy ions to protons and alphas during the acceleration of the solar wind. Second, there is variability in the solar wind composition over a whole range of time scales. Recent measurements carried out in the earth's magnetosheath during times that included high-speed coronal-hole-associated flows indicate a significantly lower overabundance of low FIP elements. Given the fact that the He/H ratio is remarkably constant in the coronal hole solar wind, this result suggests that both enrichment and variability are reduced in such flows.

  10. Stable carbon isotope ratios of rock varnish organic matter: a new paleoenvironmental indicator.

    PubMed

    Dorn, R I; Deniro, M J

    1985-03-22

    Stable carbon isotope ratios of organic matter in rock varnishes of Holocene age from western North America and the Middle East show a strong association with the environment. This isotopic variability reflects the abundance of plants with different photosynthetic pathways in adjacent vegetation. Analyses of different layers of varnish on late Pleistocene desert landforms indicate that the carbon isotopic composition of varnish organic matter is a paleoenvironmental indicator. PMID:17777781

  11. Carbon and its isotopes in mid-oceanic basaltic glasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Des Marais, D.J.; Moore, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Three carbon components are evident in eleven analyzed mid-oceanic basalts: carbon on sample surfaces (resembling adsorbed gases, organic matter, or other non-magmatic carbon species acquired by the glasses subsequent to their eruption), mantle carbon dioxide in vesicles, and mantle carbon dissolved in the glasses. The combustion technique employed recovered only reduced sulfur, all of which appears to be indigenous to the glasses. The dissolved carbon concentration (measured in vesicle-free glass) increases with the eruption depth of the spreading ridge, and is consistent with earlier data which show that magma carbon solubility increases with pressure. The total glass carbon content (dissolved plus vesicular carbon) may be controlled by the depth of the shallowest ridge magma chamber. Carbon isotopic fractionation accompanies magma degassing; vesicle CO2 is about 3.8??? enriched in 13C, relative to dissolved carbon. Despite this fractionation, ??13CPDB values for all spreading ridge glasses lie within the range -5.6 and -7.5, and the ??13CPDB of mantle carbon likely lies between -5 and -7. The carbon abundances and ??13CPDB values of Kilauea East Rift glasses apparently are influenced by the differentiation and movement of magma within that Hawaiian volcano. Using 3He and carbon data for submarine hydrothermal fluids, the present-day mid-oceanic ridge mantle carbon flux is estimated very roughly to be about 1.0 ?? 1013 g C/yr. Such a flux requires 8 Gyr to accumulate the earth's present crustal carbon inventory. ?? 1984.

  12. Martian carbon dioxide: Clues from isotopes in SNC meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlsson, H. R.; Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.; Jull, A. J. T.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Attempts to unravel the origin and evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere on Mars from isotopic data have been hampered by the impreciseness of the measurements made by the Viking Lander and by Earth-based telescopes. The SNC meteorites which are possibly pieces of the Martian surface offer a unique opportunity to obtain more precise estimates of the planet's volatile inventory and isotopic composition. Recently, we reported results on oxygen isotopes of water extracted by pyrolysis from samples of Shergotty, Zagami, Nakhla, Chassigny, Lafayette, and EETA-79001. Now we describe complementary results on the stable isotopic composition of carbon dioxide extracted simultaneously from those same samples. We will also report on C-14 abundances obtained by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for some of these CO2 samples.

  13. Carbon Isotope and Isotopomer Fractionation in Dense Molecular Cloud Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, K.; Aikawa, Y.; Sakai, N.; Yamamoto, S.

    2011-05-01

    Observations of 13C species would be useful to investigate chemistry of carbon-bearing species. Recent observations in TMC-1 indicate that the abundances are different among carbon isotopomers of the same species. For instance, Takano et al. (1998) found that HCC13CN is more abundant than HC13CCN and H13CCCN, which indicates the three carbon atoms are not equivalent in HC_3N. Sakai et al. (2007; 2010) reported the abundance ratios of C13CS/13CCS and CCH/13CCH to be 4.2 and 1.6, respectively. Again, two carbon atoms are not equivalent in CCS and CCH. Sakai et al. (2007; 2010) discussed an origin of these anomalies and pointed out two possibilities: (i) fractionation during the formation of the species and (ii) rearrangements of the 13C position after the formation of molecules by isotopomer-exchange reactions. We construct a gas-grain chemical network model which includes carbon isotopes (12C and 13C) and isotopomers in order to investigate the evolution of molecular abundances, the carbon isotope ratios (12CX/13CX) and the isotopomer ratios (12C13CX/13C12CX) of CCH and CCS in dense molecular cores. We confirm that the isotope ratios of molecules, both in the gas phase and on grain surfaces, mostly depend on whether the species is formed from the carbon atom (ion) or the CO molecule; the isotope ratio is larger than the elemental abundance ratio of 12C/13C if the species is formed from the carbon atom, while the ratio is smaller if the species is formed from the CO molecule (cf. Langer et al. 1984). We successfully reproduce the observed C13CH/13CCH ratio in TMC-1 by considering the isotopomer-exchange reaction, 13CCH + H rightleftharpoons C13CH + H + 8.1 K. However, the C13CS/13CCS ratio remains lower than observed in TMC-1. We then assume the isotopomer-exchange reaction catalyzed by the H atom, 13CCS + H rightleftharpoons C13CS + H + 17.4 K. In the model with this reaction, the observed C13CS/13CCS, CCS/C13CS and CCS/13CCS ratios can be reproduced simultaneously.

  14. Oxygen isotope fractionation in double carbonates.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Böttcher, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen isotope fractionations in double carbonates of different crystal structures were calculated by the increment method. Synthesis experiments were performed at 60 °C and 100 °C to determine oxygen and carbon isotope fractionations involving PbMg[CO3]2. The calculations suggest that the double carbonates of calcite structure are systematically enriched in (18)O relative to those of aragonite and mixture structures. Internally consistent oxygen isotope fractionation factors are obtained for these minerals with respect to quartz, calcite and water at a temperature range of 0-1200 °C. The calculated fractionation factors for double carbonate-water systems are generally consistent with the data available from laboratory experiments. The experimentally determined fractionation factors for PbMg[CO3]2, BaMg[CO3]2 and CaMg[CO3]2 against H2O not only fall between fractionation factors involving pure carbonate end-members but are also close to the calculated fractionation factors. In contrast, experimentally determined carbon isotope fractionation factors between PbMg[CO3]2 and CO2 are much closer to theoretical predictions for the cerussite-CO2 system than for the magnesite-CO2 system, similar to the fractionation behavior for BaMg[CO3]2. Therefore, the combined theoretical and experimental results provide insights into the effects of crystal structure and exchange kinetics on oxygen isotope partitioning in double carbonates. PMID:25393769

  15. Total carbon and sulfur abundances in Antarctic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Yanai, K.

    1979-01-01

    Total carbon and sulfur abundances have been measured in five Antarctic meteorites. Two C2 carbonaceous chondrites Yamato 74662 and Allan Hills 77306 have sulfur abundances (3.490 plus or minus .040% and 3.863 plus or minus 0.050% respectively) similar to other C2 chondrites but their carbon abundances (1.514 plus or minus 0.050% and 1.324 plus or minus .040% respectively) are lower than previously measured C2 chondrites. The decreased carbon abundances may reflect the effects of weathering in cold environments. Carbon and sulfur abundances for one C4 carbonaceous chondrite, one E4 enstatite chondrite and one ureilite are similar to values reported previously for meteorites of the same petrologic grades.

  16. Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Solar-Wind-Implanted Methane in Lunar Soil and Breccias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecluse, C.; Morse, A. D.; Butterworth, A. L.; Brilliant, D. R.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1995-09-01

    Early analyses of lunar soils have revealed the presence of ppm amounts of indigenous methane and ethane thought to originate from the interaction of carbon and hydrogen in the solar wind [1]. The carbon abundance of lunar soils are typically between 50 to 300 ppm with isotopic compositions ranging from 0 to +20 per mil [2]. Solar wind hydrogen is generally accepted to contain delta D = -1000 per mil i.e. O ppm deuterium content; as indicated from D/H measurements of lunar hydrogen, after correction for contamination effects of terrestrial water from the sample [3]. In addition, recent solar spectroscopic measurements have detected hydrogen bearing molecules e.g. water [4]. Hence, isotopic analyses of methane in lunar samples can provide valuable information about isotopic composition of solar wind implanted species. For this study, we have analyzed methane from lunar soil A12023 and a breccia fragment taken from soil A10086. The methane from these samples was released by stepped pyrolysis and introduced into a new static vacuum mass spectrometer, MIRANDA (capable of measuring the delta l3C of ng amounts of methane to a precision of +/- 0.2 per mil. Isotopic compositions and abundances are calculated from 17M/l6M ratios in methane from which the delta 13C values can be determined assuming that solar wind hydrogen is delta D = -1000 per mil. Results from A12023 are presented in Figure 1, results from A10086 are discussed elsewhere [5]. Both samples displayed a broad release of methane between 400 degrees C and 800 degrees C with yields of 1.3 ppm and 1.9 ppm for the soil and the breccia respectively, consistent with previous measurements of ppm amounts of methane [1]. Figure 1 illustrates that methane in A12023 is isotopically heavy with a plateau of delta 13C = +55 per mil at a temperature between 500 degrees C and 600 degrees C. This is consistent with the previous measurement of A10086 [5] which also revealed isotopically heavy carbon with delta 13C approximately

  17. Evidence from carbon isotope measurements for diverse origins of sedimentary hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, K. H.; Hayes, J. M.; Trendel, J. M.; Albrecht, P.

    1990-01-01

    The organic matter found in sedimentary rocks must derive from many sources; not only from ancient primary producers but also from consumers and secondary producers. In all of these organisms, isotope effects can affect the abundance and distribution of 13C in metabolites. Here, by using an improved form of a previously described technique in which the effluent of a gas chromatograph is continuously analysed isotopically, we report evidence of the diverse origins of sedimentary organic matter. The record of 13C abundances in sedimentary carbonate and total organic carbon can be interpreted in terms of variations in the global carbon cycle. Our results demonstrate, however, that isotope variations within sedimentary organic mixtures substantially exceed those observed between samples of total organic carbon. Resolution of isotope variations at the molecular level offers a new and convenient means of refining views both of localized palaeoenvironments and of control mechanisms within the global carbon cycle.

  18. Gluconeogenesis from labeled carbon: estimating isotope dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, J.K.

    1986-03-01

    To estimate the rate of gluconeogenesis from steady-state incorporation of labeled 3-carbon precursors into glucose, isotope dilution must be considered so that the rate of labeling of glucose can be quantitatively converted to the rate of gluconeogenesis. An expression for the value of this isotope dilution can be derived using mathematical techniques and a model of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The present investigation employs a more complex model than that used in previous studies. This model includes the following pathways that may affect the correction for isotope dilution: 1) flux of 3-carbon precursor to the oxaloacetate pool via acetyl-CoA and the TCA cycle; 2) flux of 4- or 5-carbon compounds into the TCA cycle; 3) reversible flux between oxaloacetate (OAA) and pyruvate and between OAA and fumarate; 4) incomplete equilibrium between OAA pools; and 5) isotope dilution of 3-carbon tracers between the experimentally measured pool and the precursor for the TCA-cycle OAA pool. Experimental tests are outlined which investigators can use to determine whether these pathways are significant in a specific steady-state system. The study indicated that flux through these five pathways can significantly affect the correction for isotope dilution. To correct for the effects of these pathways an alternative method for calculating isotope dilution is proposed using citrate to relate the specific activities of acetyl-CoA and OAA.

  19. Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry in continental tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, Katharine W.; Lechler, Alex R.

    2015-04-01

    Reconstructing the thermal history of minerals and fluids in continental environments is a cornerstone of tectonics research. Paleotemperature constraints from carbonate clumped isotope thermometry have provided important tests of geodynamic, structural, topographic and basin evolution models. The thermometer is based on the 13C-18O bond ordering in carbonates (mass-47 anomaly, Δ47) and provides estimates of the carbonate formation temperature independent of the δ18O value of the water from which the carbonate grew; Δ47 is measured simultaneously with conventional measurements of carbonate δ13C and δ18O values, which together constrain the isotopic composition of the parent water. Depending on the geologic setting of carbonate growth, this information can help constrain paleoenvironmental conditions or basin temperatures and fluid sources. This review examines how clumped isotope thermometry can shed new light on problems in continental tectonics, focusing on paleoaltimetry, basin evolution and structural diagenesis applications. Paleoaltimetry is inherently difficult, and the precision in carbonate growth temperature estimates is at the limit of what is useful for quantitative paleoelevation reconstruction. Nevertheless, clumped isotope analyses have enabled workers to address previously intractable problems and in many settings offer the best chance of understanding topographic change from the geologic record. The portion of the shallow crust residing at temperatures up to ca. 200 °C is important as host to economic resources and records of tectonics and climate, and clumped isotope thermometry is one of the few proxies that can access this critical range with sensitivity to temperature alone. Only a handful of studies to date have used clumped isotopes to investigate diagenesis and other sub-surface processes using carbonate crystallization temperatures or the sensitivity of Δ47 values to a sample's thermal history. However, the thermometer is

  20. Quantitative and In-Depth Survey of the Isotopic Abundance Distribution Errors in Shotgun Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng; Zhang, Jiyang; Xu, Changming; Zhao, Yan; Ma, Jie; Chen, Tao; He, Fuchu; Xie, Hongwei; Zhu, Yunping

    2016-07-01

    Accuracy is an important metric when mass spectrometry (MS) is used in large-scale quantitative proteomics research. For MS-based quantification by extracting ion chromatogram (XIC), both the mass and intensity dimensions must be accurate. Although much research has focused on mass accuracy in recent years, less attention has been paid to intensity errors. Here, we investigated signal intensity measurement errors systematically and quantitatively using the natural properties of isotopic distributions. First, we defined a normalized isotopic abundance error model and presented its merits and demerits. Second, a comprehensive survey of the isotopic abundance errors using data sets with increasing sample complexities and concentrations was performed. We examined parameters such as error distribution, relationships between signal intensities within one isotopic cluster, and correlations between different peak errors in isotopic profiles. Our data demonstrated that the high resolution MS platforms might also generate large isotopic intensity measurement errors (approximately 20%). Meanwhile, this error can be reduced to less than 5% using a novel correction algorithm, which is based on the theoretical isotopic abundance distribution. Finally, a nonlinear relationship was observed as the abundance error decreased in isotopic profiles with higher intensity. Our findings are expected to provide insight into isotopic abundance recalibration in quantitative proteomics. PMID:27266261

  1. Carbon and nitrogen abundances determined from transition layer lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika; Mena-Werth, Jose

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of determining relative carbon, nitrogen, and silicon abundances from the emission-line fluxes in the lower transition layers between stellar chromospheres and coronae is explored. Observations for main-sequence and luminosity class IV stars with presumably solar element abundances show that for the lower transition layers Em = BT sup -gamma. For a given carbon abundance the constants gamma and B in this relation can be determined from the C II and C IV emission-line fluxes. From the N V and S IV lines, the abundances of these elements relative to carbon can be determined from their surface emission-line fluxes. Ratios of N/C abundances determined in this way for some giants and supergiants agree within the limits of errors with those determined from molecular bands. For giants, an increase in the ratio of N/C at B-V of about 0.8 is found, as expected theoretically.

  2. New Carbonate Standard Reference Materials for Boron Isotope Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J.; Christopher, S. J.; Day, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    The isotopic composition of boron (δ11B) in marine carbonates is well established as a proxy for past ocean pH. Yet, before palaeoceanographic interpretation can be made, rigorous assessment of analytical uncertainty of δ11B data is required; particularly in light of recent interlaboratory comparison studies that reported significant measurement disagreement between laboratories [1]. Well characterised boron standard reference materials (SRMs) in a carbonate matrix are needed to assess the accuracy and precision of carbonate δ11B measurements throughout the entire procedural chemistry; from sample cleaning, to ionic separation of boron from the carbonate matrix, and final δ11B measurement by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. To date only two carbonate reference materials exist that have been value-assigned by the boron isotope measurement community [2]; JCp-1 (porites coral) and JCt-1 (Giant Clam) [3]. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) will supplement these existing standards with new solution based inorganic carbonate boron SRMs that replicate typical foraminiferal and coral B/Ca ratios and δ11B values. These new SRMs will not only ensure quality control of full procedural chemistry between laboratories, but have the added benefits of being both in abundant supply and free from any restrictions associated with shipment of biogenic samples derived from protected species. Here we present in-house δ11B measurements of these new boron carbonate SRM solutions. These preliminary data will feed into an interlaboratory comparison study to establish certified values for these new NIST SRMs. 1. Foster, G.L., et al., Chemical Geology, 2013. 358(0): p. 1-14. 2. Gutjahr, M., et al., Boron Isotope Intercomparison Project (BIIP): Development of a new carbonate standard for stable isotopic analyses. Geophysical Research Abstracts, EGU General Assembly 2014, 2014. 16(EGU2014-5028-1). 3. Inoue, M., et al., Geostandards and

  3. Shear heating and clumped isotope reordering in carbonate faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siman-Tov, Shalev; Affek, Hagit P.; Matthews, Alan; Aharonov, Einat; Reches, Ze'ev

    2016-07-01

    Natural faults are expected to heat rapidly during seismic slip and to cool quite quickly after the slip event. Here we examine clumped isotope thermometry for its ability to identify such short duration elevated temperature events along frictionally heated carbonate faults. Our approach is based on measured Δ47 values that reflect the distribution of oxygen and carbon isotopes in the calcite lattice, measuring the abundance of 13Csbnd 18O bonds, which is affected by temperature. We examine three types of calcite rock samples: (1) crushed limestone grains that were rapidly heated and then cooled in static laboratory experiments, simulating the temperature cycle experienced by fault rock during an earthquake slip; (2) limestone samples that were experimentally sheared to simulate earthquake slip events; and (3) samples from Fault Mirrors (FMs) collected from principle slip surfaces of three natural carbonate faults. Extensive FM surfaces are believed to form during earthquake slip. Our experimental results show that Δ47 values decrease rapidly (in the course of seconds) with increasing temperature and shear velocity. On the other hand, carbonate shear zones from natural faults do not show such Δ47 decrease. We suggest that the Δ47 response may be controlled by nano-size grains, the high abundance of defects, and highly stressed/strained grain boundaries within the carbonate fault zone that can reduce the activation energy for diffusion, and thus lead to an increased rate of isotopic disordering during shear experiments. In our laboratory experiments the high stress and strain on grain contacts and the presence of nanograins thus allows for rapid disordering so that a change in Δ47 occurs in a very short and relatively low intensity heating events. In natural faults it may also lead to isotopic ordering after the cessation of frictional heating thus erasing the high temperature signature of Δ47.

  4. Carbon abundance and silicate mineralogy of anhydrous interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, K. L.; Blanford, G. E.; Keller, L. P.; Klock, W.; McKay, D. S.

    1993-04-01

    We have studied nineteen anhydrous chondritic interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) using analytical electron microscopy. We have determined a method for quantitative light element EDX analysis of small particles and have applied these techniques to a group of IDPs. Our results show that some IDPs have significantly higher bulk carbon abundances than do carbonaceous chondrites. We have also identified a relationship between carbon abundance and silicate mineralogy in our set of anhydrous IDPs. In general, these particles are dominated by pyroxene, olivine, or a subequal mixture of olivine and pyroxene. The pyroxene-dominated IDPs have a higher carbon abundance than those dominated by olivines. Members of the mixed mineralogy IDPs can be grouped with either the pyroxene- or olivine-dominated particles based on their carbon abundance. The high carbon, pyroxene-dominated particles have primitive mineralogies and bulk compositions which show strong similarities to cometary dust particles. We believe that the lower carbon, olivine-dominated IDPs are probably derived from asteroids. Based on carbon abundances, the mixed-mineralogy group represents particles derived from either comets or asteroids. We believe that the high carbon, pyroxene-rich anhydrous IDPs are the best candidates for cometary dust.

  5. The temperature and carbonate ion influence on Pleistocene high latitude planktonic foraminiferal carbon isotopic records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, C.; Foreman, A. D.; Munson, J.; Slowey, N. C.; Hodell, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Establishing a credible record of the carbon isotopic composition of high latitude surface ocean DIC over ice ages has been an enormous challenge, because the possible archives of this important variable in deep sea sediments all incorporate complex effects of the biomineralization process. For example, culture experiments (by Spero and colleagues) demonstrate a strong temperature and carbonate ion effect on the carbon isotopic composition of G. bulloides--the taxon of planktonic foraminifera that is most abundant in the majority of subpolar sediment sequences. Here we capitalize on the fortuitous observation of exceptionally strong covariation between the oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of G. bulloides in multiple sediment sequences from the Benguela upwelling region. The covariation is most clear during Marine Isotopic Stage 3 (an interval when the isotopic composition of the seawater was least variable) and undoubtedly results from the precipitation of tests under variable conditions of temperature and carbonate ion. The unusually clear isotopic relationship in planktonic foraminifera observed off Namibia constitutes a field calibration of the biomineralization effects observed in culture, and we apply it to previously published high latitude carbon isotopic records throughout the Southern Ocean. We find that many of the excursions toward lower planktonic foraminiferal δ13C that have been interpreted previously as the upwelling of nutrient rich water during deglaciations are better explained as increases in upper ocean temperature and carbonate ion. Conversely, the excursions toward high δ13C during ice age intervals that have been interpreted previously as increased export production (purportedly stimulated by dust) are also better explained by temperature and carbonate ion variability. After removal of the inferred temperature and carbonate ion signal from the planktonic foraminiferal time series, the residual is essentially (but not exactly) the same

  6. Site-Specific Carbon Isotopes in Organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piasecki, A.; Eiler, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Natural organic molecules exhibit a wide range of internal site-specific isotope variation (i.e., molecules with same isotopic substitution type but different site). Such variations are generally unconstrained by bulk isotopic measurements. If known, site-specific variations might constrain temperatures of equilibrium, mechanisms of formation or consumption reactions, and possibly other details. For example, lipids can exhibit carbon isotope differences of up to 30‰ between adjacent carbon sites as a result of fractionations arising during decarboxylation of pyruvate and other steps in lipid biosynthesis(1). We present a method for site-specific carbon isotope analysis of propane, based on high-resolution, multi-collector gas source mass spectrometry, using a novel prototype instrument - the Thermo MAT 253 Ultra. This machine has an inlet system and electron bombardment ion source resembling those in conventional stable isotope gas source mass spectrometers, and the energy filter, magnet, and detector array resembling those in multi-collector ICPMS and TIMS. The detector array has 7 detector positions, 6 of which are movable, and each of which can collect ions with either a faraday cup (read through amplifiers ranging from 107-1012 ohms) or an SEM. High mass resolving power (up to 27,000, MRP = M/dM definition) is achieved through a narrow entrance slit, adjustable from 250 to 5 μm. Such resolution can cleanly separate isobaric interferences between isotopologues of organic molecules having the same cardinal mass (e.g., 13CH3 and 12CH2D). We use this technology to analyze the isotopologues and fragments of propane, and use such data to solve for the site-specific carbon isotope fractionation. By measuring isotopologues of both the one-carbon (13CH3) and the two-carbon (13C12CH4) fragment ion, we can solve for both bulk δ13C and the difference in δ13C between the terminal and central carbon position. We tested this method by analyzing mixtures between natural

  7. Carbon abundances of sdO stars from SPY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Heiko; Heber, Uli

    2009-06-01

    Ströer et al. (2007) recently suggested a classification of sdOs according to supersolar and subsolar helium abundances, with only the helium-enriched stars showing signes of carbon and/or nitrogen in their optical spectra. We aim to derive reliable carbon and nitrogen abundances by fitting synthetic spectra to data obtained with the UVES spectrograph at ESO. Here we present our first results of the analysis of carbon abundances in hot subdwarf O stars. By constructing a grid of model atmospheres consisting of hydrogen, helium and carbon we were able to derive atmospheric parameters of nine carbon rich sdOs. We find log(NC/Ntotal) up to ten times higher than the solar value, while the mean value for the effective temperature and the surface gravity is slightly lower than derived by helium-hydrogen models only. Surprisingly, we also find three fast rotators among our program stars.

  8. Dependence of tree ring stable isotope abundances and ring width on climate in Finnish oak.

    PubMed

    Hilasvuori, Emmi; Berninger, Frank

    2010-05-01

    We measured ring widths and isotopic abundances of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen (delta(13)C, delta(18)O and delta(2)H) from the latewood of tree rings of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) in its distributional northern limit in Southern Finland. Ring width was observed to be related to precipitation and relative humidity but not significantly to temperature. delta(13)C and delta(18)O were significantly related to all studied climatic variables, most strongly to cloud cover. Variations in delta(2)H were discovered to be complex combinations of signals from biochemical and physical processes. The results suggest that oaks in Finland can be used as a source of climate information. delta(18)O was discovered to be especially promising as it showed the strongest climate signal and highest common signal between trees. The relationship between climate and ring width indicates that water availability is the main control of ring radial growth. This is supported by the isotope data. High correlation between delta(13)C and delta(18)O time series indicates that photosynthetic carbon assimilation is limited by stomatal control. Therefore, in contrast to the expected temperature limitation, our data indicate that drought limits oak growth more than cold temperatures on the border of its northernmost distribution range. PMID:20357343

  9. Carbon and Carbon Isotope Cycling in the Western Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mol, Jacoba; Thomas, Helmuth

    2016-04-01

    Increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are having drastic effects on the global oceans. The Arctic Ocean is particularly susceptible to change as warming, sea-ice loss and a weak buffering capacity all influence this complicated semi-enclosed sea. In order to investigate the inorganic carbon system in the Canadian Arctic, water samples were collected in the Beaufort Sea, on the Alaskan shelf, at the Mackenzie river delta, and in Amundsen Gulf during the summer of 2014 and were analyzed for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), DI13C and 18O isotopes. Carbon isotopes are used to investigate the role of biological production on the uptake and transfer of inorganic carbon to depth. A preferential uptake of the lighter 12C relative to the heavier 13C isotope during biological production leads to a fractionation of the 13C/12C isotopes in both the organic matter and the water column. This results in an enrichment of DI13C in the high productivity surface waters and a depletion of DI13C at depth. Physical processes including freshwater input, brine rejection, and water mass mixing are investigated through the measurement of oxygen isotopes. Differences in the carbon system across the study area due to both biological and physical processes are assessed using depth profiles of DI13C and related carbon system parameters.

  10. Atmospheric Trace Gas Abundances and Stable Isotope Ratios via IR-LIF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    We propose to develop new technologies with support provided by PIDDP that will enable the in situ measurements of abundances and stable isotope ratios in important radiatively and biogenically active gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water, methane, nitrous oxide, and hydrogen sulfide to very high precision (0.1 per mil or better for the isotopic ratios, for example). Such measurements, impossible at present, could provide pivotal new constraints on the global (bio)geochemical budgets of these critical species, and could also be used to examine the dynamics of atmospheric transport on Mars, Titan, and other solar system bodies. We believe the combination of solid state light sources with imaging of the IR laser induced fluorescence (IR-LIF) via newly available detector arrays will make such in situ measurements possible for the first time. Even under ambient terrestrial conditions, the LIF yield from vibrational excitation of species such as water and carbon dioxide should produce emission measures well in excess of ten billion photons/sec from samples volumes of order 1 c.c. These count rates can, in principle, yield detection limits into the sub-ppt range that are required for the in situ isotopic study of atmospheric trace gases. While promising, such technologies are relatively immature, but developing rapidly, and there are a great many uncertainties regarding their applicability to in situ IR-LIF planetary studies. We therefore feel PIDDP support will be critical to developing these new tools, and propose a three-year program to combine microchip near-IR lasers with low background detection axes and state-of-the-art HgCdTe detectors developed for astronomical spectroscopy to investigate the sensitivity of IR-LIF under realistic planetary conditions, to optimize the optical pumping and filtering schemes for important species, and to apply the spectrometer to the non-destructive measurement of stable isotopes in a variety of test samples. These

  11. Variations in Lead Isotopic Abundances in Sprague-Dawley Rat Tissues: Possible Reason of Formation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Duojian; Wu, Jing; Ouyang, Li; Wang, Jingyu

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported in previous research that the lead isotopic composition of blood, urine and feces samples statistically differed from the given lead sources in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. However, the reason for this phenomenon is still unclear. An animal experiment was performed to investigate the lead isotope fractionation in diverse biological samples (i.e., lungs, liver, kidneys, bone) and to explore the possible reasons. SD rats were intratracheally instilled with lead acetate at the concentrations of 0, 0.02, 0.2, and 2 mg/kg body weight. Biological samples were collected for lead isotope analysis using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant differences are observed in lead isotope abundances among the diverse biological samples. The lead isotope abundances (206Pb, 207Pb and 208Pb) in diverse biological samples show different degrees and directions of departure from the given lead source. The results suggest that differences in enrichment or depletion capacity for each lead isotope in the various tissues might lead to the variation in lead isotopic abundances in tissues. Moreover, a nonlinear relationship between the blood lead level and the lead isotope abundances in liver and bone is observed. When the whole-blood level is higher than 50 ng/mL, the lead isotopic compositions of biological samples tend to be the same. Thus, the data support the speculation of a fractionation functional threshold. PMID:24587048

  12. Fractionation of stable carbon isotopes during chemoautotrophic growth of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ruby, E.G.; Jannasch, H.W.; Deuser, W.G.

    1987-08-01

    Laboratory-grown strains of chemoautotrophic Thiomicrospira sp. strain L-12 and Thiobacillus neapolitanus produced cell carbon that was 24.6 to 25.1 ppt (24.6 to 25.1 mg/g) lower in /sup 13/C isotope abundance than the ambient source of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate. This degree of /sup 13/C isotope depletion was comparable to that found in organic material produced in deep-sea hydrothermal-vent communities.

  13. STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF NUCLEIC ACIDS TO TRACE SOURCES OF DISSOLVED SUBSTRATES USED BY ESTUARINE BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The natural abundance of stable carbon isotopes measured in bacterial nucleic acids that were extracted from estuarine bacterial concentrates were used to trace sources of organic matter for bacteria in.aquatic environments. he stable carbon isotope ratios of P. aeruginosa and nu...

  14. Abundances of Linear Carbon-Chain Molecules in Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.; Deneault, E.; Meyer, B. S.; The, L.-S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper evaluates the condensation of carbon solids in a gas of pure C and O atoms when these exist within the interior of an expanding young supernova. We calculate the abundances of large carbon molecules, which serve as nucleations for condensation of graphites. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Isotopic inferences of ancient biochemistries - Carbon, sulfur, hydrogen, and nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schidlowski, M.; Hayes, J. M.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1983-01-01

    In processes of biological incorporation and subsequent biochemical processing sizable isotope effects occur as a result of both thermodynamic and kinetic fractionations which take place during metabolic and biosynthetic reactions. In this chapter a review is provided of earlier work and recent studies on isotope fractionations in the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, sulfur, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Attention is given to the biochemistry of carbon isotope fractionation, carbon isotope fractionation in extant plants and microorganisms, isotope fractionation in the terrestrial carbon cycle, the effects of diagenesis and metamorphism on the isotopic composition of sedimentary carbon, the isotopic composition of sedimentary carbon through time, implications of the sedimentary carbon isotope record, the biochemistry of sulfur isotope fractionation, pathways of the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen, and the D/H ratio in naturally occurring materials.

  16. Anatomy of a cluster IDP. Part 2: Noble gas abundances, trace element geochemistry, isotopic abundances, and trace organic chemistry of several fragments from L2008#5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.; Mckay, David S.; Messenger, S.; Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Walker, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: noble gas content and release temperatures; trace element abundances; heating summary of cluster fragments; isotopic measurements; and trace organic chemistry.

  17. Carbon and nitrogen abundance variations in globular cluster red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, Sarah L.

    2008-06-01

    This dissertation describes investigations into two of the persistent questions of elemental abundances in Galactic globular clusters: the phenomenon of deep mixing, observed through the progressive depletion of surface carbon abundance as stars evolve along the red giant branch, and abundance bimodality, a phenomenon observed only in globular clusters, in which a subset of stars in a given globular cluster have a distinctive pattern of elemental enhancements and depletions relative to the Solar pattern. The first chapter gives an introduction to the history of globular cluster abundance studies, with particular focus on low-resolution spectroscopy. For both deep mixing and abundance bimodality, the leading theoretical models and the data which support and challenge them are laid out. Each section ends with a description of presently-unanswered questions; these are the motivation for the various projects contained in this dissertation. The second chapter describes the use of molecular handstrengths for determining elemental abundances from low-resolution spectra, and introduces a new CH bandstrength index that is designed to be sensitive to carbon abundance and insensitive to nitrogen abundance in Pop. II red giants over a wide range of metallicity. Various CH indices defined elsewhere in the literature are also discussed, and are shown to have comparable accuracy to the new index only over a limited range of stellar properties. Carbon abundances determined using the new CH index are compared to literature abundances for a few stars, and general concordance with published abundances is found. The third chapter contains a large-scale application of the new CH index: a survey of present-day carbon abundances and calculated carbon depletion rates in bright red giants belonging to eleven Galactic globular clusters spanning the full metallicity range of halo globular clusters. Targets were selected with similar evolutionary states, were observed with one instrument on

  18. Coprecipitation and isotopic fractionation of boron in modern biogenic carbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Vengosh, A. Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem ); Chivas, A.R.; McCulloch, M.T. ); Kolodny, Y.; Starinsky, A. )

    1991-10-01

    The abundances and isotopic composition of boron in modern, biogenic calcareous skeletons from the Gulf of Elat, Israel, the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and in deep-sea sediments have been examined by negative thermal-ionization mass spectrometry. The selected species (Foraminifera, Pteropoda, corals, Gastropoda, and Pelecypoda) yield large variations in boron concentration that range from 1 ppm in gastropod shells to 80 ppm in corals. The variations of {delta}{sup 11}B may be controlled by isotopic exchange of boron species in which {sup 10}B is preferentially partitioned into the tetrahedral species, and coprecipitation of different proportions of trigonal and tetrahedral species in the calcium carbonates. The B content and {delta}{sup 11}B values of deep-sea sediments, Foraminifera tests, and corals are used to estimate the global oceanic sink of elemental boron by calcium carbonate deposition. As a result of enrichment of B in corals, a substantially higher biogenic sink of 6.4 {plus minus} 0.9 {times} 10{sup 10} g/yr is calculated for carbonates. This is only slightly lower than the sink for desorbable B in marine sediments (10 {times} 10{sup 10} g/yr) and approximately half that of altered oceanic crust (14 {times} 10{sup 10} g/yr). Thus, carbonates are an important sink for B in the oceans being {approximately}20% of the total sinks. The preferential incorporation of {sup 10}B into calcium carbonate results in oceanic {sup 11}B-enrichment, estimated as 1.2 {plus minus} 0.3 {times} 10{sup 12} per mil {center dot} g/yr. The boron-isotope composition of authigenic, well-preserved carbonate skeletons may provide a useful tool to record secular boron-isotope variations in seawater at various times in the geological record.

  19. Carbon isotope composition of Antarctic plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galimov, E. M.

    2000-05-01

    Carbon isotope compositions of Antarctic land plants are first reported. The most interesting feature is the isotope specificity of the species. For example Usnea antarctica from different locations shows relatively narrow range of the δ 13C-values from -22.44 to -21.29‰ (7 samples), Drepanocladus sp. from -24.86 to -23.49‰ (8 samples), and Andreaea depressincrvis from -23.87 to -23.23‰ (3 samples) etc. Usually, in inhabited lands and parts of the world with rich flora and developed soil, isotopic specificity of species is masked by variations of carbon isotope composition of CO 2. In Antarctic conditions influence of local sources of CO 2 on the isotope composition of CO 2 is appeared to be minimal. Therefore the δ 13C-variations inherent to individual plant physiology and biochemistry can be distinguished on the background of the stable level of the atmospheric CO 2 δ 13C-value. The latter is best to reflect the global state of the carbon cycle.

  20. Clumped isotope thermometry of cryogenic cave carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, Tobias; Affek, Hagit P.; Zhang, Yi Ge; Dublyansky, Yuri; Spötl, Christoph; Immenhauser, Adrian; Richter, Detlev K.

    2014-02-01

    Freezing of cave pool water that is increasingly oversaturated with dissolved carbonate leads to precipitation of a very specific type of speleothems known as cryogenic cave carbonates (CCC). At present, two different environments for their formation have been proposed, based on their characteristic carbon and oxygen isotope ratios. Rapidly freezing thin water films result in the fast precipitation of fine-grained carbonate powder (CCCfine). This leads to rapid physicochemical changes including CO2 degassing and CaCO3 precipitation, resulting in significantly 13C-enriched carbonates. Alternatively, slow carbonate precipitation in ice-covered cave pools results in coarse crystalline CCC (CCCcoarse) yielding strongly 18O-depleted carbonate. This is due to the formation of relatively 18O-enriched ice causing the gradual depletion of 18O in the water from which the CCC precipitates. Cryogenic carbonates from Central European caves were found to have been formed primarily during the last glacial period, specifically during times of permafrost thawing, based on the oxygen isotope ratios and U-Th dating. Information about the precise conditions of CCCcoarse formation, i.e. whether these crystals formed under equilibrium or disequilibrium conditions with the parent fluid, however, is lacking. An improved understanding of CCCcoarse formation will increase the predictive value of this paleo-permafrost archive. Here we apply clumped isotopes to investigate the formation conditions of cryogenic carbonates using well-studied CCCcoarse from five different cave systems in western Germany. Carbonate clumped isotope measurements yielded apparent temperatures between 3 and 18 °C and thus exhibit clear evidence of isotopic disequilibrium. Although the very negative carbonate δ18O values can only be explained by gradual freezing of pool water accompanied by preferential incorporation of 18O into the ice, clumped isotope-derived temperatures significantly above expected freezing

  1. Carbon isotope fractionation during microbial methane oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, James F.; Fritz, Peter

    1981-09-01

    Methane, a common trace constituent of groundwaters, occasionally makes up more than 20% of the total carbon in groundwaters1,2. In aerobic environments CH4-rich waters can enable microbial food chain supporting a mixed culture of bacteria with methane oxidation as the primary energy source to develop3. Such processes may influence the isotopic composition of the residual methane and because 13C/12C analyses have been used to characterize the genesis of methanes found in different environments, an understanding of the magnitude of such effects is necessary. In addition, carbon dioxide produced by the methane-utilizing bacteria can be added to the inorganic carbon pool of affected groundwaters. We found carbon dioxide experimentally produced by methane-utilizing bacteria to be enriched in 12C by 5.0-29.6‰, relative to the residual methane. Where methane-bearing groundwaters discharged into aerobic environments microbial methane oxidation occurred, with the residual methane becoming progressively enriched in 13C. Various models have been proposed to explain the 13C/12C and 14C content of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of groundwaters in terms of additions or losses during flow in the subsurface4,5. The knowledge of both stable carbon isotope ratios in various pools and the magnitude of carbon isotope fractionation during various processes allows geochemists to use the 13C/12C ratio of the DIC along with water chemistry to estimate corrected 14C groundwater ages4,5. We show here that a knowledge of the carbon isotope fractionation between CH4 and CO2 during microbial methane-utilization could modify such models for application to groundwaters affected by microbial methane oxidation.

  2. Determination of lithium isotopes at natural abundance levels by atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meier, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationships of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li hollow cathode lamp emissions are used to determine lithium isotopic composition in the natural abundance range of geologic materials. Absorption was found to have a nonlinear dependence upon total lithium concentration and isotopic composition. A method using nonlinear equations to describe the relationship of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li lamp radiation is proposed as a means of calculating isotopic composition that is independent of total lithium concentration.

  3. Carbon isotopes as indicators of peatland growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alewell, Christine; Krüger, Jan Paul; von Sengbusch, Pascal; Szidat, Sönke; Leifeld, Jens

    2016-04-01

    As undisturbed and/or growing peatlands store considerable amounts of carbon and are unique in their biodiversity and species assemblage, the knowledge of the current status of peatlands (growing with carbon sequestration, stagnating or degrading with carbon emissions) is crucial for landscape management and nature conservation. However, monitoring of peatland status requires long term measurements and is only feasible with expert knowledge. The latter determination is increasingly impeded in a scientific world, where taxonomic expert knowledge and funding of long term monitoring is rare. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes depth profiles in peatland soils have been shown to be a useful tool to monitor the degradation of peatlands due to permafrost thawing in Northern Sweden (Alewell et al., 2011; Krüger et al., 2014), drainage in Southern Finland (Krüger et al., 2016) as well as land use intensification in Northern Germany (Krüger et al., 2015). Here, we tackle the questions if we are able to differentiate between growing and degrading peats with the use of a combination of carbon stable (δ13C) and radiogenic isotope data (14C) with peat stratification information (degree of humification and macroscopic plant remains). Results indicate that isotope data are a useful tool to approximate peatland status, but that expert taxonomic knowledge will be needed for the final conclusion on peatland growth. Thus, isotope tools might be used for landscape screening to pin point sites for detailed taxonomic monitoring. As the method remains qualitative future research at these sites will need to integrate quantitative approaches to determine carbon loss or gain (soil C balances by ash content or C accumulation methods by radiocarbon data; Krüger et al., 2016). Alewell, C., R. Giesler, J. Klaminder, J. Leifeld, and M. Rollog. 2011. Stable carbon isotopes as indicators for micro-geomorphic changes in palsa peats. Biogeosciences, 8, 1769-1778. Krüger, J. P., Leifeld, J

  4. The Late Miocene Carbon Isotope Shift and Marine Biological Productivity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diester-Haass, L.; Billups, K.; Emeis, K. C.

    2004-12-01

    The late Miocene global carbon isotope shift of approximately 1 per mil is not well understood. Is it linked to ocean-related processes such as the AƒAøAøâ_sA¬A.â_oBiologic BloomAƒAøAøâ_sA¬ \\(Farrell et al., 1995\\), or to changes in type \\(C3/C4 plants\\) or cover of terrestrial vegetation? Here we examine the evolution of marine biological productivity during the isotope shift at ODP Site 846 \\(Pacific equatorial upwelling, where the AƒAøAøâ_sA¬A.â_oBiologic BloomAƒAøAøâ_sA¬ has been first described, Farrell al, 1995\\) and at Indian Ocean Site 721 \\(monsoon-driven upwelling\\), and compare their productivity history with non upwelling locations in the Atlantic Ocean. The onset of the carbon isotope shift is accompanied at all locations by an increase in paleoproductivity derived from benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates \\(expressed as gC/cm2 * ky; Huerguera, 2000\\) and increased abundance of Uvigerina spp.. At the equatorial upwelling sites the increase is comparable to half present-day values to present-day values; in the Atlantic Ocean paleoproductivity increases from present-day up to 3 times present-day values. But the productivity maxima are not concurrent. The carbon isotope shift is accompanied by severe carbonate dissolution and reduced ventilation of bottom waters, as reflected in the occurrence of pyrite and good preservation of cartilageous fish debris. Carbonate preservation is good since about 6 Ma despite high productivity. We discuss changing deep water circulation patterns, increased weathering and continental nutrient delivery, as well as erosion of terrestrial vegetation as possible factors to explain our findings.

  5. Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry Direct Isotope Abundance Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel J. Manard, Stephan Weeks, Kevin Kyle

    2010-05-27

    The nuclear forensics community is currently engaged in the analysis of illicit nuclear or radioactive material for the purposes of non-proliferations and attribution. One technique commonly employed for gathering nuclear forensics information is isotope analysis. At present, the state-of-the-art methodology for obtaining isotopic distributions is thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Although TIMS is highly accurate at determining isotope distributions, the technique requires an elementally pure sample to perform the measurement. The required radiochemical separations give rise to sample preparation times that can be in excess of one to two weeks. Clearly, the nuclear forensics community is in need of instrumentation and methods that can expedite their decision making process in the event of a radiological release or nuclear detonation. Accordingly, we are developing instrumentation that couples a high resolution IM drift cell to the front end of a MS. The IM cell provides a means of separating ions based upon their collision cross-section and mass-to-charge ratio (m/z). Two analytes with the same m/z, but with different collision cross-sections (shapes) would exit the cell at different times, essentially enabling the cell to function in a similar manner to a gas chromatography (GC) column. Thus, molecular and atomic isobaric interferences can be effectively removed from the ion beam. The mobility selected chemical species could then be introduced to a MS for high-resolution mass analysis to generate isotopic distributions of the target analytes. The outcome would be an IM/MS system capable of accurately measuring isotopic distributions while concurrently eliminating isobaric interferences and laboratory radiochemical sample preparation. The overall objective of this project is developing instrumentation and methods to produce near real-time isotope distributions with a modular mass spectrometric system that performs the required gas-phase chemistry and

  6. Carbon isotopes in biological carbonates: Respiration and photosynthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McConnaughey, T.A.; Burdett, J.; Whelan, J.F.; Paull, C.K.

    1997-01-01

    Respired carbon dioxide is an important constituent in the carbonates of most air breathing animals but is much less important in the carbonates of most aquatic animals. This difference is illustrated using carbon isotope data from freshwater and terrestrial snails, ahermatypic corals, and chemoautotrophic and methanotrophic pelecypods. Literature data from fish otoliths and bird and mammal shell and bone carbonates are also considered. Environmental CO2/O2 ratios appear to be the major controlling variable. Atmospheric CO2/O2 ratios are about thirty times lower than in most natural waters, hence air breathing animals absorb less environmental CO2 in the course of obtaining O2. Tissue CO2 therefore, does not isotopically equilibrate with environmental CO2 as thoroughly in air breathers as in aquatic animals, and this is reflected in skeletal carbonates. Animals having efficient oxygen transport systems, such as vertebrates, also accumulate more respired CO2 in their tissues. Photosynthetic corals calcify mainly during the daytime when photosynthetic CO2 uptake is several times faster than respiratory CO2 release. Photosynthesis, therefore, affects skeletal ??13C more strongly than does respiration. Corals also illustrate how "metabolic" effects on skeletal isotopic composition can be estimated, despite the presence of much larger "kinetic" isotope effects. Copyright ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. Laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry of carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bol‧shakov, Alexander A.; Mao, Xianglei; Jain, Jinesh; McIntyre, Dustin L.; Russo, Richard E.

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative determination of carbon isotopes using Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry (LAMIS) is described. Optical emission of diatomic molecules CN and C2 is used in these measurements. Two quantification approaches are presented: empirical calibration of spectra using a set of reference standards and numerical fitting of a simulated spectrum to the experimental one. Formation mechanisms of C2 and CN in laser ablation plasma are briefly reviewed to provide insights for implementation of LAMIS measurements. A simulated spectrum of the 12C2 Swan system was synthesized using four constituents within 473.5-476.5 nm. Simulation included three branches of 12C2 (1-0), branches R(0-0) and R(1-1), and branch P(9-8) of 12C2. Spectral positions of the tail lines in R(0-0) and R(1-1) were experimentally measured, since they were not accurately known before. The Swan band (1-0) of the isotopologue 13C12C was also simulated. Fitting to the experimental spectrum yielded the ratio 13C/12C = 1.08% in a good agreement with measurements by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. LAMIS promises to be useful in coal, oil and shale exploration, carbon sequestration monitoring, and agronomy studies.

  8. Laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry of carbon isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Bol'shakov, Alexander A.; Jain, Jinesh; Russo, Richard E.; McIntyre, Dustin; Mao, Xianglei

    2015-08-28

    Quantitative determination of carbon isotopes using Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry (LAMIS) is described. Optical emission of diatomic molecules CN and C2 is used in these measurements. Two quantification approaches are presented:empirical calibration of spectra using a set of reference standards and numerical fitting of a simulated spectrum to the experimental one. Formation mechanisms of C2 and CN in laser ablation plasma are briefly reviewed to provide insights for implementation of LAMIS measurements. A simulated spectrum of the 12C2 Swan system was synthesized using four constituents within 473.5–476.5 nm. Simulation included three branches of 12C2 (1-0), branches R(0-0) and R(1-1), and branch P(9-8) of 12C2. Spectral positions of the tail lines in R(0-0) and R(1-1) were experimentally measured, since they were not accurately known before. The Swan band (1-0) of the isotopologue 13C12C was also simulated. Fitting to the experimental spectrumyielded the ratio 13C/12C = 1.08% in a good agreement with measurements by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. LAMIS promises to be useful in coal, oil and shale exploration, carbon sequestration monitoring, and agronomy studies

  9. Abundance of atomic carbon /C I/ in dense interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, T. G.; Huggins, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    The abundance of interstellar neutral atomic carbon is investigated by means of its ground state fine-structure line emission at 492 GHz using the 91.5 cm telescope of NASAs Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Atomic carbon is found to be very abundant in dense interstellar molecular clouds with column densities of about 10 to the 19th per sq cm. Because the observations have considerably greater column densities than current theories of carbon chemistry, it is suggested that the physical conditions of these clouds are not as simple as assumed in the models. Various situations are discussed which would lead to large C I abundances, including the possibility that the chemical lifetimes of the clouds are relatively short.

  10. The abundance of the radioactive isotope Al-26 in galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Satellite observations of the isotopic composition of aluminum in low energy cosmic rays (E/M = 200 MeV/amu) have been used to determine the abundance of the unstable isotope Al-26 (T1/2 = 0.87 Myr). The observed abundance ratio, Al-26/Al-27 = 0.036 (+0.037, -0.022), is in good agreement with previous balloon observations and yields a cosmic ray confinement time consistent with values based on the abundance of Be-10.

  11. Daily Variation of Isotope Ratios in Mars Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livengood, Timothy A.; Kostiuk, Theodor; Kolasinski, John R.; Hewagama, Tilak; Henning, Wade G.; Sornig, Manuela; Stangier, Tobias; Krause, Pia; Sonnabend, Guido; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2014-11-01

    The atmosphere of Mars has been shown by ground based high-resolution infrared spectroscopy and in situ measurements with the Phoenix lander and Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover to be enriched in C and O heavy isotopes, consistent with preferential loss of light isotopes in eroding Mars’ primordial atmosphere. The relative abundance of heavy isotopes, combined with contemporary measurements of loss rates to be obtained with MAVEN, will enable estimating the primordial atmospheric inventory on Mars. IR spectroscopy of Mars collected in May 2012 as well as in March and May of 2014 from the NASA IRTF has resolved transitions of all three singly-substituted minor isotopologues of carbon dioxide in addition to the normal isotope, enabling remote measurements of all the carbon and oxygen isotope ratios as a function of latitude, longitude, and time of day. Earlier measurements obtained in October 2007 demonstrated that the relative abundance of O-18 increased linearly with increasing surface temperature over a relatively warm early-afternoon temperature range, but did not extend far enough to inspect the effect of late-afternoon cooling. These results imply that isotopically enriched gas is sequestered overnight when surface temperature is minimum and desorbs through the course of the day as temperature increases. Current spectroscopic constants indicate that the peak isotopic enrichment could be significantly greater than what has been measured in situ, apparently due to sampling the atmosphere at different time of day and surface temperature. The observing runs in 2012 and 2014 measured O-18 enrichment at several local times in both morning and afternoon sectors as well as at the subsolar, equatorial, and anti-subsolar latitudes. The two runs in 2014 have additionally observed O-17 and C-13 transitions in the morning sector, from local dawn to noon. These observations include a limited sampling of measurements over Gale Crater, which can be compared with

  12. Carbonate Ion Effects on Coccolith Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziveri, P.; Probert, I.; Stoll, H. M.

    2006-12-01

    The stable oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of biogenic calcite constitutes one of the primary tools used in paleoceanographic reconstructions. The δ18O of shells of ocean floor microfossils and corals reflects the composition of the paleo-seawater as they use the oxygen to build up their calcite and aragonite shells. The δ13C is used to reconstruct variations in the carbon isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in the ocean, which is controlled by biological productivity through the removal of isotopically light carbon in organic matter. To be effective and sensitive tools for understanding photic zone processes it is first necessary to understand the various biological fractionations associated with carbonate precipitation. To date, isotopic fractionation models are mainly based on foraminifera and corals but not on coccoliths, tiny plates produced by coccolithophore algae, which are often the most dominant carbonate contributors to pelagic sediments. As photosynthetic organisms, their chemistry can provide a sensitive tool for understanding photic zone processes. Coccoliths may be the most important carbonate phase for geochemical analysis in sediments where foraminifera are less common and/or core material is limited, such as in subpolar regions and for Early Cenozoic and Mesozoic sediments. Here we report experimental results on a common living coccolithophore species showing that the 13C/12C and 18O/16O ratios decrease with the increase of HCO^{3-} (CO32-). The selected species are among the heaviest calcifying extant coccolithophores and are major contributors to present coccolith carbonate export production. Because coccolithophores are photosynthetic organisms that calcify intracellularly in specialized vesicles, the challenge lies in ascertaining how kinetic and thermodynamic processes of isotopic fractionation are linked to cellular carbon "transport" and carbonate precipitation. This is a daunting challenge since studies have not

  13. Carbon isotopic composition of individual Precambrian microfossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Christopher H.; Schopf, J. William; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Coath, Christopher D.; Harrison, T. Mark; Stetter, Karl O.

    2000-08-01

    Ion microprobe measurements of carbon isotope ratios were made in 30 specimens representing six fossil genera of microorganisms petrified in stromatolitic chert from the ˜850 Ma Bitter Springs Formation, Australia, and the ˜2100 Ma Gunflint Formation, Canada. The δ13CPDB values from individual microfossils of the Bitter Springs Formation ranged from -21.3 ± 1.7‰ to -31.9 ± 1.2‰, and the δ13CPDB values from microfossils of the Gunflint Formation ranged from -32.4 ± 0.7‰ to -45.4 ± 1.2‰. With the exception of two highly 13C-depleted Gunflint microfossils, the results generally yield values consistent with carbon fixation via either the Calvin cycle or the acetyl-CoA pathway. However, the isotopic results are not consistent with the degree of fractionation expected from either the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle or the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle, suggesting that the microfossils studied did not use either of these pathways for carbon fixation. The morphologies of the microfossils suggest an affinity to the cyanobacteria, and our carbon isotopic data are consistent with this assignment.

  14. Carbon isotopic composition of individual Precambrian microfossils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, C. H.; Schopf, J. W.; McKeegan, K. D.; Coath, C. D.; Harrison, T. M.; Stetter, K. O.

    2000-01-01

    Ion microprobe measurements of carbon isotope ratios were made in 30 specimens representing six fossil genera of microorganisms petrified in stromatolitic chert from the approximately 850 Ma Bitter Springs Formation, Australia, and the approximately 2100 Ma Gunflint Formation, Canada. The delta 13C(PDB) values from individual microfossils of the Bitter Springs Formation ranged from -21.3 +/- 1.7% to -31.9 +/- 1.2% and the delta 13C(PDB) values from microfossils of the Gunflint Formation ranged from -32.4 +/- 0.7% to -45.4 +/- 1.2%. With the exception of two highly 13C-depleted Gunflint microfossils, the results generally yield values consistent with carbon fixation via either the Calvin cycle or the acetyl-CoA pathway. However, the isotopic results are not consistent with the degree of fractionation expected from either the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle or the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle, suggesting that the microfossils studied did not use either of these pathways for carbon fixation. The morphologies of the microfossils suggest an affinity to the cyanobacteria, and our carbon isotopic data are consistent with this assignment.

  15. s-process studies - Xenon and krypton isotopic abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.; Ward, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    We propose an analysis of the s-process contributions to the isotopes of xenon and krypton. The object is to aid studies of the possibility that meteorites may contain gas that was carried in presolar grains that were grown in stellar ejecta and that were not degassed prior to incorporation into parent bodies. That model suggests routine interstellar fractionation of s-isotopes from r-isotopes owing to differential incorporation into dust. We show that a deficiency of s-process nuclei cannot yield details of Xe-X, but the gross similarities are strong enough to lead one to think that such a deficiency may play a role in a more complicated explanation. We predict the existence of an s-rich complement somewhere if fractional separation of this type has played a role in Xe-X. We show that the analogous decomposition of krypton is more uncertain, and we call for measurements of neutron-capture cross sections to alleviate these uncertainties.

  16. Carbon Abundances on the M92 Giant Branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellman, S.; Briley, M. M.; Smith, G. H.

    1999-05-01

    Star clusters provide a snapshot of a group of stars nearly homogeneous in age and composition spread over a wide range of evolutionary states. By comparing elemental abundances among the stars in a cluster, changes in composition due to internal stellar processes are illuminated. In this project, carbon abundances were determined for a number of red giant and subgiant stars in the very metal-poor globular cluster M92 (NGC 6341). Determination was accomplished by comparing the spectral index S(4243) of program stars to index values computed for synthetic spectra of stellar models. Analysis of these index values confirms a clear pattern of decreasing carbon abundance as a function of increasing evolutionary state among cluster members. Carbon depletion in more evolved stars is evidence of internal mixing thought to be connected with a discontinuity in the luminosity function. In M92, carbon depletion appears to onset at absolute magnitude approximately 0.4 mag. below the previously derived (by Fusi Pecci et al., 1990) bump for a generalized metal-poor cluster. This implies a time lag between the onset of carbon depletion and the occurrence of the bump, and that the mixing of carbon-poor material to the surface is taking place earlier than originally thought.

  17. DETERMINING INTERSTELLAR CARBON ABUNDANCES FROM STRONG-LINE TRANSITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sofia, U. J.; Parvathi, V. S.; Babu, B. R. S.; Murthy, J.

    2011-01-15

    Carbon is arguably the most important element in the interstellar medium, yet its abundance in gas and dust is poorly understood due to a paucity of data. We explore the possibility of substantially increasing our knowledge of interstellar carbon by applying and assessing a new method for determining the column density of the dominant ion of interstellar carbon in diffuse neutral lines of sight. The method relies on profile fitting of the strong transition of C II at 1334 A in spectra continuum normalized with stellar models. We apply our method to six sight lines for which the carbon abundance has previously been determined with a weak intersystem absorption transition. Our strong-line method consistently shows a significantly lower gas-phase C abundance than the measurements from the weak lines. This result implies that more carbon could reside in dust than was previously thought. This has implications for dust models, which often suffer from a lack of sufficient carbon to plausibly explain extinction. There is no immediately clear explanation for the difference found between the strong- and weak-line C II determinations, but there are indications that the results from the method presented here have advantages over the weak-line column densities. If this is the case, then the reported oscillator strength for the C II transition at 2325 A may be too small. Our findings further suggest that damping wings modeled with a single absorption component may not produce accurate abundances. This problem could affect a large number of H I abundances determined through absorption line analysis that are reported in the literature.

  18. Precision performance of a Cavity Ring-down isotope spectrometer for carbon and oxygen isotopes of carbonate materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, K. L.; Hoffnagle, J.; He, Y.; Fleck, D.; Saad, N.; Dennis, K.

    2013-12-01

    We have developed a novel laser spectrometer intended specifically for the measurement of δ18O and δ13C in solid carbonate material. Carbonate carbon and oxygen isotopes provide key contributions into our understanding of climate, biogeochemical processes and the carbon cycle. For this reason, the isotopic measurements of carbonates are one of the most abundant measures made by Earth scientists today. Conventional measurement techniques using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), although optimized and prevalent, require dedicated personnel and can be expensive to operate. Here we present a new laser-based technique that will simplify measurements of δ18Ocarb and δ13Ccarb without compromising precision. To date, there have been no laser-based instruments with a demonstrated ability to meet the requirements of the carbonates community -- typically better than 0.1 ‰ for δ13C and δ18O for CO2 evolved from 1 mg of pure CaCO3. We will present data showing that the new Picarro G2171-i spectrometer meets these requirements. The spectrometer uses the laser-based spectroscopy technique of Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS), a technology that has been successfully applied to many other isotopic ratio measurements including δ13C of CO2, δ13C of CH4, and δ18O and δD of H2O. The spectrometer has been optimized to analyze the absorption spectra of concentrated CO2, specifically the isotopologues 12C16O16O, 13C16O16O, 12C16O18O, and 12C18O16O. We employ a new sample delivery technique that enables a longer integration time period, and hence more precise data. Long-term results for a run of 540 pulses of tank CO2 (90 hours) records a 1σ standard deviation precision for δ18O and δ13C of < 0.08 ‰ and < 0.055 ‰, respectively. We coupled the CRDS spectrometer to an optimized sample acidification system and analyzed standards to assess the accuracy of the CRDS. We will present an inter-comparison between CRDS and IRMS for carbonates using standards commonly used

  19. Evidence of 13C non-covalent isotope effects obtained by quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at natural abundance during normal phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Botosoa, Eliot P; Silvestre, Virginie; Robins, Richard J; Rojas, Jose Manuel Moreno; Guillou, Claude; Remaud, Gérald S

    2009-10-16

    Quantitative isotopic (13)C NMR at natural abundance has been used to determine the site-by-site (13)C/(12)C ratios in vanillin and a number of related compounds eluted from silica gel chromatography columns under similar conditions. Head-to-tail isotope fractionation is observed in all compounds at the majority of carbon positions. Furthermore, the site-specific isotope deviations show signatures characteristic of the position and functionality of the substituents present. The observed effects are more complex than would be obtained by simply summing the individual effects. Such detail is hidden when only the global (13)C content is measured by mass spectrometry. In particular, carbon positions within the aromatic ring are found to show site-specific isotope fractionation between the solute and the stationary phase. These interactions, defined as non-covalent isotope effects, can be normal or inverse and vary with the substitution pattern present. PMID:19748628

  20. Isotope Variations in Terrestrial Carbonates and Thermal Springs as Biomarkers: Analogs for Martian Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Socki, Richard A.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Bissada, K. K.

    2006-01-01

    Stable isotope measurements of carbonate minerals contained within ALH84001 [1] suggest that fluids were present at 3.9 Gy on Mars [2, 3, 4, 5]. Both oxygen and carbon isotopes provide independent means of deciphering paleoenvironmental conditions at the time of carbonate mineral precipitation. In terrestrial carbonate rocks oxygen isotopes not only indicate the paleotemperature of the precipitating fluid, but also provide clues to environmental conditions that affected the fluid chemistry. Carbon isotopes, on the other hand, can indicate the presence or absence of organic compounds during precipitation (i.e. biogenically vs. thermogenically-generated methane), thus serving as a potential biomarker. We have undertaken a study of micro scale stable isotope variations measured in some terrestrial carbonates and the influence of organic compounds associated with the formation of these carbonates. Preliminary results indicate that isotope variations occur within narrow and discrete intervals, providing clues to paleoenvironmental conditions that include both biological and non-biological activity. These results carry implications for deciphering Martian isotope data and therefore potential biological prospecting on the planet Mars. Recently, Fourier Transform Spectrometer observations have detected methane occurring in the Martian atmosphere [6] that could be attributed to a possible biogenic source. Indeed, Mars Express has detected the presence of methane in the Martian atmosphere [7], with evidence indicating that methane abundances are greatest above those basins with high water concentrations.

  1. Determining the isotopic abundance of a labeled compound by mass spectrometry and how correcting for natural abundance distribution using analogous data from the unlabeled compound leads to a systematic error.

    PubMed

    Schenk, David J; Lockley, William J S; Elmore, Charles S; Hesk, Dave; Roberts, Drew

    2016-04-01

    When the isotopic abundance or specific activity of a labeled compound is determined by mass spectrometry (MS), it is necessary to correct the raw MS data to eliminate ion intensity contributions, which arise from the presence of heavy isotopes at natural abundance (e.g., a typical carbon compound contains ~1.1% (13) C per carbon atom). The most common approach is to employ a correction in which the mass-to-charge distribution of the corresponding unlabeled compound is used to subtract the natural abundance contributions from the raw mass-to-charge distribution pattern of the labeled compound. Following this correction, the residual intensities should be due to the presence of the newly introduced labeled atoms only. However, this will only be the case when the natural abundance mass isotopomer distribution of the unlabeled compound is the same as that of the labeled species. Although this may be a good approximation, it cannot be accurate in all cases. The implications of this approximation for the determination of isotopic abundance and specific activity have been examined in practice. Isotopically mixed stable-atom labeled valine batches were produced, and both these and [(14) C6 ]carbamazepine were analyzed by MS to determine the extent of the error introduced by the approach. Our studies revealed that significant errors are possible for small highly-labeled compounds, such as valine, under some circumstances. In the case with [(14) C6 ]carbamazepine, the errors introduced were minor but could be significant for (14) C-labeled compounds with particular isotopic distributions. This source of systematic error can be minimized, although not eliminated, by the selection of an appropriate isotopic correction pattern or by the use of a program that varies the natural abundance distribution throughout the correction. PMID:26916110

  2. Is my C isotope excursion global, local, or both? Insights from the Mg and Ca isotopic composition of primary, diagenetic, and authigenic carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, J. A.; Blättler, C. L.; Husson, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The C isotopic composition of ancient limestones and dolomites is a widely used proxy for the global geochemical cycles of carbon and oxygen in the ocean-atmosphere system and a critical tool for chemostratigraphy in Precambrian rocks. Although relatively robust to diagenesis, the C isotopic composition of bulk carbonates can be reset when conditions favor high water-to-rock ratios or fluids with high C concentrations and distinct isotopic compositions. Authigenic carbonates and different pools of primary carbonate (e.g. calcite vs. aragonite) may also bias the C isotopic composition of bulk carbonates if they are both abundant and isotopically distinct. New approaches to quantifying contributions from diagenesis, authigenesis, and mixing of primary carbonates to the C isotopic composition of bulk sedimentary carbonates are needed. Here we present preliminary Mg and Ca isotope data sets of primary, diagenetic, and authigenic carbonates, both modern and ancient. We show that recrystallization, dolomitization, and authigenesis produce Mg and Ca isotope fingerprints that may be used to identify and characterize these processes in ancient carbonate sediments.

  3. BOREAS TE-5 Leaf Carbon Isotope Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Ehleriinger, Jim; Brooks, J. Renee; Flanagan, Larry

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-5 team collected measurements in the NSA and SSA on gas exchange, gas composition, and tree growth. This documentation describes leaf carbon isotope data that were collected in 1993 and 1994 at the NSA and SSA OJP sites, the SSA OBS site, and the NSA UBS site. In addition, leaf carbon isotope data were collected in 1994 only at the NSA and SSA OA sites. These data was collected to provide seasonal integrated physiological information for 10 to 15 common species at these 6 BOREAS sites. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  4. Empirical Solar Abundance Scaling Laws of Supernova {gamma} Process Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, Takehito; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Shizum, Toshiyuki; Umeda, Hideyuki; Nomoto, Ken'Ichi

    2008-11-11

    Analyzing the solar system abundances, we have found two empirical abundance scaling laws concerning the p- and s-nuclei with the same atomic number. They are evidence that the 27 p-nuclei are synthesized by the supernova {gamma}-process. The scalings lead to a novel concept of 'universality of {gamma}-process' that the s/p and p/p ratios of nuclei produced by individual {gamma}-processes are almost constant, respectively. We have calculated the ratios of materials produced by the {gamma}-process based on core-collapse supernova explosion models under various astrophysical conditions and found that the scalings hold for individual {gamma}-processes independent of the conditions assumed. The results further suggest an extended universality that the s/p ratios in the {gamma}-process layers are not only constant but also centered on a specific value of 3. With this specific value and the scaling of the s/p ratios, we estimate that the ratios of the s-process abundance contributions from the AGB stars to the massive stars are almost 6.7 for the s-nuclei of A>90 in the solar system.

  5. Variability of organic and elemental carbon, water soluble organic carbon, and isotopes in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, K. F.; Lee, S. C.; Cao, J. J.; Li, Y. S.; Chow, J. C.; Watson, J. G.; Fung, K.

    2006-10-01

    To determine the levels and variations of carbonaceous aerosol in Hong Kong, PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected by high volume (Hi-vol) samplers at three monitoring stations (representing middle-scale roadside, urban-, and regional-scale environments) during winter (November 2000 to February 2001) and summer (June 2001 to August 2001) periods. The highest concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were found at the middle-scale roadside site with the lowest at the regional-scale site. The percentages of WSOC in total carbon at these sites were inversely correlated with their concentrations (i.e., the highest percentages of WSOC were observed at the regional-scale site). A high WSOC fraction may be associated with aged aerosol because of the secondary formation by photochemical oxidation of organic precursors of anthropogenic pollutants during transport. The annual average of isotope abundances (δ13C) of OC and EC were -26.9±0.5‰ and -25.6±0.1‰, respectively. There were no notable differences for seasonal distributions of carbon isotopic composition, consistent with motor vehicle emissions being the main source contributors of carbonaceous aerosol in Hong Kong. OC 13C abundances at the regional-scale site were higher than those at the middle-scale roadside and urban sites, consistent with secondary organic aerosols of biogenic origin.

  6. Variability of organic and elemental carbon, water soluble organic carbon, and isotopes in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, K. F.; Lee, S. C.; Cao, J. J.; Li, Y. S.; Chow, J. C.; Watson, J. G.; Fung, K.

    2006-06-01

    To determine the levels and variations of carbonaceous aerosol in Hong Kong, PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected by high volume (Hi-vol) samplers at three monitoring stations (representing middle-scale roadside, urban-, and regional-scale environments) during winter (November 2000 to February 2001) and summer (June 2001 to August 2001) periods. The highest concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were found at the middle-scale roadside site with the lowest at the regional-scale site. The percentages of WSOC in total carbon at these sites were inversely correlated with their concentrations (i.e., the highest percentages of WSOC were observed at the regional-scale site). A high WSOC fraction may be associated with aged aerosol because of the secondary formation by photochemical oxidation of organic precursors of anthropogenic pollutants during transport. The annual average of isotope abundances (δ13C) of OC and EC were -26.9±0.5 and -25.6±0.1, respectively. There were no notable differences for seasonal distributions of carbon isotopic composition, consistent with motor vehicle emissions being the main source contributors of carbonaceous aerosol in Hong Kong. OC 13C abundances at the regional-scale site were higher than those at the middle-scale roadside and urban sites, consistent with secondary organic aerosols of biogenic origin.

  7. Diurnal and Interannual Variation in Absorption Lines of Isotopic Carbon Dioxide in Mars Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livengood, Timothy A.; Kostiuk, Theodor; Hewagama, Tilak; Kolasinski, John R.; Henning, Wade G.

    2015-11-01

    Groundbased observations of Mars in 2003, 2007, 2012, and 2014 have detected transitions of carbon dioxide containing the stable minor isotopes of oxygen and carbon as well as the primary isotopes, using the ultrahigh resolution spectrometer HIPWAC at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. The most well characterized minor isotope is O-18, due to strong lines and observational opportunities. The average estimated O-18/O-16 isotope ratio is roughly consistent with other in situ and remote spectroscopic measurements but demonstrates an additional feature in that the retrieved ratio appears to increase with greater ground surface temperature. These conclusions primarily come from analyzing a subset of the 2007 data. Additional observations have been acquired over a broad range of local time and meridional position to evaluate variability with respect to ground surface temperature. These additional observations include one run of measurements with C-13. These observations can be compared to local in situ measurements by the Curiosity rover to narrow the uncertainty in absolute isotope ratio and extend isotopic measurements to other regions and seasons on Mars. The relative abundance of carbon dioxide heavy isotopes on Mars is central to estimating the primordial atmospheric inventory on Mars. Preferential freeze-distillation of heavy isotopes means that any measurement of the isotope ratio can be only a lower limit on heavy isotope enrichment due to past and current loss to space.

  8. On the Evolution of Stars That Form Electron-degenerate Cores Processed by Carbon Burning. II. Isotope Abundances and Thermal Pulses in a 10 Msun Model with an ONe Core and Applications to Long-Period Variables, Classical Novae, and Accretion-induced Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritossa, Claudio; Garcia-Berro, Enrique; Iben, Icko, Jr.

    1996-03-01

    A 10 Msun model of Population I composition is evolved from the hydrogen-burning main sequence to the thermally pulsing `super' asymptotic giant branch (TPSAGB) stage, where it has an oxygen-neon (ONe) core of mass 1.196 Msun and is experiencing thermal pulses driven by helium-burning thermonuclear flashes. Interior abundance characteristics are relevant to an understanding of the core collapse of massive acereting white dwarfs in close binary star systems. At mass point 0.2 Msun., abundances by mass are X(16O) = 0.656, X(20Ne) = 0.215, X(23Na) = 0.0467, X(24Mg) = 0.0325, X(25Mg) = 0.0115, X(12 C)= 0.0112, X(22Ne) = 0.00893, X(21Ne) = 0.00689, X(26Mg) = 0.00560, and X(27Al) = 0.00528. Abundances near the surface of the core are relevant to an understanding of nova outbursts in cataclysmic variables. At mass point 1.17 Msun, abundances by mass are X(16O) = 0.511, X(20Ne) = 0.313, X(23Na) = 0.0644, X(24Mg) = 0.0548, X(25Mg) = 0.0158, X(27 Al)= 0.0108, X(12C) = 0.00916, X(26Mg) = 0.00989, X(21Ne) = 0.00598, and X(22Ne) = 0.00431. Carbon burning is quenched at the beginning of the thermally pulsing phase, and a layer of CO matter of mass 0.015 Msun separates the ONe core from overlying helium- and hydrogen-rich layers. The outer 0.01 M of the CO layer contains essentially no neon: very little new 20Ne has been made, and most of the 22Ne which has been made from the original CNO elements has been converted into 25Mg and neutrons which have been captured to form neutron-rich isotopes. If the observational counterpart of the model is in a close binary and fills its Roche lobe near the end of the carbon-burning phase, and if the binary evolves into a cataclysmic variable, one expects that the ejecta of approximately 1000 nova outbursts will exhibit an under- abundance of neon and overabundance of carbon, oxygen, and magnesium. During the TPSAGB phase, characteristics of a pulse cycle approach local limit-cycle values after ˜30 pulses. Helium-shell flashes are of about the

  9. Carbon chain abundance in the diffuse interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Hudgins, D. M.; Bauschlicher, C. W. Jr; Langhoff, S. R.

    1999-01-01

    Thanks to the mid-IR sensitivities of the ISO and IRTS orbiting spectrometers it is now possible to search the diffuse interstellar medium for heretofore inaccessible molecular emission. In view of the recent strong case for the presence of C(7-) (Kirkwood et al. 1998, Tulej et al. 1998),and the fact that carbon chains possess prominent infrared active modes in a very clean portion of the interstellar spectrum, we have analyzed the IRTS spectrum of the diffuse interstellar medium for the infrared signatures of these species. Theoretical and experimental infrared band frequencies and absolute intensities of many different carbon chain species are presented. These include cyanopolyynes, neutral and anionic linear carbon molecules, and neutral and ionized, even-numbered, hydrogenated carbon chains. We show that--as a family--these species have abundances in the diffuse ISM on the order of 10(-10) with respect to hydrogen, values consistent with their abundances in dense molecular clouds. Assuming an average length of 10 C atoms per C-chain implies that roughly a millionth of the cosmically available carbon is in the form of carbon chains and that carbon chains can account for a few percent of the visible to near-IR diffuse interstellar band (DIB) total equivalent width (not DIB number).

  10. On krypton isotopic abundances in the sun and in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marti, K.

    1980-01-01

    The Kr isotopic systematics in the meteorite Pesyanoe which is known to contain solar-type gases, are reported. Discrepancies in the isotopic data of fractions released at stepwise increasing temperatures cannot be reconciled with spallation Kr components, although spallation effects are significant. Fractionation mechanisms on the parent body and in the solar wind source region are considered and the implications for solar abundances discussed.

  11. Current and relic carbon using natural abundance carbon-13

    SciTech Connect

    layse,MF; Clapp,CE; Allmaras,RR; Linden,D.R; Molina, JAE.; Copeland,SM; Dowdy,RH

    2002-05-01

    The role of agricultural practices on soil carbon (C) dynamics is critical to improved soil management. The main objective was to examine the C interactions resulting from crop changes under different tillage and residue treatments.

  12. The Li isotope composition of modern biogenic carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellinger, M.; West, A. J.; Adkins, J. F.; Paris, G.; Eagle, R.; Freitas, P. S.; Bagard, M. L.; Ries, J. B.; Corsetti, F. A.; Pogge von Strandmann, P.; Ullmann, C. V.

    2015-12-01

    The lithium stable isotope composition (δ7Li) of sedimentary carbonates has great potential to unravel weathering rates and intensity in the past, with implications for understanding the carbon cycle over geologic time. However, so far very little is known about the potential influence of fractionation of the stable Li isotope composition of biogenic carbonates. Here, we investigate the δ7Li of various organisms (particularly mollusks, echinoderms and brachiopods) abundant in the Phanerozoic record, in order to understand which geologic archives might provide the best targets for reconstructing past seawater composition. The range of measured samples includes (i) modern calcite and aragonite shells from variable natural environments, (ii) shells from organisms grown under controlled conditions (temperature, salinity, pCO2), and (iii) fossil shells from a range of species collected from Miocene deposits. When possible, both the inner and outer layers of bivalves were micro-sampled to assess the intra-shell heterogeneity. For calcitic shells, the measured δ7Li of bivalve species range from +32 to +41‰ and is systematically enriched in the heavy isotope relative to seawater (31 ‰) and to inorganic calcite, which is characterized by Δ7Licalcite-seawater = -2 to -5‰ [1]. The Li isotope composition of aragonitic bivalves, ranging from +16 to +22‰, is slightly fractionated to both high and low δ7Li relative to inorganic aragonite. The largest intra-shell Li isotope variability is observed for mixed calcite-aragonite shells (more than 20‰) whereas in single mineralogy shells, intra-shell δ7Li variability is generally less than 3‰. Overall, these results suggest a strong influence of vital effects on Li isotopes during bio-calcification of bivalve shells. On the contrary, measured brachiopods systematically exhibit fractionation that is very similar to inorganic calcite, with a mean δ7Li of 27.0±1.5‰, suggesting that brachiopods may provide good

  13. Carbonate clumped isotope bond reordering and geospeedometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passey, Benjamin H.; Henkes, Gregory A.

    2012-10-01

    Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry is based on the preference of 13C and 18O to form bonds with each other. At elevated temperatures such bond ordering is susceptible to resetting by diffusion of C and O through the solid mineral lattice. This type of bond reordering has the potential to obscure primary paleoclimate information, but could also provide a basis for reconstructing shallow crustal temperatures and cooling rates. We determined Arrhenius parameters for solid-state reordering of C-O bonds in two different calcites through a series of laboratory heating experiments. We find that the calcites have different susceptibilities to solid-state reordering. Reaction progress follows a first order rate law in both calcites, but only after an initial period of non-first order reaction that we suggest relates to annealing of nonequilibrium defects when the calcites are first heated to experimental temperature. We show that the apparent equilibrium temperature equations (or "closure temperature" equations) for carbonate clumped isotope reordering are analogous Dodson's equations for first order loss of daughter isotopes. For each calcite, the sensitivity of apparent equilibrium temperature to cooling rate is sufficiently high for inference of cooling rates within a factor of ˜5 or better for cooling rates ranging from tens of degrees per day to a few degrees per million years. However, because the calcites have different susceptibilities to reordering, each calcite defines its own cooling rate-apparent equilibrium temperature relationship. The cooling rates of Carrara marble inferred from carbonate clumped isotope geospeedometry are 10-6-10-3 degrees per annum and are in broad agreement with rates inferred from thermochronometric methods. Cooling rates for 13C-depleted calcites from the late Neoproterozoic Doushantou cap carbonates in south China are on the order of 102-104 degrees per annum, consistent with rapid cooling following formation of these calcites by a

  14. Isotopic abundances of silicon in four red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, David L.; McWilliam, Andrew; Smith, Verne V.

    1987-05-01

    High-resolution spectra of Beta Peg, Omicron1 Ori, 10 Dra, and HR 1105 are analyzed in order to estimate Si-28/Si-29 and Si-28/Si-30 abundance ratios. The elimination of the Fourier Transform Spectrometer ripple, telluric N2O absorption, and the detector noise from the observations is discussed. The various methods used to derive the Si-28 and Si-29 abundance ratios are described. The equivalent and half widths of a number of strong and weak Si-28O lines, and the microturbulent and macroturbulent velocities of the Si-28O line are measured. The nucleosynthesis of Si-29 and Si-30 is examined. It is observed that the Si-28/Si-29 ratio is within 20 to 25 percent of the terrestrial ratio of 20 in Beta Peg and HR 1105, but that Si-29 is underabundant in 10 Dra and Omicron1 Ori; and Si-30 is underabundant in all four stars with respect to the terrestrial ratio of 30.

  15. The isotopic and elemental abundances of neon nuclei accelerated in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, W. F.; Simpson, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The relative isotopic abundances of Ne-20 and Ne-22 in seven solar flares were determined from measurements of the satellite IMP 8, yielding the ratio Ne-20/Ne-22 = 7.7 (+2.3, -1.5) for solar chromospheric matter. This value is in agreement with the ratio for the component neon-A (the 'primordial' component) found in carbonaceous chondrites. An elemental abundance ratio Ne/O = 0.14 + or - 0.01 also has been obtained which agrees closely with earlier reported measurements. It is shown that the effects of preferential acceleration relative to solar-system abundances with increasing charge number observed for some solar flares - though biasing the elemental ratio - does not appear to influence the neon isotopic abundances.

  16. Breath carbon stable isotope ratios identify changes in energy balance and substrate utilization in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid detection of shifts in substrate utilization and energy balance would provide a compelling biofeedback tool to enable individuals to lose weight. In a pilot study, we tested whether the natural abundance of exhaled carbon stable isotope ratios (breath d13C values) reflects shifts between negat...

  17. Equations for Lipid Normalization of Carbon Stable Isotope Ratios in Aquatic Bird Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Kyle H.; Davis, Mikaela; Elliott, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios are biogeochemical tracers that can be used to determine the source of nutrients and contaminants in avian eggs. However, the interpretation of stable carbon ratios in lipid-rich eggs is complicated because 13C is depleted in lipids. Variation in 13C abundance can therefore be obscured by variation in percent lipids. Past attempts to establish an algebraic equation to correct carbon isotope ratios for lipid content in eggs have been unsuccessful, possibly because they relied partly on data from coastal or migratory species that may obtain egg lipids from different habitats than egg protein. We measured carbon, nitrogen and sulphur stable isotope ratios in 175 eggs from eight species of aquatic birds. Carbon, nitrogen and sulphur isotopes were enriched in lipid-extracted egg samples compared with non extracted egg samples. A logarithmic equation using the C∶N ratio and carbon isotope ratio from the non extracted egg tissue calculated 90% of the lipid-extracted carbon isotope ratios within ±0.5‰. Calculating separate equations for eggs laid by species in different habitats (pelagic, offshore and terrestrial-influenced) improved the fit. A logarithmic equation, rather than a linear equation as often used for muscle, was necessary to accurately correct for lipid content because the relatively high lipid content of eggs compared with muscle meant that a linear relationship did not accurately approximate the relationship between percent lipids and the C∶N ratio. Because lipid extraction alters sulphur and nitrogen isotope ratios (and cannot be corrected algebraically), we suggest that isotopic measurement on bulk tissue followed by algebraic lipid normalization of carbon stable isotope ratio is often a good solution for homogenated eggs, at least when it is not possible to complete separate chemical analyses for each isotope. PMID:24465384

  18. Mg Isotopic Compositions of Modern Marine Carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogstad, E.; Bizzarro, M.; Hemming, N.

    2003-12-01

    We have used a MC-ICP-MS to measure the isotopic composition of magnesium in a number of samples of modern marine carbonate. Due to the large mass difference between 26Mg and 24Mg (similar to that between 13C and 12C), there is potential for mass fractionation during geologic and biologic processes that may make this isotope system useful for geochemical studies. These samples are from the study of Hemming and Hanson (1992, GCA 56: 537-543). The carbonate minerals analyzed include aragonite, low-Mg calcite, and high-Mg calcite. The samples include corals, echinoderms, ooids, etc., from subtropical to Antarctic settings. Mg purification was accomplished by ion-exchange chromatography, using Bio-Rad AG50W-X12 resin on which greater than 99 percent recovery of Mg is achieved. Samples were introduced into the MC-ICP-MS (VG Axiom) using a Cetac MCN-6000 nebuliser. We use a standard-sample-standard bracketing technique, and samples are analysed at least three times. For lab standards we find that the reproducibility on the 26Mg/24Mg to be about ñ 0.12 permil (2 s.d.). We monitored our separated samples for Na and Ca, as we have found that high Ca/Mg and Na/Mg produce variable magnesium isotopic fractionation during mass spectrometry due to as yet unclear matrix effects. We have normalized our results to our measured values for seawater. We observed a d26Mg(s.w.) range of -1.4 to -2.4 permil in our modern carbonate samples relative to present day seawater. Due to the long residence time of Mg in the oceans (ca. 50 my), this must be due to kinetic or biologic effects. Our d25Mg(s.w.) variations as a function of d26Mg(s.w.) plot along the terrestrial fractionation trend. With an average d26Mg(s.w.) of ca. +0.5 permil in all samples of mantle lithologies and mantle-derived igneous rocks (Bizzarro et al., Goldschmidt abs., 2003), we can assume that the Mg isotopic composition of Earth's river water lies between ca. -2.4 and +0.5 permil (relative to seawater). The actual

  19. Carbon Isotope Chemostratigraphy, the Baby and the Bathwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    Secular variations in the carbon isotopic values of carbonate sediments and rocks and their individual components have been applied successfully to problems of stratigraphic correlation and for interpretation of past changes in the global carbon cycle. However, this methodology is not without problems. A major tenet of stable isotope chemostratigraphy involves sampling and analyzing multiple, widely separated sequences, and, if possible, multiple carbon-bearing components (e.g., carbonate and organic carbon) in order to demonstrate a global signal. In some cases, this methodology has been short-circuited in the zeal to reveal a new event or excursion, particularly for time intervals for which adequate sequences are somewhat rare. Likewise, although most carbonate researchers are quite aware of the possible importance of diagenesis, particularly in organic-carbon rich sequences or in shoal-water carbonate sequences with longer-term subaerial exposure events, such overprints commonly go unrecognized or are considered of minor impact. Studies of stable isotope variations in carbonate sequences should always employ textural and geochemical methodologies for detecting and even quantifying diagenesis, if possible. Although some diagenetically overprinted or misinterpreted geochemical data have undoubtedly appeared in the literature, there are many excellent examples of global carbon isotope variations in records expressed in pelagic biogenic carbonate, marine organic carbon, platform carbonates, and terrestrial organic matter. Arguably, one of the best-documented examples is the Cenomanian-Turonian (ca. 93 Ma) positive carbon isotope excursion. The amplitude of the Cenomanian-Turonian carbon isotope excursion is similar among all types of records, but there are subtle pattern differences that arise from differences in sedimentation rate among and within sequences. Organic carbon and carbonate carbon isotope signals also may differ in phasing and amplitude for certain

  20. Calcium isotope evidence for suppression of carbonate dissolution in carbonate-bearing organic-rich sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchyn, Alexandra V.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2011-11-01

    Pore fluid calcium isotope, calcium concentration and strontium concentration data are used to measure the rates of diagenetic dissolution and precipitation of calcite in deep-sea sediments containing abundant clay and organic material. This type of study of deep-sea sediment diagenesis provides unique information about the ultra-slow chemical reactions that occur in natural marine sediments that affect global geochemical cycles and the preservation of paleo-environmental information in carbonate fossils. For this study, calcium isotope ratios (δ 44/40Ca) of pore fluid calcium from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 984 (North Atlantic) and 1082 (off the coast of West Africa) were measured to augment available pore fluid measurements of calcium and strontium concentration. Both study sites have high sedimentation rates and support quantitative sulfate reduction, methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation. The pattern of change of δ 44/40Ca of pore fluid calcium versus depth at Sites 984 and 1082 differs markedly from that of previously studied deep-sea Sites like 590B and 807, which are composed of nearly pure carbonate sediment. In the 984 and 1082 pore fluids, δ 44/40Ca remains elevated near seawater values deep in the sediments, rather than shifting rapidly toward the δ 44/40Ca of carbonate solids. This observation indicates that the rate of calcite dissolution is far lower than at previously studied carbonate-rich sites. The data are fit using a numerical model, as well as more approximate analytical models, to estimate the rates of carbonate dissolution and precipitation and the relationship of these rates to the abundance of clay and organic material. Our models give mutually consistent results and indicate that calcite dissolution rates at Sites 984 and 1082 are roughly two orders of magnitude lower than at previously studied carbonate-rich sites, and the rate correlates with the abundance of clay. Our calculated rates are conservative for these

  1. Oxygen isotope fractionation in divalent metal carbonates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neil, J.R.; Clayton, R.N.; Mayeda, T.K.

    1969-01-01

    Equilibrium fractionation factors for the distribution of 18O between alkaline-earth carbonates and water have been measured over the temperature range 0-500??C. The fractionation factors ?? can be represented by the equations CaCO3-H2O, 1000 ln??=2.78(106 T-2)-3.39, SrCO3-H 2O, 1000 ln??=2.69(106 T-2)-3.74, BaCO3-H2O, 1000 ln??=2.57(106 T -2)-4.73. Measurements on MnCO3, CdCO3, and PbCO3 were made at isolated temperatures. A statistical-mechanical calculation of the isotopic partition function ratios gives reasonably good agreement with experiment. Both cationic size and mass are important in isotopic fractionation, the former predominantly in its effect on the internal vibrations of the anion, the latter in its effect on the lattice vibrations.

  2. Further carbon isotope measurements of LEW 88516

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, I. P.; Douglas, C.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    Douglas et al. have previously analyzed the carbon content and isotopic composition of a crushed sample (sub-sample 13) of the shergottite, LEW 88516. The powder, which was from a relatively large portion of the meteorite in order to obtain a representative sample, was distributed amongst the scientific community. However, it is probable that the preparation procedure was not optimized for the purposes of carbon measurements. Indeed, it was found that LEW 88516,13 contained over 1200 ppm carbon, a concentration which is greater than that present in any other SNC meteorite. That a close relative, ALH A77005, contains only 141 ppm carbon seems to implicate the preparation procedure as being responsible for the apparently high carbon content of LEW 88516. However, it may also be the nature of the fine powder which has resulted in contamination. The observation of high carbon content in LEW 88516,13 highlights the extreme difficulty of trying to obtain representative samples of whole meteorites for this kind of investigation. Presented herein are some further measurements of LEW 88516 which should serve to clarify some of the issues raised by the previous investigation.

  3. Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios for Giant Stars in the Globular Cluster M13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Jaehyon; Pilachowski, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, our paradigm for the formation and evolution of globular clusters has shifted. We now understand that the majority of present-day stars in globular clusters formed as second-generation stars, primarily from the ejecta of first-generation AGB stars, while the majority of first generation, less centrally concentrated stars, have been dynamically lost to the cluster (D'Ercole et al. 2011). This paradigm explains the observed star-to-star variations in the abundances of light element observed in globular clusters, and suggests that the carbon isotope ratio should be similarly differentiated between first and second generation stars. In an effort to verify this scenario, we have recently utilized the Gemini/NIFS to determine carbon isotope abundances (12C and 13C) for 18 giant stars in the globular clusters M13 through medium-resolution (R ˜ 5300) infrared spectroscopy of the first-overtone CO bands near 2.3 μm. Our program stars are distributed from the tip of the RGB to the BLF (the bump in the luminosity function) of M13, and their Na, Mg, and Al abundances are already known from homogeneous data set analysis. Therefore, adding reliable abundances of the stable carbon isotopes to this homogeneous spectroscopic sample permits systematic tests of cluster chemical evolution models. We report preliminary results of the carbon abundance analysis for our NIFS K-band spectra and present an overview of our ongoing effort with other globular clusters.

  4. Relative isotopic abundances of zirconium in R Cygni and V CANCRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zook, A. C.

    1985-02-01

    The relative abundances of the isotopes of Zr in the S stars R Cyg and V Cnc are calculated by determining isotopic splitting at the head of the 1Pi - 1Sigma (0, 1) band of ZrO in spectra obtained at resolution 30 pm on hypersensitized 127-O4 plates with a Varo tube on the 51-cm camera at the Coude focus of the 3-m telescope at Lick Observatory. The data reduction techniques and the fit to the model synthetic spectra of Kurucz (1970) are described, and the ratio (Zr-90):(Zr-91):(Zr-92):(Zr-93):(Zr-94):(Zr-96) is given as 47:10:17:6:20:00 percent. The presence of the long-lived unstable isotope Zr-93 is interpreted as evidence for recent nucleosynthesis, and the abundances found are shown to be consistent with s-process nucleosynthesis.

  5. Radiogenic Carbon Isotopes in Authigenic Carbonate from Lake Neusiedl, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhuber, Stephanie; Steier, Peter; Gier, Susanne; Draganits, Erich; Kogelbauer, Ilse

    2015-04-01

    Formation of authigenic carbonate in Lake Neusiedl, Austia, has been reported since the 1960ies. The reaction pathways resulting in carbonate precipitation (protodolomite and high magnesium calcite) have yet to be identified. Lake Neusiedl is a shallow lake without significant sediment accumulation but constant reworking of sediment due to its shallow depth (1.8m) and influence by wind. The sediments are water-saturated silts and clays that overly Neogene sediments. The age of Lake Neusiedl is unknown due to its low sedimentation rate and constant remixing of sediment. Dating of authigenic minerals is an alternative method to determine the minimum age of water present - even episodically - at the location. We characterize the sediments mineralogy in different size fractions by X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD), Simultaneous Themo Analysis (STA) and Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy, stable carbon and oxygen isotopes as well as radiogenic carbon. To describe the authigenic carbonates and find the fractions with highest authigenic carbonate minerals we investigate the size fractions <4 µm, <3 µm, <2 µm, <1 µm, 0.5 µm and <0.2 µm. The "coarser" fractions (4 µm to 2 µm) contain detrital minerals such as chlorite, muscovite, quartz, feldspar, stoichiometric calcite and stoichiometric dolomite as well as authigenic high Mg calcite. Radiogenic carbon ages increase with increasing grain size from 850 years before present to 2300 years before present and indicate a very slow growth rate or episodic growth of authigenic carbonate phases.

  6. Carbon-isotopic analysis of dissolved acetate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelwicks, J. T.; Hayes, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Heating of dried, acetate-containing solids together with oxalic acid dihydrate conveniently releases acetic acid for purification by gas chromatography. For determination of the carbon-isotopic composition of total acetate, the acetate-containing zone of the chromatographic effluent can be routed directly to a combustion furnace coupled to a vacuum system allowing recovery, purification, and packaging of CO2 for mass-spectrometric analysis. For analysis of methyl carbon, acetic acid can be cryogenically trapped from the chromatographic effluent, then transferred to a tube containing excess NaOH. The tube is evacuated, sealed, and heated to 500 degrees C to produce methane by pyrolysis of sodium acetate. Subsequent combustion of the methane allows determination of the 13C content at the methyl position in the parent acetate. With typical blanks, the standard deviation of single analyses is less than 0.4% for acetate samples larger than 5 micromoles. A full treatment of uncertainties is outlined.

  7. Biomarker and molecular isotope approaches to deconvolve the terrestrial carbon isotope record: modern and Eocene calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefendorf, A. F.; Freeman, K. H.; Wing, S.; Currano, E. D.

    2010-12-01

    Climate, biome, and plant community are important predictors of carbon isotope patterns recorded in leaves and leaf waxes. However, signatures recorded by terrestrial organic carbon and lipids that have mixed floral sources (e.g., n-alkanes) potentially reflect both plant community changes and climate. More taxonomically specific proxies for plants (i.e., di- and tri-terpenoids for conifers and angiosperms, respectively), can help to resolve the relative influences of changing community and climate, provided differences in biomarker production and lipid biosynthetic fractionation among plants can be better constrained. We present biomarker abundance and carbon isotope values for lipids from leaves, branches and bark of 44 tree species, representing 21 families including deciduous and evergreen conifers and angiosperms. n-alkane production differs greatly between conifer and angiosperm leaves. Both deciduous and evergreen angiosperms make significantly more n-alkanes than conifers, with n-alkanes not detected in over half of the conifers in our study. Terpenoid abundances scale strongly with leaf habit: evergreen species have significantly higher abundances. We combine these relative differences in lipid production with published estimates of fluxes for leaf litter from conifer and angiosperm trees to develop a new proxy approach for estimating paleo plant community inputs to ancient soils and sediments. To test our modern calibration results, we have evaluated n-alkanes and terpenoids from laterally extensive (~18 km) carbonaceous shales and mudstones in Eocene sediments (52.6 Ma) at Fifteenmile Creek in the Bighorn Basin (WY, USA). Our terpenoid-based proxy predicts on average a 40% conifer community, which is remarkably close in agreement with a fossil-based estimate of 36%. n-alkane carbon isotope fractionation (leaf-lipid) differs among plant types, with conifer n-alkanes about 2-3‰ 13C enriched relative to those in angiosperms. Since conifer leaves are

  8. Carbon and Oxygen Abundances in Low Metallicity Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Danielle A.; Skillman, Evan D.; Henry, Richard B. C.; Erb, Dawn K.; Carigi, Leticia

    2016-08-01

    The study of carbon and oxygen abundances yields information on the time evolution and nucleosynthetic origins of these elements, yet they remain relatively unexplored. At low metallicities, (12+log(O/H) < 8.0), nebular carbon measurements are limited to rest-frame UV collisionally excited emission lines. Therefore, we present the UV spectrophotometry of 12 nearby low-metallicity high-ionization H ii regions in dwarf galaxies obtained using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We present the first analysis of the C/O ratio in local galaxies based solely on simultaneous significant detections of the UV {{{O}}}+2 and {{{C}}}+2 collisionally excited lines in seven of our targets and five objects from the literature to create a final sample of 12 significant detections. Our sample is complemented by optical SDSS spectra, from which we measured the nebular physical conditions and oxygen abundances using the direct method. At low metallicity, (12+log(O/H) < 8.0), no clear trend is evident in C/O versus O/H for the present sample given the large dispersion observed. When combined with recombination line observations at higher values of O/H, a general trend of increasing C/O with increasing O/H is also viable but with some significant outliers. Additionally, we find the C/N ratio appears to be constant (but with significant scatter) over a large range in oxygen abundance, indicating that carbon is predominantly produced by similar nucleosynthetic mechanisms as nitrogen. If true, and our current understanding of nitrogen production is correct, this would indicate that primary production of carbon (a flat trend) dominates at low metallicity, but quasi-secondary production (an increasing trend) becomes prominent at higher metallicities. A larger sample will be needed to determine the true nature and dispersion of the relation.

  9. Carbon isotope fractionation in synthetic magnesian calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Lopez, Concepción; Romanek, Christopher S.; Caballero, Emilia

    2006-03-01

    Mg-calcite was precipitated at 25 °C in closed system, free-drift experiments, from solutions containing NaHCO 3, CaCl 2 and MgCl 2. The carbon stable isotope composition of bulk solid and solution were analyzed from subsamples collected during time course experiments of 24 h duration. Considering only the Mg-content and δ 13C values for the bulk solid, the carbon isotope fractionation factor for the Mg-calcite-HCO 3(aq)- system (as 103lnα) increased with average mol percentage of Mg (X Mg) in the solid at a rate of (0.024 ± 0.011) per mol% MgCO 3. Extrapolation of this relationship to the pure calcite end member yields a value of 0.82 ± 0.09, which is similar to published values for the calcite-HCO 3(aq)- system. Although 103lnα did not vary for precipitation rates that ranged from 10 3.21 to 10 4.60 μmol m -2 h -1, it was not possible to hold Mg-content of the solid constant, so kinetic effect on 10 3 ln α could not be evaluated from these experiments.

  10. Syndepositional diagenesis of modern platform carbonates: Evidence from isotopic and minor element data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, William P.; Walter, Lynn M.

    1994-02-01

    Physical, elemental, and stable isotopic evidence documents significant syndepositional diagenesis off biogenic carbonate in modern sediment pore water. Halimeda (aragonite) and Neogoniolithon (high-Mg calcite) fragments from sediment cores and experimental substrates were compared with fresh samples to determine the magnitude of minor element (Sr, Mg), and stable isotopic (C and O) compositional shifts. Although no significant shift in bulk sediment mineralogy is apparent, experimental substrates and natural biogenic grains exhibit significant diagenetic changes. These changes include dissolution textures, net loss of mass, changes in minor element composition, and progressive evolution toward carbon and oxygen isotopic equilibrium with p ore water. Our results demonstrate that carbonate sediment can undergo rapid syndepositional dissolution and reprecipitation. Pore waters likely are buffered chemically and isotopically by most abundant carbonate grain types. In turn, compositions of less abundant carbonate grains may shift toward equilibrium with respect to pore water. Therefore, many components of shelf limestone have compositions controlled by chemically evolved pore waters rather than by seawater from which the biotic carbonate originally precipitated.

  11. Mercury (Hg) in meteorites: Variations in abundance, thermal release profile, mass-dependent and mass-independent isotopic fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Matthias M. M.; Cloquet, Christophe; Marty, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    We have measured the concentration, isotopic composition and thermal release profiles of Mercury (Hg) in a suite of meteorites, including both chondrites and achondrites. We find large variations in Hg concentration between different meteorites (ca. 10 ppb to 14,000 ppb), with the highest concentration orders of magnitude above the expected bulk solar system silicates value. From the presence of several different Hg carrier phases in thermal release profiles (150-650 °C), we argue that these variations are unlikely to be mainly due to terrestrial contamination. The Hg abundance of meteorites shows no correlation with petrographic type, or mass-dependent fractionation of Hg isotopes. Most carbonaceous chondrites show mass-independent enrichments in the odd-numbered isotopes 199Hg and 201Hg. We show that the enrichments are not nucleosynthetic, as we do not find corresponding nucleosynthetic deficits of 196Hg. Instead, they can partially be explained by Hg evaporation and redeposition during heating of asteroids from primordial radionuclides and late-stage impact heating. Non-carbonaceous chondrites, most achondrites and the Earth do not show these enrichments in vapor-phase Hg. All meteorites studied here have however isotopically light Hg (δ202Hg = ∼-7 to -1) relative to the Earth's average crustal values, which could suggest that the Earth has lost a significant fraction of its primordial Hg. However, the late accretion of carbonaceous chondritic material on the order of ∼2%, which has been suggested to account for the water, carbon, nitrogen and noble gas inventories of the Earth, can also contribute most or all of the Earth's current Hg budget. In this case, the isotopically heavy Hg of the Earth's crust would have to be the result of isotopic fractionation between surface and deep-Earth reservoirs.

  12. Oxygen and carbon isotope disequilibria in Galapagos corals: isotopic thermometry and calcification physiology

    SciTech Connect

    McConnaughey, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    Biological carbonate skeletons are built largely from carbon dioxide, which reacts to form carbonate ion within thin extracellular solutions. The light isotopes of carbon and oxygen react faster than the heavy isotopes, depleting the resulting carbonate ions in /sup 13/C and /sup 18/O. Calcium carbonate precipitation occurs sufficiently fast that the skeleton remains out of isotopic equilibrium with surrounding fluids. This explanation for isotopic disequilibrium in biological carbonates was partially simulated in vitro, producing results similar to those seen in non-photosynthetic corals. Photosynthetic corals have higher /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratios due to the preferential removal of /sup 12/C (as organic carbon) from the reservoir of dissolved inorganic carbon. The oxygen isotopic variations in corals can be used to reconstruct past sea surface temperatures to an accuracy of about 0.5/sup 0/C. The carbon isotopic content of photosynthetic corals provides an indication of cloudiness. Using isotopic data from Galapagos corals, it was possible to construct proxy histories of the El Nino phenomenon. The physiology of skeletogenesis appears to be surprisingly similar in calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, and silica precipitating systems.

  13. Analysis of the site-specific carbon isotope composition of propane by gas source isotope ratio mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piasecki, Alison; Sessions, Alex; Lawson, Michael; Ferreira, A. A.; Neto, E. V. Santos; Eiler, John M.

    2016-09-01

    Site-specific isotope ratio measurements potentially provide valuable information about the formation and degradation of complex molecules-information that is lost in conventional bulk isotopic measurements. Here we discuss the background and possible applications of such measurements, and present a technique for studying the site-specific carbon isotope composition of propane at natural abundance based on mass spectrometric analysis of the intact propane molecule and its fragment ions. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach through measurements of mixtures of natural propane and propane synthesized with site-specific 13C enrichment, and we document the limits of precision of our technique. We show that mass balance calculations of the bulk δ13C of propane based on our site-specific measurements is generally consistent with independent constraints on bulk δ13C. We further demonstrate the accuracy of the technique, and illustrate one of its simpler applications by documenting the site-specific carbon isotope signature associated with gas phase diffusion of propane, confirming that our measurements conform to the predictions of the kinetic theory of gases. This method can be applied to propane samples of moderate size (tens of micromoles) isolated from natural gases. Thus, it provides a means of studying the site-specific stable isotope systematics of propane at natural isotope abundances on sample sizes that are readily recovered from many natural environments. This method may also serve as a model for future techniques that apply high-resolution mass spectrometry to study the site-specific isotopic distributions of larger organic molecules, with potential applications to biosynthesis, forensics and other geochemical subjects.

  14. A carbon isotope mass balance for an anoxic marine sediment: Isotopic signatures of diagenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehme, Susan E.

    1993-01-01

    A carbon isotope mass balance was determined for the sediments of Cape Lookout Bight, NC to constrain the carbon budgets published previously. The diffusive, ebullitive and burial fluxes of sigma CO2 and CH4, as well as the carbon isotope signatures of these fluxes, were measured. The flux-weighted isotopic signature of the remineralized carbon (-18.9 plus or minus 2.7 per mil) agreed with the isotopic composition of the remineralized organic carbon determined from the particulate organic carbon (POC) delta(C-13) profiles (-19.2 plus or minus 0.2), verifying the flux and isotopic signature estimates. The measured delta(C-13) values of the sigma CO2 and CH4 diffusive fluxes were significantly different from those calculated from porewater gradients. The differences appear to be influenced by methane oxidation at the sediment-water interface, although other potential processes cannot be excluded. The isotope mass balance provides important information concerning the locations of potential diagenetic isotope effects. Specifically, the absence of downcore change in the delta(C-13) value of the POC fraction and the identical isotopic composition of the POC and the products of remineralization indicate that no isotopic fractionation is expressed during the initial breakdown of the POC, despite its isotopically heterogeneous composition.

  15. The origin of fluorine: abundances in AGB carbon stars revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abia, C.; Cunha, K.; Cristallo, S.; de Laverny, P.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Revised spectroscopic parameters for the HF molecule and a new CN line list in the 2.3 μm region have recently become available, facilitating a revision of the F content in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Aims: AGB carbon stars are the only observationally confirmed sources of fluorine. Currently, there is no consensus on the relevance of AGB stars in its Galactic chemical evolution. The aim of this article is to better constrain the contribution of these stars with a more accurate estimate of their fluorine abundances. Methods: Using new spectroscopic tools and local thermodynamical equilibrium spectral synthesis, we redetermine fluorine abundances from several HF lines in the K-band in a sample of Galactic and extragalactic AGB carbon stars of spectral types N, J, and SC, spanning a wide range of metallicities. Results: On average, the new derived fluorine abundances are systematically lower by 0.33 dex with respect to previous determinations. This may derive from a combination of the lower excitation energies of the HF lines and the larger macroturbulence parameters used here as well as from the new adopted CN line list. Yet, theoretical nucleosynthesis models in AGB stars agree with the new fluorine determinations at solar metallicities. At low metallicities, an agreement between theory and observations can be found by handling the radiative/convective interface at the base of the convective envelope in a different way. Conclusions: New fluorine spectroscopic measurements agree with theoretical models at low and at solar metallicity. Despite this, complementary sources are needed to explain its observed abundance in the solar neighbourhood.

  16. The Oxygen Isotopic Composition of MIL 090001: A CR2 Chondrite with Abundant Refractory Inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; McKeegan, K. D.; Sharp, Z. D.

    2012-01-01

    MIL 090001 is a large (>6 kg) carbonaceous chondrite that was classified as a member of the CV reduced subgroup (CVred) that was recovered during the 2009-2010 ANSMET field season [1]. Based on the abundance of refractory inclusions and the extent of aqueous alteration, Keller [2] suggested a CV2 classification. Here we report additional mineralogical and petrographic data for MIL 090001, its whole-rock oxygen isotopic composition and ion microprobe analyses of individual phases. The whole rock oxygen isotopic analyses show that MIL 090001 should be classified as a CR chondrite.

  17. Systematic AMD+GCM Study of Structure of Carbon Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Thiamova, G.; Itagaki, N.; Otsuka, T.; Ikeda, K.

    2004-02-27

    The structure of low-lying states of the carbon isotopes is investigated using the extended version of the Antisymmetrized Molecular Dynamics (AMD) Multi-Slater Determinant model. We can reproduce reasonably well many experimental data for carbon isotopes 12C-22C. A special approach is adopted for 15C to better describe the tail of the wave function.

  18. Preservation of carbonate clumped isotopes in sedimentary paleoclimate archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkes, G. A.; Passey, B. H.; Grossman, E. L.; Shenton, B.; Perez-Huerta, A.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry is increasingly used to reconstruct paleotemperatures of ancient terrestrial environments. One promising application is elucidating paleoelevation from carbonate archives such as paleosols, lacustrine marls, and fossil freshwater shells. Unlike conventional stable isotope approaches (e.g., mineral δ18O or δD), clumped isotope thermometry is independent of the isotopic composition of the precipitating waters and can therefore be used to reconstruct elevation by both the temperature-altitude relationship and the rainfall δ18O-altitude relationship. However, interpretation of clumped isotope data is not without its own complications. Like conventional stable isotopes, clumped isotope paleotemperatures can be effectively reset to warmer values by dissolution/reprecipitation-type diagenesis during sedimentary burial. It is also known that carbonate clumped isotope bonds (i.e., 13C-18O) are susceptible to 'reordering' in the solid mineral lattice at warmer burial temperatures, with laboratory studies of natural carbonates indicating activation of this phenomenon at temperatures as low as 100 °C over geologic timescales. A challenge in applying carbonate clumped isotope thermometry to natural samples is now evaluating terrestrial archives with respect to both types of alteration: 'open-system' alteration and 'closed-system' bond reordering. In this talk we will review our experimental efforts to constrain the kinetics of clumped isotope reordering, with relevance to low-temperature carbonates like fossil shells and early diagenetic minerals, and present new laboratory data that further inform our theoretical framework for the mechanism(s) of 13C-18O bond reordering. Together with traditional analytical and petrographic screening for recrystallization, empirical and laboratory studies of carbonate clumped isotope reordering represent the next steps in evaluating isotopic records of paleoclimate, paleobiology, and paleoelevation

  19. Carbon allocation in plants and ecosystems - insights from stable isotope studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessler, Arthur

    2014-05-01

    Trees are large global stores of carbon (C) that will be impacted by increased carbon dioxide levels and climate change. However, at present we cannot properly predict the carbon balance of forests in future as we lack knowledge on how plant physiological processes, the transfer of carbon within the plant, carbon storage, and remobilization in the plant tissues as well as the release of carbon from the roots to the soil interact with environmental drivers and ecosystem-scale processes. This paper will summarise how stable isotope techniques can give new insights in the fate of newly assimilated C in plants and ecosystems on time scales from hours to seasons and it will include studies either characterizing temporal and spatial variation in the natural abundance of carbon and oxygen isotopes or applying isotopically enriched tracers. It comprises the assessment of the mechanisms of C partitioning among specific metabolic pathways, between plant organs and into various ecosystem C pools with different residence times. Moreover stable isotopes are highly suitable tools to characterise the role of the phloem, which is the central long-distance conveyer distributing C from source to sinks and thus plays a central role in linking sites and structures of storage, growth and other metabolic activities. A deeper understanding of these processes and their interaction with environmental drivers is critical for predicting how trees and ecosystems will respond to coming global environmental changes, including increased temperature, altered precipitation, and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations.

  20. Biological control of calcium isotopic abundances in the global calcium cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Skulan, J.; DePaolo, D.J.; Owens, T.L. |

    1997-06-01

    Measurements of {sup 44}Ca/{sup 40}Ca, expressed as {delta}{sup 44}Ca, were made on igneous rocks and on shell and bone material from modern organisms to investigate the magnitude and origins of calcium isotopic fractionation in nature. The results document a span of 4{per_thousand} in {delta}{sup 44}Ca, measured with the double spike technique to a precision of {+-}0.15{per_thousand}. Volcanic rocks, including basalt and rhyolite, show little variability and cluster near {delta}{sup 44}Ca = 0 {+-}0.2. Systematic analysis of biological samples indicates that biological processing of calcium discriminates against heavy isotopes, and that biological fractionation is the primary generator of calcium isotopic fractionation in nature. Preliminary data suggest that calcium becomes isotopically lighter as it moves through food chains. Calcium carbonate shells of marine microorganisms and deep-sea carbonate ooze have {delta}{sup 44}Ca about 1.0{per_thousand}, lower than seawater; this fractionation causes seawater to be enriched in heavy calcium ({delta}{sup 44}Ca = +0.9) relative to igneous rocks. Marine organisms consequently are isotopically heavier than their terrestrial counterparts at similar trophic level. The calcium isotopic composition of living and fossil organisms may record information on diet and environment. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Global simulation of the carbon isotope exchange of terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, A.; Terao, Y.; Mukai, H.

    2009-12-01

    There remain large uncertainties in our quantification of global carbon cycle, which has close interactions with the climate system and is subject to human-induced global environmental change. Information on carbon isotopes is expected to reduce the uncertainty by providing additional constraints on net atmosphere-ecosystem exchange. This study attempted to simulate the dynamics of carbon isotopes at the global scale, using a process-based terrestrial ecosystem model: Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases (VISIT). The base-model of carbon cycle (Sim-CYCLE, Ito 2003) has already considered stable carbon isotope composition (13C/12C), and here radioactive carbon isotope (14C) was included. The isotope ratios characterize various aspects of terrestrial carbon cycle, which is difficult to be constrained by sole mass balance. For example, isotopic discrimination by photosynthetic assimilation is closely related with leaf stomatal conductance and composition of C3 and C4 plant in grasslands. Isotopic disequilibrium represents mean residence time of terrestrial carbon pools. In this study, global simulations (spatial resolution 0.5-deg, time-step 1-month) were conducted during the period 1901 to 2100 on the basis of observed and projected atmospheric CO2, climate, and land-use conditions. As anthropogenic CO2 accumulates in the atmosphere, heavier stable carbon isotope (13C) was diluted, while radioactive carbon isotope (14C) is strongly affected by atomic bomb experiments mainly in the 1950s and 1960s. The model simulated the decadal change in carbon isotope compositions. Leaf carbon with shorter mean residence time responded rapidly to the atmospheric change, while plant stems and soil humus showed substantial time-lag, leading to large isotopic disequilibrium. In the future, the isotopic disequilibrium was estimated to augment, due to accelerated rate of anthropogenic CO2 accumulation. Spatial distribution of stable isotope composition (12C/13C, or d13C) was

  2. Oxygen and carbon isotopic growth record in a reef coral from the florida keys and a deep-sea coral from blake plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emiliani, C.; Harold, Hudson J.; Shinn, E.A.; George, R.Y.

    1978-01-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotope analysis through a 30-year (1944 to 1974) growth of Montastrea annularis from Hen and Chickens Reef (Florida Keys) shows a strong yearly variation in the abundances of both carbon-13 and oxygen-18 and a broad inverse relationship between the two isotopes. Normal annual dense bands are formed during the summer and are characterized by heavy carbon and light oxygen. "Stress bands" are formed during particularly severe winters and are characterized by heavy carbon and heavy oxygen. The isotopic effect of Zooxanthellae metabolism dominates the temperature effect on the oxygen-18/oxygen-16 ratio. The isotopic results on the deep-sea solitary coral Bathypsammia tintinnabulum, where Zooxanthellae are nonexistent, indicates that the abundance of the heavy isotopes carbon-13 and oxygen-18 is inversely related to the growth rate, with both carbon and oxygen approaching equilibrium values with increasing skeletal age.

  3. Determining carbon-carbon connectivities in natural abundance organic powders using dipolar couplings.

    PubMed

    Dekhil, Myriam; Mollica, Giulia; Bonniot, Tristan Texier; Ziarelli, Fabio; Thureau, Pierre; Viel, Stéphane

    2016-06-30

    We present a solid-state NMR methodology capable of investigating the carbon skeleton of natural abundance organic powders. The methodology is based on the (13)C-(13)C dipolar coupling interaction and allows carbon-carbon connectivities to be unambiguously established for a wide range of organic solids. This methodology is particularly suitable for disordered solids, such as natural or synthetic macromolecules, which cannot be studied using conventional diffraction or NMR techniques. PMID:27319808

  4. Lead Abundance In The Martian Mantle Deduced From The Isotopic Data In Snc Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreibus, G.; Jagoutz, E.

    Isotopic data are a powerful tool for the study of planetary evolution. Assuming that the SNC meteorites are rocks from Mars their Sm-Nd-, Rb-Sr- and Pb-Pb-isotope systematics reveal the time scale for the chemical evolution of the Martian mantle. From the Rb -Sr isotopic systematic the existence of 3 isotopically distinct reservoirs on Mars was postulated, which remained isolated for a period of 4.3 +/- 0.2 Ga. The basaltic shergottites Shergotty, Zagami and Los Angeles have relatively high radiogenic Sr, which might come from a planetary crust. A second group, characterized by non radiogenic Sr, consists of the two mafic cumulates Nakhla and Chassigny, the olivine rich basaltic shergottites DaG 476, SaU 005, Dhofar 019and the basaltic shergottite QUE 94201, which may represent the depleted mantle. The depletion of this reservoir must have taken place during a very early process. as derived from the primitive Sr isotopes and the existence of Nd-142, the daughter product of the extinct Sm-146, found in Chassigny, the Nakhlites, SaU 005, and DaG476. A third group, with intermediate Sr isotopic composition, represented by the lherzolitic shergottites, could be derived from a primitive, unfractionated mantle. Our observed correlation of Sr-isotopes with Pb-isotopes in SNC's permits to estimate the Pb abundance for the Martian mantle. The Pb isotopes of all measured SNCs show a similar pattern as Sr isotopes. The initial Pb data of Los Angeles, Shergotty, and Zagami from the enriched crustal reservoir and of Nakhla and SaU 005 from the depleted mantle reservoir plot close to the 4.5 Ga Pb -Pb isochron.. We used this correlation to estimate the µ value (238U/204Pb) of 3.1 for the Martian mantle. This corresponds to 366 ppb Pb. Compared to the Earth with a µ = 8.8, Pb is enriched on Mars by at least a fact or of 2.5. The same enrichment was found for all other moderately volatile and volatile elements on Mars. From the high abundance of Pb in the sulfide phases of iron

  5. Isotope Dependence of Chemical Erosion of Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhold, Carlos O; Krstic, Predrag S; Stuart, S. J.; Zhang, Hengda; Harris, Peter R; Meyer, Fred W

    2010-01-01

    We study the chemical erosion of hydrogen-supersaturated carbon due to bombardment by hydrogen isotopes H, D, and T at energies of 1 30 eV using classical molecular dynamics simulations. The chemical structure at the hydrogen-saturated interface (the distribution of terminal hydrocarbon moieties, in particular) shows a weak dependence on the mass of the impinging atoms. However the sputtering yields increase considerably with increasing projectile mass. We analyze the threshold energies of chemical sputtering reaction channels and show that they are nearly mass independent, as expected from elementary bond-breaking chemical reactions involving hydrocarbons. Chemical sputtering yields for D impact are compared with new experimental data. Good agreement is found for small hydrocarbons but the simulations overestimate the production of large hydrocarbons for energies larger than 15 eV. We present a thorough analysis of the dependence of our simulations on the parameters of the bombardment schemes and discuss open questions and possible avenues for development.

  6. Carbon isotopic characterization of formaldehyde emitted by vehicles in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ping; Wen, Sheng; Liu, Yonglin; Bi, Xinhui; Chan, Lo Yin; Feng, Jialiang; Wang, Xinming; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2014-04-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most abundant carbonyl compound in the atmosphere, and vehicle exhaust emission is one of its important anthropogenic sources. However, there is still uncertainty regarding HCHO flux from vehicle emission as well as from other sources. Herein, automobile source was characterized using HCHO carbon isotopic ratio to assess its contributions to atmospheric flux and demonstrate the complex production/consumption processes during combustion in engine cylinder and subsequent catalytic treatment of exhaust. Vehicle exhausts were sampled under different idling states and HCHO carbon isotopic ratios were measured by gas chromatograph-combustion-isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). The HCHO directly emitted from stand-alone engines (gasoline and diesel) running at different load was also sampled and measured. The HCHO carbon isotopic ratios were from -30.8 to -25.7‰ for gasoline engine, and from -26.2 to -20.7‰ for diesel engine, respectively. For diesel vehicle without catalytic converter, the HCHO carbon isotopic ratios were -22.1 ± 2.1‰, and for gasoline vehicle with catalytic converter, the ratios were -21.4 ± 0.7‰. Most of the HCHO carbon isotopic ratios were heavier than the fuel isotopic ratios (from -29 to -27‰). For gasoline vehicle, the isotopic fractionation (Δ13C) between HCHO and fuel isotopic ratios was 7.4 ± 0.7‰, which was higher than that of HCHO from stand-alone gasoline engine (Δ13Cmax = 2.7‰), suggesting additional consumption by the catalytic converter. For diesel vehicle without catalytic converter, Δ13C was 5.7 ± 2.0‰, similar to that of stand-alone diesel engine. In general, the carbon isotopic signatures of HCHO emitted from automobiles were not sensitive to idling states or to other vehicle parameters in our study condition. On comparing these HCHO carbon isotopic data with those of past studies, the atmospheric HCHO in a bus station in Guangzhou might mainly come from vehicle emission for

  7. Clumped isotope calibration data for lacustrine carbonates: A progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripati, A.

    2015-12-01

    Our capacity to understand Earth's environmental history is highly dependent on the accuracy of reconstructions of past climates. Lake sediments provide important archives of terrestrial climate change, and represent an important tool for reconstructing paleohydrology, paleoclimate, paleoenvironment, and paleoaltimetry. Unfortunately, while multiple methods for constraining marine temperature exist, quantitative terrestrial proxies are scarcer - tree rings, speleothems, and leaf margin analyses have all been used with varying degrees of accuracy. Clumped isotope thermometry has the potential to be a useful instrument for determining terrestrial climates: multiple studies have shown the fraction of 13C—18O bonds in carbonates is inversely related to the temperature at which the rocks formed. We have been measuring the abundance of 13C18O16O in the CO2 produced by the dissolution of carbonate minerals in phosphoric acid in modern lake samples and comparing results to independently known estimates of lake water temperature. Here we discuss an extensive calibration dataset comprised of 132 analyses of 97 samples from 44 localities, including microbialites, tufas, and micrites endogenic carbonates, freshwater gastropods, bivalves, microbialites, and ooids.

  8. Boron abundances and isotopic ratios of olivine grains on Itokawa returned by the Hayabusa spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiya, Wataru; Hoppe, Peter; Ott, Ulrich

    2016-07-01

    We report the B abundances and isotopic ratios of two olivine grains from the S-type asteroid Itokawa sampled by the Hayabusa spacecraft. Olivine grains from the Dar al Gani (DaG) 989 LL6 chondrite were used as a reference. Since we analyzed polished thin sections in both cases, we expect the contribution from the solar wind B (rich in 10B) to be minimal because the solar wind was implanted only within very thin layers of the grain surface. The Itokawa and DaG 989 olivine grains have homogeneous B abundances (~400 ppb) and 11B/10B ratios compatible with the terrestrial standard and bulk chondrites. The observed homogeneous B abundances and isotopic ratios of the Itokawa olivine grains are likely the result of thermal metamorphism which occurred in the parent asteroid of Itokawa, which had a similar composition as LL chondrites. The chondritic B isotopic ratios of the Itokawa samples suggest that they contain little cosmogenic B (from cosmic-ray spallation reactions) rich in 10B. This observation is consistent with the short cosmic-ray exposure ages of Itokawa samples inferred from the small concentrations of cosmogenic 21Ne. If other Itokawa samples have little cosmogenic B as well, the enrichment in 10B found previously on the surface of another Itokawa particle (as opposed to the bulk grain study here) may be attributed to implanted solar wind B.

  9. Boron abundances and isotopic ratios of olivine grains on Itokawa returned by the Hayabusa spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiya, Wataru; Hoppe, Peter; Ott, Ulrich

    2016-09-01

    We report the B abundances and isotopic ratios of two olivine grains from the S-type asteroid Itokawa sampled by the Hayabusa spacecraft. Olivine grains from the Dar al Gani (DaG) 989 LL6 chondrite were used as a reference. Since we analyzed polished thin sections in both cases, we expect the contribution from the solar wind B (rich in 10B) to be minimal because the solar wind was implanted only within very thin layers of the grain surface. The Itokawa and DaG 989 olivine grains have homogeneous B abundances (~400 ppb) and 11B/10B ratios compatible with the terrestrial standard and bulk chondrites. The observed homogeneous B abundances and isotopic ratios of the Itokawa olivine grains are likely the result of thermal metamorphism which occurred in the parent asteroid of Itokawa, which had a similar composition as LL chondrites. The chondritic B isotopic ratios of the Itokawa samples suggest that they contain little cosmogenic B (from cosmic-ray spallation reactions) rich in 10B. This observation is consistent with the short cosmic-ray exposure ages of Itokawa samples inferred from the small concentrations of cosmogenic 21Ne. If other Itokawa samples have little cosmogenic B as well, the enrichment in 10B found previously on the surface of another Itokawa particle (as opposed to the bulk grain study here) may be attributed to implanted solar wind B.

  10. Carbon isotopic fractionation in the biosynthesis of bacterial fatty acids. Ozonolysis of unsaturated fatty acids as a means of determining the intramolecular distribution of carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monson, K. David; Hayes, J. M.

    1982-02-01

    Methods for the determination of 13C abundances at individual olefinic carbon positions have been developed, tested, and shown to perform accurately. (1) The double bond is oxidized with ozone; (2) silver oxide is used to cleave the resulting ozonide quantitatively to carboxylic-acid fragments; (3) a modified Schmidt decarboxylation is used to produce CO 2 quantitatively from the carboxyl groups of the separated cleavage products; (4) the CO 2 is utilized for mass spectrometric analysis. The results of intramolecular isotopic analyses are combined with molecular-average isotopic compositions determined by total combustion in order to show that fatty acids biosynthesized by Escherichia coli grown aerobically with glucose as the sole carbon source and harvested at late log phase are depleted by approximately 3%. in 13C relative to the glucose. This fractionation arises in the formation of acetylcoenzyme A by pyruvate dehydrogenase and is localized at the carboxyl position in the acetyl-CoA product. The isotopic order in that two-carbon subunit is carried through the biosynthesis of fatty acids so that alternate positions in the fatty-acid chains are depleted in 13C by an amount equal to twice the molecular-average depletion. The kinetic isotope effect at C-2 for pyruvate dehydrogenase in vivo is shown to be approximately 2.3%. While it appears that no other fractionation mechanism has controlled the overall depletion of 13C in these fatty acids, a separate process responsible for control of isotopic abundances in the carboxyl groups has been identified and described elsewhere [Monson K.D. and Hayes J.M. (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255, 11435-11441]. It is concluded that kinetic, rather than thermodynamic, factors have controlled isotopic distributions in these cells and that kinetic factors will be dominant in most biological reactions.

  11. Mercury Abundances and Isotopic Compositions in the Murchison (CM) and Allende (CV)Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauretta, D. S.; Klaue, B.; Blum, J. D.; Buseck, P. R.

    2001-01-01

    The abundance and isotopic composition of Hg was determined in bulk samples of both the Murchison (CM) and Allende (CV) carbonaceous chondrites using single- and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bulk abundances of Hg are 294 6 15 ng/g in Murchison and 30.0 6 1.5 ng/g in Allende. These values are within the range of previous measurements of bulk Hg abundances by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Prior studies suggested that both meteorites contain isotopically anomalous Hg, with d l 96/202Hg values for the anomalous, thermal-release components from bulk samples ranging from 2260 %o to 1440 9/00 in Murchison and from 2620 9/00 to 1540 9/00 in Allende (Jovanovic and Reed, 1976a; 1976b; Kumar and Goel, 1992). Our multi-collector ICP-MS measurements suggest that the relative abundances of all seven stable Hg isotopes in both meteorites are identical to terrestrial values within 0.2 to 0.5 9/00m. On-line thermal-release experiments were performed by coupling a programmable oven with the singlecollector ICP-MS. Powdered aliquots of each meteorite were linearly heated from room temperature to 900 C over twenty-five minutes under an Ar atmosphere to measure the isotopic composition of Hg released fiom the meteorites as a h c t i o n of temperature. In separate experiments, the release profiles of S and Se were determined simultaneously with Hg to constrain the Hg distribution within the meteorites and to evaluate the possibility of Se interferences in previous NAA studies. The Hg-release patterns differ between Allende and Murchison. The Hg-release profile for Allende contains two distinct peaks, at 225" and 343"C, whereas the profile for Murchison has only one peak, at 344 C. No isotopically anomalous Hg was detected in the thermal-release experiments at a precision level of 5 to 30 9/00, depending on the isotope ratio. In both meteorites the Hg peak at ;340"C correlates with a peak in the S-release profile. This correlation

  12. Isotopic studies of Yucca Mountain soil fluids and carbonate pedogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    McConnaughey, T.A.; Whelan, J.F.; Wickland, K.P.; Moscati, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    Secondary carbonates occurring within the soils, faults, and subsurface fractures of Yucca Mountain contain some of the best available records of paleoclimate and palehydrology for the potential radioactive waste repository site. This article discusses conceptual and analytical advances being made with regard to the interpretation of stable isotope data from pedogenic carbonates, specifically related to the {sup 13}C content of soil CO{sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3}, precipitation mechanisms, and isotopic fractionations between parent fluids and precipitating carbonates. The {sup 13}C content of soil carbon dioxide from Yucca Mountain and vicinity shows most of the usual patterns expected in such contexts: Decreasing {sup 13}C content with depth decreasing {sup 13}C with altitude and reduced {sup 13}C during spring. These patterns exist within the domain of a noisy data set; soil and vegetational heterogeneities, weather, and other factors apparently contribute to isotopic variability in the system. Several soil calcification mechanisms appear to be important, involving characteristic physical and chemical environments and isotopic fractionations. When CO{sub 2} loss from thin soil solutions is an important driving factor, carbonates may contain excess heavy isotopes, compared to equilibrium precipitation with soil fluids. When root calcification serves as a proton generator for plant absorption of soil nutrients, heavy isotope deficiencies are likely. Successive cycles of dissolution and reprecipitation mix and redistribute pedogenic carbonates, and tend to isotopically homogenize and equilibrate pedogenic carbonates with soil fluids.

  13. Isotopic disequilibrium in Globigerina bulloides and carbon isotope response to productivity increase in Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, K; Ghosh, Prosenjit; Bhattacharya, S K; Mohan, K; Anilkumar, N

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios in planktonic foraminifera Globigerina bulloides collected from tow samples along a transect from the equatorial Indian ocean to the Southern Ocean (45°E and 80°E and 10°N to 53°S) were analysed and compared with the equilibrium δ(18)O and δ(13)C values of calcite calculated using the temperature and isotopic composition of the water column. The results agree within ~0.25‰ for the region between 10°N and 40°S and 75-200 m water depth which is considered to be the habitat of Globigerina bulloides. Further south (from 40°S to 55°S), however, the measured δ(18)O and δ(13)C values are higher than the expected values by ~2‰ and ~1‰ respectively. These enrichments can be attributed to either a 'vital effect' or a higher calcification rate. An interesting pattern of increase in the δ(13)C(DIC) value of the surface water with latitude is observed between 35°S and~ 60°S, with a peak at~ 42°S. This can be caused by increased organic matter production and associated removal. A simple model accounting for the increase in the δ(13)C(DIC) values is proposed which fits well with the observed chlorophyll abundance as a function of latitude. PMID:26903274

  14. Isotopic disequilibrium in Globigerina bulloides and carbon isotope response to productivity increase in Southern Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Prasanna, K.; Ghosh, Prosenjit; Bhattacharya, S. K.; Mohan, K.; Anilkumar, N.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios in planktonic foraminifera Globigerina bulloides collected from tow samples along a transect from the equatorial Indian ocean to the Southern Ocean (45°E and 80°E and 10°N to 53°S) were analysed and compared with the equilibrium δ18O and δ13C values of calcite calculated using the temperature and isotopic composition of the water column. The results agree within ~0.25‰ for the region between 10°N and 40°S and 75–200 m water depth which is considered to be the habitat of Globigerina bulloides. Further south (from 40°S to 55°S), however, the measured δ18O and δ13C values are higher than the expected values by ~2‰ and ~1‰ respectively. These enrichments can be attributed to either a ‘vital effect’ or a higher calcification rate. An interesting pattern of increase in the δ13C(DIC) value of the surface water with latitude is observed between 35°S and~ 60°S, with a peak at~ 42°S. This can be caused by increased organic matter production and associated removal. A simple model accounting for the increase in the δ13C(DIC) values is proposed which fits well with the observed chlorophyll abundance as a function of latitude. PMID:26903274

  15. Isotopic disequilibrium in Globigerina bulloides and carbon isotope response to productivity increase in Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna, K.; Ghosh, Prosenjit; Bhattacharya, S. K.; Mohan, K.; Anilkumar, N.

    2016-02-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios in planktonic foraminifera Globigerina bulloides collected from tow samples along a transect from the equatorial Indian ocean to the Southern Ocean (45°E and 80°E and 10°N to 53°S) were analysed and compared with the equilibrium δ18O and δ13C values of calcite calculated using the temperature and isotopic composition of the water column. The results agree within ~0.25‰ for the region between 10°N and 40°S and 75-200 m water depth which is considered to be the habitat of Globigerina bulloides. Further south (from 40°S to 55°S), however, the measured δ18O and δ13C values are higher than the expected values by ~2‰ and ~1‰ respectively. These enrichments can be attributed to either a ‘vital effect’ or a higher calcification rate. An interesting pattern of increase in the δ13C(DIC) value of the surface water with latitude is observed between 35°S and~ 60°S, with a peak at~ 42°S. This can be caused by increased organic matter production and associated removal. A simple model accounting for the increase in the δ13C(DIC) values is proposed which fits well with the observed chlorophyll abundance as a function of latitude.

  16. Isotopic abundance in the CN coma of comets: Ten years of measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, R.; Jehin, E.; Manfroid, J.; Hutsemékers, D.; Arpigny, C.; Cochran, A.; Zucconi, J.-M.; Stüwe, J. A.

    2008-11-01

    Over the past 10 years the isotopic ratios of carbon ( 12C/ 13C) and nitrogen ( 14N/ 15N) have been determined for a dozen comets, bright enough to allow obtaining the required measurements from the ground. The ratios were derived from high-resolution spectra of the CN coma measured in the B 2∑ +-X 2∑ + (0, 0) emission band around 387 nm. The observed comets belong to different dynamical classes, including dynamically new as well as long- and short-period comets from the Halley- and Jupiter-family. In some cases the comets could be observed at various heliocentric distances. All values determined for the carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios were consistent within the error margin irrespective of the type of comet or the heliocentric distance at which it was observed. Our investigations resulted in average ratios of 12C/ 13C=91±21 and nitrogen 14N/ 15N=141±29. Whilst the value for the carbon isotopic ratio is in good agreement with the solar and terrestrial value of 89, the nitrogen isotopic ratio is very different from the telluric value of 272.

  17. Stable carbon and sulfur isotopes as records of the early biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmarais, David J.

    1989-01-01

    The abundance ratios of the stable isotopes of light elements such as carbon and sulfur can differ between various naturally-occurring chemical compounds. If coexisting compounds have achieved mutual chemical and isotopic equilibrium, then the relative isotopic composition can record the conditions at which equilibrium was last maintained. If coexisting chemical compounds indeed formed simultaneously but had not achieved mutual equilibrium, then their relative isotopic compositions often reflect the conditions and mechanisms associated with the kinetically controlled reactions responsible for their production. In the context of Mars, the stable isotopic compositions of various minerals might record not only the earlier environmental conditions of the planet, but also whether or not the chemistry of life ever occurred there. Two major geochemical reservoirs occur in Earth's crust, both for carbon and sulfur. In rocks formed in low temperature sedimentary environments, the oxidized forms of these elements tend to be enriched in the isotope having the larger mass, relative to the reduced forms. In sediments where the organics and sulfides were formed by biological processes, these isotopic contrasts were caused by the processes of biological CO2 fixation and dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Such isotopic contrasts between oxidized and reduced forms of carbon and sulfur are permitted by thermodynamics at ambient temperatures. However, nonbiological chemical reactions associated with the production of organic matter and the reduction of organics and sulfides are extremely slow at ambient temperatures. Thus the synthesis of organics and sulfides under ambient conditions illustrates life's profound role as a chemical catalyst that has altered the chemistry of Earth's crust. Because the stable isotopes of carbon and sulfur can reflect their chemistry, they are useful probes of the Martian surface.

  18. Isotope composition of carbon in amino acids of solid bitumens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanina, S. N.; Bushnev, D. A.

    2014-06-01

    Primary data are presented on the isotope composition of carbon in individual amino acids from solid bitumens and several biological objects. The amino acids of biological objects are characterized by wide variations of the isotope composition of carbon. This fact occurs owing to the difference in biochemical paths of metabolism resulting in the synthesis of individual amino acids. The δ13C values are somewhat decreased for individual amino acids in asphaltenes, varying from -7.7 to -31.7‰. The carbon of amino acids is weighted in kerits from Bad'el' compared to asphaltenes. All the natural bitumens retain the characteristic trend for natural substances: the isotopically heavy and light amino acids by carbon are glycine and leucine, respectively. The isotope composition of amino-acid carbon is lightened compared to natural bitumens in the samples formed under a pronounced thermal impact (asphalt-like crust and kirishite).

  19. Distribution and carbon isotope patterns of diterpenoids and triterpenoids in modern temperate C3 trees and their geochemical significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefendorf, Aaron F.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Wing, Scott L.

    2012-05-01

    Tricyclic diterpenoids and pentacyclic triterpenoids are nearly exclusively produced by gymnosperms and angiosperms, respectively. Even though both classes of terpenoids have long been recognized as plant biomarkers, their potential use as phylogenetically specific δ13C proxies remains largely unexplored. Little is known of how terpenoid abundance and carbon isotope composition vary either with plant phylogenetic position, functional group, or during synthesis. Here, we report terpenoid abundances and isotopic data for 44 tree species in 21 families, representing both angiosperms and gymnosperms, and both deciduous and evergreen leaf habits. Di- and triterpenoid abundances are significantly higher in evergreens compared to deciduous species, reflecting differences in growth strategies and increased chemical investment in longer-lived leaves. Carbon isotope abundances of terpenoid lipids are similar to leaf tissues, indicating biosynthetic isotope effects are small for both the MVA (-0.4‰) and MEP (-0.6‰) pathways. Leaf and molecular isotopic patterns for modern plants are consistent with observations of amber, resins and plant biomarkers in ancient sediments. The δ13C values of ancient diterpenoids are higher than triterpenoids by 2-5‰, consistent with observed isotopic differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms leaves, and support the relatively small lipid biosynthetic effects reported here. All other factors being equal, evergreen plants will dominate the abundance of terpenoids contributed to soils, sediments and ancient archives, with similar inputs estimated for angiosperm and gymnosperm trees when scaled by litter flux.

  20. Chemical and Isotopic Study of Lab-formed Carbonates Under Cryogenic and Hydrothermal Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Leshin, L. A.; Socki, R. A.; Guan, Y.; Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Gibson, E. K.

    2004-01-01

    Aqueous environments on early Mars were probably relatively short-lived and localized, as evidenced by the lack of abundant secondary minerals detected by the TES instrument. In order to better understand the aqueous history of early Mars we need to be able to interpret the evidence preserved in secondary minerals formed during these aqueous events. Carbonate minerals, in particular, are important secondary minerals for interpreting past aqueous environments as illustrated by the carbonates preserved in ALH84001. Carbonates formed in short-lived, dynamic aqueous events often preserve kinetic rather than equilibrium chemical and isotopic processes, and predicting the behavior of such systems is facilitated by empirical data.

  1. Stable carbon isotope depth profiles and soil organic carbon dynamics in the lower Mississippi Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, J.G.; Harden, J.W.; Fries, T.L.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of depth trends of 13C abundance in soil organic matter and of 13C abundance from soil-respired CO2 provides useful indications of the dynamics of the terrestrial carbon cycle and of paleoecological change. We measured depth trends of 13C abundance from cropland and control pairs of soils in the lower Mississippi Basin, as well as the 13C abundance of soil-respired CO2 produced during approximately 1-year soil incubation, to determine the role of several candidate processes on the 13C depth profile of soil organic matter. Depth profiles of 13C from uncultivated control soils show a strong relationship between the natural logarithm of soil organic carbon concentration and its isotopic composition, consistent with a model Rayleigh distillation of 13C in decomposing soil due to kinetic fractionation during decomposition. Laboratory incubations showed that initially respired CO 2 had a relatively constant 13C content, despite large differences in the 13C content of bulk soil organic matter. Initially respired CO2 was consistently 13C-depleted with respect to bulk soil and became increasingly 13C-depleted during 1-year, consistent with the hypothesis of accumulation of 13C in the products of microbial decomposition, but showing increasing decomposition of 13C-depleted stable organic components during decomposition without input of fresh biomass. We use the difference between 13C / 12C ratios (calculated as ??-values) between respired CO 2 and bulk soil organic carbon as an index of the degree of decomposition of soil, showing trends which are consistent with trends of 14C activity, and with results of a two-pooled kinetic decomposition rate model describing CO2 production data recorded during 1 year of incubation. We also observed inconsistencies with the Rayleigh distillation model in paired cropland soils and reasons for these inconsistencies are discussed. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Isotopic exchange of carbon-bound hydrogen over geologic timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessions, Alex L.; Sylva, Sean P.; Summons, Roger E.; Hayes, John M.

    2004-04-01

    The increasing popularity of compound-specific hydrogen isotope (D/H) analyses for investigating sedimentary organic matter raises numerous questions about the exchange of carbon-bound hydrogen over geologic timescales. Important questions include the rates of isotopic exchange, methods for diagnosing exchange in ancient samples, and the isotopic consequences of that exchange. This article provides a review of relevant literature data along with new data from several pilot studies to investigate such issues. Published experimental estimates of exchange rates between organic hydrogen and water indicate that at warm temperatures (50-100°C) exchange likely occurs on timescales of 10 4 to 10 8 yr. Incubation experiments using organic compounds and D-enriched water, combined with compound-specific D/H analyses, provide a new and highly sensitive method for measuring exchange at low temperatures. Comparison of δD values for isoprenoid and n-alkyl carbon skeletons in sedimentary organic matter provides no evidence for exchange in young (<1 Ma), cool sediments, but strong evidence for exchange in ancient (>350 Ma) rocks. Specific rates of exchange are probably influenced by the nature and abundance of organic matter, pore-water chemistry, the presence of catalytic mineral surfaces, and perhaps even enzymatic activity. Estimates of equilibrium fractionation factors between organic H and water indicate that typical lipids will be depleted in D relative to water by ˜75 to 140‰ at equilibrium (30°C). Thus large differences in δD between organic molecules and water cannot be unambiguously interpreted as evidence against hydrogen exchange. A better approach may be to use changes in stereochemistry as a proxy for hydrogen exchange. For example, estimated rates of H exchange in pristane are similar to predicted rates for stereochemical inversion in steranes and hopanes. The isotopic consequences of this exchange remain in question. Incubations of cholestene with D 2O

  3. An isotopic study of biogeochemical relationships between carbonates and organic carbon in the Greenhorn Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. M.; Popp, Brian N.; Takigiku, Ray; Johnson, Marcus W.

    1989-01-01

    Carbon-isotopic compositions of total carbonate, inoceramid carbonate, micritic carbonate, secondary cements, total organic carbon, and geoporphyrins have been measured in 76 different beds within a 17-m interval of a core through the Greenhorn Formation, an interbedded limestone and calcareous shale unit of Cretaceous age from the Western Interior Seaway of North America. Results are considered in terms of variations in the processes of primary production and in secondary processes. It is shown that the porphyrin isotopic record reflects primary isotopic variations more closely than the TOC isotopic record and that, in these sediments, TOC is enriched in C-13 relative to its primary precursor by 0.6 to 2.8 percent. This enrichment is attributed to isotope effects within the consumer foodweb and is associated with respiratory heterotrophy. Variation in this secondary enrichment are correlated with variations in the isotopic composition of marine carbonate.

  4. Measurement of natural carbon isotopic composition of acetone in human urine.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Keita; Ohishi, Kazuki; Gilbert, Alexis; Akasaka, Mai; Yoshida, Naohiro; Yoshimura, Ryoko

    2016-02-01

    The natural carbon isotopic composition of acetone in urine was measured in healthy subjects using gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry combined with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME-GC-C-IRMS). Before applying the technique to a urine sample, we optimized the measurement conditions of HS-SPME-GC-C-IRMS using aqueous solutions of commercial acetone reagents. The optimization enabled us to determine the carbon isotopic compositions within ±0.2 ‰ of precision and ±0.3‰ of error using 0.05 or 0.2 mL of aqueous solutions with acetone concentrations of 0.3-121 mg/L. For several days, we monitored the carbon isotopic compositions and concentrations of acetone in urine from three subjects who lived a daily life with no restrictions. We also monitored one subject for 3 days including a fasting period of 24 h. These results suggest that changes in the availability of glucose in the liver are reflected in changes in the carbon isotopic compositions of urine acetone. Results demonstrate that carbon isotopic measurement of metabolites in human biological samples at natural abundance levels has great potential as a tool for detecting metabolic changes caused by changes in physiological states and disease. Graphical abstract The natural carbon isotopic composition of acetone in urine can be determined using HS-SPME-GCC-IRMS and can provide information on changes in the availability of glucose in the liver. PMID:26718914

  5. Linking Carbonic Anhydrase Abundance and Diversity in Soils to Ecological Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, E.; Meredith, L. K.; Welander, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is an ancient enzyme widespread among bacteria, archaea, and eukarya that catalyzes the following reaction: CO2 + H2O ⇌ HCO3- + H+. Its functions are critical for key cellular processes such as concentrating CO2 for autotrophic growth, pH regulation, and pathogen survival in hosts. Currently, there are six known CA classes (α, β, γ, δ, η, ζ) arising from several distinct evolutionary lineages. CA are widespread in sequenced genomes, with many organisms containing multiple classes of CA or multiple CA of the same class. Soils host rich microbial communities with diverse and important ecological functions, but the diversity and abundance of CA in soils has not been explored. CA appears to play an important, but poorly understood, role in some biogeochemical cycles such as those of CO2 and its oxygen isotope composition and also carbonyl sulfide (COS), which are potential tracers in predictive carbon cycle models. Recognizing the prevalence and functional significance of CA in soils, we used a combined bioinformatics and molecular biology approach to address fundamental questions regarding the abundance, diversity, and function of CA in soils. To characterize the abundance and diversity of the different CA classes in soils, we analyzed existing soil metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data from the DOE Joint Genome Institute databases. Out of the six classes of CA, we only found the α, β, and γ classes to be present in soils, with the β class being the most abundant. We also looked at genomes of sequenced soil microorganisms to learn what combination of CA classes they contain, from which we can begin to predict the physiological role of CA. To characterize the functional roles of the different CA classes in soils, we collected soil samples from a variety of biomes with diverse chemical and physical properties and quantified the rate of two CA-mediated processes: soil uptake of COS and acceleration of the oxygen isotope exchange

  6. Enzymatic passaging of human embryonic stem cells alters central carbon metabolism and glycan abundance

    PubMed Central

    Badur, Mehmet G.; Zhang, Hui; Metallo, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    To realize the potential of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in regenerative medicine and drug discovery applications, large numbers of cells that accurately recapitulate cell and tissue function must be robustly produced. Previous studies have suggested that genetic instability and epigenetic changes occur as a consequence of enzymatic passaging. However, the potential impacts of such passaging methods on the metabolism of hESCs have not been described. Using stable isotope tracing and mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, we have explored how different passaging reagents impact hESC metabolism. Enzymatic passaging caused significant decreases in glucose utilization throughout central carbon metabolism along with attenuated de novo lipogenesis. In addition, we developed and validated a method for rapidly quantifying glycan abundance and isotopic labeling in hydrolyzed biomass. Enzymatic passaging reagents significantly altered levels of glycans immediately after digestion but surprisingly glucose contribution to glycans was not affected. These results demonstrate that there is an immediate effect on hESC metabolism after enzymatic passaging in both central carbon metabolism and biosynthesis. HESCs subjected to enzymatic passaging are routinely placed in a state requiring re-synthesis of biomass components, subtly influencing their metabolic needs in a manner that may impact cell performance in regenerative medicine applications. PMID:26289220

  7. A Comparison of Oxidized Carbon Abundances among Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiSanti, Michael A.; Mumma, M. J.; Bonev, B. P.; Villanueva, G. L.; Magee-Sauer, K.; Gibb, E. L.; Anderson, W. M.; Radeva, Y. L.

    2007-10-01

    Comets contain relatively primitive icy material remaining from the epoch of Solar System formation, however the extent to which they are modified from their initial state is a fundamental question in cometary science. One means of assessing the degree to which ices were processed prior to their incorporation into the nucleus is to measure the relative abundances of chemically related parent volatiles. For example, formation of C2H6 by hydrogen atom addition reactions (e.g., to C2H2) on surfaces of icy-mantled grains prior to their incorporation into the nucleus was proposed to explain the high C2H6 to CH4 abundance observed first in C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake)1 and then in subsequent comets. Comparing the abundance ratio C2H6/C2H2 among comets can provide information on the efficiency of this process. CO should also be hydrogenated on grain surfaces. Laboratory irradiation experiments on interstellar ice analogs have shown this process to be efficient only at very low temperatures, the resulting yields of H2CO and CH3OH being highly dependent both on hydrogen density (i.e., fluence) and on temperature in the range 10-25 K.2,3 Here, we compare the oxidation sequence of carbon in comets observed with NIRSPEC at Keck-2 and CSHELL at the NASA-IRTF. Their compositions are used to assess the efficiency of H-atom addition. Possible implications regarding formation conditions will be discussed. This work is supported by the NASA Astrobiology Program under RTOP 344-53-51, and by the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program under RTOPs 344-32-30-07 and 344-32-98. References: 1Mumma et al. 1996 Science 272:1310 2Hiraoka et al. 2002 Astrophys. J. 577:265 3Watanabe et al. 2004 Astrophys. J. 616:638

  8. An investigation of techniques for the measurement and interpretation of cosmic ray isotopic abundances. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    An instrument, the Caltech High Energy Isotope Spectrometer Telescope was developed to measure isotopic abundances of cosmic ray nuclei by employing an energy loss - residual energy technique. A detailed analysis was made of the mass resolution capabilities of this instrument. A formalism, based on the leaky box model of cosmic ray propagation, was developed for obtaining isotopic abundance ratios at the cosmic ray sources from abundances measured in local interstellar space for elements having three or more stable isotopes, one of which is believed to be absent at the cosmic ray sources. It was shown that the dominant sources of uncertainty in the derived source ratios are uncorrelated errors in the fragmentation cross sections and statistical uncertainties in measuring local interstellar abundances. These results were applied to estimate the extent to which uncertainties must be reduced in order to distinguish between cosmic ray production in a solar-like environment and in various environments with greater neutron enrichments.

  9. LITHIUM ABUNDANCES IN CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Masseron, Thomas; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Lucatello, Sara; Karakas, Amanda; Plez, Bertrand; Beers, Timothy C.; Christlieb, Norbert E-mail: jaj@astronomy.ohio-state.edu

    2012-05-20

    Carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars are believed to show the chemical imprints of more massive stars (M {approx}> 0.8 M{sub Sun }) that are now extinct. In particular, it is expected that the observed abundance of Li should deviate in these stars from the standard Spite lithium plateau. We study here a sample of 11 metal-poor stars and a double-lined spectroscopic binary with -1.8 < [Fe/H] < -3.3 observed with the Very Large Telescope/UVES spectrograph. Among these 12 metal-poor stars, there are 8 CEMP stars for which we measure or constrain the Li abundance. In contrast to previous arguments, we demonstrate that an appropriate regime of dilution permits the existence of 'Li-Spite plateau and C-rich' stars, whereas some of the 'Li-depleted and C-rich' stars call for an unidentified additional depletion mechanism that cannot be explained by dilution alone. We find evidence that rotation is related to the Li depletion in some CEMP stars. Additionally, we report on a newly recognized double-lined spectroscopic binary star in our sample. For this star, we develop a new technique from which estimates of stellar parameters and luminosity ratios can be derived based on a high-resolution spectrum alone, without the need for input from evolutionary models.

  10. Abundances of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars as constraints on their formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. J.; Nordström, B.; Hansen, T. T.; Kennedy, C. R.; Placco, V. M.; Beers, T. C.; Andersen, J.; Cescutti, G.; Chiappini, C.

    2016-04-01

    Context. An increasing fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars is found as their iron abundance, [Fe/H], decreases below [Fe/H] =-2.0. The CEMP-s stars have the highest absolute carbon abundances, [C/H], and are thought to owe their enrichment in carbon and the slow neutron-capture (s-process) elements to mass transfer from a former asymptotic giant branch (AGB) binary companion. The most Fe-poor CEMP stars are normally single, exhibit somewhat lower [C/H] than CEMP-s stars, but show no s-process element enhancement (CEMP-no stars). Abundance determinations of CNO offer clues to their formation sites. Aims: Our aim is to use the medium-resolution spectrograph X-Shooter/VLT to determine stellar parameters and abundances for C, N, Sr, and Ba in several classes of CEMP stars in order to further classify and constrain the astrophysical formation sites of these stars. Methods: Atmospheric parameters for our programme stars were estimated from a combination of V-K photometry, model isochrone fits, and estimates from a modified version of the SDSS/SEGUE spectroscopic pipeline. We then used X-Shooter spectra in conjunction with the 1D local thermodynamic equilibrium spectrum synthesis code MOOG, 1D ATLAS9 atmosphere models to derive stellar abundances, and, where possible, isotopic 12C/13C ratios. Results: Abundances (or limits) of C, N, Sr, and Ba are derived for a sample of 27 faint metal-poor stars for which the X-Shooter spectra have sufficient signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). These moderate resolution, low S/N (~10-40) spectra prove sufficient to perform limited chemical tagging and enable assignment of these stars into the CEMP subclasses (CEMP-s and CEMP-no). According to the derived abundances, 17 of our sample stars are CEMP-s and 3 are CEMP-no, while the remaining 7 are carbon-normal. For four CEMP stars, the subclassification remains uncertain, and two of them may be pulsating AGB stars. Conclusions: The derived stellar abundances trace the formation

  11. Carbon Isotopic Ratios of Amino Acids in Stardust-Returned Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned to Earth samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 in January 2006. Preliminary examinations revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds could not be identified. Here. we present the carbon isotopic ratios of glycine and E-aminocaproic acid (EACH), the two most abundant amino acids observed, in Stardust-returned foil samples measured by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio crass spectrometry coupled with quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QMS/IRMS).

  12. Carbon Isotopic Measurements of Amino Acids in Stardust-Returned Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned to Earth samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 in January 2006. Preliminary examinations revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds could not be identified. Here, we present the carbon isotopic ratios of glycine and e-aminocaproic acid (EACA), the two most abundant amino acids, in Stardust-returned foil samples measured by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry coupled with quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-CAMS/IRMS).

  13. Cryogenian-Ediacaran Carbon Isotope Stratigraphy of the Amadeus Basin, Central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joubert, R. L.; Verdel, C.; Schultz, I.

    2014-12-01

    Deciphering the nature of extreme Neoproterozoic climatic and biogeochemical perturbations hinges on correlating sedimentary sequences within and across different basins. To improve these correlations within central Australia, we have focused on the abundant and laterally extensive glaciogenic and carbonate deposits of the Amadeus Basin. Here, we present new high-resolution carbonate C isotope profiles from Cryogenian-Ediacaran stratigraphic successions (the Areyonga, Aralka, Olympic, and Julie Formations) that are particularly well exposed in the northeastern part of the basin. The data appear to span a duration of >100 Ma, from the end of the older Cryogenian glaciation to the upper Ediacaran. In addition to major isotopic excursions resembling those described from other Neoproterozoic successions, the Amadeus Basin isotopic profiles display consistent fine-scale patterns and lateral trends that allow us to identify diachronous strata and refine the overall stratigraphic and tectonic architecture of the basin.

  14. The carbon isotope biogeochemistry of methane production in anoxic sediments. 1: Field observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, Neal E.; Boehme, Susan E.; Carter, W. Dale, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The natural abundance C-13/C-12 ratio of methane from anoxic marine and freshwater sediments in temperate climates varies seasonally. Carbon isotopic measurements of the methanogenic precursors, acetate and dissolved inorganic carbon, from the marine sediments of Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina were used to determine the sources of the seasonal variations at that site. Movement of the methanogenic zone over an isotopic gradient within the dissolved CO2 pool appears to be the dominant control of the methane C-13/C-12 ratio from February to June. The onset of acetoclastic methane-production is a second important controlling process during mid-summer. An apparent temperature dependence on the fractionation factor for CO2-reduction may have a significant influence on the isotopic composition of methane throughout the year.

  15. Carbon Monoxide Isotopes: On the Trail of Galactic Chemical Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, W.

    1995-01-01

    From the early days of the discovery of radio emission from carbon monoxide it was realized that it offered unusual potential for under- standing the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and external galaxies through measurements of molecular isotopes. These results bear on stellar nucleosynthesis, star formation, and gases in the interstellar medium. Progress in isotopic radio measurements will be reviewed.

  16. BIODEGRADATION OF FLUORANTHENE AS MONITORED USING STABLE CARBON ISOTOPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The measurement of stable isotope ratios of carbon (d13C values) was investigated as a viable technique to monitor the intrinsic bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Biometer-flask experiments were conducted in which the bacterium, Sphingomonas paucimobilis,...

  17. ISO/GUM UNCERTAINTIES AND CIAAW (UNCERTAINTY TREATMENT FOR RECOMMENDED ATOMIC WEIGHTS AND ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCES)

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    2007-07-23

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published a Guide to the expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). The IUPAC Commission on Isotopic Abundance and Atomic Weight (CIAAW) began attaching uncertainty limits to their recommended values about forty years ago. CIAAW's method for determining and assigning uncertainties has evolved over time. We trace this evolution to their present method and their effort to incorporate the basic ISO/GUM procedures into evaluations of these uncertainties. We discuss some dilemma the CIAAW faces in their present method and whether it is consistent with the application of the ISO/GUM rules. We discuss the attempt to incorporate variations in measured isotope ratios, due to natural fractionation, into the ISO/GUM system. We make some observations about the inconsistent treatment in the incorporation of natural variations into recommended data and uncertainties. A recommendation for expressing atomic weight values using a tabulated range of values for various chemical elements is discussed.

  18. Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Gases in the Martian Atmosphere from the Curiosity Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Webster, Christopher R.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Franz, Heather; Wong, Michael; Conrad, Pamela G.; Harpold, Dan; Jones, John J.; Leshin, Laurie A.; Manning, Heidi; Owen, Tobias; Pepin, Robert O.; Squyres, Steven; Trainer, Melissa; Kemppinen, Osku; Bridges, Nathan; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Minitti, Michelle; Cremers, David; Bell, James F.; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Weigle, Gerald; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Grotzinger, John; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; DeMarines, Julia; Grinspoon, David; Reitz, Günther; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Gupta, Sanjeev; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; d'Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Dromart, Gilles; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Wiens, Roger C.; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Dworkin, Jason P.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Meyer, Michael; Posner, Arik; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Blaney, Diana; Brinza, David; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Ehlmann, Bethany; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Yen, Albert; Archer, Paul Douglas; Cucinotta, Francis; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Vaniman, David; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Yingst, Aileen; Lewis, Kevin; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Bullock, Mark; Ehresmann, Bent; Hamilton, Victoria; Hassler, Donald; Peterson, Joseph; Rafkin, Scot; Zeitlin, Cary; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Clark, Benton; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Kim, Myung-Hee; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Madsen, Morten Bo; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; Boehm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Burmeister, Sönke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Bridges, John C.; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.

    2013-07-01

    Volume mixing and isotope ratios secured with repeated atmospheric measurements taken with the Sample Analysis at Mars instrument suite on the Curiosity rover are: carbon dioxide (CO2), 0.960(±0.007); argon-40 (40Ar), 0.0193(±0.0001); nitrogen (N2), 0.0189(±0.0003); oxygen, 1.45(±0.09) × 10-3; carbon monoxide, < 1.0 × 10-3; and 40Ar/36Ar, 1.9(±0.3) × 103. The 40Ar/N2 ratio is 1.7 times greater and the 40Ar/36Ar ratio 1.6 times lower than values reported by the Viking Lander mass spectrometer in 1976, whereas other values are generally consistent with Viking and remote sensing observations. The 40Ar/36Ar ratio is consistent with martian meteoritic values, which provides additional strong support for a martian origin of these rocks. The isotopic signature δ13C from CO2 of ~45 per mil is independently measured with two instruments. This heavy isotope enrichment in carbon supports the hypothesis of substantial atmospheric loss.

  19. Abundance and isotopic composition of gases in the martian atmosphere from the Curiosity rover.

    PubMed

    Mahaffy, Paul R; Webster, Christopher R; Atreya, Sushil K; Franz, Heather; Wong, Michael; Conrad, Pamela G; Harpold, Dan; Jones, John J; Leshin, Laurie A; Manning, Heidi; Owen, Tobias; Pepin, Robert O; Squyres, Steven; Trainer, Melissa

    2013-07-19

    Volume mixing and isotope ratios secured with repeated atmospheric measurements taken with the Sample Analysis at Mars instrument suite on the Curiosity rover are: carbon dioxide (CO2), 0.960(±0.007); argon-40 ((40)Ar), 0.0193(±0.0001); nitrogen (N2), 0.0189(±0.0003); oxygen, 1.45(±0.09) × 10(-3); carbon monoxide, < 1.0 × 10(-3); and (40)Ar/(36)Ar, 1.9(±0.3) × 10(3). The (40)Ar/N2 ratio is 1.7 times greater and the (40)Ar/(36)Ar ratio 1.6 times lower than values reported by the Viking Lander mass spectrometer in 1976, whereas other values are generally consistent with Viking and remote sensing observations. The (40)Ar/(36)Ar ratio is consistent with martian meteoritic values, which provides additional strong support for a martian origin of these rocks. The isotopic signature δ(13)C from CO2 of ~45 per mil is independently measured with two instruments. This heavy isotope enrichment in carbon supports the hypothesis of substantial atmospheric loss. PMID:23869014

  20. Observations of Carbon Isotopic Fractionation in Interstellar Formaldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirstrom, E. S.; Charnley, S. B.; Geppert, W. D.; Persson, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Primitive Solar System materials (e.g. chondrites. IDPs, the Stardust sample) show large variations in isotopic composition of the major volatiles (H, C, N, and O ) even within samples, witnessing to various degrees of processing in the protosolar nebula. For ex ample. the very pronounced D enhancements observed in IDPs [I] . are only generated in the cold. dense component of the interstellar medium (ISM), or protoplanetary disks, through ion-molecule reactions in the presence of interstellar dust. If this isotopic anomaly has an interstellar origin, this leaves open the possibility for preservation of other isotopic signatures throughout the form ation of the Solar System. The most common form of carbon in the ISM is CO molecules, and there are two potential sources of C-13 fractionation in this reservoir: low temperature chemistry and selective photodissociation. While gas-phase chemistry in cold interstellar clouds preferentially incorporates C-13 into CO [2], the effect of self-shielding in the presence of UV radiation instead leads to a relative enhancement of the more abundant isotopologue, 12CO. Solar System organic material exhibit rather small fluctuations in delta C-13 as compared to delta N-15 and delta D [3][1], the reason for which is still unclear. However, the fact that both C-13 depleted and enhanced material exists could indicate an interstellar origin where the two fractionation processes have both played a part. Formaldehyde (H2CO) is observed in the gas-phase in a wide range of interstellar environments, as well as in cometary comae. It is proposed as an important reactant in the formation of more complex organic molecules in the heated environments around young stars, and formaldehyde polymers have been suggested as the common origin of chondritic insoluable organic matter (IOM) and cometary refractory organic solids [4]. The relatively high gas-phase abundance of H2CO observed in molecular clouds (10(exp- 9) - 10(exp- 8) relative to H2) makes

  1. Hot bottom burning in asymptotic giant branch stars and its effect on oxygen isotopic abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothroyd, Arnold I.; Sackmann, I.-JULIANA; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    A self-consistent calculation of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) evolution was carried out, including nucleosynthesis at the base of the convective envelope (hot bottom burning). Hot bottom burning was found to occur for stars between approximately 4.5 and approximately 7 solar mass, producing envelopes with O-18/O-16 less than or equal to 10(exp -6) and 10(exp -3) approximately less than or equal O-17/O-16 approximately less than or equal to 10(exp -1). The O-17 abundance depends sensitively on the nuclear O-17-destruction rate; this rate is only loosely constrained by the requirement that first and second dredge-up models match O-isotope observations of red giant branch (RGB) stars (Boothroyd, Sackmann, & Wasserburg 1994). In some cases, high mass-loss rates can terminate hot bottom burning before further O-17 enrichment takes place or even before all O-18 is destroyed. These predictions are in accord with the very limited stellar observations of J type carbon stars on the AGB and with some of the circumstellar Al2O3 grains from meteorites. In contrast, precise data from a number of grains and data from most low-mass S and C AGB stars (approximately less than 1.7 solar mass) lie in a region of the O-18/O-16 versus O-17/O-16 diagram that is not accessible by first and second dredge-up or by hot bottom burning. We conclude that for AGB stars, the standard models of stellar evolution are not in accord with these observations. We surmise that an additional mixing mechanism must exist that transports material from the cool bottom of the stellar convective envelope to a depth at which O-18 is destroyed. This 'cool bottom processing' mechanism on the AGB is similar to extra mixing mechanisms proposed to explain the excess C-13 (and depleted C-12) observed in the earlier RGB stage of evolution and the large Li-7 depletion observed in low-mass main-sequence stars.

  2. High Spatial Resolution Isotopic Abundance Measurements by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: Status and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeegan, K. D.

    2007-12-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, SIMS or ion microprobe analysis, has become an important tool for geochemistry because of its ability study the distributions of elemental and isotopic abundances in situ on polished samples with high (typically a few microns to sub-micron) spatial resolution. In addition, SIMS exhibits high sensitivity for a wide range of elements (H to Pu) so that isotope analyses can sometimes be performed for elements that comprise only trace quantities of some mineral phase (e.g., Pb in zircon) or on major and/or minor elements in very small samples (e.g., presolar dust grains). Offsetting these positive attributes are analytical difficulties due to the complexity of the sputtering source of analyte ions: (1) relatively efficient production of molecular ion species (especially from a complex matrix such as most natural minerals) that cause interferences at the same nominal mass as atomic ions of interest, and (2) quantitation problems caused by variations in the ionization efficiencies of different elements and/or isotopes depending upon the chemical state of the sample surface during sputtering--the so-called "matrix effects". Despite the availability of high mass resolution instruments (e.g., SHRIMP II/RG, CAMECA 1270/1280/NanoSIMS), the molecular ion interferences effectively limit the region of the mass table that can be investigated in most samples to isotope systems at Ni or lighter or at Os or heavier. The matrix effects and the sensitivity of instrumental mass discrimination to the physical state of the sample surface can hamper reproducibility and have contributed to a view that SIMS analyses, especially for so- called stable isotopes, are most appropriate for extraterrestrial samples which are often small, rare, and can exhibit large magnitude isotopic effects. Recent improvements in instrumentation and technique have extended the scope of SIMS isotopic analyses and applications now range from geochronology to paleoclimatology to

  3. The isotopic abundances of neon, magnesium and silicon nuclei accelerated in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, W. F.; Simpson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Direct measurements of the relative abundance of the isotopes Ne-20 and Ne-22 are reported along with a preliminary value for the Mg-26/Mg-24 ratio and an upper limit to the abundance of Si-30 in solar flare accelerated nuclei. A Ne-20/Ne-22 ratio of 7.7 plus 2.3 or minus 1.7 is in agreement with the ratio for the component Neon-A found in carbonaceous chondrites, while a preliminary value of 0.22 plus or minus 0.07 for Mg-26/Mg-24 is larger by approximately one standard deviation than the expected ratio of 0.14 given by Cameron (1973).

  4. Isotopic fractionation of alkali earth metals during carbonate precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yotsuya, T.; Ohno, T.; Muramatsu, Y.; Shimoda, G.; Goto, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The alkaline earth metals such as magnesium, calcium and strontium play an important role in a variety of geochemical and biological processes. The element ratios (Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca) in marine carbonates have been used as proxies for reconstruction of the past environment. Recently several studies suggested that the study for the isotopic fractionation of the alkaline earth metals in marine carbonates has a potentially significant influence in geochemical research fields (e.g. Eisenhauer et al., 2009). The aim of this study is to explore the influence of carbonate polymorphs (Calcite and Aragonite) and environmental factors (e.g., temperature, precipitation rate) on the level of isotopic fractionation of the alkaline earth metals. We also examined possible correlations between the level of isotopic fractionation of Ca and that of other alkaline earth metals during carbonate precipitation. In order to determine the isotope fractionation factor of Mg, Ca and Sr during carbonate precipitation, calcite and aragonite were synthesized from calcium bicarbonate solution in which the amount of magnesium was controlled based on Kitano method. Calcium carbonates were also prepared from the mixture of calcium chlorite and sodium hydrogen carbonate solutions. The isotope fractionation factors were measured by MC-ICPMS. Results suggested that the level of isotopic fractionation of Mg during carbonate precipitation was correlated with that of Sr and that the change of the carbonate crystal structure could make differences of isotopic fractionations of Mg and Ca, however no difference was found in the case of Sr. In this presentation, the possible mechanism will be discussed.

  5. The Antarctic environment and its effect upon the total carbon and sulfur abundances in recovered meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Andrawes, F. F.

    1980-01-01

    Total carbon and sulfur abundances have been measured for 25 meteorites recovered from the Allan Hills area of Antarctica. The majority (greater than 67%) of the meteorites analyzed do not contain enriched carbon abundances resulting from weathering processes. The presence of secondary carbonates in samples which give no apparent evidence of weathering was noted during pyrolysis experiments, despite the 'normal' total carbon abundances. In selected cases, the surfaces of weathered samples may contain up to a factor of two greater carbon content than the interior. Variations in carbon abundances may reflect the degree of weathering and the amount of secondary minerals present. One of the surprises of this study is that the majority of the Antarctic meteorites studied do not exhibit total carbon and sulfur abundances outside the ranges previously observed for falls.

  6. Isotopic anomalies from neutron reactions during explosive carbon burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, T.; Schramm, D. N.; Wefel, J. P.; Blake, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    The heavy isotopic anomalies observed recently in the fractionation and unknown nuclear inclusions from the Allende meteorite are explained by neutron reactions during the explosive carbon burning (ECB). This model produces heavy anomalies in the same zone where Al-26 and O-16 are produced, thus reducing the number of source zones required for the isotopic anomalies. Unlike the classical r-process, the ECB n-process avoids the problem with the Sr anomaly and may resolve the problem of conflicting time scales between Al-26 and the r-process isotopes I-129 and Pu-244. Experimental studies of Zr and Ce isotopic composition are proposed to test this model.

  7. Eocene-Miocene carbon-isotope and floral record from brown coal seams in the Gippsland Basin of southeast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdgate, Guy R.; McGowran, Brian; Fromhold, Tom; Wagstaff, Barbara E.; Gallagher, Stephen J.; Wallace, Malcolm W.; Sluiter, Ian R. K.; Whitelaw, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The carbon-isotope and palynological record through 580 m thick almost continuous brown coal in southeast Australia's Gippsland Basin is a relatively comprehensive southern hemisphere Middle Eocene to Middle Miocene record for terrestrial change. The carbon isotope δ 13C coal values of these coals range from - 27.7‰ to - 23.2. This isotopic variability follows gymnosperm/angiosperm fluctuations, where higher ratios coincide with heavier δ13C values. There is also long-term variability in carbon isotopes through time. From the Eocene greenhouse world of high gymnosperm-heavier δ13C coal values, there is a progressive shift to lighter δ13C coal values that follows the earliest (Oi1?) glacial events around 33 Ma (Early Oligocene). The overlying Oligocene-Early Miocene brown coals have lower gymnosperm abundance, associated with increased % Nothofagus (angiosperm), and lightening of isotopes during Oligocene cooler conditions. The Miocene palynological and carbon-isotope record supports a continuation to the Oligocene trends until around the late Early Miocene (circa 19 Ma) when a warming commenced, followed by an even stronger isotope shift around 16 Ma that peaked in the Middle Miocene when higher gymnosperm abundance and heavier isotopes prevailed. The cycle between the two major warm peaks of Middle Eocene and Middle Miocene was circa 30 Ma long. This change corresponds to a fall in inferred pCO 2 levels for the same period. The Gippsland data suggest a link between gymnosperm abundance, long-term plant δ13C composition, climatic change, and atmospheric pCO 2. Climatic deterioration in the Late Miocene terminated peat accumulation in the Gippsland Basin and no further significant coals formed in southeast Australia. The poor correspondence between this terrestrial isotope data and the marine isotope record is explained by the dominant control on δ13C by the gymnosperm/angiosperm abundance, although in turn this poor correspondence may reflect palaeoclimate

  8. Sims Analysis of Water Abundance and Hydrogen Isotope in Lunar Highland Plagioclase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, Hejiu; Guan, Yunbin; Chen, Yang; Peslier, Anne H.; Zhang, Youxue; Liu, Yang; Rossman, George R.; Eiler, John M.; Neal, Clive R.

    2015-01-01

    The detection of indigenous water in mare basaltic glass beads has challenged the view established since the Apollo era of a "dry" Moon. Since this discovery, measurements of water in lunar apatite, olivine-hosted melt inclusions, agglutinates, and nominally anhydrous minerals have confirmed that lunar igneous materials contain water, implying that some parts of lunar mantle may have as much water as Earth's upper mantle. The interpretation of hydrogen (H) isotopes in lunar samples, however, is controversial. The large variation of H isotope ratios in lunar apatite (delta Deuterium = -202 to +1010 per mille) has been taken as evidence that water in the lunar interior comes from the lunar mantle, solar wind protons, and/or comets. The very low deuterium/H ratios in lunar agglutinates indicate that solar wind protons have contributed to their hydrogen content. Conversely, H isotopes in lunar volcanic glass beads and olivine-hosted melt inclusions being similar to those of common terrestrial igneous rocks, suggest a common origin for water in both Earth and Moon. Lunar water could be inherited from carbonaceous chondrites, consistent with the model of late accretion of chondrite-type materials to the Moon as proposed by. One complication about the sources of lunar water, is that geologic processes (e.g., late accretion and magmatic degassing) may have modified the H isotope signatures of lunar materials. Recent FTIR analyses have shown that plagioclases in lunar ferroan anorthosite contain approximately 6 ppm H2O. So far, ferroan anorthosite is the only available lithology that is believed to be a primary product of the lunar magma ocean (LMO). A possible consequence is that the LMO could have contained up to approximately 320 ppm H2O. Here we examine the possible sources of water in the LMO through measurements of water abundances and H isotopes in plagioclase of two ferroan anorthosites and one troctolite from lunar highlands.

  9. Rhenium-osmium isotope and highly-siderophile-element abundance systematics of angrite meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riches, Amy J. V.; Day, James M. D.; Walker, Richard J.; Simonetti, Antonio; Liu, Yang; Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2012-11-01

    Coupled 187Os/188Os compositions and highly-siderophile-element (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, and Re) abundance data are reported for eight angrite achondrite meteorites that include quenched- and slowly-cooled textural types. These data are combined with new major- and trace-element concentrations determined for bulk-rock powder fractions and constituent mineral phases, to assess angrite petrogenesis. Angrite meteorites span a wide-range of HSE abundances from <0.005 ppb Os (e.g., Northwest Africa [NWA] 1296; Angra dos Reis) to >100 ppb Os (NWA 4931). Chondritic to supra-chondritic 187Os/188Os (0.1201-0.2127) measured for Angra dos Reis and quenched-angrites correspond to inter- and intra-sample heterogeneities in Re/Os and HSE abundances. Quenched-angrites have chondritic-relative rare-earth-element (REE) abundances at 10-15×CI-chondrite, and their Os-isotope and HSE abundance variations represent mixtures of pristine uncontaminated crustal materials that experienced addition (<0.8%) of exogenous chondritic materials during or after crystallization. Slowly-cooled angrites (NWA 4590 and NWA 4801) have fractionated REE-patterns, chondritic to sub-chondritic 187Os/188Os (0.1056-0.1195), as well as low-Re/Os (0.03-0.13), Pd/Os (0.071-0.946), and relatively low-Pt/Os (0.792-2.640). Sub-chondritic 187Os/188Os compositions in NWA 4590 and NWA 4801 are unusual amongst planetary basalts, and their HSE and REE characteristics may be linked to melting of mantle sources that witnessed prior basaltic melt depletion. Angrite HSE-Yb systematics suggest that the HSE behaved moderately-incompatibly during angrite magma crystallization, implying the presence of metal in the crystallizing assemblage. The new HSE abundance and 187Os/188Os compositions indicate that the silicate mantle of the angrite parent body(ies) (APB) had HSE abundances in chondritic-relative proportions but at variable abundances at the time of angrite crystallization. The HSE systematics of angrites are

  10. Locations of marine animals revealed by carbon isotopes.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Kirsteen M; Palmer, Martin R; Moore, Andy; Ibbotson, Anton T; Beaumont, William R C; Poulter, David J S; Trueman, Clive N

    2011-01-01

    Knowing the distribution of marine animals is central to understanding climatic and other environmental influences on population ecology. This information has proven difficult to gain through capture-based methods biased by capture location. Here we show that marine location can be inferred from animal tissues. As the carbon isotope composition of animal tissues varies with sea surface temperature, marine location can be identified by matching time series of carbon isotopes measured in tissues to sea surface temperature records. Applying this technique to populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) produces isotopically-derived maps of oceanic feeding grounds, consistent with the current understanding of salmon migrations, that additionally reveal geographic segregation in feeding grounds between individual philopatric populations and age-classes. Carbon isotope ratios can be used to identify the location of open ocean feeding grounds for any pelagic animals for which tissue archives and matching records of sea surface temperature are available. PMID:22355540

  11. Carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation in dense interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, W. D.; Graedel, T. E.; Frerking, M. A.; Armentrout, P. B.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that isotope fractionation as a result of chemical reactions is due to the small zero-point energy differences between reactants and products of isotopically distinct species. Only at temperatures near absolute zero does this energy difference become significant. Favorable conditions for isotope fractionation on the considered basis exist in space within dense interstellar clouds. Temperatures of approximately 10 K may occur in these clouds. Under such conditions, ion-molecule reactions have the potential to distribute isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen unequally among the interstellar molecules. The present investigation makes use of a detailed model of the time-dependent chemistry of dense interstellar clouds to study cosmological isotope fractionation. Attention is given to fractionation chemistry and the calculation of rate parameters, the isotope fractionation results, and a comparison of theoretical results with observational data.

  12. Code System to Determine Pu Isotope Abundances from Multichannel Analyzer Gamma Spectra.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-09-26

    Version 00 The MGA (Multiple Group Analysis) program determines the relative abundances of plutonium and other actinide isotopes in different materials. The program analyzes spectra taken of such samples using a 4096-channel germanium (Ge) gamma-ray spectrometer. The code can be run in a one or two detector mode. The first spectrum, which is required and must be taken at a gain of 0.075 Kev/channel with a high resolution planar detector, contains the 0-300Kev energy region.more » The second spectrum, which is optional, must be taken at a gain of 0.25 Kev/channel; it becomes important when analyzing high burnup samples (concentration of Pu241 greater than one percent). Isotopic analysis precisions of one percent or better can be obtained, and no calibrations are required. The system also measures the abundances of U235, U238, Np237, and Am241. A special calibration option is available to perform a one-time peak-shape characterization when first using a new detector system.« less

  13. Measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios of non-methane hydrocarbons and halocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuiderweg, A. T.

    2012-09-01

    Within the realm of volatile organic compounds, hydrocarbons and halocarbons form a sizable proportion of carbon input to the atmosphere. Within these compound categories, the light non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC, two to seven carbon atoms) and monocarbon halocarbons have a special place as these have strong, if not exclusive, anthropogenic (human-caused) sources. With common atmospheric molar mixing ratios in the parts-per-trillion (10-12 mole/mole) to parts-per-billion (10-9 mole/mole) range, these trace gases, though decidedly minor constituants of the atmosphere, have diverse consequences due to their atmospheric presence and their removal processes. Effects range from causing ground level air pollution and resulting hazards to health, to contributing to anthropogenic climate change and the destruction of the ozone layer in the stratosphere, among many others. The existance of stable isotopes (otherwise identical atoms with varying amounts of neutrons that do not spontaneously disintegrate) in several elements relevant to atmospheric chemistry and physics is a boon to research. Their presence in molecules is detectable by mass and cause small intra- and intermolecular property changes. These changes range from the physical (e.g. boiling point variation) to the chemical (reaction rate variation) and can influence external interactions as well. The measurement of the ratio of a minor stable isotope of an element to the major one (the stable isotope ratio) can be used to establish source fingerprints, trace the interaction dynamics, and refine the understanding of the relative contribution of sources and sinks to the atmosphere as a whole. The stable minor stable isotope of carbon, 13C, has a natural abundance of approximately 1.1 %. It has a sufficient fractional mass difference from its major isotope as to cause significant effects, making it ideal for measuring the ratios and properties of hydro- and halocarbons. In order to enable a better understanding of the

  14. Carbon isotope systematics of a mantle ``hotspot'': a comparison of Loihi Seamount and MORB glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exley, R. A.; Mattey, D. P.; Clague, D. A.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1986-06-01

    The carbon isotope geochemistry of glasses from Loihi Seamount has been compared with that of MORB glasses. Stepped heating shows two carbon components in both sample suites: (1) isotopically light carbon ( avg. δ 13C = -26.3‰ ) released < 600°C, ascribed to surficial contamination, and (2) isotopically heavy carbon released > 600°C, regarded as indigenous. The high-temperature component in MORB samples varied from 52 to 169 ppm C, average δ 13C = -6.6‰ , consistent with previous studies (overall MORD average δ 13C = -6.4 ± 0.9‰ ), and new results for Indian Ocean glasses are similar to Atlantic and Pacific Ocean samples. Carbon release profiles produced by stepped heating may be typical of locality, but there are no significant differences in δ 13C values between MORB samples from different areas. Lower yields (17-110 ppm C) correlated with depth in the Loihi samples suggest that they are partially degassed. This degassing has not affected δ 13C values significantly (avg. -5.8‰). Loihi tholeiites have higher δ 13C (avg. -5.6‰) than the alkali basalts (avg. -7.1‰). Carbon abundances correlate well with He concentration data. Comparison of the δ 13C values with trace element and He, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope data from the literature suggests that the Loihi samples with highest δ 13C have high 3He/ 4He and possibly the least depleted 143Nd/ 144Nd and 87Sr/ 86Sr. The carbon isotope data are consistent with previous models for Loihi involving several mantle sources, lithospheric contamination, and mixing. The slightly higher δ 13C of Loihi tholeiites suggests that the undegassed "plume" component manifested by high 3He/ 4He values might have δ 13C about 1‰ higher than the MORB average.

  15. [Carbon isotope fractionation inplants]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Leary, M.H.

    1990-12-31

    The objectives of this research are: To develop a theoretical and experimental framework for understanding isotope fractionations in plants; and to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation for understanding the dynamics of CO{sub 2} fixation in plants. Progress is described.

  16. The evolution of the global selenium cycle: Secular trends in Se isotopes and abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüeken, E. E.; Buick, R.; Bekker, A.; Catling, D.; Foriel, J.; Guy, B. M.; Kah, L. C.; Machel, H. G.; Montañez, I. P.; Poulton, S. W.

    2015-08-01

    The Earth's surface has undergone major transitions in its redox state over the past three billion years, which have affected the mobility and distribution of many elements. Here we use Se isotopic and abundance measurements of marine and non-marine mudrocks to reconstruct the evolution of the biogeochemical Se cycle from ∼3.2 Gyr onwards. The six stable isotopes of Se are predominantly fractionated during redox reactions under suboxic conditions, which makes Se a potentially valuable new tool for identifying intermediate stages from an anoxic to a fully oxygenated world. δ82/78Se shows small fractionations of mostly less than 2‰ throughout Earth's history and all are mass-dependent within error. In the Archean, especially after 2.7 Gyr, we find an isotopic enrichment in marine (+0.37 ± 0.27‰) relative to non-marine samples (-0.28 ± 0.67‰), paired with increasing Se abundances. Student t-tests show that these trends are statistically significant. Although we cannot completely rule out the possibility of volcanic Se addition, these trends may indicate the onset of oxidative weathering on land, followed by non-quantitative reduction of Se oxyanions during fluvial transport. The Paleoproterozoic Great Oxidation Event (GOE) is not reflected in the marine δ82/78Se record. However, we find a major inflection in the secular δ82/78Se trend during the Neoproterozoic, from a Precambrian mean of +0.42 ± 0.45‰ to a Phanerozoic mean of -0.19 ± 0.59‰. This drop probably reflects the oxygenation of the deep ocean at this time, stabilizing Se oxyanions throughout the water column. Since then, reduction of Se oxyanions has likely been restricted to anoxic basins and diagenetic environments in sediments. In light of recent Cr isotope data, it is likely that oxidative weathering before the Neoproterozoic produced Se oxyanions in the intermediate redox state SeIV, whereas the fully oxidized species SeVI became more abundant after the Neoproterozoic rise of

  17. Carbon isotopic studies of organic matter in Precambrian rocks.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Schopf, J. W.; Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1972-01-01

    A survey has been undertaken of the carbon composition of the total organic fraction of a suite of Precambrian sediments to detect isotopic trends possibly correlative with early evolutionary events. Early Precambrian cherts of the Fig Tree and upper and middle Onverwacht groups of South Africa were examined for this purpose. Reduced carbon in these cherts was found to be isotopically similar to photosynthetically produced organic matter of younger geological age. Reduced carbon in lower Onverwacht cherts was found to be anomalously heavy; it is suggested that this discontinuity may reflect a major event in biological evolution.

  18. Isotope analyses of molecular and total organic carbon from Miocene sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani, Mark; Freeman, Katherine H.; Arthur, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon-isotope compositions of n-alkanes, pristane and phytane, and total organic carbon were measured and compared against isotopic trends of coeval alkadienones from Miocene sediments containing very low organic-carbon contents. Compound-specific isotope analysis of n-alkanes and isoprenoid lipids, in conjunction with abundance distributions of n-alkanes reveal the influence of terrestrially derived organic carbon at all sites analyzed. In general, n-alkanes are derived from allochthonous sources with the exception of n-C 37 from site 516, which appears genetically related to coeval alkadienones. Further, pristane and phytane from pelagic sites 608 and 516 apparently derive from terrestrial sources as well, although a marine origin cannot be excluded. δ TOC values lack a coherent relationship to %TOC and δ 13C 37:2. Differential alteration and mixing of diverse isotopic signals most likely contribute to temporal variation and spatial differences in δ TOC. Therefore, when working with sediments from oligotrophic settings, we do not recommend δ TOC as an indicator of phytoplankton δ 13C values.

  19. Carbon isotope fractionation and the acetyl-CoA pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaser, Martin; Conrad, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    Homoacetogenic bacteria can catalyze the reductive synthesis of acetate from CO2 via the acetyl-CoA pathway. Besides this unifying property homoacetogenic bacteria constitute a metabolically and phylogenetically diverse bacteriological group. Therefore their environmental role is difficult to address. It has been recognized that in methanogenic environments homoacetogenic bacteria contribute to the degradation of organic matter. The natural abundance of 13C may be used to understand the functional impact of homoacetogenic bacteria in the soil environment. To distinguish the acetyl-CoA pathway from other dominant processes, the isotopic composition of acetate and CO2 can be determined and the fractionation factors of the individual processes may be used to discriminate between the dominant pathways. To characterize the fractionation factor associated with the acetyl-CoA pathway the phylogenetic and metabolic diversity needs to be considered. Therefore the fractionation factor of substrate utilization and product formation of different homoacetogens (Acetobacterium woodii, Sporomusa ovata, Thermoanaerobacter kivui, Morella thermoautotrophica) has been studied under pure culture conditions in two defined minimal medium with H2/CO2 as sole source of carbon and energy. It became obvious that the cultivation conditions have a major impact on the obtained fractionation factors.

  20. Absolute isotopic composition of molybdenum and the solar abundances of the p-process nuclides Mo92,94

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, M. E.; de Laeter, J. R.

    2007-05-01

    The isotopic composition of molybdenum has been measured with high precision using a thermal ionization mass spectrometer, the linearity of which has been verified by measuring the isotopically-certified reference material for strontium (NIST 987). The abundance sensitivity of the mass spectrometer in the vicinity of the molybdenum ion beams has been carefully examined to ensure the absence of tailing effects. Particular care was given to ensuring that potential isobaric interferences from zirconium and ruthenium did not affect the measurement of the isotopic composition of molybdenum. Gravimetric mixtures of two isotopically enriched isotopes, Mo92 and Mo98, were analyzed mass spectrometrically to calibrate the mass spectrometer, in order to establish the isotope fractionation of the spectrometer for the molybdenum isotopes. This enabled the “absolute” isotopic composition of molybdenum to be determined. An accurate determination of the isotopic composition is required in order to calculate the atomic weight of molybdenum, which is one of the least accurately known values of all the elements. The absolute isotope abundances (in atom %) of molybdenum measured in this experiment are as follows: Mo92=14.5246±0.0015; Mo94=9.1514±0.0074; Mo95=15.8375±0.0098; Mo96=16.672±0.019; Mo97=9.5991±0.0073; Mo98=24.391±0.018; and Mo100=9.824±0.050, with uncertainties at the 1s level. These values enable an atomic weight Ar(Mo) of 95.9602±0.0023 (1s) to be calculated, which is slightly higher than the current Standard Atomic Weight Ar(Mo) =95.94±0.02 and with a much improved uncertainty interval. These “absolute” isotope abundances also enable the Solar System abundances of molybdenum to be calculated for astrophysical purposes. Of particular interest are the Solar System abundances of the two p-process nuclides—Mo92 and Mo94, which are present in far greater abundance than p-process theory suggests. The Solar System abundances for Mo92 and Mo94 of 0.364±0

  1. Abundance, stable isotopic composition, and export fluxes of DOC, POC, and DIC from the Lower Mississippi River during 2006-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yihua; Guo, Laodong; Wang, Xuri; Aiken, George

    2015-11-01

    Sources, abundance, isotopic compositions, and export fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved and colloidal organic carbon (DOC and COC), and particulate organic carbon (POC), and their response to hydrologic regimes were examined through monthly sampling from the Lower Mississippi River during 2006-2008. DIC was the most abundant carbon species, followed by POC and DOC. Concentration and δ13C of DIC decreased with increasing river discharge, while those of DOC remained fairly stable. COC comprised 61 ± 3% of the bulk DOC with similar δ13C abundances but higher percentages of hydrophobic organic acids than DOC, suggesting its aromatic and diagenetically younger status. POC showed peak concentrations during medium flooding events and at the rising limb of large flooding events. While δ13C-POC increased, δ15N of particulate nitrogen decreased with increasing discharge. Overall, the differences in δ13C between DOC or DIC and POC show an inverse correlation with river discharge. The higher input of soil organic matter and respired CO2 during wet seasons was likely the main driver for the convergence of δ13C between DIC and DOC or POC, whereas enhanced in situ primary production and respiration during dry seasons might be responsible for their isotopic divergence. Carbon export fluxes from the Mississippi River were estimated to be 13.6 Tg C yr-1 for DIC, 1.88 Tg C yr-1 for DOC, and 2.30 Tg C yr-1 for POC during 2006-2008. The discharge-normalized DIC yield decreased during wet seasons, while those of POC and DOC increased and remained constant, respectively, implying variable responses in carbon export to the increasing discharge.

  2. An high resolution FDIRC for the measurement of cosmic-ray isotopic abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrocchesi, P. S.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Batkov, K.; Bigongiari, G.; Kim, M. Y.; Maestro, P.

    2011-08-01

    Measurements of the relative abundance of cosmic isotopes and of the energy dependence of their fluxes may clarify our present understanding on the confinement time of charged cosmic rays in the Galaxy. Experimental studies of these propagation clocks have been carried out by balloon and space missions at energies of a few 100 MeV/amu by means of detection techniques based on multiple d E/d x sampling, coupled with a measurement of the energy released in a thick absorber. At larger energies, the isotopic separation of light nuclei (as, for instance, 9Be/ 10Be) can be achieved by combining a precise measurement of the particle's rigidity with an high resolution determination of its velocity, via the observation of the Cherenkov effect in a radiator. In this paper, we propose the introduction - for the first time in a space experiment - of the DIRC technique (Detection of Internal Reflected Cherenkov light) for the identification of cosmic-ray isotopes. This type of detector has been successfully used in electron-positron colliders for particle identification and in particular for π-K separation. While for particles with unit charge the light yield is a limiting factor, in the case of a nucleus of charge Z the larger photostatistics (due to the Z2 dependence of Cherenkov light emission) is the key to reach an adequate angular resolution to provide a mass discrimination for isotopes of astrophysical interest. We report on the early development phase of a DIRC prototype with a focussing scheme (FDIRC) to collect the Cherenkov light onto a detector plane instrumented with a Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) array.

  3. Paleogene plants fractionated carbon isotopes similar to modern plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefendorf, Aaron F.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Wing, Scott L.; Currano, Ellen D.; Mueller, Kevin E.

    2015-11-01

    The carbon isotope composition (δ13 C) of terrestrial plant biomarkers, such as leaf waxes and terpenoids, provides insights into past carbon cycling. The δ13 C values of modern plant biomarkers are known to be sensitive to climate and vegetation type, both of which influence fractionation during lipid biosynthesis by altering plant carbon supply and its biochemical allocation. It is not known if fractionation observed in living plants can be used to interpret fossil lipids because plant biochemical characteristics may have evolved during the Cenozoic in response to changes in global climate and atmospheric CO2. The goal of this study was to determine if fractionation during photosynthesis (Δleaf) in the Paleogene was consistent with expectations based on living plants. To study plant fractionation during the Paleogene, we collected samples from eight stratigraphic beds in the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming, USA) that ranged in age from 63 to 53 Ma. For each sample, we measured the δ13 C of angiosperm biomarkers (triterpenoids and n-alkanes) and, abundance permitting, conifer biomarkers (diterpenoids). Leaf δ13 C values estimated from different angiosperms biomarkers were consistently 2‰ lower than leaf δ13 C values for conifers calculated from diterpenoids. This difference is consistent with observations of living conifers and angiosperms and the consistency among different biomarkers suggests ancient εlipid values were similar to those in living plants. From these biomarker-based δ13Cleaf values and independent records of atmospheric δ13 C values, we calculated Δleaf. These calculated Δleaf values were then compared to Δleaf values modeled by applying the effects that precipitation and major taxonomic group in living plants have on Δleaf values. Calculated and modeled Δleaf values were offset by less than a permil. This similarity suggests that carbon fractionation in Paleogene plants changed with water availability and major taxonomic group to about the

  4. A Novel Airborne Carbon Isotope Analyzer for Methane and Carbon Dioxide Source Fingerprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, E. S.; Huang, Y. W.; Owano, T. G.; Leifer, I.

    2014-12-01

    Recent field studies on major sources of the important greenhouse gas methane (CH4) indicate significant underestimation of methane release from fossil fuel industrial (FFI) and animal husbandry sources, among others. In addition, uncertainties still exist with respect to carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements, especially source fingerprinting. CO2 isotopic analysis provides a valuable in situ measurement approach to fingerprint CH4 and CO2as associated with combustion sources, leakage from geologic reservoirs, or biogenic sources. As a result, these measurements can characterize strong combustion source plumes, such as power plant emissions, and discriminate these emissions from other sources. As part of the COMEX (CO2 and MEthane eXperiment) campaign, a novel CO2 isotopic analyzer was installed and collected data aboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft. Developing methods to derive CH4 and CO2 budgets from remote sensing data is the goal of the summer 2014 COMEX campaign, which combines hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and non-imaging spectroscopy (NIS) with in situ airborne and surface data. COMEX leverages the synergy between high spatial resolution HSI and moderate spatial resolution NIS. The carbon dioxide isotope analyzer developed by Los Gatos Research (LGR) uses LGR's patented Off-Axis ICOS (Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy) technology and incorporates proprietary internal thermal control for high sensitivity and optimal instrument stability. This analyzer measures CO2 concentration as well as δ13C, δ18O, and δ17O from CO2 at natural abundance (100-3000 ppm). The laboratory accuracy is ±1.2 ppm (1σ) in CO2 from 370-1000 ppm, with a long-term (1000 s) precision of ±0.012 ppm. The long-term precision for both δ13C and δ18O is 0.04 ‰, and for δ17O is 0.06 ‰. The analyzer was field-tested as part of the COWGAS campaign, a pre-cursor campaign to COMEX in March 2014, where it successfully discriminated plumes related to combustion processes associated with

  5. Submicron Measurements of Mg Isotopes in Biogenic Carbonates Using Laser Ablation-MC-ICPMS: New Window into Biomineralisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadekov, A.; Lloyd, N. S.; Misra, S.; Funcke, A.; Shuttleworth, S.; Langer, G.; Bijma, J.; Elderfield, H.

    2014-12-01

    Magnesium is one of the most abundant elements in the earth's crust and in seawater. Fractionation of its stable isotopes has been shown to be useful indicators of many geological, chemical and biological processes. For example, biogenic carbonates display ~5‰ range of d26Mg values, which is attributed to variable degree of biological control on Mg ions during biomineralisation. Understanding this biological control is essential for developing proxies based on biogenic carbonates. Current methods of magnesium isotope measurements in carbonates are often time consuming and require relatively large volumes of samples. In this work, we present a new approach of measuring Mg isotopes in biogenic carbonates using Laser Ablation MC-ICP-MS. We will show that this microanalytical approach provides accurate and relatively fast measurements of Mg isotopes in biological carbonate with precision down to 0.2‰ (1sd). We will also present examples on how this new method can provide additional information about foraminiferal biomineralisation. For example, we will demonstrate submicron variation in Mg isotopes across shells of Orbulina universa, which are linked to high and low Mg/Ca layers in this species. We will also report changes in Mg isotope composition of benthic foraminifera Amphistegina sp. cultured in seawater with different Mg/Ca values. Both examples will be used to draw attention to the complexity and possibilities of multiple mechanisms of Mg incorporation into biogenic carbonates during biomineralisation.

  6. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of alkyl porphyrins from the Triassic Serpiano oil shale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicarelli, M. I.; Hayes, J. M.; Popp, B. N.; Eckardt, C. B.; Maxwell, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    The carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of seven of the most abundant alkylporphyrins from the Serpiano oil shale (marine, Triassic) were determined. For the C31 and C32 butanoporphyrins, values of delta 13CPDB and delta 15NAIR averaged -24.0% and -3.1%. In contrast, the C31 and C32 methylpropanoporphyrins, DPEP, and a C30 13-nor etioporphyrin had delta 13C and delta 15N values averaging -27.5 and -3.3%, respectively. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic values for kerogen averaged -30.8 and -0.9, whereas those for total extract averaged -31.6, and -4.0%. The butanoporphyrins apparently derive from a biological source different from that giving rise to the other porphyrins, their 13C enrichment not being related to carbon isotopic fractionation accompanying diagenetic reactions. The delta 15N values for all the porphyrins indicate that the depletion of 15N observed in the kerogen is of primary origin. Consistent with the very high abundance of hopanoids and methyl hopanoids in the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction, it is suggested that cyanobacterial fixation of N2 may have been the main cause of 15N depletion.

  7. Kinetic Fractionation of Carbon Isotopes During Carbonate Weathering in Glaciated Catchments: Implications for the Detection of Subglacial Microbial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, M.; Sharp, M.; Tranter, M.; Bottrell, S.

    2003-12-01

    Microbes are abundant at the water-rock-ice interface beneath valley glaciers at Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland (HGA) and at John Evans Glacier, Ellesmere Island Nunavut, Canada (JEG). However, the importance of in-situ microbial activity in driving subglacial weathering reactions remains unknown. This is a key question when considering the potential role of microbes in mediating subglacial weathering and carbon cycling on a continental scale beneath the Pleistocene mid-latitude ice sheets. This study measured the chemical composition of meltwaters, including δ {13}C-DIC at the two glaciers to quantify microbial CO2 inputs to the DIC budget using isotope mass balance techniques. However, PCO2 data indicates that most of the glacial meltwaters are far from equilibrium with respect to atmospheric CO2 and thus kinetic processes are important in determining the water chemistry. Consequently, conventional equilibrium isotope mass balance techniques were inappropriate in this case. Hence, laboratory experiments were conducted with calcium carbonate and carbonate rich glacial sediments from JEG under simulated subglacial conditions (< 63 micron size fraction, sediment concentrations 0.01 to 5 g/l, 5° C) to investigate potential kinetic isotopic effects and aid in interpretation of the field data (δ {13}C-DIC values ranging from -2.4 to -15.7 ‰ ). The laboratory experiments demonstrate previously unreported kinetic fractionation of carbon isotopes during the initial hydrolysis (closed system conditions) and early stages of carbonate dissolution driven by atmospheric CO2 (open system conditions). Preferential dissolution of Ca12CO3, results in δ {13}C-DIC values that are significantly isotopically lighter than the bulk carbonate. This kinetic isotopic effect (KIE) is more pronounced at higher sediment concentrations and can be up to -17.4 ‰ for glacial sediments under closed system conditions and sediment concentrations of 5g/l. The KIE is also significant

  8. Yucca Mountain Area Saturated Zone Dissolved Organic Carbon Isotopic Data

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, James; Decker, David; Patterson, Gary; Peterman, Zell; Mihevc, Todd; Larsen, Jessica; Hershey, Ronald

    2007-06-25

    Groundwater samples in the Yucca Mountain area were collected for chemical and isotopic analyses and measurements of water temperature, pH, specific conductivity, and alkalinity were obtained at the well or spring at the time of sampling. For this project, groundwater samples were analyzed for major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) performed all the fieldwork on this project including measurement of water chemistry field parameters and sample collection. The major ions dissolved in the groundwater, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were analyzed by the USGS. All preparation and processing of samples for DOC carbon isotopic analyses and geochemical modeling were performed by the Desert Research Institute (DRI). Analysis of the DOC carbon dioxide gas produced at DRI to obtain carbon-13 and carbon-14 values was conducted at the University of Arizona Accelerator Facility (a NSHE Yucca Mountain project QA qualified contract facility). The major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of DIC were used in geochemical modeling (NETPATH) to determine groundwater sources, flow paths, mixing, and ages. The carbon isotopes of DOC were used to calculate groundwater ages that are independent of DIC model corrected carbon-14 ages. The DIC model corrected carbon-14 calculated ages were used to evaluate groundwater travel times for mixtures of water including water beneath Yucca Mountain. When possible, groundwater travel times were calculated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient sample sites. DOC carbon-14 groundwater ages were also calculated for groundwaters in the Yucca Mountain area. When possible, groundwater travel times were estimated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient groundwater sample sites using the DOC calculated

  9. Carbon and oxygen isotope composition of carbonates from an L6 chondrite: Evidence for terrestrial weathering from the Holbrook meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Socki, R. A.; Gibson, E. K.; Jull, A. J. T.; Karlsson, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    Terrestrial weathering in meteorites is an important process which alters pristine elemental and isotopic abundances. The Holbrook L6 chondrite fell in 1912. Material was recovered at the time of the fall, in 1931, and 1968. The weathering processes operating on the freshly fallen meteorite in a semi-arid region of northeastern Arizona have been studied after a ground residence of 19 and 56 years. It has been shown that a large portion of the carbonate material in 7 Antarctic ordinary chondrites either underwent extensive isotopic exchange with atmospheric CO2, or formed recently in the Antarctic environment. In fact it has been demonstrated that hydrated Mg-carbonates, nesquehonite and hydromagnesite, formed in less than 40 years on LEW 85320. In order to help further constrain the effects of terrestrial weathering in meteorites, the carbon and oxygen isotopes extracted from carbonates of three different samples of Holbrook L6: a fresh sample at the time of the fall in 1912, a specimen collected in 1931, and a third specimen collected at the same site in 1968.

  10. Investigation of tubular handling of bicarbonate in man. A new approach utilizing stable carbon isotope fractionation.

    PubMed Central

    Burbea, Z H; Luz, B; Lazar, B; Winaver, J; Better, O S

    1983-01-01

    Two alternative mechanisms have been proposed for tubular reabsorption of bicarbonate: (a) H+ secretion and CO2 reabsorption and (b) direct reabsorption of HCO-3. In an attempt to differentiate between the two mechanisms, the present study utilized the natural abundance of stable carbon isotopes (13C, 12C) in the urinary total CO2. This novel methodology used mass spectrometric analysis of 13C/12C ratios in urinary total CO2 under normal conditions and during acetazolamide treatment. Blood and respiratory CO2 were analyzed to yield reference values. The results demonstrate that alkaline urine is preferentially enriched with 13C relative to the blood. It is suggested that this fractionation results from reaction out of isotopic equilibrium in which HCO-3 converts to CO2 during the reabsorption process in the distal nephron. The presence of carbonic anhydrase in the proximal nephron results in rapid isotopic exchange between CO2 and HCO-3 and keeps them in isotopic equilibrium. The ratio of urinary 13C/12C increases strikingly after acetazolamide administration and consequent inhibition of carbonic anhydrase in the proximal tubule. Although it is possible that in the latter case high HCO-3 generates the CO2 (ampholyte effect), the isotope fractionation indicates that CO2 rather than HCO-3 is reabsorbed. In contrast, at low urinary pH and total CO2 values, the carbon isotope composition approaches that of blood CO2. This indicates rapid CO2 exchange between urine and blood, through luminal membrane highly permeable to CO2. These results could be anticipated by a mathematical model constructed to plot 13C concentration of urinary total CO2. It is concluded that the mechanism of HCO-3 reclamation in man (and, by inference, in other mammals as well) works by conversion of HCO-3 to CO2 and reabsorption of CO2. PMID:6417168

  11. Silicon isotopic abundance toward evolved stars and its application for presolar grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, T.-C.; Humphreys, E. M. L.; Testi, L.; Baudry, A.; Wittkowski, M.; Rawlings, M. G.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Vlemmings, W.; Nyman, L.-A.; Gray, M. D.; de Breuck, C.

    2013-11-01

    Aims: Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) is important for understanding the composition of the present-day interstellar medium (ISM) and of our solar system. In this paper, we aim to track the GCE by using the 29Si/30Si ratios in evolved stars and tentatively relate this to presolar grain composition. Methods: We used the APEX telescope to detect thermal SiO isotopologue emission toward four oxygen-rich M-type stars. Together with the data retrieved from the Herschel science archive and from the literature, we were able to obtain the 29Si/30Si ratios for a total of 15 evolved stars inferred from their optically thin 29SiO and 30SiO emission. These stars cover a range of masses and ages, and because they do not significantly alter 29Si/30Si during their lifetimes, they provide excellent probes of the ISM metallicity (or 29Si/30Si ratio) as a function of time. Results: The 29Si/30Si ratios inferred from the thermal SiO emission tend to be lower toward low-mass oxygen-rich stars (e.g., down to about unity for W Hya), and close to an interstellar or solar value of 1.5 for the higher-mass carbon star IRC+10216 and two red supergiants. There is a tentative correlation between the 29Si/30Si ratios and the mass-loss rates of evolved stars, where we take the mass-loss rate as a proxy for the initial stellar mass or current stellar age. This is consistent with the different abundance ratios found in presolar grains. Before the formation of the Sun, the presolar grains indicate that the bulk of presolar grains already had 29Si/30Si ratios of about 1.5, which is also the ratio we found for the objects younger than the Sun, such as VY CMa and IRC+10216. However, we found that older objects (up to possibly 10 Gyr old) in our sample trace a previous, lower 29Si/30Si value of about 1. Material with this isotopic ratio is present in two subclasses of presolar grains, providing independent evidence of the lower ratio. Therefore, the 29Si/30Si ratio derived from the SiO emission of

  12. Isotopic compositions of carbonates and organic carbon from upper Proterozoic successions in Namibia: stratigraphic variation and the effects of diagenesis and metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A. J.; Hayes, J. M.; Knoll, A. H.; Germs, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    The carbon isotope geochemistry of carbonates and organic carbon in the late Proterozoic Damara Supergroup of Namibia, including the Nama, Witvlei, and Gariep groups on the Kalahari Craton and the Mulden and Otavi groups on the Congo Craton, has been investigated as an extension of previous studies of secular variations in the isotopic composition of late Proterozoic seawater. Subsamples of microspar and dolomicrospar were determined, through petrographic and cathodoluminescence examination, to represent the "least-altered" portions of the rock. Carbon-isotopic abundances in these phases are nearly equal to those in total carbonate, suggesting that 13C abundances of late Proterozoic fine-grained carbonates have not been significantly altered by meteoric diagenesis, although 18O abundances often differ significantly. Reduced and variable carbon-isotopic differences between carbonates and organic carbon in these sediments indicate that isotopic compositions of organic carbon have been altered significantly by thermal and deformational processes, likely associated with the Pan-African Orogeny. Distinctive stratigraphic patterns of secular variation, similar to those noted in other, widely separated late Proterozoic basins, are found in carbon-isotopic compositions of carbonates from the Nama and Otavi groups. For example, in Nama Group carbonates delta 13C values rise dramatically from -4 to +5% within a short stratigraphic interval. This excursion suggests correlation with similar excursions noted in Ediacaran-aged successions of Siberia, India, and China. Enrichment of 13C (delta 13C> +5%) in Otavi Group carbonates reflects those in Upper Riphean successions of the Akademikerbreen Group, Svalbard, its correlatives in East Greenland, and the Shaler Group, northwest Canada. The widespread distribution of successions with comparable isotopic signatures supports hypotheses that variations in delta 13C reflect global changes in the isotopic composition of late

  13. Isotopic compositions of carbonates and organic carbon from upper Proterozoic successions in Namibia: stratigraphic variation and the effects of diagenesis and metamorphism.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, A J; Hayes, J M; Knoll, A H; Germs, G J

    1991-01-01

    The carbon isotope geochemistry of carbonates and organic carbon in the late Proterozoic Damara Supergroup of Namibia, including the Nama, Witvlei, and Gariep groups on the Kalahari Craton and the Mulden and Otavi groups on the Congo Craton, has been investigated as an extension of previous studies of secular variations in the isotopic composition of late Proterozoic seawater. Subsamples of microspar and dolomicrospar were determined, through petrographic and cathodoluminescence examination, to represent the "least-altered" portions of the rock. Carbon-isotopic abundances in these phases are nearly equal to those in total carbonate, suggesting that 13C abundances of late Proterozoic fine-grained carbonates have not been significantly altered by meteoric diagenesis, although 18O abundances often differ significantly. Reduced and variable carbon-isotopic differences between carbonates and organic carbon in these sediments indicate that isotopic compositions of organic carbon have been altered significantly by thermal and deformational processes, likely associated with the Pan-African Orogeny. Distinctive stratigraphic patterns of secular variation, similar to those noted in other, widely separated late Proterozoic basins, are found in carbon-isotopic compositions of carbonates from the Nama and Otavi groups. For example, in Nama Group carbonates delta 13C values rise dramatically from -4 to +5% within a short stratigraphic interval. This excursion suggests correlation with similar excursions noted in Ediacaran-aged successions of Siberia, India, and China. Enrichment of 13C (delta 13C> +5%) in Otavi Group carbonates reflects those in Upper Riphean successions of the Akademikerbreen Group, Svalbard, its correlatives in East Greenland, and the Shaler Group, northwest Canada. The widespread distribution of successions with comparable isotopic signatures supports hypotheses that variations in delta 13C reflect global changes in the isotopic composition of late

  14. Stable carbon isotope biogeochemistry of lakes along a trophic gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kluijver, A.; Schoon, P. L.; Downing, J. A.; Schouten, S.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2014-11-01

    The stable carbon (C) isotope variability of dissolved inorganic and organic C (DIC and DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), glucose and polar-lipid derived fatty acids (PLFAs) was studied in a survey of 22 North American oligotrophic to eutrophic lakes. The δ13C of different PLFAs were used as proxy for phytoplankton producers and bacterial consumers. Lake pCO2 was primarily determined by autochthonous production (phytoplankton biomass), especially in eutrophic lakes, and governed the δ13C of DIC. All organic-carbon pools showed overall higher isotopic variability in eutrophic lakes (n = 11) compared to oligo-mesotrophic lakes (n = 11) because of the high variability in δ13C at the base of the food web (both autochthonous and allochthonous carbon). Phytoplankton δ13C was negatively related to lake pCO2 over all lakes and positively related to phytoplankton biomass in eutrophic lakes, which was also reflected in a large range in photosynthetic isotope fractionation (ϵCO2-phyto, 8-25‰). The carbon isotope ratio of allochthonous carbon in oligo-mesotrophic lakes was rather constant, while it varied in eutrophic lakes because of maize cultivation in the watershed.

  15. Stable carbon isotope biogeochemistry of lakes along a trophic gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kluijver, A.; Schoon, P. L.; Downing, J. A.; Schouten, S.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2014-05-01

    The stable carbon (C) isotope variability of dissolved inorganic and organic C (DIC and DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), glucose and polar-lipid derived fatty acids (PLFA) were studied in a survey of 22 North American oligotrophic to eutrophic lakes. The δ13C of different PLFA were used as proxy for phytoplankton producers and bacterial consumers. Lake pCO2 was primarily determined by autochthonous production (phytoplankton biomass), especially in eutrophic lakes, and governed the δ13C of DIC. All organic-carbon pools showed larger isotopic variability in eutrophic lakes compared to oligo-mesotrophic lakes because of the high variability in δ13C at the base of the food web (both autochthonous and allochthonous carbon). Phytoplankton δ13C was negatively related to lake pCO2 over all lakes and positively related to phytoplankton biomass in eutrophic lakes, which was also reflected in a large range in photosynthetic isotope fractionation (ϵCO2-phyto, 8-25 ‰). The carbon isotope ratio of allochthonous carbon in oligo-mesotrophic lakes was rather constant, while it varied in eutrophic lakes because of maize cultivation in the watershed.

  16. Distinct carbon isotope fractionation during anaerobic degradation of dichlorobenzene isomers.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaoming; Mundle, Scott O C; Nelson, Jennifer L; Passeport, Elodie; Chan, Calvin C H; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Zinder, Stephen H; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Chlorinated benzenes are ubiquitous organic contaminants found in groundwater and soils. Compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has been increasingly used to assess natural attenuation of chlorinated contaminants, in which anaerobic reductive dechlorination plays an essential role. In this work, carbon isotope fractionation of the three dichlorobenzene (DCB) isomers was investigated during anaerobic reductive dehalogenation in methanogenic laboratory microcosms. Large isotope fractionation of 1,3-DCB and 1,4-DCB was observed while only a small isotope effect occurred for 1,2-DCB. Bulk enrichment factors (εbulk) were determined from a Rayleigh model: -0.8 ± 0.1 ‰ for 1,2-DCB, -5.4 ± 0.4 ‰ for 1,3-DCB, and -6.3 ± 0.2 ‰ for 1,4-DCB. εbulk values were converted to apparent kinetic isotope effects for carbon (AKIE) in order to characterize the carbon isotope effect at the reactive positions for the DCB isomers. AKIE values are 1.005 ± 0.001, 1.034 ± 0.003, and 1.039 ± 0.001 for 1,2-DCB, 1,3-DCB, and 1,4-DCB, respectively. The large difference in AKIE values between 1,2-DCB and 1,3-DCB (or 1,4-DCB) suggests distinct reaction pathways may be involved for different DCB isomers during microbial reductive dechlorination by the methanogenic cultures. PMID:24758692

  17. HCNMBC - A pulse sequence for H-(C)-N Multiple Bond Correlations at natural isotopic abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheatham, Steve; Gierth, Peter; Bermel, Wolfgang; Kupče, Ēriks

    2014-10-01

    We propose a pulse sequence, HCNMBC for multiple-bond H-(C)-N correlation experiments via one-bond 1J(C,H) and one- or multiple bond nJ(N,C) coupling constants (typically n = 1-3) at the natural isotopic abundance. A new adiabatic refocussing sequence is introduced to provide accurate and robust refocussing of both chemical shift and J-evolution over wide ranges of C-13 and N-15 frequencies. It is demonstrated that the proposed pulse sequence provides high quality spectra even for sub-milligram samples. We show that when a 1.7 mm cryoprobe is available as little as 10 μg of glycine in D2O is sufficient to obtain the HCNMBC spectrum in ca. 12 h. The preliminary results indicate that the pulse sequence has a great potential in the structure determination of nitrogen heterocycles especially in cases where synthesis produces regioisomers.

  18. Late Glacial Tropical Savannas in Sundaland Inferred From Stable Carbon Isotope Records of Cave Guano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurster, C. M.; Bird, M. I.; Bull, I.; Dungait, J.; Bryant, C. L.; Ertunç, T.; Hunt, C.; Lewis, H. A.; Paz, V.

    2008-12-01

    During the Last Glacial Period (LGP), reduced global sea level exposed the continental shelf south of Thailand to Sumatra, Java, and Borneo to form the contiguous continent of Sundaland. However, the type and extent of vegetation that existed on much of this exposed landmass during the LGP remains speculative. Extensive bird and bat guano deposits in caves throughout this region span beyond 40,000 yr BP, and contain a wealth of untapped stratigraphic palaeoenvironmental information. Stable carbon isotope ratios of insectivorous bird and bat guano contain a reliable record of the animal's diet and, through non-specific insect predation, reflect the relative abundance of major physiological pathways in plants. Various physiological pathways of carbon fixation in plants yield differing stable carbon isotope ratios. Stable carbon isotope values of C3 plants are lower than C4 vegetation due to different enzymatic discriminations of the heavy isotope through the carbon fixing pathways. In tropical locales, grasses nearly always follow the C4 photosynthetic pathway, whereas tropical rainforest uses C3 photosynthesis, providing a proxy for vegetation and therefore climate change in the past. Here we discuss four guano stable-isotope records, based on insect cuticle and n-alkane analysis, supplemented by pollen analysis. All sites suggest a C3 dominated ecosystem for the Holocene, consistent with the wet tropical forest vegetation present at all locations. Two sites from Palawan Island, Philippines, record stable carbon isotope values of guano that document a drastic change from C3 (forest) to C4 (savanna) dominated ecosystems during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). A third location, at Niah Great Cave, Malaysia, indicates C3-dominant vegetation throughout the record, but does display variation in stable carbon isotope values likely linked to humidity changes. A fourth location, Batu Caves in Peninsular Malaysia, also indicates open vegetation during the LGM. Vegetation

  19. Temperature Dependence of Carbon Isotope Fractionation in CAM Plants.

    PubMed

    Deleens, E; Treichel, I; O'leary, M H

    1985-09-01

    The carbon isotope fractionation associated with nocturnal malic acid synthesis in Kalanchoë daigremontiana and Bryophyllum tubiflorum was calculated from the isotopic composition of carbon-4 of malic acid, after appropriate corrections. In the lowest temperature treatment (17 degrees C nights, 23 degrees C days), the isotope fractionation for both plants is -4 per thousand (that is, malate is enriched in (13)C relative to the atmosphere). For K. daigremontiana, the isotope fractionation decreases with increasing temperature, becoming approximately 0 per thousand at 27 degrees C/33 degrees C. Detailed analysis of temperature effects on the isotope fractionation indicates that stomatal aperture decreases with increasing temperature and carboxylation capacity increases. For B. tubiflorum, the temperature dependence of the isotope fractionation is smaller and is principally attributed to the normal temperature dependences of the rates of diffusion and carboxylation steps. The small change in the isotopic composition of remaining malic acid in both species which is observed during deacidification indicates that malate release, rather than decarboxylation, is rate limiting in the deacidification process. PMID:16664371

  20. Isotopic anomalies from neutron reactions during explosive carbon burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, T.; Schramm, D. N.; Wefel, J. P.; Blake, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility that the newly discovered correlated isotopic anomalies for heavy elements in the Allende meteorite were synthesized in the secondary neutron capture episode during the explosive carbon burning, the possible source of the O-16 and Al-26 anomalies, is examined. Explosive carbon burning calculations under typical conditions were first performed to generate time profiles of temperature, density, and free particle concentrations. These quantities were inputted into a general neutron capture code which calculates the resulting isotopic pattern from exposing the preexisting heavy seed nuclei to these free particles during the explosive carbon burning conditions. The interpretation avoids the problem of the Sr isotopic data and may resolve the conflict between the time scales inferred from 1-129, Pu-244, and Al-26.

  1. Isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen in ureilitic fragments of the Almahata Sitta meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, H.; Abernethy, F. A. J.; Smith, C. L.; Ross, A. J.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Grady, M. M.; Jenniskens, P.; Shaddad, M. H.

    2015-02-01

    This study characterizes carbon and nitrogen abundances and isotopic compositions in ureilitic fragments of Almahata Sitta. Ureilites are carbon-rich (containing up to 7 wt% C) and were formed early in solar system history, thus the origin of carbon in ureilites has significance for the origin of solar system carbon. These samples were collected soon after they fell, so they are among the freshest ureilite samples available and were analyzed using stepped combustion mass spectrometry. They contained 1.2-2.3 wt% carbon; most showed the major carbon release at temperatures of 600-700 °C with peak values of δ13C from -7.3 to +0.4‰, similar to literature values for unbrecciated ("monomict") ureilites. They also contained a minor low temperature (≤500 °C) component (δ13C = ca -25‰). Bulk nitrogen contents (9.4-27 ppm) resemble those of unbrecciated ureilites, with major releases mostly occurring at 600-750 °C. A significant lower temperature release of nitrogen occurred in all samples. Main release δ15N values of -53 to -94‰ fall within the range reported for diamond separates and acid residues from ureilites, and identify an isotopically primordial nitrogen component. However, they differ from common polymict ureilites which are more nitrogen-rich and isotopically heavier. Thus, although the parent asteroid 2008TC3 was undoubtedly a polymict ureilite breccia, this cannot be deduced from an isotopic study of individual ureilite fragments. The combined main release δ13C and δ15N values do not overlap the fields for carbonaceous or enstatite chondrites, suggesting that carbon in ureilites was not derived from these sources.

  2. The link between assimilation and below-ground processes - stable isotopes as tools to assess carbon transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessler, A.; Wingate, L.; Ogeé, J.; Offermann, C.; Kodama, N.

    2011-12-01

    At present, there is lack of knowledge on how plant physiological processes, the transfer of carbon within the plant, carbon storage and remobilization in the plant tissues as well as the release of carbon from the roots to the soil interact with ecosystem-scale processes. On the background of global climate change, we need to mechanistically link plant physiology, CO2 net exchange between ecosystems and the atmosphere and plant biomass accumulation. This is the basis for predicting productivity of forests as well as their carbon sequestration potential in future. This paper will give an overview on how stable isotope studies can give insights into the fate of newly assimilated carbon transported within trees and transferred to the soil and atmosphere. The paper includes assessments characterizing temporal and spatial variation in the natural abundance of carbon and oxygen isotopes or applying isotopically enriched tracers. In addition, it highlights the fact that the stable isotope composition of assimilates transported within the plant contains important time integrated information on environmental conditions, leaf physiology, and post-photosynthetic metabolism. The paper on the one hand focuses on the fast turn over carbon pools, which fuel plant respiration and soil microbial activity and on the other hand explores the transfer of the isotope information to long-lived compounds in plant archives such as tree rings.

  3. Major and trace element abundances, and Sr and Nd isotopic composition of Carbonatites from Amba Dongar, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Jyoti; Paul, Debajyoti; Viladkar, Shrinivas G.; Sensarma, Sarajit

    2015-04-01

    Despite significant progress during the last decade, the petrogenesis of carbonatites is still highly debated regarding the exact mechanism of carbonatite magma generation (fractional crystallization of carbonated-silicate magmas, liquid immiscibility of carbonated-silicate magmas, partial melting of carbonated mantle peridotite or carbonated lherzolitic mantle) and its evolution. The Amba Dongar carbonatite complex in Chhota Udaipur district, Gujarat is the youngest Indian carbonatite complex, which intruded into the ~ 90 Ma Bagh sandstones and limestone and 68-65 Ma Deccan flood basalts. The emplacement age (40Ar/39Ar age of 65±0.3 Ma; Ray and Pande, 1999) coincides with the age of main pulse of Deccan flood basalts at ca. 65 Ma. We report new geochemical data (major oxide and trace element abundances, and Sr and Nd isotopic ratios) on 23 carbonatite samples from Amba Dongar. The Amba Dongar carbonatite complex consists of carbonatite (sövite, and ankerite), and associated nephelinite, phonolite, and both pre- and post-carbonatite basalts. Detailed minerology of carbonatite include dominant calcite along with pyrochlore, apatite, magnetite, aegirine-augite and accessory phases. Apatite crystals are observed in carbonatite as well as in nephelinite. In sövites, apatite occur in various forms including cumulus, clusters and scattered within and along the boundary of calcite crystals. Two generation of apatite crystals are commonly observed in sövite and nephelinite; textural changes suggest presence of different five pulses of sövitic magma during the emplacement of the sövite ring dike. Bulk major oxides and trace element (including REEs) compositions of carbonatites and associated silicate rocks are determined by WD-XRF and ICP-MS, respectively. Major oxides abundances are consistent with the already available data on the Amba Dongar carbonatite complex. Trace element concentrations for the sövite reveals high concentrations of Sr (929-7476 ppm), Ba (344

  4. Carbon and Hydrogen Isotopic Fractionation during Anaerobic Biodegradation of Benzene

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Silvia A.; Ulrich, Ania C.; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Sleep, Brent; Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis has the potential to distinguish physical from biological attenuation processes in the subsurface. In this study, carbon and hydrogen isotopic fractionation effects during biodegradation of benzene under anaerobic conditions with different terminal-electron-accepting processes are reported for the first time. Different enrichment factors (ɛ) for carbon (range of −1.9 to −3.6‰) and hydrogen (range of −29 to −79‰) fractionation were observed during biodegradation of benzene under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. These differences are not related to differences in initial biomass or in rates of biodegradation. Carbon isotopic enrichment factors for anaerobic benzene biodegradation in this study are comparable to those previously published for aerobic benzene biodegradation. In contrast, hydrogen enrichment factors determined for anaerobic benzene biodegradation are significantly larger than those previously published for benzene biodegradation under aerobic conditions. A fundamental difference in the previously proposed initial step of aerobic versus proposed anaerobic biodegradation pathways may account for these differences in hydrogen isotopic fractionation. Potentially, C-H bond breakage in the initial step of the anaerobic benzene biodegradation pathway may account for the large fractionation observed compared to that in aerobic benzene biodegradation. Despite some differences in reported enrichment factors between cultures with different terminal-electron-accepting processes, carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis has the potential to provide direct evidence of anaerobic biodegradation of benzene in the field. PMID:12513995

  5. Pu abundances, concentrations, and isotopics by x- and gamma-ray spectrometry assay techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, D.C.; Gunnink, R.; Ruhter, W.D.; Prindle, A.L.; Gomes, R.J.

    1986-10-24

    Two x- and gamma-ray systems were recently installed at-line in gloveboxes and will measure Pu solution concentrations from 5 to 105 g/L. These NDA technique, developed and refined over the past decade, are now used domestically and internationally for nuclear material process monitoring and accountability needs. In off- and at-line installations, they can measure solution concentrations to 0.2%. The K-XRFA systems use a transmission source to correct for solution density. The gamma-ray systems use peaks from 59- to 208-keV to determine solution concentrations and relative isotopics. A Pu check source monitors system stability. These two NDA techniques can be combined to form a new, NDA measurement methodology. With the instrument located outside of a glovebox, both relative Pu isotopics and absolute Pu abundances of a sample located inside a glovebox can be measured. The new technique works with either single or dual source excitation; the former for a detector 6 to 20 cm away with no geometric corrections needed; the latter requires geometric corrections or source movement if the sample cannot be measured at the calibration distance. 4 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. A robust method for ammonium nitrogen isotopic analysis in freshwater and seawater at natural abundance levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Altabet, M. A.; Wu, T.; Hadas, O.

    2006-12-01

    Natural ammonium N isotopic abundance has been increasingly used in studies of marine and freshwater biogeochemistry. However, current methods are time-consuming, subject to interference from DON, and not reliable at low concentrations. Our new method for determining the δ15N of ammonium overcomes these difficulties by employing the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite followed by conversion of nitrite to nitrous oxide. In the first step, ammonium is quantitatively oxidized by hypobromite at pH~12. After the addition of sodium arsenite to consume excess hypobromite, yield is verified by colorimetric NO2-measurement using sulfanilamide and naphthyl ethylenediamine (NED). Nitrite is further reduced to N2O by a 1:1 sodium azide and acetic acid buffer solution using previously established procedures. Buffer concentration can be varied according to sample matrix to ensure that a reaction pH between 2 and 4 is reached. The product nitrous oxide is then isotopically analyzed using a continuous flow purge and cryogenic trap system coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Reliable δ15N values (±0.31‰) are obtained over a concentration range of 0.5 μM to 20 μM using 20 ml volumes of either fresh or seawater samples. Reagent blanks are very low, about 0.05 μM. There is no interference from any of the nitrogen containing compounds tested except short chain aliphatic amino acid (i.e. glycine) which typically are not present at sufficiently high environmental concentrations to pose a problem.

  7. BOREAS TE-5 Tree Ring and Carbon Isotope Ratio Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Ehleriinger, Jim; Brooks, J. Renee; Flanagan, Larry

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-5 team collected several data sets to investigate the vegetation-atmosphere CO2 and H2O exchange processes. These data include tree ring widths and cellulose carbon isotope data from coniferous trees collected at the BOREAS NSA and SSA in 1993 and 1994 by the BOREAS TE-5 team. Ring width data are provided for both Picea mariana and Pinus banksiana. The carbon isotope data are provided only for Pinus banksiana. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  8. Constraining paleotemperature and water isotope signals at Lake Bonneville using carbonate clumped isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mering, J. A.; Oviatt, C. G.; Petryshyn, V. A.; Canet, J.; Tripati, A.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Bonneville was the largest pluvial system in the Great Basin during the Last Glacial Maximum (23-19 ka BP), reaching nearly 50,000 square kilometers at its high stand. Carbonate clumped isotope paleothermometry provides a new avenue to evaluate lake and atmospheric conditions by constraining the temperature and oxygen isotope ratios of lake water. Here, we present estimates of lake temperature, the oxygen isotope composition of paleowater, and Mean Annual Air Temperature (MAAT) from LGM paleoshoreline sites in Utah and Eastern Nevada. Multiple phases of ancient carbonate were evaluated, including endogenic carbonate from the ubiquitous Bonneville marl stratigraphic unit, and aragonitic shells of two species of aquatic gastropods (genera Pyrgulopsis and Stagnicola) collected from littoral deposits adjacent to the marl. These phases should record surface water conditions. Preliminary results indicate that paleotemperature estimates from gastropods and marl are similar at any given site. However, the latitudinal water isotope gradient reconstructed using marls is steeper than that reconstructed from gastropods, indicating that perhaps carbonate precipitation in marl is more evaporation-driven than shell growth of aquatic snails. Comparison with recent climate data, and clumped isotope measurements of modern samples from the Great Salt Lake, supports moderate temperature change in the Great Basin from the Last Glacial Maximum to present.

  9. Aptian Carbon Isotope Stratigraphy in Sierra del Rosario, Northeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barragan-Manzo, R.; Moreno-Bedmar, J.; Nuñez, F.; Company, M.

    2013-05-01

    In most recent years Aptian carbon isotope stratigraphy has been widely studied in Europe where isotopic stages have been developed to correlate global events. Two negative excursions have been recorded in the Lower Aptian, the older is OAE 1a in the middle part, and a younger negative excursion labeled "Aparein level", which occurs in the uppermost part of the Lower Aptian. In Mexico previous works reported a carbon isotope negative excursion in the lowermost part of the La Peña Formation that was assigned to the onset of Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a (=OAE 1a). In this work we study the isotopic record of the δ13Ccarb of 32 bulk rock samples of limestone from the uppermost part of the Cupido Formation and the lower part of the La Peña Formation at the Francisco Zarco Dam Section (=FZD), Durango State, northeastern Mexico. The isotopic data are calibrated using the latest ammonite biostratigraphic biozonation of the Aptian. This age calibration allows us to make a precise correlation between the carbon isotopic record of Mexico and several European sections (e.g. Spain and France). In the studied Francisco Zarco Dam section we recognize a negative carbon isotopic excursion in the Dufrenoyia justinae ammonite Zone that corresponds to the "Aparein level", which we correlate using the ammonite zonation of others European sections (Figure 1). This correlation allows us to see how the negative excursion that characterizes the "Aparein level" is consistent with the C7 segment. Thus, our recent stratigraphic study allows us to conclude that the ammonite record in the lowermost part of the La Peña Formation is regionally isochronous, and correlates with the Dufrenoyia justinae Zone and Lower Aptian isotope interval C7. In agreement to these biostratigraphic data, the supposed record of the OAE 1a in the lowermost part of the La Peña Formation is not correct, and the carbon isotope negative excursion must be assigned to the younger event "Aparein level". Taking this into

  10. Development of a Field-Deployable Methane Carbon Isotope Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Feng; Baer, Douglas

    2010-05-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, whose atmospheric surface mixing ratio has almost doubled compared with preindustrial values. Methane can be produced by biogenic processes, thermogenic processes or biomass, with different isotopic signatures. As a key molecule involved in the radiative forcing in the atmosphere, methane is thus one of the most important molecules linking the biosphere and atmosphere. Therefore precise measurements of mixing ratios and isotopic compositions will help scientists to better understand methane sources and sinks. To date, high precision isotope measurements have been exclusively performed with conventional isotope ratio mass spectrometry, which involves intensive labor and is not readily field deployable. Optical studies using infrared laser spectroscopy have also been reported to measure the isotopic ratios. However, the precision of optical-based analyses, to date, is typically unsatisfactory without pre-concentration procedures. We present characterization of the performance of a portable Methane Carbon Isotope Analyzer (MCIA), based on cavity enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy technique, that provides in-situ measurements of the carbon isotope ratio (13C/12C or del_13C) and methane mixing ratio (CH4). The sample is introduced to the analyzer directly without any requirement for pretreatment or preconcentration. A typical precision of less than 1 per mill (< 0.1%) with a 10-ppm methane sample can be achieved in a measurement time of less than 100 seconds. The MCIA can report carbon isotope ratio and concentration measurements over a very wide range of methane concentrations. Results of laboratory tests and field measurements will be presented.

  11. Combining stable isotope isotope geochemistry and carbonic anhydrase activity to trace vital effect in carbonate precipitation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaler, C.; Ader, M.; Menez, B.; Guyot, F. J.

    2013-12-01

    Carbonates precipitated by skeleton-forming eukaryotic organisms are often characterized by non-equilibrium isotopic signatures. This specificity is referred to as the "vital effect" and can be used as an isotopic evidence to trace life. Combining stable isotope geochemistry and enzymology (using the enzyme carbonic anhydrase) we aim to demonstrate that prokaryotes are also able to precipitate carbonate with a non-equilibrium d18OCaCO3. Indeed, if in an biomineralization experiment carbonates are precipitated with a vital effect, the addition of carbonic anhydrase should drive the system to isotope equilibrium, And provide a comparison point to estimate the vital effect range. This protocol allowed us to identify a -20‰ vital effect for the d18O of carbonates precipitated by Sporosarcina pasteurii, a bacterial model of carbonatogen metabolisms. This approach is thus a powerfull tool for the understanding of microbe carbonatogen activity and will probably bring new insights into the understanding of bacterial activity in subsurface and during diagenesis.

  12. ANALYSIS OF RICIN TOXIN PREPARATIONS FOR CARBOHYDRATE AND FATTY ACID ABUNDANCE AND ISOTOPE RATIO INFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Colburn, Heather A.; Moran, James J.; Melville, Angela M.

    2009-12-01

    employing a quadrupole MS system for compound identification and an isotope ratio MS for measuring the stable isotope ratios of deuterium and hydrogen (D/H) in fatty acids. Finally, the method for analyzing the compound abundance data is included. This study indicates that removal of ricinoleic acid is a conserved consequence of each processing step we tested. Furthermore, the stable isotope D/H ratio of ricinoleic acid distinguished between two of the three castor seed sources. Concentrations of arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucosamine and myo-inositol differentiated between crude or acetone extracted samples and samples produced by protein precipitation. Taken together these data illustrate the ability to distinguish between processes used to purify a ricin sample as well as potentially the source seeds.

  13. Beyond temperature: Clumped isotope signatures in dissolved inorganic carbon species and the influence of solution chemistry on carbonate mineral composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripati, Aradhna K.; Hill, Pamela S.; Eagle, Robert A.; Mosenfelder, Jed L.; Tang, Jianwu; Schauble, Edwin A.; Eiler, John M.; Zeebe, Richard E.; Uchikawa, Joji; Coplen, Tyler B.; Ries, Justin B.; Henry, Drew

    2015-10-01

    "Clumped-isotope" thermometry is an emerging tool to probe the temperature history of surface and subsurface environments based on measurements of the proportion of 13C and 18O isotopes bound to each other within carbonate minerals in 13C18O16O22- groups (heavy isotope "clumps"). Although most clumped isotope geothermometry implicitly presumes carbonate crystals have attained lattice equilibrium (i.e., thermodynamic equilibrium for a mineral, which is independent of solution chemistry), several factors other than temperature, including dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) speciation may influence mineral isotopic signatures. Therefore we used a combination of approaches to understand the potential influence of different variables on the clumped isotope (and oxygen isotope) composition of minerals. We conducted witherite precipitation experiments at a single temperature and at varied pH to empirically determine 13C-18O bond ordering (Δ47) and δ18O of CO32- and HCO3- molecules at a 25 °C equilibrium. Ab initio cluster models based on density functional theory were used to predict equilibrium 13C-18O bond abundances and δ18O of different DIC species and minerals as a function of temperature. Experiments and theory indicate Δ47 and δ18O compositions of CO32- and HCO3- ions are significantly different from each other. Experiments constrain the Δ47-δ18O slope for a pH effect (0.011 ± 0.001; 12 ⩾ pH ⩾ 7). Rapidly-growing temperate corals exhibit disequilibrium mineral isotopic signatures with a Δ47-δ18O slope of 0.011 ± 0.003, consistent with a pH effect. Our theoretical calculations for carbonate minerals indicate equilibrium lattice calcite values for Δ47 and δ18O are intermediate between HCO3- and CO32-. We analyzed synthetic calcites grown at temperatures ranging from 0.5 to 50 °C with and without the enzyme carbonic anhydrase present. This enzyme catalyzes oxygen isotopic exchange between DIC species and is present in many natural systems. The two

  14. The time has changed: Middle Triassic climate changes revealed by carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, S.; Worden, R.; Fisher, Q.

    2003-04-01

    The Middle Triassic stratigraphy in Europe can be subdivided into a marine section of the Germanic and Paris Basin and a continental red-bed succession of Western Europe (Irish Basin, Wessex Basin). The link between the marine and continental is uncertain due to a lack of biostratigraphic information but recent palaeomagnetic studies have given a better understanding of the two environments (Hounslow et. al, 2001). In this study we have produced geochemical evidence which emphasize the implications of the palaeomagnetic data. We show that the marine and continental strata can be correlated using carbon isotopes. Throughout Europe the Middle Triassic is characterized by limestone deposits of the Muschelkalk Formation that contain evidence of a hiatus in sedimentation due to sea-level fall in the Middle Muschelkalk with the consequent deposition of evaporites. The Sherwood Sandstone Group (SSG) characterizes the Middle Triassic of Western Europe. The SSG is dominated by fluvial deposits with intercalated floodplain deposits, sand-flats and playas, which are penetrated by dolocretes and calcretes. The abundance of fluvial channels and sandflats are dependent on the fluvial activity and the water table height. In both depositional environments water plays a major role in the type of sediment. The volume of water is controlled by the prevalent climate. Climate signals are stored in carbon isotopes in both the marine Muschelkalk and the continental SSG. Carbon isotopes from the SSG from the Corrib Field, Slyne Basin, west of Ireland and from the Muschelkalk of the Germanic Basin have thus been interpreted in terms of climate change linked to stratigraphy. The continental sediments show a distinct positive carbon isotope excursion (taken from dolocretes), which is interpreted to present a more arid climate. In contrast the marine limestones exhibit a negative carbon isotopes excursion from a sea level low stand for the same time interval. The plot of both carbon isotopes

  15. Stable carbon isotope analysis of nucleic acids to trace sources of dissolved substrates used by estuarine bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Coffin, R B; Velinsky, D J; Devereux, R; Price, W A; Cifuentes, L A

    1990-01-01

    The natural abundance of stable carbon isotopes measured in bacterial nucleic acids extracted from estuarine bacterial concentrates was used to trace sources of organic matter for bacteria in aquatic environments. The stable carbon isotope ratios of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and nucleic acids extracted from cultures resembled those of the carbon source on which bacteria were grown. The carbon isotope discrimination between the substrate and total cell carbon from bacterial cultures averaged 2.3% +/- 0.6% (n = 13). Furthermore, the isotope discrimination between the substrate and nucleic acids extracted from bacterial cultures was 2.4% +/- 0.4% (n = 10), not significantly different from the discrimination between bacteria and the substrate. Estuarine water samples were prefiltered through 1-micron-pore-size cartridge filters. Bacterium-sized particles in the filtrates were concentrated with tangential-flow filtration and centrifugation, and nucleic acids were then extracted from these concentrates. Hybridization with 16S rRNA probes showed that approximately 90% of the nucleic acids extracted on two sample dates were of eubacterial origin. Bacteria and nucleic acids from incubation experiments using estuarine water samples enriched with dissolved organic matter from Spartina alterniflora and Cyclotella caspia had stable carbon isotope values similar to those of the substrate sources. In a survey that compared diverse estuarine environments, stable carbon isotopes of bacteria grown in incubation experiments ranged from -31.9 to -20.5%. The range in isotope values of nucleic acids extracted from indigenous bacteria from the same waters was similar, -27.9 to -20.2%. Generally, the lack of isotope discrimination between bacteria and nucleic acids that was noted in the laboratory was observed in the field.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:2389930

  16. Magnesium isotopic compositions of the Mesoproterozoic dolostones: Implications for Mg isotopic systematics of marine carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kang-Jun; Shen, Bing; Lang, Xian-Guo; Tang, Wen-Bo; Peng, Yang; Ke, Shan; Kaufman, Alan J.; Ma, Hao-Ran; Li, Fang-Bing

    2015-09-01

    Available Mg isotope data indicate that dolostones of different ages have overlapping range of Mg isotopic composition (δ26Mg) and there is no systematic difference among different types of dolomites. To further explore the Mg isotopic systematics of dolomite formation, we measured Mg isotopic compositions of Mesoproterozoic dolostones from the Wumishan Formation in North China Block, because dolomite formation in Mesoproterozoic might have been fundamentally different from the younger counterparts. Based on petrographic observations, three texturally-different dolomite phases (dolomicrite, subhedral dolomite and anhedral dolomite) are recognized in the Wumishan dolostones. Nevertheless, these three types of dolomites have similar δ26Mg values, ranging from -1.35‰ to -1.72‰, which are indistinguishable from Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic dolostones. To explain δ26Mg values of dolostones, we simulate the Mg isotopic system during dolomite formation by applying the one-dimensional Diffusion-Advection-Reaction (1D-DAR) model, assuming that the contemporaneous seawater is the Mg source of dolostone. The 1D-DAR modeling results indicate that the degree of dolomitization is controlled by sedimentation rate, seawater Mg concentration, temperature, and reaction rate of dolomite formation, whereas Mg isotopic composition of dolostone is not only dependent on these factors, but also affected by δ26Mg of seawater and isotope fractionation during dolomite formation. Moreover, the 1D-DAR model predicts that dolomite formation within sediments has limited range of variation in δ26Mg with respect to limestones. Furthermore, the modeling results demonstrate that dolostone is always isotopically heavier than Ca-carbonate precipitated from seawater, explaining the systematic isotopic difference between dolostones and limestones. Finally, we can infer from the 1D-DAR model that early-formed dolostone at shallower depth of sediments is always isotopically lighter than that

  17. Carbon isotope systematics of a mantle "hotspot": a comparison of Loihi Seamount and MORB glasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Exley, R.A.; Mattey, D.P.; Clague, D.A.; Pillinger, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    The carbon isotope geochemistry of glasses from Loihi Seamount has been compared with that of MORB glasses. Stepped heating shows two carbon components in both sample suites: (1) isotopically light carbon (avg. ??13C = -26.3???) released 600??C, regarded as indigenous. The high-temperature component in MORB samples varied from 52 to 169 ppm C, average ??13C = -6.6???, consistent with previous studies (overall MORD average ??13C = -6.4 ?? 0.9???), and new results for Indian Ocean glasses are similar to Atlantic and Pacific Ocean samples. Carbon release profiles produced by stepped heating may be typical of locality, but there are no significant differences in ??13C values between MORB samples from different areas. Lower yields (17-110 ppm C) correlated with depth in the Loihi samples suggest that they are partially degassed. This degassing has not affected ??13C values significantly (avg. -5.8???). Loihi tholeiites have higher ??13C (avg. -5.6???) than the alkali basalts (avg. -7.1???). Carbon abundances correlate well with He concentration data. Comparison of the ??13C values with trace element and He, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope data from the literature suggests that the Loihi samples with highest ??13C have high 3He/4He and possibly the least depleted 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr. The carbon isotope data are consistent with previous models for Loihi involving several mantle sources, lithospheric contamination, and mixing. The slightly higher ??13C of Loihi tholeiites suggests that the undegassed "plume" component manifested by high 3He/4He values might have ??13C about 1??? higher than the MORB average. ?? 1986.

  18. Contrasting the CO2-He Isotope and Relative Abundance Systematics of the Central American and IBM Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, D. R.; Fischer, T. P.; Shaw, A. M.; Hauri, E.; Walker, J.

    2006-12-01

    We report CO2 and He isotope and relative abundance data obtained utilizing high-T fumaroles, geothermal wells, boiling mud pots, hot springs and phenocryst-bearing lavas from both MARGINS-targeted regions. In Central America, we collected ~140 fluid and ~30 lava samples covering a total of 41 volcanic centers in Costa Rica (7), Nicaragua (8), El Salvador (10), Honduras (9) and Guatemala (7). Along the IBM arc, we sampled the islands of Uracas, Agrigan, Pagan and Alamagan in the CNMI and Oshima, Niijima, Shikinajima, Hachijojima and Aogashima in the Izu islands. Helium isotope ratios (3He/4He) reach a maximum of 8RA (where RA = air 3He/4He) with most values > 5 RA. The majority of samples have CO2/3He ratios between 1010 and 1011, as at other arcs. The δ13C of the CO2 for the majority of samples fall between -5 and 0 ‰ (PDB) consistent with a major slab input to the carbon inventory. The entire database has been assessed to identify samples unmodified by localised crustal processes (~75% of total), thereby defining the He and C systematics of the underlying mantle source. At both arcs, we utilize along-strike He-C variations to consider the relative influence of various subduction zone forcing functions on the output C-flux. We show that subducted sediment lithology, particularly down-hole C distribution and the nature (oxidized/reduced) of the C, is a major control on the output as opposed to other factors such as angle of slab dip, convergence rate, and thickness of overlying arc crust.

  19. Evolution of carbon isotopes, agglutinates, and the lunar regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmarais, D. J.; Basu, A.; Hayes, J. M.; Meinschein, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    Apollo 17 light-mantle soils and Apollo 15 Apennine Front soils are compared with respect to isotopic enrichment of C-13 and the maturity of the site. Analyses of soil-size fractions indicate that while the carbon concentration on particle surfaces remains relatively constant with increasing soil maturity, total surface-correlated carbon increases due to increasing total soil surface area. The role of agglutinates in the incorporation of surface-correlated carbon into aggregate grains is examined; agglutinates contain a major percentage of the carbon found in mature soil, and the volume-correlated carbon component in agglutinates apparently continues to increase after the surface-correlated carbon concentrations have reached a constant value. Constraints that may limit the carbon concentration in lunar soils to a value not greater than 300 micrograms/g are considered.

  20. CARBON ISOTOPE DISCRIMINATION AND GROWTH RESPONSE TO STAND DENSITY REDUCTIONS IN OLD PINUS PONDEROSA TREES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon isotope ratios ( 13C) of tree rings are commonly used for paleoclimatic reconstruction and for inferring canopy water-use efficiency (WUE). However, the responsiveness of carbon isotope discrimination ( ) to site disturbance and resource availability has only rarely been ...

  1. Microscale carbon isotope variability in ALH84001 carbonates and a discussion of possible formation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niles, P. B.; Leshin, L. A.; Guan, Y.

    2005-06-01

    The carbonates in martian meteorite ALH84001 preserve a record of aqueous processes on Mars at 3.9 Ga, and have been suggested to contain signatures of ancient martian life. The conditions of the carbonate formation environment are critical for understanding possible evidence for life on Mars, the history of water on Mars, and the evolution of the martian atmosphere. Despite numerous studies of petrographic relationships, microscale oxygen isotope compositions, microscale chemical compositions, and other minerals associated with the carbonates, formation models remain relatively unconstrained. Microscale carbon isotope analyses of ALH84001 carbonates reveal variable δ 13C values ranging from +27 to +64 ‰. The isotopic compositions are correlated with chemical composition and extent of crystallization such that the Mg-poor, early-formed carbonates are relatively 13C depleted and the Mg-rich, later forming carbonates, are 13C enriched. These data are inconsistent with many of the previously proposed environments for carbonate formation, and a new set of hypotheses are proposed. Specifically, two new models that account for the data involve low temperature (<100°C) aqueous processes: (1) the carbonates formed during mixing of two fluids derived from separate chemical and isotopic reservoirs; or (2) the carbonates formed from high pH fluids that are exposed to a CO 2-rich atmosphere and precipitate carbonate, similar to high pH springs on Earth.

  2. Carbon Reservoir History of Mars Constrained by Atmospheric Isotope Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Renyu; Kass, David M.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Yung, Yuk

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of the atmosphere on Mars is one of the most intriguing problems in the exploration of the Solar System, and the climate of Mars may have evolved from a warmer, wetter early state to the cold, dry current state. Because CO2 is the major constituent of Mars’s atmosphere, its isotopic signatures offer a unique window to trace the evolution of climate on Mars. Here we use a box model to trace the evolution of the carbon reservoir and its iso-topic signature on Mars, with carbonate deposition and atmospheric escape as the two sinks and magmatic activity as the sole source. We derive new quantitative constraints on the amount of carbonate deposition and the atmospher-ic pressure of Mars through time, extending into the Noachian, ~3.8 Gyr before present. This determination is based on recent Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) isotopic measurements of Mars’s atmosphere, recent orbiter, lander, and rover measurements of Mars’s surface, and a newly identified mechanism (photodissociation of CO) that efficiently enriches the heavy carbon isotope. In particular, we find that escape via CO photodissociation on Mars has a frac-tionation factor of 0.6 and hence, photochemical escape processes can effectively enrich 13C in the Mars’s atmos-phere during the Amazonian. As a result, modest carbonate deposition must have occurred early in Mars’s history to compensate the enrichment effects of photochemical processes and also sputtering, even when volcanic outgassing up to 200 mbar occurred during the Hesperian. For a photochemical escape flux that scales as the square of the solar EUV flux or more, at least 0.1 bar of CO2 must have been deposited as carbonates in the Noachian and Hesperian. More carbonate deposition would be required if carbonate deposition only occurred in the Noachian or with low fractionation factors.

  3. Carbon Reservoir History of Mars Constrained by Atmospheric Isotope Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, R.; Kass, D. M.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Yung, Y. L.

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of the atmosphere on Mars is one of the most intriguing problems in the exploration of the Solar System, and the climate of Mars may have evolved from a warmer, wetter early state to the cold, dry current state. Because CO2 is the major constituent of Mars's atmosphere, its isotopic signatures offer a unique window to trace the evolution of climate on Mars. Here we use a box model to trace the evolution of the carbon reservoir and its isotopic signature on Mars, with carbonate deposition and atmospheric escape as the two sinks and magmatic activity as the sole source. We derive new quantitative constraints on the amount of carbonate deposition and the atmospheric pressure of Mars through time, extending into the Noachian, ~3.8 Gyr before present. This determination is based on recent Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) isotopic measurements of Mars's atmosphere, recent orbiter, lander, and rover measurements of Mars's surface, and a newly identified mechanism (photodissociation of CO) that efficiently enriches the heavy carbon isotope. In particular, we find that escape via CO photodissociation on Mars has a fractionation factor of 0.6 and hence, photochemical escape processes can effectively enrich 13C in the Mars's atmosphere during the Amazonian. As a result, modest carbonate deposition must have occurred early in Mars's history to compensate the enrichment effects of photochemical processes and also sputtering, even when volcanic outgassing up to 200 mbar occurred during the Hesperian. For a photochemical escape flux that scales as the square of the solar EUV flux or more, at least 0.1 bar of CO2 must have been deposited as carbonates in the Noachian and Hesperian. More carbonate deposition would be required if carbonate deposition only occurred in the Noachian or with low fractionation factors.

  4. Modeling the carbon isotope composition of bivalve shells (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanek, C.

    2010-12-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of bivalve shells is a valuable archive of paleobiological and paleoenvironmental information. Previous work has shown that the carbon isotope composition of the shell is related to the carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the ambient water in which a bivalve lives, as well as metabolic carbon derived from bivalve respiration. The contribution of metabolic carbon varies among organisms, but it is generally thought to be relatively low (e.g., <10%) in shells from aquatic organism and high (>90%) in the shells from terrestrial organisms. Because metabolic carbon contains significantly more C-12 than DIC, negative excursions from the expected environmental (DIC) signal are interpreted to reflect an increased contribution of metabolic carbon in the shell. This observation contrasts sharply with modeled carbon isotope compositions for shell layers deposited from the inner extrapallial fluid (EPF). Previous studies have shown that growth lines within the inner shell layer of bivalves are produced during periods of anaerobiosis when acidic metabolic byproducts (e.g., succinic acid) are neutralized (or buffered) by shell dissolution. This requires the pH of EPF to decrease below ambient levels (~7.5) until a state of undersaturation is achieved that promotes shell dissolution. This condition may occur when aquatic bivalves are subjected to external stressors originating from ecological (predation) or environmental (exposure to atm; low dissolved oxygen; contaminant release) pressures; normal physiological processes will restore the pH of EPF when the pressure is removed. As a consequence of this process, a temporal window should also exist in EPF at relatively low pH where shell carbonate is deposited at a reduced saturation state and precipitation rate. For example, EPF chemistry should remain slightly supersaturated with respect to aragonite given a drop of one pH unit (6.5), but under closed conditions

  5. On the isotopic composition of magmatic carbon in SNC meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, I. P.; Grady, M. M.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1992-01-01

    SNC meteorites are thought, from many lines of evidence, to come from Mars. A line of investigation which has been pursued in our laboratory over the years involves measurement of the stable isotopic composition of carbon, in its various forms, in SNC meteorites. In order to establish a firm basis for studying the isotopic systematics of carbon in the martian surface environment, it is first necessary to try and constrain the delta C-13 of bulk Mars. Taking all of the available information, it would seem that the delta C-13 of the Earth's mantle lies somewhere in the range of -5 to -7 percent. Preliminary assessment of magnetic carbon in SNC meteorites, would tend to suggest a delta C-13 of 20 to 30 percent, which is conspicuously different from that of the terrestrial mantle. It is not obvious why there should be such a difference between the two planets, although many explanations are possible. One of these possibilities, that previous delta C-13 measurements for magnetic carbon in SNC meteorites are in error to some degree, is being actively investigated. The most recent results seem to constrain the theta C-13 of the magnetic carbon in SNC meteorites to about -20 percent, which is not at odds with previous estimates. As such, it is considered that a detailed investigation of the carbon isotopic systematics of martian surface materials does have the necessary information with which to proceed.

  6. Carbon Isotope Discrimination in Leaves of C3 Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, M.; Gleixner, G.

    2009-04-01

    Carbon isotope composition is regarded as a powerful tool in understanding carbon cycling, both as a tracer and as a process recorder. However, accurate predictions of, for example, partitioning the net carbon flux into its components or obtaining climate information from tree rings, requires a good understanding of plant metabolism and related isotopic fractionations. Mechanistic models have concentrated largely on photosynthetic pathways and their isotopic composition. This cannot be said for respiratory processes. The mechanistic models of leaf isotope discrimination hence do not describe dawn, dusk and night very realistically or not at all. A new steady-state approach of the carbon isotope distribution in glucose potentially addresses the time of twilight and night (Tcherkez et al. 2004). Here, a new model of 13C discrimination in leaves of C3 plants is presented. The model is based on the steady-state approach of Tcherkez et al. (2004) but with much reduced complexity while retaining its general characteristics. In addition, the model introduces some new concepts such as a day-length dependent starch synthesis, night-length dependent starch degradation, energy-driven biosynthesis rates, and continuous leaf discrimination calculation for the whole diel cycle. It is therefore well adapted for biosphere-atmosphere exchange studies. The model predicts enriched sucrose and starch pools in the leaf compared to assimilated CO2. Biosynthesis on the other hand acts as the sink of the remaining, depleted carbon. The model calculates slightly different absolute starch compositions from the Tcherkez et al. (2004) model but this depends on chosen fractionation factors. The greatest difference between the two models is during dawn, dusk and night. For example, while Tcherkez et al. has changing phloem sucrose isotope composition during night, the model here predicts constant sucrose export composition. Observations seem to support rather constant phloem isotope composition

  7. Siderophile and chalcophile element abundances in oceanic basalts, Pb isotope evolution and growth of the earth's core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, H. E.; White, W. M.; Jochum, K. P.; Hofmann, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that the mantle Pb isotope ratios reflect continued extraction of Pb into the earth's core over geologic time is evaluated by studying the depeletion of chalcophile and siderophile elements in the mantle. Oceanic basalt samples are analyzed in order to determine the Pb, Sr, and Nd isotropic compositions and the abundances of siderophile and chalcophile elements and incompatible lithophile elements. The data reveal that there is no systematic variation of siderophile or chalcophile element abundances relative to abundances of lithophile elements and the Pb/Ce ratio of the mantle is constant. It is suggested that the crust formation involves nonmagmatic and magmatic processes.

  8. How the oxygen isotope ratio of rain water influences the isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Gregory; Grimes, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The stable oxygen isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate was analysed from chicken eggs laid under free range, and organic farming regimes from across the UK. The eggshell carbonate oxygen isotope data shows a clear depletion in delta18O distribution from the southwest to the northeast. Although consistently offset by around 1 permil, the same isotopic distribution as that seen in eggshell carbonate is observed in the delta18O ratio of rainfall and groundwater from across the UK. This distribution is related to the Rayleigh distillation of rainfall driven by westerly winds across the UK landmass. The clear relationship observed between eggshell delta18O values and that of rainwater presumably reflects the nature of free range chickens which must be drinking locally derived rainwater and supplementing their diet and water intake with locally derived food. These results suggest that the oxygen isotope value of chicken eggshells can be used as a forensic tool to identify the locality that free range and organic eggs were laid within the UK. Furthermore, if suitable material is preserved in the archaeological and geological record then such a relationship can potentially be used to establish the oxygen isotope value of rainwater from which ancient and / or ancestral birds lived.

  9. Carbon dioxide gasification of carbon black: isotope study of carbonate catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Saber, J.M.; Falconer, J.L.; Brown, L.F.

    1984-11-01

    Temperature-programmed reaction was used with labeled isotopes (/sup 13/C and /sup 18/O) to study interactions between carbon black and potassium carbonate in pure He and 10% CO/sub 2//90% He atmospheres. Catalytic gasification precursor complexes were observed. Carbon and oxygen-bearing carbon surface groups interacted with the carbonate above 500 K to form surface complexes. Between 500 and 950 K, and in the presence of gaseous CO/sub 2/, the complexes participated in C and O exchange with the gas phase while oxygen atoms within the complexes also exchanged with those on the carbon surface. As the temperature rose, the complexes decomposed, with CO/sub 2/ the initial product. Decomposition started around 500 K in pure He, and around 950 K in CO/sub 2//He. Catalytic gasification began only after decomposition of significant portions of the complexes. Elemental potassium formed, and the active catalyst appears to alternate between being potassium metal and a potassium-oxygen-carbon complex. Potassium carbonate is not part of the catalytic cycle. 20 references, 10 figures.

  10. The chromium isotopic composition of seawater and marine carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnand, P.; James, R. H.; Parkinson, I. J.; Connelly, D. P.; Fairchild, I. J.

    2013-11-01

    Chromium isotopes are fractionated during redox reactions and have the potential to provide a record of changes in the oxygenation levels of the oceans in the geological past. However, Cr is a trace metal in seawater and its low concentrations make isotopic measurements challenging. Here we report the first determinations of δCr53 for seawater from open ocean (Argentine Basin) and coastal (Southampton Water) settings, using a double-spike technique. The total chromium concentration in seawater from Southampton Water is 1.85 nM, whereas the Cr content of Argentine Basin samples is 5.8-6.6 nM. The δCr53 value of seawater from the Argentine Basin is 0.491-0.556‰ in intermediate and deep waters, and varies between 0.412 and 0.664‰ in surface waters (<150 m). The δCr53 value of Southampton Water seawater is 1.505‰, which may reflect in situ reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). All of our seawater samples have higher δCr53 than crustal and mantle silicates, and mass balance modelling demonstrates that river water must also be enriched in heavy Cr isotopes, indicating that Cr isotopes are fractionated during weathering and/or during transport to the oceans. We also show that the Cr isotopic composition of modern non-skeletal marine carbonates (0.640- 0.745‰) encompasses the range that we measure for Argentine Basin seawater. Thus, fractionation of Cr isotopes during precipitation of these marine carbonates is likely to be small (<0.2‰), and they have the potential to provide a record of the Cr isotopic composition of ancient seawater. Phanerozoic carbonates are also characterised by heavy δCr53 and a correlation between δCr53 and Ce/Ce* suggests that the Cr and Ce cycles in the ocean are linked.

  11. Carbon Abundance Plateaus among Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jinmi; He, Siyu; Placco, Vinicius; Carollo, Daniela; Beers, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    A substantial fraction of low-metallicity stars in the Milky Way, the Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) stars, exhibit enhancements of their carbon-to-iron relative to the solar value ([C/Fe] > +0.7). They can be divided into several sub-classes, depending on the nature and degree of the observed enhancements of their neutron-capture elements, providing information on their likely progenitors. CEMP-s stars (which exhibit enhanced s-process elements) are thought to be enhanced by mass transfer from an evolved AGB companion, while CEMP-no stars (which exhibit no over-abundances of neutron-capture elements) appear to be associated with explosions of the very first generations of stars. High-resolution spectroscopic analyses are generally required in order to make these sub-classifications.Several recent studies have suggested the existence of bimodality in the distribution of absolute carbon abundances among CEMP stars -- most CEMP-no stars belong to a low-C band ((A(C) ˜ 6.5), while most CEMP-s stars reside on a high-C band (A(C) ˜ 8.25). The number of CEMP stars considered by individual studies is, however, quite small, so we have compiled all available high-resolution spectroscopic data for CEMP stars, in order to further investigate the existence of the claimed carbon bi-modality, and to consider what can be learned about the progenitors of CEMP-s and CEMP-no stars based on the observed distribution of A(C) on the individual plateaus.We acknowledge partial support from the grant PHY 14-30152; Physics Frontier Center/JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements (JINA-CEE), awarded by the US National Science Foundation.

  12. The Determination of the Natural Abundance of the Isotopes of Chlorine: An Introductory Experiment in Mass Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Rebecca M.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment which introduces basic principles and experimental techniques of mass spectrometry for fourth year undergraduate (B.Sc.) students. Laboratory procedures, background information, and discussion of results are provided for the experiment in which the natural isotopic abundance of chlorine is determined. (Author/JN)

  13. Isotopic Composition and Trace Element Abundances of a Presolar SiC AB Grain Reconstructed by Atom-Probe Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, J. B.; Isheim, D.; Floss, C.; Groopman, E.; Gyngard, F.; Seidman, D. N.

    2014-09-01

    C and Si isotopic ratios of a previously characterized SiC AB grain are consistent with earlier NanoSIMS results. N, Al and Ti are abundant and distributed uniformly throughout the grain; s-process elements such as Zr, Mo and Ba were not detected.

  14. Optimizing sample pretreatment for compound-specific stable carbon isotopic analysis of amino sugars in marine sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, R.; Lin, Y.-S.; Lipp, J. S.; Meador, T. B.; Hinrichs, K.-U.

    2014-09-01

    Amino sugars are quantitatively significant constituents of soil and marine sediment, but their sources and turnover in environmental samples remain poorly understood. The stable carbon isotopic composition of amino sugars can provide information on the lifestyles of their source organisms and can be monitored during incubations with labeled substrates to estimate the turnover rates of microbial populations. However, until now, such investigation has been carried out only with soil samples, partly because of the much lower abundance of amino sugars in marine environments. We therefore optimized a procedure for compound-specific isotopic analysis of amino sugars in marine sediment, employing gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The whole procedure consisted of hydrolysis, neutralization, enrichment, and derivatization of amino sugars. Except for the derivatization step, the protocol introduced negligible isotopic fractionation, and the minimum requirement of amino sugar for isotopic analysis was 20 ng, i.e., equivalent to ~8 ng of amino sugar carbon. Compound-specific stable carbon isotopic analysis of amino sugars obtained from marine sediment extracts indicated that glucosamine and galactosamine were mainly derived from organic detritus, whereas muramic acid showed isotopic imprints from indigenous bacterial activities. The δ13C analysis of amino sugars provides a valuable addition to the biomarker-based characterization of microbial metabolism in the deep marine biosphere, which so far has been lipid oriented and biased towards the detection of archaeal signals.

  15. Optimizing sample pretreatment for compound-specific stable carbon isotopic analysis of amino sugars in marine sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, R.; Lin, Y.-S.; Lipp, J. S.; Meador, T. B.; Hinrichs, K.-U.

    2014-01-01

    Amino sugars are quantitatively significant constituents of soil and marine sediment, but their sources and turnover in environmental samples remain poorly understood. The stable carbon isotopic composition of amino sugars can provide information on the lifestyles of their source organisms and can be monitored during incubations with labeled substrates to estimate the turnover rates of microbial populations. However, until now, such investigation has been carried out only with soil samples, partly because of the much lower abundance of amino sugars in marine environments. We therefore optimized a procedure for compound-specific isotopic analysis of amino sugars in marine sediment employing gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The whole procedure consisted of hydrolysis, neutralization, enrichment, and derivatization of amino sugars. Except for the derivatization step, the protocol introduced negligible isotopic fractionation, and the minimum requirement of amino sugar for isotopic analysis was 20 ng, i.e. equivalent to ~ 8 ng of amino sugar carbon. Our results obtained from δ13C analysis of amino sugars in selected marine sediment samples showed that muramic acid had isotopic imprints from indigenous bacterial activities, whereas glucosamine and galactosamine were mainly derived from organic detritus. The analysis of stable carbon isotopic compositions of amino sugars opens a promising window for the investigation of microbial metabolisms in marine sediments and the deep marine biosphere.

  16. Stable carbon isotope fractionation by sulfate-reducing bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Londry, Kathleen L.; Des Marais, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Biogeochemical transformations occurring in the anoxic zones of stratified sedimentary microbial communities can profoundly influence the isotopic and organic signatures preserved in the fossil record. Accordingly, we have determined carbon isotope discrimination that is associated with both heterotrophic and lithotrophic growth of pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). For heterotrophic-growth experiments, substrate consumption was monitored to completion. Sealed vessels containing SRB cultures were harvested at different time intervals, and delta(13)C values were determined for gaseous CO(2), organic substrates, and products such as biomass. For three of the four SRB, carbon isotope effects between the substrates, acetate or lactate and CO(2), and the cell biomass were small, ranging from 0 to 2 per thousand. However, for Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans, the carbon incorporated into biomass was isotopically heavier than the available substrates by 8 to 9 per thousand. SRB grown lithoautotrophically consumed less than 3% of the available CO(2) and exhibited substantial discrimination (calculated as isotope fractionation factors [alpha]), as follows: for Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, alpha values ranged from 1.0100 to 1.0123; for Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus, the alpha value was 0.0138, and for Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans, the alpha value was 1.0310. Mixotrophic growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans on acetate and CO(2) resulted in biomass with a delta(13)C composition intermediate to that of the substrates. The extent of fractionation depended on which enzymatic pathways were used, the direction in which the pathways operated, and the growth rate, but fractionation was not dependent on the growth phase. To the extent that environmental conditions affect the availability of organic substrates (e.g., acetate) and reducing power (e.g., H(2)), ecological forces can also influence carbon isotope discrimination by SRB.

  17. Carbon-Isotopic Dynamics of Streams, Taylor Valley, Antarctica: Biological Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, K.; DesMarais, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the role of biological processes in the C-isotopic dynamics of the aquatic ecosystems in Taylor Valley, Antarctica. This cold desert ecosystem is characterized by the complete lack of vascular plants, and the presence of algal mats in ephemeral streams and perennially ice covered lakes. Streams having abundant algal mats and mosses have very low sigma CO2 concentrations, as well as the most depleted delta C-13 values (-4%). Previous work has shown that algal mats in these streams have delta C-13 values averaging -7.01%. These values are similar to those observed in the algal mats in shallow areas of the lakes in Taylor Valley, where CO2 is thought to be colimiting to growth. These low Sigma CO2 concentrations, and delta C(13) signatures heavier than the algal mats, suggest that CO2 may be colimiting in the streams, as well. Streams with little algal growth, especially the longer ones in Fryxell Basin, have higher Sigma CO2 concentrations and much more enriched isotopic signatures (as high as +8%). In these streams, the dissolution of isotopically enriched, cryogenic CaCO3 is probably the major source of dissolved carbonate. The delta C(13) geochemistry of Antarctic streams is radically different from the geochemistry of more temperate streams, as it is not affected by terrestrially produced, isotopically depleted Sigma CO2. These results have important implications for the understanding of "biogenic" carbonate that might have been produced from aquatic ecosystems in the past on Mars.

  18. Carbon and sulfur isotopes as tracers of fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interaction in geothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefansson, A.; Keller, N. S.; Gunnarsson Robin, J.; Kjartansdottir, R.; Ono, S.; Sveinbjörnsdottir, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon and sulfur are among major components in geothermal systems. They are found in various oxidation state and present in solid phases and fluids (water and vapor). In order to study the reactions and mass movement within multiphase geothermal systems, we have combined geochemical fluid-fluid and fluid-rock modelling with sulfur and carbon isotope fractionation modelling and compared the results with measured carbon and sulfur isotopes in geothermal fluids (water and vapor) for selected low- and high-enthalpy geothermal systems in Iceland. In this study we have focused on δ34S for H2S in vapor and water and SO4 in water as well as δ13C for CO2 in vapor and water phases. Isotope fractionations for CO2 and H2S between vapor and liquid water, upon aqueous speciation and upon carbonate and sulfide mineral formation were revised. These were combined with reaction modelling involving closed system boiling and progressive water-rock interaction to constrain the mass movement and isotope abundance between various phases. The results indicate that for a closed system, carbon and sulfur isotope abundance is largely dependent on progressive fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interaction and the initial total δ34S and δ13C value of the system. Initially, upon progressive fluid rock interaction the δ34S and δ13C values for the bulk aqueous phase approach that of the host rocks. Secondary mineral formation may alter these values, the exact isotope value of the mineral and resulting aqueous phase depending on aqueous speciation and isotope fractionation factor. In turn, aqueous speciation and mineral saturation depends on progressive fluid-rock interaction, fluid-fluid interaction, temperature and acid supply to the system. Depressurization boiling also results in isotope fractionation, the exact isotope value of the vapor and aqueous phase depending on aqueous speciation and isotope fractionation fractor. In this way, carbon and sulfur isotopes may be used combined with

  19. Chemical method for nitrogen isotopic analysis of ammonium at natural abundance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongwei; Fang, Yunting; Tu, Ying; Pan, Yuepeng

    2014-04-15

    We report a new chemical method to determine the (15)N natural abundance (δ(15)N) for ammonium (NH4(+)) in freshwater (e.g., precipitation) and soil KCl extract. This method is based on the isotopic analysis of nitrous oxide (N2O). Ammonium is initially oxidized to nitrite (NO2(-)) by hypobromite (BrO(-)) using previously established procedures. NO2(-) is then quantitatively converted into N2O by hydroxylamine (NH2OH) under strongly acid conditions. The produced N2O is analyzed by a commercially available purge and cryogenic trap system coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (PT-IRMS). On the basis of a typical analysis size of 4 mL, the standard deviation of δ(15)N measurements is less than 0.3‰ and often better than 0.1‰ (3 to 5 replicates). Compared to previous methods, the technique here has several advantages and the potential to be used as a routine method for (15)N/(14)N analysis of NH4(+): (1) substantially simplified preparation procedures and reduced preparation time particularly compared to the methods in which diffusion or distillation is involved since all reactions occur in the same vial and separation of NH4(+) from solution is not required; (2) more suitability for low volume samples including those with low N concentration, having a blank size of 0.6 to 2 nmol; (3) elimination of the use of extremely toxic reagents (e.g., HN3) and/or the use of specialized denitrifying bacterial cultures which may be impractical for many laboratories. PMID:24654992

  20. Modeling stable isotope and organic carbon in hillslope stormflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusek, Jaromir; Vogel, Tomas; Dohnal, Michal; Marx, Anne; Jankovec, Jakub; Sanda, Martin; Votrubova, Jana; Barth, Johannes A. C.; Cislerova, Milena

    2016-04-01

    Reliable prediction of water movement and fluxes of dissolved substances (such as stable isotopes and organic carbon) at both the hillslope and the catchment scales remains a challenge due to complex boundary conditions and soil spatial heterogeneity. In addition, microbially mediated transformations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are known to affect balance of DOC in soils, hence the transformations need to be included in a conceptual model of a DOC transport. So far, only few studies utilized stable isotope information in modeling and even fewer linked dissolved carbon fluxes to mixing and/or transport models. In this study, stormflow dynamics of oxygen-18 isotope and dissolved organic carbon was analyzed using a physically based modeling approach. One-dimensional dual-continuum vertical flow and transport model, based on Richards and advection-dispersion equations, was used to simulate the subsurface transport processes in a forest soil during several observed rainfall-runoff episodes. The transport of heat in the soil profile was described by conduction-advection equation. Water flow and transport of solutes and heat were assumed to take place in two mutually communicating porous domains, the soil matrix and the network of preferential pathways. The rate of microbial transformations of DOC was assumed to depend on soil water content and soil temperature. Oxygen-18 and dissolved organic carbon concentrations were observed in soil pore water, hillslope stormflow (collected in the experimental hillslope trench), and stream discharge (at the catchment outlet). The modeling was used to analyze the transformation of input solute signals into output hillslope signals observed in the trench stormflow. Signatures of oxygen-18 isotope in hillslope stormflow as well as isotope concentration in soil pore water were predicted reasonably well. Due to complex nature of microbial transformations, prediction of DOC rate and transport was associated with a high uncertainty.

  1. Can Mg isotopes be used to trace cyanobacteria-mediated magnesium carbonate precipitation in alkaline lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokova, L. S.; Mavromatis, V.; Bundeleva, I.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Bénézeth, P.; Pearce, C.; Gérard, E.; Balor, S.; Oelkers, E. H.

    2011-07-01

    The fractionation of Mg isotopes was determined during the cyanobacterial mediated precipitation of hydrous magnesium carbonate precipitation in both natural environments and in the laboratory. Natural samples were obtained from Lake Salda (SE Turkey), one of the few modern environments on the Earth's surface where hydrous Mg-carbonates are the dominant precipitating minerals. This precipitation was associated with cyanobacterial stromatolites which were abundant in this aquatic ecosystem. Mg isotope analyses were performed on samples of incoming streams, groundwaters, lake waters, stromatolites, and hydromagnesite-rich sediments. Laboratory Mg carbonate precipitation experiments were conducted in the presence of purified Synechococcus sp cyanobacteria that were isolated from the lake water and stromatolites. The hydrous magnesium carbonates nesquehonite (MgCO3·3H2O) and dypingite (Mg5(CO3)4(OH)25(H2O)) were precipitated in these batch reactor experiments from aqueous solutions containing either synthetic NaHCO3/MgCl2 mixtures or natural Lake Salda water, in the presence and absence of live photosynthesizing Synechococcus sp. Bulk precipitation rates were not to affected by the presence of bacteria when air was bubbled through the system. In the stirred non-bubbled reactors, conditions similar to natural settings, bacterial photosynthesis provoked nesquehonite precipitation, whilst no precipitation occurred in bacteria-free systems in the absence of air bubbling, despite the fluids achieving a similar or higher degree of supersaturation. The extent of Mg isotope fractionation (Δ26Mgsolid-solution) between the mineral and solution in the abiotic experiments was found to be identical, within uncertainty, to that measured in cyanobacteria-bearing experiments, and ranges from -1.4 to -0.7 ‰. This similarity refutes the use of Mg isotopes to validate microbial mediated precipitation of hydrous Mg carbonates.

  2. Carbon isotopes in three SNC meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, R. H.; Wright, I. P.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1985-02-01

    The presence of several carbonaceous components in SNC meteorites has been inferred from the analyses of samples of three SNC meteorites, Shergotty, Chassigny, and Elephant Moraine. The identification of the actual species involved, however, has not been possible except for that of the terrestrial materials known to contaminate extraterrestrial samples. Above 700 C, there is evidence of the presence of isotropically heavy and light components in all three meteorites, although there are notable differences in their isotopic compositions. The similarities observed may indicate a common origin for the meteorites, but the possibility that magmatic processes on different parent bodies have produced these features must be more fully explored.

  3. Carbonate "clumped" isotope signatures in aragonitic scleractinian and calcitic gorgonian deep-sea corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, J.; Tripati, R. E.; Dunbar, R.

    2015-12-01

    Deep-sea corals are a potentially valuable archive of the temperature and ocean chemistry of intermediate and deep waters. Living in near constant temperature, salinity and pH, and having amongst the slowest calcification rates observed in carbonate-precipitating biological organisms, deep-sea corals can provide valuable constraints on processes driving mineral equilibrium and disequilibrium isotope signatures. Here we report new data to further develop "clumped" isotopes as a paleothermometer in deep-sea corals as well as to investigate mineral-specific, taxon-specific, and growth-rate related effects. Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry is based on measurements of the abundance of the doubly-substituted isotopologue 13C18O16O2 in carbonate minerals, analyzed in CO2 gas liberated on phosphoric acid digestion of carbonates and reported as Δ47 values. We analyzed Δ47 in live-collected aragonitic scleractinian (Enallopsammia sp.) and calcitic gorgonian (Isididae and Coralliidae) deep-sea corals, and compared results to published data for other aragonitic scleractinian taxa. Measured Δ47 values were compared to in situ temperatures and the relationship between Δ47 and temperature was determined for each group to investigate taxon-specific effects. We find that aragonitic scleractinian deep-sea corals exhibit higher values than calcitic gorgonian corals and the two groups of coral produce statistically different relationship between Δ47-temperature calibrations. These data are significant in the interpretation of all carbonate "clumped" isotope calibration data as they show that distinct Δ47-temperature calibrations can be observed in different materials recovered from the same environment and analyzed using the same instrumentation, phosphoric acid composition, digestion temperature and technique, CO2 gas purification apparatus, and data handling. There are three possible explanations for the origin of these different calibrations. The offset between the

  4. Analysis of isotope and organic carbon signatures in hillslope hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusek, Jaromir; Vogel, Tomas; Dohnal, Michal; Jankovec, Jakub; Sanda, Martin; Votrubova, Jana

    2015-04-01

    Headwater catchments are among the most important areas for investigation of isotope and carbon fluxes because their small sizes best enable separation of above- and below ground compartments for improved understanding of the respective transport mechanisms. So far, only few studies utilized stable isotope information in modeling and even fewer linked dissolved carbon fluxes to mixing or transport models. Stable isotopes of water and dissolved organic carbon provide basis for studying transport processes ranging from soil profile scale to hillslope and catchment scale. In this study, stormflow dynamics of oxygen-18 and dissolved organic carbon was analyzed using a physically based modeling approach. One-dimensional dual-continuum vertical flow and transport model, based on Richards and advection-dispersion equations, was used to simulate the subsurface processes during significant rainfall-runoff episodes of a summer season. Water flow and transport of solutes were assumed to take place in two mutually communicating continua, the soil matrix and the network of preferential pathways. Oxygen-18 and dissolved organic carbon were observed in soil water, stormflow discharge in the experimental hillslope trench, and stream discharge at the catchment outlet. In the present study, we analyzed the transformation of input solute signals into signatures observed in the stormflow discharge. The research was supported by the Czech Science Foundation Project No. 14-15201J.

  5. A survey of methane isotope abundance (14C, 13C, 2H) from five nearshore marine basins that reveals unusual radiocarbon levels in subsurface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, J. D.; Reeburgh, W. S.; Valentine, D. L.; Kinnaman, F. S.; Peltzer, E. T.; Brewer, P. G.; Southon, J.; Tyler, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Methane (CH4) in the subsurface ocean is often supersaturated compared to equilibrium with the modern atmosphere. In order to investigate sources of CH4 to the subsurface ocean, isotope surveys (14C-CH4,δ13C-CH4, δ2H-CH4) were conducted at five locations: Skan Bay (SB), Santa Barbara Basin (SBB), Santa Monica Basin (SMB), Cariaco Basin (CB), and the Guaymas Basin (GB). Depth distributions of CH4 concentration and isotopic abundance were determined for both the sediment and water column at the SB, SBB, SMB, and CB sites; CH4 emitted from seeps on the continental shelf adjacent to the SBB as well as seeps and decomposing clathrate hydrates in the GB was also collected, purified, and analyzed. Methane isotope distributions in the sediments were consistent with known methanogenic and methanotrophic activity; seep- and clathrate-hydrate-derived CH4 was found to be depleted in radiocarbon. However, surprising results were obtained in the water column at all sites investigated. In SB the radiocarbon content of the subsurface CH4 concentration maximum was on average 41% less than its suspected sediment CH4 source, suggesting CH4 seepage in the bay. In the SBB, SMB, and CB, the 14C-CH4 contents in the subsurface ocean were 1.2 to 3.6 times greater than modern carbon quantities suggesting a source of 14C from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, nuclear power plant effluents, or cosmogenic isotope production.

  6. Beech carbon productivity as driver of ectomycorrhizal abundance and diversity.

    PubMed

    Druebert, Christine; Lang, Christa; Valtanen, Kerttu; Polle, Andrea

    2009-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that carbon productivity of beech (Fagus sylvatica) controls ectomycorrhizal colonization, diversity and community structures. Carbon productivity was limited by long-term shading or by girdling. The trees were grown in compost soil to avoid nutrient deficiencies. Despite severe limitation in photosynthesis and biomass production by shading, the concentrations of carbohydrates in roots were unaffected by the light level. Shade-acclimated plants were only 10% and sun-acclimated plants were 74% colonized by ectomycorrhiza. EM diversity was higher on roots with high than at roots with low mycorrhizal colonization. Evenness was unaffected by any treatment. Low mycorrhizal colonization had no negative effects on plant mineral nutrition. In girdled plants mycorrhizal colonization and diversity were retained although (14)C-leaf feeding showed almost complete disruption of carbon transport from leaves to roots. Carbohydrate storage pools in roots decreased upon girdling. Our results show that plant carbon productivity was the reason for and not the result of high ectomycorrhizal diversity. We suggest that ectomycorrhiza can be supplied by two carbon routes: recent photosynthate and stored carbohydrates. Storage pools may be important for ectomycorrhizal survival when photoassimilates were unavailable, probably feeding preferentially less carbon demanding EM species as shifts in community composition were found. PMID:19344334

  7. Application of stable carbon isotopes in long term mesocosm studies for carbon cycle investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an effective greenhouse gas. The Oceans absorb ca. 30% of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions and thereby partly attenuate deleterious climate effects. A consequence of the oceanic CO2 uptake is a decreased seawater pH and planktonic community shifts. The quantification of the anthropogenic perturbation was investigated through stable carbon isotope analysis in three "long term" mesocosm experiments (Sweden 2013, Gran Canaria 2014, Norway 2015) which reproduced near natural ecosystem conditions under both controlled and modified future CO2 level (up to 2000 ppm) scenarios. Parallel measurements of the stable isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) dissolved organic carbon (δ13CDOC) and particulate carbon (δ13CTPC) both from the mesocosms water column and sediment traps showed similar trends in all the three experiments. A CO2 response was noticeable in the isotopic dataset, but increased CO2 levels had only a subtle effect on the concentrations of the dissolved and particulate organic carbon pool. Distinctive δ13C signatures of the particulate carbon pool both in the water column and the sediments were detectable for the different CO2 treatments and they were strongly correlated with the δ13CDIC signatures but not with the δ13CDOC pool. The validity of the isotopic data was verified by cross-analyses of multiple substances of known isotopic signatures on a GasBench, Elemental Analyser (EA) and on an in-house TOC-IRMS setup for the analysis of δ13CDIC, δ13CTPC and δ13CDOC, respectively. Results from these mesocosm experiments proved the stable carbon isotope approach to be an effective tool for quantifying the uptake and carbon transfer among the various compartments of the marine carbon system.

  8. Determination of organic milk authenticity using carbon and nitrogen natural isotopes.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Park, Inmyoung; Yoon, Jae-Yeon; Yang, Ye-Seul; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2014-10-01

    Natural stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen ((12)C, (13)C, (14)N, (15)N) have abundances unique to each living creature. Therefore, measurement of the stable isotope ratio of carbon and nitrogen (δ(13)C=(13)C/(12)C, δ(15)N=(15)N/(14)N) in milk provides a reliable method to determine organic milk (OM) authenticity. In the present study, the mean δ(13)C value of OM was higher than that of conventional milk (CM), whereas the mean δ(15)N value of OM was lower than that of CM; nonetheless both δ(13)C and δ(15)N values were statistically different for the OM and CM (P<0.05). Furthermore, the values of δ(13)C and δ(15)N were found to differ statistically with the collection date and the milk brand (P<0.05). The combination of δ(13)C and δ(15)N values was more effective than either value alone in distinguishing between OM and CM. The results of the present study, which is based on preliminary data from a limited sample size and sampling period, could be highly valuable and helpful for consumers, the food industry, and/or government regulatory agencies as it can prevent fraudulent labelling of organic food. Further studies include additional analyses of other milk brands and analyses over longer time periods in order to accurately determine OM authenticity using stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen. PMID:24799230

  9. Magnesium isotope fractionation in bacterial mediated carbonate precipitation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, I. J.; Pearce, C. R.; Polacskek, T.; Cockell, C.; Hammond, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Magnesium is an essential component of life, with pivotal roles in the generation of cellular energy as well as in plant chlorophyll [1]. The bio-geochemical cycling of Mg is associated with mass dependant fractionation (MDF) of the three stable Mg isotopes [1]. The largest MDF of Mg isotopes has been recorded in carbonates, with foraminiferal tests having δ26Mg compositions up to 5 ‰ lighter than modern seawater [2]. Magnesium isotopes may also be fractionated during bacterially mediated carbonate precipitation and such carbonates are known to have formed in both modern and ancient Earth surface environments [3, 4], with cyanobacteria having a dominant role in carbonate formation during the Archean. In this study, we aim to better constrain the extent to which Mg isotope fractionation occurs during cellular processes, and to identify when, and how, this signal is transferred to carbonates. To this end we have undertaken biologically-mediated carbonate precipitation experiments that were performed in artificial seawater, but with the molar Mg/Ca ratio set to 0.6 and with the solution spiked with 0.4% yeast extract. The bacterial strain used was marine isolate Halomonas sp. (gram-negative). Experiments were run in the dark at 21 degree C for two to three months and produced carbonate spheres of various sizes up to 300 μm in diameter, but with the majority have diameters of ~100 μm. Control experiments run in sterile controls (`empty` medium without bacteria) yielded no precipitates, indicating a bacterial control on the precipitation. The carbonate spheres are produced are amenable to SEM, EMP and Mg isotopic analysis by MC-ICP-MS. Our new data will shed light on tracing bacterial signals in carbonates from the geological record. [1] Young & Galy (2004). Rev. Min. Geochem. 55, p197-230. [2] Pogge von Strandmann (2008). Geochem. Geophys. Geosys. 9 DOI:10.1029/2008GC002209. [3] Castanier, et al. (1999). Sed. Geol. 126, 9-23. [4] Cacchio, et al. (2003

  10. Systematic analysis of reaction cross sections of carbon isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Horiuchi, W.; Suzuki, Y.; Abu-Ibrahim, B.; Kohama, A.

    2007-04-15

    We systematically analyze total reaction cross sections of carbon isotopes with N= 6-16 on a {sup 12}C target for wide range of incident energy. The intrinsic structure of the carbon isotope is described by a Slater determinant generated from a phenomenological mean-field potential, which reasonably well reproduces the ground-state properties for most of the even N isotopes. We need separate studies not only for odd nuclei but also for {sup 16}C and {sup 22}C to improve their wave functions. The density of the carbon isotope is constructed by eliminating the effect of the center-of-mass motion. For the calculations of the cross sections, we take two schemes, the Glauber approximation and the eikonal model using a global optical potential. Both the reaction models successfully reproduce low and high incident energy data on the cross sections of {sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, and {sup 16}C on {sup 12}C. The calculated reaction cross sections of {sup 15}C are found to be considerably smaller than the empirical values observed at low energy. We find a consistent parametrization of the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude, differently from previous ones. Finally, we predict the total reaction cross section of {sup 22}C on {sup 12}C.

  11. Method for determination of stable carbon isotope ratio of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric PM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moukhtar, S.; Saccon, M.; Kornilova, A.; Irei, S.; Huang, L.; Rudolph, J.

    2011-05-01

    A technique for the measurement of the stable isotope ratio of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is presented. It has been found in numerous laboratory studies that these compounds are photooxidation products of toluene in PM. Atmospheric samples from rural and suburban areas were collected for evaluation of the procedure. PM was collected on quartz fibre filters using dichotomous high volume air samplers for PM 2.5. Methylnitrophenols were extracted from the filters using acetonitrile. The sample was then purified using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and solid phase extraction (SPE). The final solution was then divided into two aliquots. To one aliquot, a derivatising agent, Bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), was added to the solution for Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis. The second half of the sample was stored at low temperature. When GC/MS analysis showed high enough concentrations the remaining sample was derivatized with BSTFA and analysed for stable isotope ratio using a Gas Chromatography/Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-IRMS). In all atmospheric PM samples analysed, 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol was found to be the most abundant methylnitrophenol. Nevertheless, due to low pollution levels occurring in the rural area, no samples had concentrations high enough to perform stable carbon isotope composition measurements of the methylnitrophenols. Samples collected in the suburban area could be analysed for carbon stable isotope ratio using GC-IRMS. The procedure described in this paper provides a very sensitive and selective method for the analysis of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric PM at concentrations as low as 1 pg m-3. For accurate (within ±0.5‰) stable isotope ratio analysis significantly higher concentrations in the range of 100 pg m-3 or more are required.

  12. A Comparison of Oxidized Carbon Abundances among Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiSanti, M. A.; Mumma, M. J.; Bonev, B. P.; Villanueva, G. L.; Radeva, Y. L.; Magee-Sauer, K.; Gibb, E. L.

    2010-01-01

    Comets contain relatively well preserved icy material remaining from the epoch of Solar System formation, however the extent to which these ices are modified from their initial state remains a fundamental question in cometary science. As a comet approaches the Sun, sublimation of the ices contained in its nucleus (termed " native ices") releases parent volatiles into the coma, where they can be measured spectroscopically. One means of assessing the degree to which interstellar ices were processed prior to their incorporation into cometary nuclei is to measure the relative abundances of chemically-related parent volatiles. For example, formation of C2H6 by hydrogen atom addition (e.g., to C2H2) on surfaces of ice-mantled grains was proposed to explain the high C2H6 to CH4 abundance observed in C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) [1]. The large C2H6/CH4 abundance ratios measured universally in comets, compared with those predicted by gas phase production of C2H6, establishes H-atom addition as an important and likely ubiquitous process. CO should also be hydrogenated on grain surfaces. Laboratory irradiation experiments on interstellar ice analogs indicate this to require very low temperatures (T approx. 10-25 K), the resulting yields of H2CO and CH3OH being highly dependent both on hydrogen density (i.e., fluence) and on temperature ([2],[3]). This relatively narrow range in temperature reflects a lack of mobility below 8-10 K on the one hand, and reduced sticking times for H-atoms as grain surfaces are warmed above 20 K on the other. The relative abundances of these three chemically-related molecules in comets provides one measure of the efficiency of H-atom addition to CO on pre-cometary grains (Fig. 1).

  13. Isotopic Hg in an Allende carbon-rich residue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, G. W., Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1990-01-01

    A carbon-rich residue from Allende subjected to stepwise heating yielded two isotopically resolvable types of Hg: one with an (Hg-196)/(Hg-202) concentration ratio the same as terrestrial (monitor) Hg; the other enriched in Hg-196 relative to Hg-202 by about 60 percent. Hg with the 202 isotope enriched relative to 196, as is found in bulk Allende, was not observed. Whether the result of mass fractionation or nucleosynthesis, the distinct types of Hg entered different carrier phases and were not thermally mobilized since the accretion of the Allende parent body.

  14. Investigating the Formation of Pedogenic Carbonate Using Stable Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breecker, D. O.; Sharp, Z. D.; McFadden, L.

    2006-12-01

    The stable isotope composition of pedogenic carbonate has been used as a paleoenvironmental proxy because it is thought to form in isotopic equilibrium with soil CO2 and soil water, which are influenced by vegetation type and atmospheric circulation patterns, respectively. However, the isotopic composition of soil CO2 and soil water change seasonally and it is not known what portion of this variability is recorded by the isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonate. It is generally believed that carbonate precipitation in soils is driven by evaporative concentration of Ca ions and/or decreasing soil pCO2. We seek to improve the proxy by determining the seasonality of pedogenic carbonate formation, in particular whether pedogenic carbonate forms during the wet season after individual rainstorms or during seasonal drying following the wet season. This was done by comparing the variations in carbon and oxygen isotope composition of soil CO2 with the isotopic composition of proximally located, newly-formed carbonates. Soil CO2 and incipient pedogenic carbonate coatings were collected in a very young (< 500yrs) soil developing in an inset terrace on the piedmont of the Sandia Mountains, central New Mexico. We also measure soil temperatures at the same site. In May 2006, at the end of the driest 6-month period on record in central New Mexico, soil CO2 profiles displayed a 2‰ decrease in δ13C values with depth from 9 to 100 cm. In August 2006, the shapes of the profiles were similar, but the δ13C values were 3-4‰ lower at each depth than in May. These results can be explained by an increase in respiration rate during the latter half of the summer (the wettest on record) when monsoon rainfall maintained high moisture contents in soils across New Mexico. Calculated δ13C values of calcite in equilibrium with May (but not August) soil CO2 agree with measured carbonate δ13C values below 20 cm depth. Very shallow carbonate has anomalously high δ13C values. Measurements

  15. USE OF FATTY ACID STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE RATIO TO INDICATE MICROBIAL CARBON SOURCE IN TROPICAL SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory


    We use measurements of the concentration and stable carbon isotope ratio of individual microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in soils as indicators of live microbial biomass levels, broad microbial community structure, and microbial carbon source. For studies of soil o...

  16. Triple oxygen isotopes in biogenic and sedimentary carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passey, Benjamin H.; Hu, Huanting; Ji, Haoyuan; Montanari, Shaena; Li, Shuning; Henkes, Gregory A.; Levin, Naomi E.

    2014-09-01

    The 17O anomaly (Δ17O) of natural waters has been shown to be sensitive to evaporation in a way analogous to deuterium excess, with evaporated bodies of water (e.g., leaf waters, lake waters, animal body waters) tending to have lower Δ17O than primary meteoric waters. In animal body water, Δ17O relates to the intake of evaporated waters, evaporative effluxes of water, and the Δ17O value of atmospheric O2, which itself carries signatures of global carbon cycling and photochemical reactions in the stratosphere. Carbonates have the potential to record the triple oxygen isotope compositions of parent waters, allowing reconstruction of past water compositions, but such investigations have awaited development of methods for high-precision measurement of Δ17O of carbonate. We describe optimized methods based on a sequential acid digestion/reduction/fluorination approach that yield Δ17O data with the high precision (∼0.010‰, 1σ) needed to resolve subtle environmental signals. We report the first high-precision Δ17O dataset for terrestrial carbonates, focusing on vertebrate biogenic carbonates and soil carbonates, but also including marine invertebrates and high-temperature carbonates. We determine apparent three-isotope fractionation factors between the O2 analyte derived from carbonate and the parent waters of the carbonate. These in combination with appropriate temperature estimates (from clumped isotope thermometry, or known or estimated body temperatures) are used to calculate the δ18O and Δ17O of parent waters. The clearest pattern to emerge is the strong 17O-depletion in avian, dinosaurian, and mammalian body water (from analyses of eggshell and tooth enamel) relative to meteoric waters, following expected influences of evaporated water (e.g., leaf water) and atmospheric O2 on vertebrate body water. Parent waters of the soil carbonates studied here have Δ17O values that are similar to or slightly lower than global precipitation. Our results suggest

  17. Stable carbon isotope fractionation in pollen of Atlas cedar: first steps towards a new palaeoecological proxy for Northwest Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Benjamin; Fletcher, William; Ryan, Peter; Grant, Helen; Ilmen, Rachid

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of stable carbon isotopes can provide information on climate and the environmental conditions at different growth stages of the plant, both past and present. Carbon isotope discrimination in plant tissue is already well understood, and can be used as a drought stress indicator for semi-arid regions. Stable carbon isotope ratios measured directly on pollen provides the potential for the development of long-term environmental proxies (spanning thousands of years), as pollen is well preserved in the environment. Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica Endl. Manetti ex Carrière), is an ideal test case to develop a pollen stable carbon isotope proxy. The tree grows across a wide altitudinal and climatic range and is extremely sensitive to moisture availability. The pollen is abundant, and easily identifiable to the species level in pollen analysis because different cedar species are geographically confined to different regions of the world. In 2015 we sampled 76 individual cedar trees across latitudinal, altitudinal and environmental gradients, highly focused on the Middle Atlas region of Morocco, with 25 additional samples from botanical gardens across Europe and the US to extend these gradients. Here, we report new stable carbon isotope data from pollen, leaf and stem wood from these samples with a view to assessing and quantifying species-specific fractionation effects associated with pollen production. The isotopic response of individual trees at local and wider geographical scales to altitude and climatic conditions is presented. This research forms part of an ongoing PhD project working to develop and calibrate a modern carbon isotope proxy in Atlas cedar pollen, which can ultimately be applied to fossil sequences and complement existing multi-proxy records (e.g. pollen analysis in lake sediments, tree-rings).

  18. Simultaneous tracing of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in human cells.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Roland; Jain, Mohit

    2016-05-24

    Stable isotope tracing is a powerful method for interrogating metabolic enzyme activities across the metabolic network of living cells. However, most studies of mammalian cells have used (13)C-labeled tracers only and focused on reactions in central carbon metabolism. Cellular metabolism, however, involves other biologically important elements, including nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphate and sulfur. Tracing stable isotopes of such elements may help shed light on poorly understood metabolic pathways. Here, we demonstrate the use of high-resolution mass spectrometry to simultaneously trace carbon and nitrogen metabolism in human cells cultured with (13)C- and (15)N-labeled glucose and glutamine. To facilitate interpretation of the complex isotopomer data generated, we extend current methods for metabolic flux analysis to handle multivariate mass isotopomer distributions (MMIDs). We find that observed MMIDs are broadly consistent with known biochemical pathways. Whereas measured (13)C MIDs were informative for central carbon metabolism, (15)N isotopes provided evidence for nitrogen-carrying reactions in amino acid and nucleotide metabolism. This computational and experimental methodology expands the scope of metabolic flux analysis beyond carbon metabolism, and may prove important to understanding metabolic phenotypes in health and disease. PMID:27098229

  19. The abundances of solar accelerated nuclei from carbon to iron.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogro-Campero, A.; Simpson, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Revised observation periods and new data are found to confirm previous evidence that the overabundance of solar-flare nuclei with respect to solar photospheric and coronal abundances increases with increasing atomic number. It is also verified that enhancements can vary from flare to flare and that this variability is large enough to explain the differences observed by various investigators regarding the magnitude of solar-flare high-Z particle enhancements. Additional evidence for a two-stage solar acceleration mechanism is obtained. It is shown that the galactic cosmic-ray source composition displays a similar overabundance as a function of atomic number.

  20. Carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation by microbial methane oxidation: Improved determination

    SciTech Connect

    Mahieu, Koenraad . E-mail: Koenraad.Mahieu@Ugent.be; Visscher, Alex De; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Cleemput, Oswald Van

    2006-07-01

    Isotope fractionation is a promising tool for quantifying methane oxidation in landfill cover soils. For good quantification an accurate determination of the isotope fractionation factor ({alpha}) of methane oxidation based on independent batch experiments with soil samples from the landfill cover is required. Most studies so far used data analysis methods based on approximations of the Rayleigh model to determine {alpha}. In this study, the two most common approximations were tested, the simplified Rayleigh approach and the Coleman method. To do this, the original model of Rayleigh was described in measurable variables, methane concentration and isotopic abundances, and fitted to batch oxidation data by means of a weighted non-linear errors-in-variables regression technique. The results of this technique were used as a benchmark to which the results of the two conventional approximations were compared. Three types of batch data were used: simulated data, data obtained from the literature, and data obtained from new batch experiments conducted in our laboratory. The Coleman approximation was shown to be acceptable but not recommended for carbon fractionation (error on {alpha} - 1 up to 5%) and unacceptable for hydrogen fractionation (error up to 20%). The difference between the simplified Rayleigh approach and the exact Rayleigh model is much smaller for both carbon and hydrogen fractionation (error on {alpha} - 1 < 0.05%). There is also a small difference when errors in both variables (methane concentration and isotope abundance) are accounted for instead of assuming an error-free independent variable. By means of theoretical calculations general criteria, not limited to methane, {sup 13}C, or D, were developed for the validity of the simplified Rayleigh approach when using labelled compounds.

  1. Mars regolith versus SNC meteorites: Evidence for abundant crustal carbonates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1987-01-01

    Viking XRF analyses are compared with those for terrestrial and lunar basalt samples, and eucritic meteorites (of possible Mars origin). The comparison indicates depletion of Ca relative to Si in the Mars regolith. It is suggested that carbonate formation during a warmer, wetter epoch early in Mars' history could have been responsible.

  2. Boron isotope fractionation in magma via crustal carbonate dissolution

    PubMed Central

    Deegan, Frances M.; Troll, Valentin R.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Jolis, Ester M.; Freda, Carmela

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide released by arc volcanoes is widely considered to originate from the mantle and from subducted sediments. Fluids released from upper arc carbonates, however, have recently been proposed to help modulate arc CO2 fluxes. Here we use boron as a tracer, which substitutes for carbon in limestone, to further investigate crustal carbonate degassing in volcanic arcs. We performed laboratory experiments replicating limestone assimilation into magma at crustal pressure-temperature conditions and analysed boron isotope ratios in the resulting experimental glasses. Limestone dissolution and assimilation generates CaO-enriched glass near the reaction site and a CO2-dominated vapour phase. The CaO-rich glasses have extremely low δ11B values down to −41.5‰, reflecting preferential partitioning of 10B into the assimilating melt. Loss of 11B from the reaction site occurs via the CO2 vapour phase generated during carbonate dissolution, which transports 11B away from the reaction site as a boron-rich fluid phase. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of boron isotope fractionation during crustal carbonate assimilation and suggest that low δ11B melt values in arc magmas could flag shallow-level additions to the subduction cycle. PMID:27488228

  3. Boron isotope fractionation in magma via crustal carbonate dissolution.

    PubMed

    Deegan, Frances M; Troll, Valentin R; Whitehouse, Martin J; Jolis, Ester M; Freda, Carmela

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide released by arc volcanoes is widely considered to originate from the mantle and from subducted sediments. Fluids released from upper arc carbonates, however, have recently been proposed to help modulate arc CO2 fluxes. Here we use boron as a tracer, which substitutes for carbon in limestone, to further investigate crustal carbonate degassing in volcanic arcs. We performed laboratory experiments replicating limestone assimilation into magma at crustal pressure-temperature conditions and analysed boron isotope ratios in the resulting experimental glasses. Limestone dissolution and assimilation generates CaO-enriched glass near the reaction site and a CO2-dominated vapour phase. The CaO-rich glasses have extremely low δ(11)B values down to -41.5‰, reflecting preferential partitioning of (10)B into the assimilating melt. Loss of (11)B from the reaction site occurs via the CO2 vapour phase generated during carbonate dissolution, which transports (11)B away from the reaction site as a boron-rich fluid phase. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of boron isotope fractionation during crustal carbonate assimilation and suggest that low δ(11)B melt values in arc magmas could flag shallow-level additions to the subduction cycle. PMID:27488228

  4. Boron isotope fractionation in magma via crustal carbonate dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deegan, Frances M.; Troll, Valentin R.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Jolis, Ester M.; Freda, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    Carbon dioxide released by arc volcanoes is widely considered to originate from the mantle and from subducted sediments. Fluids released from upper arc carbonates, however, have recently been proposed to help modulate arc CO2 fluxes. Here we use boron as a tracer, which substitutes for carbon in limestone, to further investigate crustal carbonate degassing in volcanic arcs. We performed laboratory experiments replicating limestone assimilation into magma at crustal pressure-temperature conditions and analysed boron isotope ratios in the resulting experimental glasses. Limestone dissolution and assimilation generates CaO-enriched glass near the reaction site and a CO2-dominated vapour phase. The CaO-rich glasses have extremely low δ11B values down to ‑41.5‰, reflecting preferential partitioning of 10B into the assimilating melt. Loss of 11B from the reaction site occurs via the CO2 vapour phase generated during carbonate dissolution, which transports 11B away from the reaction site as a boron-rich fluid phase. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of boron isotope fractionation during crustal carbonate assimilation and suggest that low δ11B melt values in arc magmas could flag shallow-level additions to the subduction cycle.

  5. Dissolved Organic Carbon Cycling in Forested Watersheds: A Carbon Isotope Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiff, S. L.; Aravena, R.; Trumbore, S. E.; Dillon, P. J.

    1990-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is important in the acid-base chemistry of acid-sensitive freshwater systems; in the complexation, mobility, persistence, and toxicity of metals and other pollutants; and in lake carbon metabolism. Carbon isotopes (13C and 14C) are used to study the origin, transport, and fate of DOC in a softwater catchment in central Ontario. Precipitation, soil percolates, groundwaters, stream, beaver pond, and lake waters, and lake sediment pore water were characterized chemically and isotopically. In addition to total DOC, isotopic measurements were made on the humic and fulvic DOC fractions. The lake is a net sink for DOC. Δ14C results indicate that the turnover time of most of the DOC in streams, lakes, and wetlands is fast, less than 40 years, and on the same time scale as changes in acidic deposition. DOC in groundwaters is composed of older carbon than surface waters, indicating extensive cycling of DOC in the upper soil zone or aquifer.

  6. Carbon isotope fractionation during experimental crystallisation of diamond from carbonate fluid at mantle conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reutsky, Vadim; Borzdov, Yuri; Palyanov, Yuri; Sokol, Alexander; Izokh, Olga

    2015-12-01

    We report first results of a systematic study of carbon isotope fractionation in a carbonate fluid system under mantle PT conditions. The system models a diamond-forming alkaline carbonate fluid using pure sodium oxalate (Na2C2O4) as the starting material, which decomposes to carbonate, CO2 and elementary carbon (graphite and diamond) involving a single source of carbon following the reaction 2Na2C2O4 → 2Na2CO3 + CO2 + C. Near-liquidus behaviour of carbonate was observed at 1300 °C and 6.3 GPa. The experimentally determined isotope fractionation between the components of the system in the temperature range from 1300 to 1700 °C at 6.3 and 7.5 GPa fit the theoretical expectations well. Carbon isotope fractionation associated with diamond crystallisation from the carbonate fluid at 7.5 GPa decreases with an increase in temperature from 2.7 to 1.6 ‰. This trend corresponds to the function ΔCarbonate fluid-Diamond = 7.38 × 106 T-2.

  7. {sup 39}Ar Detection at the 10{sup -16} Isotopic Abundance Level with Atom Trap Trace Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, W.; Williams, W.; Bailey, K.; O'Connor, T. P.; Mueller, P.; Davis, A. M.; Hu, S.-M.; Sun, Y. R.; Lu, Z.-T.; Purtschert, R.; Sturchio, N. C.

    2011-03-11

    Atom trap trace analysis, a laser-based atom counting method, has been applied to analyze atmospheric {sup 39}Ar (half-life=269 yr), a cosmogenic isotope with an isotopic abundance of 8x10{sup -16}. In addition to the superior selectivity demonstrated in this work, the counting rate and efficiency of atom trap trace analysis have been improved by 2 orders of magnitude over prior results. The significant applications of this new analytical capability lie in radioisotope dating of ice and water samples and in the development of dark matter detectors.

  8. STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF SUBFOSSIL WOOD FROM AUSTRIAN ALPS

    PubMed Central

    KŁUSEK, MARZENA; PAWEŁCZYK, SŁAWOMIRA

    2015-01-01

    The presented studies were carried out in order to check the usefulness of subfossil wood for stable isotope analysis. The aim of research was also to define the optimal method of subfossil samples preparation. Subfossil samples used during the presented studies are a part of the multi-century dendrochronological scale. This chronology originates in an area situated around a small mountain lake — Schwarzersee, in Austria. The obtained results of stable carbon isotope measurements confirmed that the method of α-cellulose extraction by the application of acidic sodium chlorite and sodium hydroxide solutions removes resins and other mobile compounds from wood. Therefore, in the case of the analysed samples, the additional chemical process of extractives removing was found to be unnecessary. Studied wood samples contained an adequate proportion of α-cellulose similar to the values characteristic for the contemporary trees. This proved an adequate wood preservation which is essential for the conduction of isotopic research. PMID:26346297

  9. Silicon and carbon abundances in the Orion nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Robert H.; Dufour, Reginald J.; Walter, Donald K.

    1993-01-01

    We assess the gas-phase abundances of Si and C from our recent measurements of Si(2+), C(2+), and C(+) in the Orion Nebula by expanding on our earlier 'blister' models. The C and Si abundances are derived from new IUE high-dispersion spectra of the C(2+) 1907, 1909 A and Si(2+) 1883, 1892 A lines and archival IUE data. Gas-phase Si/C = 0.016 in the Orion ionized volume and is particularly insensitive to uncertainties in extinction and temperature structure. The solar value is 0.098. Gas-phase C/H = 2.8 x 10 exp -4 and Si/H = 4.5 x 10 exp -6. Compared to solar, Si is depleted by a factor of about 8 in the ionized region, while C is much less depleted (factor of 1.3), if depleted at all. This suggests that most Si resides in dust grains even in the ionized volume. Thus, most of the observed forbidden Si II 34.8-micron emission in Orion does not arise in the H II region.

  10. Stable carbon isotope fractionation during aerobic biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Kung-Hui; Mahendra, Shaily; Song, Donald L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2003-06-01

    Stable isotope analysis is recognized as a powerful tool for monitoring, assessing, and validating in-situ bioremediation processes. In this study, kinetic carbon isotope fractionation factors () associated with the aerobic biodegradation of vinyl chloride (VC), cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cDCE), and trichloroethylene (TCE) were examined. Of the three solvents, the largest fractionation effects were observed for biodegradation of VC. Both metabolic and cometabolic VC degradation were studied using Mycobacterium aurum L1 (grown on VC), Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b (grown on methane), Mycobacterium vaccae JOB 5 (grown on propane), and two VC enrichment cultures seeded from contaminated soils of Alameda Point and Travis Air Force Base, CA. M. aurum L1 caused the greatest fractionation (= -5.7) while for the cometabolic cultures, values ranged from -3.2 to -4.8. VC fractionation patterns for the enrichment cultures were within the range of those observed for the metabolic and cometabolic cultures (= -4.5 to -5.5). The fractionation for cometabolic degradation of TCE by Me. trichosporium OB3b was low (= -1.1), while no quantifiable carbon isotopic fractionation was observed during the cometabolic degradation of cDCE. For all three of the tested chlorinated ethenes, isotopic fractionation measured during aerobic degradation was significantly smaller than that reported for anaerobic reductive dechlorination. This study suggests that analysis of compound-specific isotopic fractionation could assist in determining whether aerobic or anaerobic degradation of VC and cDCE predominates in field applications of in-situ bioremediation. In contrast, isotopic fractionation effects associated with metabolic and cometabolic reactions are not sufficiently dissimilar to distinguish these processes in the field.

  11. Carbon isotope fractionation of methyl bromide during agricultural soil fumigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bill, M.; Miller, L.G.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2002-01-01

    The isotopic composition of methyl bromide (CH3Br) has been suggested to be a potentially useful tracer for constraining the global CH3Br budget. In order to determine the carbon isotopic composition of CH3Br emitted from the most significant anthropogenic application (pre-plant fumigation) we directly measured the ??13C of CH3Br released during commercial fumigation. We also measured the isotopic fractionation associated with degradation in agricultural soil under typical field fumigation conditions. The isotopic composition of CH3Br collected in soil several hours after injection of the fumigant was -44.5??? and this value increased to -20.7??? over the following three days. The mean kinetic isotope effect (KIE) associated with degradation of CH3Br in agricultural soil (12???) was smaller than the reported value for methylotrophic bacterial strain IMB-1, isolated from previously fumigated agricultural soil, but was similar to methylotrophic bacterial strain CC495, isolated from a pristine forest litter zone. Using this fractionation associated with the degradation of CH3Br in agricultural soil and the mean ??13C of the industrially manufactured CH3Br (-54.4???), we calculate that the agricultural soil fumigation source has a carbon isotope signature that ranges from -52.8??? to -42.0???. Roughly 65% of industrially manufactured CH3Br is used for field fumigations. The remaining 35% is used for structural and post-harvest fumigations with a minor amount used during industrial chemical manufacturing. Assuming that the structural and post-harvest fumigation sources of CH3Br are emitted without substantial fractionation, we calculate that the ??13C of anthropogenically emitted CH3Br ranges from -53.2??? to -47.5???.

  12. Titan Aerosol Formation as a Sink for Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainer, Melissa G.; Stern, Jennifer C.; Sebree, Joshua A.; Gautier, Thomas J.; Fuentes, Javier A.; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Mandt, Kathleen E.

    2015-11-01

    Stable isotope ratios of major elements can be used to infer much about local- and global-scale processes on a planet. On Titan, aerosol production is a significant sink of carbon and nitrogen in the atmosphere, and isotopic fractionation of these elements may be introduced during the advanced organic chemistry that leads to the condensed phase products. Several stable isotope pairs, including 12C/13C and 14N/15N, have been measured in situ or probed spectroscopically by Cassini-borne instruments, space telescopes, or through ground-based observations. However, the effect of a potentially critical pathway for isotopic fractionation - organic aerosol formation and subsequent deposition onto the surface of Titan - has not been considered due to insufficient data regarding fractionation during aerosol formation. To better understand the nature of this process, we have measured the isotopic fractionation associated with the formation of Titan aerosol analogs via far-UV irradiation of several methane (CH4) and nitrogen (N2) mixtures.Our initial results probed the fractionation of the aerosol product, relative to the reactant gases, as a function of CH4 abundance [1]. Our results show that the direction of carbon isotope fractionation during aerosol formation is in contrast to the expected result if the source of the fractionation is a kinetic isotope effect. The resultant fractionation in nitrogen favored the light (14N) isotope in the aerosol, with N/C ratios varying from 0.13 - 0.31. Ongoing work includes probing the effects of pressure and temperature on the direction and magnitude of the stable isotope fractionation. We will present results alongside interpretation of the driving processes, as well as implications for Titan if similar fractionation occurred during aerosol formation in the atmosphere.[1] Sebree, J.A., Stern, J.C., Mandt, K.E., Domagal-Goldman, S.D., and Trainer, M.G.: 13C and 15N Fractionation of CH4/N2 Mixtures during Photochemical Aerosol Formation

  13. Clumped isotope thermometry of modern and early Cretaceous molluscan carbonate from high-latitude seas (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkes, G. A.; Price, G. D.; Ambrose, W. G.; Carroll, M. L.; Passey, B. H.

    2010-12-01

    The carbonate clumped isotope thermometer is based on the temperature sensitivity of the relative abundance of carbonate ion groups containing 13C-18O bonds. One application of clumped isotope thermometry is to determine the temperature of ancient seawater from the skeletal material of calcium carbonate-secreting marine organisms. The relationship between Δ47, a parameter describing isotopic clumping, and the temperature of carbonate biomineralization has been well-defined for fish otoliths, corals, foraminifera, and coccolithophore tests, but few data have been published for brachiopods and bivalve mollusks. A comprehensive evaluation of the Δ47-temperature relationship for mollusks is required for paleotemperature interpretations from the marine fossil record. Here we present a more comprehensive calibration for modern mollusks, including bivalves, cephalopods, and gastropods. Further, we focus on a subset of cold water, high-latitude species collected in the northern Barents Sea. The observed Δ47-temperature relationship is similar to the theoretical relationship presented by Guo et al. (2009) but deviates at low temperatures from the original Ghosh et al. (2007) calibration curve. This divergence could be related to methodological differences or unaccounted differences in the biomineralization of mollusks versus that of other carbonate-secreting organisms at low temperature. One advantage of clumped isotope thermometry over traditional oxygen isotope thermometry is that it does not require assumptions about the isotopic composition of the water in which the carbonate formed. This may be particularly useful in Mesozoic paleoceanography where the oxygen isotope value of seawater is uncertain. Using clumped isotope thermometry applied to early Cretaceous (Valangian) belemnite carbonate from the Yatria River, sub-polar Urals, Siberia, we find shell growth temperatures of 20-26°C at a paleolatitude of ~60-65°N. Our data imply average seawater δ18O values of 0

  14. Calibrated sulfur isotope abundance ratios of three IAEA sulfur isotope reference materials and V-CDT with a reassessment of the atomic weight of sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, T.; Valkiers, S.; Kipphardt, H.; De Bièvre, P.; Taylor, P. D. P.; Gonfiantini, R.; Krouse, R.

    2001-09-01

    Calibrated values have been obtained for sulfur isotope abundance ratios of sulfur isotope reference materials distributed by the IAEA (Vienna). For the calibration of the measurements, a set of synthetic isotope mixtures were prepared gravimetrically from high purity Ag 2S materials enriched in 32S, 33S, and 34S. All materials were converted into SF 6 gas and subsequently, their sulfur isotope ratios were measured on the SF 5+ species using a special gas source mass spectrometer equipped with a molecular flow inlet system (IRMM's Avogadro II amount comparator). Values for the 32S/ 34S abundance ratios are 22.650 4(20), 22.142 4(20), and 23.393 3(17) for IAEA-S-1, IAEA-S-2, and IAEA-S-3, respectively. The calculated 32S/ 34S abundance ratio for V-CDT is 22.643 6(20), which is very close to the calibrated ratio obtained by Ding et al. (1999). In this way, the zero point of the VCDT scale is anchored firmly to the international system of units SI. The 32S/ 33S abundance ratios are 126.942(47), 125.473(55), 129.072(32), and 126.948(47) for IAEA-S-1, IAEA-S-2, IAEA-S-3, and V-CDT, respectively. In this way, the linearity of the V-CDT scale is improved over this range. The values of the sulfur molar mass for IAEA-S-1 and V-CDT were calculated to be 32.063 877(56) and 32.063 911(56), respectively, the values with the smallest combined uncertainty ever reported for the sulfur molar masses (atomic weights).

  15. Disequilibrium in Clumped Isotopes Caused by Diagenesis in Tertiary Carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, S.; Swart, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    This work examines the clumped isotopes and carbonate associated sulfate (CAS) within a system which is being altered from aragonite to calcite and being subjected to partial dolomitization within the marine realm. Samples were collected from Clino, a ≈670m long core which represents slope carbonates composed of varying percentages of aragonite, low-magnesium calcite (LMC), and dolomite. The concentrations of these endmembers differ dramatically over short distances and are associated with varying degrees of marine diagenesis. In the deeper water portion of the core, previous work has shown no evidence of exposure throughout nor is there any evidence for hydrothermal fluids existing in the Bahamas. Bulk samples were collected from the portions of the core in which dolomite was most prominent. Samples were treated and measured for CAS and for their clumped isotope value. They were then subjected to a series of buffered acetic acid leaches to remove the aragonite and LMC portion of the sample. There were up to three treatments per sample with the resulting sediment measured on XRD to determine its % dolomite composition. These treatments were then also measured for clumped isotopes. The δ34S of the sediments yielded values of up to 10‰ more positive than contemporaneous sweater and implicate bacterial sulfate reduction in the formation of these dolomites. Clumped isotope results of the separates allowed for the calculation of end-member formation temperatures for the LMC and dolomite, whilst using a mixing model to account for non-linearity in ∆47 between end-member combinations and varying ∆47-temperature equations. In contrast to other dolomites in the Bahamas proposed to have formed by massive flow of normal seawater, the Clino temperatures values were significantly elevated compared to the presumed equilibrium values. These data suggest that BSR may result in carbonates with clumped isotopic values significant elevated to equilibrium.

  16. Carbon isotopes in xenoliths from the Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii, and the generation of isotopic variability

    SciTech Connect

    Pineau, F. ); Mathez, E.A. )

    1990-01-01

    The isotopic composition of carbon has been determined in a suite of xenoliths from lava of the 1800-1801 Kaupulehu eruption of Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii. Several lithologies are represented in the suite, including websterite, dunite, wehrlite, pyroxenite, and gabbro. In addition, there are composite xenoliths in which contacts between lithologies are preserved. Most of the xenoliths represent deformed cumulates. The contact relations in the composite samples indicate that the lithologies originated from the same source region, which, based on pressures determined from fluid inclusions, is estimated to be at a depth of {approx}20 km, or near the crust-mantle boundary. The observations and isotopic results demonstrate that isotopic variability can be generated by multistage fractionation processes such as degassing of CO{sub 2} from magma and precipitation of CO{sub 2}-rich fluids to form graphitic compounds. Such processes operated over regions the scales of which were determined by style and intensity of deformation and by lithology.

  17. Calcium and Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Calcium Carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermayr, Andrea; Eisenhauer, Anton; Böhm, Florian; Kisakürek, Basak; Balzer, Isabelle; Immenhauser, Adrian; Jürgen Köhler, Stephan; Dietzel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Different isotopic systems are influenced in multiple ways corresponding to the crystal structure, dehydration, deprotonation, adsorption, desorption, isotope exchange and diffusion processes. In this study we investigated the structural and kinetic effects on fractionation of stable Ca- and O-isotopes during CaCO3 precipitation. Calcite, aragonite and vaterite were precipitated using the CO2 diffusion technique[1]at a constant pH of 8.3, but various temperatures (6, 10, 25 and 40° C) and precipitation rates R (101.5 to 105 μmol h‑1 m‑2). The calcium isotopic fractionation between solution and vaterite is lower (Δ44/40Ca= -0.10 to -0.55 ‰) compared to calcite (-0.69 to -2.04 ‰) and aragonite (-0.91 to -1.55 ‰). In contrast the fractionation of oxygen isotopes is highest for vaterite (32.1 ‰), followed by aragonite (29.2 ‰) and calcite (27.6 ‰) at 25° C and equilibrium. The enrichment of 18O vs. 16O in all polymorphs decreases with increasing precipitation rate by around -0.7 ‰ per log(R). The calcium isotopic fractionation between calcite/ vaterite and aqueous Ca2+ increases with increasing precipitation rate by ˜0.45 ‰ per log(R) and ˜0.1 ‰ per log(R) at 25° C and 40° C, respectively. In contrast the fractionation of Ca-isotopes between aragonite and aqueous Ca2+ decreases with increasing precipitation rates. The large enrichment of 18O vs. 16O isotopes in carbonates is related to the strong bond of oxygen to the small and highly charged C4+-ion. In contrast equilibrium isotopic fractionation between solution and calcite or vaterite is nearly zero as the Ca-O bond length is similar for calcite, vaterite and the hydrated Ca. Aragonite incorporates preferentially the lighter 40Ca isotope as it has very large Ca-O bonds in comparison to the hydrated Ca. At the crystal surface the lighter 40Ca isotopes are preferentially incorporated as dehydration and diffusion of lighter isotopes are faster. Consequently, the surface becomes enriched in

  18. Molecular carbon isotopic evidence for the origin of geothermal hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Des Marais, D.J.; Donchin, J.H.; Nehring, N.L.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    Previous interest in light hydrocarbons from geothermal systems has focused principally on the origin of the methane1 and the estimation of subsurface temperatures from the carbon isotopic content of coexisting methane and carbon dioxide1-3. Higher molecular weight hydrocarbons were first reported in gases from Yellowstone National Park4, and have since been found to occur commonly in geothermal emanations in the western United States5. Isotopic measurements of individual geothermal hydrocarbons are now reported which help to explain the origin of these hydrocarbons. The thermal decomposition of sedimentary or groundwater organic matter is a principal source of hydrocarbons in four geothermal areas in western North America. ?? 1981 Nature Publishing Group.

  19. Descriptions of carbon isotopes within the energy density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Atef; Cheong, Lee Yen; Yahya, Noorhana; Tammam, M.

    2014-10-24

    Within the energy density functional (EDF) theory, the structure properties of Carbon isotopes are systematically studied. The shell model calculations are done for both even-A and odd-A nuclei, to study the structure of rich-neutron Carbon isotopes. The EDF theory indicates the single-neutron halo structures in {sup 15}C, {sup 17}C and {sup 19}C, and the two-neutron halo structures in {sup 16}C and {sup 22}C nuclei. It is also found that close to the neutron drip-line, there exist amazing increase in the neutron radii and decrease on the binding energies BE, which are tightly related with the blocking effect and correspondingly the blocking effect plays a significant role in the shell model configurations.

  20. Forward Modeling of Carbonate Proxy Data from Planktonic Foraminifera using Oxygen Isotope Tracers in a Global Ocean Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gavin A.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution and variation of oxygen isotopes in seawater are calculated using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies global ocean model. Simple ecological models are used to estimate the planktonic foraminiferal abundance as a function of depth, column temperature, season, light intensity, and density stratification. These models are combined to forward model isotopic signals recorded in calcareous ocean sediment. The sensitivity of the results to the changes in foraminiferal ecology, secondary calcification, and dissolution are also examined. Simulated present-day isotopic values for ecology relevant for multiple species compare well with core-top data. Hindcasts of sea surface temperature and salinity are made from time series of the modeled carbonate isotope values as the model climate changes. Paleoclimatic inferences from these carbonate isotope records are strongly affected by erroneous assumptions concerning the covariations of temperature, salinity, and delta (sup 18)O(sub w). Habitat-imposed biases are less important, although errors due to temperature-dependent abundances can be significant.

  1. Low stable carbon isotope fractionation by coccolithophore RubisCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boller, Amanda J.; Thomas, Phaedra J.; Cavanaugh, Colleen M.; Scott, Kathleen M.

    2011-11-01

    The 13C/ 12C ratio of carbon compounds is used to identify sources and sinks in the global carbon cycle. However, the relatively enriched 13C content observed for marine organic carbon remains enigmatic. The majority of oceanic carbon is fixed by algae and cyanobacteria via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle, yet isotopic discrimination by the CO 2 fixation enzyme, RubisCO (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), has only been measured for a single marine cyanobacterium. Different forms of RubisCO occur in different phytoplankton species (overall amino acid identity varying by as much as ˜75%) and thus may vary in the degree to which they fractionate carbon. Here we measured isotope discrimination by RubisCO from the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, a cosmopolitan species used as a marine algal model .E. huxleyi RubisCO discriminated substantially less ( ɛ = 11.1‰) against 13CO 2 than other RubisCO enzymes (18-29‰), despite having Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters ( K = 72 μM; Vmax = 0.66 μmol min -1 mg -1 protein) similar to those measured for RubisCO enzymes from different organisms. If widespread, decreased isotope discrimination of 13C by phytoplankton RubisCO may be a major factor influencing the enriched 13C content of marine organic carbon. This finding emphasizes the necessity of (a) determining ɛ values for RubisCOs of other marine phytoplankton and (b) re-evaluation of δ13C values from physiological, environmental, and geological studies.

  2. The use of carbon stable isotope ratios in drugs characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdas, D. A.; Cristea, G.; Bot, A.; Mirel, V.

    2013-11-01

    Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is an effective toll to be used for drug product authentication. The isotopic composition could be used to assist in the differentiation between batches of drugs and assist in the identification of counterfeit materials on the market. Only two factors affect the isotopic ratios in pharmaceutical components: the isotopic composition of the raw materials and the synthetic processes performed upon them. Counterfeiting of pharmaceutical drugs threatens consumer confidence in drug products companies' economical well-being. In this preliminary study, the analyzed samples consist in two types of commercially available analgesics, which were purchases from Romanian pharmacies. Differences in δ13C between batches from -29.7 to -31.6% were observed, demonstrating that this method can be used to differentiate among individual drug batches and subsequently identify counterfeits on the market. On the other hand, carbon isotopic ratios differences among producers were recorded, the variations being between -31.3 to -34.9% for the same type of analgesic, but from different manufactures.

  3. The use of carbon stable isotope ratios in drugs characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Magdas, D. A. Cristea, G. Bot, A. Mirel, V.

    2013-11-13

    Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is an effective toll to be used for drug product authentication. The isotopic composition could be used to assist in the differentiation between batches of drugs and assist in the identification of counterfeit materials on the market. Only two factors affect the isotopic ratios in pharmaceutical components: the isotopic composition of the raw materials and the synthetic processes performed upon them. Counterfeiting of pharmaceutical drugs threatens consumer confidence in drug products companies' economical well-being. In this preliminary study, the analyzed samples consist in two types of commercially available analgesics, which were purchases from Romanian pharmacies. Differences in δ{sup 13}C between batches from −29.7 to −31.6% were observed, demonstrating that this method can be used to differentiate among individual drug batches and subsequently identify counterfeits on the market. On the other hand, carbon isotopic ratios differences among producers were recorded, the variations being between −31.3 to −34.9% for the same type of analgesic, but from different manufactures.

  4. Using natural isotopic abundances to determine the source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mothet, A.; Sebilo, M.; Laverman, A. M.; Vaury, V.; Mariotti, A.

    2012-04-01

    Numerous greenhouse gas studies have focused on carbon dioxide (CO2), whereas nitrous oxide (N2O) also plays a major role in global warming. Indeed, while nitrous oxide is 1000 times less concentrated than CO2 in the atmosphere, it is 300 times more efficient in terms of global warming potential. In addition, its atmospheric concentration increases with 0,3 % per year. According to the literature, nitrous oxide is produced, in soils and sediments, by two major processes: (1) Nitrification, mediated by autotrophic nitrifying bacteria under oxic conditions; (2) Denitrification, mediated by heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria under anoxic conditions. Denitrification induces intensive, localized and instantaneous fluxes. N2O emissions can be easily measured and modeled. In contrast, nitrification induces weak emissions, but spatially and temporally extended. Therefore, this process could represent a large potential of N2O emissions from soils and sediments. The study of isotopomer's isotopic composition of N2O, i.e. the intramolecular distribution or site preference (SP) determined by 15N measurement allows the determination of the origin of N2O emissions (nitrification vs. denitrification). Recent studies on pure cultures have showed that SP associated with nitrification is 35 ‰ while SP associated with denitrification is 0 ‰. The aim of this study was to determine SP associated with denitrification in soils and sediments, taking into account the environmental denitrifying bacterial communities, and under different environmental variables. To this end, flow-through reactors were used to determine denitrification rates at different temperatures and varying substrate (nitrate) concentrations. Site preference was measured for the different experiments. Different experiments of denitrification were realized in sediment flow through reactors under denitrifying conditions (anoxia, presence of organic matter and nitrate). We used acetylene (25°C) to block the enzyme

  5. Constraining the global bromomethane budget from carbon stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlmann, Enno; Wittmer, Julian; Greule, Markus; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Seifert, Richard; Keppler, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Despite intense research in the last two decades, the global bromomethane (CH3Br) budget remains unbalanced with the known sinks exceeding the known sources by about 25%. The reaction with OH is the largest sink for CH3Br. We have determined the kinetic isotope effects for the reactions of CH3Br with the OH and Cl radical in order to better constrain the global CH3Br budget from an isotopic perspective. The isotope fractionation experiments were performed at 20±1°C in a 3500 L Teflon smog-chamber with initial CH3Br mixing ratios of about 2 and 10 ppm and perflourohexane (25 ppb) as internal standard. Atomic chlorine (Cl) was generated via photolysis of molecular chlorine (Cl2) using a solar simulator with an actinic flux comparable to that of the sun in mid-summer in Germany. OH radicals were generated via the photolysis of ozone (O3) at 253.7 nm in the presence of water vapor (RH = 70%).The mixing ratios of CH3Br, and perflourohexane were monitored by GC-MS with a time resolution of 15 minutes throughout the experiments. From each experiment 10 to 15 sub samples were taken in regular time intervals for subsequent carbon isotope ratio determinations by GC-IRMS performed at two independent laboratories in parallel. We found a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of 17.6±3.3‰ for the reaction of CH3Br with OH and a KIE of 9.8±1.4 ‰ for the reaction with Cl*. We used these fractionation factors along with new data on the isotopic composition of CH3Br in the troposphere (-34±7‰) and the surface ocean (-26±7‰) along with reported source signatures, to constrain the unknown source from an isotopic perspective. The largest uncertainty in estimating the isotopic composition of the unknown source arises from the soil sink. Microbial degradation in soils is the second largest sink and assigned with a large fractionation factors of about 50‰. However, field experiments revealed substantially smaller apparent fractionation factors ranging from 11 to 22‰. In addition

  6. Regional Atmospheric Circulation Change in the North Pacific During the Holocene Inferred from Lacustrine Carbonate Oxygen Isotopes, Yukon Territory, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L.; Abbott, M. B.; Finney, B. P.; Burns, S. J.

    2004-12-01

    Analyses of sediment cores from Jellybean Lake, a small, hydrologically-open groundwater-fed lake, provide a record of changes in North Pacific atmospheric circulation for the last 7500 years at twenty to thirty-year resolution. A regional isotope hydrology study in the southern Yukon indicates that the oxygen isotope composition of water from Jellybean Lake reflects the oxygen isotope composition of mean annual precipitation. Thus, the oxygen isotope history of Jellybean Lake inferred from sedimentary carbonate oxygen isotope ratios suggests multi-decadal shifts in the oxygen isotope composition of mean annual precipitation superimposed on century and millennial trends. Recent fluctuations of Jellybean oxygen isotopes correlate well with changes in the North Pacific Index, a measure of the intensity and position of the Aleutian Low. We propose that oxygen isotope variability of precipitation in the interior of the Yukon is related to the degree of fractionation during moisture transport from the Gulf of Alaska across the St Elias Mountains that is ultimately controlled by the position and strength of the Aleutian Low. Following this model, Aleutian Low intensity during the early to middle Holocene was relatively reduced and increasing intensity coincided with the initial onset of Neoglacial advances. Rapid shifts during the last two millennia corresponds with glacial activity, changes in North Pacific salmon abundance, and shifts in atmospheric circulation over the Beaufort Sea.

  7. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope enrichment in primate tissues

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Melinda L.; Karpanty, Sarah M.; Zihlman, Adrienne L.; Koch, Paul L.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Isotopic studies of wild primates have used a wide range of tissues to infer diet and model the foraging ecologies of extinct species. The use of mismatched tissues for such comparisons can be problematic because differences in amino acid compositions can lead to small isotopic differences between tissues. Additionally, physiological and dietary differences among primate species could lead to variable offsets between apatite carbonate and collagen. To improve our understanding of the isotopic chemistry of primates, we explored the apparent enrichment (ε*) between bone collagen and muscle, collagen and fur or hair keratin, muscle and keratin, and collagen and bone carbonate across the primate order. We found that the mean ε* values of proteinaceous tissues were small (≤1‰), and uncorrelated with body size or phylogenetic relatedness. Additionally, ε* values did not vary by habitat, sex, age, or manner of death. The mean ε* value between bone carbonate and collagen (5.6 ± 1.2‰) was consistent with values reported for omnivorous mammals consuming monoisotopic diets. These primate-specific apparent enrichment values will be a valuable tool for cross-species comparisons. Additionally, they will facilitate dietary comparisons between living and fossil primates. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00442-010-1701-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20628886

  8. Method for determination of stable carbon isotope ratio of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moukhtar, S.; Saccon, M.; Kornilova, A.; Irei, S.; Huang, L.; Rudolph, J.

    2011-11-01

    A technique for the measurement of the stable isotope ratio of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter is presented. Atmospheric samples from rural and suburban areas were collected for evaluation of the procedure. Particulate matter was collected on quartz fibre filters using dichotomous high volume air samplers. Methylnitrophenols were extracted from the filters using acetonitrile. The sample was then purified using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and solid phase extraction. The final solution was then divided into two aliquots. To one aliquot, a derivatising agent, Bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide, was added for Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis. The second half of the sample was stored in a refrigerator. For samples with concentrations exceeding 1 ng μl-1, the second half of the sample was used for measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios by Gas Chromatography-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry. The procedure described in this paper provides a method for the analysis of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter at concentrations as low as 0.3 pg m-3 and for stable isotope ratios with an accuracy of better than ±0.5‰ for concentrations exceeding 100 pg m-3. In all atmospheric particulate matter samples analysed, 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol was found to be the most abundant methylnitrophenol, with concentrations ranging from the low pg m-3 range in rural areas to more than 200 pg m-3 in some samples from a suburban location.

  9. The interstellar carbon abundance. II - Rho Ophiuchi and Beta Scorpii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welty, D. E.; York, D. G.; Hobbs, L. M.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure designed to obtain increased sensitivity from high-dispersion IUE spectra by using a flat-field spectrum to remove nonrandom noise due to the response pattern of the SEC vidicon detector is described. Application of this procedure to spectra of Rho Oph and Beta(1) Sco near the spin-forbidden interstellar 2325 line of C II yields 2 sigma upper limits on absorption of W (lambda) not greater than about 4 mA. The resulting depletion of carbon from the interstellar gas toward Rho Oph exceeds a factor of 1.4.

  10. Local and regional oscillations of carbon and oxygen isotopes in terestrial carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skipitytė, Raminta; Stančikaitė, Miglė

    2014-05-01

    Stable isotope ratios of carbon and oxygen in sediment carbonates are used as a tool to identify climatic changes in the past [1], [2]. Carbon is more related to humidity whereas oxygen is thought to respond the temperature [2]. Nevertheless number of questions about local, regional and global scale impacts to these records is left. In this research work carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in lacustrine carbonates are used to identify palaeoenvironmental dynamics of different locations. Samples of lacutrine carbonates were obtained from 8 sequences of different sites in Lithuania (4), Poland (1), Belarus (1) and Kaliningrad (1). Every sequence was divided into 2 cm intervals. The study showed differences in average carbon and oxygen isotope ratios between Lithuania and other countries (Poland, Belarus and Kaliningrad). Carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in 4 sites in Lithuania are: ¯U la δ13C -4.72± 2.11, o and δ18O -9.46± 1.9, o ; Zervynos δ13C -4.79± 1.82, o and δ18O -9.57± 1.69, o ; Rudnia δ13C -4.94± 7.53, o and δ18O -9.3± 3.92, o ; Pauliai δ13C -4.15± 0.67, o and δ18O -9.94± 1.07, o : In other countries: Poland δ13C -1.07± 1.94, o and δ18O -7.69± 0.95, o ; Belarus δ13C 0.97± 1.94, o and δ18O -7.61± 1.42, o ; Kaliningrad δ13C -1.14± 1.43, o and δ18O -6.51± 1.00, o : Average stable carbon and oxygen isotope values from four sites in Lithuania were -4.65 o for carbon and -9.51 o for oxygen. Despite homogeneity of average isotope signals in these four sites there are relatively large oscillations of isotopic values in Rudnia and relatively small in Pauliai. These oscillations could be related to local characteristics of particular place such as environmental conditions, water balance, input of terrigenous materials into basin, etc. Total amount of CaCO3 could also play a significant role in reconstructing palaeoenvironment from stable isotopes and creating isomaps. The comparison of isotope records from different locations could enable to

  11. A stable carbon isotope and biological marker study of Polish bituminous coals and carbonaceous shales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kotarba, M.J.; Clayton, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Biological marker and carbon isotopic compositions of coals and carbonaceous shales from the Upper Carboniferous strata of the Upper Silesian (USCB), Lower Silesian (LSCB), and Lublin (LCB) coal basins were determined to assess depositional conditions and sources of the organic matter. n-Alkane, sterane, and isoprenoid distribution, and carbon isotope ratios are consistent with an origin from higher plants. In some cases, pristane/phytane (Pr/Ph) ratios of carbonaceous shales (roof and floor shales) are < 1.0, while the associated coals have high ratios (??? 1.0). This suggests that reducing conditions prevailed during deposition of the shales, but a period of oxidizing conditions accompanied deposition of the coals. Steranes present in coal extracts are dominated by the 14??(H)17??(H)20R C29 stereoisomers, typical, but not conclusive, of higher plant origin. Carbonaceous shales exhibit a wider range of sterane composition, suggesting local, significant input of algal organic matter. Significant amounts of benzohopanes and gammacerane are present in some coals. Although benzohopanes are present at least in small amounts in samples from many different environments, they have been reported to occur most commonly in marine environments. The present study seems to provide the first example where benzohopanes have been reported in significant amounts in terrestrial organic matter. Gammacerane is abundant in rocks or sediments deposited in carbonate or highly saline marine environments. The finding of high gammacerane concentrations in the coals expands the depositional settings in which it has been observed and questions its utility as an independent indicator of hypersaline carbonate environments. Stable carbon isotope composition of coals, and type III kerogen in carbonaceous shales as well as correlation of stable carbon isotope composition of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in carbonaceous shales from both the USCB and the LSCB indicate terrigenous origin

  12. C isotope fractionation during heterotrophic activity driven carbonate precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Nurgul; Demirel, Cansu

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopic fractionation during carbonate precipitation induced by environmentally enriched heterotrophic halophilic microorganims was experimentally investigated under various salinity (% 4.5, %8, %15) conditions at 30 °C. Halophilic heterotrophic microorganims were enriched from a hypersaline Lake Acigöl located in SW Turkey (Balci et al.,2015) and later used for the precipitation experiments (solid and liquid medium). The carbonate precipitates had relatively high δ13C values (‑4.3 to ‑16.9 ‰) compared to the δ13C values of the organic compounds that ranged from ‑27.5 to ‑25.4 ‰. At salinity of 4.5 % δ13C values of carbonate ranged from -4.9 ‰ to -10.9 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of +20 to +16 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC (-27.5) . At salinity 8 % δ13C values of carbonate ranged from -16.3 ‰ to -11.7 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of+11.3 to+15.9 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC. The respected values for 15 % salinity ranged from -12.3 ‰ to -9.7 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of +15.2 to+16.8 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC. The carbonate precipitates produced in the solid medium are more enriched in 13C relative to liquid culture experiments. These results suggest that the carbon in the solid was derived from both the bacterial oxidation of organic compounds in the medium and from the atmospheric CO2. A solid medium used in the experiments may have suppressed convective and advective mass transport favouring diffusion-controlled system. This determination suggests that the rate and equilibration of CO2 exchange with the atmosphere is the major control on C isotope composition of carbonate minerals precipitated in the experiments. Key words: Lake Acıgöl, halophilic bacteria, carbonate biomineralization, C isotopes References Nurgul Balci, Meryem Menekşe, Nevin Gül Karagüler, M. Şeref Sönmez,Patrick Meister 2015.Reproducing authigenic

  13. Mass Accuracy and Isotopic Abundance Measurements for HR-MS Instrumentation: Capabilities for Non-Targeted Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knolhoff, Ann M.; Callahan, John H.; Croley, Timothy R.

    2014-07-01

    The development of automated non-targeted workflows for small molecule analyses is highly desirable in many areas of research and diagnostics. Sufficient mass and chromatographic resolution is necessary for the detectability of compounds and subsequent componentization and interpretation of ions. The mass accuracy and relative isotopic abundance are critical in correct molecular formulae generation for unknown compounds. While high-resolution instrumentation provides accurate mass information, sample complexity can greatly influence data quality and the measurement of compounds of interest. Two high-resolution instruments, an Orbitrap and a Q-TOF, were evaluated for mass accuracy and relative isotopic abundance with various concentrations of a standard mixture in four complex sample matrices. The overall average ± standard deviation of the mass accuracy was 1.06 ± 0.76 ppm and 1.62 ± 1.88 ppm for the Orbitrap and the Q-TOF, respectively; however, individual measurements were ± 5 ppm for the Orbitrap and greater than 10 ppm for the Q-TOF. Relative isotopic abundance measurements for A + 1 were within 5% of the theoretical value if the intensity of the monoisotopic peak was greater than 1E7 for the Orbitrap and 1E5 for the Q-TOF, where an increase in error is observed with a decrease in intensity. Furthermore, complicating factors were found in the data that would impact automated data analysis strategies, including coeluting species that interfere with detectability and relative isotopic abundance measurements. The implications of these findings will be discussed with an emphasis on reasonable expectations from these instruments, guidelines for experimental workflows, data analysis considerations, and software design for non-targeted analyses.

  14. Mass accuracy and isotopic abundance measurements for HR-MS instrumentation: capabilities for non-targeted analyses.

    PubMed

    Knolhoff, Ann M; Callahan, John H; Croley, Timothy R

    2014-07-01

    The development of automated non-targeted workflows for small molecule analyses is highly desirable in many areas of research and diagnostics. Sufficient mass and chromatographic resolution is necessary for the detectability of compounds and subsequent componentization and interpretation of ions. The mass accuracy and relative isotopic abundance are critical in correct molecular formulae generation for unknown compounds. While high-resolution instrumentation provides accurate mass information, sample complexity can greatly influence data quality and the measurement of compounds of interest. Two high-resolution instruments, an Orbitrap and a Q-TOF, were evaluated for mass accuracy and relative isotopic abundance with various concentrations of a standard mixture in four complex sample matrices. The overall average ± standard deviation of the mass accuracy was 1.06 ± 0.76 ppm and 1.62 ± 1.88 ppm for the Orbitrap and the Q-TOF, respectively; however, individual measurements were ± 5 ppm for the Orbitrap and greater than 10 ppm for the Q-TOF. Relative isotopic abundance measurements for A + 1 were within 5% of the theoretical value if the intensity of the monoisotopic peak was greater than 1E7 for the Orbitrap and 1E5 for the Q-TOF, where an increase in error is observed with a decrease in intensity. Furthermore, complicating factors were found in the data that would impact automated data analysis strategies, including coeluting species that interfere with detectability and relative isotopic abundance measurements. The implications of these findings will be discussed with an emphasis on reasonable expectations from these instruments, guidelines for experimental workflows, data analysis considerations, and software design for non-targeted analyses. PMID:24729191

  15. Boron Isotope Intercomparison Project (BIIP): Development of a new carbonate standard for stable isotopic analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutjahr, Marcus; Bordier, Louise; Douville, Eric; Farmer, Jesse; Foster, Gavin L.; Hathorne, Ed; Hönisch, Bärbel; Lemarchand, Damien; Louvat, Pascale; McCulloch, Malcolm; Noireaux, Johanna; Pallavicini, Nicola; Rodushkin, Ilia; Roux, Philippe; Stewart, Joseph; Thil, François; You, Chen-Feng

    2014-05-01

    Boron consists of only of two isotopes with a relatively large mass difference (~10 %). It is also volatile in acidic media and prone to contamination during analytical treatment. Nevertheless, an increasing number of isotope laboratories are successfully using boron isotope compositions (expressed in δ11B) in marine biogenic carbonates to reconstruct seawater pH. Recent interlaboratory comparison efforts [1] highlighted the existence of a relatively high level of disagreement between laboratories when measuring such material, so in order to further strengthen the validity of this carbonate system proxy, appropriate reference materials need to be urgently characterised. We describe here the latest results of the Boron Isotope Intercomparison Project (BIIP) where we aim to characterise the boron isotopic composition of two marine carbonates: Japanese Geological Survey carbonate standard materials JCp-1 (coral porites) [2] and JCt-1 (Giant Clam) [3]. This boron isotope interlaboratory comparison study has two aims: (i) to assess to what extent chemical pre-treatment, aimed at removing organic material, can influence the resulting carbonate δ11B; (ii) to determine the isotopic composition of the two reference materials with a number of analytical techniques to provide the community with reference δ11B values for JCp-1 and JCt-1 and to further explore any differences related to analytical technique. In total eight isotope laboratories participated, of which one determined δ11B via negative thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (NTIMS) and seven used multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). For the latter several different introduction systems and chemical purification methods were used. Overall the results are strikingly consistent between the participating labs. The oxidation of organic material slightly lowered the median δ11B by ~0.1 ‰ for both JCp-1 and JCt-1, while the mean δ11B of all labs for both standards was lowered by 0

  16. Maturation of Green River Shale Kerogen with Hydrous Pyrolysis: Characterization of Geochemical Biomarkers and Carbon Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Q.; Darnell, M.; Bissada, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    To fully understand controlling factors of organic compound generation during oil shale maturation, and systematically assess associated carbon isotope values, a series of hydrous pyrolysis experiments are performed. Kerogen was isolated from Green River shale by a set of acid treatment. Experiments are conducted at 350 °C and 300 bars of total pressure with running time of 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively. In each experiment, the reactor contains 1.5 grams of kerogen and 30 grams of deionized water. After experiments, gaseous products are removed under cryogenic conditions for chemical and carbon isotope analyses (GC-IRMS). The bitumen product is retrieved and separated into saturated hydrocarbons, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes (SARA) by HPLC before subsequent analyses (GC, GC-MS, and IRMS). The gaseous compounds from experiments consisted of CO2 and C1 to C4 hydrocarbons. Semiquantitative analysis indicates the yield of n-alkanes decreases with carbon number, with CO2 being more abundant than all alkanes. The δ13C value of alkanes increases with molecular weight, with CO2 having the highest value. Methane and ethane become enriched in 13C with time. In bitumen products, gravimetric analysis has shown that the abundance of aromatics increases with time, while that of asphaltenes decreases. After 72 hours, the weight percentages of saturated hydrocarbons, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes are 2.6, 42.3, 40.1, and 15.0, respectively. High resolution GC-MS results indicate low kerogen maturation after 72 hours using saturated biomarker compounds as thermal maturity indicator, such as 22S/(22S + 22R) of C31 to C35 homohopanes, tricyclics/17(H)-hopanes, and Ts/(Ts + Tm). Bulk carbon isotope value of bitumen decreases with time, with 2.5‰ lighter than original kerogen after 72 hours. In terms of different groups, saturated hydrocarbons and resins become depleted in 13C with longer reaction time, while aromatics and asphaltenes become enriched in 13C

  17. The clumped isotope geothermometer in soil and paleosol carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quade, J.; Eiler, J.; Daëron, M.; Achyuthan, H.

    2013-03-01

    We studied both modern soils and buried paleosols in order to understand the relationship of temperature (T°C(47)) estimated from clumped isotope compositions (Δ47) of soil carbonates to actual surface and burial temperatures. Carbonates from modern soils with differing rainfall seasonality were sampled from Arizona, Nevada, Tibet, Pakistan, and India. T°C(47) obtained from these soils shows that soil carbonate forms in the warmest months of the year, in the late morning to afternoon, and probably in response to intense soil dewatering. T°C(47) obtained from modern soil carbonate ranges from 10.8 to 39.5 °C. On average, T°C(47) exceeds mean annual temperature by 10-15 °C due to summertime bias in soil carbonate formation, and to summertime ground heating by incident solar radiation. Secondary controls on T°C(47) are soil depth and shading. Site mean annual air temperature (MAAT) across a broad range (0-30 °C) of site temperatures is highly correlated with T°C(47) from soils, following the equation: MAAT(°C)=1.20(T°C(47)0)-21.72(r2=0.92) where T°C(47)0 is the effective air temperature at the site estimated from T°C(47). The effective air temperature represents the air temperature required to account for the T°C(47) at each site, after consideration of variations in T°C(47) with soil depth and ground heating. The highly correlated relationship in this equation should now permit mean annual temperature in the past to be reconstructed from T°C(47) in paleosol carbonate, assuming one is studying paleosols that formed in environments generally similar in seasonality and ground cover to our calibration sites. T°C(47)0 decreases systematically with elevation gain in the Himalaya, following the equation: elevation(m)=-229(T°C(47)0)+9300(r2=0.95) Assuming that temperature varied similarly with elevation in the past, this equation can be used to reconstruct paleoelevation from clumped isotope analysis of ancient soil carbonates. We also measured T°C(47

  18. Carbon and nitrogen isotope studies in an arctic ecosystem. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.M.

    1994-06-01

    The dynamics of carbon fixation and storage in tundra soils has received considerable attention with respect to global carbon cycling. Recent findings by investigators using chamber measurements of fixation/respiration rates in arctic tundra have led to the conclusion that tundra is no longer storing carbon but is instead a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The author has sought to test these conclusions and to determine methods by which the long-term accumulation or loss of carbon in tundra can be determined. Little is known, however, of the processes that control storage and the current rates of carbon fixation and peat formation in arctic Alaska. This project focused on several aspects of carbon dynamics and the roles of decomposition and herbivory at the DOE research site at Imnavait Creek, Alaska. Through the use of natural abundance stable and radioisotope techniques, several conclusions emerged. Peat carbon continues to accumulate in wetter areas of foothill valleys and on the coastal plain of arctic Alaska. Radiocarbon profiles of bomb {sup 14}C were used to date layers of vegetation and litter to obtain decomposition rates and to extrapolate these values to intersection with the permafrost horizon where further decomposition is assumed to cease. Carbon storage in riparian moss at Imnavait Creek was estimated at 3 g C/m{sup 2}-yr. Profiles of {sup 137}Cs closely matched those of {sup 14}C and may provide a more expeditious means of assessing recent carbon accumulation rates in tundra. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in tundra vegetation vary markedly over hydrologic gradients in apparent response to changing growth rates and sources of nitrogenous nutrients. Within a taxon, {delta}{sup 15}N values varied by several {per_thousand} over a tens of meters distance.

  19. Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Variation in Peat Bogs in the Midwestern US: Implications for Holocene Climate Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, D.; Paytan, A.; Jackson, S.

    2008-12-01

    A peat core, from near the center of Minden Bog in Michigan, representing about 3500 years of accumulation was previously analyzed for plant macrofossils, colorimetric humification, and testate amoebae to yield three independent climate proxies (Booth and Jackson, 2003). The plant macrofossil data show the site to be sensitive to bog water table fluctuations. The data suggest that this may be related to regional climatic changes. We analyzed the carbon and nitrogen isotopes, as well as the carbon-nitrogen ratios in the bulk peat samples to determine if fluctuations of these records correspond to climate events as seen in the plant microfossil and amoebae records. The degree to which peat-based carbon and nitrogen isotope records reflect changes in the relative distribution of vegetation and, in turn, reflect temperature changes in effective precipitation (precipitation minus evapotranspiration) will be assessed. Peat carbon and nitrogen isotope records will be compared with existing proxy climate records and with a temperature reconstruction based on testate amoebae in bogs. We expect that climate-related changes, in the relative abundance of vegetation remains accumulating in the peat bogs, will be recorded in the organic matter in forms of carbon and nitrogen isotopes.

  20. Trace sulfate in mid-Proterozoic carbonates and the sulfur isotope record of biospheric evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellatly, Anne M.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2005-08-01

    Concentrations of oceanic and atmospheric oxygen have varied over geologic time as a function of sulfur and carbon cycling at or near the Earth's surface. This balance is expressed in the sulfur isotope composition of seawater sulfate. Given the near absence of gypsum in pre-Phanerozoic sediments, trace amounts of carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) within limestones or dolostones provide the best available constraints on the isotopic composition of sulfate in Precambrian seawater. Although absolute CAS concentrations, which range from those below detection to ˜120 ppm sulfate in this study, may be compromised by diagenesis, the sulfur isotope compositions can be buffered sufficiently to retain primary values. Stratigraphically controlled δ 34S measurements for CAS from three mid-Proterozoic carbonate successions (˜1.2 Ga Mescal Limestone, Apache Group, Arizona, USA; ˜1.45-1.47 Ga Helena and Newland formations, Belt Supergroup, Montana, USA; and ˜1.65 Ga Paradise Creek Formation, McNamara Group, NW Queensland, Australia) show large isotopic variability (+9.1‰ to +18.9‰, -1.1‰ to +27.3‰, and +14.1‰ to +37.3‰, respectively) over stratigraphic intervals of ˜50 to 450 m. This rapid variability, ranging from scattered to highly systematic, and overall low CAS abundances can be linked to sulfate concentrations in the mid-Proterozoic ocean that were substantially lower than those of the Phanerozoic but higher than values inferred for the Archean. Results from the Belt Supergroup specifically corroborate previous arguments for seawater contributions to the basin. Limited sulfate availability that tracks the oxygenation history of the early atmosphere is also consistent with the possibility of extensive deep-ocean sulfate reduction, the scarcity of bedded gypsum, and the stratigraphic δ 34S trends and 34S enrichments commonly observed for iron sulfides of mid-Proterozoic age.

  1. Possible in situ tests of the evolution of elemental and isotopic abundances in the solar convection zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, S.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2002-12-01

    Helioseismology has shown that the chemical composition of the Sun has changed over its lifetime. The surface abundance of helium and heavy elements is believed to have decreased by up to 10% in relation to their initial values. However, this reduction is too small to be tested by direct observations of the photospheric chemical composition. Here we compare the predicted variations in the solar photospheric composition with precise measurements of abundances in meteorites and the solar wind composition. Although elemental composition ratios can vary by roughly a percent (e.g., for Ca/Mg and Ca/Fe) over the Sun's lifetime, their measurements are rife with uncertainties related to uncertainties in the interpretation of meteoritic measurements, photospheric determinations, and the complex fractionation processes occurring between the upper photosphere and lower chromosphere and the corona. On the other hand, isotopic ratios can be measured much more accurately and are not expected to be affected as much by extrasolar processes, although more work is required to quantify their effect. As the isotopic ratios evolve in the Sun proportionally to the mass ratios of the isotopes, light elements yield the highest variations in isotopic ratios. They are predicted to reach as high as 0.6% for 18O/16O and are only slightly lower in the cases of 26Mg/24Mg and 30Si/28Si. Such a value should be well within the sensitivity of new missions such as Genesis.

  2. Biogeochemistry of a mesotrophic lake and it's carbon isotope geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, S.; Ehresman, W.; Sadurski, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    Crystal Lake, located in west-central Ohio, is the main lake of a series of 4 interconnected lakes. The location and orientation indicate that they are most likely moulin-induced glacial lakes. Crystal Lake is about 5 hectares (12.5 acres). The maximum depth and mean depth are about 11.9 meters and 3.8 meters, respectively. As a result of this high depth-to-surface area ratio, it creates a strong thermal stratification during warm season. The lake was classified as eutrophic lake. However, the water quality has improved in the past decades. The chlorophyll in the epillimnion and upper metalimlion is about 4 μg/l and the Secchi disk depth is about 3.0 meters (10 feet). It is therefore reclassified as mesotrophic lake. Dissolved oxygen maximum (15.6 ppm) and pH peak (8.6) existed at 4.1 meter on August 16, 2010. At around 7.3 meter, where redox potential reading shows a sudden change from oxidizing to reducing , a ~half meter layer of dense purple sulfur bacteria coincides with turbidity, chlorophyll, and sulfate maxima. The chemical depth profiles are a result of thermal stratification, oxygenic photosynthesis by algae, non-oxygenic photosynthesis by purple sulfur bacteria, and respiration in the hypolimnion. Precipitation of calcium carbonate in the epilimnion and metalimnion is coupled by it’s dissolution in the hypolimnion. The purpose of the current project is to present extensive background study to form the framework for quantifying the carbon isotope evolution with multiple reaction pathways. Carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon is being analyzed. Wigley-Plummer-Pearson mass transfer model will be used for the quantification of carbon isotope reaction pathways.

  3. Effects of Water on Carbonate Clumped Isotope Bond Reordering Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, D. C.; Passey, B. H.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonate clumped isotope geothermometry is a powerful tool for reconstructing past temperatures, both in surface environments and in the shallow crust. The method is based on heavy isotope "clumps" within single carbonate groups (e.g., 13C18O16O2-2), whose overabundance beyond levels predicted by chance is determined by mineralization temperature. The degree of clumped isotope overabundance can change at elevated temperatures (ca. >100ºC) owing to solid-state diffusion of C and O through the mineral lattice. Understanding the kinetics of this clumped isotope reordering process is a prerequisite for application to geological questions involving samples that have been heated in the subsurface. Thus far, the effect of water on reordering kinetics has not been explored. The presence of water dramatically increases rates of oxygen self-diffusion in calcite, but whether this water-enhanced diffusion is limited to the mineral surface or extends into the bulk crystal lattice is not clear. Here we present experimentally determined Arrhenius parameters for reordering rates in optical calcite heated under aqueous high pressure (100 MPa) conditions. We observe only marginal increases in reordering rates under these wet, high pressure conditions relative to rates observed for the same material reacted under dry, low pressure conditions. The near identical clumped isotope reordering rates for wet and dry conditions contrasts with the orders of magnitude increase in oxygen diffusivity at the mineral surface when water is present. This suggests the latter effect arises from surface reactions that have minimal influence on the diffusivity of C or O in the bulk mineral. Our results also imply that previously published reordering kinetics determined under dry, low pressure experimental conditions are applicable to geological samples that have been heated in the presence of water.

  4. Abundance Anomaly of the 13C Isotopic Species of c-C3H2 in the Low-mass Star Formation Region L1527

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kento; Sakai, Nami; Tokudome, Tomoya; López-Sepulcre, Ana; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Takano, Shuro; Lefloch, Bertrand; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Bachiller, Rafael; Caux, Emmanuel; Vastel, Charlotte; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-07-01

    The rotational spectral lines of c-C3H2 and two kinds of the 13C isotopic species, c-{}13{{CCCH}}2 ({C}2v symmetry) and c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2 (Cs symmetry), have been observed in the 1–3 mm band toward the low-mass star-forming region L1527. We have detected 7, 3, and 6 lines of c-C3H2, c-{}13{{CCCH}}2, and c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2, respectively, with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope and 34, 6, and 13 lines, respectively, with the IRAM 30 m telescope, where seven, two, and two transitions, respectively, are observed with both telescopes. With these data, we have evaluated the column densities of the normal and 13C isotopic species. The [c-C3H2]/[c-{}13{{CCCH}}2] ratio is determined to be 310 ± 80, while the [c-C3H2]/[c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2] ratio is determined to be 61 ± 11. The [c-C3H2]/[c-{}13{{CCCH}}2] and [c-C3H2]/[c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2] ratios expected from the elemental 12C/13C ratio are 60–70 and 30–35, respectively, where the latter takes into account the statistical factor of 2 for the two equivalent carbon atoms in c-C3H2. Hence, this observation further confirms the dilution of the 13C species in carbon-chain molecules and their related molecules, which are thought to originate from the dilution of 13C+ in the gas-phase C+ due to the isotope exchange reaction: {}13{{{C}}}++{CO}\\to {}13{CO}+{{{C}}}+. Moreover, the abundances of the two 13C isotopic species are different from each other. The ratio of c-{}13{{CCCH}}2 species relative to c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2 is determined to be 0.20 ± 0.05. If 13C were randomly substituted for the three carbon atoms, the [c-{}13{{CCCH}}2]/[c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2] ratio would be 0.5. Hence, the observed ratio indicates that c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2 exists more favorably. Possible origins of the different abundances are discussed. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope and the NRO 45 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain). NRO is a branch of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

  5. Abundance and Characterization of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Suburban Streams of Baltimore, Maryland, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, G.; Fazekas, M.

    2014-12-01

    The contribution of streams and rivers to the carbon cycle is significant, transporting to the oceans ~1.4 Pg C/yr, with dissolved carbon corresponding to as much as 0.7 Pg C/yr. Changes in land use have the potential effect of modifying this flux, particularly in urban areas where impervious areas are common. To investigate the effect of urbanization on riverine carbon transport, we studied four first-order streams in Towson, a suburb of Baltimore, Maryland, USA. The watersheds from the studied streams exhibit different levels of urbanization as measured by the percentage of impervious areas. Samples from these four streams were taken weekly, and several chemical constituents were measured either in the field or in the laboratory. These constituents included nitrate, dissolved organic nitrogen, pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), phosphate, the carbon isotopic compositions of DOC and DIC, and fluorescence intensity of the DOC. Results show that DOC concentrations were consistently below 5 mg C/L regardless of the level of imperviousness of the watershed. Similarly, carbon isotope ratios were consistent across the studied streams, with values centered around -26.4 per mil, thus suggesting a significant influx of soil-derived organic carbon originated from C3 plants that are common in the watersheds. Confirming this interpretation, fluorescence spectroscopy data suggest a humic-like origin for the DOC of the streams, thus pointing to the heterotrophic nature of the streams. The combined results suggest that the studied streams exhibit similar DOC concentrations, carbon isotopic values, and fluorescence spectra, despite their level of impervious surfaces in their watersheds.

  6. Photosynthetic Fractionation of the Stable Isotopes of Oxygen and Carbon.

    PubMed

    Guy, R. D.; Fogel, M. L.; Berry, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Isotope discrimination during photosynthetic exchange of O2 and CO2 was measured using enzyme, thylakoid, and whole cell preparations. Evolved oxygen from isolated spinach thylakoids was isotopically identical (within analytical error) to its source water. Similar results were obtained with Anacystis nidulans Richter and Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin cultures purged with helium. For consumptive reactions, discrimination ([delta], where 1 + [delta]/1000 equals the isotope effect, k16/k18 or k12/k13) was determined by analysis of residual substrate (O2 or CO2). The [delta] for the Mehler reaction, mediated by ferredoxin or methylviologen, was 15.3[per mille (thousand) sign]. Oxygen isotope discrimination during oxygenation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) catalyzed by RuBP carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was 21.3[per mille (thousand) sign] and independent of enzyme source, unlike carbon isotope discrimination: 30.3[per mille (thousand) sign] for spinach enzyme and 19.6 to 23[per mille (thousand) sign] for Rhodospirillum rubrum and A. nidulans enzymes, depending on reaction conditions. The [delta] for O2 consumption catalyzed by glycolate oxidase was 22.7[per mille (thousand) sign]. The expected overall [delta] for photorespiration is about 21.7[per mille (thousand) sign]. Consistent with this, when Asparagus sprengeri Regel mesophyll cells approached the compensation point within a sealed vessel, the [delta]18O of dissolved O2 came to a steady-state value of about 21.5[per mille (thousand) sign] relative to the source water. The results provide improved estimates of discrimination factors in several reactions prominent in the global O cycle and indicate that photorespiration plays a significant part in determining the isotopic composition of atmospheric oxygen. PMID:12231663

  7. Photosynthetic fractionation of the stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, R.D. ); Fogel, M.L.; Berry, J.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Isotope discrimination during photosynthetic exchange of O[sub 2] and CO[sub 2] was measured using enzyme, thylakoid, and whole cell preparations. Evolved oxygen from isolated spinach thylakoids was isotopically identical (within analytical error) to its source water. Similar results were obtained with Anacystis nidulans Richter and Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin cultures purged with helium. For consumptive reactions, discrimination ([triangle], where 1 + [triangle]/1000 equals the isotope effect, k[sup 16]/k[sup 18] or k[sup 12]/k[sup 13]) was determined by analysis of residual substrate (O[sub 2] or CO[sub 2]). The [triangle] for the Mehler reaction, mediated by ferredoxin or methylviologen, was 15.3[per thousand]. Oxygen isotope discrimination during oxygenation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) catalyzed by RuBP carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was 21.3[per thousand] and independent of enzyme source, unlike carbon isotope dicrimination: 30.3[per thousand] for spinach enzyme and 19.6 to 23[per thousand] for Rhodospirillum rubrum and A. nidulans enzymes, depending on reaction conditions. The [triangle] for O[sub 2] consumption catalyzed by glycolate oxidase was 22.7[per thousand]. Consistent with this, when Asparagus sprengeri Regel mesopyll cells approached the compensation point within a sealed vessel, the [delta][sup 18]O of dissolved O[sub 2] came to a steady-state value of about 21.5[per thousand] relative to the source water. The results provide improved estimates of discrimination factors in several reactions prominent in the global oxygen cycle and indicate that photorespiration plays a significant part in determining the isotopic composition of atmospheric oxygen. 47 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. STABLE ISOTOPIC EVIDENCE OF CARBON AND NITROGEN USE IN CULTURED ECTOMYCORRHIZAL AND SAPROTROPHIC FUNGI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotopes in sporocarps have proven useful for inferring ectomycorrhizal or saprotrophic status and understanding carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) utilization. However, greater understanding of processes producing isotopic concentrations is needed. We measured natural abundanc...

  9. Carbonate concretions as a significant component of ancient marine carbon cycles: Insights from paired organic and inorganic carbon isotope analyses of a Cretaceous shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyd, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonate concretions often occur within fine-grained, organic-rich sedimentary rocks. This association reflects the common production of diagenetic minerals through biologic cycling of organic matter. Chemical analysis of carbonate concretions provides the rare opportunity to explore ancient shallow diagenetic environments, which are inherently transient due to progressive burial but are an integral component of the marine carbon cycle. The late Cretaceous Holz Shale (~80 Ma) contains abundant calcite concretions that exhibit textural and geochemical characteristics indicative of relatively shallow formation (i.e., near the sediment-water interface). Sampled concretions contain between 5.4 and 9.8 wt.% total inorganic carbon (TIC), or ~45 and 82 wt.% CaCO3, compared to host shale values which average ~1.5 wt.% TIC. Organic carbon isotope compositions (δ13Corg) are relatively constant in host and concretion samples ranging from ­-26.3 to -24.0‰ (VPDB). Carbonate carbon isotope compositions (δ13Ccarb) range from -22.5 to -3.4‰, indicating a significant but not entirely organic source of carbon. Concretions of the lower Holz Shale exhibit considerably elevated δ13Ccarb values averaging -4.8‰, whereas upper Holz Shale concretions express an average δ13Ccarb value of -17.0‰. If the remaining carbonate for lower Holz Shale concretions is sourced from marine fluids and/or dissolved marine carbonate minerals (e.g., shells), a simple mass balance indicates that ~28% of concretion carbon was sourced from organic matter and ~72% from late Cretaceous marine inorganic carbon (with δ13C ~ +2.5‰). Upper Holz Shale calculations indicate a ~73% contribution from organic matter and a ~27% contribution from inorganic carbon. When normalized for carbonate, organic contents within the concretions are ~2-13 wt.% enriched compared to host contents. This potentially reflects the protective nature of cementation that acts to limit permeability and chemical destruction of

  10. On the Stability and Abundance of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Hedman, Daniel; Reza Barzegar, Hamid; Rosén, Arne; Wågberg, Thomas; Andreas Larsson, J.

    2015-01-01

    Many nanotechnological applications, using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), are only possible with a uniform product. Thus, direct control over the product during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of SWNT is desirable, and much effort has been made towards the ultimate goal of chirality-controlled growth of SWNTs. We have used density functional theory (DFT) to compute the stability of SWNT fragments of all chiralities in the series representing the targeted products for such applications, which we compare to the chiralities of the actual CVD products from all properly analyzed experiments. From this comparison we find that in 84% of the cases the experimental product represents chiralities among the most stable SWNT fragments (within 0.2 eV) from the computations. Our analysis shows that the diameter of the SWNT product is governed by the well-known relation to size of the catalytic nanoparticles, and the specific chirality is normally determined by the product’s relative stability, suggesting thermodynamic control at the early stage of product formation. Based on our findings, we discuss the effect of other experimental parameters on the chirality of the product. Furthermore, we highlight the possibility to produce any tube chirality in the context of recent published work on seeded-controlled growth. PMID:26581125

  11. On the Stability and Abundance of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Daniel; Reza Barzegar, Hamid; Rosén, Arne; Wågberg, Thomas; Andreas Larsson, J

    2015-01-01

    Many nanotechnological applications, using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), are only possible with a uniform product. Thus, direct control over the product during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of SWNT is desirable, and much effort has been made towards the ultimate goal of chirality-controlled growth of SWNTs. We have used density functional theory (DFT) to compute the stability of SWNT fragments of all chiralities in the series representing the targeted products for such applications, which we compare to the chiralities of the actual CVD products from all properly analyzed experiments. From this comparison we find that in 84% of the cases the experimental product represents chiralities among the most stable SWNT fragments (within 0.2 eV) from the computations. Our analysis shows that the diameter of the SWNT product is governed by the well-known relation to size of the catalytic nanoparticles, and the specific chirality is normally determined by the product's relative stability, suggesting thermodynamic control at the early stage of product formation. Based on our findings, we discuss the effect of other experimental parameters on the chirality of the product. Furthermore, we highlight the possibility to produce any tube chirality in the context of recent published work on seeded-controlled growth. PMID:26581125

  12. On the Stability and Abundance of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, Daniel; Reza Barzegar, Hamid; Rosén, Arne; Wågberg, Thomas; Andreas Larsson, J.

    2015-11-01

    Many nanotechnological applications, using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), are only possible with a uniform product. Thus, direct control over the product during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of SWNT is desirable, and much effort has been made towards the ultimate goal of chirality-controlled growth of SWNTs. We have used density functional theory (DFT) to compute the stability of SWNT fragments of all chiralities in the series representing the targeted products for such applications, which we compare to the chiralities of the actual CVD products from all properly analyzed experiments. From this comparison we find that in 84% of the cases the experimental product represents chiralities among the most stable SWNT fragments (within 0.2 eV) from the computations. Our analysis shows that the diameter of the SWNT product is governed by the well-known relation to size of the catalytic nanoparticles, and the specific chirality is normally determined by the product’s relative stability, suggesting thermodynamic control at the early stage of product formation. Based on our findings, we discuss the effect of other experimental parameters on the chirality of the product. Furthermore, we highlight the possibility to produce any tube chirality in the context of recent published work on seeded-controlled growth.

  13. Carbon isotopic fractionation of CFCs during abiotic and biotic degradation.

    PubMed

    Archbold, Marie E; Elliot, Trevor; Kalin, Robert M

    2012-02-01

    Carbon stable isotope ((13)C) fractionation in chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds arising from abiotic (chemical) degradation using zero-valent iron (ZVI) and biotic (landfill gas attenuation) processes is investigated. Batch tests (at 25 °C) for CFC-113 and CFC-11 using ZVI show quantitative degradation of CFC-113 to HCFC-123a and CFC-1113 following pseudo-first-order kinetics corresponding to a half-life (τ(1/2)) of 20.5 h, and a ZVI surface-area normalized rate constant (k(SA)) of -(9.8 ± 0.5) × 10(-5) L m(-2) h(-1). CFC-11 degraded to trace HCFC-21 and HCFC-31 following pseudo-first-order kinetics corresponding to τ(1/2) = 17.3 h and k(SA) = -(1.2 ± 0.5) × 10(-4) L m(-2) h(-1). Significant kinetic isotope effects of ε(‰) = -5.0 ± 0.3 (CFC-113) and -17.8 ± 4.8 (CFC-11) were observed. Compound-specific carbon isotope analyses also have been used here to characterize source signatures of CFC gases (HCFC-22, CFC-12, HFC-134a, HCFC-142b, CFC-114, CFC-11, CFC-113) for urban (UAA), rural/remote (RAA), and landfill (LAA) ambient air samples, as well as in situ surface flux chamber (FLUX; NO FLUX) and landfill gas (LFG) samples at the Dargan Road site, Northern Ireland. The latter values reflect biotic degradation and isotopic fractionation in LFG production, and local atmospheric impact of landfill emissions through the cover. Isotopic fractionations of Δ(13)C ∼ -13‰ (HCFC-22), Δ(13)C ∼ -35‰ (CFC-12) and Δ(13)C ∼ -15‰ (CFC-11) were observed for LFG in comparison to characteristic solvent source signatures, with the magnitude of the isotopic effect for CFC-11 apparently similar to the kinetic isotope effect for (abiotic) ZVI degradation. PMID:22191586

  14. Measurement of Absolute Carbon Isotope Ratios: Mechanisms and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, J. S.; Giacomo, J. A.; Dueker, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    An accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) produced absolute isotope ratio measurements for 14C/13C as tested against >500 samples of NIST SRM-4990-C (OxII 14C standard) to an accuracy of 2.2±0.6‰ over a period of one year with measurements made to 1% counting statistics. The spectrometer is not maximized for 13C/12C, but measured ∂13C to 0.4±0.1‰ accuracy, with known methods for improvement. An AMS produces elemental anions from a sputter ion source and includes a charge-changing collision in a gas cell to isolate the rare 14C from the common isotopes and molecular isobars. Both these physical processes have been modeled to determine the parameters providing such absolute measures. Neutral resonant ionization in a cesium plasma produces mass-independent ionization, while velocity dependent charge-state distributions in gas collisions produce relative ion beam intensities that are linear in mass at specific collision energies. The mechanisms are not specific to carbon isotopes, but stand alone absolute IRMS (AIR-MS) instruments have not yet been made. Aside from the obvious applications in metrology, AIR-MS is particularly valuable in coupled separatory MS because no internal or external standards are required. Sample definition processes can be compared, even if no exact standard reference sample exists. Isotope dilution measurements do not require standards matching the dilution end-points and can be made over an extended, even extrapolated, range.

  15. Strontium isotopes in carbonate deposits at Crater Flat, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, B.D.; Futa, K.; Peterman, Z.E.; Stuckless, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Strontium isotope studies of carbonates from soils, veins, eolian dust and Paleozoic basement sampled near Crater Flat, southwest of Yucca Mountain, provide evidence for the origins of these materials. Vein and soil carbonates have nearly identical ranges of 87Sr/86Sr, and eolian material has 87Sr/86Sr ratios at the lower end of the pedogenic range. The average 87Sr/86Sr of Paleozoic basement from Black Marble Hill is similar to the 87Sr/86Sr in the eolian dust, perhaps indicating a local source for this material. Possible spring deposits have generally higher 87Sr/86Sr than the other carbonates. These data are compared with similar data from areas east of Yucca Mountain.

  16. The dating of impure carbonates with decay-series isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Teh-Lung; Liang, Zhuo-Cheng

    1984-06-01

    The uranium-series disequilibrium methods have been successfully applied to the dating of clean carbonate precipitates such as coralline and speleothem materials. Similar success has yet to be achieved for the widely occuring inorganically precipitated impure carbonates (e.g., travertine, tufa, and calcrete), of which there is an ever-increasing need for determining their chronology in Quaternary and archaeological studies. The main problem involves the presence of detrital materials which cannot be isolated from the carbonate fraction by simple physical means. Chemical separation using dilute acid leaching has been often attempted. This process may solubilize some of the uranium and thorium isotopes from the detrital component, and this detrital contamination must be corrected for. This paper reviews the principles and assumptions of the detrital correction schemes, discusses the theoretical and experimental aspects of the mixing-line plots as suggested by Rosholt and Szabo, and recommends analytical procedures pertinent to the use of such plots.

  17. Carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionation during possible organic aerosol formation in Titan and the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanaka, H.

    2012-12-01

    Abiotic formation of complex organic macromolecule aerosols is important not only for the potential for prebiotic chemical evolution, but also in the global elemental cycle. The direct clues of the habitable environment and biosphere on the early Earth are mostly obtained from geological records, such as isotope signatures and biomarkers in the ancient organic sediments. The recent Cassini-Huygens mission revealed the generation of complex organic aerosols in Titan's upper atmosphere, and similar processes could have lead to the formation of organic aerosols in the early Earth atmosphere. Understanding the formation reaction network and accompanying isotope fractionation processes of the organic aerosols is necessary to constrain the active organic environment on the early Earth from the available geological evidence. We have investigated the abiotic formation of organic aerosols in simulated atmospheres of Titan and the early, with particular focus on carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionation. Laboratory aerosol analogues, termed tholins, are generated with cold plasma irradiation of reduced gas mixtures, such as N2/CH4 and N2/H2/CO. Stable isotopic ratios of 15N/14N and 13C/12C for the generated tholins are measured with an elemental analysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometer (EA-IR-MS). Our preliminary data for tholins generated from an equivalent N2/CH4 (=90/10) gas mixture at various pressures suggests the 15N isotopic fractionation up to δ15N = -20~25 permil during tholin formation, while 13C isotopic fractionation seems almost negligible. This negative δ15N is even lighter than those observed in kerogens in the Archean sediments (Beaumont and Robert, 1999; Pinti et al., 2001), and the organic haze could have contributed to the source of 15N-depleted kerogens. Furthermore, the δ15N vary with deposition pressure. Previous works demonstrated that the resulted two types of tholin are very different in chemical structure and optical properties (Imanaka et al

  18. Carbon isotopic composition of deep carbon gases in an ombrogenous peatland, northwestern Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Aravena, R. . Center for Groundwater Research and Wetlands Research Center); Warner, B.G. . Wetlands Research Center and Dept. of Geography); Charman, D.J. . Dept. of Geographical Sciences); Belyea, L.R. . School of Biological Sciences); Mathur, S.P. ); Dinel, H. )

    1993-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating and carbon isotope analyses of deep peat and gases in a small ombrogenous peatland in northwestern Ontario reveals the presence of old gases at depth that are 1000-2000 yr younger than the enclosing peat. The authors suggest that the most likely explanation to account for this age discrepancy is the downward movement by advection of younger dissolved organic carbon for use by fermentation and methanogens bacteria. This study identifies a potentially large supply of old carbon gases in peatlands that should be considered in global carbon models of the terrestrial biosphere.

  19. On strontium isotopic anomalies and odd-A p-process abundances. [in solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1978-01-01

    Several aspects of the nucleosynthesis of Sr isotopes are considered in an attempt to shed light on the problem of the Sr isotopic anomalies discovered in an inclusion of the Allende meteorite. Decomposition of the Sr isotopes into average r-, s-, and p-process nucleosynthetic classes is performed. It is suggested that the Allende inclusion most likely has an excess of s-process Sr and that the initial Sr-87/Sr-86 isotopic ratio is probably slightly more primitive than basaltic achondrites. The results also show that Sn-115 is mostly due to the r-process and that odd-A yields are very small. It is concluded that if the Sr anomaly in the inclusion is an average s enhancement, it argues somewhat in favor of a model of gas/dust fractionation of s and r isotopes during accumulation of the inclusion parent in the protosolar cloud.

  20. Carbon and oxygen isotopes in apatite CO/sub 2/ and co-existing calcite

    SciTech Connect

    Kolodny, Y.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1981-04-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotopes were analyzed in carbonate apatite CO/sub 2/ and in co-existing calcite. Both C and O in apatite CO/sub 2/ are enriched in the respective light isotopes relative to calcite. These results confirm the proposition that carbonate is part of the apatite structure.

  1. A continuous 250,000 yr record of oxygen and carbon isotopes in ostracode and bulk-sediment carbonate from Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bright, Jordon; Kaufman, D.S.; Forester, R.M.; Dean, W.E.

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotopes from a continuous, 120-m-long, carbonate-rich core from Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho, document dramatic fluctuations in the hydrologic budget of the lake over the last 250,000 yr. Isotopic analyses of bulk sediment samples capture millennial-scale variability. Ostracode calcite was analyzed from 78 levels, mainly from the upper half of the core where valves are better preserved, to compare the isotopic value of purely endogenic carbonate with the bulk sediment, which comprises both endogenic and detrital components. The long core exhibits three relatively brief intervals with abundant endogenic aragonite (50??10%) and enriched ??18O and ??13C. These intervals are interpreted as warm/dry periods when the lake retracted into a topographically closed basin. We correlate these intervals with the interglacial periods of marine oxygen-isotope stages 1, 5e, and 7a, consistent with the presently available geochronological control. During most of the time represented by the core, the lake was fresher than the modern lake, as evidenced by depleted ??18O and ??13C in bulk-sediment carbonate. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. PHOTOCHEMICALLY-INDUCED ALTERATION OF STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE RATIOS (DELTA C-13) IN TERRIGENOUS DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of riverine waters to natural sunlight initiated alterations in stable carbon isotope ratios (delta C-13) of the associated dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Water samples were collected from two compositionally distinct coastal river systems in the southeastern United Sta...

  3. Environmental drivers of carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures in peatland vascular plants along an altitude gradient.

    PubMed

    Gavazov, Konstantin; Hagedorn, Frank; Buttler, Alexandre; Siegwolf, Rolf; Bragazza, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Peatlands are important sinks of atmospheric carbon (C) that, in response to climate warming, are undergoing dynamic vegetation succession. Here we examined the hypothesis that the uptake of nutrients by different plant growth forms (PGFs) is one key mechanism driving changes in species abundance in peatlands. Along an altitude gradient representing a natural climate experiment, we compared the variability of the stable C isotope composition (δ(13)C) and stable nitrogen (N) isotope composition (δ(15)N) in current-year leaves of two major PGFs, i.e. ericoids and graminoids. The climate gradient was associated with a gradient of vascular plant cover, which was parallelled by different concentrations of organic and inorganic N as well as the fungal/bacterial ratio in peat. In both PGFs the (13)C natural abundance showed a marginal spatial decrease with altitude and a temporal decrease with progression of the growing season. Our data highlight a primary physical control of foliar δ(13)C signature, which is independent from the PGFs. Natural abundance of foliar (15)N did not show any seasonal pattern and only in the ericoids showed depletion at lower elevation. This decreasing δ(15)N pattern was primarily controlled by the higher relative availability of organic versus inorganic N and, only for the ericoids, by an increased proportion of fungi to bacteria in soil. Our space-for-time approach demonstrates that a change in abundance of PGFs is associated with a different strategy of nutrient acquisition (i.e. transfer via mycorrhizal symbiosis versus direct fine-root uptake), which could likely promote observed and predicted dwarf shrub expansion under climate change. PMID:26433961

  4. Reaction cross sections of carbon isotopes incident on a proton

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Ibrahim, B.; Horiuchi, W.; Kohama, A.; Suzuki, Y.

    2008-03-15

    We systematically study total reaction cross sections of carbon isotopes with N=6-16 on a proton target for wide range of incident energies. An emphasis is put on the difference from the case of a carbon target. The calculations include the reaction cross sections of {sup 19,20,22}C at 40A MeV, the data of which have recently been measured at RIKEN. The Glauber theory is used to calculate the reaction cross sections. To describe the intrinsic structure of the carbon isotopes, we use a Slater determinant generated from a phenomenological mean-field potential, and construct the density distributions. To go beyond the simple mean-field model, we adopt two types of dynamical models: One is a core+n model for odd-neutron nuclei, and the other is a core+n+n model for {sup 16}C and {sup 22}C. We propose empirical formulas which are useful in predicting unknown cross sections.

  5. Carbon Isotope Ratios Demonstrate Carbon Flux from C4 Host to C3 Parasite 1

    PubMed Central

    Press, Malcolm C.; Shah, Nishith; Tuohy, Janet M.; Stewart, George R.

    1987-01-01

    Carbon isotope ratios of mature leaves from the C3 angiosperm root hemiparasites Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth (−26.7‰) and S. asiatica (L.) Kuntze (−25.6‰) were more negative than their C4 host, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench cv CSH1), (−13.5‰). However, in young photosynthetically incompetent plants of S. hermonthica this difference was reduced to less than 1‰. Differences between the carbon isotope ratios of two C3-C3 associations, S. gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke—Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. and Oryza sativa L.—Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Hochst.) Benth differed by less than 1‰. Theoretical carbon isotope ratios for mature leaves of S. hermonthica and S. asiatica, calculated from foliar gas exchange measurements, were −31.8 and −32.0‰, respectively. This difference between the measured and theoretical δ13C-values of 5 to 6‰ suggests that even in mature, photosynthetically active plants, there is substantial input of carbon from the C4 host. We estimate this to be approximately 28% of the total carbon in S. hermonthica and 35% in S. asiatica. This level of carbon transfer contributes to the host's growth reductions observed in Striga-infected sorghum. PMID:16665818

  6. Carbon isotope ratios and impurities in diamonds from Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidane, Abiel; Koch-Müller, Monika; Morales, Luiz; Wiedenbeck, Michael; De Wit, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    We are investigating the sources of diamonds from southern Africa by studying both their carbon isotopic composition and chemical impurities. Our samples include macro-sized diamonds from River Ranch kimberlite in Zimbabwe and the Helam and Klipspringer kimberlitic deposits from South Africa, as well as micro-sized diamonds from Klipspringer and Premier kimberlites in South Africa. We have characterized the samples for their structurally bounded nitrogen, hydrogen and platelets defect using a Fourier Transmission Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Using the DiaMap routine, open source software (Howell et al., 2012), IR spectra were deconvulated and quantified for their nitrogen (A, B and D components) and hydrogen contents. High to moderate nitrogen concentrations (1810 to 400 µg/g; 400 to 50 µg/g respectively) were found in diamonds from Klipspringer and Helam. Moderate to low (<50 µg/g) nitrogen concentrations were observed in diamonds from Premier and River Ranch. Type II diamonds, i.e. diamonds with no N impurities, which are presumed to have been derived from ultramafic sources, are found in the River Ranch deposit. The macro- and micro-size diamonds from the Klipspringer deposit display similar nitrogen defects, with higher nitrogen concentration and more frequent D components found in the macro-size diamonds. One of the first steps towards reliable carbon isotope studies is the development of calibration materials for SIMS carbon isotopic analyses. We have investigated candidate materials both from a polycrystalline synthetic diamond sheet and two natural gem quality diamonds from Juina (Brazil). Electron-based images of the synthetic diamond sheet, obtained using GFZ Potsdam's dual beam FIB instrument, show many diamond grains with diameters greater than 35 µm. SIMS testing of the isotopic homogeneity of the back and front sides of the synthetic sheets reveal similar 13C/12C ratio within a RSD of <1 ‰ . SIMS isotopic analyses of the two natural diamond RMs

  7. Dual carbon isotope characterization of total organic carbon in wintertime carbonaceous aerosols from northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikkina, Srinivas; Andersson, August; Sarin, M. M.; Sheesley, R. J.; Kirillova, E.; Rengarajan, R.; Sudheer, A. K.; Ram, K.; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2016-05-01

    Large-scale emissions of carbonaceous aerosols (CA) from South Asia impact both regional climate and air quality, yet their sources are not well constrained. Here we use source-diagnostic stable and radiocarbon isotopes (δ13C and Δ14C) to characterize CA sources at a semiurban site (Hisar: 29.2°N, 75.2°E) in the NW Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and a remote high-altitude location in the Himalayan foothills (Manora Peak: 29.4°N, 79.5°E, 1950 m above sea level) in northern India during winter. The Δ14C of total aerosol organic carbon (TOC) varied from -178‰ to -63‰ at Hisar and from -198‰ to -1‰ at Manora Peak. The absence of significant differences in the 14C-based fraction biomass of TOC between Hisar (0.81 ± 0.03) and Manora Peak (0.82 ± 0.07) reveals that biomass burning/biogenic emissions (BBEs) are the dominant sources of CA at both sites. Combining this information with δ13C, other chemical tracers (K+/OC and SO42-/EC) and air mass back trajectory analyses indicate similar source regions in the IGP (e.g., Punjab and Haryana). These results highlight that CA from BBEs in the IGP are not only confined to the atmospheric boundary layer but also extend to higher elevations of the troposphere, where the synoptic-scale circulations could substantially influence their abundances both to the Himalayas and over the downwind oceanic regions such as the Indian Ocean. Given the vast emissions of CA from postharvest crop residue combustion practices in the IGP during early Northeast Monsoon, this information is important for both improved process and model understanding of climate and health effects, as well as in guiding policy decision aiming at reducing emissions.

  8. Physiological and environmental factors related to carbon isotopic variations in mollusc shell carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Krantz, D.E.; Williams, D.F.; Jones, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of mollusc shell carbonate has been used as a general environmental indicator in numerous studies, but relatively little is known of the factors which affect within-shell variation. Primary control of delta/sup 13/C values in shell carbonate comes from the dissolved bicarbonate source, particularly as related to marine versus fresh water. Present models explain cyclic variations in the delta/sup 13/C profiles of mollusc shells due to upwelling, phytoplankton productivity and stratification, disequilibrium with rapid shell growth, and infaunal versus epifaunal habitat. Carbon and oxygen isotopic profiles in this study were obtained from specimens of Spisula solidissima (surf clam) and Placopecten magellanicus (sea scallop) collected alive from 14 to 57 m water depths off the Virginia coast. Three main factors appear to affect the delta/sup 13/C profiles in these specimens. Isotopically light values commonly associated with the spring and occasionally the fall correspond with seasonal phytoplankton productivity. A significant negative delta/sup 13/C offset of the infaunal Spisula relative to the epifaunal Placopecten probably relates to the inclusion of isotopically more negative pore-water bicarbonate by Spisula. Additionally, occasional transient spikes in both the delta/sup 18/O and delta/sup 13/C profiles correspond to intrusion of reduced-salinity water.

  9. RAPID AND PRECISE METHOD FOR MEASURING STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE RATIOS OF DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe a method for rapid preparation, concentration and stable isotopic analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (d13C-DIC). Liberation of CO2 was accomplished by placing 100 ?l phosphoric acid and 0.9 ml water in an evacuated 1.7-ml gas chromatography (GC) injection vial. Fo...

  10. Isotope-based Fluvial Organic Carbon (ISOFLOC) Model: Model formulation, sensitivity, and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, William I.; Fox, James F.

    2015-06-01

    Watershed-scale carbon budgets remain poorly understood, in part due to inadequate simulation tools to assess in-stream carbon fate and transport. A new numerical model termed ISOtope-based FLuvial Organic Carbon (ISOFLOC) is formulated to simulate the fluvial organic carbon budget in watersheds where hydrologic, sediment transport, and biogeochemical processes are coupled to control benthic and transported carbon composition and flux. One ISOFLOC innovation is the formulation of new stable carbon isotope model subroutines that include isotope fractionation processes in order to estimate carbon isotope source, fate, and transport. A second innovation is the coupling of transfers between carbon pools, including algal particulate organic carbon, fine particulate and dissolved organic carbon, and particulate and dissolved inorganic carbon, to simulate the carbon cycle in a comprehensive manner beyond that of existing watershed water quality models. ISOFLOC was tested and verified in a low-gradient, agriculturally impacted stream. Results of a global sensitivity analysis suggested the isotope response variable had unique sensitivity to the coupled interaction between fluvial shear resistance of algal biomass and the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon. Model calibration and validation suggested good agreement at event, seasonal, and annual timescales. Multiobjective uncertainty analysis suggested inclusion of the carbon stable isotope routine reduced uncertainty by 80% for algal particulate organic carbon flux estimates.

  11. A global deglacial negative carbon isotope excursion in speleothem calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breecker, D.

    2015-12-01

    δ13C values of speleothem calcite decreased globally during the last deglaciation defining a carbon isotope excursion (CIE) despite relatively constant δ13C values of carbon in the ocean-atmosphere system. The magnitude of the CIE varied with latitude, increasing poleward from ~2‰ in the tropics to as much as 7‰ at high latitudes. This recent CIE provides an interesting comparison with CIEs observed in deep time. A substantial portion of this CIE can be explained by the increase in atmospheric pCO2 that accompanied deglaciation. The dependence of C3 plant δ13C values on atmospheric pCO2 predicts a 2‰ δ13C decrease driven by the deglacial pCO2 increase. I propose that this signal was transferred to caves and thus explains nearly 100% of the CIE magnitude observed in the tropics and no less than 30% at the highest latitudes in the compilation. An atmospheric pCO2 control on speleothem δ13C values, if real, will need to be corrected for using ice core data before δ13C records can be interpreted in a paleoclimate context. The decrease in the magnitude of the equilibrium calcite-CO2 carbon isotope fractionation factor explains a maximum of 1‰ of the CIE at the highest northern latitude in the compilation, which experienced the largest deglacial warming. Much of the residual extratropical CIE was likely driven by increasing belowground respiration rates, which were presumably pronounced at high latitudes as glacial retreat exposed fresh surfaces and/or vegetation density increased. The largest increases in belowground respiration would have therefore occurred at the highest latitudes, explaining the meridional trend. This work supports the notion that increases in atmospheric pCO2 and belowground respiration rates can result in large CIEs recorded in terrestrial carbonates, which, as previously suggested, may explain the magnitude of the PETM CIE as recorded by paleosol carbonates.

  12. Stable carbon isotopes and the study of prehistoric human diet.

    PubMed

    Boutton, T W; Lynott, M J; Bumsted, M P

    1991-01-01

    Mass spectrometric analysis of the stable carbon isotope composition (13C/12C or delta 13C) of bone collagen from human remains recovered at archaeological sites provides a direct chemical method for investigating dietary patterns of prehistoric human populations. This methodology is based on the facts that (1) different food items within the human diet have distinct delta 13C values, and (2) the delta 13C value of human bone collagen is determined by the delta 13C value of the diet. Studies of the development of subsistence patterns based on corn agriculture, one of the most significant developments in North American prehistory, can benefit from the use of stable carbon isotope techniques because corn has a high delta 13C value relative to other components of the human diet. Measurements of delta 13C of bone collagen from prehistoric human skeletal remains from southeastern Missouri and northeastern Arkansas indicate that intensive corn agriculture began in this region around A.D. 1000, that the incorporation of corn into the human diet was a rapid phenomenon, and that 35 to 77% of the human diet from A.D. 1000 to A.D. 1600 consisted of corn. Results from an isochronous population in southeastern South Dakota (A.D. 1400) suggest that 78 to 90% of the diet of this group consisted of corn, with no difference between males and females. Coupled with more traditional archaeological methods, stable carbon isotope analysis of bone collagen can significantly enhance reconstruction of dietary patterns of prehistoric humans. PMID:1910520

  13. Isotopic Ratios of Carbon and Oxygen in Titan’s CO using ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serigano, Joseph; Nixon, C. A.; Cordiner, M. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Teanby, N. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Lindberg, J. E.

    2016-04-01

    We report interferometric observations of carbon monoxide (CO) and its isotopologues in Titan’s atmosphere using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The following transitions were detected: CO (J = 1–0, 2–1, 3–2, 6–5), 13CO (J = 2–1, 3–2, 6–5), C18O (J = 2–1, 3–2), and C17O (J = 3–2). Molecular abundances and the vertical atmospheric temperature profile were derived by modeling the observed emission line profiles using NEMESIS, a line-by-line radiative transfer code. We present the first spectroscopic detection of 17O in the outer solar system with C17O detected at >8σ confidence. The abundance of CO was determined to be 49.6 +/- 1.8 ppm, assumed to be constant with altitude, with isotopic ratios 12C/13C = 89.9 +/- 3.4, 16O/18O = 486 +/- 22, and 16O/17O = 2917 +/- 359. The measurements of 12C/13C and 16O/18O ratios are the most precise values obtained in Titan’s atmospheric CO to date. Our results are in good agreement with previous studies and suggest no significant deviations from standard terrestrial isotopic ratios.

  14. Isotope composition of carbon in the carbonates of the Gumbeykan scheelite deposits in the southern Urals

    SciTech Connect

    Korzhinskii, A.F.; Mamchur, G.P.; Yarynych, O.A.

    1980-10-01

    Through investigations of the isotope composition of carbon of various generations and carbonates from marbles, skarns, and nested and vein scheelite orebodies, the probable source of carbon of these carbonates has been established as a mixture of sedimentary carbonates, carbon dioxide with carbonic acid that was formed by oxidation of the organic matter from sedimentary terrane (..delta..C/sup 13/ - 0.05 to -0.62%). In the calcite and dolomite phenocrysts of marble and the coarse-grained dolostone, containing scheelite, the carbon was lighter (..delta..C/sup 13/ from -0.60 to -0.87%). For the dolomite and ankerite from scheelite pockets of the Balkan deposit and quartz veins of the Buranovo, ..delta..C/sup 13/ varied from -0.44 to -0.87%. The lightest carbon found in strontianite (..delta..C/sup 13/ = -1.32%), located near the coating of the organic matter (..delta..C/sup 13/ = -1.26%) in fractures of the quartz vein of the Buranovo deposit. In the section through the orebodies and near-ore diffusion-metasomatic zones of the Balkan deposit, the lessening of carbon in the carbonates was observed, with increasing distance away from the fracture. ..delta..C/sup 13/ in the altered granitoids ranged from -0.44 to -1.03%; while in the diopside-wollastonite hornfels, from -0.89 to 1.13%. The lessening in weight of the carbon is explained by diffusional fractionation of the isotopes caused apparently by the differential movement of volatile mixtures of carbon during ore-forming processes and the formation of their diffusion-metasomatic zones.

  15. Methodologies for extraction of dissolved inorganic carbon for stable carbon isotope studies : evaluation and alternatives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hassan, Afifa Afifi

    1982-01-01

    The gas evolution and the strontium carbonate precipitation techniques to extract dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) for stable carbon isotope analysis were investigated. Theoretical considerations, involving thermodynamic calculations and computer simulation pointed out several possible sources of error in delta carbon-13 measurements of the DIC and demonstrated the need for experimental evaluation of the magnitude of the error. An alternative analytical technique, equilibration with out-gassed vapor phase, is proposed. The experimental studies revealed that delta carbon-13 of the DIC extracted from a 0.01 molar NaHC03 solution by both techniques agreed within 0.1 per mil with the delta carbon-13 of the DIC extracted by the precipitation technique, and an increase of only 0.27 per mil in that extracted by the gas evolution technique. The efficiency of extraction of DIC decreased with sulfate concentration in the precipitation technique but was independent of sulfate concentration in the gas evolution technique. Both the precipitation and gas evolution technique were found to be satisfactory for extraction of DIC from different kinds of natural water for stable carbon isotope analysis, provided appropriate precautions are observed in handling the samples. For example, it was found that diffusion of atmospheric carbon dioxide does alter the delta carbon-13 of the samples contained in polyethylene bottles; filtration and drying in the air change the delta carbon-13 of the samples contained in polyethylene bottles; filtration and drying in the air change the delta carbon-13 of the precipitation technique; hot manganese dioxide purification changes the delta carbon-13 of carbon dioxide. (USGS)

  16. Tracking Movement of Plant Carbon Through Soil to Water by Lignin Phenol Stable Carbon Isotope Composition in a Small Agricultural Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crooker, K.; Filley, T.; Six, J.; Frey, J.

    2005-12-01

    Few studies integrate land cover, soil physical structure, and aquatic physical fractions when investigating the fate of agricultural carbon in watersheds. In crop systems that involve rotations of soy (a C3 plant) and corn (a C4 plant) the large intrinsic differences in stable carbon isotope values and lignin plus cutin chemistry enable tracking of plant carbon movement from soil fractions to DOM and overland flow during precipitation events. In a small (~3Km2) agricultural basin in central Indiana, we studied plant carbon dynamics in a soy/corn agricultural rotation (2004-2005) to determine the relative inputs of these two plants to soil fractions and the resultant contributions to dissolved, colloidal, and particulate organic matter when mobilized. Using bulk isotope values the fraction of carbon derived from corn in macroaggregates (>250 micron), microaggregates (53-250 mm), and silts plus clays (<53 mm) ranged from 39, 49, to 42%, respectively. Unlike bulk analyses, compound specific isotope analysis of lignin in the soil fractions revealed a wide range of relative inputs among the monomers with cinnamyl phenols being almost exclusively (~ 93%) derived from corn. Syringyl phenols ranged from 75-56% corn and vanillyl phenols ranged from 37-40% corn carbon. The relative input among the fractions mirrors closely the comparative plant chemistry abundances between soy and corn. During export of DOM from the land to the stream the relative abundance of plant source varied with discharge (0.05-1.8 m3/sec) as increases in flow increased the relative export of corn-derived C from the fields. Over the full range of flows lignin phenols varied from 0.05 to 82% corn-derived with the greatest relative corn input for cinnamyl and syringyl carbon. The trend with stream discharge indicates a progressive movement of particulate corn residues with overland flow. Ongoing studies look to resolve contributions of algae, bacteria and terrestrial plants to soil fractions and their

  17. The carbon isotopic composition of Novo Urei diamonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisenko, A. V.; Semjenova, L. F.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Russell, S. S.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of diamond grains isolated from the Novo Urei meteorite are discussed. A diamond separate was obtained from 2g of whole rock using the chemical treatments described aimed at obtaining very pure diamond. X ray diffraction of the residue, which represented 5000 ppm of the parent mass, indicated only the presence of the desired mineral. The diamond crystals were 1-30 microns in diameter, and some grains had a yellow color. The chemical treatments were followed by a size separation to give a 1-10 microns and a 5-30 microns fraction, which were named DNU-1 and DNU-2, respectively.

  18. Modeling Chemical and Isotopic Variations in Lab Formed Hydrothermal Carbonates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Leshin, L. A.; Golden, D. C.; Socki, R. A.; Guan, Y.; Ming, D. W.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical and mineralogical data (e.g. [1]) from Mars suggest that the history of liquid water on the planet was more sporadic in nature than long-lived. The non-equilibrium chemical and isotopic compositions of the carbonates preserved in the martian meteorite ALH84001 are direct evidence of ancient secondary minerals that have not undergone significant diagenesis or stabilization processes typical of long-lived aqueous systems on Earth. Thus secondary minerals and sediments on Mars may primarily record the characteristics of the aqueous environment in which they formed without being significantly overprinted by subsequent diagenetic processes during burial.

  19. The source charge and isotopic abundances of cosmic rays with Z = 9-16 - A study using new fragmentation cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, W.R.; Gupta, M.; Soutoul, A.; Ferrando, P. CEA, Service d'Astrophysique, Gif-sur-Yvette )

    1990-01-01

    The cosmic ray source charge and isotopic abundances for charges with Z = 9-16 are reexamined using newly measured fragmentation cross sections in a standard Galactic propagation model. Compared with earlier studies, the cosmic-ray data are now consistent with no excess of Si-29 and Si-30 in the source relative to the solar coronal abundances. The excess of Mg-25 and Mg-26 is now about 1 sigma or less relative to solar coronal isotopic abundances, leaving Ne-22 as the only clearly established neutron-rich isotopic excess in the cosmic ray source. Better estimates of the source abundances of elements obtained using the new cross sections permit the conclusion that high first ionization potential (FIP) elements have a wide spread of compositional differences in the cosmic-ray source relative to solar coronal abundances, whereas elements with a low FIP have a composition similar to the solar corona. 28 refs.

  20. The source charge and isotopic abundances of cosmic rays with Z = 9-16 - A study using new fragmentation cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webber, W. R.; Gupta, M.; Soutoul, A.; Ferrando, P.

    1990-01-01

    The cosmic ray source charge and isotopic abundances for charges with Z = 9-16 are reexamined using newly measured fragmentation cross sections in a standard Galactic propagation model. Compared with earlier studies, the cosmic-ray data are now consistent with no excess of Si-29 and Si-30 in the source relative to the solar coronal abundances. The excess of Mg-25 and Mg-26 is now about 1 sigma or less relative to solar coronal isotopic abundances, leaving Ne-22 as the only clearly established neutron-rich isotopic excess in the cosmic ray source. Better estimates of the source abundances of elements obtained using the new cross sections permit the conclusion that high first ionization potential (FIP) elements have a wide spread of compositional differences in the cosmic-ray source relative to solar coronal abundances, whereas elements with a low FIP have a composition similar to the solar corona.

  1. A process-based model for non-equilibrium clumped isotope effects in carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, J. M.; Hunt, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    The equilibrium clumped isotope composition of carbonate minerals is independent of the composition of the aqueous solution. However, many carbonate minerals grow at rates that place them in a non-equilibrium regime with respect to carbon and oxygen isotopes with unknown consequences for clumped isotopes. We develop a process-based model that allows one to calculate the oxygen, carbon, and clumped isotope composition of calcite as a function of temperature, crystal growth rate, and solution pH. In the model, carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation occurs through the mass-dependent attachment/detachment kinetics of the isotopologues of HCO-3 and CO2-3 to and from the calcite surface, which in turn, influence the clumped isotope composition of calcite. At experimental and biogenic growth rates, the mineral is expected to inherit a clumped isotopic composition that is similar to that of the DIC pool, which helps to explain (1) why different organisms share the same clumped isotope versus temperature calibration curves, (2) why many inorganic calibration curves are slightly different from one another, and (3) why foraminifera, coccoliths, and deep sea corals can have near-equilibrium clumped isotope compositions but far-from-equilibrium carbon and oxygen isotope compositions. Some aspects of the model can be generalized to other mineral systems and should serve as a useful reference in future efforts to quantify kinetic clumped isotope effects.

  2. Abundance anomalies of carbon and nitrogen in the IUE spectra of Algol-type interacting binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluskey, Carolina P. S.

    1990-01-01

    There are two primary ways in which the products of nucleosynthesis in stellar interiors may appear at the surface of a star. These are mixing and/or loss of the original unburned stellar envelope. In interacting binaries, overflow can contribute dramatically to envelope loss. The simplest abundance anomalies to be expected from nuclear burning of hydrogen, helium, or carbon would be under or over abundances H, He, C, O, Ne, and Mg. In addition, it is expected that carbon is initially severely depleted, while nitrogen is enhanced during hydrogen burning via the CNO cycle in stars above two solar masses. Other, more subtle anomalies are also expected, and elements heavier than magnesium can be created during very late evolution by nuclear burning in massive stars. Consequently, it is expected that abundance anomalies of various kinds should occur in interacting binaries where one or both stars have lost significant amounts of mass.

  3. Variability in the carbon isotope composition of individual amino acids in plant proteins from different sources: 1 Leaves.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Anthony H; Kruger, Nicholas J; Hedges, Robert E M; McCullagh, James S O

    2016-05-01

    The natural carbon isotope composition of individual amino acids from plant leaf proteins has been measured to establish potential sources of variability. The plant leaves studied, taken from a range of plant groups (forbs, trees, grasses, and freshwater aquatic plants), showed no significant influence of either season or environment (water and light availability) on their Δδ(13)C values. Plant groups did, however, differ in carbon isotope composition, although no consistent differences were identified at the species level. A discriminant analysis model was constructed which allowed leaves from (1) nettles, (2) Pooideae, (3) other Poales, (4) trees and (5) freshwater higher plants to be distinguished from each other on the basis of their natural abundance (13)C/(12)C ratios of individual amino acids. Differences in carbon isotope composition are known to be retained, to some extent, in the tissues of their consumers, and hence an understanding of compound-specific variation in (13)C/(12)C fractional abundance in plants has the potential to provide dietary insights of value in archaeological and ecological studies. PMID:26948983

  4. Small mammal tooth enamel carbon isotope record of C4 grasses in late Neogene China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arppe, Laura; Kaakinen, Anu; Passey, Benjamin H.; Zhang, Zhaoqun; Fortelius, Mikael

    2015-10-01

    The spatiotemporal pattern of the late Cenozoic spread of C4 vegetation is an important indicator of environmental change that is intertwined with the uplift of the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau, and the development of the East Asian monsoons. To explore the spread of C4 vegetation in China and shed new light on regional climatic evolution, we measured δ13C values of more than 200 small mammal teeth (primarily rodents and lagomorphs) using a laser ablation isotope ratio mass spectrometry approach. Small mammals are highly sensitive indicators of their environment because they have limited spatial ranges and because they have minimal time-averaging of carbon isotope signatures of dietary components. The specimens originate from four classic Late Miocene fossil localities, Lufeng, Yuanmou, Lingtai, and Ertemte, along a southwest-northeast transect from Yunnan Province to Inner Mongolia. In Yunnan (Lufeng, Yuanmou) and on the Loess Plateau (Lingtai), the small mammal δ13C values record nearly pure C3 ecosystems, and mixed but C3-based ecosystems, respectively, in agreement with previous studies based on carbon isotopes of large herbivores and soil carbonates. In Inner Mongolia, the micromammalian tooth enamel δ13C record picks up the presence of C4 vegetation where large mammal samples do not, indicating a mixed yet C3-dominated ecosystem at ~ 6 Ma. As a whole, the results support a scenario of northward increasing C4 grass abundance in a pattern that mirrors northward decreasing precipitation of the summer monsoon system. The results highlight differences between large and small mammals as indicators of C4 vegetation in ancient ecosystems, particularly the ability of small mammal δ13C values to detect the presence of minor components of the vegetation structure.

  5. Sniffing for Clues to the Dinosaurs Demise: Measurement of Osmium Isotope Compositions and Platinum Group Element Abundances in Volcanic Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, K. W.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Mather, T.; Pyle, D.; Martin, R.; Gauthier, P.; Aiuppa, A.

    2005-12-01

    Platinum Group Elements (PGE: Os, Ir, Rh, Ru, Pt, Pd) and osmium isotopes measured in marine and terrestrial sediment, snow and ice records are important paleo-tracers of riverine, hydrothermal, extraterrestrial, volcanic and anthropogenic inputs into the global surficial environment. For instance, the marine Os isotope record across the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary (KTB) indicates that the onset of the main phase of Deccan volcanism and the transient late Maastrichtian warming preceded the large extraterrestrial impact and the related KTB mass extinction by several hundred thousand years [Ravizza and Peucker-Ehrenbrink, 2003]. Distinguishing extraterrestrial from volcanic PGE sources has been difficult due to the similarity in Os isotopic compositions, complex PGE fractionations, and our lack of knowledge of the Os isotopic composition and PGE abundances in volcanic aerosols. These difficulties have fueled vigorous debate about extraterrestrial vs. volcanic triggers of mass extinctions in the geologic record. To assess the volcanic contribution to the global Re-Os-PGE cycle we have initiated a study of Os isotopic compositions and PGE abundances in volcanic emissions from volcanoes around the globe. Here we report preliminary data on PGE abundances and Os isotopes measured in gas and aerosol filter samples from Vulcan Masaya, Nicaragua and Mt Etna, Italy. Samples were analyzed by ID-ICPMS (ThermoFinnigan ELEMENT 2 and NEPTUNE) at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Osmium isotope compositions of the filters are unradiogenic (0.1272 to 0.187). Osmium concentrations range from 28 to 97 pg/cubic meter and are 3-4 orders of magnitude lower than those measured by Krahenbuhl et al. [1992] during the spring 1984 eruption of Mauna Loa just after the lava fountaining phase. Normalized PGE abundance patterns are fractionated relative to carbonaceous chondrites and two important features distinguish the pattern from other important PGE sources: 1) Os/Ir is much higher

  6. Carbon isotope fractionation of sapropelic organic matter during early diagenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spiker, E. C.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    Study of an algal, sapropelic sediment from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda shows that the mass balance of carbon and stable carbon isotopes in the major organic constituents is accounted for by a relatively straightforward model of selective preservation during diagenesis. The loss of 13C-enriched carbohydrates is the principal factor controlling the intermolecular mass balance of 13C in the sapropel. Results indicate that labile components are decomposed leaving as a residual concentrate in the sediment an insoluble humic substance that may be an original biochemical component of algae and associated bacteria. An overall decrease of up to about 4??? in the ?? 13C values of the organic matter is observed as a result of early diagenesis. ?? 1984.

  7. A molecular organic carbon isotope record of miocene climate changes.

    PubMed

    Schoell, M; Schouten, S; Damsté, J S; de Leeuw, J W; Summons, R E

    1994-02-25

    The difference in carbon-13 ((13)C) contents of hopane and sterane biomarkers in the Monterey formation (Naples Beach, California) parallels the Miocene inorganic record of the change in (18)O (delta(18)O), reflecting the Miocene evolution from a well-mixed to a highly stratified photic zone (upper 100 meters) in the Pacific. Steranes (delta(13)C = 25.4 +/- 0.7 per mil versus the Pee Dee belemnite standard) from shallow photic-zone organisms do not change isotopically throughout the Miocene. In contrast, sulfur-bound C(35) hopanes (likely derived from bacterial plankton living at the base of the photic zone) have systematically decreasing (13)C concentrations in Middle and Late Miocene samples (delta(13)C = -29.5 to -31.5 per mil), consistent with the Middle Miocene formation of a carbon dioxide-rich cold water mass at the base of the photic zone. PMID:17831625

  8. Carbon Isotope Discrimination Varies Genetically in C4 Species

    PubMed Central

    Hubick, Kerry T.; Hammer, Graeme L.; Farquhar, Graham D.; Wade, Len J.; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Henderson, Sally A.

    1990-01-01

    Carbon-isotope discrimination (Δ) is used to distinguish between different photosynthetic pathways. It has also been shown that variation in Δ occurs among varieties of C3 species, but not as yet, in C4 species. We now report that Δ also varies among genotypes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench), a C4 species. The discrimination in leaves of field-grown plants of 12 diverse genotypes of sorghum was measured and compared with their grain yields. Discrimination varied significantly among genotypes, and there was a significant negative correlation between grain yield and Δ. The variation in Δ may be caused by genetic differences in either leakiness of the bundle-sheath cells or by differences in the ratio of assimilation rate to stomatal conductance. At the leaf level, the former should be related to light-use efficiency of carbon fixation and the latter should be related to transpiration efficiency. Both could relate to the yield of the crop. PMID:16667310

  9. Barium isotope abundances in meteorites and their implications for early Solar System evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermingham, K. R.; Mezger, K.; Scherer, E. E.; Horan, M. F.; Carlson, R. W.; Upadhyay, D.; Magna, T.; Pack, A.

    2016-02-01

    Several nucleosynthetic processes contributed material to the Solar System, but the relative contributions of each process, the timing of their input into the solar nebula, and how well these components were homogenized in the solar nebula remain only partially constrained. The Ba isotope system is particularly useful in addressing these issues because Ba isotopes are synthesized via three nucleosynthetic processes (s-, r-, p-process). In this study, high precision Ba isotope analyses of 22 different whole rock chondrites and achondrites (carbonaceous chondrites, ordinary chondrites, enstatite chondrites, Martian meteorites, and eucrites) were performed to constrain the distribution of Ba isotopes on the regional scale in the Solar System. A melting method using aerodynamic levitation and CO2-laser heating was used to oxidize SiC, a primary carrier of Ba among presolar grains in carbonaceous chondrites. Destruction of these grains during the fusion process enabled the complete digestion of these samples. The Ba isotope data presented here are thus the first for which complete dissolution of the bulk meteorite samples was certain. Enstatite chondrites, ordinary chondrites, and all achondrites measured here possess Ba isotope compositions that are not resolved from the terrestrial composition. Barium isotope anomalies are evident in most of the carbonaceous chondrites analyzed, but the 135Ba anomalies are generally smaller than previously reported for similarly sized splits of CM2 meteorites. Variation in the size of the 135Ba anomaly is also apparent in fused samples from the same parent body (e.g., CM2 meteorites) and in different pieces from the same meteorite (e.g., Orgueil, CI). Here, we investigate the potential causes of variability in 135Ba, including the contribution of radiogenic 135Ba from the decay of 135Cs and incomplete homogenization of the presolar components on the <0.8 g sample scale.

  10. Carbon isotope variation in mid-continent Ordovician-type oils: relationship to a major middle Ordovician carbon isotope shift

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, J.R.; Jacobson, S.R.; Witzke, B.J.; Anders, D.E.; Watney, W.L.; Newell, K.D.

    1985-05-01

    Detailed organic geochemical comparisons of Mid-Continent Ordovician oils with extracts of potential source rocks show that in the Forest City basin of northeastern Kansas and southeastern Nebraska, oil source rocks are Middle Ordovician shales of the Simpson Group. For the Keota Dome field, Washington County, Iowa, the oil source rock is the Middle Ordovician Glenwood Shale Member of the Platteville Formation. Analyses of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of Ordovician-type oils from the Forest City basin, Keota Dome field, and the Michigan basin show that sigma TC of the two fractions are similar and that sigma T varies over a considerable range, from -32.5 per mil to -25.5 per mil (PDB). This large range in sigma TC reflects a major shift in the carbon isotope composition of organic matter during the Middle Ordovician. This shift is shown in a 62.5-ft (19 m) interval of core from the Decorah and Platteville Formations in the E.M. Greene 1 well in Washington County, Iowa, where organic carbon sigma TC changes regularly upward from -32.2 per mil to -22.7 per mil (PDB). The change in organic carbon sigma TC in this core is not related to variations in amount (0.13-41.4% TOC) or type (hydrogen index = 69 to 1000 mg HC/g TOC) of the marginally mature (T/sub max/ = 440 +/- 5C) organic matter. Ordovician-type oils in both the Forest City and Michigan basins show variable sigma TC, suggesting that the sigma TC shift displayed in the Middle Ordovician rocks of southeastern Iowa is a regional and possibly a global effect, related to changes in the sigma TC of the ocean-atmosphere carbon reservoir. Isotopic analyses of coexisting carbonate minerals support this interpretation.

  11. Chemical and carbon isotopic composition of dissolved organic carbon in a regional confined methanogenic aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aravena, R.; Wassenaar, L.I.; Spiker, E. C.

    2004-01-01

    This study demonstrates the advantage of a combined use of chemical and isotopic tools to understand the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) cycle in a regional confined methanogenic aquifer. DOC concentration and carbon isotopic data demonstrate that the soil zone is a primary carbon source of groundwater DOC in areas close to recharge zones. An in-situ DOC source linked to organic rich sediments present in the aquifer matrix is controlling the DOC pool in the central part of the groundwater flow system. DOC fractions, 13C-NMR on fulvic acids and 14C data on DOC and CH4 support the hypothesis that the in-situ DOC source is a terrestrial organic matter and discard the Ordovician bedrock as a source of DOC. ?? 2004 Taylor and Francis Ltd.

  12. Abundances and isotopic compositions of rhenium and osmium in pyrite samples from the Huaibei coalfield, Anhui, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Peng, Z.; Yang, G.

    2008-01-01

    Two pyrite samples from the Shihezi Formation (Lower Permian), Huaibei coalfield, Anhui, China, have been analyzed for abundances and isotopic compositions of rhenium and osmium using negative thermal ion mass spectrometry. The Re-Os ages of the pyrites are 64.4 and 226 Ma, which are younger than the formation age of the coal seam. The pyrite samples may consist of pyrite formed at various stages during the history of coal formation. The ??Osvalues of the two pyrite samples are +17 and +18, respectively. Such high ??Osvalues are reported for the first time for recycles crustal materials from a sedimentary basin. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  13. Carbon Reservoir History of Mars Constrained by Atmospheric Isotopic Measurements and Carbonate Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, R.; Kass, D. M.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Yung, Y. L.

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of the atmosphere on Mars is one of the most intriguing problems in the exploration of the Solar System, and the climate of Mars may have evolved from a warmer, wetter early state to the cold, dry current state. Because CO2 is the major constituent of Mars's atmosphere, its isotopic signatures offer a unique window to trace the evolution of climate on Mars. We derive new quantitative constraints on the amount of carbonate deposition and the atmospheric pressure of Mars through time, extending into the Noachian, ~3.8 Gyr before present. This determination is based on recent Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) isotopic measurements of Mars's atmosphere, recent orbiter, lander, and rover measurements of Mars's surface, and a newly identified mechanism (photodissociation of CO) that efficiently enriches the heavy carbon isotope. In particular, we find that escape via CO photodissociation on Mars has a fractionation factor of 0.6 and hence, photochemical escape processes can effectively enrich 13C in the Mars's atmosphere during the Amazonian. This enrichment is partially compensated by moderate carbonate precipitation during the late Noachian and/or Hesperian. The current atmospheric 13C/12C and rock and soil carbonate measurements indicate an early atmosphere with a surface pressure less than 1 bar. Only scenarios with large amounts of carbonate formation in open lakes permit higher values up to 1.8 bars. The evolutionary scenarios are fully testable with data from the MAVEN mission and further studies of the isotopic composition of carbonate in the Martian rock record through time.

  14. Kinetic fractionation of carbon and oxygen isotopes during hydration of carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeebe, Richard E.

    2014-08-01

    Kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) during the inorganic hydration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in aqueous solution cause reduced stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios (13C/12C and 18O/16O) in the reaction product carbonic acid (H2CO3) or bicarbonate ion (HCO3-), relative to CO2. While such KIEs are of importance in various physicochemical, geochemical, and biological systems, very few experimental and theoretical studies have attempted to determine the magnitude of the carbon and oxygen kinetic isotope fractionation (KIF) during hydration of CO2. Here I use transition state theory (TST) and quantum chemistry calculations to investigate the reaction rates of isotopic reactants CO2+nH2O (n = 1-8) along the hydration pathway to H2CO3 or HCO3-. Locating transition states is difficult and the quantum chemistry calculations time-consuming at large n. My results suggest that the hydration mechanism for n = 1-3 is unlikely to be the dominant pathway producing KIFs during CO2 hydration in aqueous solution; hydration mechanisms for n ⩾ 4 appear more likely. For n = 4-8, the predicted KIF based on MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ calculations at 25 °C is ∼1.023-1.033 and ∼1.013-1.015, for carbon and oxygen, respectively. However, these values are uncertain and the results of the present study suggest that new experimental work is required to accurately determine the KIF of carbon and oxygen during CO2 hydration.

  15. Oligocene to Miocene carbon isotope cycles and abyssal circulation changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kenneth G.; Fairbanks, Richard G.

    Three cycles of δ13C occurred in Oligocene to Miocene benthic and planktonic foraminifera at western North Atlantic Sites 558 and 563. Intervals of high δ13C occurred at about 35-33 Ma (early Oligocene), 25-22 Ma (across the Oligocene/Miocene boundary), and 18-14 Ma (across the early/middle Miocene boundary). Similar carbon isotopic fluctuations have been measured in benthic and planktonic foraminifera from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans, suggesting that these cycles represent global changes in the δ13C of mean ocean water. The average duration of the carbon cycles is 50 times greater than the residence time of carbon in the oceans. Therefore, the mechanism controlling these cycles must be tied to changes in the input ratio of organic carbon to carbonate from weathering rocks or to changes in the output ratio of organic carbon to carbonate in marine sediments. Following a strategy used to study modern and Pleistocene oceans, benthic foraminiferal δ13C differences between the Atlantic and Pacific are used to infer Oligocene through Miocene abyssal circulation changes. The Atlantic was most enriched in l3C relative to the Pacific from about 36-33 Ma (early Oligocene) and 26-10 Ma (late Oligocene to late Miocene). We interpret this as indicating supply of nutrient-depleted bottom water in the North Atlantic, perhaps analogous to modern North Atlantic Deep Water. High benthic foraminiferal δ13O values at about 36-35 Ma, 31-28 Ma, 25-24 Ma, and younger than 15 Ma indicate the presence of ice sheets at these times. Covariance between benthic and planktonic foraminiferal δ18O records of 0.3-0.5°/ºº at 36 Ma, 31 Ma, and 25 Ma suggests that three periods of continental glaciation caused eustatic (global sea-level) lowerings of 30-50 m during the Oligocene epoch. The δ13C cycles do not correlate with sea-level changes deduced from oxygen isotopic data, nor do they correlate with other proxy indicators for sea level.

  16. Carbon Isotope Composition of Carbohydrates and Polyols in Leaf and Phloem Sap of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Influences Predictions of Plant Water Use Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Smith, Millicent; Wild, Birgit; Richter, Andreas; Simonin, Kevin; Merchant, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    The use of carbon isotope abundance (δ(13)C) to assess plant carbon acquisition and water use has significant potential for use in crop management and plant improvement programs. Utilizing Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a model system, this study demonstrates the occurrence and sensitivity of carbon isotope fractionation during the onset of abiotic stresses between leaf and phloem carbon pools. In addition to gas exchange data, compound-specific measures of carbon isotope abundance and concentrations of soluble components of phloem sap were compared with major carbohydrate and sugar alcohol pools in leaf tissue. Differences in both δ(13)C and concentration of metabolites were found in leaf and phloem tissues, the magnitude of which responded to changing environmental conditions. These changes have inplications for the modeling of leaf-level gas exchange based upon δ(13)C natural abundance. Estimates of δ(13)C of low molecular weight carbohydrates and polyols increased the precision of predictions of water use efficiency compared with those based on bulk soluble carbon. The use of this technique requires consideration of the dynamics of the δ(13)C pool under investigation. Understanding the dynamics of changes in δ(13)C during movement and incorporation into heterotrophic tissues is vital for the continued development of tools that provide information on plant physiological performance relating to water use. PMID:27335348

  17. Linear-chain structure of alpha clusters in Carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Tomoyuki; Chiba, Yohei; Kimura, Masaaki

    2014-09-01

    The linear-chain structure of 12C in which three alpha particles are linearly aligned has long been interested and investigated since its proposal by Morinaga, but nowadays, its existence is doubt, because its instability was shown by fill-microscopic nuclear models. However, the possible existence of linear-chains in neutron-rich carbon isotopes assisted by the valence neutrons was recently suggested based on the cluster model. Therefore, it is of importance and interest to examine their stability and investigate the stabilization mechanism based on full-microscopic model. In this presentation, we will discuss the alpha cluster states of carbon isotopes including the linear-chains based on the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) model. For, example, we will demonstrate two different types of the alpha cluster states, that are, triangular and linear-chain configurations. Four valence neutrons occupy the molecular-orbit surrounding the cluster cores, in particular, their orbits of the linear-chain structure are π-orbit and σ-orbit as suggested by the cluster calculation. In addition, we predict the excitation energies of two structures. We will show that the linear-chain states have very large moment of inertia and they appear near the 6He+10Be threshold energy.

  18. Uptake of dissolved sulfide by Spartina alterniflora: evidence from natural sulfur isotope abundance ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, P.R. Jr.; Forrest, J.

    1982-05-07

    The difference in the stable sulfur isotope ratios of sulfate and sulfide in marsh pore water was used to verify the uptake of hydrogen sulfide by the salt marsh cordgrass Spartina alterniflora in a North Carolina salt marsh. Most of the plant sulfur derived from pore-water sulfide was recovered as sulfate, an indication that the sulfide had been oxidized within the plant. The anaysis of the sulfur isotope ratios of other coastal halophytes may be a useful technique for determining whether sulfide is taken up by plants in saline wetlands.

  19. Oxygen-18 Carbon Dioxide Isotope Ratio in Mars Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostiuk, T.; Livengood, T. A.; Hewagama, T.; Smith, R.; Fast, K. E.; Annen, J.; Sonnabend, G.; Sornig, M.

    2012-09-01

    The determination of isotopic ratios on Mars is important to the study of atmospheric evolution [1]. The relative abundance of isotopes of CO2 provides insight into the loss of Mars' primordial atmosphere. Isotopic ratios also provide markers in the study of geochemistry of Mars meteorites and future returned samples formed in equilibrium with ambient atmosphere, and are probes of biogenic and abiotic chemistry, which differ in isotope fractionation. Due to its lesser gravity and relatively thin residual atmosphere, Mars' atmosphere should be enriched in heavy isotopes [1]. However Viking [2] results indicated an Earth-like singly substituted oxygen-18 CO2 isotopic ratio, 18OCO/OCO, with δ18O = 0±50‰ relative to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW). By comparison, isotopic ratios in Earth atmospheric CO2 are not uniquely defined due to seasonal and biotic variability, but have a range 0-41‰ relative to VSMOW [3, 4]. Phoenix lander TEGA [3] measurements found a modest enrichment of δ18O = 31.0±5.7‰. Only the Viking and Phoenix landers have carried a mass spectrometer to Mars, so far, until the arrival of Mars Science Laboratory in August 2012. Using ground-based spectroscopic techniques Krasnopolsky et al. [5] also found modest enrichment δ18O = 18±18‰. We present results from fully resolved spectroscopic measurements near 10.6 μm of both the normal and singly substituted oxygen- 18 CO2 lines, taken with the Goddard Space Flight Center Heterodyne Instrument for Planetary Winds And Composition (HIPWAC) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Measurements with spectral resolving power λ/Δλ=107 were obtained in October 2007 with an instantaneous field-of-view on the planet of ~1 arcsec, at the locations shown in Fig. 1 as open squares. The solid and broken line tracks show Mars SPICAM measurements of ozone corresponding to ozone measurements also obtained with HIPWAC and shown as hatched and solid regions [6]. Figure 1

  20. Method for the identification and elimination of contamination during carbon isotopic analyses of extraterrestrial samples

    SciTech Connect

    Swart, P.K.; Grady, M.M.; Pillinger, C.T.

    1983-06-30

    A stepped combustion method for the elimination of carbon-containing contamination and weathering products from meteorite and lunar samples is presented. Samples of the Allende CV3 chondrite, the Sharps and Weston ordinary chondrite falls, one ordinary and five Antarctic finds, and lunar soils from Apollo 11 were oxidized in pure O2 at increasing temperatures, from 200 to 1200 C in 100-C, 30-min steps and C yield and delta-(C-13) were measured after each step. It is found that some C contamination is present in all samples and can adversely affect C-isotopic-abundance measurements. Except for C1 and C2 carbonaceous chondrites, C combustion below 425 + or - 25 C is limited to the terrestrial contaminants, demonstrating the usefulness of stepped combustion in removing them. Graphs and tables of the results are presented and discussed. 34 references.

  1. Sources of carbon isotope variation in kangaroo bone collagen and tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Brett P.; Bowman, David M. J. S.; Gagan, Michael K.

    2007-08-01

    The stable carbon isotopic composition (expressed as δ 13C) of herbivore remains is commonly used to reconstruct past changes in the relative abundance of C 4 versus C 3 grass biomass (C 4 relative abundance). However, the strength of the relationship between herbivore δ 13C and C 4 relative abundance in extant ecosystems has not been thoroughly examined. We determined sources of variation in δ 13C of bone collagen and tooth enamel of kangaroos ( Macropus spp.) collected throughout Australia by measuring δ 13C of bone collagen (779 individuals) and tooth enamel (694 individuals). An index of seasonal water availability, i.e. the distribution of rainfall in the C 4 versus C 3 growing seasons, was used as a proxy for C 4 relative abundance, and this variable explained a large proportion of the variation in both collagen δ 13C (68%) and enamel δ 13C (68%). These figures increased to 78% and 77%, respectively, when differences between kangaroo species were accounted for. Vegetation characteristics, such as woodiness and the presence of an open forest canopy, had no effect on collagen or enamel δ 13C. While there was no relationship between collagen δ 13C and kangaroo age at death, tooth enamel produced later in life, following weaning, was enriched in 13C by 3.5‰ relative to enamel produced prior to weaning. From the observed relationships between seasonal water availability and collagen and enamel δ 13C, enrichment factors ( ɛ∗) for collagen-diet and enamel-diet (post-weaning) were estimated to be 5.2‰ ± 0.5 (95% CI) and 11.7‰ ± 0.6 (95% CI), respectively. The findings of this study confirm that at a continental scale, collagen and enamel δ 13C of a group of large herbivores closely reflect C 4 relative abundance. This validates a fundamental assumption underpinning the use of isotopic analysis of herbivore remains to reconstruct changes in C 4 relative abundance.

  2. Tunable Diode Laser Measurements of Leaf-scale Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Ecosystem Respired Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios in a Semi-arid Woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, N.; Chris, B.; Hanson, D.; Kern, S.; Meyer, C.; Pockman, W.; Powers, H.

    2005-12-01

    We present results and speculative interpretation of leaf-level carbon isotope discrimination and ecosystem respired carbon and oxygen isotope ratios from a semi-arid, C3/C4 woodland located in northern New Mexico, USA. Overstory leaf area index (LAI) is dominated by live juniper (Juniperus monosperma) trees with an LAI value of approximately 1.0 m2 per m2 ground area, and has a seasonally dynamic understory of mixed C3 forbs and C4 grasses and cacti, with a maximum LAI of 0.30 m2 per m2 ground area. Ecosystem respired carbon isotope ratios showed values characteristic of C3 dominated photosynthesis (Keeling plot intercepts of -35 to -22 per mil). Seasonal variation was typical of that found in wetter, C3 dominated forests, as was the dependence on climate (e.g. relationships with vapor pressure deficit, soil water content, and canopy conductance). Leaf-level carbon isotope discrimination of the junipers, measured by coupling a Li-Cor 6400 photosynthesis system to the TDL, provided discrimination-Ci and discrimination-vpd relationships consistent with measured ecosystem respired carbon isotope ratios. The oxygen isotope ratio of ecosystem respiration was dependent on rain water isotope composition, but was correlated with soil water content during rain-free periods. The cumulative effect of vapor pressure deficit after a rain event was tightly correlated with the oxygen isotope ratio of ecosystem respiration, suggesting the primary drivers are evaporative enrichment of soil water and perhaps nocturnal leaf enrichment. Instrument precision for carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of carbon dioxide is 0.06 to 0.18 per mil; however, overall precision is somewhat lower due to pressure and sampling effects.

  3. Observation of large enhancements of charge exchange cross sections with neutron-rich carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanihata, I.; Terashima, S.; Kanungo, R.; Ameil, F.; Atkinson, J.; Ayyad, Y.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Dillmann, I.; Estradé, A.; Evdokimov, A.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Guastalla, G.; Janik, R.; Knoebel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Marta, M.; Mostazo, M.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, J.; Toki, H.; Vargas, J.; Winfield, J. S.; Weick, H.

    2016-04-01

    Production cross sections of nitrogen isotopes from high-energy (˜ 950 MeV per nucleon) carbon isotopes on hydrogen and carbon targets have been measured for the first time for a wide range of isotopes (A = 12 to 19). The fragment separator FRS at GSI was used to deliver C-isotope beams. The cross sections of the production of N-isotopes were determined by charge measurements of forward-going fragments. The cross sections show a rapid increase with the number of neutrons in the projectile. Since the production of nitrogen is mostly due to charge-exchange (Cex) reactions below the proton separation energies, the present data suggests a concentration of Gamow-Teller and/or Fermi transition strength at low excitation energies for neutron-rich carbon isotopes. It was also observed that the Cex cross sections were enhanced much more strongly for neutron-rich isotopes in the C-target data.

  4. Carbon amendment and soil depth affect the distribution and abundance of denitrifiers in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Barrett, M; Khalil, M I; Jahangir, M M R; Lee, C; Cardenas, L M; Collins, G; Richards, K G; O'Flaherty, V

    2016-04-01

    The nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK) and nitrous oxide reductase-encoding (nosZ) genes of denitrifying populations present in an agricultural grassland soil were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Samples from three separate pedological depths at the chosen site were investigated: horizon A (0-10 cm), horizon B (45-55 cm), and horizon C (120-130 cm). The effect of carbon addition (treatment 1, control; treatment 2, glucose-C; treatment 3, dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) on denitrifier gene abundance and N2O and N2 fluxes was determined. In general, denitrifier abundance correlated well with flux measurements; nirS was positively correlated with N2O, and nosZ was positively correlated with N2 (P < 0.03). Denitrifier gene copy concentrations per gram of soil (GCC) varied in response to carbon type amendment (P < 0.01). Denitrifier GCCs were high (ca. 10(7)) and the bac:nirK, bac:nirS, bac:nir (T) , and bac:nosZ ratios were low (ca. 10(-1)/10) in horizon A in all three respective treatments. Glucose-C amendment favored partial denitrification, resulting in higher nir abundance and higher N2O fluxes compared to the control. DOC amendment, by contrast, resulted in relatively higher nosZ abundance and N2 emissions, thus favoring complete denitrification. We also noted soil depth directly affected bacterial, archaeal, and denitrifier abundance, possibly due to changes in soil carbon availability with depth. PMID:26762934

  5. A Widely Tunable Infrared Laser Spectrometer for Measurements of Isotopic Ratios of Carbon Cycle Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Joanne H. Shorter; J. Barry McManus; David D. Nelson; Charles E. Kolb; Mark S. Zahniser; Ray Bambha; Uwe Lehmann; Tomas Kulp; Stanley C. Tyler

    2005-01-31

    The atmospheric abundances of carbon dioxide and methane have increased dramatically during the industrial era. Measurements of the isotopic composition of these gases can provide a powerful tool for quantifying their sources and sinks. This report describes the development of a portable instrument for isotopic analysis CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} using tunable infrared laser absorption spectroscopy. This instrument combines novel optical design and signal processing methods with a widely tunable mid-infrared laser source based on difference frequency generation (DFG) which will can access spectral regions for all the isotopes of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} with a single instrument. The instrument design compensates for the large difference in concentration between major and minor isotopes by measuring them with path lengths which differ by a factor of 100 within the same multipass cell. During Phase I we demonstrated the basic optical design and signal processing by determining {sup 13}CO{sub 2} isotopic ratios with precisions as small as 0.2{per_thousand} using a conventional lead salt diode laser. During Phase II, the DFG laser source was coupled with the optical instrument and was demonstrated to detect {sup 13}CH{sub 4}/{sup 12}CH{sub 4} ratios with a precision of 0.5{per_thousand} and an averaging time of 20 s using concentrated methane in air with a mixing ratio of 2700 ppm. Methods for concentrating ambient air for isotopic analysis using this technique have been evaluated. Extensions of this instrument to other species such as {sup 13}CO{sub 2}, C{sup 18}OO, and CH{sub 3}D are possible by substituting lasers at other wavelengths in the DFG source module. The immediate commercial application of this instrument will be to compete with existing mass spectrometric isotope instruments which are expensive, large and relatively slow. The novel infrared source developed in this project can be applied to the measurement of many other gas species and will have wide

  6. Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Cellulose from Plants Having Intermediary Photosynthetic Modes 1

    PubMed Central

    Sternberg, Leonel O'Reilly; Deniro, Michael J.; Ting, Irwin P.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios of cellulose nitrate and oxygen isotope ratios of cellulose from species of greenhouse plants having different photosynthetic modes were determined. When hydrogen isotope ratios are plotted against carbon isotope ratios, four clusters of points are discernible, each representing different photosynthetic modes: C3 plants, C4 plants, CAM plants, and C3 plants that can shift to CAM or show the phenomenon referred to as CAM-cycling. The combination of oxygen and carbon isotope ratios does not distinguish among the different photosynthetic modes. Analysis of the carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios of cellulose nitrate should prove useful for screening different photosynthetic modes in field specimens that grew near one another. This method will be particularly useful for detection of plants which show CAM-cycling. PMID:16663360

  7. Variability in magnesium, carbon and oxygen isotope compositions, and trace element contents of brachiopod shells: implications for paleoceanographic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollion-Bard, Claire; Saulnier, Ségolène; Vigier, Nathalie; Schumacher, Aimryc; Chaussidon, Marc; Lécuyer, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Magnesium content in the ocean is ≈ 1290 ppm and is one of the most abundant elements. It is involved in the carbon cycle via the dissolution and precipitation of carbonates, especially Mg-rich carbonates as dolomites. The Mg/Ca ratio of the ocean is believed to have changed through time. The causes of these variations, i.e. hydrothermal activity change or enhanced precipitation of dolomite, could be constrained using the magnesium isotope composition (δ26Mg) of carbonates. Brachiopods, as marine environmental proxies, have the advantage to occur worldwide in a depth range from intertidal to abyssal, and have been found in the geological record since the Cambrian. Moreover, as their shell is in low-Mg calcite, they are quite resistant to diagenetic processes. Here we report δ26Mg, δ18O, δ13C values along with trace element contents of one modern brachiopod specimen (Terebratalia transversa) and one fossil specimen (Terebratula scillae, 2.3 Ma). We combined δ26Mg values with oxygen and carbon isotope compositions and trace element contents to look for possible shell geochemical heterogeneities in order to investigate the processes that control the Mg isotope composition of brachiopod shells. We also evaluate the potential of brachiopods as a proxy of past seawater δ26Mg values. The two investigated brachiopod shells present the same range of δ26Mg variation (up to 2 ‰)). This variation cannot be ascribed to changes in environmental parameters, i.e. temperature or pH. As previously observed, the primary layer of calcite shows the largest degree of oxygen and carbon isotope disequilibrium relative to seawater. In contrast, the δ26Mg value of this layer is comparable to that of the secondary calcite layer value. In both T. scillae and T. transversa, negative trends are observable between magnesium isotopic compositions and oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions. These trends, combined to linear relationships between δ26Mg values and REE contents, are best

  8. Oxygen-18 Carbon Dioxide Isotope Ratio in Mars Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostiuk, T.; Livengood, T. A.; Hewagama, T.; Smith, R.; Fast, K. E.; Annen, J.; Sonnabend, G.; Sornig, M.

    2012-09-01

    The determination of isotopic ratios on Mars is important to the study of atmospheric evolution [1]. The relative abundance of isotopes of CO2 provides insight into the loss of Mars' primordial atmosphere. Isotopic ratios also provide markers in the study of geochemistry of Mars meteorites and future returned samples formed in equilibrium with ambient atmosphere, and are probes of biogenic and abiotic chemistry, which differ in isotope fractionation. Due to its lesser gravity and relatively thin residual atmosphere, Mars' atmosphere should be enriched in heavy isotopes [1]. However Viking [2] results indicated an Earth-like singly substituted oxygen-18 CO2 isotopic ratio, 18OCO/OCO, with δ18O = 0±50‰ relative to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW). By comparison, isotopic ratios in Earth atmospheric CO2 are not uniquely defined due to seasonal and biotic variability, but have a range 0-41‰ relative to VSMOW [3, 4]. Phoenix lander TEGA [3] measurements found a modest enrichment of δ18O = 31.0±5.7‰. Only the Viking and Phoenix landers have carried a mass spectrometer to Mars, so far, until the arrival of Mars Science Laboratory in August 2012. Using ground-based spectroscopic techniques Krasnopolsky et al. [5] also found modest enrichment δ18O = 18±18‰. We present results from fully resolved spectroscopic measurements near 10.6 μm of both the normal and singly substituted oxygen- 18 CO2 lines, taken with the Goddard Space Flight Center Heterodyne Instrument for Planetary Winds And Composition (HIPWAC) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Measurements with spectral resolving power λ/Δλ=107 were obtained in October 2007 with an instantaneous field-of-view on the planet of ~1 arcsec, at the locations shown in Fig. 1 as open squares. The solid and broken line tracks show Mars SPICAM measurements of ozone corresponding to ozone measurements also obtained with HIPWAC and shown as hatched and solid regions [6]. Figure 1

  9. Carbon isotope composition of latex does not reflect temporal variations of photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination in rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Kanpanon, Nicha; Kasemsap, Poonpipope; Thaler, Philippe; Kositsup, Boonthida; Gay, Frédéric; Lacote, Régis; Epron, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Latex, the cytoplasm of laticiferous cells localized in the inner bark of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.), is collected by tapping the bark. Following tapping, latex flows out of the trunk and is regenerated, whereas in untapped trees, there is no natural exudation. It is still unknown whether the carbohydrates used for latex regeneration in tapped trees is coming from recent photosynthates or from stored carbohydrates, and in the former case, it is expected that latex carbon isotope composition of tapped trees will vary seasonally, whereas latex isotope composition of untapped trees will be more stable. Temporal variations of carbon isotope composition of trunk latex (δ(13)C-L), leaf soluble compounds (δ(13)C-S) and bulk leaf material (δ(13)C-B) collected from tapped and untapped 20-year-old trees were compared. A marked difference in δ(13)C-L was observed between tapped and untapped trees whatever the season. Trunk latex from tapped trees was more depleted (1.6‰ on average) with more variable δ(13)C values than those of untapped trees. δ(13)C-L was higher and more stable across seasons than δ(13)C-S and δ(13)C-B, with a maximum seasonal difference of 0.7‰ for tapped trees and 0.3‰ for untapped trees. δ(13)C-B was lower in tapped than in untapped trees, increasing from August (middle of the rainy season) to April (end of the dry season). Differences in δ(13)C-L and δ(13)C-B between tapped and untapped trees indicated that tapping affects the metabolism of both laticiferous cells and leaves. The lack of correlation between δ(13)C-L and δ(13)C-S suggests that recent photosynthates are mixed in the large pool of stored carbohydrates that are involved in latex regeneration after tapping. PMID:26358051

  10. A molecular and carbon isotopic study towards the origin and diagenetic fate of diaromatic carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Hartgers, W A; Sinninghe Damsté, J S; Requejo, A G; Allan, J; Hayes, J M; Ling, Y; Xie, T M; Primack, J; De Leeuw, J W

    1994-12-01

    Pyrolysates of high-molecular-weight sedimentary fractions of the Duvernay Formation (Western Canada Basin) are dominated by 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetramethylbenzene, which, generated via beta-cleavage, indicate the presence of diaromatic carotenoids in the macromolecular aggregates. This was substantiated by desulphurization of sulphur-rich aggregates of the polar fraction, which released (partly) hydrogenated carotenoids. Furthermore, these components were important constituents of the aromatic hydrocarbon fractions and related oils. Apart from renieratane and isorenieratane, 1H NMR analysis established the aromatic substitution pattern of the most abundant component present, which was identified as a diaromatic compound with an unprecedented 2,3,6-/3,4,5-trimethyl aromatic substitution pattern. Molecular and isotopic analyses of both soluble and insoluble fractions of organic matter revealed relationships between diagenetically-derived carotenoids found in bitumen and related oils and their precursors incorporated into high-molecular-weight fractions. Aryl isoprenoids, important components in extracts and oils, were apparently derived from thermal cracking of bound diaromatic carotenoids rather than cleavage of free carotenoids as previously suggested. Furthermore, products derived from diaromatic carotenoids were substantially enriched in 13C relative to n-alkanes of algal origin. Together with the characteristic carotenoids, this isotopic enrichment provides evidence of significant contributions from photosynthetic green sulphur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae), which fix carbon via the reversed tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. In spite of the prominence of these molecular signals, the overall isotopic composition of the organic matter indicated that only a very small portion of the preserved organic carbon was derived from the biomass of photosynthetic green sulphur bacteria. PMID:11539138

  11. First results on stable isotopes in fluid inclusions in cryogenic carbonates from Ural Mountains (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dublyansky, Yuri; Luetscher, Mark; Spötl, Christoph; Töchterle, Paul; Kadebskaya, Olga

    2015-04-01

    Cryogenic cave carbonates (CCC) were found in a number of caves in the Ural. In contrast to the CCC previously reported from Central Europe, the Uralian CCC have larger sizes (up to 4-5 cm), which allows for more detailed petrographic and geochemical studies. CCCs from Uralian caves commonly show spherulitic shapes due to crystal splitting, supporting the model of calcite precipitating in a freezing water pond. δ18O values of studied CCCs are lower by 1 to 14 o compared to noncryogenic speleothems of Pleistocene and Holocene age from the same caves. δ18O and δ13C values are inversely correlated and typically show a fractionation between the core and the rim of individual samples. These trends are similar to those reported for CCCs from European caves (Žák et al., 2004). Petrographic observations performed on doubly polished, 100-150 micron-thick sections revealed abundant fluid inclusions, trapped between fibres of the spherulites. Petrographic relationships suggest that these inclusions are primary. The isotopic composition of water trapped in fluid inclusions in CCCs from two caves was analyzed following mechanical crushing at 120 °C, cryo-trapping of released water, pyrolysis on glassy carbon at 1400 °C (TC/EA device; Thermo), and analysis of the evolved gases on an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Delta V Advantage; Thermo Fisher). The lack of peaks on the m/z 2 trace during the heating of the loaded crushing cell attests for a good sealing of the fluid inclusions. The measured δD values range between -136 o and -145 o VSMOW. The values measured in CCCs are more negative than the typical values of fluid inclusion water measured in the Holocene stalagmites from central Ural (-99 to -108 ). This shift toward more negative values is attributed to the isotopic fractionation between ice and water during the freezing. Reference: Žák et al., 2004, Chemical Geology, 2006, 119-136.

  12. The Stable and Radio- Carbon Isotopic Content of Labile and Refractory Carbon in Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNichol, A. P.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Gerlach, D. S.; Hayes, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    Studies of the isotopic content of atmospheric particulate matter are hampered by difficulties in chemically defining the pools of carbon and analytically isolating the different pools. We are conducting studies on reference materials and atmospheric aerosol samples to develop a method to measure stable and radio- carbon isotopes on the labile and refractory carbon. We are using a flow-through combustion system that allows us to combust, collect and measure the isotopic content of the gases produced at all stages of heating/oxidizing. We compare our results to those measured using a chemothermal oxidation method (CTO) (Gustafsson et al., 2001). In this method, refractory carbon is defined as the material remaining after pre- combusting a sample at 375°C in the presence of oxygen for 24 hours. The reference materials are diesel soot, apple leaves and a hybrid of the two (DiesApple), all from NIST. These provide carbon with two well-defined fractions -- the soot provides refractory carbon that is radiocarbon dead and the apple leaves provide organic carbon that is radiocarbon modern. Radiocarbon results from DiesApple indicate that the "refractory" carbon defined by the CTO method is actually a mixture of old and modern carbon that contains over 25% modern carbon. This suggests that charred material formed from the apples leaves during the pre-combustion step is contributing to the fraction we identify as refractory carbon. We are studying this by analyzing the individual materials and the mixture using our flow-through system. First results with this system indicate that the refractory fraction trapped from the DiesApple contains much less modern carbon than the CTO method, less than 7%. We will present detailed concentration and isotopic results of the generation of carbon dioxide during programmed combustion of each of the reference materials. We studied the radiocarbon content of both the total carbon (TC) and refractory carbon in the fine particulate matter (PM

  13. The reduction and oxidation of ceria: A natural abundance triple oxygen isotope perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayles, Justin; Bao, Huiming

    2015-06-01

    Ceria (CeO2) is a heavily studied material in catalytic chemistry for use as an oxygen storage medium, oxygen partial pressure regulator, fuel additive, and for the production of syngas, among other applications. Ceria powders are readily reduced and lose structural oxygen when subjected to low pO2 and/or high temperature conditions. Such dis-stoichiometric ceria can then re-oxidize under higher pO2 and/or lower temperature by incorporating new oxygen into the previously formed oxygen site vacancies. Despite extensive studies on ceria, the mechanisms for oxygen adsorption-desorption, dissociation-association, and diffusion of oxygen species on ceria surface and within the crystal structure are not well known. We predict that a large kinetic oxygen isotope effect should accompany the release and incorporation of ceria oxygen. As the first attempt to determine the existence and the degree of the isotope effect, this study focuses on a set of simple room-temperature re-oxidation experiments that are also relevant to a laboratory procedure using ceria to measure the triple oxygen isotope composition of CO2. Triple-oxygen-isotope labeled ceria powders are heated at 700 °C and cooled under vacuum prior to exposure to air. By combining results from independent experimental sets with different initial oxygen isotope labels and using a combined mass-balance and triangulation approach, we have determined the isotope fractionation factors for both high temperature reduction in vacuum (⩽10-4 mbar) and room temperature re-oxidation in air. Results indicate that there is a 1.5‰ ± 0.8‰ increase in the δ18O value of ceria after being heated in vacuum at 700 °C for 1 h. When the vacuum is broken at room temperature, the previously heated ceria incorporates 3-19% of its final structural oxygen from air, with a δ18O value of 2.1-4.1+7.7 ‰ for the incorporated oxygen. The substantial incorporation of oxygen from air supports that oxygen mobility is high in vacancy

  14. Phosphoprotein Isotope-coded Affinity Tags: Application to the Enrichment and Identification of Low-Abundance Phosphoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Goshe, Michael; Veenstra, Timothy D. ); Panisko, Ellen A.; Conrads, Thomas P. ); Angell, Nicolas H.; Smith, Richard D. )

    2002-02-01

    A novel approach using different isotopic labeling and biotinylation has been developed for the enrichment and quantitation of phosphoseryl and phosphothreonyl-peptides. The phosphoprotein isotope-coded affinity tag (PhIAT) exploits the high affinity biotin-avidin interaction to isolate modified phosphopeptides from a complex mixture of peptides. The PhIAT strategy for quantifying and enriching mixtures for phosphopeptides was demonstrated using a commercially available sample of the phosphoprotein B-casein. A denatured solution of B-casein was labeled using the PhIAT method and after proteolytic digestion, the labeled peptides were isolated using immobilize avidin. The recovered peptides were separated by capillary reversed-phase liquid chromatography and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. PhIAT-labeled peptides corresponding to known O-phosphorylated peptides from B-casein were identified as were phosphorylated peptides from as1-casein and ase-casein, known low-level (< 5%) contaminants of commercially available B-casein. All of the identified phosphopeptides from these caseins have been previously documented to be phosphorylated at the sites elucidated by the PhIAT approach. The results illustrate the efficancy of the PhIAT-labeling strategy to enrich mixtures for phosphopeptides and permit the detection and identification of low abundance phosphopeptides. In addition, experiments using light and heavy isotopic version of the PhIAT reagents demonstrated that a 10% difference in phosphorylation state could be determined between phosphopeptides in comparative samples.

  15. Reactive transport modeling of stable carbon isotope fractionation in a multi-phase multi-component system during carbon sequestration

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Shuo; DePaolo, Donald J.; Zheng, Liange; Mayer, Bernhard

    2014-12-31

    Carbon stable isotopes can be used in characterization and monitoring of CO2 sequestration sites to track the migration of the CO2 plume and identify leakage sources, and to evaluate the chemical reactions that take place in the CO2-water-rock system. However, there are few tools available to incorporate stable isotope information into flow and transport codes used for CO2 sequestration problems. We present a numerical tool for modeling the transport of stable carbon isotopes in multiphase reactive systems relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. The code is an extension of the reactive transport code TOUGHREACT. The transport module of TOUGHREACT was modifiedmore » to include separate isotopic species of CO2 gas and dissolved inorganic carbon (CO2, CO32-, HCO3-,…). Any process of transport or reaction influencing a given carbon species also influences its isotopic ratio. Isotopic fractionation is thus fully integrated within the dynamic system. The chemical module and database have been expanded to include isotopic exchange and fractionation between the carbon species in both gas and aqueous phases. The performance of the code is verified by modeling ideal systems and comparing with theoretical results. Efforts are also made to fit field data from the Pembina CO2 injection project in Canada. We show that the exchange of carbon isotopes between dissolved and gaseous carbon species combined with fluid flow and transport, produce isotopic effects that are significantly different from simple two-component mixing. These effects are important for understanding the isotopic variations observed in field demonstrations.« less

  16. Reactive transport modeling of stable carbon isotope fractionation in a multi-phase multi-component system during carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shuo; DePaolo, Donald J.; Zheng, Liange; Mayer, Bernhard

    2014-12-31

    Carbon stable isotopes can be used in characterization and monitoring of CO2 sequestration sites to track the migration of the CO2 plume and identify leakage sources, and to evaluate the chemical reactions that take place in the CO2-water-rock system. However, there are few tools available to incorporate stable isotope information into flow and transport codes used for CO2 sequestration problems. We present a numerical tool for modeling the transport of stable carbon isotopes in multiphase reactive systems relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. The code is an extension of the reactive transport code TOUGHREACT. The transport module of TOUGHREACT was modified to include separate isotopic species of CO2 gas and dissolved inorganic carbon (CO2, CO32-, HCO3-,…). Any process of transport or reaction influencing a given carbon species also influences its isotopic ratio. Isotopic fractionation is thus fully integrated within the dynamic system. The chemical module and database have been expanded to include isotopic exchange and fractionation between the carbon species in both gas and aqueous phases. The performance of the code is verified by modeling ideal systems and comparing with theoretical results. Efforts are also made to fit field data from the Pembina CO2 injection project in Canada. We show that the exchange of carbon isotopes between dissolved and gaseous carbon species combined with fluid flow and transport, produce isotopic effects that are significantly different from simple two-component mixing. These effects are important for understanding the isotopic variations observed in field demonstrations.

  17. Stable carbon isotope values document how a Late Holocene expansion in grasslands impacted vertebrates in northwestern Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, B. E.; Samonds, K.

    2012-12-01

    Madagascar is home to some of the world's most distinctive plants and animals. Unfortunately, forest loss and habitat degradation has had a dramatic impact on both floral and faunal communities. Here we use carbon isotope values in radiocarbon-dated bones to examine how the vertebrate community at Anjohibe Cave, northwestern Madagascar, responded to a Late Holocene increase in C4 grass abundance. Our data demonstrate that major changes in the vegetation and animal community are recent phenomena at Anjohibe. Extinct lemurs and hippopotamuses were present until ca. 1500 years ago. These taxa relied exclusively on C3 resources. Locally extirpated fauna were present until 300 years ago. The majority of these species also relied on C3 resources. Their presence strongly suggests that the region surrounding the cave was more wooded than it is now, possibly as recently as 300 years ago. All introduced individuals are modern. Rats (Rattus sp.), shrews (Suncus murinus), and the giant frog Hoplobatrachus cf. tigrinus, have remarkably high carbon isotope values, implicating substantial ingestion of C4 foods. It is possible that grass abundance has increased dramatically in the past 100 years. Alternatively, opportunistically granivorous rats and shrews may selectively consume seeds from C4 grasses. In agreement with previous studies, stable isotope data reveal details of vegetation and faunal turnover in Northwestern Madagascar. Grasses have increased, forest dwelling species have vanished, and introduced taxa are exploiting a novel niche.

  18. Cryogenic Calcite: A Morphologic and Isotopic Analog to the ALH84001 Carbonates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Leshin, L. A.; Socki, R. A.; Guan, Y.; Ming, D. W.; Gibson, E. K.

    2004-01-01

    Martian meteorite ALH84001 carbonates preserve large and variable microscale isotopic compositions, which in some way reflect their formation environment. These measurements show large variations (>20%) in the carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of the carbonates on a 10-20 micron scale that are correlated with chemical composition. However, the utilization of these data sets for interpreting the formation conditions of the carbonates is complex due to lack of suitable terrestrial analogs and the difficulty of modeling under non-equilibrium conditions. Thus, the mechanisms and processes are largely unknown that create and preserve large microscale isotopic variations in carbonate minerals. Experimental tests of the possible environments and mechanisms that lead to large microscale isotopic variations can help address these concerns. One possible mechanism for creating large carbon isotopic variations in carbonates involves the freezing of water. Carbonates precipitate during extensive CO2 degassing that occurs during the freezing process as the fluid s decreasing volume drives CO2 out. This rapid CO2 degassing results in a kinetic isotopic fractionation where the CO2 gas has a much lighter isotopic composition causing an enrichment of 13C in the remaining dissolved bicarbonate. This study seeks to determine the suitability of cryogenically formed carbonates as analogs to ALH84001 carbonates. Specifically, our objective is to determine how accurately models using equilibrium fractionation factors approximate the isotopic compositions of cryogenically precipitated carbonates. This includes determining the accuracy of applying equilibrium fractionation factors during a kinetic process, and determining how isotopic variations in the fluid are preserved in microscale variations in the precipitated carbonates.

  19. Determination of the carbon kinetic isotope effects on propane hydroxylation mediated by the methane monooxygenases from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) by using stable carbon isotopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ded-Shih; Wu, Suh-Huey; Wang, Yane-Shih; Yu, Steve S-F; Chan, Sunney I

    2002-08-01

    Authentic propane with known position-specific carbon isotope composition at each carbon atom was subjected to hydroxylation by the particulate and soluble methane monooxygenase (pMMO and sMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), and the corresponding position-specific carbon isotope content was redetermined for the product 2-propanol. Neither the reaction mediated by pMMO nor that with sMMO showed an intermolecular (12)C/(13)C kinetic isotope effect effect on the propane hydroxylation at the secondary carbon; this indicates that there is little structural change at the carbon center attacked during formation of the transition state in the rate-determining step. This finding is in line with the concerted mechanism proposed for pMMO (Bath), and suggested for sMMO (Bath), namely, direct side-on insertion of an active "O" species across the C-H bond, as has been previously reported for singlet carbene insertion. PMID:12203974

  20. The biodegradation of fluoranthene as monitored using stable carbon isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Trust, B.A.; Mueller, J.G.; Coffin, R.B.; Cifuentes, L.A.

    1995-12-31

    The measurement of stable isotope ratios of carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C values) was investigated as a viable technique to monitor the intrinsic bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Biometer flask experiments were conducted in which the bacterium, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, designated EPA505, was grown on fluoranthene. During growth of EPA505 on fluoranthene, bacterial biomass, respired CO{sub 2}, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), as well as fluoranthene, were sampled over 8 days. The concentrations and {delta}{sup 13}C values of each of these carbon pools were determined. The concentration of fluoranthene decreased from 12.1 {+-} 2.0 (n = 2) to 3.0 {+-} 0.9 (n = 2) mg C per flask over 188 h, and CO{sub 2} increased from undetectable levels to 7.1 {+-} 0.3 (n = 4) mg C per flask. A total of 55.5% mineralization resulted. DOC concentrations remained fairly constant with time, averaging 2.2 to 3.6 mg C per flask. The {delta}{sup 13}C value of fluoranthene remained constant over the course of the experiment, averaging {minus}24.5 {+-} 0.2{per_thousand} (n = 8). Bacterial nucleic acids and respired CO{sub 2} took on {delta}{sup 13}C values similar to those of fluoranthene within 47 h, measuring {minus}22.6 and {minus}24.3{per_thousand}, respectively.

  1. Evaluation of TASTEX task H: measurement of plutonium isotopic abundances by gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnink, R.; Prindle, A.L.; Asakura, Y.; Masui, J.; Ishiguro, N.; Kawasaki, A.; Kataoka, S.

    1981-10-01

    This report describes a computer-based gamma spectrometer system that was developed for measuring isotopic and total plutonium concentrations in nitric acid solutions. The system was installed at the Tokai reprocessing plant where it is undergoing testing and evaluation as part of the Tokai Advanced Safeguards Exercise (TASTEX). Objectives of TASTEX Task H, High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometer for Plutonium Isotopic Analysis, the methods and equipment used, the installation and calibration of the system, and the measurements obtained from several reprocessing campaigns are discussed and described. In general, we find that measurements for gamma spectroscopy agree well with those of mass spectrometry and of other chemical analysis. The system measures both freshly processed plutonium from the product accountability tank and aged plutonium solutions from storage tanks. 14 figures, 15 tables.

  2. Theoretical effect of diffusion on isotopic abundance ratios in rocks and associated fluids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Bracken, J.T.

    1955-01-01

    Diffusion is considered as a possible process of isotope fractionation taking place throughout geologic time. Both diffusion in solids and diffusion in liquids are taken as possible mechanisms, the latter being more important. Arguments are presented to show that if significant fractionation takes