Sillito, Carrie LeFevre
Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…
Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.
This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…
Melton, Heather C.; Sillito, Carrie Lefeve
The role of gender in intimate partner abuse (IPA) perpetration and victimization has been debated for the last several decades. Two perspectives have emerged regarding this debate. Researchers from the family violence perspective argue that men and women are violent at near equal rates and call for a reframing of the issue from one of woman…
Klostermann, Keith C
Given the increased use of marital- and family-based treatments as part of treatment for alcoholism and other drug disorders, providers are increasingly faced with the challenge of addressing intimate partner violence among their patients and their intimate partners. Yet, effective options for clinicians who confront this issue are extremely limited. While the typical response of providers is to refer these cases to some form of batterers' treatment, three fundamental concerns make this strategy problematic: (1) most of the agencies that provide batterers' treatment only accept individuals who are legally mandated to complete their programs; (2) among programs that do accept nonmandated patients, most substance-abusing patients do not accept such referrals or drop out early in the treatment process; and (3) available evidence suggests these programs may not be effective in reducing intimate partner violence. Given these very significant concerns with the current referral approach, coupled with the high incidence of IPV among individuals entering substance abuse treatment, providers need to develop strategies for addressing IPV that can be incorporated and integrated into their base intervention packages. PMID:16925813
Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…
Mechanic, Mindy B; Weaver, Terri L; Resick, Patricia A
Battered women are exposed to multiple forms of intimate partner abuse. This article explores the independent contributions of physical violence, sexual coercion, psychological abuse, and stalking on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among a sample of 413 severely battered, help-seeking women. The authors test the unique effects of psychological abuse and stalking on mental health outcomes, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Mean scores for the sample fall into the moderate to severe range for PTSD and within the moderate category for depression scores. Hierarchical regressions test the unique effects of stalking and psychological abuse, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Psychological abuse and stalking contribute uniquely to the prediction of PTSD and depression symptoms, even after controlling for the effects of physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Results highlight the importance of examining multiple dimensions of intimate partner abuse. PMID:18535306
Gelaye, Bizu; Lam, Nelly; Cripe, Swee May; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Williams, Michelle A.
The authors sought to identify correlates of violent response among women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) in Lima, Peru. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on exposure to IPV and women's physical violent reaction towards their abuser. Women who were sexually abused by their partners, as compared with women who…
Sunday, Suzanne; Kline, Myriam; Labruna, Victor; Pelcovitz, David; Salzinger, Suzanne; Kaplan, Sandra
This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with other risk factors) a significant predictor of intimate partner physical and emotional violence perpetration or victimization. In this longitudinal study, 67 abused and 78 nonabused adults (of an original sample of 198 adolescents) completed the Modified Conflict Tactics Scale and the Jealousy and Emotional Control Scales. Nonabused comparison adolescents were matched for age, gender, and community income. As adults, participants with abuse histories had significantly higher rates of intimate partner physical violence and verbal aggression than did comparison participants. Multivariate logistic regressions indicated that adults with histories of physical abuse were more than twice as likely to be physically violent and almost six times more likely to be verbally aggressive to their intimate partners than were comparison participants. Having had an alcohol use disorder, being married to or living with a partner, and perceiving one's partner as controlling were also significantly associated with physical violence. Jealousy and feeling controlled by one's partner were also significant predictors of verbal aggression. These findings underscore the importance of preventing adolescent abuse as a means of decreasing the incidence of intimate partner physical violence in adulthood. PMID:21602201
Roberts, Andrea L.; Lyall, Kristen; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Ascherio, Alberto; Weisskopf, Marc G.
We sought to determine whether maternal (a) physical harm from intimate partner abuse during pregnancy or (b) sexual, emotional, or physical abuse before birth increased risk of autism spectrum disorder. We calculated risk ratios for autism spectrum disorder associated with abuse in a population-based cohort of women and their children (54,512…
Koopman, Cheryl; Ismailji, Tasneem; Palesh, Oxana; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Narayanan, Amrita; Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holmes, Danielle; McGarvey, Elizabeth L.
This study investigates whether depression in women who experienced intimate partner violence is associated with having also experienced childhood sexual and physical abuse, psychological abuse by an intimate partner, recent involvement with the abusive partner, and bodily pain. Fifty-seven women who had left a violent relationship with an…
Sanders, Cynthia K
This article presents qualitative findings of a study that examined the role of financial issues and economic factors in the lives of women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Eight themes emerged in discussions with women about the ways in which money and economic issues played a role in their experiences of abuse. Taken together, women's discussions clearly support an "economic abuse" dimension of IPV. Implications for safely advancing the economic well-being of low-income survivors are discussed. PMID:25548376
Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D.; Mbilinyi, Lyungai F.; O’Rourke, Allison; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Zegree, Joan; Roffman, Roger A.
This research was designed to evaluate the applicability of social norms approaches to interventions with male perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Participants included 124 nonadjudicated IPV perpetrating men recruited from the general population who completed assessment of their own IPV behaviors via telephone interviews and estimated the prevalence of behaviors in other men. Results indicated that IPV perpetrators consistently overestimated the percentage of men who engaged in IPV and that their estimates were associated with violence toward their partner over the past 90 days. Findings provide preliminary support for incorporating social norms approaches into clinical applications. PMID:20200408
Sunday, Suzanne; Kline, Myriam; Labruna, Victor; Pelcovitz, David; Salzinger, Suzanne; Kaplan, Sandra
This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with…
Background Although research has established the profound effects that intimate partner abuse can have on postpartum mental health, little is known regarding how this association may change as a function of the timing and type of abuse. This study examined associations of psychological, physical and sexual abuse experienced as adults before and during pregnancy with symptoms of postpartum mental health problems in a non-clinical sample of women. Methods English-speaking mothers aged 18 years and older in the metropolitan area of a large, Western Canadian city were recruited to participate in a study of women’s health after pregnancy. The study was advertised in hospitals, local newspapers, community venues, and relevant websites. One-hundred women completed standardized, self-report questionnaires during semi-structured interviews conducted by female research assistants at approximately 2 months postpartum. In addition to questions about their general health and well-being, participants answered questions about their experiences of intimate partner abuse and about their mental health during the postpartum period. Results Almost two-thirds (61.0%) of women reported postpartum mental health symptoms above normal levels, with 47.0% reporting symptoms at moderate or higher levels. The majority reported some form of intimate partner abuse before pregnancy (84.0%) and more than two-thirds (70.0%), during pregnancy; however, the abuse was typically minor in nature. Multivariate models revealed that women who experienced intimate partner abuse—whether before or during pregnancy—reported higher levels of postpartum mental health problems; however, associations differed as a function of the timing and type of abuse, as well as specific mental health symptoms. Multivariate models also showed that as the number of types of intimate partner abuse experienced increased, so did the negative effects on postpartum mental health. Conclusions Results of this study provide
Jaffe, Anna E; Cranston, Christopher C; Shadlow, Joanna O
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was related to lower parenting self-efficacy and more permissive parenting. In women at a domestic violence shelter (n = 45), child sexual abuse was related to current sexual coercion of the partner, and authoritative parenting was related to higher parenting self-efficacy. These results indicate that having a history of child sexual abuse should be taken into consideration when dealing with mothers in violent relationships. PMID:23194141
Chan, Ko Ling
This study examines the prevalence of co-occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse and neglect (CAN) in a cohort of Chinese parents drawn from a large representative sample in Hong Kong. It also investigates the risk factors for CAN with a special emphasis on the role of IPV. A subsample of 2,363 parents was invited to complete…
Plazaola-Castano, Juncal; Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Escriba-Aguir, Vicenta; Montero-Pinar, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen
We aimed to analyze the internal consistency and construct validity of the Spanish version of the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA) in a representative sample of 8,995 women attending general practice in Spain in 2006-2007. The factor structure analysis shows that the ISA measures four intimate partner violence (IPV) dimensions: emotional, physical, and…
Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José Javier
There is a close relationship between substance abuse (alcohol and other drugs) and intimate partner violence. Studies carried out with male offenders and with addicted patients show a high comorbidity rate between these two phenomena. However, few batterer intervention programmes have been implemented to date in the field of drug addiction. This paper proposes, first, the need to detect cases of intimate partner violence that are camouflaged beneath a drug problem. Thus, it is important to determine the prevalence rate of intimate partner aggressors among users of drug-addiction treatment programmes, as well as identifying the specific characteristics of these patients. Second, once aggressors are identified, it would be possible to develop specific programmes for the simultaneous treatment of the two problems (addiction and intimate partner violence). Some studies have already been carried with joint treatments for addiction and intimate partner violence. The results obtained are encouraging, and show that intervention programs with addictions can be a useful framework for applying also, where necessary, specific treatments for those addicted patients with an associated problem of intimate partner violence. Finally, implications for clinical practice and future research in this field are discussed. PMID:21503558
Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Messing, Jill T; Amanor-Boadu, Yvonne; O'Sullivan, Chris O; Webster, Daniel; Campbell, Jacquelyn
Men's violence against women-particularly intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV)-is associated with the transmission of HIV. Men who physically abuse their female intimate partners often also sexually abuse them. Latinas are one of the fastest growing populations in the USA and at high-risk for contracting HIV, though little is known about IPSV against physically abused Latinas, including whether there is an association between nativity of the victim and the likelihood of sexual violence by intimate partners. This study examined the (1) prevalence of recent (past 6 months) IPSV against 555 physically abused, help-seeking Latinas and (2) relationship of nativity to recent IPSV. This study used data collected in 2002–2003 from participants in one major city on the East Coast and one West Coast county, who were involved in the Risk Assessment Validation (RAVE) Study. The RAVE Study assessed the accuracy of four different methods for predicting risk of future intimate partner violence. IPSV was defined as an abusive male partner physically forcing sex (rape) or making the woman have sex without a condom. Recent IPSV was reported by 38 % of the sample. Among those reporting recent IPSV, multiple assaults were common: 30%of women were raped and 51%were made to have unprotected sex six or more times during the past 6 months. IPSV was significantly associated with nativity. Physically abused Latinas who were foreign born had two times greater odds of reporting recent IPSV than physically abused Latinas born in the USA, after controlling for other demographic covariates. Exploratory post hoc analyses examining all pairwise comparisons of IPSV against Latinas born in the USA, Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean also revealed some significant differences that warrant further study with larger samples. HIV prevention efforts aimed at reducing IPSV in this population are needed. PMID:23959640
Taket, Ann; O'Doherty, Lorna; Valpied, Jodie; Hegarty, Kelsey
We analyzed the views of a diverse sample of women (N = 254) living in the state of Victoria, Australia, who were experiencing fear of an intimate partner. We explored the women's views about their interactions with their family and friends to examine what women who have experienced fear of a partner or ex-partner want from their family and friends. The themes identified provide potentially useful guidance for what might be helpful and unhelpful communication strategies and behaviors for families and friends. Women experiencing intimate partner abuse find informal support invaluable, provided it is delivered in a helpful fashion. Helpful support is affirming, encouraging, validating, and understanding, and delivered with positive regard, empathy, and respect. Social contact and interaction are particularly appreciated, as is instrumental support such as financial help, housing, and child care. Women value both support that is directly related to abuse and support related to other areas of life. PMID:24925714
Roberts, Andrea L; Lyall, Kristen; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Ascherio, Alberto; Weisskopf, Marc G
We sought to determine whether maternal (a) physical harm from intimate partner abuse during pregnancy or (b) sexual, emotional, or physical abuse before birth increased risk of autism spectrum disorder. We calculated risk ratios for autism spectrum disorder associated with abuse in a population-based cohort of women and their children (54,512 controls, 451 cases). Physical harm from abuse during pregnancy was not associated with autism spectrum disorder. However, autism spectrum disorder risk was increased in children of women who reported fear of partner or sexual, emotional, or physical abuse in the 2 years before the birth year (abuse in the year before the birth year: risk ratio = 1.58, 95% confidence interval = 1.04, 2.40; abuse in both of the 2 years before the birth year: risk ratio = 2.16, 95% confidence interval = 1.33, 3.50). Within-family results were similar, although did not reach statistical significance. Association of intimate partner abuse before the child's birth year with autism spectrum disorder in the child was not accounted for by gestation length, birth weight, maternal smoking or alcohol consumption during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, or history of induced abortion. PMID:25662292
Horrocks, Julie; Kamano, Saori
Objectives. As part of the World Health Organization's cross-national research effort, we investigated the relationship between various health indicators and the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), which included emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, among women in Yokohama, Japan. Methods. We used multivariate logistic and negative binomial regression to examine the relationship between health status and IPV in a stratified cluster sample of 1371 women aged 18 to 49 years. Results. In 9 of 11 health indicators examined, the odds of experiencing health-related problems were significantly higher (P < .05) among those that reported emotional abuse plus physical or sexual violence than among those that reported no IPV, after we controlled for sociodemographic factors, childhood sexual abuse, and adulthood sexual violence perpetrated by someone other than an intimate partner. For most health indicators, there were no significant differences between those that reported emotional abuse only and those that reported emotional abuse plus physical or sexual violence. Conclusions. The similarity of outcomes among those that reported emotional abuse only and those that reported emotional abuse plus physical or sexual violence suggests the need for increased training of health care providers about the effects of emotional abuse. PMID:18703455
Brown, Jackie; Burnette, Mandi L; Cerulli, Catherine
Intimate partner violence (IPV), childhood abuse, and sexual assault in adulthood are profound public health concerns, particularly for women. Exposure to trauma can contribute to long-standing health problems and escalated medical costs. Unfortunately, these experiences are often intertwined. Sexual assault often occurs in intimate relationships in which there is concurrent IPV; likewise, many victims of IPV have experienced childhood abuse. The prevalent intersections of these struggles can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. This article examines the contributions of childhood abuse histories and sexual assault to PTSD symptoms among women experiencing IPV. Findings suggest childhood abuse experiences account for more variance in PTSD symptoms than adult sexual assault. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25324230
Dobash, R Emerson; Dobash, Russell P; Cavanagh, Kate; Medina-Ariza, Juanjo
Men's lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate female partner are compared. Various risk factors are examined to compare men's lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate woman partner. Relative to abusers, men who kill are generally more conventional with respect to childhood backgrounds, education, employment, and criminal careers, are more likely to be possessive and jealous, and are more likely to be separated from their partner at the time of the event. Men who kill are more likely to have used violence against a previous partner, to have sexually assaulted and strangled the victim, and to have used a weapon or instrument. However, they were less likely to have been drunk at the time of the event and/or to have previously used violence against the woman they killed. Overall, the findings do not support the notion of a simple progression from nonlethal to lethal violence and raise some dilemmas for the growing area of risk assessment. PMID:17420514
Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Vasquez, Elias P.; Urrutia, Maria T.; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Peragallo, Nilda
Hispanic females are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Despite these disparities, research describing the cultural and gender-specific experiences of Hispanic women with regard to these conditions is lacking. The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences that Hispanic community-dwelling women have with regard to substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors. Eight focus groups with 81 women were conducted. A bilingual, bicultural moderator asked women open-ended questions regarding the experiences that Hispanic women have with these conditions. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, verified, and then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Participants discussed substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors interchangeably, often identifying common risk factors associated with these. Nevertheless, intimate partner violence was the most salient of conditions discussed. Three major themes emerged from the analysis: Transplantadas en otro mundo (Uprooted in another world), El criador de abuso (The breeding ground of abuse), and Rompiendo el silencio (Breaking the silence). This study supports the importance of addressing substance abuse, violence, and risk for HIV in an integrated manner and stresses the importance of addressing associated cultural factors (e.g., acculturation, machismo) in interventions targeting Hispanics. PMID:21191036
Hines, Denise A.; Douglas, Emily M.
Extensive work has documented an association between sustaining intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol/drug abuse among women, yet little research has documented the same association in men, even though men comprise 25%–50% of all IPV victims in a given year. The present study investigates the associations among sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse among both a clinical and community sample of men. The clinical sample is comprised of 302 men who sustained intimate terrorism -- a form of IPV that is characterized by much violence and controlling behavior -- from their female partners and sought help. The community sample is comprised of 520 men, 16% of whom sustained common couple violence, a lower level of more minor, reciprocal IPV. Analyses showed that among both groups of men who sustained IPV, the prevalence and frequency of alcohol/drug abuse was significantly higher than in men who did not sustain IPV. However, a dose-response relationship between sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse was found only among men in the community sample. Path modeling showed that for the community sample, the best fitting models were ones that showed that the alcohol/drug abuse predicted IPV victimization, an association that was fully mediated by their use of IPV. PMID:22028251
Hines, Denise A; Douglas, Emily M
Extensive work has documented an association between sustaining intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol/drug abuse among women, yet little research has documented the same association in men, even though men comprise 25-50% of all IPV victims in a given year. This study investigates the associations among sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse among both a clinical and community sample of men. The clinical sample is comprised of 302 men who sustained intimate terrorism-a form of IPV that is characterized by much violence and controlling behavior-from their female partners and sought help. The community sample is composed of 520 men, 16% of whom sustained common couple violence, a lower level of more minor reciprocal IPV. Analyses showed that among both groups of men who sustained IPV, the prevalence and frequency of alcohol/drug abuse was significantly higher than in men who did not sustain IPV. However, a dose-response relationship between sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse was found only among men in the community sample. Path modeling showed that, for the community sample, the best fitting models were ones that showed that the alcohol/drug abuse predicted IPV victimization, an association that was fully mediated by their use of IPV. PMID:22028251
Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally; Dutton, Mary Ann
This paper describes the extent to which abused and neglected children report intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration when followed up into middle adulthood. Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children (ages 0–11) with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n = 497) were matched with children without such histories (n = 395) and assessed in adulthood (Mage = 39.5). Prevalence, number, and variety of four types of IPV (psychological abuse, physical violence, sexual violence, and injury) were measured. Over 80% of both groups–childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and controls–reported some form of IPV victimization during the past year (most commonly psychological abuse) and about 75% of both groups reported perpetration of IPV toward their partner. Controlling for age, sex, and race, overall CAN [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.60, 95% CI [1.03, 2.49], physical abuse (AOR = 2.52, 95% CI [1.17, 5.40]), and neglect (AOR = 1.64, 95% CI [1.04, 2.59]) predicted increased risk for being victimized by a partner via physical injury. CAN and neglect also predicted being victimized by a greater number and variety of IPV acts. CAN and control groups did not differ in reports of perpetration of IPV, although neglect predicted greater likelihood of perpetrating physical injury to a partner, compared to controls. Abused/neglected females were more likely to report being injured by their partner, whereas maltreated males did not. This study found that child maltreatment increases risk for the most serious form of IPV involving physical injury. Increased attention should be paid to IPV (victimization and perpetration) in individuals with histories of neglect. PMID:24325940
Freeman, Andrew J; Schumacher, Julie A; Coffey, Scott F
Estimates indicate that intimate partner violence (IPV) occurs in approximately 30% of relationships and up to 85% of the relationships of men in substance abuse treatment. However, partners consistently display poor agreement in reporting the presence of IPV. Social desirability is frequently offered as the primary reason for under-reporting of IPV by perpetrators. The goal of the current study was to explicitly test the social desirability hypothesis using both partners' reports of negotiation, psychological aggression, physical aggression, sexual aggression, and injuries in a substance abuse treatment sample. A total of 54 males and their female partners were recruited from a residential adult substance use treatment facility. Consistent with prior literature, partners displayed poor agreement about the presence of different types of IPV. The male partner's social desirability was not associated with his reporting of male-to-female physical aggression, psychological aggression, or injuries. Men who engaged in higher levels of self-deceptive enhancement and lower levels of impression management were more likely to under-report male-to-female sexual coercion. Overall, the findings question the generalized importance of social desirability in IPV reporting in substance abuse treatment populations. PMID:24923888
Fleming, Kimberly N; Newton, Tamara L; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Miller, James J; Ellison Burns, Vicki
This study aimed to further understanding of intimate partner stalking victimization in post-abuse women, with particular attention to the definition of stalking (with or without fear and threat) most predictive of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. In community midlife women with histories of divorce (N = 192), a history of stalking victimization accompanied by fear and threat was positively correlated with PTS symptom severity, after accounting for other partner abuse. The presence, compared with absence, of fear-and-threat stalking history doubled the odds of symptomatic levels of hyperarousal. Greater physical assault and injury chronicity differentiated fear-and-threat stalked women from other stalked women. Stalking contributed to a fuller understanding of PTS symptoms in women, showing particular relevance for hyperarousal. PMID:23419275
Rothman, Emily F; Corso, Phaedra S
It has been demonstrated that intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is costly to employers, but little is known about the economic consequences associated with employing perpetrators. This study investigated propensity for partner abuse as a predictor of missed work time and on-the-job decreases in productivity among a small sample of male employees at a state agency (N=61). Results suggest that greater propensity for abusiveness is positively associated with missing work and experiencing worse productivity on the job, controlling for level of education, income, marital status, age, and part-time versus full-time employment status. Additional research could clarify whether IPV perpetration is a predictor of decreased productivity among larger samples and a wider variety of workplace settings. Employers and IPV advocates should consider responding to potential IPV perpetrators through the workplace in addition to developing victim-oriented policies and prevention initiatives. PMID:18703774
Babcock, Rebecca L; DePrince, Anne P
Child abuse perpetrated by a close other, such as a parent, is linked to a wide range of detrimental effects, including an increased risk of self-blame. The current study evaluated whether experiences of childhood betrayal trauma were linked to self-blame following victimization in adulthood. A diverse sample of women (n = 230) from an urban city were recruited based on having experienced an incident of intimate partner abuse (IPA) reported to the local police. Women reported on their trauma histories and levels of self-blame for the target IPA incident. Results showed that a history of childhood betrayal trauma exposure predicted the degree of self-blame for the IPA incident. Women who experienced severe IPA during the target incident also indicated higher levels of self-blame. Findings from this study suggest that it may be important to target self-blame appraisals in interventions with adults exposed to abuse in childhood. PMID:22989241
Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David
The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators. PMID:25012954
el-Bassel, N; Fontdevila, J; Gilbert, L; Voisin, D; Richman, B L; Pitchell, P
Accumulating findings suggest a relationship between partner violence and HIV risk among women, however, this issue has yet to be adequately researched among men. This study examines the relationship between perpetrating intimate partner violence and HIV risk behavior among a sample of men in methadone maintenance treatment programs (MMTPs). Data were collected on 273 sexually active men, who were recruited from four inner-city MMTP clinics. More than a third of the sample reported perpetrating intimate physical abuse and 15% reported severe physical abuse in the past 12 months. Results from multiple logistic regression analyses indicate that after adjusting for demographic, poverty, and drug-use factors, men who abused an intimate partner were almost 4 times more likely to have more than one intimate partner, almost 3 times more likely to have unprotected anal sex, and 2.6 times more likely to have sex with a drug-injecting sexual partner than their counterparts. This study showed that men who perpetrated partner violence were at higher risk for HIV transmission. HIV prevention interventions need to consider the complex relationship between partner violence and HIV risk. PMID:11547622
Swogger, Marc T.; Walsh, Zach; Kosson, David S.; Cashman-Brown, Sarah; Caine, Eric D.
Whereas considerable evidence links childhood physical abuse with later perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV), research to identify moderators of this relationship will increase our understanding of which victims of childhood abuse are at risk for later IPV. The present study examined dimensions of psychopathy as moderators of the relationship between physical abuse in childhood and perpetration of IPV in a sample of criminal offenders. Results indicated that, among individuals with higher levels of impulsive-irresponsible (i.e., Lifestyle) traits of psychopathy, childhood physical abuse was associated with later perpetration of IPV. Findings have implications for the propensity toward IPV perpetration among individuals who have experienced childhood physical abuse. PMID:22984318
Hebenstreit, Claire L; DePrince, Anne P
We examine motivations for, and costs/benefits of, participation in three interviews across a one-year period among women recently exposed to intimate partner abuse (IPA). Recruited from publicly accessible police reports, women were not informed that the study focused on IPA in recruiting materials or when they scheduled the first interview. Women's ratings on the Response to Research Participation Questionnaire (RRPQ) indicated a positive benefit-to-cost ratio across all three interviews. Negative responses to participation as well as severity of IPA and PTSD symptoms did not predict retention at the next interview. These data demonstrate that studies asking about IPA experiences, even when survivors do not know in advance that IPA will be the focus of study, can be implemented within a stable benefit-to-cost ratio over time. PMID:22565584
Musick-Neily, Erin Francess; McBride, Dawn Lorraine
This paper examines and provides a rationale for incorporating past victimization into group treatment for men who have been abusive to their female intimate partners. It begins with providing a general overview of the issue of family violence in Canada and in the U.S including statistics and an overview of group treatment effectiveness overall.…
DePrince, Anne P.; Labus, Jennifer; Belknap, Joanne; Buckingham, Susan; Gover, Angela
Objective: Using a longitudinal, randomized controlled trial, this study assessed the impact of a community-based outreach versus a more traditional criminal justice system-based referral program on women's distress and safety following police-reported intimate partner abuse (IPA). Method: Women (N = 236 women) with police-reported IPA were…
Basow, Susan A.; Thompson, Janelle
In this online vignette study, a national sample of domestic violence shelter service providers (N = 282) completed a 10-item questionnaire about a woman experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Scenarios varied in terms of couple sexual orientation (heterosexual or lesbian) and type of abuse (physical or nonphysical). Results indicate that…
Miranda, Jenniffer K.; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes
Objectives: The current study examined the independent effects of mothers' childhood abuse (CA) and intimate partner violence (IPV) on psychopathology and functional impairment in children; and the potential moderating and mediating role of individual and family factors in these relationships. Additionally, this study explored the potential…
Semaan, Ingrid; Jasinski, Jana L; Bubriski-McKenzie, Anne
Drawing on in-depth interviews with mothers who were abused by intimate partners, we argue that mothering can be a source of empowerment that helps battered women both care for their children and survive and assert themselves. Women in the study sample described a violation of some aspect of their mothering as the reason they left their partners. However, narrative analysis exposed contradictions in participants' stories, revealing multiple factors that shaped their decisions to leave. Although motherhood was significant for the women who participated in the study, it was not their only motivation for ending their relationships with abusive partners. PMID:23363656
Emery, Clifton R; Thapa, Sirjana; Do, Mi Hyang; Chan, Ko Ling
Drawing on previous research on intimate partner violence, child maltreatment, and informal social control, we hypothesized relationships between child abuse severity and (1) protective informal social control of intimate partner violence (ISC_IPV) by neighbors, (2) intimate terrorism, (3) family order, and (4) the power of mothers in intimate relationships. In what we believe may be a first study of physical child abuse by parents in Nepal, we used a three stage cluster approach to draw a random sample of 300 families in Kathmandu. Random effects regression models were used to test the study hypotheses. The analyses found support for hypotheses one and two, but with an important caveat. Although observed (actual) protective ISC_IPV had the hypothesized negative association with child abuse severity, in one of our models perceived protective ISC_IPV was positively associated with child abuse severity. The models clarify that the overall direction of protective ISC_IPV appears to be negative (protective), but the positive finding is important to consider for both research and practice. A significant relationship between family order and child abuse severity was found, but the direction was negative rather than positive as in hypothesis three. Implications for neighborhood research and typological research on IPV and child maltreatment are discussed. PMID:25455214
Babcock, Rebecca L; Deprince, Anne P
Identifying the factors that contribute to ongoing intimate partner abuse (IPA) among survivors of childhood abuse is essential to developing appropriate interventions. The current study assessed prospectively whether childhood betrayal trauma (BT) history and women's potential dependence on their perpetrators (unemployment, number of children below 13) increased women's risk of ongoing victimization, while controlling for trauma-related symptoms (PTSD, depression, dissociation). Women survivors of IPA (N = 190) from an urban U.S. city were recruited based on an IPA incident reported to the police. At the initial interview, women reported on childhood betrayal trauma experiences, their employment status, number of children, and current trauma-related symptoms. Women returned 6 months later and reported on ongoing events of victimization (physical, sexual, psychological aggression, and injury) in their relationships with the initial IPA perpetrator. Results showed that higher levels of childhood BT were associated with ongoing victimization over the course of 6 months. Women's unemployment status predicted greater physical and sexual aggression and injuries. Higher levels of depression and lower levels of PTSD symptoms were also associated with increases in physical, sexual, and psychological aggression, and bodily injury. The findings have important implications for interventions by demonstrating the need to process women's betrayal trauma experiences, target depression symptoms, and increase women's economic opportunities to prevent further victimization. PMID:23266993
Data obtained from a national study of male victims or survivors of intimate partner abuse (IPA) indicate that the experience (current or past) of abuse and with service use may predict a positive perception toward help seeking. However, marital status and a tendency to minimize problems may predict negative attitudes toward help seeking. Empirical evidence from this mixed-method study suggests that male victims face many interpersonal and societal obstacles. Feeling uncomfortable when requesting assistance, men in IPA situations are affected by a masking factor that causes them to hide their situation and contributes to a misconception factor that causes people to treat men as the sole perpetrator. Although men are eligible, services may not be perceived as being available or helpful. The study yields important implications for social work practice, and the findings result in several recommendations for increased awareness about IPA, advocacy for gender-inclusive services, revision of laws and policies, increased research, and emphasis on funded and anonymous services. PMID:24855861
Neill, Karen S; Peterson, Teri
This prospective, descriptive, correlational study examined perceived risk, severity of abuse, expectations, and needs of women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) with arrest of the offender occurring at the time of incident. This study builds on previous research completed on fear and expectations of female victims/survivors of IPV that come to the attention of police, to expand knowledge of women's experiences once they enter the criminal justice system and to create a comprehensive response to this recognized public health problem (). Forty-three women were interviewed regarding the incident, relationship, and experience. Most of the women in this study reported experiencing mild violence and varied forms of threats. There was a significant relationship between the experience of mild violence, serious violence, sexual violence, threats to victims, threats to objects, and others and nonverbal threats with fear of the offender. However, there were no significant correlations between levels of violence or threats with perceived risk of future physical abuse. As the criminal justice response to this crime has changed with the development of legislation and laws aimed at keeping women safe and holding offenders accountable, further research is needed to understand the experience of IPV victims and support an informed response. Forensic nurses are critical interdisciplinary team members in these efforts and play a significant role in providing expertise, sharing of knowledge, and application of evidence fostering victim-centered approaches to addressing IPV. PMID:24553393
Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer
This study examined the relations among involvement in intimate partner psychological abuse, alcohol-related problems, and suicide proneness as measured by the Life Attitudes Schedule – Short Form (LAS-SF) in college women (N = 709). Results revealed that, as expected, being involved in a psychologically abusive relationship was significantly and positively correlated with alcohol-related problems and alcohol-related problems were significantly and positively correlated with suicide proneness. Additionally, the intimate partner psychological abuse involvement-suicide proneness link was significantly mediated by alcohol-related problems. Implications are offered for the improved identification and treatment of young women at risk for suicidal and health-diminishing behaviors. PMID:20544000
Iskandar, Livia; Braun, Kathryn L.; Katz, Alan R.
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. IPV prevalence in Indonesia has been estimated to be less than 1%, based on reported cases. It is likely that IPV prevalence is underreported in Indonesia, as it is in many other countries. Screening for IPV has been found to increase IPV identification, but no screening tools are in use in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to test the translated Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) for detecting IPV in Indonesia. The WAST was tested against a diagnostic interview by a trained psychologist on 240 women attending two Primary Health Centers in Jakarta. IPV prevalence and the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the WAST were estimated. Prevalence of IPV by diagnostic interview was 36.3%, much higher than published estimates. The most common forms of IPV identified were psychological (85%) and physical abuse (24%). Internal reliability of the WAST was high (α = .801). A WAST score of 13 (out of 24) is the recommended cutoff for identifying IPV, but only 17% of the Indonesian sample scored 13 or higher. Test sensitivity of the WAST with a cutoff score of 13 was only 41.9%, with a specificity of 96.8%. With a cutoff score of 10, the sensitivity improved to 84.9%, while the specificity decreased to 61.0%. Use of the WAST with a cutoff score of 10 provides good sensitivity and reasonable specificity and would provide a much-needed screening tool for use in Indonesia. Although a lower cutoff would yield a greater proportion of false positives, most of the true cases would be identified, increasing the possibility that women experiencing abuse would receive needed assistance. PMID:25012952
Research on domestic violence has established a substantial association between intimate partner abuse and the abuse of children within the home. It is only recently however, that researchers have demonstrated the correlation between non-accidental injury in animals, and abuse of women by their intimate male partners. A growing body of evidence suggests that animal abuse can be an early indicator for other forms of violent behaviour. This research includes the responses of a sample of 23 women using refuge services in the Republic of Ireland. It investigates the connection between domestic violence and animal abuse, and ascertains if there is sufficient support service for animals and people relevant to domestic abuse. In the survey population, 57% of women reported witnessing one or more forms of abuse, or threats of abuse, of their pets. Five of which were reported to have resulted in the death of the pet. Eighty seven per cent of women felt a facility to accommodate pets would have made their decision to leave the family home easier. Four women disclosed that lack of such a service and concern for the welfare of their companion animals caused them to remain in their abusive relationships for longer than they felt appropriate. Nine families placed pets in the care of family or friends, one woman is unaware of the fate of her pet, while the pets of six families remained with the abusive male after his partner entered a refuge. The majority of women felt unable to talk to anyone about their fears for their pets' welfare. Many felt that there is no service which can provide temporary accommodation for womens' pets while they are in refuge. The results obtained support those found elsewhere in larger studies in the USA and UK, and demonstrate an association of animal abuse in households where there is reported domestic violence. PMID:21851702
Stein, Michelle L.; Miller, Audrey K.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) constitutes the majority of assaults against women in the United States, and greater than one third of female homicide victims are murdered by an intimate partner. In a small percentage of cases, battered women kill their abusers, and evidence of battering and its effects may be used to support a plea of…
Miranda, Jenniffer K; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes
The aim of the study was to examine whether maternal depression, mothers' and fathers' parenting, child physical punishment and negative life events (NLE) mediate the effect of maternal childhood abuse (CA), intimate partner violence (IPV) and cumulative violence (both CA and IPV) on Spanish children's and adolescents' psychopathology. Furthermore, multiple mediator models examine whether IPV mediates the effect of CA on the contextual and family factors mentioned above. Three hundred and eighteen Spanish outpatients aged 7 to 18 and their parents were assessed using a structured interview and other instruments for measuring the study variables. Structural equation models (SEMs) showed multiple pathways explaining psychopathological problems among offspring of mothers who suffered CA, IPV and both of these violent experiences. In particular, mothers' depression mediated the link between maternal CA, IPV, cumulative violence and children's externalizing, and total behavior problems. Child NLE was an important pathway between maternal CA and total behavior problems, as well as between cumulative violence and both externalizing and total problems. IPV contributed to explaining the link between maternal CA and contextual and family factors, such as child physical punishment and NLE, which were in turn, associated with children's behavior problems. Findings show the complex interconnections between different types of violence and their harmful effects on the mental health of women and their offspring, as well as the need to extend our knowledge on this subject. PMID:23686620
Barrios, Yasmin V.; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiuyue; Nicolaidis, Christina; Rondon, Marta B.; Garcia, Pedro J.; Sanchez, Pedro A. Mascaro; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Williams, Michelle A.
Objective We examined associations of childhood physical and sexual abuse with risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). We also evaluated the extent to which childhood abuse was associated with self-reported general health status and symptoms of antepartum depression in a cohort of pregnant Peruvian women. Methods In-person interviews were conducted to collect information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 1,521 women during early pregnancy. Antepartum depressive symptomatology was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results Any childhood abuse was associated with 2.2-fold increased odds of lifetime IPV (95%CI: 1.72–2.83). Compared with women who reported no childhood abuse, those who reported both, childhood physical and sexual abuse had a 7.14-fold lifetime risk of physical and sexual IPV (95%CI: 4.15–12.26). The odds of experiencing physical and sexual abuse by an intimate partner in the past year was 3.33-fold higher among women with a history of childhood physical and sexual abuse as compared to women who were not abused as children (95%CI 1.60–6.89). Childhood abuse was associated with higher odds of self-reported poor health status during early pregnancy (aOR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.04–1.68) and with symptoms of antepartum depression (aOR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.58–2.71). Conclusion These data indicate that childhood sexual and physical abuse is associated with IPV, poor general health and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy. The high prevalence of childhood trauma and its enduring effects of on women’s health warrant concerted global health efforts in preventing violence. PMID:25635902
Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Aderonmu, Adedibu L; Fawole, Adeniran O
Wife beating is one of the most common forms of violence against women by husbands or other intimate male partners. Although violence against women is pervasive, there are only few studies documenting the magnitude of the problem especially among the working class. The civil service comprises of persons from all socio-economic levels and different backgrounds. They act in advisory capacity and assist those responsible for making state policy Thus, 431 civil servants of the Oyo State government service were interviewed using a 44-item self-administered questionnaire. Results revealed that prevalence of wife beating was 31.3%. Ninety one (42.5%) men had been perpetrators, while 44 (23.5%) women had been victims. Consuming alcohol and growing up in an environment where parents fight publicly were significantly associated (p < 0.05) with men beating their wives; while being young, unmarried and a parental background of fighting was significantly associated with women being beaten (p < 0.05). Female respondents justified reasons for various types of domestic violence, including beating, more than the males (p < 0.05). Younger respondents had significantly worse attitudes (p < 0.05), while married and educated respondents had better attitude (p < 0.05). "Not wanting the children to suffer" (60.7%) and "hoping that partner will change" (28.8%) were reasons given for remaining in abusive relationships. There is an urgent need for education of the women on their rights, sensitisation of the men on gender-based violence and punishment for perpetrators. Supportive care and counselling services should also be provided for victims of violence. PMID:16485586
Draughon, Jessica E; Lucea, Marguerite B; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Paterno, Mary T; Bertrand, Desiree R; Sharps, Phyllis W; Campbell, Doris W; Stockman, Jamila K
We examined associations between intimate partner forced sex (IPFS) and HIV sexual risk behaviors among physically abused Black women. Women aged 18-55 in intimate relationships were interviewed in health clinics in Baltimore, MD and St. Thomas and St. Croix, US Virgin Islands (USVI). Of 426 physically abused women, 38% experienced IPFS; (Baltimore = 44 and USVI = 116). USVI women experiencing IPFS were more likely to have 3+ past-year sex partners (AOR 2.06, 95% CI 1.03-4.14), casual sex partners (AOR 2.71, 95% CI 1.42-5.17), and concurrent sex partners (AOR 1.94, 95% CI 1.01-3.73) compared to their counterparts. Baltimore women reporting IPFS were more likely to have exchanged sex (AOR 3.57, 95% CI 1.19-10.75). Women experiencing IPFS were more likely to report their abuser having other sexual partners in Baltimore (AOR 3.30, 95% CI 1.22-8.88) and USVI (AOR 2.03, 95% CI 1.20-3.44). Clinicians should consider the influence of IPFS on individual and partnership HIV sexual risk behaviors. PMID:25248623
Bidarra, Zelimar S; Lessard, Geneviève; Dumont, Annie
This article proposes a review of the scientific literature on the cooccurrence of intimate partner violence and intrafamilial child sexual abuse. The review of these two types of violence has evolved in distinct research fields and their cooccurrence has rarely been examined. The objective of this article is to examine the existing knowledge about this cooccurrence. A systematic examination of the scientific literature in several relevant databases was conducted using combinations of 20 keywords so as to identify scientific articles, published between 2003 and 2013, that investigated this cooccurrence. The final sample comprised 10 studies. These studies revealed the presence of much heterogeneity regarding the prevalence of the cooccurrence for intimate partner violence with sexual abuse and other maltreatment (from 12% to 70%). The review also highlighted a greater risk for children to be victims of sexual abuse or other maltreatment when exposed to intimate partner violence. The implications of these results and the ensuing recommendations for practice and future research are considered in the discussion section. PMID:27060785
Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M
Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women. PMID:12044219
This study explored the growth experiences of women abused by their intimate partner, specifically focusing on the associations between social services and empowerment, perceived changes of self, and life satisfaction. The potential effects of demographic variables, social support, coping, and experience of partner abuse were also explored. A…
Kernic, Mary A.; Wolf, Marsha E.; Holt, Victoria L.; McKnight, Barbara; Huebner, Colleen E.; Rivara, Frederick P.
Objectives: To determine the association between children's exposure to maternal intimate partner violence (IPV) and behavior problems as measured by the parent report version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Methods: The study population was comprised of 167 2- to 17-year-old children of Seattle women with police-reported or court-reported…
Boeckel, Mariana G; Blasco-Ros, Concepción; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martínez, Manuela
Intimate male partner violence against women has been recognized as an important public health problem, with a high impact on women's mental health, including depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, fathers who have been involved in intimate partner violence (IPV) have an increased probability of being violent toward their children. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between the mental health status of abused women, their partner's violence toward the children, and their maternal behavior. PMID:24323691
Basile, Kathleen C.; Hall, Jeffrey E.
This study assessed the construct validity of two different measurement models of male partners' perpetration of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological abuse, and stalking against intimate partners. Data were obtained from a sample of 340 men arrested for physical assault of a female spouse or partner and court ordered into batterer…
Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé
Background Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies. Objective Using Burundi as an example, we aimed to explore the associations between childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence, perceived partner intimidation, gender and the probability of violently acting out against one's own children or romantic partner. Methods Amongst a sample of 141 men and 141 women in the capital of Burundi, we identified those who had biological children and those who lived or had lived in relationships. Using culturally appropriate instruments, we enquired about their exposure to childhood maltreatment and partner violence as well as their inclinations to act out violently. Results We found that childhood maltreatment and perceived partner intimidation were strong predictors for the perpetration of violence against children. Moreover, we found that women were more likely to use violence against children if they experienced partner violence and less likely to resort to violence if they felt intimidated. Men were more likely to perpetrate violence against their partner. Childhood maltreatment was again a strong predictor. The more women experienced partner violence, the more they fought back. Conclusions Childhood maltreatment is a strong predictor for domestic violence and has to be addressed to interrupt the cycle of violence in post-conflict countries. PMID:26679146
Bryant, Susan G; Benson, Kim H
Learning experiences about domestic violence may not be readily available to nursing students at their traditional clinical sites. Faculty at an associate degree nursing program developed and implemented elder abuse and intimate partner violence simulation scenarios for a Health Systems Concepts course. Learning objectives focused on assessment, safety, communication, education, and legal responsibilities for nurses. After the simulation, students participated in debriefing, completed student evaluations, and responded to three questions about the experience in their reflective journals. Faculty and students expressed satisfaction with this method of learning about domestic violence. PMID:26753306
Beck, Connie J A; Walsh, Michele E; Mechanic, Mindy B; Taylor, Caitilin S
The contentious and costly nature of the adversarial process for resolving child custody disputes has prompted scholars, practitioners, and policy makers to advocate for the development and implementation of less divisive forms of dispute resolution, notably, mediation. Mediation has been championed for its potential to resolve disputes with less acrimony among disputants, reduced economic costs, increased satisfaction with outcomes, and fewer adverse consequences for family members. Despite the increasing popularity, arguments have cautioned against the use of mandated mediation when intimate partner abuse (IPA) is alleged. This research documents a mediation screening process and models mediators' decision-making process as instantiated, naturally, in one jurisdiction. PMID:19412662
Gomez, Anu Manchikanti
Child abuse is an important determinant of future violence perpetration and victimization. Past research examining linkages between child abuse and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) has predominantly focused on married individuals and not considered adolescent dating violence. In the present study, data from three waves of the National…
Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O’Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with greater vulnerability to HIV infection among women. We examined prevalence and correlates of IPV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two large Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Participants were 300 FSWs with a current spouse or a steady partner. Participants’ mean age was 33 years, and mean number of years as a sex worker was 6 years. The prevalence of IPV in the past 6 months among participants was 35%. Using multivariate logistic regression, factors independently associated with IPV included having experienced abuse as a child, a partner who had sex with someone else, and lower sexual relationship power. Our findings suggest the need for previous abuse screening and violence prevention services for FSWs in the Mexico-U.S. border region. Careful consideration of relationship dynamics such as infidelity and relationship power is warranted when assessing for IPV risk. PMID:21532933
Pibernat, Artur Dalfó
IT IS with great interest that I read the article 'Identifying signs of intimate partner violence' (Art & science) by Ali et al in February's issue of Emergency Nurse. The issue has been widely recognised as one which needs promoting among adolescents in schools and in nurse education. PMID:27165383
Jennings, Wesley G; Richards, Tara N; Tomsich, Elizabeth; Gover, Angela R
The link between child sexual abuse and adult intimate partner violence surfaces throughout prior research. Nonetheless, methodologies investigating this cycle of violence predominantly involve descriptive, correlational, or traditional regression-based analyses that preclude more definitive statements about the empirical relationship between child sexual abuse and adult partner violence. In recognition of these limitations, the current study presents a quasi-experimental investigation into the relationship between sexual abuse in childhood and physical partner violence victimization and/or perpetration in young adulthood. Propensity score matching analysis of a national data set sampling over 4,000 young adults suggests that experiencing child sexual abuse influences adult intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration. Study implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:26340073
Flicker, Sharon M; Cerulli, Catherine; Zhao, Xi; Tang, Wan; Watts, Arthur; Xia, Yinglin; Talbot, Nancy L
This study uses National Violence against Women Survey data to investigate the differential impact of concomitant forms of violence (sexual abuse, stalking, and psychological abuse) and ethnicity on help-seeking behaviors of women physically abused by an intimate partner (n = 1,756). Controlling for severity of the physical abuse, women who experienced concomitant sexual abuse are less likely to seek help, women who experienced concomitant stalking are more likely to seek help, whereas concomitant psychological abuse is not associated with help seeking. Ethnic differences are found in help seeking from friends, mental health professionals, police, and orders of protection. Implications for service outreach are discussed. PMID:21821618
Machisa, Mercilene T.; Christofides, Nicola; Jewkes, Rachel
Background Violent trauma exposures, including child abuse, are risk factors for PTSD and comorbid mental health disorders. Child abuse experiences of men exacerbate adult male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV). The relationship between child abuse, poor mental health and IPV perpetration is complex but research among the general population is lacking. This study describes the relationship and pathways between history of child abuse exposure and male-perpetrated IPV while exploring the potentially mediating effect of poor mental health. Methods We analysed data from a randomly selected, two-stage clustered, cross-sectional household survey conducted with 416 adult men in Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used multinomial regression modelling to identify associated factors and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to test the primary hypothesis that poor mental health (defined as abusing alcohol or having PTSD or depressive symptoms) mediates the relationship between child abuse and IPV perpetration. Results Eighty eight percent of men were physically abused, 55% were neglected, 63% were emotionally abused and 20% were sexually abused at least once in their childhood. Twenty four percent of men had PTSD symptoms, 24% had depressive symptoms and 36% binge drank. Fifty six percent of men physically abused and 31% sexually abused partners at least once in their lifetime. Twenty two percent of men had one episode and 40% had repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. PTSD symptomatology risk increased with severity of child trauma and other trauma. PTSD severity increased the risk for binge drinking. Child trauma, other trauma and PTSD symptomatology increased the severity of depressive symptoms. PTSD symptomatology was comorbid with alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms. Child trauma, having worked in the year before the survey, other trauma and PTSD increased the risk of repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. Highly equitable gender attitudes were protective
Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Moya-Albiol, Luis
The imbalance between testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) levels has been proposed as a possible marker of risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). Moreover, it could be related to a high probability of adopting risky behaviors such as alcohol abuse which, in turn, promotes the onset of IPV. This study tested the potential mediating effect of alcohol consumption on the relationship between baseline T/C ratio and anger expression in IPV perpetrators and non-violent controls. Alcohol consumption was higher in the former than controls. A high baseline T/C ratio was only associated with high anger expression in IPV perpetrators, and this association was mediated by high alcohol consumption. Thus, alcohol abuse may act as a catalytic factor in this relationship, high consumption promoting the onset of IPV. These findings contribute to the development of effective treatment and prevention programs, which could introduce the use of biological markers for preventing the onset, development and recidivism of IPV. PMID:25803635
Annan, Sandra L
The purpose of this chapter is to review nursing and other research related to rural intimate partner violence. The author presents a review of research in the area of intimate partner violence in the rural setting. The findings indicate that there is limited nursing research related to intimate partner violence in rural communities. The review describes the prevalence and types of abuse, the rural service issues, and the consequences of battering. The chapter also discusses the health implications of violence in the rural setting. The author concludes with a presentation of a research agenda for nursing research in rural environments. PMID:18709747
Deshpande, Neha A; Lewis-O’Connor, Annie
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as an actual or threatened abuse by an intimate partner that may be physical, sexual, psychological, or emotional in nature. Each year approximately 1.5 million women in the United States report some form of sexual or physical assault by an intimate partner; it is estimated that approximately 324,000 women are pregnant when violence occurs. Pregnancy may present a unique opportunity to identify and screen for patients experiencing IPV. This article provides health care practitioners and clinicians with the most current valid assessment and screening tools for evaluating pregnant women for IPV. PMID:24920977
Iverson, Katherine M.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Adair, Kathryn C.; Monson, Candice M.
Objective Childhood family violence exposure is associated with increased risk for experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain inadequately understood. Difficulties with emotion regulation may be one factor that helps to explain this relationship. Method Childhood physical abuse and interparental violence, as well as subsequent IPV experiences, were assessed in a large sample of young adults (N = 670). Several indicators of anger-related dysregulation were also assessed. Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable of anger-related dysregulation, which was examined as a potential mediator of the associations between childhood family violence exposure and IPV. Results Childhood physical abuse and interparental violence were associated with greater physical, sexual, and emotional IPV victimization. Childhood physical abuse and interparental violence were also associated with anger-related dysregulation, which was positively associated with all three types of IPV experiences. Anger-related dysregulation fully mediated the association between witnessing interparental violence and physical IPV. Anger-related dysregulation partially mediated the association between witnessing interparental violence and psychological IPV and the associations of childhood physical abuse with all three forms of IPV. These associations were consistent across gender. Conclusions Interventions aimed at reducing IPV risk among survivors of childhood family violence may benefit from including techniques to target anger-related emotion regulation skills. PMID:25199386
Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R.; Bybee, Deborah; Raja, Sheela
This study examined the co-occurrence of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment in a predominantly African American sample of 268 female veterans, randomly sampled from an urban Veterans Affairs hospital women's clinic. A combination of hierarchical and iterative cluster analysis was used to…
Gueta, Keren; Peled, Einat; Sander-Almoznino, Nili
Mothers of children who suffer various problems tend to discuss their experience as a crisis in their maternal identity, regardless of whether the children are young or adults. However, the maternal identity of mothers who are aware that their adult daughters are being abused has not yet been explored. This study aims to examine the construction of the maternal identity by Israeli women whose grown daughters have been subjected to intimate partner violence (IPV), in the light of cultural representations of motherhood and domestic violence (DV). Thematic discourse analysis of in-depth interviews with 11 mothers identified discursive strategies that they used to negotiate a troubled maternal identity following their daughters' IPV experience. The mothers asserted a positive maternal identity by referring to common discourses about DV and motherhood, in a bid to bolster their "good mother" identity, to reframe motherhood, and to assign responsibility for the abuse to the abuser, to their daughters, or to the patriarchal social structure. The implications of these findings for motherhood and maternal identity theories and for professionals working in the field of DV are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26752440
Bell, Kathryn M.; Higgins, Lorrin
The purpose of the current study was to examine the joint influences of experiential avoidance and social problem solving on the link between childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and intimate partner violence (IPV). Experiential avoidance following CEA may interfere with a person’s ability to effectively problem solve in social situations, increasing risk for conflict and interpersonal violence. As part of a larger study, 232 women recruited from the community completed measures assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, experiential avoidance, maladaptive social problem solving, and IPV perpetration and victimization. Final trimmed models indicated that CEA was indirectly associated with IPV victimization and perpetration via experiential avoidance and Negative Problem Orientation (NPO) and Impulsivity/Carelessness Style (ICS) social problem solving strategies. Though CEA was related to an Avoidance Style (AS) social problem solving strategy, this strategy was not significantly associated with IPV victimization or perpetration. Experiential avoidance had both a direct and indirect effect, via NPO and ICS social problem solving, on IPV victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that CEA may lead some women to avoid unwanted internal experiences, which may adversely impact their ability to effectively problem solve in social situations and increase IPV risk. PMID:25893570
Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Diderich, Hester M; Teeuw, Arianne H; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; van der Lee, Johanna H
To improve identification of child maltreatment, a new policy ('Hague protocol') was implemented in hospitals in The Netherlands, stating that adults attending the hospital emergency department after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or a suicide attempt should be asked whether they care for children. If so, these children are referred to the Reporting Center for Child Abuse and Neglect (RCCAN), for assessment and referrals to support services. An adapted, hospital-based version of this protocol ('Amsterdam protocol') was implemented in another region. Children are identified in the same manner, but, instead of a RCCAN referral, they are referred to the pediatric outpatient department for an assessment, including a physical examination, and referrals to services. We compared results of both protocols to assess how differences between the protocols affect the outcomes on implementation, detection of child maltreatment and referrals to services. Furthermore, we assessed social validity and results of a screening physical examination. We included 212 families from the Amsterdam protocol (cohort study with reports by pediatric staff and parents) and 565 families from the Hague protocol (study of RCCAN records and telephone interviews with parents). We found that the RCCAN identified more maltreatment than pediatric staff (98% versus at least 51%), but referrals to services were similar (82% versus 80% of the total sample) and parents were positive about both interventions. Physical examination revealed signs of maltreatment in 5%. We conclude that, despite the differences, both procedures can serve as suitable methods to identify and refer children at risk for maltreatment. PMID:26718263
There has been a growing interest amongst researchers and practitioners regarding the various coping strategies adopted by women experiencing intimate partner abuse (IPA). These studies have tended to adopt and adapt the stress-coping model developed by Lazarus and Folkman (1984) and thus make the distinction between emotion and problem-solving coping strategies and the resources available for women to cope. Even though, contemporary coping scholars acknowledge the role of employment and coping, it is still unclear as to how employment facilitates women's coping strategies. Drawing on findings from a qualitative study, this article explores how employment and workplace environments provide survivors of IPA with resources that allow them to cope with the abuse. By incorporating theoretical insights developed in the field of organizational studies, namely boundary work and organizational identities, these findings develop our understanding of the role of employment in survivors' coping strategies. Finally, the findings demonstrate the valuable contribution of interdisciplinarity in furthering our knowledge of coping strategies and the positive aspects of employment for survivors of IPA. PMID:25199388
Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia
A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…
Flicker, Sharon M.; Cerulli, Catherine; Swogger, Marc T.; Talbot, Nancy L.
This investigation examined the relationship of abuse-specific coping strategies and perceived responses to abuse disclosure to symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress among 131 women seeking a protection order against an intimate partner. Disengagement, denial, and self-blame coping strategies, as well as blaming of the participant by others, were associated with greater depressive and posttraumatic symptoms. None of the strategies of coping or responses to abuse disclosure were negatively related to depressive or posttraumatic stress symptoms. Findings suggest that mental health providers may find it useful to address these negative styles of coping while public education campaigns should target victim-blaming. PMID:22735315
Reisner, Sari L; Falb, Kathryn L; Van Wagenen, Aimee; Grasso, Chris; Bradford, Judith
This study examined disparities in lifetime substance misuse by sexual orientation among 2,653 patients engaged in care at an urban community health center in Boston, MA, as well as the potential mediating roles of childhood abuse
AKINSULURE-SMITH, ADEYINKA M.; CHU, TRACY; KEATLEY, EVA; RASMUSSEN, ANDREW
Although the number of African immigrants arriving to the United States has increased significantly, there has been little investigation regarding their experiences of intimate partner violence or coping strategies. This study used focus groups and individual interviews to explore intimate partner violence among 32 heterosexual West African immigrants. Results suggest that although cultural expectations influence their coping strategies, West African–born men and women face different realities, with women reporting multiple instances of abuse and a sense of frustration with the existing options for assistance. Although participants discussed multilevel support structures within the immediate West African community to address intimate partner violence, all of these options maintained a gender hierarchy, leaving women dissatisfied. Challenges and barriers to partner violence resolution and coping strategies are identified. Results are examined in terms of their implications for addressing the needs of this underserved population. Implications for future research and services are discussed and highlighted. PMID:23730146
De Santis, Joseph P.; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Deleon, Diego A.
Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) experience a number of health disparities including high rates of HIV infection from high risk sex, substance abuse, and intimate partner violence. Although some research is available to document the relationships of these health disparities in the literature, few studies have explored the intersection of these disparities and the factors that influence them. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences that Hispanic MSM residing in South Florida have with high risk sex, substance abuse, and intimate partner violence. Focus groups were conducted and analyzed using grounded theory methodology until data saturation was reached (n = 20). Two core categories with subcategories emerged from the data: The Roots of Risk (Los raices del riesgo) and The Tangled Branches (Las Ramas Enredadas). The results of the study provided some important clinical implications as well as directions for future research with Hispanic MSM. PMID:24084703
Duffy, Luke; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David; Loxton, Deborah
Objectives. To examine: (i) the extent to which victims of intimate partner abuse (IPA) use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and (ii) the effects of CAM on their mental health. Methods. Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for studies measuring the extent of CAM use amongst victims of IPA and trials assessing the impact of CAM on mental health amongst this population. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane collaboration tool. Results. No studies measuring the level of CAM use amongst IPA victims, and only three studies assessing the effect of CAM on the mental health of this population were identified. Two studies looked at yogic breathing, while one assessed the effect of music therapy. All three studies showed some beneficial effects; however, each had a small sample, brief intervention period, and no follow-up measurement and were considered to be at high risk of bias. Conclusions. The review found little evidence for the benefits of CAM for IPA victims. Findings suggest positive effects of music therapy and yogic breathing; however, methodological limitations mean that these results should be interpreted with caution. It is important that more research into the use and effects of CAM amongst this population are undertaken. PMID:24976854
Adams, Jon; Loxton, Deborah
Objectives. To examine: (i) the extent to which victims of intimate partner abuse (IPA) use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and (ii) the effects of CAM on their mental health. Methods. Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for studies measuring the extent of CAM use amongst victims of IPA and trials assessing the impact of CAM on mental health amongst this population. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane collaboration tool. Results. No studies measuring the level of CAM use amongst IPA victims, and only three studies assessing the effect of CAM on the mental health of this population were identified. Two studies looked at yogic breathing, while one assessed the effect of music therapy. All three studies showed some beneficial effects; however, each had a small sample, brief intervention period, and no follow-up measurement and were considered to be at high risk of bias. Conclusions. The review found little evidence for the benefits of CAM for IPA victims. Findings suggest positive effects of music therapy and yogic breathing; however, methodological limitations mean that these results should be interpreted with caution. It is important that more research into the use and effects of CAM amongst this population are undertaken. PMID:24976854
Wong, Susan P. Y.; Phillips, Michael R.
Three hundred fifty-three women (median age = 32 years) admitted to the emergency rooms of nine general hospitals serving rural areas in China were interviewed for nonfatal suicidal behavior. Spousal conflict was the most commonly reported cause for their suicidal behavior and one third of respondents reported being victims of physical abuse by…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…
Dube, Shanta R; Anda, Robert F; Felitti, Vincent J; Edwards, Valerie J; Williamson, David F
Intimate partner violence (IPV) damages a woman's physical and mental well-being, and indicates that her children are likely to experience abuse, neglect and other traumatic experiences. Adult HMO members completed a questionnaire about adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) including childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. We used their responses to retrospectively assess the relationship between witnessing intimate partner violence and experiencing any of the 9 ACEs and multiple ACEs (ACE score). Compared to persons who grew up with no domestic violence, the adjusted odds ratio for any individual ACE was approximately two to six times higher if IPV occurred (p < 0.05). There was a powerful graded increase in the prevalence of every category of ACE as the frequency of witnessing IPV increased. In addition, the total number of ACEs was increased dramatically for persons who had witnessed IPV during childhood. There was a positive graded risk for self-reported alcoholism, illicit drug use, i.v. drug use and depressed affect as the frequency of witnessing IPV increased. Identification of victims of IPV must include screening of their children for abuse, neglect and other types of adverse exposures, as well as recognition that substance abuse and depressed affect are likely consequences of witnessing IPV. Finally, this data strongly suggest that future studies, which focus on the effect of witnessing IPV on long-term health outcomes, may need to take into consideration the co-occurrence of multiple ACEs, which can also affect these outcomes. PMID:11991154
Mason, SM; Wright, RJ; Hibert, EN; D, Spiegelman; Forman, JP; Rich-Edwards, JW
Purpose Intimate partner violence, a prevalent stressor for women, may influence cardiovascular disease risk. We estimated the association between intimate partner violence and development of hypertension, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, using data on intimate partner violence in the Nurses’ Health Study II cohort. Methods Intimate partner violence measures included adult lifetime physical and sexual partner violence and the Women’s Experiences with Battering Scale, which ascertained women’s subjective experience of recent emotional abuse. Physician-diagnosed hypertension was self-reported on biennial questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the association between report of intimate partner violence in 2001 and incidence of hypertension from 2001 through 2007. Results Of 51,434 included respondents, 22% reported being physically hurt and 10% reported being forced into sexual activities at some point in adulthood by an intimate partner. After adjustment for confounders, physical and sexual abuse were not associated with hypertension. However, women reporting the most severe emotional abuse had a 24% increased rate of hypertension (hazard ratio=1.24; 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.53) when compared to women unexposed to emotional abuse. Conclusion Hypertension risk appears to be elevated in the small number of women recently exposed to severe emotional abuse. PMID:22717307
Amemiya, Airi; Fujiwara, Takeo
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether maternal intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization during pregnancy is associated with abusive behavior by the mother towards infants at 4 months of age. A population-based sample of 6590 mothers with 4-month-old infants participated in this study in Japan. Abusive behavior was assessed via questionnaire and defined as frequency of shaking and smothering during the preceding month. Both verbal and physical IPV during pregnancy were assessed retrospectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used, adjusting for types of IPV and potential covariates, specifically postpartum depression. Maternal exposure to verbal and physical IPV during pregnancy was reported by 10.9% and 1.2% of women, respectively. In the adjusted model, women exposed to verbal IPV alone were significantly more likely to abuse offspring (odds ratio: 1.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-2.16) while exposure to physical IPV did not have an additive effect for abusive behavior. Maternal victimization by verbal, but not physical IPV was associated with maternal abusive behavior towards their 4-month-old infant. Screening for verbal abuse during pregnancy might be an efficient approach to identify high-risk mothers of infant abuse. PMID:27082752
Stein, Michelle L; Miller, Audrey K
Intimate partner violence (IPV) constitutes the majority of assaults against women in the United States, and greater than one third of female homicide victims are murdered by an intimate partner. In a small percentage of cases, battered women kill their abusers, and evidence of battering and its effects may be used to support a plea of self-defense in these cases. Prior research has shown that culpability attributions toward battered women who have killed their abusers are influenced by perceiver variables, including gender. The present study expands on this research by examining the influence of psychological distress resulting from perceivers' own IPV experiences--and the mechanisms of this influence--on their culpability attributions toward a battered woman defendant. Female undergraduates in the present sample (N = 154) read a vignette, adapted from an actual criminal case about a battered woman who had killed her abuser. Data supported a hypothesized path model, wherein participants reporting greater psychological distress resulting from IPV perpetrated against them perceived themselves more similar to the defendant, in turn empathized with her to a greater extent, and, in turn, attributed less legal culpability to her. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:22328653
Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Fisher, Helen L.; York-Smith, Marianna; Fincham-Campbell, Stephanie; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise
Background Studies indicate that women victims of intimate partner violence are at increased risk for poor mental health. This research disentangled the effect of partner violence on new-onset depression and psychosis spectrum symptoms from effects of child maltreatment and other confounding factors, including substance abuse and antisocial personality. Methods Participants were 1,052 mothers involved in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative cohort of families followed prospectively. To test the directionality of associations between partner violence and depression, only women without a history of depression at the beginning of the study were considered (n = 978). Partner violence and mental health were assessed during face-to-face interviews with women across three time points. Results Four of 10 women reported being the victim of violence from their partner in a 10-year period. They represent 33% of our cohort and they account for 51% of new-onset depression. These women had a twofold increase in their risk of suffering from new-onset depression once the effect of childhood maltreatment, socioeconomic deprivation, antisocial personality, and young motherhood were controlled. Women who were abused both in childhood and adulthood were four to seven times more likely to suffer from depression than never-abused women. We observed similar associations with psychosis spectrum symptoms. Conclusions Women victims of partner violence account for more than their share of depression. Findings strengthen existing evidence that partner violence independently contributes to women’s poor mental health. Psychological difficulties among a considerable number of women could be reduced by stopping partner violence. PMID:25691224
Ali, Parveen; McGarry, Julie; Dhingra, Katie
Intimate partner violence is a major public health and social problem that affects people everywhere. Nurses can play an important role in identifying victims who present to healthcare settings with domestic abuse-related health issues. Evidence suggests that most women who present to emergency departments have experienced domestic abuse at some point in their lives, but that only 5% are identified by healthcare professionals. To identify and respond to victims effectively, emergency nurses must understand domestic abuse and its associated complexities. This article provides an overview of these issues, including the different types of abuse, and their prevalence, causes and effects on health. The article also explores how emergency nurses can identify and manage the effects of violence at work. PMID:26853673
Zhan, Weihai; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.; Abdala, Nadia
Objectives To examine correlates of perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence (IPV) under and not under the influence of a substance, we conducted a study among women in Russia. Methods In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients receiving services at a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in St. Petersburg, Russia. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analysis. Results Of 299 women, 104 (34.8%) and 113 (37.8%) reported a history of IPV perpetration and victimization, respectively. Nearly half (47.1%) of perpetrators and 61.1% of victims reported that the latest IPV event (perpetration and victimization, respectively) was experienced under the influence of a substance. Factors independently associated with IPV victimization under the influence of a substance were alcohol misuse and a higher number of lifetime sex partners, whereas only experience of childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse) was independently associated with IPV victimization that did not occur under the influence of a substance. Childhood physical abuse, lower age of first sex, sensation seeking, and alcohol misuse were independently associated with IPV perpetration under the influence of a substance, while only childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse) was independently associated with IPV perpetration that did not occur under the influence of a substance. Conclusions IPV under and not under the influence of a substance had different correlates (e.g., alcohol misuse and sensation seeking). Despite the strong association between substance use and IPV, experience of childhood abuse is an important predictor of IPV perpetration and victimization in Russia, above and beyond substance use. PMID:23844148
Cheng, Tyrone C.
This longitudinal study examined the temporal-ordered causal relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), five mental disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic attack, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/ dependence, treatment seeking (from physician, counselor, and…
McLeod, Amy L.; Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.
This phenomenological study investigates the types of personal and community resources that female intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors used when leaving an abusive male partner. Three African American and 2 European American IPV survivors, ages 24 to 38 years, described positive and negative experiences with social support, personal…
Seth, Puja; Wingood, Gina M; Robinson, LaShun S; Raiford, Jerris L; DiClemente, Ralph J
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with risky sexual behavior and STIs among diverse groups of women. IPV was examined as a moderator of efficacy for an HIV/STI intervention. 848 African American women, 18-29, were randomly assigned to an HIV/STI intervention or control condition. Participants completed measures on sociodemographics, IPV, risky sexual behavior and received STI testing. IPV predicted inconsistent condom use and a risky sexual partner over 12-month follow-up. A significant interaction indicated that among women who experienced IPV, those in the intervention were more likely to test positive for Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Among intervention participants, those who experienced IPV were more likely to test TV-positive than those who did not. In an HIV intervention that did not specifically address IPV, women in the control condition were less likely to acquire TV than those in the intervention. Consideration of contextual/interpersonal factors is essential when developing HIV intervention programs. PMID:25399033
This study explored the growth experiences of women abused by their intimate partner, specifically focusing on the associations between social services and empowerment, perceived changes of self, and life satisfaction. The potential effects of demographic variables, social support, coping, and experience of partner abuse were also explored. A survey study was conducted through the collaboration of social workers in the Centers of Prevention and Intervention for Domestic Violence and private sectors in Taiwan. Through contact by their social workers, 191 participants completed the questionnaires. The results revealed that the participants had growth mainly in their psychological and interpersonal domains. The independent variables in the regression model explained 45.3% (adjusted) variance in perceived changes of self. In addition to empowerment and negative impact of violence, intensity of contact and professional relationship were two important service variables that directly and significantly correlated with perceived changes of self. A significant amount of variance (adjusted R² = .556) in life satisfaction could be explained by the independent variables. Social support and empowerment directly correlated with life satisfaction. The findings also supported the mediation effect of empowerment. Seven variables (e.g., social support, coping method, and professional relationship) indirectly associated with perceived changes of self and life satisfaction through empowerment. PMID:22203616
Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M
Intimate partner violence (IPV), usually men's violence against women, appears universal. It may be associated with pregnancy, but this may be because pregnant women receive more medical attention. Violence may cause bruises, abrasions, and cuts, but its extremes include hospitalization, death, and suicide. IPV is often disclosed when women are asked why they feel in poor health or depressed. A legal dilemma arises when healthcare providers consider that intervention such as law-enforcement is appropriate, but patients refuse approval. Patients may fatalistically accept violence, or fear loss of support for their children and themselves if their partners are held in custody. Legal reforms, such as punishing spousal rape, may provide some protection of women's autonomy. Ethical dilemmas concern intervention without patients' approval, and whether treating violent injuries without taking preventive action breaches the principle to Do No Harm. Professional advocacy and social action have been urged to expose and reduce IPV. PMID:19368921
Schwab Reese, Laura M.; Harland, Karisa; Smithart, Kelsey
Abstract Intimate partner aggression is a leading cause of injury among women of child-bearing age. Research suggests that pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of increased vulnerability to aggression. Since rural women are at an increased risk of intimate partner aggression, research is needed to examine the role of pregnancy and the presence of children on intimate partner aggression among this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between young children and intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration among a rural sample. This analysis utilized data from biologic females of child-bearing age from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study, a cohort study of over 1,000 rural families conducted from 1994 to 2011. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between having a young child and experiencing four forms of intimate partner aggression: verbal aggression perpetration, verbal aggression victimization, physical aggression perpetration, and physical aggression victimization. Having young children was significantly associated with increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression but not victimization of verbal aggression or perpetration and victimization of physical aggression. This significant relationship persisted after adjustment for education, employment, or location of residence but not age or marital status. The increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression among mothers in a rural area highlight the need for interventions designed for rural parents. One method of reducing intimate partner aggression may be to incorporate intimate partner aggression prevention activities into existing child abuse intervention activities.
Collett, DeShana; Bennett, Tamara
Intimate partner violence is a preventable health problem that affects more than 12 million people in the United States each year. Those affected can be of any sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, religion, education level, or sexual orientation. All clinicians should screen for intimate partner violence as part of the routine history and physical examination. This article describes the dynamics of intimate partner violence and the 2013 screening guidelines from the US Preventive Services Task Force. PMID:26352870
Du Mont, Janice
Globally, intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive and insidious human rights problem with significant adverse physical health outcomes for women. Intimate partner violence has also been closely associated with poor mental health and substance use problems. However, little is known about the relationship among these co-occurring problems and how to best intervene or manage them. Here, we present findings from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses (where available) to highlight developments in understanding and managing the complex co-occurring problems of intimate partner violence and mental health and substance use in women. PMID:26097738
Allen, Mary; Devitt, Catherine
Intimate partner violence is endemic in parts of the African continent. A small scale survey (n = 229) was conducted in 2009 in Northern Liberia, West Africa, to determine the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence, and the cultural beliefs and gender norms that underpin respondent experiences and views towards intimate partner violence. Results show widespread experience of intimate partner violence among the respondent group, including physical abuse, sexual and verbal, and economic abuse. Acceptance of the situation was identified by most respondents as a way of responding to violence, and arises from the lack of financial and legal supports for women within the community. Despite the range of abuses experienced, beliefs about the power position of men in Liberian society provide evidence to reflect the predominance of certain cultural beliefs in framing respondents' perceptions of gender relations. The article concludes with a discussion on the possible impact of Liberia's recent conflict in contributing to the perpetuation and normalization of intimate partner violence. Further large scale research in this area is required. PMID:22610827
Bowen, Erica; Brown, Sarah; Sleath, Emma
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an international issue that social and criminal justice workers will encounter regularly. It has been identified that men can, and do stop using, or desist from, IPV although it is unclear how this process of change develops. This article introduces a conceptual model to outline how the process of desistance evolves and what it encompasses. Using thematic analysis of interview data from partner-violent men, survivors, and treatment facilitators, the resulting model demonstrates that the process of change is a dynamic one where men’s use of, and cessation from, violence needs to be understood within the context of each individual’s life. Three global themes were developed: (a) lifestyle behaviors (violent): what is happening in the men’s lives when they use violence; (b) catalysts for change: the triggers and transitions required to initiate the process of change; and (c) lifestyle behaviors (non-violent): what is different in the men’s lives when they have desisted from IPV. The purpose of this model is to offer a framework for service providers to assist them to manage the process of change in partner-violent men. PMID:25315483
Bloom, Tina; Wagman, Jennifer; Hernandez, Rebecca; Yragui, Nan; Hernandez-Valdovinos, Noelia; Dahlstrom, Marie; Glass, Nancy
Latinas experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) often avoid formal resources due to fear, distrust, and cultural and language barriers, yet little research addresses culturally appropriate interventions for abused Latinas. To develop effective interventions, we must include abused Latinas' voices in research and collaborate with the…
Kelly, Virginia; Warner, Kelly; Trahan, Courtenay; Miscavage, Karen
This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory…
Paterno, Mary T; Draughon, Jessica E
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious concern for women that is associated with significant adverse health effects. Routine screening for IPV is recommended, but there are many barriers to screening that have been identified by providers, including discomfort, lack of training, and not knowing how to respond to a positive screen. This article reviews IPV screening and appropriate techniques for responding to a positive screen. IPV screening best practices include using a systematic protocol, developing a screening script, using a validated screening tool, and considerations for privacy and mandatory reporting. Responding to a positive screen should include acknowledging the experience, asking if the woman desires help, offering support and referrals, encouraging safety planning, and completing additional assessments to determine level of danger and to identify any comorbidities. Using these techniques along with therapeutic communication may increase IPV identification and create an environment in which women feel empowered to get help. PMID:26990666
Morland, Leslie A.; Leskin, Gregory A.; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Friedman, Matthew J.
Despite research documenting high rates of violence during pregnancy, few studies have examined the impact of physical abuse, psychological abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on miscarriage. Secondary analysis of data collected by the Chicago Women's Health Risk Study permitted an exploration of the relationships among physical abuse,…
Jaquier, Véronique; Sullivan, Tami P.
This study examines the impact of fear of past abusive partner(s) on posttraumatic stress among 212 community-recruited women currently exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). The path analysis model tested explained 60% of the variation in IPV-related posttraumatic stress. Findings revealed that fear of past abusive partner(s) was uniquely associated with the severity of current posttraumatic stress symptoms over and above the impact of current IPV or childhood abuse and neglect. Future research should continue examining women's subjective emotional experience of past and current victimization so as to further inform both clinical practice and intervention planning. PMID:24590514
Murphy, Sharon; Lemire, Lynne; Wisman, Mindi
This qualitative case study explores one American Indian (AI) woman's experience of intimate partner violence and the subsequent murder of her abusive partner. The lens of complex personhood (Gordon, 1997) has been applied as a method for understanding "Annie's" multiple identities of AI woman, victim of intimate partner violence, mother, and…
Sharps, P W; Campbell, J; Campbell, D; Gary, F; Webster, D
The purpose of this study was to examine alcohol use by victims and perpetrators as a risk factor for intimate partner violence and femicide. A case control design was used to describe alcohol use among Femicide/Attempted Femicide victims (n = 380), Abused Controls (n = 384) and Non-Abused Controls (n = 376), and their intimate partners. Telephone interviews of proxies (family members or friends) of femicide victims and actual survivors of attempted femicide were conducted in 10 cities. The purpose of the interviews was to gather information about relationship violence and alcohol use by femicide victims, attempted femicide survivors, and their perpetrators. Telephone interviews of controls, recruited from the same cities by random digit dialing, were also conducted. Perpetrator problem drinking was associated with an eight fold increase in partner abuse (e beta = 8.24, p < .0001) and a two fold increased risk of femicide/attempted femicide (e beta = 2.39, p = .001), controlling for demographic differences. PMID:11444155
Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy; Hanson, Ginger; Mankowski, Eric; Bloom, Tina; Campbell, Jacquelyn
This study builds on the existing knowledge of risk factors for lethal intimate partner violence (IPV) and typologies of IPV abusers by exploring patterns of abusive partners' behaviors among known risk factors for intimate partner femicide (i.e., murder of women) and determines if groups of survivors with similar patterns of abusive behaviors…
The study investigated the relationships among learned resourcefulness, dangerousness in abusive relationships, and symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of abused sheltered women. A cross-sectional descriptive research design was utilized and 42 women met criteria for participation. Data were collected over a ten-month period from June 2010 to March 2011 using the following instruments: (1) demographic data collection form, (2) Self-Control Schedule (SCS), (3) Danger Assessment (DA), (4) Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA), (5) Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II), and (6) Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS). Results indicated that 74% of the sample reported symptoms of depression and 67% met criteria for PTSD. In addition, there was 62% comorbidity between depression and PTSD. High levels of danger and low levels of resourcefulness were associated with increased symptoms of depression and PTSD. Further research is necessary, but results of the study suggest that resourcefulness may be an important consideration for abused women in reducing the impact of violence and abuse on mental health issues. PMID:23805923
Hardesty, Jennifer L; Oswald, Ramona Faith; Khaw, Lyndal; Fonseca, Carol; Chung, Grace H
Twenty-four lesbian mothers (12 African American, 9 White, and 3 Latina) who had experienced physical abuse by a same-sex partner were interviewed. Three types of IPV were found: intimate terrorism, situational violence, and mutual violent control. Further, relationships between mothers/abusers, mothers/children, and abusers/children were examined. Regarding relationships with abusers, 71% of mothers reported lengthy sagas, 17% had worked it out, and 13% made a clean break from the abuser. Regarding relationships with their children, 48% of mothers hid the violence, 26% minimized it, and 26% openly communicated about the situation. Relationships between abusers and the mothers' children were found to be either co-parental (29%), playmate (21%), abusive (21%), or non-parental (21%). Correlations among relational and demographic variables were also examined. PMID:19042732
Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.
This study explored strategies from the Intimate Partner Violence Strategy Index (IPVSI) that a sub-set of 20 rural, low-income, abused women of a larger, multi-site, mixed-method study employed to deal with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during the perinatal period. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant (N = 12) and/or…
Nabors, Erin L.
College students experience an extremely high level of violence among intimate partners during their college careers, with prevalence rates ranging between 20% and 50%. Because intimate partner violence (IPV) among college students is such a widespread problem, it is important to understand the factors that contribute to this type of abuse.…
Hall, Jeffrey E.; Walters, Mikel L.; Basile, Kathleen C.
This study continues previous work documenting the structure of violence perpetrated by males against their female intimate partners. It assesses the construct validity of a measurement model depicting associations among eight subtypes of perpetration: moderate physical violence, severe physical violence, forced or coerced sexual violence, sexual…
This article analyzing national data (N=7,408) examines the connection between men's and women's relative economic contributions in families and the risk of husband-to-wife physical violence and emotional abuse. Family violence researchers have conceptualized the association between economic variables and the risk of intimate partner violence with…
Coker, A L; Smith, P H; McKeown, R E; King, M J
OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the frequency and correlates of intimate partner violence by type (physical, sexual, battering, or emotional abuse) among women seeking primary health care. METHODS: Women aged 18 to 65 years who attended family practice clinics in 1997 and 1998 took part. Participation included a brief in-clinic survey assessing intimate partner violence. Multiple polytomous logistic regression was used to assess correlates of partner violence by type. RESULTS: Of 1401 eligible women surveyed, 772 (55.1%) had experienced some type of intimate partner violence in a current, most recent, or past intimate relationship with a male partner; 20.2% were currently experiencing intimate partner violence. Among those who had experienced partner violence in any relationship, 77.3% experienced physical or sexual violence, and 22.7% experienced nonphysical abuse. Alcohol and/or drug abuse by the male partner was the strongest correlate of violence. CONCLUSIONS: Partner substance abuse and intimate partner violence in the woman's family of origin were strong risk factors for experiencing violence. Efforts to universally screen for partner violence and to effectively intervene to reduce the impact of such violence on women's lives must be a public health priority. PMID:10754969
Bonomi, Amy E.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Reid, Robert J.; Carrell, David; Fishman, Paul A.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Thompson, Robert S.
Purpose: We describe the prevalence, types, duration, frequency, and severity of intimate partner violence ("partner violence") in older women. Design and Methods: We randomly sampled a total of 370 English-speaking women (65 years of age and older) from a health care system to participate in a cross-sectional telephone interview. Using 5…
Miller, Mark W.; Wolf, Erika J.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Harrington, Kelly M.; Ryabchenko, Karen; Castillo, Diane; Freund, Rachel; Heyman, Richard
This study examined the influence of trauma history and PTSD symptoms on the behavior of veterans and their intimate partners (287 couples; N = 574) observed during conflict discussions and coded using the Rapid Marital Interaction Coding System (Heyman, 2004). Dyadic structural equation modeling analyses showed that PTSD was associated with more frequent displays of hostility and psychological abuse and fewer expressions of acceptance and humor in both veterans and their partners. Findings provide new insight into the social and emotional deficits associated with PTSD and emphasize the importance of addressing the trauma histories and PTSD of both partners when treating veteran couples with relationship disturbance. PMID:23523947
Roberts, Andrea L.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Decker, Michele R.; Koenen, Karestan C.
Background At least half a million women are victims of intimate partner violence in the United States annually, resulting in substantial harm. However, the etiology of violence to intimate partners is not well understood. Witnessing such violence in childhood has been proposed as a principal cause of adulthood perpetration, yet it remains unknown whether the association between witnessing intimate partner violence and adulthood perpetration is causal. Method We conducted a propensity-score analysis of intimate partner violence perpetration to determine whether childhood witnessing is associated with perpetration in adulthood, independent of a wide range of potential confounding variables, and therefore might be a causal factor. We used data from 14,564 U.S. men ages 20 and older from the 2004–2005 wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results Nearly 4% of men reported violent behavior toward an intimate partner in the past year. In unadjusted models, we found a strong association between childhood witnessing of intimate partner violence and adulthood perpetration (for witnessing any intimate partner violence, risk ratio [RR] = 2.6 [95% confidence interval = 2.1–3.2]; for witnessing frequent or serious violence, 3.0 [2.3–3.9]). In propensity-score models, the association was substantially attenuated (for witnessing any intimate partner violence, adjusted RR = 1.6 [1.2–2.0]; for witnessing frequent or serious violence, 1.6 [1.2–2.3]). Conclusions Men who witness intimate partner violence in childhood are more likely to commit such acts in adulthood, compared with men who are otherwise similar with respect to a large range of potential confounders. Etiological models of intimate partner violence perpetration should consider a constellation of childhood factors. PMID:20811285
Lewis, M. Jane; West, Bernadette; Bautista, Leyna; Greenberg, Alexandra M.; Done-Perez, Iris
This study examined perceptions regarding intimate partner abuse (IPV) in a largely Latino community in New Jersey through focus groups with Latino community members and key informant interviews with providers of services to this population. Questions examined definitions of partner abuse; perceptions of factors contributing to, or protecting…
Power, Charmaine; Koch, Tina; Kralik, Debbie; Jackson, Debra
Intimate Partner Violence remains a significant problem globally despite health promotion aimed at raising awareness. In particular, there is a current trend for many young women to view some abusive/violent behaviours as acceptable in their relationships. Intimate Partner Violence has serious implications for its short and long term impacts on the health of women and children. Health workers may find working with women a challenging and sometimes frustrating experience. A way forward is to develop clearer understandings of the complexities of Intimate Partner Violence and to better understand women's investments in romantic relationships. In this paper a secondary analysis of data from a narrative study of women's recovery from IPV relationships is presented in order to illustrate discourses that inform underpinnings of romantic relationships. Transcriptions of audio-taped interviews were analysed using a feminist post-structural approach in order to make visible the ways in which the women negotiated their identities in the discourses of femininity. A critical review of current literature was also undertaken to develop the construct of romantic love. Women revealed that cues for Intimate Partner Violence were present early in the relationship but were not recognised at the time. Two positions within the discourse of romantic love were identified that underpinned their desires to establish and invest in the relationship despite the presence of cues for Intimate Partner Violence. These were 'Desperate for a man' and interpreting jealousy as a sign of love. Romantic love may be desirable for the sharing of warmth, safety and protection, and yet can mask behaviours that are cues for domestic violence. Understanding the complex nature of the ways that women's desires are located in the discourse of romantic love has implications for all nurses working to prevent and reduce the incidence of Intimate Partner Violence. PMID:16696600
Loinaz, Ismael; Echeburúa, Enrique; Torrubia, Rafael
Typology of incarcerated intimate partner aggressors. People who engage in intimate partner violence do not constitute a homogeneous group. Many studies in the Anglo-Saxon countries back the possibility of differentiating several subtypes of aggressors, but there are differences among them. One of the main applications of these typologies is the adaptation of the treatments to the subjects' characteristics. The aim of the present pilot study was to empirically establish a typology of batterers in Spain. The sample of 50 convicted violent intimate partner offenders was obtained from the Brians-2 penitentiary (Barcelona). Self-esteem, anger, cognitive distortions, and personality disorders were evaluated, as well as the frequency and type of violence. The results suggest the existence of two subtypes, distinguishable on the basis of the predictive dimensions, and so, partially confirm the typological proposals. PMID:20100435
Each year, more than a thousand women in the United States die as a result of intimate partner homicide. Firearms are involved in 60 percent of these murders. This article reviews the role firearms play in domestic violence and suggests actions physicians can take to reduce intimate partner homicide involving them. In addition to screening patients for domestic abuse, physicians can strive to improve data collection on intimate partner violence, foster better communication between victims and the police, and support policies that hold police officers and prosecutors accountable for taking guns out of the hands of abusers. PMID:19772053
Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Mata-Pariente, Nelva; Plazaola-Castano, Juncal
The responses of women to a situation of abuse by their partner has hardly been addressed in the literature. Using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, 400 women attending three practices in a primary health care center in Granada (Spain) were studied. The women's response to abuse was used as a dependent variable. Sociodemographics,…
Stöckl, Heidi; Gardner, Frances
Intimate partner violence during pregnancy is receiving increased attention because of its high prevalence and health effects. Still, little is known about women's perceptions on how their pregnancy influences the context in which intimate partner violence occurs. We conducted 19 in-depth interviews with women who had experienced intimate partner violence around the time of pregnancy. Women clearly perceived pregnancy as a turning point, because it created new expectations and a feeling of being overwhelmed. This led to violence by reducing women's acceptance of their partner's unemployment, alcohol abuse and lack of relationship commitment, or by increasing women's vulnerability because they felt too young to raise a child alone. Pregnancy also led to violence by bringing back childhood memories or by taking attention away from their partners. Understanding how pregnancy influences the context in which intimate partner violence occurs is important to provide abused, pregnant women with the services they need. PMID:23905872
Wenger, Marin R
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an issue of serious public concern. However, policy interventions and theoretical development have been complicated by mixed evidence about whether men or women experience higher levels of IPV. Some of this discrepancy arises from measurement and whether abuse and victimization are asked of one or both partners. This study uses matched partner data from 1,393 heterosexual couples collected in Wave IIIof the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to examine partner IIV reporting discrepancies and develop hypotheses for why such discrepancies might exist. Consistent with expectations, the findings suggest that research on the prevalence of IIV should rely on reports from both partners, rather than just one, and that gendered patterns of social desirability create differences in men's and women's IPV reporting. PMID:25929136
Fowler, Katherine A.; Westen, Drew
Domestic violence is a serious problem with far-reaching consequences. This study applies a new methodology to derive subtypes of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. As part of a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study, a national sample of randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists describe 188 adult male…
Witte, Tricia H.; Kendra, Rachel
The objective of this study was to determine whether female victims of physical forms of intimate partner violence (IPV) displayed deficits in risk recognition, or the ability to detect danger, in physically violent dating encounters. A total of 182 women watched a video depicting a psychologically and physically aggressive encounter between…
Allen, Christopher T.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Raghavan, Chitra
This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in…
Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Valongueiro, Sandra; de Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto
OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence during pregnancy. METHODS A cross sectional study was carried out with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Program in the city of Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Common mental disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Intimate partner violence was defined as psychologically, physically and sexually abusive acts committed against women by their partners. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were estimated for the association studied utilizing logistic regression analysis. RESULTS The most common form of partner violence was psychological. The prevalence of common mental disorders was 71.0% among women who reported all form of violence in pregnancy and 33.8% among those who did not report intimate partner violence. Common mental disorders were associated with psychological violence (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.8;3.5), even without physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence was combined with physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher (OR 3.45; 95%CI 2.3;5.2). CONCLUSIONS Being assaulted by someone with whom you are emotionally involved can trigger feelings of helplessness, low self-esteem and depression. The pregnancy probably increased women`s vulnerability to common mental disorders PMID:24789634
Martin, Sandra L; Macy, Rebecca J; Sullivan, Kristen; Magee, Melissa L
This literature review examines intimate partner violence in relation to pregnancy-associated femicide and suicide. Empirical publications were eligible for review if they included information on intimate partner violence and examined females who were pregnant/postpartum and who were victims of femicide/attempted femicide and/or suicide/attempted suicide. Nine publications met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Results suggest that intimate partners perpetrate one- to two-thirds of the pregnancy-associated femicides in the United States and that pregnant women make up 5% of urban intimate partner femicides. Intimate partner abuse during pregnancy appears to be a risk factor for severe intimate partner violence, including attempted/completed femicide. So little information exists concerning intimate partner violence in pregnancy-associated suicides that it is impossible to draw conclusions regarding this topic; however, a hospital-based study suggests that intimate partner violence may be a risk factor for attempting suicide while pregnant. More research is needed concerning intimate partner pregnancy-associated femicide and suicide so that evidenced-based preventive/therapeutic interventions may be developed. PMID:17545571
National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey CDC’s National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally-representative telephone survey that collects detailed information ...
Stöckl, Heidi; Gardner, Frances
Intimate partner violence during pregnancy is receiving increased attention because of its high prevalence and health effects. Still, little is known about women’s perceptions on how their pregnancy influences the context in which intimate partner violence occurs. We conducted 19 in-depth interviews with women who experienced intimate partner violence around the time of pregnancy. Women clearly perceived pregnancy as a turning point, because it created new expectations and a feeling of being overwhelmed. This led to violence by reducing women’s acceptance of their partner’s unemployment, alcohol abuse and lack of relationship commitment or by increasing women’s vulnerability because they felt too young to raise a child alone. Pregnancy also led to violence by bringing up repressed childhood memories or by taking attention away from their partners. Understanding how pregnancy influences the context in which intimate partner violence occurs is important to provide abused, pregnant women with the services they need. PMID:23905872
Lindhorst, Taryn; Tajima, Emiko
Survey research in the field of intimate partner violence is notably lacking in its attention to contextual factors. Early measures of intimate partner violence focused on simple counts of behaviors, yet attention to broader contextual factors remains limited. Contextual factors not only shape what behaviors are defined as intimate partner violence but also influence the ways women respond to victimization, the resources available to them, and the environments in which they cope with abuse. This article advances methods for reconceptualizing and operationalizing contextual factors salient to the measurement of intimate partner violence. The analytic focus of the discussion is on five dimensions of the social context: the situational context, the social construction of meaning by the survivor, cultural and historical contexts, and the context of systemic oppression. The authors consider how each dimension matters in the measurement of intimate partner violence and offer recommendations for systematically assessing these contextual factors in future research. PMID:18245573
Brown, Monique J.; Perera, Robert A.; Masho, Saba W.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.
Six in ten people in the general population have been exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the US. The main objective of this study was to assess sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and depression as mediators in the association between ACEs and intimate partner aggression. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004–2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the mediational role of PTSD, substance abuse and depression in the association between ACE constructs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration/psychopathology) and intimate partner aggression. Among men, PTSD mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and intimate partner aggression. However, among men and women, substance abuse mediated the relationship between physical and psychological abuse and intimate partner aggression. IPV programs geared towards aggressors should address abuse (sexual, physical and psychological), which occurred during childhood and recent substance abuse and PTSD. These programs should be implemented for men and women. Programs aimed at preventing abuse of children may help to reduce rates of depression and PTSD in adulthood, and subsequent intimate partner aggression. PMID:25753285
Brown, Monique J; Perera, Robert A; Masho, Saba W; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A
Six in ten people in the general population have been exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the US. The main objective of this study was to assess sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and depression as mediators in the association between ACEs and intimate partner aggression. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the mediational role of PTSD, substance abuse and depression in the association between ACE constructs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration/psychopathology) and intimate partner aggression. Among men, PTSD mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and intimate partner aggression. However, among men and women, substance abuse mediated the relationship between physical and psychological abuse and intimate partner aggression. IPV programs geared towards aggressors should address abuse (sexual, physical and psychological), which occurred during childhood and recent substance abuse and PTSD. These programs should be implemented for men and women. Programs aimed at preventing abuse of children may help to reduce rates of depression and PTSD in adulthood, and subsequent intimate partner aggression. PMID:25753285
Gustafsson, Hanna C; Coffman, Jennifer L; Harris, Latonya S; Langley, Hillary A; Ornstein, Peter A; Cox, Martha J
The current study was designed to examine the relation between intimate partner violence (IPV) and children's memory and drew from a socioeconomically and racially diverse sample of children living in and around a midsized southeastern city (n = 140). Mother-reported IPV when the children were 30 months old was a significant predictor of children's short-term, working, and deliberate memory at 60 months of age, even after controlling for the children's sex and race, the families' income-to-needs ratio, the children's expressive vocabulary, and maternal harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors. These findings add to the limited extant literature that finds linkages between IPV and children's cognitive functioning and suggest that living in households in which physical violence is perpetrated among intimate partners may have a negative effect on multiple domains of children's memory development. PMID:24188084
Witte, Tricia H; Mulla, Mazheruddin M
This study investigated perceived descriptive norms (i.e., perceived prevalence) for intimate partner violence (IPV) among college students. Male and female college students were asked to estimate the prevalence of IPV for same-sex "typical students" on their campus. Perpetrators of IPV made higher estimates than nonperpetrators. Both perpetrators and nonperpetrators overestimated the prevalence of IPV when compared to actual prevalence rates. Findings lend support for using social-norms-based prevention programs on college campuses. PMID:24547674
Bianchi, Ann L; Cesario, Sandra K; McFarlane, Judith
Intimate partner violence is a public health problem that affects many women during pregnancy and can compromise the health and safety of mothers and infants. Identification and routine assessment of intimate partner violence during pregnancy is essential, and health care providers must be afforded training and resources that support an effective screening and assessment program. The essential components of an intimate partner violence assessment program for women who are abused during pregnancy are explored. PMID:27234157
Keim, Jeanmarie; Strauser, David R.; Olguin, David L.
Rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) are high. Many survivors elect to leave abusive relationships and seek treatment to address the abusive cycle and psychiatric symptoms that may result. Programs to assist survivors often include an employment component. This article discusses the use of the Developmental Work Personality Scale (D. R.…
Becker, Kimberly D.; Stuewig, Jeffrey; McCloskey, Laura A.
Interviews of women with (n = 193) and without (n = 170) recent exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) were used to examine how IPV and past exposure to child abuse influence self-reports of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The measurement of IPV included assessing psychological, physical, escalated physical, and sexual abuse.…
Bonomi, Amy E.; Holt, Victoria L.; Martin, Diane P.; Thompson, Robert S.
This article evaluates whether female victims of severe physical, psychological, or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) call police more often than other abused women. Abused women (431) reported frequency of contacting police (dependent variable), nature and severity of IPV experienced, and characteristics of themselves and their perpetrator…
In this article, the author highlights her choice of the 10 most important recent findings from the intimate partner violence research literature, which include (a) the creation of the Conflict Tactics Scale; (b) the finding that violent acts are most often perpetrated by intimates; (c) a series of findings that indicate that women also engage in intimate partner violence; (d) the finding that intimate partner violence typically evolves out of relationship dissatisfaction; (e) the finding that there are different subtypes of domestically violent men; (f) physiological measures that have added to our knowledge of intimate partner violence; (g) the evolving intergenerational transmission of violence theory; (h) the finding that verbal abuse, neglect, and psychological abuse need to be studied alongside physical violence; (i) research on leaving abusive relationships that may inform policy about sheltering battered women; and (j) the finding that alcohol plays an important role in the production of intimate partner violence. In the conclusion, the author describes a dyadic cycle of violence that may characterize some abusive couples. She also argues for a multimodal theory that links findings obtained from individual, relationship, intergenerational, gender-specific, and cultural perspectives. PMID:15618567
Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Blanco-Prieto, Pilar; Vives-Cases, Carmen
The present study aims to review the problem of intimate partner violence, as well as its causes and consequences. It will also specifically analyze the role of health professionals. In opposition to the classical epidemiological view of risk factors, Heise proposes an ecological framework to study violence against women. This framework analyzes the interplay among the personal, situational and sociocultural factors that combine to cause abuse. Regarding the frequency of intimate partner violence in Spain, in January 2003 there were 2.519 formal complaints and 69 women died between January and November 2003. No geographical patterns in mortality or the incidence of formal complaints of intimate partner violence or among the provinces with the highest incidence of formal complains and those with highest mortality were observed. The only national survey published in Spain was performed by the Women's Institute in 1999, which reported a prevalence of domestic violence of 9.2%. A frequency of 22.8% was found in a primary health care center in Granada. Health services can play a key role in helping victims of domestic violence, since most women contact the health services at some time in their lives. Professionals in administrative or managerial positions can contribute to raising awareness of this health problem, which is one of the main causes of poor health and disability. Evidently, beyond consciousness-raising and early detection campaigns, public health strategies should be designed to prevent this serious health problem the causes of which can be changed. PMID:15171840
Intimate partner violence (IPV) can be defined in many ways and encompasses many different types of physical and emotional abuse. IPV affects the health, safety, and quality of life for women, men, and children worldwide, regardless of race, sexual orientation, or socioeconomic status. The health effects include acute trauma; a wide range of physical and mental sequelae; and, for some, death. Because of the serious consequences of IPV, both the Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization identify IPV as a significant public health issue. PMID:25841604
Ely, Gretchen E.; Otis, Melanie D.
The purpose of this article is to describe an exploratory study examining the relationship between intimate partner violence and psychological stressors in a sample of 188 adult abortion patients. Results indicate the almost 15% of respondents report a history of abuse by the coconceiving partner. In addition, women who reported having had one or…
Sprague, Sheila; Madden, Kim; Dosanjh, Sonia; Petrisor, Brad; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit
Accurately identifying victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) can be a challenge for clinicians and clinical researchers. Multiple instruments have been developed and validated to identify IPV in patients presenting to health care practitioners, including the Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) and the Partner Violence Screen (PVS). The purpose…
Taft, Casey T.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Doron-Lamarca, Susan; Panuzio, Jillian; Suvak, Michael K.; Gagnon, David R.; Murphy, Christopher M.
Objective: This study examined static and time-varying risk factors for perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) among men in treatment for alcohol use disorders. Method: Participants were 178 men diagnosed with alcohol abuse or dependence and their partners. Most (85%) of the men were European American; their average age was 41.0 years.…
Allen, Mary; Devitt, Catherine
Intimate partner violence is endemic in parts of the African continent. A small scale survey (n = 229) was conducted in 2009 in Northern Liberia, West Africa, to determine the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence, and the cultural beliefs and gender norms that underpin respondent experiences and views towards intimate partner…
Hirschel, David; Hutchison, Ira
The nexus between substance abuse and intimate partner violence has been studied in depth. The interrelationship between drinking, intimate partner violence, and an officer's decision to make an arrest has not received as much attention. The issue is complicated by the fact that either or both of the involved parties may have been drinking and the…
Schiff, Miriam; Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila
This study examines the positive aspects of intimate relationships perceived by drug-involved women victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). The article examines the association of psychological distress, childhood abuse, and severity of IPV with the different positive aspects the women indicated. Most analyses were conducted on a subsample of…
Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Vann, Noelle C; Smith, Phillip N
Despite the well-documented relations between intimate partner violence and suicidal ideation, gender differences regarding the relationships between intimate partner violence types and suicidal ideation are less understood. In addition, few studies have examined the risk that harassment may confer for suicidal ideation in the context of intimate partner violence. This study examined gender differences in the associations of harassment, emotional, and physical intimate partner violence with suicidal ideation in 502 college students, while controlling for the influence of depressive symptoms. Results indicated that physical abuse, but not harassment or emotional abuse, was associated with increased suicidal ideation in men. In contrast, emotional abuse, but not physical abuse or harassment, was associated with increased suicidal ideation in women. Clinicians should consider potential gender differences in the impact of intimate partner violence on suicidal ideation when assessing suicide risk. PMID:27074971
MacMillan, Harriet L; Wathen, C Nadine
Children's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) is now recognized as a form of child maltreatment associated with significant mental health impairment. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology of children's exposure to IPV, including prevalence, risk, and protective factors and associated impairment, and a summary of assessment and interventions aimed at preventing its occurrence and responding to children and families. Information about evidence-based approaches to responding to children who present with impairment after exposure to IPV, such as posttraumatic-stress disorder symptoms, is discussed. Some of the challenges in understanding children's needs with regard to safety and protection are outlined with recommendations for future directions. PMID:24656581
Pinto, Lavinia A.; Sullivan, Eric L.; Rosenbaum, Alan; Wyngarden, Nicole; Umhau, John C.; Miller, Mark W.; Taft, Casey T.
An extensive literature documents biological correlates of general aggression, but there has been less focus on biological correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV). The purpose of this review is to summarize the research literature to date that has reported on biological factors in IPV perpetration. We review the existing literature on four domains of biological processes that have been examined with respect to IPV perpetration, including: head injury and neuropsychology; psychophysiology; neurochemistry, metabolism and endocrinology; and genetics. We critique the literature, discuss the clinical relevance of research findings, and provide some recommendations for future biologically-oriented IPV research. PMID:23393423
Fidan, Ahmet; Bui, Hoan N
The present study examines intimate partner violence (IPV) reported by a sample of women in Zimbabwe to explore factors associated with the problem. Findings from the study indicate an important role of gender relationships in violence against women. The effects of gender inequalities on the likelihood of IPV vary with types of violence, but husband's patriarchal behaviors increase the likelihood of all forms of violence. The study suggests the importance of improving gender equality through public education on gender relationships, increasing women's education and economic opportunities, and eliminating customary laws that sustain gender inequality as necessary steps to combat IPV against women in Zimbabwe. PMID:26644331
Powers, Rachael A.; Kaukinen, Catherine Elizabeth
Research on trends in partner violence has primarily relied on official measures of victimization focusing primarily on women's risk for intimate partner homicide. The current study uses 28 years of data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to examine the trends of intimate partner violence against female victims and identify…
Chibber, Karuna S.; Krishnan, Suneeta
Intimate partner violence—physical, psychological, or sexual abuse of women perpetrated by intimate partners—is one of the most common forms of violence against women, and is associated with adverse women’s reproductive and maternal health outcomes. We review the opportunities for addressing intimate partner violence by the health system, examine promising approaches, and outline future challenges for developing effective health systems responses to violence. Evidence shows that women seldom approach support services in response to violence, but do seek health care at some point in their lives. In fact, women’s utilization of reproductive health services in particular has been increasing globally. These services have a broad reach and represent an important opportunity to engage in violence prevention. Although health systems-based responses to intimate partner violence have emerged, rigorous evaluations to guide program planning and policy efforts to reduce violence are limited. US programs have expanded from improving individual provider prevention practices to instituting system-wide changes to ensure sustainability of these practices. Developing country program responses, though limited, have been system-wide and multi-sectoral right from the start. Our review highlights three challenges for developing and expanding health systems responses to violence. First, interventions should focus on creating a supportive environment within the health system and strengthening linkages across health care and allied sectors. Second, rigorous evaluations of health-sector based interventions are needed for a sound evidence-base to guide programmatic and policy decisions. Finally, research is needed to identify the entry points for engaging men on violence prevention, and to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of such interventions. PMID:21598270
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious social issue which affects the medium- and long-term health outcomes of many individuals worldwide. The cost of IPV on the physical and psychological well-being of individuals, in addition to its wider economic costs in responding to abused persons, is significant. Presently, there is a lack of understanding about the nature of female-initiated IPV and how men account for their experiences of it. This study examined male victims' life stories of their IPV experiences from their intimate partners. Using the biographical narrative interpretive method, three cases were analyzed from a social constructionist perspective to examine what narrative strategies men used to account for their experiences of being abused by their female partners. Three dominant narrative strategies were used by respondents: the fatherhood narrative, the good husband narrative, and the abuse narrative. The abuse narrative had a unique narrative form, which reflected respondents' disassociation between their identities as men and also as abused persons. Dominant conflicting discourses of masculinity and intimate partner abuse disadvantaged men in identifying IPV and secondly in responding appropriately. This study found that men prefer to use dominant discursive identities as legitimate means from which to disclose IPV experiences. The findings from this study illustrate that broad questioning by professionals regarding fatherhood may be most helpful in promoting disclosures of IPV if this is suspected. PMID:25392374
Madzimbalale, F C; Khoza, L B
Intimate partner violence directed towards females by male partners is a common significant global public health problem. Most victims of physical aggression such as women and children are subjected to multiple acts of violence over extended periods of time, suffering from more than one type of abuse, for example physical which is more symbolic and evidenced by scars. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of the symbols of physical violence as experienced by women who live with intimate partners in the Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province. The research design of this study was qualitative, exploratory and descriptive in nature. The accessible population was those participants who used the trauma unit A in a particular hospital. Seven women comprised the sample of the study. In-depth individual interviews were conducted exploring the women's experiences in the context of physical violence. From the data collected all seven participants experienced some form of physical violence which resulted in permanent deformity. They experienced some form of battering such as kicking, stabbing, burning, fracturing, strangling and choking. Recommendations were made that health care providers are encouraged to implement screening for physical violence, to provide appropriate interventions if assault is identified and to provide appropriate education regarding, employment opportunities, legal literacy, and rights to inheritance. Human rights education and information regarding domestic violence should be provided to them because this is their absolute right (UNICEF, 2000:14). PMID:21469513
Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Martínez, Manuela; Pedrón-Rico, Vicente; Moya-Albiol, Luis
Research assessing the effectiveness of intervention programs for intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators has increased considerably in recent years. However, most of it has been focused on the analysis of psychological domains, neglecting neuropsychological variables and the effects of alcohol consumption on these variables. This study evaluated potential neuropsychological changes (emotional decoding, perspective taking, emotional empathy and cognitive flexibility) and their relationship with alcohol consumption in a mandatory intervention program for IPV perpetrators, as well as how these variables affect the risk of IPV recidivism. The sample was composed of 116 individuals with high alcohol (n = 55; HA) and low alcohol (n = 61; LA) consumption according to self-report screening measures who received treatment in a IPV perpetrator intervention program developed in Valencia (Spain). IPV perpetrators with HA consumption were less accurate in decoding emotional facial signals and adopting others’ perspective, and less cognitively flexible than those with LA consumption before the IPV intervention. Further, the effectiveness of the intervention program was demonstrated, with increases being observed in cognitive empathy (emotional decoding and perspective taking) and in cognitive flexibility. Nevertheless, the HA group showed a smaller improvement in these skills and higher risk of IPV recidivism than the LA group. Moreover, improvement in these skills was related to a lower risk of IPV recidivism. The study provides guidance on the targeting of cognitive domains, which are key factors for reducing IPV recidivism. PMID:27043602
Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Martínez, Manuela; Pedrón-Rico, Vicente; Moya-Albiol, Luis
Research assessing the effectiveness of intervention programs for intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators has increased considerably in recent years. However, most of it has been focused on the analysis of psychological domains, neglecting neuropsychological variables and the effects of alcohol consumption on these variables. This study evaluated potential neuropsychological changes (emotional decoding, perspective taking, emotional empathy and cognitive flexibility) and their relationship with alcohol consumption in a mandatory intervention program for IPV perpetrators, as well as how these variables affect the risk of IPV recidivism. The sample was composed of 116 individuals with high alcohol (n = 55; HA) and low alcohol (n = 61; LA) consumption according to self-report screening measures who received treatment in a IPV perpetrator intervention program developed in Valencia (Spain). IPV perpetrators with HA consumption were less accurate in decoding emotional facial signals and adopting others' perspective, and less cognitively flexible than those with LA consumption before the IPV intervention. Further, the effectiveness of the intervention program was demonstrated, with increases being observed in cognitive empathy (emotional decoding and perspective taking) and in cognitive flexibility. Nevertheless, the HA group showed a smaller improvement in these skills and higher risk of IPV recidivism than the LA group. Moreover, improvement in these skills was related to a lower risk of IPV recidivism. The study provides guidance on the targeting of cognitive domains, which are key factors for reducing IPV recidivism. PMID:27043602
Cheng, Diana; Salimi, Shabnam; Terplan, Mishka; Chisolm, Margaret S.
OBJECTIVE To determine the association of intimate partner violence with maternal cigarette smoking before and during pregnancy. METHODS Data were obtained for 196,391 U.S. mothers who delivered live neonates from 2004–2008 and completed the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey 2–9 months postpartum. Intimate partner violence was defined as being physically hurt by a current or expartner in the year before or during pregnancy. Weighted descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS Compared with nonphysically abused women, those who experienced physical abuse were 2.1 times more likely to smoke before pregnancy (44.0% compared with 21.0%, P<.001) and 2.6 times more likely to smoke during pregnancy (29.6% compared with 11.4%, P<.001). Smoking prevalence during pregnancy was highest for abused women who were non-Hispanic white (42.3% smoked) and lowest for nonabused college graduates (2.2% smoked). Smoking rates more than tripled for college graduates in abusive relationships (2.2% compared with 7.1%). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, abused women were significantly more likely to smoke during pregnancy than nonabused women (adjusted odds ratio 1.95, P<.001, 95% confidence interval 1.80–2.12). CONCLUSION Women who experienced intimate partner violence had significantly higher rates of smoking before pregnancy and were less likely to quit during pregnancy than women who did not experience intimate partner violence. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the U.S. Public Services Task Force recommend routine intimate partner violence screening with appropriate interventions to prevent violence against women, optimize safety, and improve health. Additional and targeted intimate partner violence assessment of women who smoke during pregnancy may prove especially beneficial. PMID:25568990
Chen, Ping-Hsin; Jacobs, Abbie; Rovi, Susan L D
Nationally, the rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals are similar to or greater than rates for heterosexuals. Many have experienced psychological and physical abuse as sexual minorities, making it difficult for them to seek help for IPV. Physician behavior, such as not assuming that all patients are heterosexual, being nonjudgmental, and using inclusive language, can empower LGBT patients to disclose IPV. Also, physicians should ascertain the degree to which the patient is out. The threat of being outed can be an aspect of the power and control exerted by an abusive partner and a significant barrier to seeking help. Physicians should screen for IPV and intervene in a similar manner with LGBT and non-LGBT patients, but they should be aware of potential limitations in resources for LGBT patients, such as shelters. As sexual minorities experiencing IPV, LGBT individuals are at greater risk of depression and substance abuse than are non-LGBT individuals. Minority stress, resulting from stigmatization and discrimination, can be exacerbated by IPV. Physicians should learn about legal issues for LGBT individuals and the availability of community or advocacy programs for LGBT perpetrators or victims of IPV. PMID:24053263
Schneider, Daniel; Harknett, Kristen; McLanahan, Sara
In the United States, the Great Recession was marked by severe negative shocks to labor market conditions. In this study, we combine longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study with U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data on local area unemployment rates to examine the relationship between adverse labor market conditions and mothers' experiences of abusive behavior between 2001 and 2010. Unemployment and economic hardship at the household level were positively related to abusive behavior. Further, rapid increases in the unemployment rate increased men's controlling behavior toward romantic partners even after we adjust for unemployment and economic distress at the household level. We interpret these findings as demonstrating that the uncertainty and anticipatory anxiety that go along with sudden macroeconomic downturns have negative effects on relationship quality, above and beyond the effects of job loss and material hardship. PMID:27003136
Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Glass, Nancy; Sharps, Phyllis W; Laughon, Kathryn; Bloom, Tina
Current rates of intimate partner homicide of females are approximately 4 to 5 times the rate for male victims, although the rates for both have decreased during the past 25 years. The major risk factor for intimate partner homicide, no matter if a female or male partner is killed, is prior domestic violence. This review presents and critiques the evidence supporting the other major risk factors for intimate partner homicide in general, and for intimate partner homicide of women (femicide) in particular, namely guns, estrangement, stepchild in the home, forced sex, threats to kill, and nonfatal strangulation (choking). The demographic risk factors are also examined and the related phenomena of pregnancy-related homicide, attempted femicide, and intimate partner homicide-suicide. PMID:17596343
Rahman, Mosfequr; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Ryota; Tomizawa, Hideki; Makinoda, Satoru
This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and unintended pregnancy using data from women reporting IPV in the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analysis included 4,695 married women, aged 15 to 40 years, who had at least one birth in the last 5 years. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between IPV and pregnancy. About one third (30.4%) of women were abused physically and/or sexually and about one third (30.9%) of their births in the last 5 years were unintended. Compared with women who suffered no IPV, women who were abused sexually had a 1.64-fold increased risk of unintended pregnancy, which is higher than those who suffered physical abuse only (odds ratio: 1.35). The prevalence of unintended pregnancy among those who experienced severe physical violence was 1.60 times higher than those who reported no abuse. The findings indicate a significant relationship between IPV and unintended pregnancy among Bangladeshi women. PMID:22550152
Rodriguez, Michael; Shoultz, Jan; Richardson, Erin
Little is known about factors associated with healthcare screening of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) for Latinas during pregnancy. This study builds on current research examining IPV-associated outcomes among Latinas by analyzing 210 pregnant Latina responses to a patient survey. A multivariate logistic regression model examined factors associated with being screened for IPV. One-third of pregnant women reported being screened for IPV. Factors related to being screened for IPV are reported and did not match those associated with having experienced IPV. While most pregnant Latinas were not screened for IPV, having systematic processes in place for IPV screening and fostering good patient-provider communication may facilitate identification of IPV. Having a greater awareness of the risk factors associated with IPV may also provide cues for clinicians to better address the issue of IPV. PMID:19694355
Cismaru, Magdalena; Lavack, Anne M
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health concern with significant physical, emotional, and economic costs. Persuading IPV perpetrators to change their behavior could play an important role in ending violence. This article reviews and analyzes 16 campaigns targeting IPV perpetrators, created in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. Two well-known models, the Transtheoretical (Stages of Change) model and Protection Motivation theory (PMT), are combined to create the analytical framework. For each stage of change, the most salient PMT variables are outlined, the people found in that stage are described, and the most effective strategies for persuasion are posited. Together, these two models would suggest that future campaigns targeting IPV perpetrators should place a stronger emphasis on the benefits of changing and place a greater focus on increasing perpetrators' confidence that they can abstain from violence. PMID:21908438
Ragavan, Maya I; Iyengar, Kirti; Wurtz, Rebecca M
In this article, we examine perceptions about the definition of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) in northern India utilizing feminist perspectives as a framework. We interviewed 56 women and 52 men affiliated with a health services nongovernmental organization in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan. We transcribed, coded, and analyzed the interviews utilizing grounded theory. We found that perceptions regarding physical IPV were associated with both structural and ideological patriarchal beliefs and microlevel constructs such as alcohol use. We discovered multiple types of physical IPV in the study region, including rationalized violence (socially condoned violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), unjustified violence (socially prohibited violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), and majboori violence (violence perpetrated by a wife against her husband). Our results add to the breadth of research available about IPV in India and create a framework for future research and IPV prevention initiatives. PMID:24598776
Doumas, Diana M.; Pearson, Christine L.; Elgin, Jenna E.; McKinley, Lisa L.
This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence and adult attachment in a sample of 70 couples. The attachment style of each partner and the interaction of the partners' attachment styles were examined as predictors of intimate partner violence. Additional analyses were conducted to examine violence reciprocity and to…
Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Braithwaite, Scott; Pasley, Kay
Prevention of intimate partner violence on college campuses includes programs designed to change attitudes, and hence, a scale that assesses such attitudes is needed. Study 1 (N = 859) cross validates the factor structure of the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised using exploratory factor analysis and presents initial validity data on…
Wortham, Thomasine T.
Intimate partner violence includes physical, emotional, or sexual maltreatment from an intimate partner that may include name-calling, hitting, controlling behaviors, use of weapons, rape, intimidation, and a plethora of other physical and emotional tactics (Kress, Protivnak, & Sadlak, 2008; United States Department of Justice, 2013). Such…
Tudor, Carrie; Weinstein, Marc; Moss, Helen; Glass, Nancy
Objectives Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant global public health concern, affecting 5.3 million US individuals annually. An estimated 1 in 3 women globally are abused by an intimate partner in their lifetime, and the effects carry over into the workplace. This article examines employers' perceptions of IPV in the workplace, targeting supervisors of Latina employees. Methods Fourteen employers and supervisors of small service-sector companies in Oregon were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Interpretive description was used to identify themes. These qualitative interviews preceded and helped to formulate a larger workplace intervention study. Results The following themes were found and are detailed: (1) factors associated with recognizing IPV in the workplace, (2) effects of IPV on the work environment and (3) supervisors' responses to IPV-active vs. passive involvement. Also, supervisors' suggestions for addressing IPV in the workplace are summarized. Conclusion These findings demonstrate the need for more IPV-related resources in the workplace to be available to supervisors as well as survivors and their coworkers. The needs of supervisors and workplaces vary by site, demonstrating the need for tailored interventions, and culturally appropriate workplace interventions are needed for Latinas and other racially and ethnically diverse populations. PMID:22953209
Lenahan, Patricia M
Intimate partner violence is one of the most pervasive global public health problems affecting women. It results in untold costs to the healthcare system and is positively linked to eight out of ten leading indicators for Healthy People 2010. Intimate partner violence also is one of the factors associated with adverse childhood experiences that result in negative healthcare behaviours. Intimate partner violence has been the subject of film, made for television movies and music videos. The use of film as an innovative tool to teach about common health and mental health disorders is well-documented. Film also has been used as an adjunctive therapeutic tool in counselling. This paper will provide an overview of intimate partner violence, its portrayal in popular film and ways in which educators may use film to teach intimate partner violence-related topics. PMID:19459093
Schafer, John; Caetano, Raul; Cunradi, Carol B.
The present study was designed to identify the impact of drinking problems, impulsivity, and a history of childhood physical abuse on both male-to-female (MFIPV) and female-to-male intimate partner violence (FMIPV). The data were collected in 1995 from a representative national sample of couples living in the contiguous 48 states. Using a…
Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Willemen, Agnes M.; Visser, Margreet
Objective: This study investigated the relationships among Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in a high risk clinical sample of Dutch children whose mothers were abused by an intimate partner, and the severity of behavioral and emotional problems and trauma symptoms. Methods: The study population comprised 208 children (M = 7.81 years, SD =…
Cattaneo, Lauren Bennett
This article explores what factors contribute to victims' vs. victim advocates' assessments of risk of repeat intimate partner violence. A sample of 169 court-involved victims and the advocates who conducted intake with them were asked to rate victims' risk of repeat abuse. Significant contributors to victim assessments were her level of…
Heintz, Adam Jackson; Melendez, Rita M.
To date, there has been little research examining HIV/STD risk among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals who are in abusive relationships. This article uses data collected from a community-based organization that provides counseling for LGBT victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). A total of 58 clients completed the…
Plichta, Stacey B.
Extensive research indicates that intimate partner violence (IPV) poses a significant risk to the physical health of women. IPV is associated with increased mortality, injury and disability, worse general health, chronic pain, substance abuse, reproductive disorders, and poorer pregnancy outcomes. IPV is also associated with an overuse of health…
Chronister, Krista M.; Harley, Eliza; Aranda, Christina L.; Barr, Leah; Luginbuhl, Paula
Intimate partner violence (IPV) costs women nearly 8 million days of paid work annually. Greater attention to violence survivors' employment and career development can facilitate women escaping abusive relationships and promotes their overall rehabilitation and healing. A first step to increasing attention to survivors' career development includes…
Antle, Becky F.; Karam, Eli; Christensen, Dana N.; Barbee, Anita P.; Sar, Bibhuti K.
This research evaluated the impact of the Within My Reach healthy relationship education program on intimate partner violence for 419 high-risk adults in an urban area. Key outcomes such as relationship knowledge, communication/conflict resolution skills, relationship quality, and physical and emotional abuse were evaluated through survey research…
Morrison, Katherine E.; Luchok, Kathryn J.; Richter, Donna L.; Parra-Medina, Deborah
The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the challenges African-American women in abusive relationships face when they consider seeking-help from their informal networks. Data are reported from interviews with 15 African-American women who were self-identified as having survived physical intimate partner violence. A 13-item,…
Connelly, Cynthia D.; Hazen, Andrea L.; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Kelleher, Kelly J.; Barth, Richard P.; Landsverk, John A.
The purpose of this study is to examine the longitudinal course of intimate partner violence (IPV) among female caregivers of children receiving child welfare services. Data are derived from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a national probability study of children investigated for child abuse and neglect in the United…
Davidov, Danielle M.; Nadorff, Michael R.; Jack, Susan M.; Coben, Jeffrey H.
In the United States, there is an ongoing debate about requiring health care professionals to report intimate partner violence (IPV) to law enforcement agencies. A comprehensive examination of the perspectives of those required to report abuse is critical, as their roles as mandated reporters often pose legal, practical, moral, and ethical…
Hazen, Andrea L.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Kelleher, Kelly; Landsverk, John; Barth, Richard
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence among female caregivers of children reported to child protective services. Method: Data were derived from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a national probability study of children investigated for child abuse and…
Mallow, Alissa; Ward, Kelly
Students studying addictive diseases must come to understand, among other issues, the interplay between intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance abuse. Statistics are important, but case examples elucidate for the students what to "listen" for in their meetings with clients. The purpose of this article is to provide several case examples of…
Bagwell-Gray, Meredith E; Messing, Jill Theresa; Baldwin-White, Adrienne
Intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) is a significant aspect of intimate partner violence (IPV). While intimate partners commit one third of sexual assaults, IPSV is often overlooked in studies about IPV and in research on sexual violence. There are difficulties identifying, defining, and measuring IPSV, and research lacks consistency in terminology and measurement. The purpose of this article is to review the terms, definitions, and measurements associated with IPSV. Academic journals and nonscholarly documents from the United States were searched for articles and reports associated with the study of sexual violence and IPV. Forty-nine documents met the criteria for inclusion. A four-part taxonomy defining IPSV was developed, which included IPSV, intimate partner sexual coercion, intimate partner sexual abuse, and intimate partner forced sexual activity. The average weighted prevalence rates of these various forms of IPSV were calculated across included research studies. However, the measurements generally used to assess IPV do not adequately measure IPSV. Future research should consist terms to ensure consistent conceptualization and measurement of IPSV and to inform practice with survivors. PMID:25561088
Dill-Shackleford, Karen E; Green, Melanie C; Scharrer, Erica; Wetterer, Craig; Shackleford, Lee E
Research has demonstrated the ability of fictional narratives to educate about social and health issues. Although some entertainment-education efforts have used live theater as a mechanism for social change, very few use social science methods to demonstrate exposure effects. This project used live theater to increase understanding and knowledge about intimate partner violence, a pervasive and costly social and health problem. Audiences watched either a play about abusive relationships-emphasizing psychological abuse and the role of coercion and control-or a control play. Compared with controls, those who watched the abuse play were more knowledgeable and less accepting of myths about abusive relationships in a way that mirrored play content. Although both plays were highly transporting, transportation did not explain a significant amount of variance in the attitudes toward intimate partner violence. These results provide rare evidence for theater as a tool for social change. PMID:26086987
Schaffer, Bradley J
The prominence and incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV) with male military veterans vary, but generally there is consensus that screening and intervention does help reduce IPV. Intervention is generally provided in the community via Batterer Intervention Programs. However, at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) intervention is provided via the Domestic Relations Clinic. Nationally the VA has limited treatment for male IPV. An aggregate sample (n = 178) of participants was assessed using the Domestic Violence/Abuse Screen to measure covariate pre-test and post-test outcomes, program failure, and recidivism. The treatment approach is psycho-educationally based to meet the challenging and unique needs of the military veteran population. The results contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of IPV and highlight the need for more intervention and prevention approaches. PMID:25941874
Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee
Coercive control is a relationship dynamic that is theorized to be key for understanding physical intimate partner violence (IPV). This research examines how coercive control in the context of physical IPV may influence child adjustment. Participants were 107 mothers and their children, aged 7 to 10 years. In each family, mothers reported the occurrence of at least one act of physical IPV in the past 6 months. Mothers reported on physical IPV and coercive control, and mothers and children reported on children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Coercive control in the context of physical IPV related positively with both mothers' and children's reports of child externalizing and internalizing problems, after accounting for the frequency of physical IPV, psychological abuse, and mothers' education. This research suggests that couple relationship dynamics underlying physical IPV are potentially important for understanding how physical IPV leads to child adjustment problems. PMID:24923886
Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.
Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships (N=648). Both men and women's participation in gainful activity was negatively associated with aggression. We found that when neither partner was gainfully active, individuals reported higher frequency of physical aggression. In cases of gainful activity asymmetry, the gender of the gainfully active partner did not predict intimate partner aggression. Additionally, we found no evidence that the association between gainful activity and frequency of intimate partner aggression differed by union type. PMID:25309829
Pack, Allison P; L'engle, Kelly; Mwarogo, Peter; Kingola, Nzioki
Female sex workers are known to be at risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) from numerous sources including clients, pimps, boyfriends and husbands. Better understanding the factors associated with IPV in this population will enhance prevention efforts. This work examines baseline survey data collected as part of a randomised controlled trial for an alcohol-harm reduction intervention. The study sample included 619 sex workers. IPV was common in this sample, with 78.7% of women reporting any IPV in the last 30 days. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that supporting one to two other people, experiencing child abuse, witnessing mother abuse, and greater alcohol consumption were risk factors for IPV in our sample. Women who frequented Population, Health and Integrated Assistance (APHIA) II drop-in centres located along transport corridors were also at greater risk of recent IPV, as compared with those who frequented other drop-in centres. Only one protective effect was identified in this study: condom use at last sex with a non-paying partner was associated with less recent IPV. Health programmes for women sex workers in Mombasa and elsewhere need to expand beyond HIV prevention - they need to incorporate information on violence prevention and treatment referrals, as well as information on alcohol harm reduction. PMID:24329103
Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina; Maria, Estephanie Sta; Lohan, Maria; Howard, Terry; Stewart, Donna E; MacMillan, Harriet
Though intimate partner violence (IPV) is predominately understood as a women's health issue most often emerging within heterosexual relationships, there is increasing recognition of the existence of male victims of IPV. In this qualitative study we explored connections between masculinities and IPV among gay men. The findings show how recognising IPV was based on an array of participant experiences, including the emotional, physical and sexual abuse inflicted by their partner, which in turn led to three processes. Normalising and concealing violence referred to the participants' complicity in accepting violence as part of their relationship and their reluctance to disclose that they were victims of IPV. Realising a way out included the participants' understandings that the triggers for, and patterns of, IPV would best be quelled by leaving the relationship. Nurturing recovery detailed the strategies employed by participants to mend and sustain their wellbeing in the aftermath of leaving an abusive relationship. In terms of masculinities and men's health research, the findings reveal the limits of idealising hegemonic masculinities and gender relations as heterosexual, while highlighting a plurality of gay masculinities and the need for IPV support services that bridge the divide between male and female as well as between homosexual and heterosexual. PMID:24641108
Sedlak, Andrea J.
To investigate reactions to violence between intimate partners, 125 undergraduates (68 males, 57 females) completed a three-part questionnaire. The instrument assessed general attitudes about violence between intimates, respondents' personal history as victim or abuser, and their willingness to use the label "battering". In addition, 24…
Weeks, Lori E; Macquarrie, Colleen; Begley, Lorraine; Gill, Carmen; Leblanc, Kristal D
Little is known about midlife and older women who experience intimate partner violence living in rural places and their resource needs. Guided by a strengths perspective, we provided insights into resources that midlife and older women use, or would like to use, in their journey in leaving an abusive partner. Eight women who had left an abusive partner participated in a face-to-face interview. They drew on a wide variety of paid and unpaid resources, while each woman had a unique set of resources that contributed to her being able to make such a significant life transition. It is clear that we need to have a variety of formal and informal resources available to older women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in rural places, and new forms of resources need to be developed. Our results also indicate that increased efforts are needed in improving both public and professional education regarding older rural women and IPV. PMID:26798951
MacMillan, Harriet L; Wathen, C Nadine; Varcoe, Colleen M
Children's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) is increasingly recognized as a type of child maltreatment that has a level of impairment similar to other types of abuse and neglect. Despite advances in the area of IPV, the safety planning strategies recommended as part of the overall response to IPV need to be examined in terms of their implications for children. This article discusses these strategies within the context of child safety, comparing IPV safety planning with approaches aimed at reducing exposure to other types of violence such as child sexual abuse, as well as general child safety strategies. Despite the emphasis on safety planning in information available on responding to IPV, the actual effectiveness of such planning in improving safety and reducing violence is unknown. Safety planning provided to children by a parent experiencing IPV, especially when IPV is ongoing and not recognized by anyone outside the home, may lead to confusing messages for children, particularly if there is an emphasis on secrecy. While awaiting evidence about the effectiveness of specific safety planning strategies for children, we suggest basic principles and general strategies that emphasize universality in terms of education about any type of violence or abuse in the home being unacceptable, as well as the need to focus on safety in general. PMID:23830555
El-Bassel, N; Witte, S S; Wada, T; Gilbert, L; Wallace, J
This study examines the prevalence of physical and sexual abuse by intimate and commercial sexual partners among street-based sex workers and explores correlates of partner abuse by commercial partners using the following factors: sociodemographics, substance abuse, sexual behavior, and physical and sexual childhood abuse. One hundred thirteen street sex workers were recruited from December 1996 through May 1997 while receiving services from the Foundations for Research on Sexually Transmitted Diseases (FROST'D), a nonprofit organization based in New York City. Partner abuse is a common occurrence among street sex workers. Two of three street prostitutes have experienced lifetime physical or sexual abuse by either an intimate or commercial partner. In addition, one of eight reported physical and sexual abuse by both intimate and commercial partners during her lifetime. Women who were homeless in the last year, those who reported exchanging for drugs and money as their main source of income, used injection drugs in the past year and had sex in crack houses, and who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive were more likely to be report combined physical and sexual abuse. Understanding the relationship between partner violence, victim's substance abuse, and HIV-risk behavior is important for the development of public policies and treatment and prevention strategies to address the constellation of problems that drug-using female street sex workers face. PMID:11177587
Alsaker, Kjersti; Moen, Bente E.; Kristoffersen, Kjell
This is the first follow up study measuring quality of life among abused women who have left their abusive partner. The women (n = 22) answered a questionnaire while staying at women's shelter and one year later. The aim was to examine long-term effects of intimate partner violence against women on health-related quality of life. Health-related…
LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick
Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research. PMID:25068818
Crann, Sara E; Barata, Paula C
While resilience research in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV) is increasing, there remains little known about women's lived experience of resilience. Using a phenomenological approach, this study examined the experience of resilience for adult female survivors of IPV. Sixteen women who were currently experiencing or had previously experienced abuse by an intimate partner participated in semi-structured interviews. Resilience was experienced as multiple cognitive, emotional, and behavioral shifts across three theme areas: toward resistance, in the experience of control, and toward positivity. The results of this study suggest a number of applications for clinical practice and intervention. PMID:26567293
Herrenkohl, Todd I; Mason, W Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawkins, J David; Abbott, Robert D
Analyses investigated several competing hypotheses about developmental pathways from childhood physical abuse and early aggression to intimate partner violence (IPV) for young adult males and females at age 24. Potential intervening variables included: adolescent violence (age 15 to 18), negative emotionality at age 21, and quality of one's relationship with an intimate partner at age 24. At the bivariate level, nearly all variables were associated in the expected directions. However, tests of possible intervening variables revealed only a few significant results. For males, a strong direct effect of abuse on later partner violence was maintained in each model. For females, the quality of one's relationship with an intimate partner did appear to mediate the effect of childhood abuse on later violence to a partner, raising the possibility of gender differences in developmental pathways linking abuse to IPV. Implications with regard to prevention are discussed. PMID:15384450
Moura, Leides Barroso Azevedo; Lefevre, Fernando; Moura, Valter
Research was conducted with women aged 15 to 49 living in an economically vulnerable area of the Brazilian state capital on the experience of victims of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). The study adopted a qualitative technique called Collective Subject Discourse. During the interviews in their homes between February and July, 195 women reported incidents of violence throughout their lives. The discourses were grouped by similar violence using the CSD technique and organized into 7 major categories based on 395 key words; i) IPV Engineering (N = 114; 58.5%); ii) Rape of vulnerable sex (N = 77; 39.5%); iii) Silent or silenced violence (N = 43; 21%); iv) Years of Suffering (N = 43; 21%); v) New time despite the suffering (N = 39; 20%); vi) Talking about violence (N = 35; 18%); Violence is a language (N = 34; 17.4%). Three reports with the highest prevalence, entitled "IPV Engineering," are presented in full in this work. The narratives of violence revealed show the strength of vulnerability and abuse suffered by women and the existence of multiple dynamics of violence in intimate affective relationships. PMID:22534856
Sprague, Courtenay; Hatcher, Abigail M; Woollett, Nataly; Sommers, Theresa; Black, Vivian
This qualitative study captured South African female health provider perspectives of intimate partner violence in female patients, gender norms and consequences for patients' health. Findings indicated female patients' health behaviours were predicated on sociocultural norms of submission to men's authority and economic dependence on their partners. Respondents described how men's preferences and health decision-making in clinics affected their patients' health. Adverse gender norms and gender inequalities affected women's opportunities to be healthy, contributing to HIV risk and undermining effective HIV management in this context. Some providers, seeking to deliver a standard of quality healthcare to their female patients, demonstrated a willingness to challenge patriarchal gender relations. Findings enhance understanding of how socially-sanctioned gender norms, intimate partner violence and HIV are synergistic, also reaffirming the need for integrated HIV-intimate partner violence responses in multi-sector national strategic plans. Health providers' intimate knowledge of the lived experiences of female patients with intimate partner violence and/or HIV deepens understanding of how adverse gender norms generate health risks for women in ways that may inform policy and clinical practice in South Africa and other high-HIV prevalence settings. PMID:26505136
McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Collins, Elizabeth A; Nicotera, Nicole; Hageman, Tina O; Ascione, Frank R; Williams, James Herbert; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A
Cruelty toward companion animals is a well-documented, coercive tactic used by abusive partners to intimidate and control their intimate partners. Experiences of co-occurring violence are common for children living in families with intimate partner violence (IPV) and surveys show that more than half are also exposed to abuse of their pets. Given children's relationships with their pets, witnessing such abuse may be traumatic for them. Yet little is known about the prevalence and significance of this issue for children. The present study examines the experiences of children in families with co-occurring pet abuse and IPV. Using qualitative methods, 58 children ages 7-12 who were exposed to IPV were asked to describe their experiences of threats to and harm of their companion animals. Following the interviews, template analysis was employed to systematically develop codes and themes. Coding reliability was assessed using Randolph's free-marginal multirater kappa (kfree=.90). Five themes emerged from the qualitative data, the most common being children's exposure to pet abuse as a power and control tactic against their mother in the context of IPV. Other themes were animal maltreatment to discipline or punish the pet, animal cruelty by a sibling, children intervening to prevent pet abuse, and children intervening to protect the pet during a violent episode. Results indicate that children's experiences of pet abuse are multifaceted, potentially traumatic, and may involve multiple family members with diverse motives. PMID:26520828
... in approximately 40 to 45 percent of physically violent intimate relationships and increases a woman’s risk for ... might negotiate condom use with partners while avoiding violent reactions. For example, condom requests that describe HIV ...
Hardesty, Jennifer L.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; McFarlane, Judith M.; Lewandowski, Linda A.
Approximately 3,300 children are affected by intimate partner femicide each year. Despite the multitude of stressors and the potential for negative outcomes, little is known about these children or their caregivers. This in-depth interview study used family stress theory to explore caregivers' and children's adjustment after intimate partner…
Sedlak, Andrea J.
Many questions about how couples construe violence between intimate partners remain unanswered. In order to examine the "labeling" of violence, attitudes about intimate violence, and victims' reactions to assault, 125 undergraduate students completed a three-part questionnaire, including a Battering Empathy Scale (BES), a section assessing the…
Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Christakos, Antigone
Reports rate of intimate partner homicides (married and unmarried, heterosexual and homosexual) in Chicago from 1965-1993 (2,556 in all). Identifies major trends in intimate homicide over this 29-year period; discusses the people who are most at risk and the riskiest situations. Explores implications for intervention strategies. (LKS)
Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Webster, Daniel W; Glass, Nancy
The Danger Assessment (DA) is an instrument designed to assess the likelihood of lethality or near lethality occurring in a case of intimate partner violence. This article describes the development, psychometric validation, and suggestions for use of the DA. An 11-city study of intimate partner femicide used multivariate analysis to test the predictive validity of the risk factors on the DA from intimate partner femicide cases (N = 310) compared with 324 abused women in the same cities (controls). The results were used to revise the DA (four items added; one "double-barreled" item divided into two), and the calculated weights (adjusted odds ratios) used to develop a scoring algorithm with levels of risk. These levels of risk were then tested with an independent sample of attempted femicides (N = 194) with a final outcome of .90 of the cases included in the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. PMID:18667689
Anderson, Jocelyn C.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Doris W.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.
Introduction Intimate partner violence has been linked to increased and repeated injuries, as well as negative long-term physical and mental health outcomes. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of injury in women of African descent who reported recent intimate partner violence and never abused controls. Methods African American and African Caribbean women aged 18–55 were recruited from clinics in Baltimore, Maryland and the US Virgin Islands. Self-reported demographics, partner violence history and injury outcomes were collected. Associations between violence and injury outcomes were examined with logistic regression. Results All injury outcomes were significantly more frequently reported in women who also reported recent partner violence than those never abused. Multiple injuries were nearly three times more likely to be reported in women who had experienced recent abuse (AOR 2.75, 95% CI 1.98–3.81). Reported injury outcomes were similar between the sites except that women in Baltimore were 66% more likely than their US Virgin Islands counterparts to report past year emergency department use (p=0.001). In combined site multivariable models, partner violence was associated with past year emergency department use, hospitalization and multiple injuries. Discussion Injuries related to intimate partner violence may be part of the explanation for the negative long-term health outcomes. In this study partner violence was associated with past year emergency department use, hospitalization and multiple injuries. Emergency nurses need to assess for intimate partner violence when women report with injury to make sure the violence is addressed in order to prevent repeated injuries and negative long-term health outcomes. PMID:24768096
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem in the United States and a common cause of injury. Prevalence rates of IPV vary by the surveillance methods and definitions used. National data from the 1995 National Violence Against Women Survey indicate that 22.1% of women and 7.4% of men experience IPV during their lifetimes and that 1.3% of women and 0.9% of men experience IPV annually. IPV results in an estimated 4.1 billion dollars each year in direct medical and mental health-care costs, including 159 million dollars in emergency department (ED) treatments for IPV physical assaults. IPV might constitute as much as 17% of all violence-related injuries treated in EDs. To determine the magnitude of the IPV problem in Oklahoma, including IPV-related injuries and medical service utilization, researchers analyzed injury surveillance data from ED medical records and data from the Oklahoma Women's Health Survey (OWHS). This report summarizes the findings, which indicated that, during 2002 in Oklahoma, approximately 16% of all ED visits for assaults were for IPV injuries, including 35% of assault visits among females and 3% of assault visits among males. In addition, results of the OWHS for 2001-2003 indicated that 5.9% of surveyed Oklahoma women aged 18-44 years sustained an IPV injury during the preceding year. Overall, IPV resulted in a substantial number of injuries, particularly to women, many of whom required treatment in EDs. Medical recognition and documentation of IPV are important for identification of persons in need of services. PMID:16237374
Ramadugu, Shashikumar; Jayaram, Prasad V.; Srivastava, Kalpana; Chatterjee, Kaushik; Madhusudan, T.
Objectives: This study assessed intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol use in an urban population in Pune, India. The prevalence of IPV and alcohol use was assessed along with the correlation of IPV with alcohol and other variables. Materials and Methods: The study was cross-sectional, questionnaire-based. The materials used were the hurt insult threaten scream (HITS) scale, the alcohol use disorders identification test, and a brief psychosocial questionnaire. Systematic random sampling was done on the target population. Regression analysis of various factors in relation to HITS score was done. Results: Sample size (n) was 318 individuals. Prevalence of IPV was found to be 16% and the victims were mostly women. Prevalence of alcohol use was 44%, of which 8.9% were harmful users. No female subjects consumed alcohol, but 94% were aware of their husband's alcohol consumption. No significant correlation was found between IPV and education (P = 0.220) or income of women (P = 0.250). Alcohol consumption by males was a significant risk factor for women experiencing IPV (σ = +0.524; P< 0.001). Regression analysis also revealed that increasing marital age (P = 0.019) and financial support from in-laws (P = 0.040) were significantly protective. Conclusion: IPV prevalence was less than the national average for India, but the majority of victims was women. The most common type of IPV was verbal. Alcohol use prevalence was higher than the national average, but harmful use was lower. Alcohol use is a significant risk factor for IPV. Education and income of women were not significantly protective against IPV but increased age at marriage and support from in-laws were. PMID:27212823
Background Violence against women is a worldwide problem and serious human rights abuse that occurs among all social, cultural, economic and religious groups. There is a paucity of research on intimate partner violence against women in Iraq, particularly in the Kurdistan region. This study assessed the prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual intimate partner violence against women and the impact of physical violence in Erbil, the main city of the Iraqi Kurdistan region. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on a convenience sample of 800 Kurdish ever married women. Women (aged 16 to 65 years) attending two public hospitals in Erbil city for reproductive health problems were included in the study. The study was conducted between 1st of October 2009 and 30th of March 2011. Each woman was seen only once. Intimate partner violence was assessed by administering a modified version of the World Health Organization’s domestic violence questionnaire through direct interview by a female doctor. Prevalence of intimate partner violence was assessed by timing (lifetime or past year), frequency (once, 2–5 times, > 5 times), and type (emotional, physical, and sexual violence). Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted with calculation of frequencies and percentages of women who reported different types, severities and impact of intimate partner violence. Results The prevalence of the overall lifetime and the overall past year intimate partner violence against women was 58.6% and 45.3%, respectively. The proportions of women experienced at least one form of lifetime intimate partner violence were: 52.6% for emotional abuse; 38.9% for physical violence; and 21.1% for sexual violence, while 43.3%, 15.1%, and 12.1% of women experienced at least one form of past year emotional, physical and sexual violence, respectively. Among those with lifetime physical violence, 11.6% were subjected to more serious injuries like stab wound, broken teeth or broken bones
Kita, Sachiko; Yaeko, Kataoka; Porter, Sarah E
Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy can result in adverse outcomes for both mothers and their infants. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and risk factors of IPV associated with abuse during pregnancy via a self-administered questionnaire completed by 302 healthy pregnant women. Demographic information was also collected from medical records to analyze risk factors for abuse. Of the 302 women, 48 (15.9%) were identified as experiencing IPV. The identified risk factors were age over 30, multipara, previous abortion experience, and male partner aged under 30. PMID:24350998
Overstreet, Nicole M.; Quinn, Diane M.
The Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Stigmatization Model identifies how three stigma components hinder IPV help-seeking behaviors: cultural stigma, stigma internalization, and anticipated stigma. Cultural stigma highlights societal beliefs that de-legitimize people experiencing abuse. Stigma internalization involves the extent to which people come to believe that the negative stereotypes about those who experience IPV may be true of themselves. Anticipated stigma emphasizes concern about what will happen once others know about the partner abuse (e.g., rejection). We provide an integrative literature review that supports the IPV stigmatization model and its role in reducing help-seeking behaviors. PMID:23524454
Teitelman, Anne M.; Tennille, Julie; Bohinski, Julia; Jemmott, Loretta S.; Jemmott, John B.
This article describes the influence of abusive and non-abusive relationship dynamics on the number of sex partners among urban adolescent girls. Focus groups were conducted with 64 sexually active adolescent girls ages 14 to 17 years. General coding and content analyses identified patterns, themes, and salient beliefs. More than one third (37.5%) reported having experienced physical, intimate partner violence; 32.8% had 2 or more recent sex partners, and 37.5% had ever had a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or HIV. Although some girls in abusive relationships feared retribution if they had more than one partner, others sought additional partners for solace or as an act of resistance. Adolescent HIV/STI prevention programs need to address the influence of gender norms such as the sexual double standard as well as partner pressure and partner abuse on adolescent decision-making about safer sex, and also promote healthy relationships as integral to advancing HIV/STI risk reduction. PMID:23790274
Nelson, Kara A; Ferrance, Jacquelyn L; Masho, Saba W
Sub-Saharan African countries are heavily burdened with HIV, which disproportionately affects women of reproductive age. Extant literature is inconsistent regarding the link between intimate partner violence and HIV. Data from the 2007 Zambian Demographic Health Survey of women aged 15-49 (n = 5014) were analysed. The influence of abuse by a current or former husband on consent to HIV testing and HIV positivity were evaluated. The unadjusted analysis showed a statistically significant association between intimate partner violence and consent to testing for HIV. Stratified analysis showed that there was a statistically significant association between intimate partner violence and HIV testing in rural areas but not in urban areas. However, the association lost its significance when adjusted for confounding factors. No statistically significant association was found between intimate partner violence and HIV-positive status. It is encouraging that women who experienced intimate partner were testing for HIV. Prevention efforts should continue addressing the needs of this population. PMID:26185042
McFarlane, Judith; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Watson, Kathy
This study describes the type and extent of intimate partner stalking and threatening behaviors that occurred within 12 months prior to a major assault or attempted or actual partner femicide and specifies which behaviors were associated with an increased risk of potential or actual lethality. The design was a ten-city case-control study of 821 women: 384 abuse victims and 437 attempted or actual femicide informants. Data were derived using a 16-item inventory. Logistic regressions, with adjustments for demographic variables, were used to identify the significant perpetrator behaviors associated with attempted/actual femicide. Women who reported the perpetrator followed or spied on them were more than twice as likely t o become attempted/actual femicide victims. Threats by the perpetrator to harm the children if the woman left or did not return to the relationship place the woman at a ninefold increase in the risk of attempted/actual femicide. Conclusions are that certain stalking and threatening behaviors are strong risk factors for lethality, and women must be so advised. PMID:12030246
Rose, Linda; Alhusen, Jeanne; Bhandari, Shreya; Soeken, Karen; Marcantonio, Kristen; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis
The mental health consequences of living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are substantial. Despite the growing awareness of the incidence of depression and PTSD in women experiencing IPV, few studies have examined prospectively the experience of IPV during pregnancy and the impact of the abuse on women's mental health. As a component of a larger clinical trial of an intervention for pregnant abused women, 27 women participated in a qualitative study of their responses to the abuse in the context of pregnancy and parenting. Results indicate that women's changing perceptions of self was related to mental distress, mental health, or both mental distress and mental health. PMID:20070224
Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Lila, Marisol; Oliver, Amparo
Alcohol consumption is often associated with violence against women. The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between alcohol and other relevant variables in the intervention with men convicted of intimate partner violence, both at the individual and contextual spheres. Clinical symptomatology, Drug abuse, Impulsivity, Self-esteem, Assumption of responsibility, Intimate support perception, Social rejection perception, Accumulation of stressful life events, Income perception and Social support in community are assessed in a sample of 291 participants in an intervention program for men condemned for intimate partner violence. Data were analyzed using bivariate correlations and ANOVAs. Statistically significant differences were obtained among Risk consumers and Not risk consumers in Clinical symptomatology, Drug abuse, Impulsivity, Self-esteem and Attribution of blame to personal context as individual variables and Intimate support perception, Social rejection and Accumulation of stressful life events as contextual variables. Results of previous work are confirmed and the importance of considering social factors in the participants' environment when considering decreasing alcohol consumption and intimate partner violence is demonstrated. New tools for enhancing interventions in rehabilitation programs with men convicted for violence against women is provided. PMID:23487276
Bauer, Nerissa S.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lozano, Paula; Rivara, Frederick P.; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David
OBJECTIVE Our objectives with this study were to describe the prevalence of bullying involvement (ie, bullying and victimization) among children from a multigenerational study and to examine the relationship of these childhood behaviors and exposure to intimate partner violence. METHODS A community-based cohort of 112 children (aged 6 to 13 years) was asked to self-report on physical, verbal, and relational types of bullying and victimization experienced in the past year. Parents reported on their child’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors during the previous 6 months using items from Achenbach’s Child Behavior Checklist. The frequency of parental experiences of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization at 2 time points during the preceding 5 years was measured using Conflict Tactics Scale items. The association of intimate partner violence and parent-reported child behavioral problems was examined, followed by exposure to intimate partner violence and child-reported bullying or victimization. Parental risk factors (eg, race/ethnicity, education, problem drinking) that predispose to intimate partner violence were controlled for using propensity score statistical modeling. RESULTS Eighty-two (73.2%) children reported being victimized by peers, and 38 (33.9%) children reported bullying behaviors in the past year. More reports came from girls than from boys (55% for victimization and 61% for bullying). Almost all (97%) child bullies were also victims themselves. Intimate partner violence was reported by parent respondents in 53 (50.5%) households at any or both of the 2 time points. Exposure to intimate partner violence was not associated with child-reported relational bullying behaviors or victimization by peers, However, intimate partner violence–exposed children were at increased risk for problematic levels of externalizing behavior/physical aggression and internalizing behaviors. CONCLUSIONS In our sample, children who were 6 to 13
Roelens, K.; Verstraelen, H.; Temmerman, M.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health problem, which has been extensively studied all over the world, yet Belgian data are limited. IPV remains a taboo resulting in denial and underreporting. For an obstetrician-gynaecologist (OB/GYN), IPV, committed by a male partner to a woman, is of particular interest, because of its negative impact on women’s and children’s health. In Belgium there are few data on IPV and guidelines for OB/GYN are missing. In a multi-centered survey surveillance study which was carried out among pregnant women attending 5 large hospitals in the province of East Flanders, the lifetime prevalence of IPV was estimated to be 10.1% and the period prevalence during pregnancy and/or in the year preceding pregnancy 3.4%. In our highly medicalised society, only 19.2% and 6.6% of the victims of physical and sexual abuse respectively sought medical care. Routine screening for IPV by a general practitioner or OB/GYN was found to be largely acceptable. In a questionnaire-based Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice survey among OB/GYN in Flanders, OB/GYN prove unfamiliar with IPV and largely underestimate the extent of the problem. Merely 6.8% of the respondents ever received any education on IPV. They refute the incentive of universal screening, even during pregnancy and one of the major barriers is fear of offending patients. Physician education was found to be the strongest predictor of a positive attitude towards screening and of current screening practices. Hence, there is a definite need to improve women’s awareness regarding abuse and to endorse physician training on IPV. PMID:25478074
Conroy, Amy A
Extramarital sexual partnerships are a common reason for intimate partner violence (IPV) in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the fact that IPV requires an interaction between two partners, the majority of the research focuses on individuals rather than the broader relationship context where such violence takes place. Using a sample of 422 married couples from rural Malawi, this study examined the dyadic environment of marital infidelity and two types of IPV victimization: sexual coercion and physical abuse. We considered both self-reported marital infidelity and perceived partner infidelity to assess how well partners knew each other and to compare their respective associations with IPV. Logistic regression was used to test for associations between self-reported marital infidelity and IPV. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine actor and partner effects of perceived partner infidelity on an individual's and their partner's experience of IPV. The results show that self-reported marital infidelity was not significantly associated with IPV for men or women. However, the perception of a partner's infidelity was significantly associated with both an individual's and their partner's risk for sexual coercion and physical abuse. Contrary to the "sexual double standard" hypothesis, women were not significantly more likely than men to report being physically abused when their partners suspected infidelity. Future studies should continue to explore the relationship context of IPV in sub-Saharan Africa in order to understand how spouses mutually shape each other's experience of IPV and subsequent health outcomes. PMID:24789050
Gass, Jesse D; Stein, Dan J; Williams, David R; Seedat, Soraya
Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study seeks to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a national sample of South African men and women. Using data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative South Africa Stress and Health Study, the authors examine data from 1,715 currently married or cohabiting adults on reporting of intimate partner violence. Our analysis include (a) demographic factors, (b) early life risk factors (including exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, parental closeness, and early onset DSM-IV disorders), and (c) adult risk factors (including experiencing the death of a child and episodes of DSM-IV disorders after age 20). Although prevalence rates of intimate partner violence are high among both genders, women are significantly more likely than men to report being victimized (29.3% vs. 20.9%). Rates of perpetrating violence are similar for women and men (25.2% and 26.5%, respectively). Men are more likely to report predictive factors for perpetration, whereas women are more likely to report predictors for victimization. Common risk factors among men and women reporting perpetration include exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and adult onset alcohol abuse/dependence. However, risk factors in male perpetrators are more likely to include cohabitation, low income, and early and adult-onset mood disorders, whereas risk factors in female perpetrators include low educational attainment and early onset alcohol abuse/dependence. The single common risk factor for male and female victims of partner violence is witnessing parental violence. Additional risk factors for male victims are low income and lack of closeness to a primary female
Stöckl, Heidi; Penhale, Bridget
Intimate partner violence is a commonly acknowledged health care issue. While numerous studies established the health implications of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age, the evidence is scarce for older women and for other forms of intimate partner violence. This study, therefore, investigates the prevalence of intimate partner violence in its different forms and its association with physical and mental health symptoms of older women, using women of reproductive age as a reference group. This study is a cross-sectional study, utilizing data from a national representative survey of 10,264 German women aged 16 to 86 years. Rates of physical and sexual intimate partner violence in the last year decreased from 8% to 3% and 1% among women aged 16 to 49 years, 50 to 65 years, and 66 to 86 years, respectively. The prevalence of emotional and economic abuse and controlling behavior by partners remained nearly the same. All forms of intimate partner violence had significant associations with women's health symptoms, such as gastrointestinal, psychosomatic and psychological symptoms, and pelvic problems. Controlling behavior was most consistently associated with most health symptoms. Health and care professionals who screen women for intimate partner violence should, therefore, consider incorporating questions about controlling behavior as well, because this form of violence is not only frequent but also has multiple health outcomes among women across all ages. PMID:25392386
Intimate partner violence is a social and public health problem that is prevalent across the world. In many societies, power differentials in relationships, often supported by social norms that promote gender inequality, lead to incidents of intimate partner violence. Among other factors, both a woman's years of education and educational differences between a woman and her partner have been shown to have an effect on her likelihood of experiencing intimate partner abuse. Using the 2010 Malawian Demographic and Health Survey data to analyze intimate partner violence among 3,893 married Malawian women and their husbands, this article focuses on understanding the effect of educational differences between husband and wife on the likelihood of physical and emotional abuse within a marriage. The results from logistic regression models show that a woman's level of education is a significant predictor of her likelihood of experiencing intimate partner violence by her current husband, but that this effect is contingent on her husband's level of education. This study demonstrates the need to educate men alongside of women in Malawi to help decrease women's risk of physical and emotional intimate partner violence. PMID:26645866
Farooque, Rokeya S; Stout, Ronnie G; Ernst, Frederick A
Most of the literature on intimate partner homicide addresses violence between the two partners, spousal abuse, and family violence. There is less focus on the relationship of mental illness, intellectual functioning, and drug and alcohol abuse to these homicides. We investigated this type of homicide in a collection of forensic cases seen by the first author over a period of 10 years. Twenty-eight patients who underwent forensic psychiatric evaluation for heterosexual intimate partner homicide from August 1993 to June 2003 were studied using a retrospective case review methodology. We found that firearms were used as the method of killing more often by females than by males. We also compared method of killing with substance abuse and intoxication at the time of the homicide. Educational status indicates that this group of accused perpetrators is functioning at higher intellectual levels compared with a previously studied sample of filicides. We also found significant presence of serious mental illness in our sample of accused perpetrators of heterosexual intimate partner homicide. PMID:15932101
Meis, Laura A.; Murphy, Christopher M.; Winters, Jamie J.
Concerns about low motivation to change among perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) have heightened interest employing behavior change models with this population. In the present investigation, a new scale was developed, the Outcome Expectancies for Partner Abuse (OEPA) Scale, assessing the negative and positive outcome expectancies of…
Bogat, G. Anne; DeJonghe, Erika; Levendosky, Alytia A.; Davidson, William S.; von Eye, Alexander
Objective: To determine whether infants have a traumatic response to intimate partner violence (male violence toward their female partner; IPV) experienced by their mothers, two questions were explored: (1) Is the number of infant trauma symptoms related to the infant's temperament and the mother's mental health? (2) Does severity of violence…
O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Myint-U, Athi; Duran, Richard; Agronick, Gail; Wilson-Simmons, Renee
This study examined the relationship between middle-school aggressive behaviors and young adults' experiences as victims and perpetrators of intimate partner physical violence. As part of the Reach for Health longitudinal study, surveys were conducted with 977 8th graders who were resurveyed as young adults, when lifetime partner violence was…
Simmons, Catherine A.; Lehmann, Peter; Dia, David A.
Exploring the relationship between parenting and women's use of violence the current study surveyed 106 mothers arrested for intimate partner violence (IPV) related crimes on parenting styles and attitudes toward when using violence against their partner is justified. Findings indicate parenting styles indicative of low belief in using physical…
Silverman, Jay G.; Mesh, Cynthia M.; Cuthbert, Carrie V.; Slote, Kim; Bancroft, Lundy
Intimate partner violence and child abuse are recognized both as public health concerns and as violations of human rights, but related government actions and inactions are rarely documented as human rights violations in the United States. Men who abuse female partners are also highly likely to abuse the children of these women. However, family courts are reported to often ignore risks posed by abusive men in awarding child custody and visitation. Battered women involved in child custody litigation in Massachusetts (n = 39) were interviewed. A recurring pattern of potential human rights violations by the state was documented, corresponding to rights guaranteed in multiple internationally accepted human rights covenants and treaties. The human rights framework is a powerful tool for demonstrating the need for legal, social, and political reform regarding public health concerns. PMID:15249297
Teitelman, Anne M; Tennille, Julie; Bohinski, Julia; Jemmott, Loretta S; Jemmott, John B
This article describes the influence of abusive and nonabusive relationship dynamics on the number of sex partners among urban adolescent girls. Focus groups were conducted with 64 sexually active adolescent girls ages 14 to 17 years. General coding and content analyses identified patterns, themes, and salient beliefs. More than one third (37.5%) reported having experienced physical, intimate partner violence; 32.8% had two or more recent sex partners, and 37.5% had ever had a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or HIV. Although some girls in abusive relationships feared retribution if they had more than one partner, others sought additional partners for solace or as an act of resistance. Adolescent HIV/STI prevention programs need to address the influence of gender norms such as the sexual double standard, as well as partner pressure and partner abuse on adolescent decision-making about safer sex, and also promote healthy relationships as integral to advancing HIV/STI risk reduction. PMID:23790274
Stewart, Donna E; Vigod, Simone; Riazantseva, Ekaterina
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health and human rights problem that causes physical, sexual and psychological harms to men and women. IPV includes physical aggression, sexual coercion, psychological abuse and/or controlling behaviours perpetrated by a current or previous intimate partner in a heterosexual or same-sex relationship. IPV affects both men and women, but women are disproportionately affected with nearly one third reporting IPV during their lifetime. Physical and sexual harms from IPV include injury, increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy complications and sometimes death. Psychological consequences include depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance abuse, impulsivity and suicidality and non-specific physical complaints thought to be related to the traumatic nature and chronic stress of IPV. Children who witness IPV are also negatively impacted in the short and long term. This paper reviews prevalence, risk factors, adverse effects and current evidence-based mental health treatment advice for IPV victims. PMID:26711508
Demelash, Habtamu; Nigatu, Dabere; Gashaw, Ketema
Introduction. Violence against women has serious consequences for their reproductive and sexual health including birth outcomes. In Ethiopia, though the average parity of pregnant women is much higher than in other African countries, the link between intimate partner violence with low birth weight is unknown. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the association between intimate partner violence and low birth weight among pregnant women. Method. Hospital based case-control study was conducted among 387 mothers (129 cases and 258 controls). Anthropometric measurements were taken both from mothers and their live births. The association between intimate partner violence and birth weight was computed through bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses and statistical significance was declared at P < 0.05. Result. Out of 387 interviewed mothers, 100 (25.8%) had experienced intimate partner violence during their index pregnancy period. Relatively more mothers of low birth weight infants were abused (48%) compared with controls (16.4%). Those mothers who suffered acts of any type of intimate partner violence during pregnancy were three times more likely to have a newborn with low birth weight (95% CI; (1.57 to 7.18)). The association between overall intimate partner violence and LBW was adjusted for potential confounder variables. Conclusion. This research result gives insight for health professional about the importance of screening for intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Health care providers should consider violence in their practice and try to identify women at risk. PMID:26798345
Foran, Heather M; Whisman, Mark A; Beach, Steven R H
Over the past 40 years, a large body of literature has documented intimate partner relationship distress as a primary reason for seeking mental health services as well as an integral factor in the prognosis and treatment of a range of mental and physical health conditions. In recognition of its relevance to clinical care, the description of intimate partner relationship distress has been expanded in the DSM-5. Nonetheless, this is irrelevant if the DSM-5 code for intimate partner relationship distress is not reliably used in clinical practice and research settings. Thus, with the goal of dissemination in mind, the purpose of this paper was to provide clinicians and researchers with specific guidelines on how to reliably assess intimate partner relationship distress and how this information can be used to inform treatment planning. In addition to the implications for direct clinical care, we discuss the importance of reliable assessment and documentation of intimate partner relationship distress for future progress in epidemiology, etiology, and public health research. PMID:25582661
Achor, JU; Ibekwe, PC
Background: Even though intimate partner violence represents a major public health problem in Nigeria, much of its associated burden of psychiatric morbidity presenting in the clinical setting goes unrecognized and untreated. Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to clarify the psychiatric perspectives on intimate partner violence and highlight the barriers that militate against the detection of these problems in clinical contexts. Method: This paper utilized the framework of relevant case series and a focused review of the relevant literature to describe and annotate the psychiatric problems of the victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence in southeast Nigeria. Results: The major barriers to detection of the psychiatric disorders occurring in the context of intimate partner violence include patients’ feelings of shame, reticence about the abuse experiences in the clinical encounter, and cloaking of their emotional distress in somatic complaints. Also, the poor interviewing skills of many doctors and their difficulty in processing psychosocial matters contributes to the non-detection of psychiatric problems occurring in the context of partner violence. Conclusion: Concerted efforts directed towards the improved detection, treatment and/or referral of patients presenting with these difficulties will enhance their wellbeing and quality of life. PMID:23209997
Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis
Objective To assess the prevalence of intimate partner violence, substance use, and their co-occurrence during pregnancy and examines their associations with adverse neonatal outcomes. Study design Between February 2009 and February 2010, pregnant women receiving obstetrical care at three urban clinics were screened for intimate partner violence and substance use between 24-28 weeks gestation. A chart review was conducted upon delivery to assess for adverse neonatal outcomes of low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, and small for gestational age (SGA). Results Maternal and neonatal data were collected on 166 mothers and their neonates. Overall, 19% of the sample reported intimate partner violence during their pregnancies. Of the study's neonates 41% had at least one adverse neonatal outcome. Nearly half of the mothers reported using at least one substance during pregnancy. Women experiencing intimate partner violence had a higher prevalence of marijuana use than their non-abused counterparts (p < 0.01). Experiencing intimate partner violence was associated with a fourfold increase in having a SGA neonate (aOR = 4.00; 95% CI 1.58 – 9.97). Women who reported marijuana use had five times the odds of having a neonate classified as SGA (aOR = 5.16, 95% CI 2.24 – 11.89) or LBW (aOR 5.00; 95% CI 1.98 – 12.65). Conclusions The prevalence of intimate partner violence during pregnancy and substance use is high in urban mothers, the risks of which extend to their neonates. Pediatric providers are urged to routinely screen for both issues and recognize the impact of co-occurrence of these risk factors on poor neonatal and childhood outcomes. PMID:23485028
Webermann, Aliya R.; Brand, Bethany L.; Chasson, Gregory S.
Background Childhood maltreatment (CM) is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Indeed, elevated rates of dissociation and dissociative disorders (DD) have been found among IPV survivors and perpetrators. In addition, in pilot studies, DD clinicians have reported high levels of violent behavior among DD patients. Objective The present study investigates IPV among DD patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, a group with CM rates of 80–95% and severe dissociative symptoms. Methods DD clinicians reported on rates of CM and IPV among 275 DD patients in outpatient treatment. DD patients also completed a self-report measure of dissociation. Analyses assessed the associations between CM typologies and IPV, as well as trait dissociation and IPV. Results Physical and emotional child abuse were associated with physical IPV, and childhood witnessing of domestic violence (DV) and childhood neglect were associated with emotional IPV. Conclusions The present study is the first to provide empirical support for a possible CM to adult IPV developmental trajectory among DD patients. Future research is needed to better understand the link between CM and IPV among those with trauma and DD. PMID:25279109
Terrazas-Carrillo, Elizabeth C; McWhirter, Paula T
Exploring risk factors and profiles of intimate partner violence in other countries provides information about whether existing theories of this phenomenon hold consistent in different cultural settings. This study will present results of a regression analysis involving domestic violence among Mexican women (n = 83,159). Significant predictors of domestic violence among Mexican women included age, number of children in the household, income, education, self-esteem, family history of abuse, and controlling behavior of the husband. Women's employment status was not a significant predictor when all variables were included in the model; however, when controlling behavior of the husband was withdrawn from the model, women's employment status was a significant predictor of domestic violence toward women. Results from this research indicate that spousal controlling behavior may serve as a mediator of the predictive relationship between women's employment status and domestic violence among Mexican women. Findings provide support for continued exploration of the factors that mediate experiences of domestic violence among women worldwide. PMID:25031103
Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Frohman, N.; Purcell, Genevieve
Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major public health issue with significant implications for maternal mental health. Less studied is the association between IPV during pregnancy and suicidal ideation. This study reports the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among low-income pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a university obstetrical clinic from February 2009 to March 2010. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 166 women surveyed between 24 – 28 weeks gestation using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS). Multiple logistic regression identified factors associated with antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 22.89%. In the fully adjusted model antenatal depressive symptomatology (OR = 17.04; 95% CI 2.10 – 38.27) and experiencing IPV (OR = 9.37; 95% CI 3.41 – 25.75) were significantly associated with an increased risk of antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of antenatal suicidal ideation in the current study was higher than other population-based samples though this sample was predominantly single, low-income, and 19% experienced IPV during pregnancy. Given the strong association of antenatal suicidal ideation, depressive symptomatology, and IPV, health care providers are urged to identify those women at risk so that antenatal care can be tailored to best support optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:25753680
Alhusen, Jeanne L; Frohman, N; Purcell, Genevieve
Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major public health issue with significant implications for maternal mental health. Less studied is the association between IPV during pregnancy and suicidal ideation. This study reports the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among low-income pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a university obstetrical clinic from February 2009 to March 2010. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 166 women surveyed between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS). Multiple logistic regression identified factors associated with antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 22.89 %. In the fully adjusted model, antenatal depressive symptomatology (OR = 17.04; 95 % CI 2.10-38.27) and experiencing IPV (OR = 9.37; 95 % CI 3.41-25.75) were significantly associated with an increased risk of antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of antenatal suicidal ideation in the current study was higher than other population-based samples though this sample was predominantly single, low-income, and 19 % experienced IPV during pregnancy. Given the strong association of antenatal suicidal ideation, depressive symptomatology, and IPV, health care providers are urged to identify those women at risk so that antenatal care can be tailored to best support optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:25753680
Sheehan, Kathleen A; Thakor, Sumaiya; Stewart, Donna E
Understanding why and how perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) change their behavior is an important goal for both policy development and clinical practice. In this study, the authors investigated the concept of "turning points" for perpetrators of IPV by conducting a systematic review of qualitative studies that investigated the factors, situations, and attitudes that facilitated perpetrators' decisions to change their abusive behavior. Two literature databases were searched and six studies were found that met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Most included participants from batterer intervention programs (BIPs). The data indicate that community, group, and individual processes all contribute to perpetrators' turning points and behavioral change. These include identifying key incidents that precede change, taking responsibility for past behavior, learning new skills, and developing relationships within and outside of the BIP. By using a qualitative systematic review, the authors were able to generate a more complete understanding of the catalysts for and process of change in these individuals. Further research, combining quantitative and qualitative approaches, will be helpful in the modification of existing BIPs and the development of new interventions to reduce IPV. PMID:22096016
Taherkhani, Sakineh; Negarandeh, Reza; Simbar, Masomeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah
Background: Violence against women has been identified as a public health problem, which has fundamental consequences on women's physical, mental, and reproductive health. To understand abused women and provide support for them, it is necessary to enter the world in which the victims of intimate partner violence live. This study was designed to investigate experiences of abused Iranian women of intimate partner violence. Methods: Content analysis approach was used to design this qualitative study. Participants were 11 married women, selected from two health centers and one park located in the south of Tehran, Iran. Purposive sampling method was applied to recruit the study participants and continued until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured interviews were employed to collect data. Results: During the data analysis, 650 initial codes were clustered in six subcategories and two categories. “Neglect or covert violence” and “overt violence” were two categories emerged through data analysis, both having physical, sexual, and emotional dimensions. Emotional violence was the most prevalent in both cases and had more significance for the women. Neglect was much more common than overt violence. It was the precursor for overt violence. Conclusion: Although participants had experienced both neglect and overt violence, the major part of experienced violence was neglect. This type of violence usually is not addressed or recognized and is difficult to identify, but it is damaging to women. Knowledge of women‟s experiences of intimate partner violence makes the health staff provide better care for abused women. PMID:25649136
Petering, Robin; Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey
While there is a growing body of research on intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by the housed youth population, a limited amount is known about IPV experienced by homeless youth. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined how homeless youths’ experience of IPV is related to their social network, even though the social networks of homeless youth have been shown to be significant indicators of health and mental health. The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between IPV, gender, and social networks among a sample of 386 homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Results revealed that one fifth of the sample experienced IPV in the past year. Stratified regression models revealed that IPV was not significantly related to any measure of male social networks; however, females who experienced IPV had more male friends (β = 2.03, SE = 0.89, p < .05) than females who did not experience IPV. Female homeless youth who witnessed family violence during childhood had more male friends (β = 2.75, SE = 1.08, p < .05), but those who experienced sexual abuse during childhood had fewer male friends (β = −2.04, SE = 0.93, p < .05). Although there was no significant difference in the rate of IPV victimization across genders, the context of this abuse appears to be drastically different. The results suggest that females with more male friendships are at greater risk for exposure to IPV. To date, there are few effective youth-targeted IPV prevention programs and none have been shown to be effective with homeless youth. These results provide insight into future program development. PMID:24421071
Pallitto, Christina C; O'Campo, Patricia
Violence against women, especially by intimate partners, is a serious public health problem that is associated with physical, reproductive, and mental health consequences. The effect of intimate partner violence on women's ability to control their fertility and the mechanisms through which these phenomena are related merit further investigation. Building on findings from a previous analysis in which a statistically significant relationship between intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy in Colombia was found, this analysis examines the effect of gender inequality on this association using data from the 2000 Colombian Demographic and Health Survey. Specifically, the objective of this analysis is to explore whether gender inequality (as measured by women's autonomy, women's status, male patriarchal control, and intimate partner violence) in municipalities partially explains the association between intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy in Colombia. Results of logistic regression analysis with multi-level data show that living in a municipality with high rates of male patriarchal control significantly increased women's odds of having an unintended pregnancy by almost four times. Also, living in a municipality with high rates of intimate partner violence increased one's odds of unintended pregnancy by more than 2.5 times, and non-abused women living in municipalities with high rates of intimate partner violence were at a significantly increased risk of unintended pregnancy. In addition, abused women living in a municipality with high personal female decision-making autonomy had more than a fourfold increased risk of having an unintended pregnancy. These findings demonstrate the need for reproductive health programs to target areas at particularly high risk for unintended pregnancy by reducing intimate partner violence and gender inequality. PMID:15748669
Murphy, Sharon; Lemire, Lynne; Wisman, Mindi
This qualitative case study explores one American Indian (AI) woman's experience of intimate partner violence and the subsequent murder of her abusive partner. The lens of complex personhood (Gordon, 1997) has been applied as a method for understanding "Annie's" multiple identities of AI woman, victim of intimate partner violence, mother, and convicted felon. The aim of the current case study was to uncover implicit and explicit meanings embedded in the experiences of moving from a victim of IPV to an off ender by applying a framework of hermeneutic phenomenology as the methodology. Three relational themes emerged from the interview data: "Getting out of Hand," "They're in my Footstep all the Way Now," and "What's a Miranda Right"? Lastly, this article begins an exploration into the complex link between victimization and offending as it applies to one battered woman. PMID:19340765
Beyer, Kirsten M M; Layde, Peter M; Hamberger, L Kevin; Laud, Purushottam W
We examined the association between neighborhood-level factors and intimate partner femicide (IPF) using Wisconsin Violent Death Reporting System (WVDRS) data and Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence (WCADV) reports, in concert with neighborhood-level information. After controlling for individual characteristics, neighborhood-level disadvantage was associated with a decreased likelihood of IPF status, as compared with other femicides, whereas neighborhood-level residential instability was associated with an increased likelihood of IPF status. Neighborhood plays a role in differentiating IPFs from other femicides in our study area. Our findings demonstrate the importance of multilevel strategies for understanding and reducing the burden of intimate partner violence. PMID:25540251