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  1. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... because of binge drinking, to someone’s symptoms of bipolar disorder becoming more severe when that person abuses heroin ... your story Mental Illness ADHD Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder Depression Dissociative Disorders Eating Disorders ...

  2. Facts on Mentally Ill Chemical Abusers. Clearinghouse Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorentino, Nancy; Reilly, Phyllis

    Individuals are considered mentally ill chemical abusers (MICAs) when they exhibit psychotic behaviors and are actively abusing alcohol and/or drugs; are actively psychotic with a history of alcohol or drug abuse; and/or are actively abusing alcohol or other drugs and have a history of severe psychiatric diagnoses. Although some practitioners use…

  3. Mental Illness: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This guide to alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with mental illness notes the incidence of mental illness and types of conditions. The incidence of alcohol and other drug abuse problems in this population is discussed, emphasizing the difficulty in dealing with the dual problem of substance abuse and chronic mental illness.…

  4. Sexual abuse of the elderly mentally ill.

    PubMed Central

    Benbow, S. M.; Haddad, P. M.

    1993-01-01

    Sexual abuse of the elderly may occur more commonly than is recognized. Reasons for the neglect of this area and possible risk factors are discussed. A definition of elder sexual abuse is proposed, and four case histories, each of which raises various issues about the nature, detection and management of sexual abuse, are described. In the absence of procedures for dealing with elder sexual abuse, professional staff need to be open to its occurrence and to be prepared to carry out thorough, sympathetic, collaborative assessments of both parties involved where it is suspected. PMID:8290413

  5. Mental Illness, Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, Multiple Disabilities...Whose Patient, Whose Treatment Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciacca, Kathleen

    This paper reviews issues in the provision of services to individuals who are mentally ill chemical abusers and addicted (MICAA). Introductory material defines this population and notes that these people are frequently ineligible for services aimed at either mental illness or chemical abuse alone. Service provisions within the psychiatric/mental…

  6. An Epidemiological Study of Mental Illness and Substance Abuse among the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Marvin W.; And Others

    Reported rates of mental illness and substance abuse in homeless populations vary widely and are usually based on clinical impressions. In this report structured interviews and objective measures of pathology were used to survey demographics, psychopathology, and substance abuse in a homeless population. Subjects (N=107), who were recruited from a…

  7. Lifetime Physical and Sexual Abuse and Self-Harm in Women With Severe Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Thomas; Shen, Ce; Sherrer, Margaret V

    2016-09-01

    In a sample of 242 women in treatment for severe mental illness (SMI), we used regression analysis to test the hypothesis that lifetime physical and sexual abuse would correlate with self-harm behaviors (thoughts of self-harm and suicide, self-harming behaviors, and suicide attempts) when controlling for psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse, and negative appraisals of trauma. Lifetime physical abuse and alcohol use were the only significant factors in the model. Women with SMI should be screened regularly for physical abuse, alcohol use, as well as thoughts and behaviors related to self-harming behaviors. Limitations of the study include its cross-sectional design. PMID:26719079

  8. Family history of mental illness or alcohol abuse and the irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Knight, James R.; Locke, G. Richard; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Schleck, Cathy D.; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We have observed that many patients with IBS drink very little alcohol, and postulated this may reflect membership in families affected by alcoholism and mental illness. We aimed to evaluate whether a family history of substance or alcohol abuse, or psychiatric illness, is associated with IBS. Methods A valid GI questionnaire was mailed to a randomly selected population-based cohort to identify IBS and healthy controls. The electronic medical record was reviewed to record the subjects’ self-reported personal and family health histories. Results 2300 subjects responded (response rate 55%; IBS 13% n=287). 230 subjects with IBS and 318 controls were eligible. Family history of alcohol/substance abuse was reported by 33% of cases and 25% of controls (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0–2.1, p=0.06). Family history of psychiatric illness was reported by 37% of cases and 22% of controls (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3–2.9, p<0.001). In the absence of a personal history of alcohol use, a family history of alcohol/substance abuse was predictive of IBS status (OR adjusted for age and gender 1.5, 95% CI 1.0–2.3, p=0.05). In the absence of a personal history of alcohol use, reporting both a family history of alcohol/substance abuse and anxiety/depression/mental illness was clearly predictive of IBS status (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4–4.5; p<0.005). Substance abuse as a child was associated with an increased risk of IBS (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.8; p<0.03). Conclusion IBS is independently associated with a family history of psychiatric illness and may be linked to a family history of alcohol/substance abuse. PMID:25582802

  9. Emerging treatment guidelines for mentally ill chemical abusers.

    PubMed

    Carey, K B

    1989-04-01

    Dr. Miller's Introduction: We are becoming more and more aware that many alcoholics and chemically dependent individuals also suffer from a psychiatric disorder. This reality emerges now after a period in which the possibility of coexisting mental and addictive disorders was often denied by the alcoholism and drug fields. Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals need to be alert to patients with these dual disorders so that relapses of both the dependency and the psychiatric disorder can be averted. This month's column presents useful guidelines to help professionals deal effectively with this difficult problem. PMID:2714747

  10. Long-term correlates of childhood abuse among adults with severe mental illness: Adult victimization, substance abuse, and HIV sexual risk behavior

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Christina S.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Seventy percent reported childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, and 32% reported both types of abuse. Participants with childhood abuse were more likely to report adult victimization and greater HIV risk. A structural equation model found that childhood abuse was directly and indirectly associated with HIV risk through drug abuse and adult vicitimization. Integrated treatment approaches that address interpersonal violence and substance abuse may be necessary for HIV risk reduction in this population. PMID:17968646

  11. The Effects of Early Sexual Abuse on Adult Risky Sexual Behaviors among Persons with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Mustillo, Sarah; Elbogen, Eric B.; Dorsey, Shannon; Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: There were two aims: first, to examine the relationship between prior sexual abuse and three types of adult risky sexual behaviors [(1) ever traded sex for drugs or money, (2) had unprotected sex in the past 6 months, and (3) frequency of unprotected sex in the past 6 months] among persons with severe mental illness (SMI), and second,…

  12. Substance Abuse Recovery after Experiencing Homelessness and Mental Illness: Case Studies of Change Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Deborah K.; Smith, Bikki Tran; Tiderington, Emmy

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper addresses how consumers with dual diagnosis, who were formerly homeless but are now living in supportive housing, understand their recovery from substance abuse (i.e., substance abuse or dependence). Specifically, this study examined: What can be learned about substance abuse recovery from consumers considered to be doing well; how past substance abuse fits into their present-day narratives; and how (if at all) policies of harm reduction versus abstinence are regarded as affecting recovery efforts. Methods As part of a federally-funded qualitative study, 38 individuals who met criteria for having achieved a measure of success in mental health recovery were purposively sampled from two supportive housing agencies – one using a harm reduction and the other an abstinence model. Researchers conducted in-depth interviews and used case study analysis, the latter including the development of case summaries and data matrices, to focus on substance abuse recovery in the larger context of participants’ lives. Results Recovery from substance abuse was depicted as occurring either through discrete decisions or gradual processes; achieving recovery was distinct from maintaining recovery. Emergent themes related to achievement included: (a) pivotal events and people (b) maturation, and (c) institutionalization. Central themes to maintaining recovery were: (a) housing, (b) self-help, and (c) the influence of significant others. Conclusions These findings capture a complex picture of overcoming substance abuse that largely took place outside of formal treatment and was heavily dependent on broader contexts. Equally important is that consumers themselves did not necessarily view substance abuse recovery as a defining feature of their life story. Indeed, recovery from substance abuse was seen as overcoming one adversity among many others during their troubled life courses. PMID:22962547

  13. Cultural considerations in the treatment of mental illness among sexually abused children and adolescents: the case of Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus J; Suryani, Luh Ketut; Tiliopoulos, Niko

    2015-01-01

    Childhood and adolescence sexual abuse can have long-lasting and devastating effects on personal and interpersonal growth and development. Sexually abused children tend to exhibit higher rates of poor school performance, aggressive behavior, PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder), or depressive symptomatology, as well as social and relational deficits (e.g., age-inappropriate sexual behaviors). The trauma following such abuse can further affect neurodevelopment and physiology, aggravating mental or physical problems in adulthood. Early symptom recognition and appropriate interventional applications are important factors in successfully treating or even preventing the development of mental disorders in such cohorts. A central element of effective treatment is the selection of treatment targets. Cultural considerations are rarely or peripherally considered in sexual abuse treatment strategies. Western-trained psychiatrists and clinical psychologists tend to overlook or underestimate such factors in cross-cultural settings, resulting in interventional efforts that may interfere with traditional approaches to healing, and potentially contributing to a transgenerational cycle of trauma. By using Bali (Indonesia) as a focal culture, in this article we discuss the effects of cultural elements and showcase their potential contribution and systematic implementation into a holistic and sensitive interventional model for the treatment of mental illness in childhood and adolescence sexual traumatization. PMID:25732022

  14. Severely and persistently mentally ill substance abusers: clinical and policy issues.

    PubMed

    Zweben, J E

    2000-01-01

    Communities that are struggling to provide effective treatment for the challenging population of severely mentally ill clients who use alcohol and drugs have a growing research base on which to make policy decisions. Integrating outpatient treatment for mental health and addictive disorders appears to be more effective than treatment in two separate systems. Integrated treatment at a single site allows for individualizing treatment priorities without fragmenting care. Harm reduction approaches provide a low threshold entry, which can be followed by interventions to enhance motivation. Managing patient benefits to discourage drug use reduces the likelihood of their becoming homeless, hospitalized or incarcerated. Inadequate treatment capacity plays a large role in the growing number of disturbed clients who end up in the criminal justice system. Effective community treatment requires vigorous collaboration between care providers. Ultimately, professional training programs need to produce clinicians who are competent and comfortable addressing alcohol and other drug use to implement effective treatment systems. PMID:11210200

  15. The influence of treatment attendance on subsequent aggression among severely mentally ill substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Yue; Bradizza, Clara M; Maisto, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    The interrelationships between severe mental illness, substance use, and aggression are of longstanding importance with implications for community treatment programs, treatment research and public policy. Through the analysis of longitudinal data collected from 278 patients over a 6-month period following admission to an outpatient dual diagnosis treatment program, this study examined the association between dual diagnosis treatment attendance and subsequent aggression among individuals diagnosed with both a severe mental illness and a substance use disorder. We also tested substance use and psychiatric symptoms as mediators of this treatment-aggression relationship. The results of structural equation modeling analyses indicated that dual diagnosis treatment was associated with lower levels of subsequent aggression. Mediational analyses indicated that greater treatment involvement was associated with reduced substance use, which was associated with lower levels of aggression; thus, substance use was found to mediate the relationship between dual diagnosis treatment and aggression. Surprisingly, severity of psychiatric symptoms did not predict later aggression. These findings suggest that targeting substance use reduction in treatment may have the additional benefit of reducing the risk of later aggression among dual diagnosis patients. PMID:25124261

  16. The Influence of Treatment Attendance on Subsequent Aggression among Severely Mentally Ill Substance Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Yue; Bradizza, Clara M.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    The interrelationships between severe mental illness, substance use, and aggression are of longstanding importance with implications for community treatment programs, treatment research and public policy. Through the analysis of longitudinal data collected from 278 patients over a 6-month period following admission to an outpatient dual diagnosis treatment program, this study examined the association between dual diagnosis treatment attendance and subsequent aggression among individuals diagnosed with both a severe mental illness and a substance use disorder. We also tested substance use and psychiatric symptoms as mediators of this treatment-aggression relationship. The results of structural equation modeling analyses indicated that dual diagnosis treatment was associated with lower levels of subsequent aggression. Mediational analyses indicated that greater treatment involvement was associated with reduced substance use, which was associated with lower levels of aggression; thus, substance use was found to mediate the relationship between dual diagnosis treatment and aggression. Surprisingly, severity of psychiatric symptoms did not predict later aggression. These findings suggest that targeting substance use reduction in treatment may have the additional benefit of reducing the risk of later aggression among dual diagnosis patients. PMID:25124261

  17. Help for Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mental Health America National Alliance on Mental Illness University or medical school-affiliated programs may offer treatment options. Search on the website of local university health centers for their psychiatry or psychology departments. ...

  18. The Impact of a Substance Abuse Disorder on the Well-Being of Family Caregivers of Adults with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMaster, Samuel A.

    2008-01-01

    The impact that substance use has on an individual with mental illness has been documented; however, little is known about the impact that this may have for a family caregiver. Data was collected in a cross sectional study using mailed questionnaires to a convenience sample of family members of persons with mental illness (n = 110). Hierarchical…

  19. The effects of childhood abuse on self-reported psychotic symptoms in severe mental illness: Mediating effects of posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Young; Choi, Young Min; Kim, Bongseog; Lee, Dong Woo; Gim, Min Sook; Park, Soo Hyun

    2015-09-30

    The present study examined the role of posttraumatic stress symptoms in the relationship between childhood abuse and self-reported psychotic symptoms in severe mental illness. A total of 126 patients diagnosed with major psychiatric conditions with comorbid symptoms of psychosis participated in the present study. The representative psychiatric diagnoses included schizophrenia, bipolar disorder with psychotic features, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, and delusional disorder. The Korean Child Trauma Questionnaire measured the type and degree of childhood abuse including emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. Korean version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised assessed posttraumatic stress symptoms, and PSYC subscale of the PSY-5 Factor Scale of the MMPI-2 was used as a measure of self-reported psychotic symptoms. There was a significant relationship between childhood physical, emotional, sexual abuse and psychotic symptoms. Posttraumatic stress symptoms partially mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and psychotic symptoms. This implies that childhood abuse is significantly associated with the experience of chronic posttraumatic stress symptoms, and that such symptoms in turn increases the likelihood of experiencing psychotic symptoms. The results highlight the need for appropriate assessment and intervention concerning childhood abuse and posttraumatic stress symptoms in severe mental illness. PMID:26144585

  20. Positive mental health and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Heather

    2014-09-01

    Based on the Mental Health Continuum Short Form administered in the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS-MH), the percentages of Canadians aged 15 or older classified as having flourishing, moderate or languishing mental health were 76.9%, 21.6% and 1.5%, respectively. Compared with estimates for other countries, a higher percentage of Canadians were flourishing. In accordance with the complete mental health model, mental health was also assessed in combination with the presence or absence of mental illness (depression; bipolar disorder; generalized anxiety disorder; alcohol, cannabis or other drug abuse or dependence). An estimated 72.5% of Canadians (19.8 million) were classified as having complete mental health; that is they were flourishing and did not meet the criteria for any of the six past 12-month mental or substance use disorders included in the CCHS-MH. Age, marital status, socio-economic status, spirituality and physical health were associated with complete mental health. Men and women were equally likely to be in complete mental health. PMID:25229895

  1. Mentally Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Estimates suggest that about 15% of all children have some form of mental disturbance. Potential causes can be of a physical, psychological, or environmental origin. Symptoms which indicate that a child needs professional help usually involve emotional overreaction to changes. Diagnosis of a child evidencing symptoms of mental illness should take…

  2. Disparities in Access to Substance Abuse Treatment among People with Intellectual Disabilities and Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slayter, Elspeth M.

    2010-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have experienced increasing levels of community participation since deinstitutionalization. This freedom has facilitated community inclusion, access to alcohol and drugs, and the potential for developing substance abuse (SA) disorders. People with ID, who are known to have high rates of co-occurring…

  3. Working effectively with patients with comorbid mental illness and substance abuse: a case study using a structured motivational behavioural approach

    PubMed Central

    Lawn, Sharon; Pols, Rene G; Battersby, Malcolm W

    2009-01-01

    This case describes the use of innovative person-centred motivational behaviour change tools to enhance chronic condition self-management with a person with chronic paranoid schizophrenia, significant drug abuse and multiple psychosocial issues. In standard care, the complexity of this patient’s presentation, their cognitive impairment level and history of violence would likely exclude them from many therapies and treatment programs as unsuitable or in the “too hard” basket. In fact, using a motivational and highly person-centred approach proved to be extremely necessary and rewarding for the person and their mental health worker. This approach provided a clear structure, actual tools and a clear rationale for what many would argue, yet is often ill-defined, was “just good clinical practice”. However, it also facilitated the development of “something special” in the relationship between the person and their worker that is central to person-centred care. Through a semistructured, motivational, sequential process that encouraged gradual disclosure and greater self-awareness by the client and active listening by the worker, greater collaboration and shared responsibility was enhanced. PMID:21686687

  4. Prevalence of Mental Illness and Substance Abuse Disorders among Incarcerated Juvenile Offenders in Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Angela A.; Dill, Patricia L.; Husain, Jonelle; Undesser, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among incarcerated juveniles in Mississippi was examined. A total of 482 adolescents completed a diagnostic questionnaire and a subset (N = 317) was assessed with face-to-face semistructured interview. Most of the study participants met criteria for one mental disorder, 71?85% depending on assessment method,…

  5. An Integrated, Multidimensional Treatment Model for Individuals Living with HIV, Mental Illness, and Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouis, Stephanie; Reif, Susan; Whetten, Kathryn; Scovil, Janet; Murray, Andrea; Swartz, Marvin

    2007-01-01

    The challenge of providing effective treatment services for the growing population of HIV-positive individuals who are also dually diagnosed with substance use and mental disorders has only recently been recognized as an important public health concern affecting both HIV treatment and prevention. This article describes a treatment model that was…

  6. Development of the NIDA-Funded Center on Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Mark I.; Kola, Lenore A.; Biegel, David E.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes one school's effort to establish a social work research development center in the area of coexisting drug and mental disorders (dual disorders), within the context of the social work profession's efforts to compete more effectively for federal research grants. This center was funded as part of a successful application in…

  7. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262

  8. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262

  9. Co-Occurring Severe Mental Illnesses and Substance Abuse Disorders as Predictors of State Prison Inmate Assaults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Steven R.; Buttaro, Anthony, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Using hierarchical logistic regression with a nationally representative sample of state prisoners ("n" = 12,504), we found inmates with dual severe psychiatric and substance abuse disorders to be at higher risk of being assaulted and to assault others in prison than nonmentally ill inmates. Dually disordered inmates may be "importing"…

  10. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  11. Violence and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Rueve, Marie E.; Welton, Randon S.

    2008-01-01

    Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, including etiology, comorbidity, risk factor management, and treatment. A psychiatrist who is well versed in the recognition and management of violence can contribute to the appropriate management of dangerous behaviors and minimize risk to patients, their families, mental health workers, and the community as a whole. PMID:19727251

  12. Housing First Services for People Who Are Homeless with Co-Occurring Serious Mental Illness and Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Deborah K.; Gulcur, Leyla; Tsemberis, Sam

    2006-01-01

    The literature on homeless adults with severe mental illness is generally silent on a critical issue surrounding service delivery--the contrast between housing first and treatment first program philosophies. This study draws on data from a longitudinal experiment contrasting a housing first program (which offers immediate permanent housing without…

  13. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston.

    PubMed

    Szasz, T

    2001-10-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. PMID:11579183

  14. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    2001-01-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183

  15. Warning Signs of Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Change Direction initiative is working to change the culture of mental health in America. It encourages people ... signs of emotional suffering and to change the culture around mental health and mental illness. Learn more ...

  16. Metabolism and Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Sestan-Pesa, Matija; Horvath, Tamas L

    2016-02-01

    Over the past century, overwhelming evidence has emerged pointing to the hypothalamus of the central nervous system (CNS) as a crucial regulator of systemic control of metabolism, including appetite and feeding behavior. Appetite (or hunger) is a fundamental driver of survival, involving complex behaviors governed by various parts of the brain, including the cerebral cortex. Here, we provide an overview of basic metabolic principles affecting the CNS and discuss their relevance to physiological and pathological conditions of higher brain functions. These novel perspectives may well provide new insights into future research strategies to facilitate the development of novel therapies for treating mental illness. PMID:26776095

  17. What Is Mental Illness: Mental Illness Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... adolescents in the United States suffer from serious emotional and mental disorders that cause significant functional impairment in their day-to-day lives at home, in school and with peers. The World Health Organization has ...

  18. Sexual Risk Behaviours and Sexual Abuse in Persons with Severe Mental Illness in Uganda: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Patric; Johansson, Eva; Okello, Elialilia; Allebeck, Peter; Thorson, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) engage in risky sexual behaviours and have high prevalence of HIV in high-income countries. Little is known about sexual behaviours and HIV risk among persons with SMI in sub-Saharan Africa. In this qualitative study we explored how SMI may influence sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks in Uganda. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7 male and 13 female psychiatric patients aged 18–49 years. Participants were interviewed in hospital when clinically stable and capable of giving informed consent. Interview transcripts were analysed using manifest content analysis, generating the categories: (1) casual sex during illness episodes, (2) rape by non-partners, (3) exploitation by partners, (4) non-monogamous partners, and (5) sexual inactivity. Our findings suggest that SMI exacerbated sexual vulnerability in the women interviewed, by contributing to casual sex, to exploitative and non-monogamous sexual relationships, and to sexual assault by non-partners. No link could be established between SMI and increased sexual risk behaviours in the men interviewed, due to a small sample of men, and given that men's accounts showed little variability. Our findings also suggest that SMI caused sexual inactivity due to decreased sexual desire, and in men, due to difficulties forming an intimate relationship. Overall, our study highlights how SMI and gender inequality can contribute to the shaping of sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks, including HIV risk, among persons with SMI in this Ugandan setting. PMID:22253770

  19. Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral trauma treatment for incarcerated women with mental illnesses and substance abuse disorders.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nancy; Frueh, B Christopher; Shi, Jing; Schumann, Brooke E

    2012-10-01

    An open trial design was used to examine the implementation and effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral intervention (Seeking Safety) for comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) for incarcerated women with Axis I mental disorders who self-referred for specialty trauma treatment. The study sample was female inmates aged 18 and old who were primarily minority, had experienced childhood-based trauma, committed violent crimes, had a serious mental illness, and resided in maximum, medium, and minimum compounds of a women's prison. A total of 74 women completed the group intervention, with the average attending 23 of the 28 sessions (82%). Implementation feasibility was demonstrated by the ability to recruit, screen, assign, and retain participation. Effectiveness was supported by changes pre-post intervention on the PTSD Checklist (ES=0.56) and Global Severity Index (ES=0.47). Of the 19 completers with PCL scores of 50 or higher pre-intervention, 16 (84%) had scores below 50, the "cut score" consistent with or supportive of a PTSD diagnosis. Three-quarters or more of participants reported that Seeking Safety was helpful in each of the following areas: overall, for traumatic stress symptoms, for substance use, to focus on safety, and to learn safe coping skills. Future directions include the need for larger scale randomized controlled trials in medium or maximum security prisons and fidelity evaluations of non-research dissemination efforts. PMID:22858893

  20. Mental Illness Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... population. Research on mental health epidemiology shows that mental disorders are common throughout the United States, affecting tens ... available on the prevalence, treatment, and costs of mental disorders for the population of the United States, in ...

  1. Mental Illness And Brain Disease.

    PubMed

    Bedrick, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abnormalities of neural structure while psychiatry deals with specific abnormalities of neural functioning. It is not clear that neurologists would accept this division, nor that they should. I argue that if we take seriously the notion that psychiatric illnesses are mental illnesses we can draw a more defensible boundary between psychiatry and neurology. As mental illnesses, psychiatric illnesses must have symptoms that affect our mental capacities and that the sufferer is capable of being aware of, even if they are not always self-consciously aware of them. Neurological illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, may be diagnosed even if they are silent, just as the person may not be aware of having high blood pressure or may suffer a silent myocardial infarction. It does not make sense to speak of panic disorder if the person has never had a panic attack, however, or of bipolar disorder in the absence of mood swings. This does not mean psychiatric illnesses are not biologically based. Mental illnesses are illnesses of persons, whereas other illnesses are illnesses of biological individuals. PMID:26444362

  2. Few ACOs pursue innovative models that integrate care for mental illness and substance abuse with primary care.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Valerie A; Colla, Carrie H; Tierney, Katherine; Van Citters, Arica D; Fisher, Elliott S; Meara, Ellen

    2014-10-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs) may be well positioned to increase the focus on managing behavioral health conditions (mental health and substance abuse) through the integration of behavioral health treatment and primary care. We used a mixed-methods research design to examine the extent to which ACOs are clinically, organizationally, and financially integrating behavioral health care and primary care. We used data from 257 respondents to the National Survey of Accountable Care Organizations, a nationally representative survey of ACOs. The data were supplemented with semistructured, in-depth interviews with clinical leaders at sixteen ACOs purposively sampled to represent the spectrum of behavioral health integration. We found that most ACOs hold responsibility for some behavioral health care costs, and 42 percent include behavioral health specialists among their providers. However, integration of behavioral health care and primary care remains low, with most ACOs pursuing traditional fragmented approaches to physical and behavioral health care and only a minority implementing innovative models. Contract design and contextual factors appear to influence the extent to which ACOs integrate behavioral health care. Nevertheless, the ACO model has the potential to create opportunities for improving behavioral health care and integrating it with primary care. PMID:25288427

  3. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  4. Screening for and Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis C among an Outpatient Urban Sample of People with Serious Mental Illness and Co-Occurring Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelhoch, Seth; Goldberg, Richard; Calmes, Christine; Medoff, Deborah; Slade, Eric; Dixon, Lisa; Gallucci, Gerard; Rosenberg, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Background: To assess rates of screening and testing of HIV and HCV among those with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders. Methods: One hundred fifty-three people with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders completed measures and were screened for HIV and HCV. Results: Six percent were HIV…

  5. Students’ perception about mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Mahto, R. K.; Verma, P. K.; Verma, A. N.; Singh, A. R.; Chaudhury, S.; Shantna, K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In developing countries like India, there are evidences that stigma associated with mental illness is increasing. As in parts of the developing world, with advancement of urbanization and rapid industrialization, people tend to react in a very peculiar and biased way when they confront a mentally ill person. Materials and Methods: The present study aimed to find out students’ opinion about mental illness. A total of 100 students (50 male and 50 female) from Ranchi University were purposively recruited for the study, and the 51-item Opinion about Mental Illness (OMI) Scale was administered. Results: Majority of the students were from Hindu families, of whom 42 (84%) were males and 38 (68%) were females. With regard to OMI scale, the item, viz., ‘The law should allow a woman to divorce her husband as soon as he has been confined in mental hospital with a severe mental illness’, both male (46%) and female (56%) students were neutral (significant at 0.014, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Overall no significant level of difference emerged between male and female students with regard to opinion about mental illness. PMID:21180484

  6. Caring for mentally ill people.

    PubMed Central

    van Os, J.; Neeleman, J.

    1994-01-01

    Despite legislation to harmonise mental health practice throughout Europe and convergence in systems of training there remains an extraordinary diversity in psychiatric practice in Europe. Approaches to tackling substance misuse vary among nations; statistics on psychiatric morbidity are affected by different approaches to diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders; attitudes towards mental illness show definite international differences. Everywhere, though, mental health care for patients with psychotic illnesses is a "cinderella service," and there is a general move towards care falling increasingly on the family and the community. PMID:7987157

  7. Cultural Considerations in the Treatment of Mental Illness among Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: The Case of Bali, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus J.; Suryani, Luh Ketut; Tiliopoulos, Niko

    2015-01-01

    Childhood and adolescence sexual abuse can have long-lasting and devastating effects on personal and interpersonal growth and development. Sexually abused children tend to exhibit higher rates of poor school performance, aggressive behavior, PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder), or depressive symptomatology, as well as social and relational…

  8. To measure attributed mental illness.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, J C; Litchford, G B; Yaffe, P E; DiCiurcio, T L

    1980-09-01

    This work follows from the assumption that person perception processes allow people to categorize others, and, thereupon, to predict the perceived person's behaviors. A scale, the Mental Illness Behaviors Prediction Scale (MIBPS) was developed for use in studies of ascribed mental illness. The MIBPS is comprised of fifteen items, each of which describes a situation and four alternative behaviors scaled for "mental illness level." The alternatives were clearly scaleable. High item-to-total-score correlations were found. When subjects rated a "very poorly adjusted person" and a "very well-adjusted person," the item scores, as assigned to these two persons, were clearly differentiating. In other studies the overall "mental illness level" of perceived persons was found to vary with selected independent variables. The utility of the scale supports the conclusion that people have developed and do use a person-perceiving dimension labeled mentally ill/mentally healthy, and the use of this dimension promotes the expectation of specific kinds of behavior from the target person. PMID:7411374

  9. Rehabilitation of mentally ill women

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Rajni; Hashim, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Women, the fair sex, are principal providers of care and support to families. But, they are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. The provision of Rehabilitation for mentally ill women has been, and still is, one of the major challenges for mental health systems reform in the last decades, for various reasons. The present paper discusses the global and Indian scenario of rehabilitation of mentally ill women and goes on to detail the contribution of the state and voluntary agencies in this regard. It explores the need of recovery, multilayered strategy of Rehabilitation services and the availability of present services. The stigma attached and legal defects which interfere in good quality of life for the mentally ill women are reviewed. Strategies for changes in future are recommended. PMID:26330653

  10. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... talk therapy, that helps people change negative thinking styles and behaviors that may contribute to their depression. ... Mental Health Office of Science Policy, Planning, and Communications Science Writing, Press, and Dissemination Branch 6001 Executive ...

  11. Technology, Society, and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    SE Keefe, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Technology is rapidly changing society, and many activities now require the ability to use technology. This situation has the potential to lead to problems for several populations, including the elderly, the disadvantaged, and people with severe mental illness. In this column, we review the state of technology as it affects daily activities. We then review previous efforts to use technology positively for both the assessment and treatment of psychiatric conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder and severe mental illness. We conclude that technology-based interventions and assessment strategies have the potential to deliver benefit to a wide array of older people and those with severe mental illness, including reaching people who would not have had access otherwise. PMID:23346519

  12. Mental health literacy among caregivers of persons with mental illness: A descriptive survey

    PubMed Central

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; BIrudu, Raju; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite of growing evidence of mental disorders in developing countries, research on mental health literacy is limited from India. Aim: To examine mental health literacy among caregivers of persons with mental illness Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out among 161 randomly selected caregivers of persons with mental illness at outpatient department of a tertiary care centre. Data was collected through face to face interview using a structured questionnaire. Results: Regarding the causes of mental illness, a majority agreed that genetic inheritance (69%), substance abuse (64%) and brain disease (59.6%) are main factors for developing mental illness. Although more than two-thirds agreed that anyone could suffer from mental illness, 61.5% also agreed that people with mental health problems are largely to blame for their condition. The majority of the participants also agreed that mentally ill are not able to maintain friendships (45.9%), are dangerous (54%), and not capable to work (59.1%). Just over half (55.9%) of the participants would not want people to know if they had a mental illness and nearly half of them also expressed that they would feel ashamed if a family member had a mental illness. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study researchers suggest that there is an urgent need to educate and change the attitudes of caregivers through mental health literacy programs specifically designed for them. PMID:26167019

  13. Marriage, mental illness and law

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Reddy, Karri Rama; Kamath, Rabindra Mukund

    2015-01-01

    The Special Marriage Act (SMA), 1954 and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955 have put restrictions on the marriage of persons with mental illness, which are proving to be detrimental to patients and their families. There is an urgent need to address this problem. The deficiencies in the existing legislation have been projected and constructive suggestions have been put forward. PMID:26330652

  14. 'Chronic' identities in mental illness.

    PubMed

    von Peter, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    The term 'chronicity' is still widely used in psychiatric discourse and practice. A category employed in political, administrative and therapeutic contexts, it guides practitioners' beliefs and actions. This paper attempts a review of the attitudes and procedures that result as a consequence of identifying 'chronically' disturbed identities in clinical practice. An essentially social, relational and materialist understanding of mental illness is used to highlight the kind of thinking underlying the notion of 'chronic' identities in day-to-day psychiatric routines. Problematising the notions of singularity and expressiveness, as well as mind/body- and self/other-distinctions, it claims the category itself is responsible for creating a 'chronic' kind of being. A spatial metaphor is presented in the conclusion, illustrating a mental strategy by which we can re-shape our thinking about 'chronic' identities. It attempts to describe how the shift from an epistemological to a praxeographic approach could build a more complete understanding of mental illness. PMID:23528064

  15. Adult Neurogenesis and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407

  16. Attitudes of Jordanian mental health nurses toward mental illness and patients with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Wardam, Lina A

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Jordanian mental health nurses' attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental illness. A descriptive correlational design was utilized to collect data from 92 mental health nurses in Jordan. Data was collected on nurses' attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental disorder and their satisfaction with nursing care delivery. The Jordanian mental health nurses who participated in this study had negative attitudes toward mental illness and toward patients with mental disorders. About 60% of the mental health nurses had perceived patients with mental illness to be dangerous, immature, dirty, cold hearted, harmful, and pessimistic. In only two descriptions-being polite and adult-did nurses have positive perception about patients with mental illness. Mental health nurse were not satisfied with nursing care delivery. More than 70% of nurses were proud to be a mental health nurse. Age and gender were significant influential factors in forming the nurses' attitudes or satisfaction. Immediate intervention is needed to improve the quality of patient care provided by mental health nurses. PMID:19874099

  17. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Lee A.; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-01-01

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided. PMID:26901213

  18. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Lee A; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-02-01

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided. PMID:26901213

  19. Combating the Stigma of Mental Illness. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    Many former mental patients see their biggest problem in resuming community life to be their inability to be accepted by other people. The National Institute of Mental Health has worked to remove the stigma associated with mental illness and research has unraveled many of the mysteries about the origins of mental illness. Deinstitutionalization,…

  20. Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kaylene; Bradley, Loretta J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year, an estimated 50 million Americans will experience a mental disorder while only one fourth of them will seek mental health services. Contends that this disparity results from the stigma attached to mental illness. Proposes that counselors must educate the general public about the misconceptions of mental illness and advocate for parity…

  1. Cultural Variation in Implicit Mental Illness Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Bobby K.; Chiao, Joan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Culture shapes how individuals perceive and respond to others with mental illness. Prior studies have suggested that Asians and Asian Americans typically endorse greater stigma of mental illness compared to Westerners (White Europeans and Americans). However, whether these differences in stigma arise from cultural variations in automatic affective reactions or deliberative concerns of the appropriateness of one’s reactions to mental illness remains unknown. Here we compared implicit and explicit attitudes toward mental illness among Asian and Caucasian Americans. Asian Americans showed stronger negative implicit attitudes toward mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans, suggesting that cultural variation in stigma of mental illness can be observed even when concerns regarding the validity and appropriateness of one’s attitudes toward mental illness are minimized. Asian Americans also explicitly endorsed greater desire for social distance from mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans. These findings suggest that cultural variations in mental illness stigma may arise from cultural differences in automatic reactions to mental illness, though cultural variations in deliberative processing may further shape differences in these immediate reactions to mental illness. PMID:24311820

  2. Blasphemy laws and mental illness in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that individuals who are mentally ill are overrepresented in the group of defendants prosecuted under the blasphemy laws of Pakistan. This article discusses the background of blasphemy legislation in Pakistan, and proposes causal interactions between underlying mental illness in the defendant and prosecution for blasphemy. It sketches possible legal safeguards for such blasphemy defendants with mental illness in mental health legislation. PMID:25237489

  3. Somali Refugees' Perceptions of Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Bettmann, Joanna E; Penney, Deb; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela; Lecy, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 13% of the U.S. population is comprised of foreign-born individuals, with Somalis constituting one of the largest resettled groups. Research suggests that, among Somali refugees, rates of mental illness are high. Yet research shows Somalis underutilize mental health services. Understanding their perceptions of mental illness and its cures may help practitioners to design more effective treatments for this population. Thus, this pilot study investigated Somali refugees' perceptions of mental illness and its treatments. Using purposive sampling, this qualitative study interviewed 20 Somali refugees using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative analysis yielded participants' perceptions of mental illness through their descriptions of physical symptoms accompanying mental illness, the stigma of mental illness, causes of mental illness, medical and non-medical treatments for mental illness, spirit possession causing mental illness, and the Qur'an as treatment for mental illness. Such information may help practitioners in the United States approach Somali clients in the most culturally coherent manner. PMID:26399492

  4. Epigenetic Basis of Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Eric J; Peña, Catherine J; Kundakovic, Marija; Mitchell, Amanda; Akbarian, Schahram

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial illnesses involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function as well as likely abnormalities in glial cells. While genetic factors are important in the etiology of most mental disorders, the relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins, particularly for depression and other stress-related syndromes, clearly indicate the importance of additional mechanisms. Environmental factors such as stress are known to play a role in the onset of these illnesses. Exposure to such environmental insults induces stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior, and these maladaptations appear distinct between developmental versus adult exposures. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and the aberrant epigenetic regulation that underlies this dysregulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Here, we provide a progress report of epigenetic studies of the three major psychiatric syndromes, depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. We review the literature derived from animal models of these disorders as well as from studies of postmortem brain tissue from human patients. While epigenetic studies of mental illness remain at early stages, understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery within specific brain regions to cause lasting changes in disease susceptibility and pathophysiology is revealing new insight into the etiology and treatment of these conditions. PMID:26450593

  5. THE TEENAGER'S CONCEPTION OF MENTAL ILLNESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARKWELL, NOEL G.

    TO COMPLEMENT PREVIOUS SURVEYS OF ADULT OPINION ON MENTAL ILLNESS AND PROVIDE USEFUL INFORMATION FOR THE MENTAL HEALTH EDUCATOR, A SURVEY OF TEENAGE OPINION ON MENTAL ILLNESS WAS CONDUCTED. A QUESTIONNAIRE WAS DEVELOPED IN CONSULTATION WITH EXPERTS IN RELEVANT DISCIPLINES TO MEASURE THE TEENAGER'S CONCEPTION OF THE FOLLOWING--(1) THE MENTAL…

  6. Inferences of mental illness from noninvolvement.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, J C; Litchford, G B; Wilson, S D; Harrigan, J A; Lehrer, R

    1983-03-01

    These studies continue the exploration of variables related to a person's use of the mental illness categorization. The central concern in the present studies was the effect of perceived variation in a target person's level of involvement in a social situation. While a low level of involvement, as portrayed in videotaped scenarios, prompts attribution of mental illness, other features of implicit personality theories also relate to greater or lesser attribution of mental illness. Those participants who gave evidence of having attributed lower levels of involvement, regardless of filmed information, also attributed higher levels of mental illness. Social workers, compared to general population participants, attributed higher levels of mental illness at all levels of target involvement. We discuss the implications of these findings for dissemination and assignment of the mentally ill role. PMID:6864430

  7. Gaols or De Facto Mental Institutions? Why Individuals with a Mental Illness Are Over-Represented in the Criminal Justice System in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Corinne

    2007-01-01

    The over-representation of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system highlights the need for legislative reform and the implementation of programs breaking the cycle of mental illness, poverty, unemployment and substance abuse across Australia. Whilst there is no inherent association between mental illness and crime, there is a…

  8. "Helpful People in Touch" Consumer Led Self Help Programs for People with Multiple Disorders, Mental Illness, Drug Addiction, and Alcoholism (MIDAA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciacca, Kathleen

    This paper describes the consumer program, "Helpful People in Touch," a self-help treatment program for people with the multiple disorders of mental illness, drug addiction, and/or alcoholism. First, the terms, "Mentally Ill Chemical Abusers and Addicted" (MICAA) and "Chemical Abusing Mentally Ill" (CAMI) are defined and differentiated, with…

  9. Evaluation in the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

    PubMed

    Marsh, A; Jansen, M; Lewis, C; Straw, R B

    1996-09-01

    The evaluation policy of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is described in this article. Three studies are presented that exemplify SAMHSA's evaluations. These include evaluations of a program to prevent substance abuse among pregnant and postpartum women and their infants; a Job Corps treatment enrichment program; and the McKinney program for homeless persons with severe mental illnesses. Each of these evaluations demonstrated the effectiveness of the programs in reducing substance abuse or homelessness and in improving the health and well-being of the consumers served. SAMHSA will use the results of these and similar evaluations to guide policy and program development. Through its evaluations, SAMHSA must identify effective approaches to prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation. By using its evaluation results to guide policy and program development, SAMHSA aims to improve the quality of the public system of substance abuse and mental health services. PMID:10186921

  10. Health Outcomes of HIV-Infected People with Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Yehia, Baligh R.; Stephens-Shield, Alisa J.; Momplaisir, Florence; Taylor, Lynne; Gross, Robert; Dubé, Benoit; Glanz, Karen; Brady, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Improving outcomes for people with HIV and mental illness will be critical to meeting the goals of the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy. In a retrospective analysis of the 2008–2010 cycles of the locally representative Philadelphia Medical Monitoring Project, we compared the proportions of HIV-infected adults with and without mental illness: (1) retained in care (≥2 primary HIV visits separated by ≥90 days in a 12-month period); (2) prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART) at any point in a 12-month period; and (3) virally suppressed (HIV-1 RNA ≤200 copies/mL at the last measure in the 12-month period). Multivariable regression assessed associations between mental illness and the outcomes, adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance, alcohol abuse, injection drug use, CD4 count, and calendar year. Of 730 HIV-infected persons, representative of 9409 persons in care for HIV in Philadelphia, 49.0 % had mental illness. In adjusted analyses, there were no significant differences in retention (91.3 vs. 90.3 %; AOR 1.30, 95 % CI 0.63–2.56) and prescription of ART (83.2 vs. 88.7 %; AOR 0.79, 95 % CI 0.49–1.25) between those with and without mental illness. However, mentally ill patients were less likely to achieve viral suppression than those without mental illness (65.9 vs. 74.4 %; AOR 0.64, 95 % CI 0.46–0.90). These findings argue for the need to optimize ART adherence in this population. PMID:25931243

  11. Health Outcomes of HIV-Infected People with Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Baligh R; Stephens-Shield, Alisa J; Momplaisir, Florence; Taylor, Lynne; Gross, Robert; Dubé, Benoit; Glanz, Karen; Brady, Kathleen A

    2015-08-01

    Improving outcomes for people with HIV and mental illness will be critical to meeting the goals of the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy. In a retrospective analysis of the 2008-2010 cycles of the locally representative Philadelphia Medical Monitoring Project, we compared the proportions of HIV-infected adults with and without mental illness: (1) retained in care (≥2 primary HIV visits separated by ≥90 days in a 12-month period); (2) prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART) at any point in a 12-month period; and (3) virally suppressed (HIV-1 RNA ≤200 copies/mL at the last measure in the 12-month period). Multivariable regression assessed associations between mental illness and the outcomes, adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance, alcohol abuse, injection drug use, CD4 count, and calendar year. Of 730 HIV-infected persons, representative of 9409 persons in care for HIV in Philadelphia, 49.0 % had mental illness. In adjusted analyses, there were no significant differences in retention (91.3 vs. 90.3 %; AOR 1.30, 95 % CI 0.63-2.56) and prescription of ART (83.2 vs. 88.7 %; AOR 0.79, 95 % CI 0.49-1.25) between those with and without mental illness. However, mentally ill patients were less likely to achieve viral suppression than those without mental illness (65.9 vs. 74.4 %; AOR 0.64, 95 % CI 0.46-0.90). These findings argue for the need to optimize ART adherence in this population. PMID:25931243

  12. Mental Illness and Stigma: Has Psychiatry Done more Harm than Good?

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Ashima

    2015-01-01

    Stigma against people with mental illness is a very complex public health problem. There could be diverse reasons for this ranging from: Lack of awareness;Fear of a dimly-comprehended and much-misunderstood illness;Illogical generalizations; andDisrespect for the heterogeneity of life. The result-for the mentally ill-could well be diminished access to social determinants of healthcare, employment, and housing. In addition, people with mental illnesses are exposed to numerous health risks such as malnutrition, drug abuse, violence and homelessness. Maybe this explains nondisclosure of illness in an increasingly degenerate civil society. PMID:25969604

  13. Child abuse and mental disorders in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Tracie O.; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Boyle, Michael; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nationally representative Canadian data on the prevalence of child abuse and its relation with mental disorders are lacking. We used contemporary, nationally representative data to examine the prevalence of 3 types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse and exposure to intimate partner violence) and their association with 14 mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Methods: We obtained data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health, collected from the 10 provinces. Respondents aged 18 years and older were asked about child abuse and were selected for the study sample (n = 23 395). The survey had a multistage stratified cluster design (household response rate 79.8%). Results: The prevalence of any child abuse was 32% (individual types ranged from 8% to 26%). All types of child abuse were associated with all mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.4 to 7.9). We found a dose–response relation, with increasing number of abuse types experienced corresponding with greater odds of mental conditions. Associations between child abuse and attention deficit disorder, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts showed stronger effects for women than men. Interpretation: We found robust associations between child abuse and mental conditions. Health care providers, especially those assessing patients with mental health problems, need to be aware of the relation between specific types of child abuse and certain mental conditions. Success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:24756625

  14. Archiving Social Policy: The Florida Commission on Mental Health and Substance Abuse Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, B. W.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of archiving state commission papers, documenting the formation of public policy, and allowing the public access to an organized collection of the data gathered by the Florida Commission on Mental Health and Substance Abuse. Florida's citizens with mental illnesses or substance abuse disorders face a myriad of…

  15. Mental Illness in Persons with Mental Retardation: ARC Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Linda R.; Wimmer, Sharon

    This brief factsheet presents information on mental illness in mentally retarded persons. The most prevalent disorders found in this population are schizophrenia, organic brain syndrome, adjustment disorders, personality disorders, depression, and behavioral problems. Few standardized methods of assessment exist for the diagnosis of mental illness…

  16. Media and mental illness: relevance to India.

    PubMed

    Padhy, S K; Khatana, S; Sarkar, S

    2014-01-01

    Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored. PMID:24823515

  17. Stigma of Mental Illness-1: Clinical reflections

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Johnston, Megan; Bureau, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Although the quality and effectiveness of mental health treatments and services have improved greatly over the past 50 years, therapeutic revolutions in psychiatry have not yet been able to reduce stigma. Stigma is a risk factor leading to negative mental health outcomes. It is responsible for treatment seeking delays and reduces the likelihood that a mentally ill patient will receive adequate care. It is evident that delay due to stigma can have devastating consequences. This review will discuss the causes and consequences of stigma related to mental illness. PMID:22654383

  18. Triple jeopardy for HIV: substance using Severely Mentally Ill Adults.

    PubMed

    Devieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert; Lerner, Brenda G; Dyer, Janyce G; Baptista, Ligia; Lucenko, Barbara; Kalichman, Seth

    2007-01-01

    Severely Mentally Ill (SMI) adults have disproportionately high HIV seroprevalence rates. Abuse of alcohol and other substances (AOD) and lifetime exposure to trauma by others are particularly potent risk factors, which, in combination with psychiatric disabilities, create triple jeopardy for HIV infection. This study examined the predictive utility of demographic characteristics; history of physical, emotional, or sexual abuse; extent of drug and alcohol abuse; knowledge about HIV/AIDS; sexual self-efficacy; and condom attitudes toward explaining the variance in a composite of HIV high-risk behavior among 188 SMI women and 158 SMI men. History of sexual abuse, engaging in sexual activities while high on substances, and lower cannabis use were the most significant predictors of HIV sexual risk behaviors. Given the triple jeopardy for HIV risk in this population, a triple barreled approach that simultaneously addresses multiple health risks within an integrated treatment setting is warranted. PMID:17298927

  19. California Firearms Law and Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Barnhorst, Amy

    2015-06-01

    California provides numerous pathways by which people with mental illness can qualify for a state-level firearm prohibition. The state's involuntary detention for psychiatric treatment, or "5150" (CA W&I Code 5150) process, is often cited as one potential mechanism for reducing violence by dangerous people, though its use is limited to people whose dangerousness is due to a mental illness. Additionally, California has taken legislative steps to prohibit firearm ownership among other people who have an increased risk of violence, regardless of whether or not mental illness is a factor. This article compares the California firearm ownership disqualification system for mental illness with the federal system and those of other states, examines the strengths and weaknesses of this system, and reviews alternatives. PMID:25899250

  20. Criminal thinking styles among people with serious mental illness in jail.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Amy Blank; Farkas, Kathleen; Ishler, Karen J; Gearhart, Michael; Morgan, Robert; Ashe, Melinda

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the investigation of criminal thinking of persons with mental illness beyond prison and community settings to a jail setting. Participants consisted of 122 individuals incarcerated in a county jail who were diagnosed with a severe mental illness, including schizophrenia spectrum and major mood disorders. Results indicated that people with mental illness in this sample of jail inmates presented with thinking styles that support a criminal lifestyle, and have criminal thinking styles that follow a pattern that is very similar to a sample of prison inmates with serious mental illness. These findings support the need for therapeutic programs for justice-involved persons with serious mental illness to develop a multipronged treatment approach that integrates interventions for individuals' criminal thinking and antisocial attitudes with treatment for their mental illness and substance abuse issues. PMID:24707911

  1. Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

  2. Resisting the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoits, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…

  3. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  4. Mental Illness among Us: A New Curriculum to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma among Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…

  5. Mental health and substance abuse indicators among homeless youth in Denver, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Merscham, Carrie; Van Leeuwen, James M; McGuire, Megan

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of mental health evaluations from 182 homeless youth residing in a Denver, Colorado, shelter. The literature on homeless youth, although developing, is still somewhat limited as it relates to mental health, substance abuse, and trauma. This study was motivated by clinically observed high rates of mental illness, trauma, dangerousness issues, and drug and alcohol abuse. Using archival data from mental health evaluations conducted over two years, variables including gender, age, ethnicity, primary diagnosis, drug of choice, trauma history, suicidal ideation, homicidal ideation, and legal history were assessed. Results discovered significantly higher than expected diagnoses of mental illness and associations between drug of choice and diagnosis, trauma history and suicidal ideation, and trauma history and diagnosis. Results suggest a strong need for co-occurring treatment, trauma-focused therapy, and attention to both mental illness and substance abuse in homeless youth. PMID:19777794

  6. Sterilization of the Mentally Ill and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a survey on the sterilization of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded. Thirty-three states responded to the survey. It was found that 17 states have a sterilization statute, but the existence of the statute was explained not to mean that the procedure was used. Sixteen states responded that they did not have a…

  7. Mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Galea, Sandro; Jones, Russell T.; Parker, Holly A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of Hurricane Katrina on mental illness and suicidality by comparing results of a post-Katrina survey with those of an earlier survey. METHODS: The National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, conducted between February 2001 and February 2003, interviewed 826 adults in the Census Divisions later affected by Hurricane Katrina. The post-Katrina survey interviewed a new sample of 1043 adults who lived in the same area before the hurricane. Identical questions were asked about mental illness and suicidality. The post-Katrina survey also assessed several dimensions of personal growth that resulted from the trauma (for example, increased closeness to a loved one, increased religiosity). Outcome measures used were the K6 screening scale of serious mental illness and mild-moderate mental illness and questions about suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. FINDINGS: Respondents to the post-Katrina survey had a significantly higher estimated prevalence of serious mental illness than respondents to the earlier survey (11.3% after Katrina versus 6.1% before; chi(2)1= 10.9; P < 0.001) and mild-moderate mental illness (19.9% after Katrina versus 9.7% before; chi(2)1 = 22.5; P < 0.001). Among respondents estimated to have mental illness, though, the prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans was significantly lower in the post-Katrina survey (suicidal ideation 0.7% after Katrina versus 8.4% before; chi(2)1 = 13.1; P < 0.001; plans for suicide 0.4% after Katrina versus 3.6% before; chi(2)1 = 6.0; P = 0.014). This lower conditional prevalence of suicidality was strongly related to two dimensions of personal growth after the trauma (faith in one's own ability to rebuild one's life, and realization of inner strength), without which between-survey differences in suicidality were insignificant. CONCLUSION: Despite the estimated prevalence of mental illness doubling after Hurricane Katrina, the prevalence of suicidality was unexpectedly low. The role of post

  8. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang-pei; Ying-Chi Lai, Grace; Yang, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person’s participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese-immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) has specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese-immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from two Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semi-structured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants’ consideration of three critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship-building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network involuntary disclosure could happen without participants’ permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations where they experienced little discriminatory treatment and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed. PMID:23647389

  9. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang-Pei; Lai, Grace Ying-Chi; Yang, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person's participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) have specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from 2 Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semistructured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants' consideration of 3 critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network, involuntary disclosure could happen without participants' permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations in which they experienced little discriminatory treatment, and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed. PMID:23647389

  10. Validating the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test with Persons Who Have a Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Thomas; Sherrer, Margaret V.; LaButti, Annamaria; Emrick, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Objective/Method: The use of brief, reliable, valid, and practical measures of substance use is critical for conducting individual assessments and program evaluation for integrated mental health-substance abuse services for persons with serious mental illness. This investigation examines the internal consistency reliability, concurrent validity,…

  11. Criminality in men with major mental disorder with and without comorbid substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Modestin, Jiri; Wuermle, Othmar

    2005-02-01

    Violent and criminal behavior in the mentally ill remains an issue of major importance and in this context the role of comorbid substance abuse must be addressed. Data on criminal behavior in 282 men with schizophrenia and 261 men with affective disorder were studied. Samples of patients with and without additional substance abuse were compared. Also, non-abusing patients from both diagnostic groups were compared with matched controls from the general population. Substance abuse was found in half of all men in both groups of major mental disorders, and substance abusers had twice as high a probability of having a criminal record. However, compared with the matched sample from the general population, violent criminality was increased in schizophrenic patients without comorbid substance abuse, and patients with affective disorders without substance abuse had a higher probability of committing crimes against property. Men with major mental disorder have an increased probability of becoming criminal even when there is no comorbid substance abuse. PMID:15679536

  12. Coping with Mental Illness in the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Agnes B.

    Utilizing the conceptual framework of coping theory, 30 family care-givers of mentally ill family members were interviewed to determine the relationship between coping effectiveness and such variables as patient characteristics, factors of the care-givers life situation, and the availability and adequacy of community supports. Care-givers were…

  13. The Stigma of Families with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…

  14. Patient Education for the Mentally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Louise Harding

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the philosophy of the rehabilitation services department at McLean Hospital on patient education for the mentally ill, noting patient library collection and recommended resources on marital problems, sex education, drug manuals, and diagnostic and research findings. A list of magazines subscribed to, color code classification, and 23…

  15. Siblings and Mental Illness: Heredity vs. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, David C.; Elam, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Siblings are far more likely to be different than alike in personality and psychopathology. Different genes and different environmental experiences can account for why one sibling becomes mentally ill and another is not affected. Environmental experiences play a much greater role in sibling differentiation than has been previously recognized.…

  16. Attitudes of college students toward mental illness stigma and the misuse of psychiatric medications

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Amanda M.; Merlo, Lisa J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Mental illness stigma remains a significant barrier to treatment. However, the recent increase in the medical and non-medical use of prescription psychiatric medications among college students seems to contradict this phenomenon. This study explored students’ attitudes and experiences related to psychiatric medications, as well as correlates of psychiatric medication misuse (i.e., attitudes towards mental illness and beliefs about the efficacy of psychiatric medications). METHOD Data were collected anonymously via self-report questionnaires from April 2008 to February 2009. Measures included the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, Drug Abuse Screening Test, Day’s Mental Illness Stigma Scale, Attitudes Toward Psychiatric Medication Scale, and the Psychiatric Medication Attitudes Scale. Participants included 383 university students (59.2% female), recruited on campus or through online classes. RESULTS Results showed high rates of psychiatric medication misuse when compared to rates of medical use. Participants reported believing that the majority of students who use prescription psychotropics do so non-medically. In addition, less-stigmatized attitudes toward mental illness were correlated with both increased beliefs about the treatability of mental illness and increased misuse of psychiatric medications. Conversely, more stigmatized beliefs were associated with negative views toward psychiatric medication, as well as decreased likelihood of abuse. CONCLUSION Results suggest the need for improved education regarding the nature of mental illness, the appropriate use of psychiatric medications, and the potential consequences associated with abuse of these potent drugs. PMID:21208582

  17. Physical Health, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems of Shelter Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Shirley N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined physical health of 72 users of homeless shelters, comparing shelter users with mental illness or substance abuse problems with those without these problems. Found that alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to have low blood pressure, symptoms of liver disease, and tuberculosis treatment history. Found no health differences for…

  18. American Christian Engagement With Mental Health and Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Kinghorn, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    Although religious belief and practice are relevant to mental health outcomes, many clinicians lack knowledge of particular religious traditions required to make informed judgments about referral to and collaboration with faith-based organizations and clinicians. This Open Forum examines five diverse American Christian approaches to mental health and mental illness-pastoral care and counseling, biblical counseling, integrationism, Christian psychology, and the work of the Institute for the Psychological Sciences--that are relevant for contemporary mental health service delivery. Each of these movements is briefly described and placed in historical, conceptual, and organizational context. Knowledge of the diverse and varied terrain of American Christian engagement with mental health care can inform clinicians' interactions with faith-based providers, clarify opportunities for responsible collaboration, and provide important insight into religious subcultures with faith-based concerns about contemporary psychiatric care. PMID:26369885

  19. Resolving mental illness stigma: should we seek normalcy or solidarity?

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W

    2016-04-01

    Two approaches have emerged to deal with the stigma of mental illness: normalcy, where people with mental illness are framed as 'just like everyone else'; and solidarity, where the public agrees to stand with those with mental illness regardless of their symptoms. Pros and cons of each approach are considered. PMID:27036695

  20. Social Meanings Versus the Psychiatric Concept of Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dorothy L.

    1982-01-01

    According to the societal reaction perspective, mental illness develops when symptoms are molded and imputed by societal reaction into a stable and organized social role. Individuals are thrust into the role by being labeled mentally ill. In contrast, the psychiatric concept assumes that mental illness is a disease. Its purpose is to order, predict, and control the symptoms of mental disease. This paper examines some social theories of mental disorder and compares the societal reaction perspective to the psychiatric concept.

  1. [Hyperprolactinemia in mentally ill patients].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Manuel Maria de; Góis, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    prolactin-sparing antipsychotic or the use of a dopamine receptor agonist, such as bromocriptine, cabergoline and amantadine. Given the osteopenic and osteoporosis risk, combined oral contraceptives must be considered in female patients in fertile age which have amenorrhoea for at least a one year period. With the exception of the Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines and the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, none of the current international psychiatric guidelines recommend a routine baseline prolactin determination, neither periodic prolactin levels without the presence of any hyperprolactinemia symptoms. PMID:22713195

  2. Assessing spirituality in mentally ill African Americans.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bobbie; Johnson, Deanna; Singley, Doretha; Jackson, Cheylon

    2006-01-01

    The case scenario illustrates the advantage of using spirituality as a tool for recovery when working with mentally ill African American clients. Often spiritual and clinical perspectives are seen as contradictory. But for African Americans, these perspectives can be mutually reinforcing. Spirituality can serve as a resource of strength. It can provide emotional consolation, inspiration, guidance, and security. It can foster personal responsibility, identity, respect for ethical codes and community building. Mental Health professionals who use spirituality as a tool for recovery can expect to have better client outcomes when working with African Americans than those who do not. PMID:18402348

  3. 28 CFR 541.6 - Mentally ill inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... are mentally ill at any stage of the discipline process, you will be examined by mental health staff... evidence presented by mental health staff. ... Discipline Hearing Officer will make this decision based on evidence, including evidence presented by...

  4. 28 CFR 541.6 - Mentally ill inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... are mentally ill at any stage of the discipline process, you will be examined by mental health staff... evidence presented by mental health staff. ... Discipline Hearing Officer will make this decision based on evidence, including evidence presented by...

  5. 28 CFR 541.6 - Mentally ill inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... are mentally ill at any stage of the discipline process, you will be examined by mental health staff... evidence presented by mental health staff. ... Discipline Hearing Officer will make this decision based on evidence, including evidence presented by...

  6. 28 CFR 541.6 - Mentally ill inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... are mentally ill at any stage of the discipline process, you will be examined by mental health staff... evidence presented by mental health staff. ... Discipline Hearing Officer will make this decision based on evidence, including evidence presented by...

  7. [Violence by and against people with mental illnesses].

    PubMed

    Steinert, Tilman; Traub, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    There is robust evidence for an increased risk of violence through people with psychotic disorders. Until recently this was frequently denied to prevent stigmatization. Alcohol and drug abuse equally increases the risk, while appropriate treatment reduces it drastically. Staff in psychiatric hospitals is exposed to an elevated risk of aggressive assaults. A limited number of severely ill and socially disintegrated patients accounts for these incidents, which are often recurrent. Besides patient characteristics, factors such as ward climate, staffing levels, education and attitudes of staff, and physical environment play a major role in aggressive escalations. On the other hand, mentally ill people, particularly women, are themselves at a higher risk of becoming victims of violent and non-violent crime. This also applies after correction for variables such as social status and living environment. Additionally mentally ill people are confronted with violence in the form of coercive interventions legitimised by the state (involuntary admission, involuntary treatment, freedom-restrictive measures such as seclusion or manual/physical restraint). In contrast to other countries in Central and Western Europe, involuntary outpatient treatment has never been legalized in Germany. Efforts to reduce violence and coercion in psychiatric facilities by evidence-based interventions are widespread nowadays, treatment guidelines are available. PMID:26515051

  8. What Does Mental Health Parity Really Mean for the Care of People with Serious Mental Illness?

    PubMed

    Bartlett, John; Manderscheid, Ron

    2016-06-01

    Parity of mental health and substance abuse insurance benefits with medical care benefits, as well as parity in their management, are major ongoing concerns for adults with serious mental illness (SMI). The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 guaranteed this parity of benefits and management in large private insurance plans and privately managed state Medicaid plans, but only if the benefits were offered at all. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 extended parity to all persons receiving insurance through the state health insurance marketplaces, through the state Medicaid Expansions, and through new individual and small group plans. This article presents an analysis of how accessible parity has become for adults with SMI at both the system and personal levels several years after these legislative changes have been implemented. PMID:27216906

  9. Life skills programmes for chronic mental illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Tungpunkom, Patraporn; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Background Most people with schizophrenia have a cyclical pattern of illness characterised by remission and relapses. The illness can reduce the ability of self-care and functioning and can lead to the illness becoming disabling. Life skills programmes, emphasising the needs associated with independent functioning, are often a part of the rehabilitation process. These programmes have been developed to enhance independent living and quality of life for people with schizophrenia. Objectives To review the effects of life skills programmes compared with standard care or other comparable therapies for people with chronic mental health problems. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (June 2010). We supplemented this process with handsearching and scrutiny of references. We inspected references of all included studies for further trials. Selection criteria We included all relevant randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials for life skills programmes versus other comparable therapies or standard care involving people with serious mental illnesses. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a random-effects model. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), again based on a random-effects model. Main results We included seven randomised controlled trials with a total of 483 participants. These evaluated life skills programmes versus standard care, or support group. We found no significant difference in life skills performance between people given life skills training and standard care (1 RCT, n = 32, MD −1.10; 95% CI −7.82 to 5.62). Life skills training did not improve or worsen study retention (5 RCTs, n = 345, RR 1.16; 95% CI 0.40 to 3.36). We found no significant difference in PANSS positive, negative or total scores between life skills intervention and

  10. Motherhood in women with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Benders-Hadi, Nikole; Barber, Mary; Alexander, Mary Jane

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of motherhood among inpatient females at a large state psychiatric hospital in suburban New York, as well as develop an understanding of the characteristics and needs of this unique population. Data on motherhood status was gathered from October 2010 through April 2011 via medical records. Data on custody status, frequency of contacts with children, and effect of mental illness on parenting was assessed through patient surveys and focus groups. 38.5 % of female inpatients were found to be mothers, almost half of whom reported at least weekly contact with children despite their inpatient status. The majority of identified mothers reported having maintained custody of their minor children and expressed great pride at being primary caretakers for their children, yet also emphasized the challenging effects of stigma associated with mental illness and parenting. A significant proportion of women at this psychiatric hospital were found to be mothers. Although acknowledged by some clinicians at the individual level, motherhood appears to remain a forgotten role systemically. Determining motherhood status and recognizing the varied roles our patients have is one more way mental health providers can model and promote recovery-oriented care. PMID:22576070

  11. Statistical Analysis in Genetic Studies of Mental Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Heping

    2011-01-01

    Identifying the risk factors for mental illnesses is of significant public health importance. Diagnosis, stigma associated with mental illnesses, comorbidity, and complex etiologies, among others, make it very challenging to study mental disorders. Genetic studies of mental illnesses date back at least a century ago, beginning with descriptive studies based on Mendelian laws of inheritance. A variety of study designs including twin studies, family studies, linkage analysis, and more recently, genomewide association studies have been employed to study the genetics of mental illnesses, or complex diseases in general. In this paper, I will present the challenges and methods from a statistical perspective and focus on genetic association studies. PMID:21909187

  12. Biogenetic models of psychopathology, implicit guilt, and mental illness stigma

    PubMed Central

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Todd, Andrew R.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.; Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2009-01-01

    Whereas some research suggests that acknowledgment of the role of biogenetic factors in mental illness could reduce mental illness stigma by diminishing perceived responsibility, other research has cautioned that emphasizing biogenetic aspects of mental illness could produce the impression that mental illness is a stable, intrinsic aspect of a person (“genetic essentialism”), increasing the desire for social distance. We assessed genetic and neurobiological causal attributions about mental illness among 85 people with serious mental illness and 50 members of the public. The perceived responsibility of persons with mental illness for their condition, as well as fear and social distance, were assessed by self-report. Automatic associations between Mental Illness and Guilt and between Self and Guilt were measured by the Brief Implicit Association Test. Among the general public, endorsement of biogenetic models was associated with less perceived responsibility, but also greater social distance. Among people with mental illness, endorsement of genetic models had only negative correlates: greater explicit fear and stronger implicit self-guilt associations. Genetic models may have unexpected negative consequences for implicit self-concept and explicit attitudes of people with serious mental illness. An exclusive focus on genetic models may therefore be problematic for clinical practice and anti-stigma initiatives. PMID:20493559

  13. Advocating for the rights of the mentally ill: a global issue.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Jeanette; Fox, Patricia G; Burns, Kenneth

    2005-09-01

    The media has shared with the American public horrors of abuse towards prisoners of war in recent newscasts. Prisoners, and others in vulnerable positions, can fall victim to neglect and abuse at the hands of their captors. Often, human rights can be violated. Therefore, people in vulnerable positions need advocates who will defend and protect their rights. The role of advocate is familiar to nursing professionals. In the mid-1980's advocacy grew attention due to disclosure of human rights abuses in mental health facilities. Today, worldwide, nursing leaders continue to confront abuses in multiple settings. In the United States, the Human Rights Authority was specifically developed to address issues of abuse of persons with physical disabilities and or mental illness. Globally, nurses will want to support the development and enforcement of policies that protect persons in vulnerable positions. PMID:16268230

  14. Mental Illness and Mental Health Defenses: Perceptions of the Criminal Bar.

    PubMed

    Frierson, Richard L; Boyd, Mary S; Harper, Angela

    2015-12-01

    As the number of state mental hospital beds declines, persons with persistent mental illness are increasingly encountered by those working in the legal system. Attorneys may have little experience in working with this population. This research involved a 32-item written survey of the 492 members of the criminal bar in South Carolina. Demographic variables were surveyed, and attorneys were asked to define two common terms describing mental illnesses (delusion and psychosis) and the legal criteria for verdicts of not guilty by reason of insanity and guilty but mentally ill. They were also asked to identify the most severe mental illness (schizophrenia). Attitudes about these verdicts and about working with defendants who are mentally ill were also surveyed. Results indicate that attorneys are fairly knowledgeable about mental illness, but not verdicts involving mental illness, particularly the verdict of guilty but mentally ill. Most attorneys prefer to work with clients who do not have mental illness. However, as they become more experienced interacting with defendants who are affected by mental illness, they become more knowledgeable and are more willing to defend them. A large majority believe that their law school education about mental illness was inadequate. When comparing attorney occupations, public defenders were the most knowledgeable about mental illness and mental health defenses, followed by prosecutors and private defense attorneys. Judges were the least knowledgeable group. PMID:26668226

  15. Common Representations of the Mentally Ill among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bovina, I. B.; Panov, M. S.

    2006-01-01

    The study of mental diseases and the mentally ill is, no doubt, the job of psychiatry and clinical psychology. However, social psychology has also made a substantial contribution to research in this field in the past few decades. In this study, the authors describe and analyze the content and structure of representations of the mentally ill among…

  16. Mental Illness in Offender Populations: Prevalence, Duty and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderstrom, Irina R.

    2007-01-01

    Prisons are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness. This paper examines the prevalence of mental illness in American jails and prisons, the duty government and society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment, and the implications for inmate safety, costs, recidivism, and community reintegration if…

  17. Offenders with Mental Illness in the Correctional System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Maureen L.; Schnell, Marissa J.

    2007-01-01

    The escalating mentally ill population in prisons has created unique challenges for correctional systems, Colorado being no exception with 25% of its incarcerated population having mental health needs. This study examined correctional offenders with mental illness (OMIs) and found a growing number of OMIs in Colorado's prison system. Not only is…

  18. How Clinical Diagnosis Might Exacerbate the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    Stigma can greatly exacerbate the experience of mental illness. Diagnostic classification frequently used by clinical social workers may intensify this stigma by enhancing the public's sense of "groupness" and "differentness" when perceiving people with mental illness. The homogeneity assumed by stereotypes may lead mental health professionals and…

  19. Self-Stigma of Mental Illness in High School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Leah I.; Michel, Natalie M.; Winter, Ariella; Young, Rebecca E.; Flett, Gordon L.; Goldberg, Joel O.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of mental health problems, society continues to stigmatize and discriminate against people with mental illness and in particular, schizophrenia. Among the negative consequences of stigma, is that some individuals with mental illness internalize negative stereotypes about themselves, referred to as self-stigma, which is…

  20. The chronically mentally ill: planning a future.

    PubMed

    Draper, R J

    1989-09-01

    The plight of the chronically mentally ill in contemporary society is explored. Appropriate treatment strategies identified require organizational changes at both local and provincial levels, and altered management philosophies. The criteria used in major studies to define the study population are identified and epidemiological data provided to illustrate the numbers and disposition of sufferers of "Prolonged Functional Disabilities caused by or aggravated by Severe Mental Disorder." Operational and research data from a regional psychiatric research service confirm that many patients formerly considered chronically institutionalized can be successfully discharged when goal-oriented multidisciplinary methods are introduced. External inhibiting factors are identified which society must address. Psychiatry must embrace and develop the new philosophies. Rational planning based upon patient need will require changes in the present vertical hierarchical structure of health care organization. Some elements of a strategic planning model are identified. PMID:2678188

  1. Racial and ethnic disparities in mental illness stigma.

    PubMed

    Rao, Deepa; Feinglass, Joseph; Corrigan, Patrick

    2007-12-01

    The present study sought to examine whether racial/ethnic differences exist in stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness among community college students. Multiple regression models were used to investigate racial/ethnic differences in students' perceived dangerousness and desire for segregation from persons with mental illness both before and after participation in an antistigma intervention. At baseline, African Americans and Asians perceived people with mental illness as more dangerous and wanted more segregation than Caucasians, and Latinos perceived people with mental illness as less dangerous and wanted less segregation than Caucasians. Similar patterns emerged postintervention, except that Asians' perceptions changed significantly such that they tended to perceive people with mental illness as least dangerous of all the racial/ethnic groups. These findings suggest that racial/ethnic background may help to shape mental illness stigma, and that targeting antistigma interventions to racial/ethnic background of participants may be helpful. PMID:18091196

  2. Media portrayal of mental illness and its treatments: what effect does it have on people with mental illness?

    PubMed

    Stuart, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews dominant media portrayals of mental illness, the mentally ill and mental health interventions, and examines what social, emotional and treatment-related effects these may have. Studies consistently show that both entertainment and news media provide overwhelmingly dramatic and distorted images of mental illness that emphasise dangerousness, criminality and unpredictability. They also model negative reactions to the mentally ill, including fear, rejection, derision and ridicule. The consequences of negative media images for people who have a mental illness are profound. They impair self-esteem, help-seeking behaviours, medication adherence and overall recovery. Mental health advocates blame the media for promoting stigma and discrimination toward people with a mental illness. However, the media may also be an important ally in challenging public prejudices, initiating public debate, and projecting positive, human interest stories about people who live with mental illness. Media lobbying and press liaison should take on a central role for mental health professionals, not only as a way of speaking out for patients who may not be able to speak out for themselves, but as a means of improving public education and awareness. Also, given the consistency of research findings in this field, it may now be time to shift attention away from further cataloguing of media representations of mental illness to the more challenging prospect of how to use the media to improve the life chances and recovery possibilities for the one in four people living with mental disorders. PMID:16478286

  3. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale: a multinational review.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Adler, Emerald P; Otilingam, Poorni G; Peters, Townley

    2014-01-01

    The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale is a 29-item questionnaire measuring self-stigma among persons with psychiatric disorders. It was developed with substantial consumer input and has been widely used, but its psychometric qualities have not been comprehensively evaluated across multiple versions. Here we review the 55 known versions, and provide the 47 available versions, including: Arabic, Armenian, Bengali, Bulgarian, Chinese (Mainland, Taiwan, Hong Kong), Croatian, Dutch, English (USA, South Africa), Estonian, Farsi, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Japanese, Khmer, Korean, Lithuanian, Lugandan, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese (Portugal, Brazil), Romanian, Russian, Samoan, Slovenian, Spanish (Spain), Swahili, Swedish, Tongan, Turkish, Urdu, and Yoruba, and qualitative English and Swahili versions, as well as versions for depression, schizophrenia, substance abuse, eating disorders, epilepsy, inflammatory bowel disease, leprosy, smoking, parents and caregivers of people with mental illness, and ethnicity. The various versions show reliability and validity across a wide range of languages, cultures, and writing systems. The most commonly reported findings of studies using the ISMI are that internalized stigma correlates with higher depression, lower self esteem, and higher symptom severity. Initial studies of ways to reduce internalized stigma are promising and warrant further investigation. PMID:24060237

  4. Building The Mental Health Workforce Capacity Needed To Treat Adults With Serious Mental Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Olfson, Mark

    2016-06-01

    There are widespread shortages of mental health professionals in the United States, especially for the care of adults with serious mental illnesses. Such shortages are aggravated by maldistribution of mental health professionals and attractive practice opportunities treating adults with less severe conditions. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) and legislation extending mental health parity coverage are contributing to an increasing demand for mental health services. I consider four policy recommendations to reinvigorate the mental health workforce to meet the rising mental health care demand by adults with serious mental illnesses: expanding loan repayment programs for mental health professionals to practice in underserved areas; raising Medicaid reimbursement for treating serious mental illness; increasing training opportunities for social workers in relevant evidence-based psychosocial services; and disseminating service models that integrate mental health specialists as consultants in general medical care. Achieving progress in attracting mental health professionals to care for adults with serious mental illnesses will require vigorous policy interventions. PMID:27269013

  5. Mental illness stigma, help seeking, and public health programs.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Claire; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-05-01

    Globally, more than 70% of people with mental illness receive no treatment from health care staff. Evidence suggests that factors increasing the likelihood of treatment avoidance or delay before presenting for care include (1) lack of knowledge to identify features of mental illnesses, (2) ignorance about how to access treatment, (3) prejudice against people who have mental illness, and (4) expectation of discrimination against people diagnosed with mental illness. In this article, we reviewed the evidence on whether large-scale anti-stigma campaigns could lead to increased levels of help seeking. PMID:23488489

  6. Mentally ill persons in the criminal justice system: some perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lamb, H Richard; Weinberger, Linda E; Gross, Bruce H

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing number of severely mentally ill persons in the criminal justice system. This article first discusses the criminalization of persons with severe mental illness and its causes, the role of the police and mental health, and the treatment of mentally ill offenders and its difficulties. The authors then offer recommendations to reduce criminalization by increased coordination between police and mental health professionals, to increase mental health training for police officers, to enhance mental health services after arrest, and to develop more and better community treatment of mentally ill offenders. The necessary components of such treatment are having a treatment philosophy of both theory and practice; having clear goals of treatment; establishing a close liaison between treatment staff and the justice system; understanding the need for structure; having a focus on managing violence; and appreciating the crucial role of case management, appropriate living arrangements, and the role of family members. PMID:15168834

  7. Civil commitment of sex offenders to mental institutions: should the standard be based on serious mental illness or mental disorder?

    PubMed

    Alexander, R

    2000-01-01

    Civil commitment to mental institutions requires that an individual be both seriously mentally ill and dangerous. This principle is erroneously being applied to incarcerated sex offenders nearing release from prison under the theory that they have antisocial personalities or paraphilia disorders, which are called mental illnesses. However, the mental health and legal communities are at odds regarding the use of a diagnosis of personality disorder or paraphilia to justify civil commitment. The author reviews the differences between serious mental illness and mental disorder, the flaws with assessing sex offenders as mentally ill, and the ethical dilemma for social workers employed in mental hospitals. PMID:10557893

  8. Mentally ill mothers who have killed: three cases addressing the issue of future parenting capability.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, T; Miller, L J

    1998-05-01

    Many parents with severe and chronic mental illness lose custody of their children due to child abuse or neglect. These children may linger in foster care for long periods of time until decisions about custody are made. Recent proposals to shorten the time that children remain in the foster care system include the use of categories of abuse to guide decisions about custody. One proposal has been to "fast-track" cases involving parents with long-standing mental disorders by automatically terminating parental rights. This approach assumes that a severe and chronic mental disorder is incompatible with safe parenting. This report describes three cases of mentally ill mothers who lost custody of their children after they killed someone. The mothers were nonetheless found to be at low risk for future child maltreatment and violence according to evaluation with two current methodologies, Parenting Risk Assessment and Risk of Violence Assessment. The cases question the assumption that mental illness is incompatible with safe parenting and underscore the fact that evaluation of the parenting competency of mentally ill parents is rarely clear-cut. PMID:9603571

  9. Witchcraft and Biopsychosocial Causes of Mental Illness: Attitudes and Beliefs About Mental Illness Among Health Professionals in Five Countries.

    PubMed

    Stefanovics, Elina A; He, Hongbo; Cavalcanti, Maria; Neto, Helio; Ofori-Atta, Angelo; Leddy, Meaghan; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-03-01

    This study examines the intercorrelation of measures reflecting beliefs about and attitudes toward people with mental illness in a sample of health professionals (N = 902) from five countries: Brazil, China, Ghana, Nigeria, and the United States, and, more specifically, the association of beliefs in supernatural as contrasted with biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Factor analysis of a 43-item questionnaire identified four factors favoring a) socializing with people with mental illness; b) normalizing their roles in society; c) belief in supernatural causes of mental illness (e.g., witchcraft, curses); and d) belief in biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Unexpectedly, a hypothesized negative association between belief in supernatural and biopsychosocial causation of mental illness was not found. Belief in the biopsychosocial causation was weakly associated with less stigmatized attitudes towards socializing and normalized roles. PMID:26745309

  10. Characteristics of mentally ill offenders from 100 psychiatric court reports

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is an increasing probability that the psychiatrist will, willingly or not, come into contact with mentally ill offenders in the course of their practice. There are increasing rates of violence, substance abuse and other psychiatric disorders that are of legal importance. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the rates of different mental disorders in 100 court reports and to investigate the characteristics of mentally ill offenders. Methods All cases referred from different departments of the legal system to the forensic committee for assessment of legal accountability over 13-months duration were included. A specially designed form was prepared for data collection. Cases were classified into five groups: murder, robbery, financial offences, violent and simple offences and a group for other offences. Data were subjected to statistical analysis and comparisons between different groups of subjects were performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results Men constituted 93% of cases. In all, 73% of offenders were younger than 40 years old. Schizophrenia cases made up 13% of the total, substance related cases constituted 56% and amphetamine cases alone made up 21%; 10% of cases were antisocial personality disorders, and 51% of cases were classified as having a low education level. Unemployment was found in 34% of cases. The final decision of the forensic committee was full responsibility in 46% of cases and partial responsibility in 11% of cases, with 33% considered non-responsible. A total of 58% of cases had had contact with psychiatric healthcare prior to the offence and in 9% of cases contact had been in the previous 12 weeks. A history of similar offences was found in 32% of cases. In all, 14% of the offences were murders, 8% were sexual crimes, and 31% were violent/simple crimes. Conclusions The ability of the legal system to detect cases was good, while the ability of the healthcare system to predict crimes and offences was weak, as

  11. The Impact of Illness Identity on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Yanos, Philip T; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H

    2010-04-01

    The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically driven model of the impact of illness identity on the course and recovery from severe mental illness and reviews relevant research. We propose that accepting a definition of oneself as mentally ill and assuming that mental illness means incompetence and inadequacy impact hope and self-esteem, which further impact suicide risk, coping, social interaction, vocational functioning, and symptom severity. Evidence supports most of the predictions made by the model. Implications for psychiatric rehabilitation services are discussed. PMID:20802840

  12. The Impact of Illness Identity on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Yanos, Philip T.; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically driven model of the impact of illness identity on the course and recovery from severe mental illness and reviews relevant research. We propose that accepting a definition of oneself as mentally ill and assuming that mental illness means incompetence and inadequacy impact hope and self-esteem, which further impact suicide risk, coping, social interaction, vocational functioning, and symptom severity. Evidence supports most of the predictions made by the model. Implications for psychiatric rehabilitation services are discussed. PMID:20802840

  13. "Head take you": causal attributions of mental illness in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Carlotta M; Whitley, Rob

    2015-02-01

    Causal attributions are a key factor in explanatory models of illness; however, little research on causal attributions of mental illness has been conducted in developing nations in the Caribbean, including Jamaica. Explanatory models of mental illness may be important in understanding illness experience and be a crucial factor in mental health service seeking and utilization. We explored causal attributions of mental illness in Jamaica by conducting 20 focus groups, including 16 community samples, 2 patient samples, and 2 samples of caregivers of patients, with a total of 159 participants. The 5 most commonly endorsed causal attributions of mental illness are discussed: (a) drug-related causes, including ganja (marijuana); (b) biological causes, such as chemical imbalance, familial transmission, and "blood"; (c) psychological causes, including stress and thinking too much; (d) social causes, such as relationship problems and job loss; and (e) spiritual or religious causes, including Obeah. PMID:25406259

  14. [Glutamate transporter dysfunction and major mental illnesses].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kohichi

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and plays an important role in most aspects of normal brain function. In spite of its importance as a neurotransmitter, excess glutamate is toxic to neurons. Clearance of extracellular glutamate is critical for maintenance of low extracellular glutamate concentration, and occurs in large part through the activity of GLT1 (EAAT2) and GLAST (EAAT1), which are primarily expressed by astrocytes. Rare variants and down-regulation of GLT1 and GLAST, in psychiatric disorders have been reported. In this review, we demonstrate that various kinds of GLT1 and/or GLAST knockout mice replicate many aspects of the behavioral abnormalities seen in major mental illnesses including schizophrenia, depression, obsessive -compulsive disorders, autism, epilepsy and addiction. PMID:26793898

  15. Perinatal mental illness: definition, description and aetiology.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Michael W; Wisner, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal mental illness is a significant complication of pregnancy and the postpartum period. These disorders include depression, anxiety disorders, and postpartum psychosis, which usually manifests as bipolar disorder. Perinatal depression and anxiety are common, with prevalence rates for major and minor depression up to almost 20% during pregnancy and the first 3 months postpartum. Postpartum blues are a common but lesser manifestation of postpartum affective disturbance. Perinatal psychiatric disorders impair a woman's function and are associated with suboptimal development of her offspring. Risk factors include past history of depression, anxiety, or bipolar disorder, as well psychosocial factors, such as ongoing conflict with the partner, poor social support, and ongoing stressful life events. Early symptoms of depression, anxiety, and mania can be detected through screening in pregnancy and the postpartum period. Early detection and effective management of perinatal psychiatric disorders are critical for the welfare of women and their offspring. PMID:24140480

  16. Mental Illness, Your Client and the Criminal Law: A Handbook for Attorneys Who Represent Persons with Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This handbook for attorneys represents part of an effort to improve legal representation for criminal defendants with mental illness. The handbook was developed and reviewed by both mental health professionals and attorneys experienced in criminal and mental health law. However, it is not a comprehensive guide on mental health law or on how to…

  17. AIDS and the Chronic Mentally Ill: Legal and Ethical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satriano, James; Karp, Mitchell

    The chronic mentally ill experience substantially higher rates of HIV infection than the general population. This paper examines the problems which confront the chronic mentally ill and society at large. Discussed are the questions of whether or not psychiatric patients should be excepted, due to their cognitive and behavioral impairments, from…

  18. New Strategies for Representing Mental Illness on Canadian Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Kirsty

    2009-01-01

    Workman Arts, a Toronto-based theatre and visual arts company with a 20-year history, provides a rich site for re-imagining stigmatised representations of mental illness. Writing and performing against a long tradition of representing people with mental illnesses as incoherent speakers and visually different, company members seek to re-imagine…

  19. Resilience Factors in Families Living with People with Mental Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonker, Liezl; Greeff, Abraham P.

    2009-01-01

    In South Africa, a substantial burden is placed on families living with people with mental illnesses. The aim of this study was to identify resilience factors in families living in an underprivileged area, caring for people with mental illnesses. Data was obtained from family representatives (N=34) using semistructured interviews and a set of…

  20. Mental Illness as a Barrier to Marriage among Unmarried Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores how mental illness shapes transitions to marriage among unwed mothers using augmented data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (N = 2,351). We estimate proportional hazard models to assess the effects of mental illness on the likelihood of marriage over a 5-year period following a nonmarital birth. Diagnosed…

  1. Art Education and Disability Studies Perspectives on Mental Illness Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, John K.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation critically examines mental illness discourses through the intersecting disciplinary lenses of art education and disability studies. Research from multiple disciplines is compared and theorized to uncover the ways in which discourses, or language systems, have oppressively constructed and represented "mental illness." To establish…

  2. Keeping the Peace: Police Discretion and Mentally Ill Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teplin, Linda A.

    2000-01-01

    In many urban centers, responding to mentally ill people has become a large part of the police peacekeeping function. This article highlights the police role in handling mentally ill persons. Law enforcement options are discussed, including both formal and informal options. It is noted that officers decisions to hospitalize, arrest, or deal with a…

  3. Perceived Mental Illness and Diminished Responsibility: A Study of Attributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadava, Stan W.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examined the relationship between perceived mental illness and attribution of responsibility. Subjects evaluated data from various accident cases. Although greater mental illness was attributed to alcoholism and paranoid cases, greater responsibility was attributed to the alcoholic. Only in the normal case was greater responsibility related to…

  4. Mental illness among Bhutanese shamans in Nepal.

    PubMed

    van Ommeren, Mark; Komproe, Ivan; Cardeña, Etzel; Thapa, Suraj B; Prasain, Dinesh; de Jong, Joop T V M; Sharma, Bhogendra

    2004-04-01

    Despite efforts to promote traditional medicine, allopathic practitioners often look with distrust at traditional practices. Shamans in particular are often regarded with ambivalence and have been considered mentally ill people. We tested the hypothesis that shamanism is an expression of psychopathology. In the Bhutanese refugee community in Nepal, a community with a high number of shamans, we surveyed a representative community sample of 810 adults and assessed ICD-10 mental disorders through structured diagnostic interviews. Approximately 7% of male refugees and 0.5% of female refugees reported being shamans. After controlling for demographic differences, the shamans did not differ from the comparison group in terms of 12-month and lifetime ICD-10 severe depressive episode, specific phobia, persistent somatoform pain, posttraumatic stress, generalized anxiety, or dissociative disorders. This first-ever, community-based, psychiatric epidemiological survey among shamans indicated no evidence that shamanism is an expression of psychopathology. The study's finding may assist in rectifying shamans' reputation, which has been tainted by past speculation of psychopathology. PMID:15060406

  5. Prevalence and impact of childhood abuse in people with a psychotic illness. Data from the second Australian National Survey of Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sonal; Mackinnon, Andrew; Galletly, Cherrie; Carr, Vaughan; McGrath, John J; Stain, Helen J; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Sweeney, Shaun; Morgan, Vera A

    2014-10-01

    Child abuse has been associated with risk of mental illness, including schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders and, among those with mental illness, with a more severe clinical profile. Using an extensively characterised and epidemiologically representative sample of 1825 Australians with a psychotic illness aged 18-64 years and in contact with mental health services, we estimated the proportion of individuals with psychotic disorders who self-reported child abuse and examined its relationship with clinical and other characteristics. The prevalence of child abuse in this nationally representative sample of people with psychotic illness was 30.6%. Women were almost three times more likely to report child abuse compared to males (OR, 2.8, 95% CI 2.3-3.4). When adjusted for age at interview and socio-economic status, there was no significant relationship between self-reported child abuse and type of psychosis or course of illness. Participants with child abuse were significantly more likely to have subjective thought disorder, lifetime suicide attempt and premorbid personality disorder (females only) and anxiety (males only). Our findings demonstrate that child abuse is relatively common across the range of psychotic disorders, with an elevated risk for women in particular, compounding the already high burden associated with psychotic illness. Clinicians need to inquire routinely about child abuse in order to develop appropriate treatment plans tailored to individual needs. PMID:25107848

  6. Perceived mental illness stigma, intimate relationships and sexual risk behavior in youth with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths’ experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth’s sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:25477706

  7. Intensive case management for severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Dieterich, Marina; Irving, Claire B; Park, Bert; Marshall, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background Intensive Case Management (ICM) is a community based package of care, aiming to provide long term care for severely mentally ill people who do not require immediate admission. ICM evolved from two original community models of care, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management (CM), where ICM emphasises the importance of small caseload (less than 20) and high intensity input. Objectives To assess the effects of Intensive Case Management (caseload <20) in comparison with non-Intensive Case Management (caseload > 20) and with standard community care in people with severe mental illness. To evaluate whether the effect of ICM on hospitalisation depends on its fidelity to the ACT model and on the setting. Search methods For the current update of this review we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (February 2009), which is compiled by systematic searches of major databases, hand searches and conference proceedings. Selection criteria All relevant randomised clinical trials focusing on people with severe mental illness, aged 18 to 65 years and treated in the community-care setting, where Intensive Case Management, non-Intensive Case Management or standard care were compared. Outcomes such as service use, adverse effects, global state, social functioning, mental state, behaviour, quality of life, satisfaction and costs were sought. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For binary outcomes we calculated relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data we estimated mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% confidence interval (CI). We employed a random-effects model for analyses. We performed a random-effects meta-regression analysis to examine the association of the intervention’s fidelity to the ACT model and the rate of hospital use in the setting where the trial was conducted with the treatment effect. Main results We included 38 trials

  8. [Definition of mental illness and discoursive strategies in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Hartman, J

    1998-01-01

    Defining mental illness was presented in the article both as a matter of medical knowledge and a political issue. This latter aspect cannot be successfully dealt with by psychiatry itself, since it is a branch of medicine, nevertheless bioethics offers here its competences and possibilities. The presentation of some elements of traditional strategies in defining mental illness introduces a draft of such a project of the definition procedure, which reinforces the constantly threatened (by the decrease of sovereignity) social and legal status of psychiatry, and--on the other hand--enables us to support the evidently handicapped status of psychiatric patients. This solitary definition strategy, which support both psychiatric circles and patients, assumes that a popular modern tendency to deny the very reality of the mental illness is to be avoided. The definition of mental illness proposed in the article is pragmatic in character and is based on a definition of mental illness as a kind of spiritual disorder. PMID:10816967

  9. Health Literacy Among People with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Whitney; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Bill Baerentzen, M; Britigan, Denise H

    2016-05-01

    People diagnosed with a mental illness are at higher risk of developing preventable chronic diseases; thus, health literacy improvements may have great potential to impact health outcomes for this typically underserved population. However, there is a dearth of research on health literacy of persons with severe mental illness. The purpose of this research was to investigate aspects of health literacy and identify factors associated with low literacy among adults with severe mental illness using three literacy assessment tools. Seventy-one adults with serious mental illness were assessed and a high proportion had limited literacy levels: 42 % with the Single Item Literacy Screener, 50 % with the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Short Form, and 67 % with the Newest Vital Sign. Findings suggest that individuals with certain mental illnesses and lower functioning may have more difficulty understanding health information and have limited numerical literacy. PMID:26443671

  10. Children's Conceptions of Mental Illness: A Naive Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Claudine; Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports two studies that investigated children's conceptions of mental illness using a naive theory approach, drawing upon a conceptual framework for analysing illness representations which distinguishes between the identity, causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of an illness. The studies utilized semi-structured interviewing…

  11. Mental health/psychiatric issues in elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill

    2014-11-01

    Elder abuse may be defined as a violation of a vulnerable older person's human and civil rights. Psychiatric illness is an important cause of vulnerability to abuse, especially when it is comorbid with other risk factors, such as physical frailty, sensory impairment, social isolation, and physical dependency. Health care providers are likely to encounter elder abuse regularly, and therefore have an important role in its detection and management, and in the treatment of subsequent psychiatric illness. This article reviews the relationships between psychiatric illnesses and elder abuse and neglect, examines the psychiatric consequences, and discusses how these may be treated. PMID:25439645

  12. Treatment of Children with Mental Illness: Frequently Asked Questions about the Treatment of Mental Illness in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Research shows that half of all lifetime cases of mental illness begin by age 14. Scientists are discovering that changes in the body leading to mental illness may start much earlier, before any symptoms appear. Through greater understanding of when and how fast specific areas of children's brains develop, we are learning more about the early…

  13. When and why should mentally ill prisoners be transferred to secure hospitals: a proposed algorithm.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Tobias; Lanquillon, Stefan; Graf, Marc

    2013-01-01

    For reasons well known and researched in detail, worldwide prevalence rates for mental disorders are much higher in prison populations than in general, not only for sentenced prisoners but also for prisoners on remand, asylum seekers on warrant for deportation and others. Moreover, the proportion of imprisoned individuals is rising in most countries. Therefore forensic psychiatry must deal not only with the typically young criminal population, vulnerable to mental illness due to social stress and at an age when rates of schizophrenia, suicide, drug abuse and most personality disorders are highest, but also with an increasingly older population with age-related diseases such as dementia. While treatment standards for these mental disorders are largely published and accepted, and scientific evidence as to screening prisoners for mental illness is growing, where to treat them is dependent on considerations for public safety and local conditions such as national legislation, special regulations and the availability of treatment facilities (e.g., in prisons, in special medical wards within prisons or in secure hospitals). While from a medical point of view a mentally ill prisoner should be treated in a hospital, the ultimate decision must consider these different issues. In this article the authors propose an algorithm comprising screening procedures for mental health and a treatment chain for mentally ill prisoners based on treatment facilities in prison, medical safety, human rights, ethics, and the availability of services at this interface between prison and medicine. PMID:23706656

  14. Mental Health Promotion and Illness Prevention: A Challenge for Psychiatrists

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jung-Ah; Lee, Chang-Uk

    2013-01-01

    Mental health is essential for individual and public health. To improve mental health, promotion, prevention, and the treatment of disease are required. These three kinds of interventions are interrelated but independent from one another. Although separate efforts for mental health promotion and prevention are needed as well as the public need of mental health promotion and well-being, psychiatrists usually are not accustomed to mental health promotion and prevention. This review introduces an overview of the concept, subjects according to target populations, and various intervention strategies for mental health promotion and prevention of mental illnesses. Based on literatures to date, understanding of developmental psychology, lifestyle medicine, and biopsychosocial contributors of mental health with a macroscopic perspective might help to practice mental health promotion and illness prevention. PMID:24474978

  15. Changing the tide: stigma, school youth, and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Marsha

    2015-03-01

    Schools are in a key position not only to identify mental health concerns early but to address issues of stigma that prevent both children and their parents from seeking help with mental illness. Stigma associated with mental illness perpetuates isolative behavior and poor engagement within the academic community. Programs within schools that address mental health issues and support open communication with families can reduce the pain and isolation that is often the experience of youth with undiagnosed and untreated mental and emotional disorders. PMID:25816446

  16. Viewing Popular Films about Mental Illness through a Sociological Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses an exercise she uses requiring students to view a popular film that portrays a particular mental disorder or a character with a mental disorder. Students analyze the film and write two papers, one about the sociological model of mental illness and a second about possible links between media images and the…

  17. Attitudes toward Mental Illness: The Construction of the Libertarian Mental Health Ideology Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevid, Jeffrey S.; Morrison, James

    1980-01-01

    The study was an attempt to construct an attitude scale to measure the radical psychosocial or libertarian position about "mental illness" and mental health practices. The factor analysis defined four scale factors: mental illness mythology, antimedical model, social deviance control, and anti-coercive treatment. (Author)

  18. Racial Disparities in Mental Health Outcomes after Psychiatric Hospital Discharge among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after…

  19. Actitudes Haci la Enfermedad Mental: Revision Bibliografica (Attitudes toward Mental Illness: Revised Bibliography). Publication No. 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefani, Dorina

    In this work, some of the most important instruments used to measure attitudes toward mental illness were analysed. A revision of different experimental investigations which studied attitudes toward mental illness among general public, mental health professionals and patients and their relatives was made. Some of the strategies applied to change…

  20. The power gap: freedom, power and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2006-10-01

    Up to one in four individuals in the US meet the diagnostic criteria for a mental illness in any given year and a significant proportion have severe or recurring illnesses (e.g. schizophrenia). Despite this prevalence, mental health services remain poorly funded, mental illness remains misunderstood and individuals with recurring illness are constrained to live lives characterized by isolation, under-employment, stigma and denial of rights. Here I examine the idea that this situation is attributable, at least in part, to the ways in which the freedom and power of the mentally ill are undermined by a range of factors, including: (i) dispersion of political power amongst interest groups, which, combined with the relatively wide distribution of the 'interest' of mental illness, has the paradoxical result that mental health interest groups do not command political power proportional to the number affected; (ii) systematic exclusion of the mentally ill from full participation in civic, social and political life (structural violence), resulting in a lack of emphasis on mental health on political agendas and the exclusion of certain policy options as possible responses and (iii) difficulties the mentally ill may experience recognizing or articulating their own needs the absence of effective health-care systems, and the absence of knowledge about alternative systems. I argue that the enhancement of individual agency is central to efforts to address this power gap, including: (i) rights-based approaches, involving the enhancement of national mental health legislation, improvement of advocacy, empowerment and guardianship processes and development of governance, accountability and quality procedures in mental health services; (ii) approaches based on enhancing direct political participation, including voter-registration programmes and development of larger, more effective interest groups and (iii) additional approaches, including increasing accountability throughout services

  1. Correctional officers and the incarcerated mentally ill: responses to psychiatric illness in prison.

    PubMed

    Galanek, Joseph D

    2015-03-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. men's prison, I investigate how this social and cultural context structures relations between correctional officers and inmates with severe mental illness. Utilizing interpretivist perspectives, I explore how these relations are structured by trust, respect, and meanings associated with mental illness. Officers' discretionary responses to mentally ill inmates included observations to ensure psychiatric stability and flexibility in rule enforcement and were embedded within their role to ensure staff and inmate safety. Officers identified housing, employment, and social support as important for inmates' psychiatric stability as medications. Inmates identified officers' observation and responsiveness to help seeking as assisting in institutional functioning. These findings demonstrate that this prison's structures and values enable officers' discretion with mentally ill inmates, rather than solely fostering custodial responses to these inmates' behaviors. These officers' responses to inmates with mental illness concurrently support custodial control and the prison's order. PMID:25219680

  2. Women prisoners, mental health, violence and abuse.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Morag

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the specific experiences of women in prison, focusing on previous (and continuing) physical and mental abuse, the consequent health care requirements of women prisoners, the policy response and the availability of suitable health care in prisons across the EU. It draws from an extensive review of the literature on women prisoners across Europe that was part of an on-going European Project funded by the DAPHNE programme of the European Commission, entitled 'DAPHNE Strong'. It also uses the field research from the project collected via surveys and in-depth interviews with key personnel in organisations that work with women prisoners or ex-prisoners and staff with a strategic overview of activity from the ministries of justice, police, prison service and women's support organisations. There are probably many more women prisoners with a history of domestic abuse than is officially recognised. Many of the women prison population who have experienced violence and abuse mask this by problematic drug or alcohol use as well as self-injury. These are key areas that training for prison staff needs to address. The availability of services for this group of women is inconsistent within and between countries of the EU. The political will to address the situation of women in prison, as distinct from the norms applied to men, is variable and it seems to take the determined efforts of active lobby groups to make inroads into an area of latent inertia. PMID:23642339

  3. A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism.

    PubMed

    Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature. PMID:25133916

  4. Components of implicit stigma against mental illness among Chinese students.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Huang, Xiting; Jackson, Todd; Chen, Ruijun

    2012-01-01

    Although some research has examined negative automatic aspects of attitudes toward mental illness via relatively indirect measures among Western samples, it is unclear whether negative attitudes can be automatically activated in individuals from non-Western countries. This study attempted to validate results from Western samples with Chinese college students. We first examined the three-component model of implicit stigma (negative cognition, negative affect, and discriminatory tendencies) toward mental illness with the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT). We also explored the relationship between explicit and implicit stigma among 56 Chinese university college students. In the three separate SC-IATs and the combined SC-IAT, automatic associations between mental illness and negative descriptors were stronger relative to those with positive descriptors and the implicit effect of cognitive and affective SC-IATs were significant. Explicit and implicit measures of stigma toward mental illness were unrelated. In our sample, women's overall attitudes toward mental illness were more negative than men's were, but no gender differences were found for explicit measures. These findings suggested that implicit stigma toward mental illness exists in Chinese students, and provide some support for the three-component model of implicit stigma toward mental illness. Future studies that focus on automatic components of stigmatization and stigma-reduction in China are warranted. PMID:23029366

  5. Estimating the true global burden of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Vigo, Daniel; Thornicroft, Graham; Atun, Rifat

    2016-02-01

    We argue that the global burden of mental illness is underestimated and examine the reasons for under-estimation to identify five main causes: overlap between psychiatric and neurological disorders; the grouping of suicide and self-harm as a separate category; conflation of all chronic pain syndromes with musculoskeletal disorders; exclusion of personality disorders from disease burden calculations; and inadequate consideration of the contribution of severe mental illness to mortality from associated causes. Using published data, we estimate the disease burden for mental illness to show that the global burden of mental illness accounts for 32·4% of years lived with disability (YLDs) and 13·0% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), instead of the earlier estimates suggesting 21·2% of YLDs and 7·1% of DALYs. Currently used approaches underestimate the burden of mental illness by more than a third. Our estimates place mental illness a distant first in global burden of disease in terms of YLDs, and level with cardiovascular and circulatory diseases in terms of DALYs. The unacceptable apathy of governments and funders of global health must be overcome to mitigate the human, social, and economic costs of mental illness. PMID:26851330

  6. SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND MENTAL HEALTH DATA ARCHIVE (SAMHDA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Data Archive (SAMHDA) is an initiative of the Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The goal of the archive is to provide re...

  7. Treatment considerations for HIV-infected individuals with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Blank, Michael B; Himelhoch, Seth; Walkup, James; Eisenberg, Marlene M

    2013-12-01

    There has been a general recognition of a syndemic that includes HIV/AIDS and serve mental illnesses including schizophrenia, major depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and others. The pathophysiology and direction of effects between severe mental illness and HIV infection is less clear however, and relatively little work has been done on prevention and treatment for people with these complex, co-occurring conditions. Here we present the most recent work that has been published on HIV and mental illness. Further, we describe the need for better treatments for "triply diagnosed persons"; those with HIV, mental illness, and substance abuse and dependence. Finally, we describe the potential drug-drug interactions between psychotropic medications and anti-retrovirals, and the need for better treatment guidelines in this area. We describe one example of an individually tailored intervention for persons with serious mental illness and HIV (PATH+) that shows that integrated community-based treatments using advanced practice nurses (APNs) as health navigators can be successful in improving health-related quality of life and reducing the burden of disease in these persons. PMID:24158425

  8. The Link between Childhood Trauma and Mental Illness: Effective Interventions for Mental Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Barbara; Gallop, Ruth

    Many people seeking help from the mental health system have histories of childhood trauma from sexual and physical abuse. Little literature is available for counselors, mental health workers, and other professionals on the topic of specialized therapy for abuse survivors. Counselors have a crucial role in helping these clients heal and recover.…

  9. Reinforcing stigmatization: coverage of mental illness in Spanish newspapers.

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Enric; López-Muntaner, Judit; Ceruelo, Santiago; Basora, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Because the media influences society's perceptions of reality, the treatment of mental illness in the news can have an effect on the societal stigma related to it. This study aimed to analyze the content and form of news items related to mental illness in Spanish newspapers in order to understand their role in propagating or attenuating stereotypes, prejudices, and stigma. The authors conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study on the basis of a review of news items related to mental illness appearing in the Spanish print media. A sample was taken from articles published on the subject in the 20 Spanish newspapers with the widest circulations over the course of the year 2010. Formal elements and content were analyzed by means of a structured evaluation system. The authors analyzed 695 news items. The content of 47.9% (n = 333) of the articles was not strictly related to mental illness, but rather clinical or psychiatric terms were used metaphorically, and frequently in a pejorative sense. The remaining 52.1% (n = 362) consisted of news items related specifically to mental illness. Of these, news items linking mental illness to danger were the most common (178 texts, 49.2%), specifically those associating mental illness with violent crime (130 texts, 35.9%) or a danger to others (126 texts, 34.8%). The results confirm the hypothesis that the press treats mental illness in a manner that encourages stigmatization. The authors appeal to the press's responsibility to society and advocate an active role in reducing the stigma towards mental illness. PMID:24708534

  10. Local suffering and the global discourse of mental health and human rights: An ethnographic study of responses to mental illness in rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Read, Ursula M; Adiibokah, Edward; Nyame, Solomon

    2009-01-01

    Background The Global Movement for Mental Health has brought renewed attention to the neglect of people with mental illness within health policy worldwide. The maltreatment of the mentally ill in many low-income countries is widely reported within psychiatric hospitals, informal healing centres, and family homes. International agencies have called for the development of legislation and policy to address these abuses. However such initiatives exemplify a top-down approach to promoting human rights which historically has had limited impact at the level of those living with mental illness and their families. Methods This research forms part of a longitudinal anthropological study of people with severe mental illness in rural Ghana. Visits were made to over 40 households with a family member with mental illness, as well as churches, shrines, hospitals and clinics. Ethnographic methods included observation, conversation, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with people with mental illness, carers, healers, health workers and community members. Results Chaining and beating of the mentally ill was found to be commonplace in homes and treatment centres in the communities studied, as well as with-holding of food ('fasting'). However responses to mental illness were embedded within spiritual and moral perspectives and such treatment provoked little sanction at the local level. Families struggled to provide care for severely mentally ill relatives with very little support from formal health services. Psychiatric services were difficult to access, particularly in rural communities, and also seen to have limitations in their effectiveness. Traditional and faith healers remained highly popular despite the routine maltreatment of the mentally ill in their facilities. Conclusion Efforts to promote the human rights of those with mental illness must engage with the experiences of mental illness within communities affected in order to grasp how these may underpin

  11. Police Encounters, Mental Illness and Injury: An Exploratory Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Amy N.; Morabito, Melissa; Watson, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    Police encounters are believed to be particularly dangerous for people with mental illness and police officers. Despite widespread concern among advocates, researchers and police professionals, little is known about the details of these interactions including the occurrence of injuries. In the current study, we explore injuries to people with mental illness and officers to determine the extent to which situational and individual factors predict injuries. Findings suggest that injuries during police calls involving persons with mental illness are infrequent and rarely require medical attention. Predictors of injuries in these calls are similar to those in police encounters with the general population. PMID:21113331

  12. Group treatment for parents of the adult mentally ill.

    PubMed

    McLean, C S; Greer, K; Scott, J; Beck, J C

    1982-07-01

    Support and education groups for the families of the mentally ill have been in existence for at least 20 years. The authors describe a group treatment program established in 1979 for parents of chronically mentally ill individuals living in the community. The goal was to help parents become less overprotective, critical, and hostile so that clients would relapse less frequently and improve their social functioning during their time in the community. The groups provided parents with information and support. Some of the results of the groups include the implementation of new hospital procedures, more effective parenting, and a parent-initiated alliance on behalf of the mentally ill in the locality. PMID:7106719

  13. Human rights of persons with mental illness in Indonesia: more than legislation is needed

    PubMed Central

    Irmansyah, I; Prasetyo, YA; Minas, H

    2009-01-01

    Background Although attention to human rights in Indonesia has been improving over the past decade, the human rights situation of persons with mental disorders is still far from satisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to examine the legal framework for protection of human rights of persons with mental disorder and the extent to which Indonesia's international obligations concerning the right to health are being met. Methods We examined the Indonesian constitution, Indonesian laws relevant to the right to health, the structure and operation of the National Human Rights Commission, and what is known about violations of the human rights of persons with mental illness from research and the media. Results The focus of the Indonesian Constitution on rights pre-dated the Universal Declaration, Indonesia has ratified relevant international covenants and domestic law provides an adequate legal framework for human rights protections. However, human rights abuses persist, are widespread, and go essentially unremarked and unchallenged. The National Human Rights Commission has only recently become engaged in the issue of protection of the rights of persons with mental illness. Conclusion More than legislation is needed to protect the human rights of persons with mental illness. Improving the human rights situation for persons with mental illness in Indonesia will require action by governments at national, provincial and district levels, substantial increases in the level of investment in mental health services, coordinated action by mental health professionals and consumer and carer organisations, and a central role for the National Human Rights Commission in protecting the rights of persons with mental illness. PMID:19545362

  14. The prevalence and correlates of untreated serious mental illness.

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, R C; Berglund, P A; Bruce, M L; Koch, J R; Laska, E M; Leaf, P J; Manderscheid, R W; Rosenheck, R A; Walters, E E; Wang, P S

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the number of people in the United States with untreated serious mental illness (SMI) and the reasons for their lack of treatment. DATA SOURCE/STUDY DESIGN: The National Comorbidity Survey; cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey. DATA COLLECTION: An operationalization of the SMI definition set forth in the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration Reorganization Act identified individuals with SMI in the 12 months prior to the interview. The presence of SMI then was related to the use of mental health services in the past 12 months. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of the 6.2 percent of respondents who had SMI in the year prior to interview, fewer than 40 percent received stable treatment. Young adults and those living in nonrural areas were more likely to have unmet needs for treatment. The majority of those who received no treatment felt that they did not have an emotional problem requiring treatment. Among those who did recognize this need, 52 percent reported situational barriers, 46 percent reported financial barriers, and 45 percent reported perceived lack of effectiveness as reasons for not seeking treatment. The most commonly reported reason both for failing to seek treatment (72 percent) and for treatment dropout (58 percent) was wanting to solve the problem on their own. CONCLUSIONS: Although changes in the financing of services are important, they are unlikely by themselves to eradicate unmet need for treatment of SMI. Efforts to increase both self-recognition of need for treatment and the patient centeredness of care also are needed. PMID:11775672

  15. Mental Illness and Mental Health: The Two Continua Model Across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Corey L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Mental health has long been defined as the absence of psychopathologies, such as depression and anxiety. The absence of mental illness, however, is a minimal outcome from a psychological perspective on lifespan development. This article therefore focuses on mental illness as well as on three core components of positive mental health: feelings of happiness and satisfaction with life (emotional well-being), positive individual functioning in terms of self-realization (psychological well-being), and positive societal functioning in terms of being of social value (social well-being). The two continua model holds that mental illness and mental health are related but distinct dimensions. This model was studied on the basis of a cross-sectional representative internet survey of Dutch adults (N = 1,340; 18–87 years). Mental illness was measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory and mental health with the Mental Health Continuum Short Form. It was found that older adults, except for the oldest-old, scored lower on psychopathological symptoms and were less likely to be mentally ill than younger adults. Although there were fewer age differences for mental health, older adults experienced more emotional, similar social and slightly lower psychological well-being. In sum, today’s older adults have fewer mental illness problems, but they are not in a better positive mental health than today’s younger adults. These findings support the validity of the two continua model in adult development. PMID:20502508

  16. Mental Illness and Mental Health: The Two Continua Model Across the Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Westerhof, Gerben J; Keyes, Corey L M

    2010-06-01

    Mental health has long been defined as the absence of psychopathologies, such as depression and anxiety. The absence of mental illness, however, is a minimal outcome from a psychological perspective on lifespan development. This article therefore focuses on mental illness as well as on three core components of positive mental health: feelings of happiness and satisfaction with life (emotional well-being), positive individual functioning in terms of self-realization (psychological well-being), and positive societal functioning in terms of being of social value (social well-being). The two continua model holds that mental illness and mental health are related but distinct dimensions. This model was studied on the basis of a cross-sectional representative internet survey of Dutch adults (N = 1,340; 18-87 years). Mental illness was measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory and mental health with the Mental Health Continuum Short Form. It was found that older adults, except for the oldest-old, scored lower on psychopathological symptoms and were less likely to be mentally ill than younger adults. Although there were fewer age differences for mental health, older adults experienced more emotional, similar social and slightly lower psychological well-being. In sum, today's older adults have fewer mental illness problems, but they are not in a better positive mental health than today's younger adults. These findings support the validity of the two continua model in adult development. PMID:20502508

  17. Filicide: Mental Illness in Those Who Kill Their Children

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Sandra M.; Shaw, Jenny J.; Abel, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Most child victims of homicide are killed by a parent or step-parent. This large population study provides a contemporary and detailed description of filicide perpetrators. We examined the relationship between filicide and mental illness at the time of the offence, and care received from mental health services in the past. Method All filicide and filicide-suicide cases in England and Wales (1997–2006) were drawn from a national index of homicide perpetrators. Data on people in contact with mental health services were obtained via a questionnaire from mental health teams. Additional clinical information was collected from psychiatric reports. Results 6144 people were convicted of homicide, 297 were filicides, and 45 cases were filicide-suicides. 195 (66%) perpetrators were fathers. Mothers were more likely than fathers to have a history of mental disorder (66% v 27%) and symptoms at the time of the offence (53% v 23%), most often affective disorder. 17% of mothers had schizophrenia or other delusional disorders. Overall 8% had schizophrenia. 37% were mentally ill at the time of the offence. 20% had previously been in contact with mental health services, 12% within a year of the offence. Conclusion In the majority of cases, mental illness was not a feature of filicide. However, young mothers and parents with severe mental illness, especially affective and personality disorder who are providing care for children, require careful monitoring by mental health and other support services. Identifying risk factors for filicide requires further research. PMID:23593128

  18. Concepts of mental illness and medical pluralism in Harare.

    PubMed

    Patel, V; Musara, T; Butau, T; Maramba, P; Fuyane, S

    1995-05-01

    The Focus Group Discussions (FGD) described in this paper are the first step of a study aiming to develop an 'emic' case-finding instrument. In keeping with the realities of primary care in Zimbabwe, nine FGD were held with 76 care providers including 30 village community workers, 22 traditional and faith healers (collectively referred to as traditional healers in this paper), 15 relatives of patients and 9 community psychiatric nurses. In addition to the general facets of concepts of mental illness, three 'etic' case vignettes were also presented. A change in behaviour or ability to care for oneself emerged as the central definition of mental illness. Both the head and the heart were regarded as playing an important role in the mediation of emotions. The types of mental illness described were intimately related to beliefs about spiritual causation. Angered ancestral spirits, evil spirits and witchcraft were seen as potent causes of mental illness. Families not only bore the burden of caring for the patient and all financial expenses involved, but were also ostracized and isolated. Both biomedical and traditional healers could help mentally ill persons by resolving different issues relating to the same illness episode. All case vignettes were recognized by the care providers in their communities though many felt that the descriptions did not reflect 'illnesses' but social problems and that accordingly, the treatment for these was social, rather than medical. The data enabled us to develop screening criteria for mental illness to be used by traditional healers and primary care nurses in the next stage of the study in which patients selected by these care providers on the grounds of suspicion of suffering from mental illness will be interviewed to elicit their explanatory models of illness and phenomenology. PMID:7480429

  19. Attitudes toward people with mental illness among medical students

    PubMed Central

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Globally, people with mental illness frequently encounter stigma, prejudice, and discrimination by public and health care professionals. Research related to medical students’ attitudes toward people with mental illness is limited from India. Aim: The aim was to assess and compare the attitudes toward people with mental illness among medical students’. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design was carried out among medical students, who were exposed (n = 115) and not exposed (n = 61) to psychiatry training using self-reporting questionnaire. Results: Our findings showed improvement in students’ attitudes after exposure to psychiatry in benevolent (t = 2.510, P < 0.013) and stigmatization (t = 2.656, P < 0.009) domains. Further, gender, residence, and contact with mental illness were the factors that found to be influencing students’ attitudes toward mental illness. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that psychiatric education proved to be effective in changing the attitudes of medical students toward mental illness to a certain extent. However, there is an urgent need to review the current curriculum to prepare undergraduate medical students to provide holistic care to the people with mental health problems. PMID:26167018

  20. Partnership in mental health and child welfare: social work responses to children living with parental mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Mental illness is an issue for a number of families reported to child protection agencies. Parents with mental health problems are more vulnerable, as are their children, to having parenting and child welfare concerns. A recent study undertaken in the Melbourne Children's Court (Victoria, Australia) found that the children of parents with mental health problems comprised just under thirty percent of all new child protection applications brought to the Court and referred to alternative dispute resolution, during the first half of 1998. This paper reports on the study findings, which are drawn from a descriptive survey of 228 Pre-Hearing Conferences. A data collection schedule was completed for each case, gathering information about the child welfare concerns, the parents' problems, including mental health problems, and the contribution by mental health professionals to resolving child welfare concerns. The study found that the lack of involvement by mental health social workers in the child protection system meant the Children's Court was given little appreciation of either a child's emotional or a parent's mental health functioning. The lack of effective cooperation between the adult mental health and child protection services also meant decisions made about these children were made without full information about the needs and the likely outcomes for these children and their parents. This lack of interagency cooperation between mental health social work and child welfare also emerged in the findings of the Icarus project, a cross-national project, led by Brunel University, in England. This project compared the views and responses of mental health and child welfare social workers to the dependent children of mentally ill parents, when there were child protection concerns. It is proposed that adult mental health social workers involve themselves in the assessment of, and interventions in, child welfare cases when appropriate, and share essential information about

  1. [Homeless and mentally ill. Review of recent research and results on a doubly disadvantaged minority].

    PubMed

    Kellinghaus, C; Eikelmann, B; Ohrmann, P; Reker, T

    1999-03-01

    There are about 200,000 homeless persons in Germany, 35,000 of them living on the streets. They suffer from unemployment, poverty, social isolation and physical impairments. More than two-thirds of them suffer from mental illness as well. Substance abuse predominates, but also schizophrenic and affective disorders and personality disorders show a higher prevalence than among the general population. Comorbidity is found frequently. However, mental disorders are just one of several factors contributing to the process of becoming homeless. Due to the complex combination of mental, physical, social and economic problems of the homeless mentally ill psychiatric care is not sufficient. Yet recent US studies show that a combination of multimodal clinical measures and a network of outpatient assistance can improve both physical and mental health and the social situation. Having established reliable epidemiological data, future research should concentrate on analysing the influence of homelessness on mental health, and on planning and evaluating specific programmes for the homeless mentally ill. PMID:10214555

  2. Social capital and mental illness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, M. J; McKenzie, K.; Harpham, T.; Huttly, S.

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: The concept of social capital has influenced mental health policies of nations and international organisations despite its limited evidence base. This papers aims to systematically review quantitative studies examining the association between social capital and mental illness. Design and setting: Twenty electronic databases and the reference sections of papers were searched to identify published studies. Authors of papers were contacted for unpublished work. Anonymised papers were reviewed by the authors of this paper. Papers with a validated mental illness outcome and an exposure variable agreed as measuring social capital were included. No limitations were put on date or language of publication. Main results: Twenty one studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. Fourteen measured social capital at the individual level and seven at an ecological level. The former offered evidence for an inverse relation between cognitive social capital and common mental disorders. There was moderate evidence for an inverse relation between cognitive social capital and child mental illness, and combined measures of social capital and common mental disorders. The seven ecological studies were diverse in methodology, populations investigated, and mental illness outcomes, making them difficult to summarise. Conclusions: Individual and ecological social capital may measure different aspects of the social environment. Current evidence is inadequate to inform the development of specific social capital interventions to combat mental illness. PMID:16020636

  3. Attributions of Mental Illness: An Ethnically Diverse Community Perspective.

    PubMed

    Bignall, Whitney J Raglin; Jacquez, Farrah; Vaughn, Lisa M

    2015-07-01

    Although the prevalence of mental illness is similar across ethnic groups, a large disparity exists in the utilization of services. Mental health attributions, causal beliefs regarding the etiology of mental illness, may contribute to this disparity. To understand mental health attributions across diverse ethnic backgrounds, we conducted focus groups with African American (n = 8; 24 %), Asian American (n = 6; 18 %), Latino/Hispanic (n = 9; 26 %), and White (n = 11; 32 %) participants. We solicited attributions about 19 mental health disorders, each representing major sub-categories of the DSM-IV. Using a grounded theory approach, participant responses were categorized into 12 themes: Biological, Normalization, Personal Characteristic, Personal Choice, Just World, Spiritual, Family, Social Other, Environment, Trauma, Stress, and Diagnosis. Results indicate that ethnic minorities are more likely than Whites to mention spirituality and normalization causes. Understanding ethnic minority mental health attributions is critical to promote treatment-seeking behaviors and inform culturally responsive community-based mental health services. PMID:25536943

  4. Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of American firearms.

    PubMed

    Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2015-02-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

  5. Comorbid mental illness and criminalness implications for housing and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Nicole R; Morgan, Robert D

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between mental illness, violence, and criminal behavior is complex, and involves a multifaceted interaction of biological, psychological, and social processes. In this article, we review the emerging research that examines the neurobiological and psychological factors that distinguish between persons with mental illness who do and who do not engage in crime and violence. Additionally, a novel model for understanding the interaction between mental illness and criminalness is proposed. (As defined by Morgan and colleagues, criminalness is defined as behavior that breaks laws and social conventions and/or violates the rights and wellbeing of others.) Stemming from this model and outlined research, we argue that management and treatment approaches should target the co-occurring domains of mental illness and criminalness to improve criminal and psychiatric outcomes. Specifically, we discuss and propose effective housing (management) and biopsychosocial intervention strategies for improving outcomes. PMID:25953043

  6. Mentally Ill Still Gain Illegal Possession of Guns, Study Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk, added Swanson, a professor with Duke University School of Medicine's department of psychiatry and behavioral sciences. Mental illness causes only a small fraction of gun violence in the United States, around 3 to 5 ...

  7. Transitional care for seriously mentally ill persons: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rose, Linda E; Gerson, Linda; Carbo, Cynthia

    2007-12-01

    This article reports the results of a pilot study of a nurse-based in-home transitional care intervention for seriously mentally ill persons. The goals of the intervention were to address the lack of continuity of care in existing programs and to meet the immediate postdischarge needs of severely mentally ill persons. This article focuses primarily on the applicability and feasibility of the intervention for this population, given the challenges of engaging seriously mentally ill patients in a community-based protocol and the complexity of their illnesses. Factors that are important to community adjustment postdischarge were identified: caregiver concerns and health status impeding illness management, lack of structure/involvement in daily activities, structural and functional factors affecting adherence, and presence of symptoms after discharge. Use of an advanced practice nurse to provide transitional care can offer an alternative to patients who might otherwise be left poorly treated or untreated in the community setting. PMID:18037440

  8. The effect of economic, physical, and psychological abuse on mental health: a population-based study of women in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Antai, Diddy; Oke, Ayo; Braithwaite, Patrick; Lopez, Gerald Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Background. The comparative effect of economic abuse and other forms of abuse in predicting depression and other mental health disorders has not been previously investigated despite its relevance for mental illness prevention. Objective. To determine the differential association of economic abuse on psychological distress and suicide attempts. Study Design. We used cross-sectional data from women aged 15-49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) (N = 9,316). Results. Adjusting for sociodemographic confounders revealed positive associations between economic, physical, or psychological abuse and suicide attempts and psychological distress. Psychological and economic abuse were the strongest predictors of suicide attempts and psychological distress, respectively. Economic abuse was also negatively associated with psychological distress. Comorbidity with one mental health disorder greatly increased the odds of reporting the other mental health disorder. Conclusion. Overall, the results elucidate the differential effects of these forms of abuse on women's mental health. PMID:25525517

  9. The Effect of Economic, Physical, and Psychological Abuse on Mental Health: A Population-Based Study of Women in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Antai, Diddy; Oke, Ayo; Braithwaite, Patrick; Lopez, Gerald Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Background. The comparative effect of economic abuse and other forms of abuse in predicting depression and other mental health disorders has not been previously investigated despite its relevance for mental illness prevention. Objective. To determine the differential association of economic abuse on psychological distress and suicide attempts. Study Design. We used cross-sectional data from women aged 15–49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) (N = 9,316). Results. Adjusting for sociodemographic confounders revealed positive associations between economic, physical, or psychological abuse and suicide attempts and psychological distress. Psychological and economic abuse were the strongest predictors of suicide attempts and psychological distress, respectively. Economic abuse was also negatively associated with psychological distress. Comorbidity with one mental health disorder greatly increased the odds of reporting the other mental health disorder. Conclusion. Overall, the results elucidate the differential effects of these forms of abuse on women's mental health. PMID:25525517

  10. Newspaper reporting of homicide-suicide and mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Sandra; Gask, Linda; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method To explore the portrayal of homicide-suicide in newspaper articles, particularly how mental illness was reported. We carried out a qualitative study in England and Wales (2006-2008). Data from newspaper articles obtained via the LexisNexis database were used to examine a consecutive series of 60 cases. Results A fascination with extreme violence, vulnerable victims and having someone to blame made homicide-suicides newsworthy. Some offenders were portrayed in a stereotypical manner and pejorative language was used to describe mental illness. The findings showed evidence of inaccurate and speculative reference to mental disorder in newspaper reports. Clinical implications The media should avoid speculation on people's mental state. Accurate reporting is essential to reduce stigma of mental illness, which may in turn encourage people to seek help if they experience similar emotional distress. PMID:26755983

  11. Newspaper reporting of homicide-suicide and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Sandra; Gask, Linda; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    Aims and method To explore the portrayal of homicide-suicide in newspaper articles, particularly how mental illness was reported. We carried out a qualitative study in England and Wales (2006-2008). Data from newspaper articles obtained via the LexisNexis database were used to examine a consecutive series of 60 cases. Results A fascination with extreme violence, vulnerable victims and having someone to blame made homicide-suicides newsworthy. Some offenders were portrayed in a stereotypical manner and pejorative language was used to describe mental illness. The findings showed evidence of inaccurate and speculative reference to mental disorder in newspaper reports. Clinical implications The media should avoid speculation on people's mental state. Accurate reporting is essential to reduce stigma of mental illness, which may in turn encourage people to seek help if they experience similar emotional distress. PMID:26755983

  12. Management of persons with co-occurring severe mental illness and substance use disorder: program implications

    PubMed Central

    DRAKE, ROBERT E; MUESER, KIM T; BRUNETTE, MARY F

    2007-01-01

    Adults with severe mental illness have extraordinarily high rates of co-occurring substance use disorders, typically around 50% or more, which adversely affect their current adjustment, course, and outcome. Separate and parallel mental health and substance abuse treatment systems do not offer interventions that are accessible, integrated, and tailored for the presence of co-occurrence. Recent integrated interventions for this population have the specific goal of ameliorating substance use disorder and the general goal of improving adjustment and quality of life. The authors overview the current research and offer guidelines related to mission and philosophy, leadership, comprehensive reorganization, training, specific programs, and quality improvement. PMID:18188429

  13. Hearing Voices: Qualitative Research with Postsecondary Students Experiencing Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Annie; Street, Annette F.

    2014-01-01

    Vocational Education and Training (VET) students experiencing mental illness have been described as one of the most vulnerable student groups in the Australian post-secondary sector. This vulnerability can be attributed to the impacts of illness, the oft-reported experiences of stigma and discrimination, and low educational outcomes. There is…

  14. A Psychoeducational Support Group for Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefley, Harriet P.

    2009-01-01

    The formation, structure, and goals of an open-ended psychoeducational support group for people with serious and persistent mental illnesses are described, differentiating psychoeducation from psychotherapy, and professional from peer-led support groups. Major goals are to provide education for illness management and help members combat social…

  15. Prevalence of Mental Illness among Homeless People in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wai Chi; Lam, Marco Ho-Bun; Lim, Vivian Wai-Man

    2015-01-01

    Metholodogy This study examined the prevalence and correlates of mental illness in homeless people in Hong Kong and explored the barriers preventing their access to health care. Ninety-seven Cantonese-speaking Chinese who were homeless during the study period were selected at random from the records of the three organisations serving the homeless population. The response rate was 69%. Seventeen subjects could not give valid consent due to their poor mental state, so their responses were excluded from the data analysis. A psychiatrist administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I) and the Mini -Mental State Examination. Consensus diagnoses for subjects who could not complete the SCID-I were established by three independent psychiatrists. Findings The point prevalence of mental illness was 56%. Seventy-one percent of the subjects had a lifetime history of mental illness, 30% had a mood disorder, 25% had an alcohol use disorder, 25% had a substance use disorder, 10% had a psychotic disorder, 10% had an anxiety disorder and 6% had dementia. Forty-one percent of the subjects with mental illness had undergone a previous psychiatric assessment. Only 13% of the subjects with mental illness were receiving psychiatric care at the time of interview. The prevalence of psychotic disorders, dementia and the rate of under treatment are hugely underestimated, as a significant proportion (18%) of the subjects initially selected were too ill to give consent to join the study. Conclusion The low treatment rate and the presence of this severely ill and unreached group of homeless people reflect the fact that the current mode of service delivery is failing to support the most severely ill homeless individuals. PMID:26484889

  16. Serious Mental Illness in Florida Nursing Homes: Need for Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, Victor A.; Merritt, Stacy S.; Mills, Whitney L.; Chiriboga, David A.; Conboy, Ann; Hyer, Kathryn; Becker, Marion A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how the mental health needs of nursing home (NH) residents with serious mental illness (SMI) are addressed. Data were collected from three sources: interviews with 84 SMI stakeholders; surveys of 206 NH staff members; and focus groups at two psychiatry specialty NHs. Four common themes emerged: placement of older adults with…

  17. Predicting Post-Treatment-Initiation Alcohol Use among Patients with Severe Mental Illness and Alcohol Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradizza, Clara M.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Vincent, Paula C.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Connors, Gerard J.; Mercer, Nicole D.

    2009-01-01

    Few investigators studying alcohol abuse among individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) have examined predictors of posttreatment alcohol outcomes. In the present study, a multivariate approach based on a theoretical model was used to study the relationship between psychosocial factors and post-treatment-initiation alcohol use. Predictors of…

  18. When Parents with Severe Mental Illness Lose Contact with Their Children: Are Psychiatric Symptoms or Substance Use to Blame?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Danson; Macias, Rosemarie Lillianne; Gold, Paul B.; Barreira, Paul; Fisher, William

    2008-01-01

    This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month…

  19. Community Care for the Chronically Mentally Ill: Removing Barriers and Building Supports. Human Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Rebecca T.

    1986-01-01

    The plight of the chronically mentally ill is discussed in this document. Chronic mental illness is defined as producing major impairments in functioning for an extended period of time. It is noted the chronically mentally ill are expected to negotiate a bureaucratic maze to receive help. The history of treatment of the mentally ill is traced from…

  20. Child Abuse and Mental Disorders in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pirdehghan, Azar; Vakili, Mahmood; Rajabzadeh, Yavar; Puyandehpour, Mohammad; Aghakoochak, Arezoo

    2016-01-01

    Background Child abuse is a serious social health problem all over the world with important adverse effects. Objectives The aim of this study was to extend our understanding of the relation between mental disorders and child abuse. Materials and Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey on 700 students in secondary schools using multiple cluster sampling in Yazd, Iran in 2013. We applied 2 self reported questionnaires: DASS (depression anxiety stress scales)-42 for assessing mental disorders (anxiety, stress and depression) and a standard self-reported valid and reliable questionnaire for recording child abuse information in neglect, psychological, physical and sexual domains. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS software. P-values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results There was a statically significant correlation between mental disorder and child abuse score (Spearman rho: 0.2; P-value < 0.001). The highest correlations between mental disorders and child abuse were found in psychological domain, Spearman’s rho coefficients were 0.46, 0.41 and 0.36 for depression, anxiety and stress respectively (P-value < 0.001). Based on the results of logistic regression for mental disorder, females, last born adolescents and subjects with drug or alcohol abuser parents had mental disorder odds of 3, 0.4 and 1.9 times compared to others; and severe psychological abuse, being severely neglected and having sexual abuse had odds 90, 1.6 and 1.5 respectively in another model. Conclusions Programming for mandatory reporting of child abuse by physicians and all health care givers e.g. those attending schools or health centers, in order to prevent or reduce its detrimental effects is useful and success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders. PMID:27437096

  1. A review of the role of illness models in severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Lobban, Fiona; Barrowclough, Christine; Jones, Steve

    2003-03-01

    The ways in which people think about illness experiences have been associated with a variety of important behaviours and emotional responses in patients, carers, and professionals. Some of these responses have been shown to be related to outcome. Explicit models such as the self-regulation model (SRM) [Leventhal, H., Nerenz, D. R., & Steele, D. F. (1984). Illness representations and coping with health threats. In A. Baum & J. Singer (Eds.), A handbook of psychology and health. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 219-252.] have been shown to be useful in highlighting key beliefs across a wide range of different physical illnesses. The specific beliefs about mental illness that have been assessed have been varied and largely without a common theoretical framework. This has resulted in a literature from which it is difficult to draw firm conclusions. The central aim of this paper is to assess the applicability of the SRM to mental illness. To this end, we review studies to date that have examined the beliefs that people with a mental illness have about their experiences. In addition, we review studies that have examined the beliefs of relatives of people with a mental illness and professionals who work with this population. We assess to what extent these studies are consistent with the SRM before suggesting ways in which the model could be further developed and tested. The SRM is presented as a useful framework for more advanced investigations into the function of beliefs about mental illness and how these can be modified in order to effect outcome. Developing psychological theories common to both physical and mental health may eventually result in an integrated approach in which mental illness becomes less stigmatised within the treatment setting. PMID:12573669

  2. Assessing the knowledge of perinatal mental illness among student midwives.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Louise

    2015-11-01

    The experience of perinatal mental illness (mental illness occurring around the time of pregnancy) currently affect 1 in 10 women and can have adverse effects on the mother and her child (Massie and Szajnberg, 2002; O'Connor et al., 2002). The care and effective management of women experiencing perinatal mental illness is therefore an important issue for health care staff, managers, psychiatrists, commissioners and campaigners. Midwives play a significant part in caring for women throughout their pregnancies, during labour and up to the first month after birth. Midwives are in a unique position to assess a woman's well-being and to offer appropriate support. However, previous research has revealed that midwives often have poor understanding and knowledge of perinatal mental health issues and require improved training (Ross-Davie et al, 2006; McCann and Clark, 2010). This research project aims to systematically assess student midwives awareness of perinatal mental illness. The findings of this study will inform curriculum development for graduate and post-graduate midwifery students therefore improving the care and support women with mental illness receive from antenatal services. The findings from this study will also be used for the formation of an educational web-based programme for student and qualified midwives. PMID:25300675

  3. Mental Illness, Mass Shootings, and the Politics of American Firearms

    PubMed Central

    MacLeish, Kenneth T.

    2015-01-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control “won’t prevent” another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when “mentally ill” ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

  4. Effects of a Unit in Mental Health on Rural Adolescents' Attitudes about Seeking Help and Concepts of Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esters, Irvin G.; And Others

    One factor thought to contribute to the underutilization of mental health services, especially among rural Americans, is the stigma attached to mental illness and the associated help seeking process. This study investigated the effects of an instructional unit on mental illness and related issues on rural adolescents' concept of mental illness and…

  5. 250 labels used to stigmatise people with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Diana; Thornicroft, Graham; Pinfold, Vanessa; Kassam, Aliya

    2007-01-01

    Background The stigma against people with mental illness is a major barrier to help-seeking in young people for mental health problems. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of stigma in relation to treatment avoidance in 14 year-old school students in England in relation to how they refer to people with mental illness. Methods This is a qualitative, cross-sectional study. The data were gathered as part of the baseline assessment for an intervention study intended to reduce stigma among 14 year old school students. The participating schools were two grammar (selective) schools and three comprehensive (non-selective) schools. At the start of the lesson, the students were asked 'What sorts of words or phrases might you use to describe someone who experiences mental health problems?' Words and terms used to refer to mental illness were enumerated. Using the grounded theory approach, words and terms were grouped in terms of their denotative and connotative meanings. Labels were then derived to capture the key themes attached by the students to the concepts of mental illness. The frequencies of occurrence for each word were also tabulated. Results 400 of the 472 participating students (85%) provided 250 words and terms to describe a person with mental illness. Five themes were identified from the data. The first theme called 'popular derogatory terms' (116 items) accounted for nearly half of the words examined. The second theme occurred less often and was described as 'negative emotional state' (61 items). The third theme demonstrated the confusion of young people between physical disabilities, learning difficulties and mental health problems (38 items). The use of psychiatric diagnoses (15 items) and terms related to violence (9 items) were unexpectedly uncommon. Conclusion Our findings suggest the hypothesis that help-seeking by mentally ill young people may be improved by interventions that address both their lack of factual information about

  6. Associations of mental, and medical illnesses with against medical advice discharges: the National Hospital Discharge Survey, 1988-2006.

    PubMed

    Tawk, Rima; Freels, Sally; Mullner, Ross

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the association of mental and medical illnesses with the odds for leaving against medical advice (AMA) in a national sample of adult patients who left general hospitals between 1988 and 2006. Leaving AMA was first examined as a function of year and mental illness. Multiple logistic regression analysis was then used to adjust for patient and hospital characteristics when associating mental and major medical diagnoses with AMA discharges. The results indicated that leaving AMA was most strongly associated with mental health problems. However, the impact of mental illness was attenuated after adjusting for medical illnesses, patient and hospital characteristics. The strongest predictors of AMA discharge included being self-pay, having Medicaid insurance, being young and male, and the regional location of the hospital (Northeast). When substance abuse conditions were excluded from the mental illness discharge diagnoses, mental illness had lower odds for leaving AMA. The results may be of value to clinicians, and hospital administrators in helping to profile and target patients at risk for treatment-compliance problems. Prospective primary data collection that would include patient, physician, and hospital variables is recommended. PMID:22057857

  7. Factors Promoting Mental Health of Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…

  8. Greek adolescents' views of people with mental illness through drawings: mental health education's impact.

    PubMed

    Sakellari, Evanthia; Lehtonen, Kimmo; Sourander, Andre; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, Athena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-09-01

    People with mental illness are among the most stigmatized and discriminated against as a result of lack of knowledge among the public. Our study explored adolescents' perceptions of people with mental illness through drawings, described these perceptions, and tested the possible changes in perceptions after an educational mental health intervention. Drawings were collected before and after an educational mental health intervention from 59 Greek secondary school students. One group of participants served as the experimental group and received the educational mental health intervention. Content analysis of the drawings was used to analyze data. The drawings provided a clear understanding of adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. After the educational mental health intervention the negative elements presenting the people with mental illness were less among the experimental group, while the drawings among the comparison group did not change. The findings support that educational mental health intervention can have a positive impact on adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. Health professionals can use the findings of our study in order to develop and implement similar interventions. PMID:24382318

  9. Mental Illness Sexual Stigma: Implications for Health and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Wainberg, Milton L.; Cournos, Francine; Wall, Melanie M.; Pala, Andrea Norcini; Mann, Claudio Gruber; Pinto, Diana; Pinho, Veronica; McKinnon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Among people in psychiatric care worldwide, the majority is sexually active, and sharply elevated rates of HIV infection compared to the general population have been shown. Recovery-oriented treatment does not routinely address sexuality. We examined the relationship between gender, severe mental illness diagnosis, and stigma experiences related to sexuality among people in psychiatric outpatient care. Method 641 sexually active adults attending eight public outpatient psychiatric clinics in Rio de Janeiro were interviewed for psychiatric diagnosis and stigma experiences. Stigma mechanisms well established in the literature but not previously examined in relation to sexuality were measured with the Mental Illness Sex Stigma Questionnaire, a 27-item interview about stigma in sexual situations and activities. Results Experiences of stigma were reported by a majority of participants for 48% of questionnaire items. Most people reported supportive attitudes toward their sexuality from providers and family members. Those with severe mental illness diagnoses showed greater stigma on Individual Discrimination and Structural Stigma mechanisms than those with non-severe mental illness diagnoses, while there was no difference on the Social Psychological Processes (internalized stigma) mechanism. Regardless of diagnosis or gender, a majority of participants devalued themselves as sexual partners. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Adults in psychiatric outpatient care frequently reported stigma experiences related to aspects of their sexual lives. From the perspectives of both HIV prevention and recovery from mental illness, examining the consequences of stigma in the sexual lives of people in psychiatric care and improving their measurement would have wide applicability. PMID:27030909

  10. The status of the mentally ill in Jewish law.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Y A

    1993-01-01

    The Jewish law goes into great detail discussing the status of the mentally ill. There are many aspects to this question over and above the legal aspects of such a person's rights, obligations, doing business, etc. What is the Halachic approach to a mentally ill person in general? Is this person subject to the code of Jewish law the same as the normal Jew? Should we make an effort to help this type of person fulfil the commandments and prevent him or her from transgressing them or perhaps since such a person is incapable of controlling his or her behaviour, there is no purpose in these efforts? Marriage and divorce are other serious issues to which the Jewish law gives special attention in this context. Marriage must be entered into by a rational and judicious person or the act will not be valid. A very serious problem arises when a husband is mentally ill and due to that halachically cannot divorce his wife and she remains an Agunah. The situation is more complicated as the definition of mentally ill encompasses a broader spectrum of cases. Which psychiatric disorders come under the definition of a mentally ill person who is unable to control his or her behaviour? Which symptoms attest the inability of a person to enter into marriage or to grant a divorce? The Talmud discusses these matters in several places and the Halacha bases its rulings on their conclusions. PMID:8231701

  11. Eugenics, genetics, and mental illness stigma in Chinese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lawrence H.; Link, Bruce G.; Phelan, Jo C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The increasing interest in the genetic causes of mental disorders may exacerbate existing stigma if negative beliefs about a genetic illness are generally accepted. China’s history of policy-level eugenics and genetic discrimination in the workplace suggests that Chinese communities will view genetic mental illness less favorably than mental illness with non-genetic causes. The aim of this study is to identify differences between Chinese Americans and European Americans in eugenic beliefs and stigma toward people with genetic mental illness. Methods We utilized data from a 2003 national telephone survey designed to measure how public perceptions of mental illness differ if the illness is described as genetic. The Chinese American (n = 42) and European American (n = 428) subsamples were analyzed to compare their support of eugenic belief items and measures of stigma. Results Chinese Americans endorsed all four eugenic statements more strongly than European Americans. Ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between genetic attribution and three out of five stigma outcomes; however, genetic attribution actually appeared to be de-stigmatizing for Chinese Americans while it increased stigma or made no difference for European Americans. Conclusions Our findings show that while Chinese Americans hold more eugenic beliefs than European Americans, these attributions do not have the same effect on stigma as they do in Western cultures. These results suggest that future anti-stigma efforts must focus on eugenic attitudes as well as cultural beliefs for Chinese Americans, and that the effects of genetic attributions for mental illness should be examined relative to other social, moral, and religious attributions common in Chinese culture. PMID:21079911

  12. Mental health and illness in Vietnamese refugees.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, S J

    1992-01-01

    Despite their impressive progress in adapting to American life, many Vietnamese still suffer from wartime experiences, culture shock, the loss of loved ones, and economic hardship. Although this trauma creates substantial mental health needs, culture, experience, and the complexity of the American resettlement system often block obtaining assistance. Vietnamese mental health needs are best understood in terms of the family unit, which is extended, collectivistic, and patriarchal. Many refugees suffer from broken family status. They also experience role reversals wherein the increased social and economic power of women and children (versus men and adults) disrupts the traditional family ethos. Finally, cultural conflicts often make communication between practitioners and clients difficult and obscure central issues in mental health treatment. Rather than treating symptoms alone, mental health workers should acknowledge the cultural, familial, and historical context of Vietnamese refugees. PMID:1413772

  13. Mental health and illness in Vietnamese refugees.

    PubMed

    Gold, S J

    1992-09-01

    Despite their impressive progress in adapting to American life, many Vietnamese still suffer from wartime experiences, culture shock, the loss of loved ones, and economic hardship. Although this trauma creates substantial mental health needs, culture, experience, and the complexity of the American resettlement system often block obtaining assistance. Vietnamese mental health needs are best understood in terms of the family unit, which is extended, collectivistic, and patriarchal. Many refugees suffer from broken family status. They also experience role reversals wherein the increased social and economic power of women and children (versus men and adults) disrupts the traditional family ethos. Finally, cultural conflicts often make communication between practitioners and clients difficult and obscure central issues in mental health treatment. Rather than treating symptoms alone, mental health workers should acknowledge the cultural, familial, and historical context of Vietnamese refugees. PMID:1413772

  14. Multidisciplinary team perspectives on older adult hoarding and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Terry L; Leiste, Matthew R; Spano, Richard; Chapin, Rosemary K

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined multidisciplinary team members' perspectives of their involvement in older adult hoarding cases. Fifteen informants, as representatives of four hoarding teams, described cases in which teams did or did not work well together. Specifically, informants described their (a) team characteristics, (b) awareness of hoarding as a mental health illness, (c) barriers to providing mental health services for older adults who hoard, and (d) components of successful teamwork within the team and with the older adult as hoarder. Implications include research to better guide interventions, team training to develop common perspectives, and policy development that supports mental health representation on teams and in-home mental health treatment. PMID:23289417

  15. Mental Illness and Prisoners: Concerns for Communities and Healthcare Providers.

    PubMed

    Hoke, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    The United States prison system is the largest in the world. Mental illness is disproportionately represented within this system where half of all incarcerated individuals have a mental illness, compared to 11% of the population. Four of 10 inmates released from prison recidivate and are re-incarcerated within three years. A social hypothesis suggests recidivism is the result of compounding social factors. Mentally ill individuals often find themselves in less than ideal circumstances of compounding social factors such as illicit substances and unemployment. Prison life may provide improved social situations and a rehabilitating environment, yet corrections often fall short of meeting acceptable standards of healthcare. This article provides a brief overview of healthcare in the corrections environment and discusses factors that affect mental healthcare in prisons, such as characteristics of the prison population and social policy. The article also addresses factors impacting mentally ill persons who are incarcerated, including access and barriers to mental health treatment and efforts to reduce recidivism. PMID:26824261

  16. Gender Differences in Substance Use, Consequences, Motivation to Change, and Treatment Seeking in People With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Drapalski, Amy; Bennett, Melanie; Bellack, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Gender differences in patterns and consequences of substance use, treatment-seeking, and motivation to change were examined in two samples of people with serious mental illness (SMI) and comorbid substance use disorders (SUDs): a community sample not currently seeking substance abuse treatment (N = 175) and a treatment-seeking sample (N = 137). In both groups, women and men demonstrated more similarities in the pattern and severity of their substance use than differences. However, treatment-seeking women showed greater readiness to change their substance use. Mental health problems and traumatic experiences may prompt people with SMI and SUD to enter substance abuse treatment, regardless of gender. PMID:21174496

  17. Workplace effectiveness and psychotherapy for mental, substance abuse, and subsyndromal conditions.

    PubMed

    Sledge, William H; Lazar, Susan G

    2014-09-01

    While it is known that psychiatric illness and subclinical psychiatric illness can be very disabling, their impact on workers' productivity has been little appreciated or appropriately addressed. Complex variables are involved in fashioning an appropriate policy to ameliorate the impact of mental illness on productivity including the identification of effective treatments and potential negative effects of controlling patients' access to them. The cost-effectiveness of such treatments is considered from the differing perspectives and goals of the various stakeholders involved, including employers, insurers, and workers with psychiatric illness. Depression in workers leads to significant absenteeism, "presenteeism" (diminished capacity due to illness while still present at work), and significantly increased medical expenses in addition to the costs of psychiatric care. In addition to the specific usefulness of psychotropic medication, there are a variety of studies on the cost-effectiveness of different psychotherapeutic treatments that improve health and productivity in psychiatrically ill workers. Research indicates the usefulness of approaches including employee assistance programs, specialized cognitive-behavioral treatments, and brief and longer term psychodynamic interventions. It is clear that substance abuse disorders and especially depression and subsyndromal depression have a profound negative effect on work productivity and increases in medical visits and expenses. The current system of mental health care suffers from ignorance of the negative effects of psychiatric illness in workers, from a lack of subtle awareness of which treatments are most appropriate for which diagnoses and from the reluctance by payers to invest in them. Access to evidence-based appropriate treatment can improve the negative impact on productivity as well as workers' health. This article considers these issues and argues for a role of psychotherapy in the treatment of mental

  18. Dual Recovery among People with Serious Mental Illnesses and Substance Problems: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Green, Carla A.; Yarborough, Micah T.; Polen, Michael R.; Janoff, Shannon L.; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H.

    2014-01-01

    facilitated recovery. Conclusions Irrespective of how people achieved sobriety, quitting or severely limiting use of substances was important to initiating and continuing mental health recovery processes. Substance abuse treatment approaches that are flexible, reduce barriers to engagement, support learning about effects of substances on mental health and quality of life, and adopt a chronic disease model of addiction may increase engagement and success. Peer-based support like Alcoholics or Narcotics Anonymous can be helpful for people with serious mental illnesses, particularly when programs accept use of mental health medications. PMID:25491440

  19. Training Mental Health Professionals in Child Sexual Abuse: Curricular Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Maureen C; Abreu, Roberto L

    2015-01-01

    Given the incidence of child sexual abuse in the United States, mental health professionals need training to detect, assess, and treat victims and should possess a clear understanding of the process of victimization. However, many mental health professionals who work with children and families have not been exposed to any training in child sexual abuse during their formal education. This article will examine the need for such training, suggest critical components of child sexual abuse training, and describe various methods of training (e.g., in person, Web-based, and community resources). PMID:26301441

  20. South African Hindu psychologists' perceptions of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Padayachee, Priyanka; Laher, Sumaya

    2014-04-01

    Conceptualisations of mental illness are not universally applicable, as culture shapes the expression, perceptions and treatment preferences thereof. By focusing on the perceptions of Hindu psychologists regarding mental illness, this study aimed to provide a deeper understanding of the impact that religious beliefs have on such conceptualisations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six Hindu psychologists around the Johannesburg area, South Africa. Responses were analysed using thematic content analysis. From the findings, it was evident that religion plays a critical role in the understanding and treatment of mental illness. Hindu beliefs around psychological disturbances were salient. Additionally, it was found that a tension existed between psychologists' awareness of the influential function of religion, particularly amongst collectivistic communities such as the Hindu community, and their occupational understandings and practices, which are deeply rooted in Western thought. Furthermore, it was suggested that the fear of stigma prevented Hindu clients from reaping the benefits of seeking help from culturally competent psychologists. PMID:23054478

  1. Therapeutic factors in a group for parents with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Shor, Ron; Kalivatz, Zvi; Amir, Yael; Aldor, Roy; Lipot, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Parents with mental illness face many parenting related challenges that are exacerbated by the lack of services focusing on these needs. A study was conducted with 35 persons who participated in a group for parents with mental illness in Israel in order to examine the parenting related concerns the participants might bring up in a group modality, and the therapeutic factors in the group process. The findings illuminate the centrality of the parenting role in the participants lives and the value of the group modality as a tool enabling the participants to reveal their vulnerabilities. The therapeutic factors at work in the group, such as, imparting information, interpersonal learning, socialization techniques helped them deal with the difficulties of fulfilling their parenting roles at the same time they cope with their own mental illness. PMID:24962269

  2. Mental illness and mental health: is the glass half empty or half full?

    PubMed

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2012-11-01

    During the past century, the scope of mental health intervention in North America has gradually expanded from an initial focus on hospitalized patients with psychoses to outpatients with neurotic disorders, including the so-called worried well. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fifth Edition, is further embracing the concept of a mental illness spectrum, such that increasing attention to the softer end of the continuum can be expected in the future. This anticipated shift rekindles important questions about how mental illness is defined, how to distinguish between mental disorders and normal reactions, whether psychiatry is guilty of prevalence inflation, and when somatic therapies should be used to treat problems of living. Such debates are aptly illustrated by the example of complicated bereavement, which is best characterized as a form of adjustment disorder. Achieving an overarching definition of mental illness is challenging, owing to the many different contexts in which DSM diagnoses are used. Careful analyses of such contextual utility must inform future decisions about what ends up in DSM, as well as how mental illness is defined by public health policy and society at large. A viable vision for the future of psychiatry should include a spectrum model of mental health (as opposed to exclusively mental illness) that incorporates graded, evidence-based interventions delivered by a range of providers at each point along its continuum. PMID:23149280

  3. Challenging claims that mental illness has been increasing and mental well-being declining.

    PubMed

    Busfield, Joan

    2012-08-01

    There has been a tendency by some social scientists and the media to claim that in advanced western societies like Britain and the US mental illness has been increasing and mental well-being declining over the period since the Second World War. In this paper I consider the evidence that is invoked in making such claims, along with the counter-evidence. In order to assess the evidence it is essential to take account of the different ways mental illness and mental well-being are measured and the definitions the measures embed. I argue that when the findings from studies using similar measures at different points in time are compared, there is little evidence of consistent secular increases in mental illness or declines in mental well-being. I suggest that such claims are encouraged by two main factors: first and most importantly, the major changes that have occurred in the official boundaries of mental disorder over the post-war period, which have also changed the ideas and perceptions of professionals and the public about mental health and illness; and second, the ready way in which data on mental health and illness can be used to support criticism of certain features of present-day society. PMID:22591824

  4. Efficacy of lifestyle interventions in physical health management of patients with severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Awareness of the importance of maintaining physical health for patients with severe mental illnesses has recently been on the increase. Although there are several elements contributing to poor physical health among these patients as compared with the general population, risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and obesity are of particular significance due to their relationship with mortality and morbidity. These patients present higher vulnerability to cardiovascular risk factors based on several issues, such as genetic predisposition to certain pathologies, poor eating habits and sedentary lifestyles, high proportions of smokers and drug abusers, less access to regular health care services, and potential adverse events during pharmacological treatment. Nevertheless, there is ample scientific evidence supporting the benefits of lifestyle interventions based on diet and exercise designed to minimize and reduce the negative impact of these risk factors on the physical health of patients with severe mental illnesses. PMID:21929761

  5. Advocating for children and adolescents with mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Ptakowski, Kristin Kroeger

    2010-01-01

    The mental health community has made tremendous strides in eradicating stigma, demanding policy change, and improving the lives of children and adolescents with mental illnesses, accomplished through advocacy at all government levels and assisted by community involvement. However, addressing access to care for children and adolescents with mental illnesses is still challenging. Legislators are often unaware of children's mental health issues. Advocacy includes working directly with legislators and policy makers, working with a school's administration to meet the unique needs of the child, appealing against the managed care company's denial of specific treatment or formulary approval, and educating and collaborating with primary care physicians. Three principles need to be understood: change takes time, persistence is absolute, and compromise is inevitable. PMID:19951812

  6. How to Improve Interactions between Police and the Mentally Ill

    PubMed Central

    Krameddine, Yasmeen I.; Silverstone, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    There have been repeated instances of police forces having violent, sometimes fatal, interactions with individuals with mental illness. Police forces are frequently first responders to those with mental illness. Despite this, training police in how to best interact with individuals who have a mental illness has been poorly studied. The present article reviews the literature examining mental illness training programs delivered to law-enforcement officers. Some of the key findings are the benefits of training utilizing realistic “hands-on” scenarios, which focus primarily on verbal and non-verbal communication, increasing empathy, and de-escalation strategies. Current issues in training police officers are firstly the tendency for organizations to provide training without proper outcome measures of effectiveness, secondly the focus of training is on changing attitudes although there is little evidence to demonstrate this relates to behavioral change, and thirdly the belief that a mental health training program given on a single occasion is sufficient to improve interactions over the longer-term. Future police training needs to address these issues. PMID:25642196

  7. Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

  8. 28 CFR 115.283 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ongoing medical and mental health care... Facilities Medical and Mental Care § 115.283 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers. (a) The facility shall offer medical and mental health evaluation and, as...

  9. 28 CFR 115.383 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ongoing medical and mental health care... Medical and Mental Care § 115.383 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers. (a) The facility shall offer medical and mental health evaluation and, as appropriate,...

  10. Mental Illness Discrimination in Mental Health Treatment Programs: Intersections of Race, Ethnicity, and Sexual Orientation.

    PubMed

    Holley, Lynn C; Tavassoli, Kyoko Y; Stromwall, Layne K

    2016-04-01

    People with mental illnesses (PWMI) who are of color and/or lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) experience mental health disparities, including within mental health treatment programs (MHTPs). Informed by a critical framework with attention to intersectionality and microaggressions, this qualitative study asked 20 PWMI and family members who also are of color and/or LGB whether they had experienced mental illness discrimination in MHTPs, a possible factor in disparities. We also asked participants about aspects of MHTPs that supported recovery. Participants reported that they were ignored/not listened to, not viewed as complex individuals, experienced condescension/lack of respect and violations of privacy or other rights, and were presumed to lack intelligence. In addition, identifying mental illness discrimination was complex due to intersections of identities. Despite these perceptions of discrimination, participants described supportive aspects of MHTPs. Implications for practice and research are offered. PMID:26797761

  11. Cultivating Empathy for the Mentally Ill Using Simulated Auditory Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunn, William; Terpstra, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors address the issue of cultivating medical students' empathy for the mentally ill by examining medical student empathy pre- and postsimulated auditory hallucination experience. Methods: At the University of Utah, 150 medical students participated in this study during their 6-week psychiatry rotation. The Jefferson Scale of…

  12. Using Young Adult Literature To End Discrimination against Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Kathy

    In an effort to inform junior and senior high school students about mental illness, this document provides educators with an annotated bibliography of young adult fiction and a set of supporting activities. Included in the bibliography are nearly 100 current fiction titles, grouped according to the following topics: anorexia, drugs and alcohol,…

  13. Medications Frequently Used To Treat Persons with Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danser, Helen Lisanby

    The manual is intended to assist the rehabilitation professional in planning services for persons with disabilities, such as long-term mental illness, which require treatment with medication, especially psychotropic medications. The compilation of data groups similar medications together and includes such information as purpose of medication, side…

  14. The Depiction of Mental Illnesses in Children's Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto; Hanrahan, Erin; Karl, Kelly; Lasher, Erin; Swaye, Janel

    2007-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that negative attitudes toward people with mental illnesses begin to develop early in childhood. This study examines one of the possible sources of learning of such negative attitudes--children's television programs. Two hundred sixty-nine (269) hours of children's television programming were videotaped, viewed, and…

  15. Teaching Students with Emotional Disorders and/or Mental Illnesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    This resource manual is designed to assist Alberta teachers in the identification and education of students with emotional disorders and/or mental illnesses. It takes a comprehensive look at six emotional disorders. The first section focuses on eating disorders. It describes the characteristics and symptoms of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

  16. The Police Response to Mental Illness on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Gary J.; Shtull, Penny R.

    2012-01-01

    Campus police officers are often among the initial contacts for behavioral incidents involving people with mental illness. Their training and access to resources influence decisions to direct the individual to support services and/or through campus disciplinary processes and/or the criminal justice system. Over the past decade, there has been an…

  17. Risky Business: Mental Illness, Disclosure and the TAFE Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Annie

    2010-01-01

    This paper meets at the crossroads of personal experience and public policy. The personal is the experience of learning as described by five TAFE students with a mental illness. The public policy context is the increased political pressure on Australia's major vocational training providers to increase workforce participation of people with mental…

  18. The Future of Psychotherapy for Mentally Ill Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Given striking advances in translational developmental neuroscience and its convergence with developmental psychopathology and developmental epidemiology, it is now clear that mental illnesses are best thought of as neurodevelopmental disorders. This simple fact has enormous implications for the nature and organization of psychotherapy…

  19. Stigma, Reflected Appraisals, and Recovery Outcomes in Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Fred E.; Angell, Beth; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on modified labeling theory and the reflected appraisals process and using longitudinal data from 129 mothers and their adult children with schizophrenia, we estimate models of the effects of mothers' stigmatized identity appraisals of their mentally ill children on reflected and self-appraisals, and how appraisals affect outcomes…

  20. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma among Youth in Psychiatric Outpatient Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to the…

  1. Smoking cessation and reduction in people with chronic mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mollie E

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of cigarette smoking and tobacco related morbidity and mortality in people with chronic mental illness is well documented. This review summarizes results from studies of smoking cessation treatments in people with schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. It also summarizes experimental studies aimed at identifying biopsychosocial mechanisms that underlie the high smoking rates seen in people with these disorders. Research indicates that smokers with chronic mental illness can quit with standard cessation approaches with minimal effects on psychiatric symptoms. Although some studies have noted high relapse rates, longer maintenance on pharmacotherapy reduces rates of relapse without untoward effects on psychiatric symptoms. Similar biopsychosocial mechanisms are thought to be involved in the initiation and persistence of smoking in patients with different disorders. An appreciation of these common factors may aid the development of novel tobacco treatments for people with chronic mental illness. Novel nicotine and tobacco products such as electronic cigarettes and very low nicotine content cigarettes may also be used to improve smoking cessation rates in people with chronic mental illness. PMID:26391240

  2. Exploring Mental Illness through a Poetry Writing Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    An atypical and challenging writing assignment for courses in general or abnormal psychology is to ask the students to write a poem about the experience of mental illness. The format, length, and topic are left entirely up to the student. While shocked at first, students rose to the challenge after being told they would be judged on content and…

  3. Child Custody Loss among Women with Persistent Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty

    2004-01-01

    The author analyzed quantitative data from an NIMH-funded longitudinal study of 322 women with persistent severe mental illness (SMI) and qualitative data from semistructured interviews with 82 of the women who ever lost custody of a child. The purpose was to test the hypothesis, derived from human ecology theory, that individual and environmental…

  4. Ethical Considerations for People Who Are Homeless and Mentally Ill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Elizabeth A.; Howard, Richard; Markos, Patricia A.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an ethical analysis of the important issues surrounding the involuntary institutionalization of people who are homeless and mentally ill (HMI) in the United States. The legal, economic, and moral implications of state-sponsored involuntary institutionalization of people who are HMI are considered. An ethical decision-making…

  5. From sin to science: fighting the stigmatization of mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Stuart, Heather

    2012-08-01

    Our paper provides an overview of current stigma discourse, the origins and nature of the stigma associated with mental illnesses, stigmatization by health providers, and approaches to stigma reduction. This is a narrative review focusing on seminal works from the social and psychological literature, with selected qualitative and quantitative studies and international policy documents to highlight key points. Stigma discourse has increasingly moved toward a human rights model that views stigma as a form of social oppression resulting from a complex sociopolitical process that exploits and entrenches the power imbalance between people who stigmatize and those who are stigmatized. People who have a mental illness have identified mental health and health providers as key contributors to the stigmatization process and worthy targets of antistigma interventions. Six approaches to stigma reduction are described: education, protest, contact-based education, legislative reform, advocacy, and stigma self-management. Stigma denigrates the value of people who have a mental illness and the social and professional support systems designed to support them. It creates inequities in funding and service delivery that undermine recovery and full social participation. Mental health professionals have often been identified as part of the problem, but they can redress this situation by becoming important partners in antistigma work. PMID:22854027

  6. Behavioral Patterns in Mental Health and Mental Illness--Adults: PT IIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Lori

    A description is provided of "Behavioral Patterns in Mental Health and Mental Illness--Adults," a course for nursing and psychiatric technician students on psychopathology, the dynamics of psychiatric disorders, and the behavioral patterns associated with these disorders. A glossary of instruction-related terms is followed by a course description,…

  7. Discontinuation of Neuroleptics in Community-Dwelling Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-eight community-dwelling individuals with mental retardation and mental illness were discontinued from neuroleptics. Those with a psychotic disorder were significantly more likely to be restarted on neuroleptics at 3 months and 12 months. Not having a history of delusions was significantly associated with remaining neuroleptic-free at 3…

  8. Mental Health Stigma about Serious Mental Illness among MSW Students: Social Contact and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covarrubias, Irene; Han, Meekyung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the attitudes toward and beliefs about serious mental illness (SMI) held by a group of graduate social work students in the northwestern United States were examined. Mental health stigma was examined with relation to the following factors: participants' level of social contact with SMI populations, adherence to stereotypes about SMI…

  9. A study of psychiatrists' concepts of mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Harland, R.; Antonova, E.; Owen, G. S.; Broome, M.; Landau, S.; Deeley, Q.; Murray, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background There are multiple models of mental illness that inform professional and lay understanding. Few studies have formally investigated psychiatrists' attitudes. We aimed to measure how a group of trainee psychiatrists understand familiar mental illnesses in terms of propositions drawn from different models. Method We used a questionnaire study of a sample of trainees from South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust designed to assess attitudes across eight models of mental illness (e.g. biological, psychodynamic) and four psychiatric disorders. Methods for analysing repeated measures and a principal components analysis (PCA) were used. Results No one model was endorsed by all respondents. Model endorsement varied with disorder. Attitudes to schizophrenia were expressed with the greatest conviction across models. Overall, the ‘biological’ model was the most strongly endorsed. The first three components of the PCA (interpreted as dimensions around which psychiatrists, as a group, understand mental illness) accounted for 56% of the variance. Each main component was classified in terms of its distinctive combination of statements from different models: PC1 33% biological versus non-biological; PC2 12% ‘eclectic’ (combining biological, behavioural, cognitive and spiritual models); and PC3 10% psychodynamic versus sociological. Conclusions Trainee psychiatrists are most committed to the biological model for schizophrenia, but in general are not exclusively committed to any one model. As a group, they organize their attitudes towards mental illness in terms of a biological/non-biological contrast, an ‘eclectic’ view and a psychodynamic/sociological contrast. Better understanding of how professional group membership influences attitudes may facilitate better multidisciplinary working. PMID:19091161

  10. Metabolic syndrome in patients with severe mental illness in Gorgan

    PubMed Central

    Kamkar, Mohammad Zaman; Sanagoo, Akram; Zargarani, Fatemeh; Jouybari, Leila; Marjani, Abdoljalal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome is commonly associated with cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric mental illness. Hence, we aimed to assess the metabolic syndrome among severe mental illness (SMI). Materials and Methods: The study included 267 patients who were referred to the psychiatric unit at 5th Azar Education Hospital of Golestan University of Medical Sciences in Gorgan, Iran. Results: The mean waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the SMI with metabolic syndrome, but the high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was significantly lower. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in SMI patients was 20.60%. There were significant differences in the mean of waist circumference, systolic (except for women) and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and fasting blood glucose in men and women with metabolic syndrome when compared with subjects without metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in SMI women was higher than men. The most age distribution was in range of 30-39 years old. The most prevalence of metabolic syndrome was in age groups 50-59 years old. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was increased from 30 to 59 years old. Conclusion: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with SMI in Gorgan is almost similar to those observed in Asian countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was lower than western countries. These observations may be due to cultural differences in the region. It should be mention that the families of mental illness subjects in our country believe that their patients must be cared better than people without mental illness. These findings of this study suggest that mental illness patients are at risk of metabolic syndrome. According to our results, risk factors such as age and gender differences may play an important role in the presence of metabolic syndrome. In our country, women do less

  11. Postmortem Brain: An Underutilized Substrate for Studying Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    McCullumsmith, Robert E; Hammond, John H; Shan, Dan; Meador-Woodruff, James H

    2014-01-01

    We propose that postmortem tissue is an underutilized substrate that may be used to translate genetic and/or preclinical studies, particularly for neuropsychiatric illnesses with complex etiologies. Postmortem brain tissues from subjects with schizophrenia have been extensively studied, and thus serve as a useful vehicle for illustrating the challenges associated with this biological substrate. Schizophrenia is likely caused by a combination of genetic risk and environmental factors that combine to create a disease phenotype that is typically not apparent until late adolescence. The complexity of this illness creates challenges for hypothesis testing aimed at understanding the pathophysiology of the illness, as postmortem brain tissues collected from individuals with schizophrenia reflect neuroplastic changes from a lifetime of severe mental illness, as well as treatment with antipsychotic medications. While there are significant challenges with studying postmortem brain, such as the postmortem interval, it confers a translational element that is difficult to recapitulate in animal models. On the other hand, data derived from animal models typically provide specific mechanistic and behavioral measures that cannot be generated using human subjects. Convergence of these two approaches has led to important insights for understanding molecular deficits and their causes in this illness. In this review, we discuss the problem of schizophrenia, review the common challenges related to postmortem studies, discuss the application of biochemical approaches to this substrate, and present examples of postmortem schizophrenia studies that illustrate the role of the postmortem approach for generating important new leads for understanding the pathophysiology of severe mental illness. PMID:24091486

  12. Public Policy and Mental Illnesses: Jimmy Carter's Presidential Commission on Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Grob, Gerald N

    2005-01-01

    President Jimmy Carter's Presidential Commission on Mental Health was intended to recommend policies to overcome obvious deficiencies in the mental health system. Bureaucratic rivalries within and between governments; tensions and rivalries within the mental health professions; identity and interest group politics; the difficulties of distinguishing the respective etiological roles of such elements as poverty, racism, stigmatization, and unemployment; and an illusory faith in prevention all influenced the commission's deliberations and subsequent enactment of the short-lived Mental Health Systems Act. The commission's work led to the formulation of the influential National Plan for the Chronically Mentally Ill, but a system of care and treatment for persons with serious mental illnesses was never created. PMID:16201999

  13. Does Mental Illness Stigma Contribute to Adolescent Standardized Patients' Discomfort With Simulations of Mental Illness and Adverse Psychosocial Experiences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…

  14. Substance Use and Abuse and Its Effects on Mental Disorders in Trinidad and Tobago – The Available Prevention and Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Jainarinesingh, J

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper deals with the relationship between substance abuse and mental illness in Trinidad and Tobago, its implications and management strategies. Dealing with mental health issues is an uphill battle and an attempt will be made in this paper to address the major issues at hand. PMID:26624600

  15. Integrating physical activity into mental health services for persons with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Caroline R; Faulkner, Guy; McDevitt, Judith; Skrinar, Gary S; Hutchinson, Dori S; Piette, John D

    2005-03-01

    This article reviews evidence supporting the need for interventions to promote physical activity among persons with serious mental illness. Principles of designing effective physical activity interventions are discussed along with ways to adapt such interventions for this population. Individuals with serious mental illness are at high risk of chronic diseases associated with sedentary behavior, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The effects of lifestyle modification on chronic disease outcomes are large and consistent across multiple studies. Evidence for the psychological benefits for clinical populations comes from two meta-analyses of outcomes of depressed patients that showed that effects of exercise were similar to those of psychotherapeutic interventions. Exercise can also alleviate secondary symptoms such as low self-esteem and social withdrawal. Although structured group programs can be effective for persons with serious mental illness, especially walking programs, lifestyle changes that focus on accumulation of moderate-intensity activity throughout the day may be most appropriate. Research suggests that exercise is well accepted by people with serious mental illness and is often considered one of the most valued components of treatment. Adherence to physical activity interventions appears comparable to that in the general population. Mental health service providers can provide effective, evidence-based physical activity interventions for individuals with serious mental illness. PMID:15746508

  16. Voucher-based contingent reinforcement of marijuana abstinence among individuals with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sigmon, Stacey C; Higgins, Stephen T

    2006-06-01

    Previous studies by our group have used money given contingent on abstinence to reduce drug use by individuals with schizophrenia. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of marijuana use by individuals with serious mental illness to voucher-based contingent reinforcement, which represents the first study to date investigating the efficacy of voucher incentives with this population. This within-subject reversal design consisted of three conditions: 4-week baseline, 12-week voucher intervention, and 4-week baseline. During baseline periods, subjects received 10 US dollars vouchers per urine specimen, independent of urinalysis results. During voucher intervention, only specimens testing negative for marijuana earned vouchers, with total possible earnings of 930 US dollars. Seven adults with schizophrenia or other serious mental illnesses participated in the study. The percentage of marijuana-negative specimens was significantly greater during voucher intervention than during baseline periods. These results provide evidence that marijuana use among individuals with serious mental illness is sensitive to voucher-based incentives and further support the potential feasibility of using voucher-based contingency management to reduce substance abuse in this challenging population. PMID:16716843

  17. Methodology and mental illness: resistance and restorying.

    PubMed

    Fisher, P; Freshwater, D

    2014-04-01

    Concerns with social justice have been traditionally associated with a modernist concept of the individual whose actions express an underlying, essential and unified self. This paper compares the usefulness of two methodologies (post-structuralist and narrative) that are based on a rejection of identity of a unified self and compares their usefulness in relation to the development of a social justice paradigm within mental health. It considers how professional forms of knowledge may be deconstructed by post-structural analyses, arguing that these have also been used by service users to articulate more enabling discursive alternatives. The notion of agency is central to our understanding of social justice. We question the commonly held assumption that although post-structuralism deconstructs power and challenges its legitimacy, it is nevertheless unsuited to facilitating the necessary agency to put forward viable alternatives. The second half of the paper considers how narrative research offers greater emancipatory potential by enabling the research subject to author their stories and thereby brings about their own subjective transformation. Nevertheless, the interpretation of people's stories by researchers may result in the imposition of narrative templates that erase complexities and contribute to the perpetuation of oppression. This raises ethical implications in relation to how people's stories are interpreted. PMID:23578326

  18. Choice of health insurance by families of the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Deb, P; Wilcox-Gök, V; Holmes, A; Rubin, J

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates whether choice of health insurance is influenced by the perceived mental and physical health of family members among a sample of policy-holders with private health insurance. A multinomial probit model of the choice among major medical coverage only, traditional full coverage, and coverage through a health maintenance organization is estimated. Results indicate that the presence of at least one family member who rates his or her general health as poor does not affect the policy-holder's choice of health insurance. However, the presence of at least one family member considered at risk of mental illness does in some instances affect the policy-holder's choice of health insurance: We observe significant effects for policy-holders who are female, black, have some college education, work for a large firm, and live in an urban area. These findings suggest that adverse selection may arise when individuals are able to choose between health insurance policies with different degrees of coverage for mental health care and that such effects are far more pronounced for those people who consider themselves at risk for mental illness than physical illness. PMID:8653192

  19. Treating Offenders with Mental Illness: A Research Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Robert D.; Flora, David B.; Kroner, Daryl G.; Mills, Jeremy F.; Varghese, Femina; Steffan, Jarrod S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research synthesis was to examine treatment effects across studies of the service providers to offenders with mental illness. Meta-analytic techniques were applied to 26 empirical studies obtained from a review of 12,154 research documents. Outcomes of interest in this review included measures of both psychiatric and criminal functioning. Although meta-analytic results are based on a small sample of available studies, results suggest interventions with offenders with mental illness effectively reduced symptoms of distress, improving offender’s ability to cope with their problems, and resulted in improved behavioral markers including institutional adjustment and behavioral functioning. Furthermore, interventions specifically designed to meet the psychiatric and criminal justice needs of offenders with mental illness have shown to produce significant reductions in psychiatric and criminal recidivism. Finally, this review highlighted admission policies and treatment strategies (e.g., use of homework), which produced the most positive benefits. Results of this research synthesis are directly relevant for service providers in both criminal justice and mental health systems (e.g., psychiatric hospitals) as well as community settings by informing treatment strategies for the first time, which are based on empirical evidence. In addition, the implications of these results to policy makers tasked with the responsibility of designating services for this special needs population are highlighted. PMID:22471384

  20. Photovoice in mental illness research: A review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Han, Christina S; Oliffe, John L

    2016-03-01

    In the past few decades, photovoice research has gained prominence, providing context rich insights through participants' photographs and narratives. Emergent within the field of photovoice research have been health studies embracing diverse illness issues. The goal of this scoping review article was to describe the use of photovoice in mental illness, paying particular attention to the following: (1) the study design and methods, (2) empirical findings, and (3) dissemination strategies. Nine qualitative studies (seven drawing from primary and two secondary analyses) featuring diverse approaches to analysis of data comprising individual and/or focus group interviews using participant-produced photographs were included in the review. Described were participant's experiences of living with mental illness and/or substance overuse, including feelings of loneliness and being marginalized, along with their support care needs (e.g. physical, emotional, and spiritual) to garner self-confidence, respite, and/or recovery. Empirically, the reviewed articles confirmed the value of participant-produced photographs for obtaining in-depth understandings about individual's mental illness experiences while a focus on stigma and recovery was prominent. In terms of dissemination, while most of the published articles shared some participants' photographs and narratives, less evident were strategies to actively engage the public or policymakers with the images. Recommendations for future photovoice research include conducting formal analyses of participant photographs and strategically lobbying policymakers and raising public awareness through virtual and "in person" photo exhibitions while de-stigmatizing and affirming the experiences of those who are challenged by mental illness. PMID:25673051

  1. Photovoice in mental illness research: A review and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Han, Christina S; Oliffe, John L

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, photovoice research has gained prominence, providing context rich insights through participants’ photographs and narratives. Emergent within the field of photovoice research have been health studies embracing diverse illness issues. The goal of this scoping review article was to describe the use of photovoice in mental illness, paying particular attention to the following: (1) the study design and methods, (2) empirical findings, and (3) dissemination strategies. Nine qualitative studies (seven drawing from primary and two secondary analyses) featuring diverse approaches to analysis of data comprising individual and/or focus group interviews using participant-produced photographs were included in the review. Described were participant’s experiences of living with mental illness and/or substance overuse, including feelings of loneliness and being marginalized, along with their support care needs (e.g. physical, emotional, and spiritual) to garner self-confidence, respite, and/or recovery. Empirically, the reviewed articles confirmed the value of participant-produced photographs for obtaining in-depth understandings about individual’s mental illness experiences while a focus on stigma and recovery was prominent. In terms of dissemination, while most of the published articles shared some participants’ photographs and narratives, less evident were strategies to actively engage the public or policymakers with the images. Recommendations for future photovoice research include conducting formal analyses of participant photographs and strategically lobbying policymakers and raising public awareness through virtual and “in person” photo exhibitions while de-stigmatizing and affirming the experiences of those who are challenged by mental illness. PMID:25673051

  2. Mental health consequences of intimate partner abuse: a multidimensional assessment of four different forms of abuse.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, Mindy B; Weaver, Terri L; Resick, Patricia A

    2008-06-01

    Battered women are exposed to multiple forms of intimate partner abuse. This article explores the independent contributions of physical violence, sexual coercion, psychological abuse, and stalking on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among a sample of 413 severely battered, help-seeking women. The authors test the unique effects of psychological abuse and stalking on mental health outcomes, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Mean scores for the sample fall into the moderate to severe range for PTSD and within the moderate category for depression scores. Hierarchical regressions test the unique effects of stalking and psychological abuse, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Psychological abuse and stalking contribute uniquely to the prediction of PTSD and depression symptoms, even after controlling for the effects of physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Results highlight the importance of examining multiple dimensions of intimate partner abuse. PMID:18535306

  3. [Psychiatric hospitalization for mental illness: past, present and future].

    PubMed

    Martínez Ferretti, José María

    2011-01-01

    The use of psychiatric hospitalization for mental illness has evolved through Modernity. In the last century, indefinite and involuntary committal was a widespread practice but has now become an extraordinary and short-term therapeutic recourse. Even though law experts, doctors and other mental health professionals agree on the benefits of this shift, in practice there are disagreements rooted in the shortcomings of health service providers. The current medical and legal criteria for hospitalization of patients with mental disorders should move away from the concept of endangerment and embrace therapeutic procedures and social care. New contemporary challenges, such as drugs and violence, require the implementation of a social strategy that is more comprehensive than medical treatment. This article presents a series of case studies describing the circumstances that led to the hospitalization of mental health patients, mostly in the city of Buenos Aires. PMID:22091456

  4. Portrayal of Depression and Other Mental Illnesses in Australian Nonfiction Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Catherine; Pirkis, Jane; Blood, R. Warwick; Dunt, David; Burgess, Philip; Morley, Belinda; Stewart, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This study describes Australian media portrayal of mental illnesses, focusing on depression. A random sample of 1,123 items was selected for analysis from a pool of 13,389 nonfictional media items about mental illness collected between March 2000 and February 2001. Depression was portrayed more frequently than other mental illnesses. Items about…

  5. The First Steps to Learning with a Child Who Has a Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    This article shares the author's experience in dealing with her child who has a mental illness. The author hopes that other teachers and school administrators would find her experience helpful when dealing with mentally ill children. The author describes the first steps to learning with a child with a mental illness.

  6. Talking about Mental Illness: A Guide for Developing an Awareness Program for Youth. Community Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This guide contains all of the information, support and tools that community members need to implement "Talking About Mental Illness" in their community--an awareness program proven to be effective in bringing about positive change in young people's knowledge about mental illness, and in reducing stigma that surrounds mental illness. The program…

  7. Exploring the Role of Diagnosis in the Modified Labeling Theory of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K.

    2008-01-01

    According to the modified labeling theory of mental illness, when an individual is diagnosed with a mental illness, cultural ideas associated with the mentally ill become personally relevant and foster negative self-feelings. We explore the way that psychiatric diagnosis shapes this process. Specifically, we examine if and how psychiatric…

  8. Relationship of the Media to Attitudes toward People with Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granello, Darcy Haag; Pauley, Pamela S.; Carmichael, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Reports on results of Community Attitudes Toward Mentally Ill questionnaire given to undergraduates. Significant differences emerged on subscales based ranking of primary source of information about mental illness. Results do not imply causality but rather that electronic media is powerful mechanism for spreading the stigma of mental illness.…

  9. Crisis intervention for people with severe mental illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Suzanne; Irving, Claire B; Adams, Clive E; Driver, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Background A particularly difficult challenge for community treatment of people with serious mental illnesses is the delivery of an acceptable level of care during the acute phases of severe mental illness. Crisis intervention models of care were developed as a possible solution. Objectives To review the effects of crisis intervention models for anyone with serious mental illness experiencing an acute episode, compared with ‘standard care’. Search methods We updated the 1998, 2003 and 2006 searches with a search of the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s Register of trials (2010) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials of crisis intervention models versus standard care for people with severe mental illnesses. Data collection and analysis We independently extracted data from these trials and we estimated risk ratios (RR) or mean differences (MD), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assumed that people who left early from a trial had no improvement. Main results Three new studies have been found since the last review in 2006 to add to the five studies already included in this review. None of the previously included studies investigated crisis intervention alone; all used a form of home care for acutely ill people, which included elements of crisis intervention. However, one of the new studies focuses purely on crisis intervention as provided by Crisis Resolution Home Teams within the UK; the two other new studies investigated crisis houses i.e. residential alternatives to hospitalisation providing home-like environments. Crisis intervention appears to reduce repeat admissions to hospital after the initial ‘index’ crises investigated in the included studies, this was particularly so for mobile crisis teams supporting patients in their own homes. Crisis intervention reduces the number of people leaving the study early, reduces family burden, is a more

  10. The Cultural Construction of Mental Illness in Prison: A Perfect Storm of Pathology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of individuals in U.S. prisons meet DSM criteria for severe psychiatric disorder. These individuals also have co-occurring personality and substance abuse disorders, medical conditions, and histories of exposure to social pathologies. Based on nine months of ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. prison, focusing on staff narratives, I utilize interpretivist and constructivist perspectives to analyze how mental health clinicians construct psychiatric disorder among inmates. Discrete categorization of disorders may be confounded by the clinical co-morbidities of inmates and the prison context. Incarcerated individuals’ responses to the institutional context substantially inform mental health staffs’ illness construction and the prison itself is identified as an etiological agent for disordered behaviors. In addition, diagnostic processes are found to be indeterminate, contested, and shaped by interactions with staff. Analysis of illness construction reveals that what is at stake for clinicians is not only provision of appropriate treatment, but also mandates for the safety and security of the institution. Enmeshed in these mandates, prison mental health becomes a particular local form of psychiatric knowledge. This paper contributes to anthropological approaches to mental disorder by demonstrating how local contexts mediate psychiatric knowledge and contribute to the limited ethnographic record of prisons. PMID:23212545

  11. The cultural construction of mental illness in prison: a perfect storm of pathology.

    PubMed

    Galanek, Joseph D

    2013-03-01

    Large numbers of individuals in U.S. prisons meet DSM criteria for severe psychiatric disorder. These individuals also have co-occurring personality and substance abuse disorders, medical conditions, and histories of exposure to social pathologies. Based on nine months of ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. prison, focusing on staff narratives, I utilize interpretivist and constructivist perspectives to analyze how mental health clinicians construct psychiatric disorder among inmates. Discrete categorization of disorders may be confounded by the clinical co-morbidities of inmates and the prison context. Incarcerated individuals' responses to the institutional context substantially inform mental health staffs' illness construction and the prison itself is identified as an etiological agent for disordered behaviors. In addition, diagnostic processes are found to be indeterminate, contested, and shaped by interactions with staff. Analysis of illness construction reveals that what is at stake for clinicians is not only provision of appropriate treatment, but also mandates for the safety and security of the institution. Enmeshed in these mandates, prison mental health becomes a particular local form of psychiatric knowledge. This paper contributes to anthropological approaches to mental disorder by demonstrating how local contexts mediate psychiatric knowledge and contribute to the limited ethnographic record of prisons. PMID:23212545

  12. Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Children and Adults with Mental Retardation and Other Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharinger, Deborah; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Issues in the sexual abuse and exploitation of individuals with mental retardation are discussed, including sociolegal considerations of special protection from abuse and neglect, incidence of sexual abuse, increased vulnerability of individuals with mental retardation, nature of the abuse, initial and long-term effects, professional response, and…

  13. Coupling of Temperament with Mental Illness in Four Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina; Christiansen, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Studies of temperament profiles in patients with mental disorders mostly focus on emotionality-related traits, although mental illness symptoms include emotional and nonemotional aspects of behavioral regulation. This study investigates relationships between 12 temperament traits (9 nonemotionality and 3 emotionality related) measured by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire and four groups of clinical symptoms (depression, anxiety, antisociality, and dominance-mania) measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory. The study further examines age differences in relationships among clinical symptoms and temperament traits. Intake records of 335 outpatients and clients divided into four age groups (18-25, 26-45, 46-65, and 66-85) showed no significant age differences on depression scales; however, the youngest group had significantly higher scores on Anxiety, Antisocial Behavior, Dominance, and Thought Disorders scales. Correlations between Personality Assessment Inventory and Structure of Temperament Questionnaire scales were consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, descriptors showing strong concurrent validity. Several age differences on temperament scales are also reported. Results show the benefits of differentiation between physical, social-verbal, and mental aspects of activities, as well as differentiation between dynamical, orientational, and energetic aspects in studying mental illness and temperament. PMID:27154370

  14. Interprofessional education in mental health: An opportunity to reduce mental illness stigma.

    PubMed

    Maranzan, K Amanda

    2016-05-01

    Mental illness stigma is a common problem in healthcare students and professionals in addition to the general public. Stigma is associated with numerous negative outcomes and hence there is an urgent need to address it. This article explores the potential for interprofessional education (IPE) to emerge as a strategy to reduce mental illness stigma amongst healthcare students and professionals. Most anti-stigma strategies use a combination of knowledge and contact (with a person with lived experience) to change attitudes towards mental illness. Not surprisingly interprofessional educators are well acquainted with theory and learning approaches for attitude change as they are already used in IPE to address learners' attitudes and perceptions of themselves, other professions, and/or teamwork. This article, through an analysis of IPE pedagogy and learning methods, identifies opportunities to address mental illness stigma with application of the conditions that facilitate stigma reduction. The goal of this article is to raise awareness of the issue of mental illness stigma amongst healthcare students and professionals and to highlight interprofessional education as an untapped opportunity for change. PMID:27152542

  15. Mythos and mental illness: psychopathy, fantasy, and contemporary moral life.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Geoff

    2008-12-01

    Medical accounts of the absence of conscience are intriguing for the way they seem disposed to drift away from the ideal of scientific objectivity and towards fictional representations of the subject. I examine here several contemporary accounts of psychopathy by Robert Hare and Paul Babiak. I first note how they locate the truth about their subject in fiction, then go on to contend that their accounts ought to be thought of as a "mythos," for they betray a telling uncertainty about where "fact" ends and "fantasy" begins, as well as the means of distinguishing mental health from mental illness in regard to some social roles. PMID:18668353

  16. Suicide among young men: psychiatric illness, deviant behaviour and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Allebeck, P; Allgulander, C

    1990-06-01

    The role of psychiatric illness versus social and behavioural risk factors for suicide in young men was analysed in a longitudinal study of 50,465 conscripts. Data collected in 1969-1970 on social background, personality characteristics, use of alcohol and drugs, psychological assessment and psychiatric diagnosis were linked to records from the national psychiatric case register and the national cause-of-death register through 1983. A total of 247 deaths from suicide occurred in the cohort during the follow-up. By means of multivariate analysis, the role of different social and behavioural characteristics was assessed in relation to that of psychiatric diagnoses, with suicide as dependent variable. A psychiatric diagnosis in inpatient care (n = 2247) was the strongest predictor of suicide, with an odds ratio (OR) of 11.3 (8.3-15.4), controlling for social and behavioural risk factors. Schizophrenia was the diagnosis with the highest suicide risk: OR = 13.3 (8.2-21.6). A psychiatric diagnosis at conscription (n = 5877) was not associated with a significantly increased risk of suicide. Several indicators of poor social background, deviant behaviour, substance abuse and disrupted interpersonal relations were associated with a significantly increased suicide risk, also after controlling for psychiatric illness. Although mental illness requiring inpatient treatment was the most powerful predictor of suicide, less than half the cohort had received such treatment. Social and behavioural risk factors are thus important for prevention on the population level. PMID:2378251

  17. Mentally ill persons who commit crimes: punishment or treatment?

    PubMed

    Melamed, Yuval

    2010-01-01

    In many countries, there continue to be conflicting opinions and mechanisms regarding the appropriateness of treatment and/or punishment for mentally ill individuals who commit crimes. The general population is concerned with public safety and often finds it difficult to accept the possibility that a mentally ill individual who commits a crime can be hospitalized and eventually discharged, sometimes after a relatively short time. In most countries the options of incarceration and hospitalization are available in concert. In some, incarceration occurs before hospitalization. In others, hospitalization is first, followed by a prison term. An additional option could be "treatment years." The court would determine the number of years of treatment required, according to the crime. This dilemma has no unequivocal solution. The goal is to reach a balance between the right of the patient to treatment and the responsibility of the courts to ensure public safety. PMID:20305082

  18. Neighborhood Effects, Mental Illness and Criminal Behavior: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, David; Woods, George W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the social science on “neighborhood effects” as an independent force in shaping poor outcomes, specifically mental illness and criminal behavior, before discussing the implications of that research for understanding the relationship between neighborhoods, race and class. Neighborhood effects research has proliferated in recent years with extensive attention again being focused on the social context of family and individual development and life course. Moreover, recent work has suggested the need to consider the developmental effects of neighborhoods that persist across life-span. This paper will focus specifically on mental illness and criminal behavior as outcomes for understanding neighborhood effects, but will also consider what the structural causes of individual behavior and functioning mean for clinical assessment, especially forensic assessment. PMID:25250101

  19. Creative writing in recovery from severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    King, Robert; Neilsen, Philip; White, Emma

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that creative writing forms an important part of the recovery experience of people affected by severe mental illness. In this paper, we consider theoretical models that explain how creative writing might contribute to recovery, and we discuss the potential for creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation. We argue that the rehabilitation benefits of creative writing might be optimized through focus on process and technique in writing, rather than content, and that consequently, the involvement of professional writers might be important. We describe a pilot workshop that deployed these principles and was well-received by participants. Finally, we make recommendations regarding the role of creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation for people recovering from severe mental illness and suggest that the development of an evidence base regarding the effectiveness of creative writing is a priority. PMID:23211053

  20. The Stigmatization of Mental Illness in Children and Parents. Data Trends #124

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" reviews theory and research on stigma and mental health with a focus on the stigmatization of mental illness in the family when either a child or a parent has a mental illness.…

  1. The Legal Framework for Care and Treatment of the Mentally Ill. Staff Brief 86-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Pam

    This report was prepared for the Wisconsin State Legislative Council's Special Committee on Mental Health Issues. It summarizes legal issues and procedures relating to the admission, commitment, and treatment of the mentally ill in Wisconsin. Part I sets forth legal definitions of certain key mental health terms, including mental illness as it is…

  2. The employment status of people with mental illness: National survey data from 2009 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Luciano, Alison; Meara, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe employment by mental illness severity in the U.S. during 2009-2010. Methods The sample included all working-age participants (age 18 to 64) from the 2009 and 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N = 77,326). Two well-established scales of mental health distinguished participants with none, mild, moderate, and serious mental illness. Analyses compared employment rate and income by mental illness severity and estimated logistic regression models of employment status controlling for demographic characteristics and substance use disorders. In secondary analyses, we assessed how the relationship between mental illness and employment varied by age and education status. Results Employment rates decreased with increasing mental illness severity (none = 75.9%, mild = 68.8%, moderate = 62.7%, serious = 54.5%, p<0.001). Over a third of people with serious mental illness, 39%, had incomes below $10,000 (compared to 23% among people without mental illness p<0.001). The gap in adjusted employment rates comparing serious to no mental illness was 1% among people 18-25 years old versus 21% among people 50-64 (p < .001). Conclusions More severe mental illness was associated with lower employment rates in 2009-2010. People with serious mental illness are less likely to be employed after age 49 than people with no, mild, or moderate mental illness. PMID:24933361

  3. Changes in Drug Coverage Generosity and Untreated Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Jeanne M.; Adams, Alyce S.; LeCates, Robert F.; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Zhang, Fang; Huskamp, Haiden A.; Gilden, Daniel M.; Soumerai, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE More than 1 in 5 disabled people with dual Medicare-Medicaid enrollment have schizophrenia or a bipolar disorder (ie, a serious mental illness). The effect of their transition from Medicaid drug coverage, which varies in generosity across states, to the Medicare Part D drug benefit is unknown. Many thousands make this transition annually. OBJECTIVES To determine the effect of transitioning from Medicaid drug benefits to Medicare Part D on medication use by patients with a serious mental illness and to determine the influence of Medicaid drug caps. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In time-series analysis of continuously enrolled patient cohorts (2004–2007), we estimated changes in medication use before and after transitioning to Part D, comparing states that capped monthly prescription fills with states with no prescription limits. We used Medicaid and Medicare claims from a 5% national sample of community-dwelling, nonelderly disabled dual enrollees with schizophrenia (n = 5554) or bipolar disorder (n = 3675). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Psychotropic treatments included antipsychotics for schizophrenia and antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and lithium for bipolar disorder. We measured monthly rates of untreated illness, intensity of treatment, and overall prescription medication use. RESULTS Prior to Part D, the prevalence of untreated illness among patients with a bipolar disorder was 30.0% in strict-cap states and 23.8% in no-cap states. In strict-cap states, the proportion of untreated patients decreased by 17.2% (relatively) 1 year after Part D, whereas there was no change in the proportion of untreated patients in no-cap states. For patients with schizophrenia, the untreated rate (20.6%) did not change in strict-cap states, yet it increased by 23.3% (from 11.6%) in no-cap states. Overall medication use increased substantially after Part D in strict-cap states: prescription fills were 35.5% higher among patients with a bipolar disorder and 17

  4. Self-Stigma and Coming Out about One's Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Morris, Scott; Larson, Jon; Rafacz, Jennifer; Wassel, Abigail; Michaels, Patrick; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen; Rusch, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Self-stigma can undermine self-esteem and self-efficacy of people with serious mental illness. Coming out may be one way of handling self-stigma and it was expected that coming out would mediate the effects of self-stigma on quality of life. This study compares coming out to other approaches of controlling self-stigma. Eighty-five people with…

  5. Mental Illness Training for Long Term Care Staff

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, A. Blair; Billow, Molly B.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Seeley, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Mental illness is prevalent among nursing home residents, but staff are not well trained to deal with it. This research evaluated an Internet mental illness training program designed for certified direct care workers i.e., Nurse Aides (NAs). Pilot research was also conducted to explore effects and acceptance of the same program with a sample of Licensed Health Professionals (LHPs). Design Trial 1: Pre-post randomized treatment and control design for NAs; Trial 2: Quasi-experimental pre-post within-subjects design for LHPs. Setting Both studies were conducted on the Internet. Participants Trial 1: N=62 NAs; Trial 2: N=16 LHPs Intervention Internet-based behavioral skills training and knowledge building, using video modeling with mastery learning instructional design. Measurements Video situations testing and assessment of psycho-social constructs associated with behavior change; follow-up interviews with a sample of treatment NAs. Results Trial 1: MANCOVA analysis showed positive results (p=.003) for knowledge, attitudes, self efficacy, and behavioral intention, with medium-large effect sizes. The training was well received by the users. Trial 2: Paired t-tests showed significant effects on five of six outcome measures, with medium-large effect sizes, and it was well received by the LHP sample. Conclusions Internet training can be an effective approach to help staff work with residents with mental illness. In this research, it showed significant positive effects and was well received by NAs and by LHPs. PMID:21450251

  6. Community Violence Perpetration and Victimization Among Adults With Mental Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Johnson, Kiersten L.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. In a large heterogeneous sample of adults with mental illnesses, we examined the 6-month prevalence and nature of community violence perpetration and victimization, as well as associations between these outcomes. Methods. Baseline data were pooled from 5 studies of adults with mental illnesses from across the United States (n = 4480); the studies took place from 1992 to 2007. The MacArthur Community Violence Screening Instrument was administered to all participants. Results. Prevalence of perpetration ranged from 11.0% to 43.4% across studies, with approximately one quarter (23.9%) of participants reporting violence. Prevalence of victimization was higher overall (30.9%), ranging from 17.0% to 56.6% across studies. Most violence (63.5%) was perpetrated in residential settings. The prevalence of violence-related physical injury was approximately 1 in 10 overall and 1 in 3 for those involved in violent incidents. There were strong associations between perpetration and victimization. Conclusions. Results provided further evidence that adults with mental illnesses experienced violent outcomes at high rates, and that they were more likely to be victims than perpetrators of community violence. There is a critical need for public health interventions designed to reduce violence in this vulnerable population. PMID:24524530

  7. Adherence to HIV antiretrovirals among persons with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Glenn J; Kanouse, David E; Koegel, Paul; Sullivan, Greer

    2003-04-01

    Despite the absence of empirical evidence, serious mental illness is assumed to be a high risk factor for nonadherence to HIV antiretroviral regimens. To assess antiretroviral adherence among persons with serious mental illness, we conducted a study in which adherence was observed over a 2-week period with electronic monitoring bottle caps and self-report. Forty-seven participants enrolled, with all but two (96%) completing the study. Psychiatric diagnoses included bipolar depression (n = 24), schizophrenia (n = 12), schizoaffective disorder (n = 5), and major depression with psychotic features (n = 6). Mean adherence (proportion of prescribed doses taken) was 66% (standard deviation [SD] = 34), as measured by electronic monitoring; 40% demonstrated at least 90% adherence, but 31% had less than 50% adherence. Self-reported adherence to psychotropics was moderately correlated with self-reported (r = 0.45, p < 0.05) and electronically monitored (r = 0.39, p < 0.05) antiretroviral adherence. Viral load (log(10)) was negatively correlated with electronically monitored (r = -0.28, p < 0.10) and self-reported (r = -0.39, p < 0.05) antiretroviral adherence, after controlling for the length of time on treatment. These findings suggest that many patients with serious mental illness are able to adhere very well to antiretroviral regimens, yet a substantial proportion of our sample displayed poor adherence, indicating the need for research to further assess the factors that influence adherence to antiretrovirals in this population. PMID:12737641

  8. Juror knowledge and attitudes regarding mental illness verdicts.

    PubMed

    Sloat, Lisa M; Frierson, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    We begin with a brief overview of the Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity (NGRI) and Guilty but Mentally Ill (GBMI) verdicts in the United States and then report on a study of qualified jurors (n=96) in which we examined jurors' understanding and attitudes about mental illness verdicts and the disposition of mentally ill defendants. Results indicate that although the jury pool was highly educated, only 4.2 percent of jurors could correctly identify both the definitions and dispositions of defendants found NGRI and GBMI. Jurors with lower educational levels were less likely to identify the dispositional outcome of a GBMI verdict (p<.05). Eighty-four percent of respondents believed that juries should be informed of dispositional outcome before deciding a verdict. Also, 68.4 percent of jurors erroneously believed that a defendant found GBMI could not receive the death penalty. Among jurors who correctly identified the definition of GBMI, those with lower educational levels were more punitive in their attitudes toward disposition of the GBMI defendants, believing they should eventually be sent to prison (p<.05). PMID:15985664

  9. [The mentally ill artist--a historical retrospect].

    PubMed

    Bergdolt, K

    1995-07-01

    The painting of the mentally ill has fascinated artists and their public throughout the 20th century. Yet the psychologically as well as art-historically interesting topic can be traced back over a long period in the history of Western culture. Aristotle emphasizes that all men who create great works, such as artists, philosophers, poets and politicians, are prone to melancholy, that excess of black gall which is characteristic of artists and depressive. Although Plato distinguished between creative and clinical mania, the topos of "genius and madness" prevails up to our century. The cult of melancholy is taken up bei Marsilio Ficino and becomes fashionable among the artists of the 16th and 17th centuries. During the Romantic period of the early 19th century the psychologically unstable or even sick intellectual and artist becomes the focus of attention. Artistic madness is glorified in an almost mystical fashion. However, disillusionment was soon to follow. Schopenhauer, Lombroso and many physicians stress the close relationship between genius and madness. However, they judge madness to be merely morbid and negative. During the 20th century the artists of the avantgarde show much interest in psychoanalysis and in the art of the mentally ill. The rise of National Socialism brought about a drastic break in the appraisal of the art of the mentally ill, which today is an acknowledged factor in contemporary art. PMID:7672748

  10. WHEN PARENTS WITH SEVERE MENTAL ILLNESS LOSE CONTACT WITH THEIR CHILDREN: ARE PSYCHIATRIC SYMPTOMS OR SUBSTANCE USE TO BLAME?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Danson; Macias, Rosemarie Lillianne; Gold, Paul B.; Barreira, Paul; Fisher, William

    2009-01-01

    This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month research interviews over a total 30-month period following each participant’s entry into the project. Severe substance abuse was documented as present or absent for the 6-month interval preceding each interview. Results revealed that incidence of severe substance abuse was repeatedly associated with less frequent parent-child contact, even after controlling for psychiatric symptoms, diagnosis, gender, age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Neither psychiatric diagnosis nor symptom severity predicted frequency of child contact when substance abuse was taken into account. Mental health agencies offering parenting classes for adults with serious mental illness should incorporate substance use interventions to reduce loss of child custody and strengthen parent-child relationships. PMID:20011665

  11. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... societal benefits of prevention, treatment, and recovery for mental and substance use disorders. Popular Programs, Campaigns, & Initiatives National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP) Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT) Too Smart To ...

  12. Aceh Free Pasung: Releasing the mentally ill from physical restraint

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical restraint and confinement of the mentally ill (called pasung in Indonesia) is common in Aceh. In early 2010, the local government initiated a program called Aceh Free Pasung 2010. The main goal of the program is to release the mentally ill in the province from restraint and to provide appropriate medical treatment and care. The aim of the paper is to report the findings of a preliminary investigation of the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who have been admitted to the Banda Aceh Mental Hospital as part of the Aceh Free Pasung program. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at the Banda Aceh Mental Hospital, where people who had been restrained or confined in the community are being admitted for psychiatric treatment and, where necessary, physical rehabilitation, as part of the Aceh Free Pasung program. Results Fifty-nine of former ex-pasung patients were examined. The majority (88.1%) of the patients were male, aged 18 to 68 years. The duration of pasung varied from a few days to 20 years, with a mean duration of 4.0 years. The reasons for applying pasung are many, with concerns about dangerousness being most common. The great majority (89.8%) had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Discussion The development of a community mental health system and the introduction of a health insurance system in Aceh (together with the national health insurance scheme for the poor) has enabled access to free hospital treatment for people with severe mental disorders, including those who have been in pasung. The demographic and clinical characteristics of this group of ex-pasung patients are broadly similar to those reported in previous studies. Conclusions The Aceh Free Pasung program is an important mental health and human rights initiative that can serve to inform similar efforts in other parts of Indonesia and other low and middle-income countries where restraint and confinement of the mentally ill is receiving

  13. Healthcare Utilization and Expenditures for Persons with Diabetes Comorbid with Mental Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Su, Chen-Hsiang; Chiu, Herng-Chia; Hsieh, Hui-Min; Yen, Ju-Yu; Lee, Mei-Hsuan; Li, Chih-Yi; Chang, Kao-Ping; Huang, Chun-Jen

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate healthcare utilization and expenditure for patients with diabetes comorbid with and without mental illnesses in Taiwan. People with diabetes comorbid with and without mental illnesses in 2000 were identified and followed up to 2004 to explore the healthcare utilization and expenditure. Healthcare utilization included outpatient visits and use of hospital inpatient services, and expenditure included outpatient, inpatient and total medical expenditure. General estimation equation models were used to explore the factors associated with outpatient visits and expenditure. To identify the factors associated with hospitalization, multiple logistic regressions were applied. The average number of annual outpatient visits of the patients with mental illnesses ranged from 37.01 to 41.91, and 28.83 to 31.79 times for the patients without mental illnesses from 2000 to 2004. The average annual total expenditure for patients with mental illnesses during this period ranged from NT$77,123-NT$90,790, and NT$60,793- NT$84,984 for those without mental illnesses. After controlling for covariates, the results indicated that gender, age, mental illness and time factor were associated with outpatient visits. Gender, age, and time factor were associated with total expenditure. Age and mental illness were associated with hospitalization in logistic regression. The healthcare utilization and expenditure for patients with mental illnesses was significantly higher than for patients without mental illnesses. The factors associated with healthcare utilization and expenditure included gender, age, mental illness and time trends. PMID:26646577

  14. Mental Illness in Blacks: An Overview, and Treatment Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elizabeth B.

    1979-01-01

    Provisions for inner city mental health services must recognize the association between poverty, discrimination, and related social and physical conditions and disproportionately high rates of severe mental disorder—a transcultural phenomenon. Program emphasis should therefore be on the prevention, early recognition, prompt and effective treatment and rehabilitative care of psychosis. The total spectrum of psychiatric services is required for this, and thus an opportunity is afforded for necessary training and research. Poverty has negative impact on general health and cognitive development as well as on self-esteem, self-care, and the ability to utilize medical and health services. This contributes to a vicious, intergenerational poverty cycle. Primary prevention of mental illness, where possible, depends at present on socioeconomic change. Secondary prevention, ie, timely, appropriate treatment, is effective, but requires patient access to and acceptance of all indicated modalities of care. PMID:537113

  15. Forensic examination of the mentally disabled sexual abuse complainant.

    PubMed

    Chave-Cox, Rebecca S

    2014-07-01

    Individuals who have mental disabilities are more vulnerable to sexual abuse than the general population and even less likely to report the offence. Furthermore they face greater barriers if they wish to seek help, support or prosecution. Where abuse is alleged or suspected, a complainant with a mental disability will often have the capacity to decide whether they wish to undergo intimate forensic examination. However, in cases where the individual truly lacks capacity it must be decided on an case to case basis without assumption or preconception whether such an examination is truly in their best interests. This aim of this review is to discuss sexual offences against adults with mental disabilities and the identification and management of these individuals. PMID:24931867

  16. California's historic effort to reduce the stigma of mental illness: the Mental Health Services Act.

    PubMed

    Clark, Wayne; Welch, Stephanie N; Berry, Sandra H; Collentine, Ann M; Collins, Rebecca; Lebron, Dorthy; Shearer, Amy L

    2013-05-01

    In a historic effort to reduce the stigma of mental illness, California voters approved the Mental Health Services Act in 2004. The law funds a comprehensive statewide prevention initiative that places stigma and discrimination reduction at its center, with 25 projects providing interventions at the institutional, societal, and individual levels. Stakeholders selected specific strategies from the research-based California Strategic Plan on Reducing Stigma and Discrimination. Strategies range from social marketing to increase public knowledge to capacity building at the local level, including training that emphasizes participation by consumers of mental health services and cultural competence. Collectively, these strategies aim to foster permanent change in the public perception of mental illness and in the individual experience of stigma. We examined the context, planning, programming, and evaluation of this effort. PMID:23488486

  17. Quality of life in mentally ill, physically ill and healthy individuals: The validation of the Greek version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-100) questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Ginieri-Coccossis, Maria; Triantafillou, Eugenia; Tomaras, Vlasis; Liappas, Ioannis A; Christodoulou, George N; Papadimitriou, George N

    2009-01-01

    Objective The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-100) questionnaire is a generic quality of life (QoL) measurement tool used in various cultural and social settings and across different patient and healthy populations. The present study examines the psychometric properties of the Greek version, with an emphasis on the ability of the instrument to capture QoL differences between mentally ill, physically ill and healthy individuals. Methods A total of 425 Caucasian participants were tested, as to form 3 groups: (a) 124 psychiatric patients (schizophrenia n = 87, alcohol abuse/dependence n = 37), (b) 234 patients with physical illness (hypertension n = 139, cancer n = 95), and (c) 67 healthy control individuals. Results Confirmatory factor analysis was performed indicating that a four-factor model can provide an adequate instrument structure for the participating groups (GFI 0.92). Additionally, internal consistency of the instrument was shown to be acceptable, with Cronbach's α values ranging from 0.78 to 0.90 regarding the four -domain model, and from 0.40 to 0.90 regarding the six-domain one. Evidence based on Pearson's r and Independent samples t-test indicated satisfactory test/retest reliability, as well as good convergent validity tested with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and the Life Satisfaction Inventory (LSI). Furthermore, using Independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA, the instrument demonstrated good discriminatory ability between healthy, mentally ill and physically ill participants, as well as within the distinct patient groups of schizophrenic, alcohol dependent, hypertensive and cancer patients. Healthy individuals reported significantly higher QoL, particularly in the physical health domain and in the overall QoL/health facet. Mentally ill participants were distinctively differentiated from physically ill in several domains, with the greatest difference and reduction observed in the social relationships domain and in

  18. Perspectives of Treatment Providers and Clients with Serious Mental Illness Regarding Effective Therapeutic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Easter, Alison; Pollock, Michele; Pope, Leah Gogel; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Smith, Thomas E

    2016-07-01

    This study explores the nature of clinical therapeutic relationships between mental health treatment providers and high-need clients with serious mental illness who had recently discontinued treatment. Semi-structured qualitative interviews of 56 clients with serious mental illness who had recently discontinued care and 25 mental health treatment providers were completed. Both clients with serious mental illness and treatment providers emphasized the importance of client-focused goal setting, time and availability of treatment providers, a caring approach, and trust and honesty in the relationship. However, clients with serious mental illness placed greater emphasis on goals involving tangible services, a notable area of discord between the two groups. Individuals with serious mental illness and treatment providers agreed regarding several key elements to a positive clinical relationship. Further attention to client goals related to tangible services may serve to improve relationships between treatment providers and high-need clients with serious mental illness. PMID:26658917

  19. Child Physical Abuse and Adult Mental Health: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S.; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000–2001 and 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16–2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. PMID:22806701

  20. Mad, homeless, and unwanted. A history of the care of the chronic mentally ill in America.

    PubMed

    Grob, G N

    1994-09-01

    governments, an uninformed public, or an obsolete system that failed to incorporate the findings of medical science. If American society is to deal effectively, compassionately, and humanely with the seriously mentally ill, several elements must be taken into account. First, the seriously mentally ill include individuals with quite different disorders, prognoses, and needs. Secondly, outcomes vary considerably over time. Some schizophrenics, for example, have reasonably good outcomes; others lapse into chronicity and become progressively more disabled. Finally, serious mental disorders are often exacerbated by poverty, racism, and substance abuse. Although psychiatric therapies can alleviate symptoms and permit individuals to live in the community, there is no "magic bullet" that will cure all cases of serious mental illnesses in the same way that antibiotic drugs are effective against acute infectious diseases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7824381

  1. Attitudes towards mental illness of nursing students in a Baccalaureate programme in Jamaica: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J; Stennett, R

    2015-10-01

    There is longstanding evidence of nurses demonstrating negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Student nurses' fear or discomfort with mentally ill patients results in poorer outcomes for patients and students' dissatisfaction with their experience of mental health nursing. There is evidence of negative attitudes towards mental illness in the Jamaican society; however, no studies have explored whether these attitudes are held by nursing students. The aim of the study was to examine the attitudes of nursing students towards mental illness. A questionnaire survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 143 third-year nursing students who were enrolled in a baccalaureate programme. Data were collected using the Attitudes Towards Acute Mental Health Scale (ATAMHS). A response rate of 71% was achieved for the survey. The findings indicated that the student nurses held an overall negative attitude towards mental illness, with a general perception that mentally ill people are dangerous. The student nurses were divided in their opinions in a number of areas, suggesting a possible conflict of opinions. Negative attitudes towards mental illness impact client outcomes and the career choices made by nurses. This study provides baseline data within the Jamaican context that adds to the evidence on nursing students' attitude to mental illness. Further research is needed to explore whether nursing education and clinical experience enables student nurses in Jamaica to develop a more positive attitude towards mental illness and mental health nursing and whether cultural factors contribute to negative attitudes. PMID:26036468

  2. "Out of sight": Sexuality and women with enduring mental illness.

    PubMed

    Davison, Joanna; Huntington, Annette

    2010-08-01

    Sexuality is a complex and fundamental aspect of a person's health and mental well-being, yet mental health professionals generally seem reluctant to discuss sexuality related issues and few research studies have specifically explored the sexuality of women with enduring mental illness. The aim of this qualitative research was to gain a deeper understanding about the sexuality experiences of this group of women. Eight women were interviewed individually, and then together as a focus group. Working from a feminist theoretical perspective, the interview transcripts were analysed thematically. All the women considered sexuality an essential component of their identity. However, powerful interlocking systems controlled and influenced how the women expressed their sexuality, often marginalizing, and positioning them as 'Other', and rendering their sexuality hidden and unseen. The experiences of this group of women highlight the need for mental health professionals to recognize sexuality as an important aspect of a person's care and recovery, and to create a culture that is supportive of a person's sexuality and sexual expression. Incorporating sexuality related issues into clinical practice offers mental health professionals a significant opportunity to make a positive difference. PMID:20618524

  3. Attitudes of Mental Health Professionals about Mental Illness: A Review of the Recent Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto; Aroesty-Cohen, Eli

    2010-01-01

    A large body of research has documented public attitudes toward people with mental illness. The current attitudes of the people who provide services to those with psychiatric disorders are important to understand, as well. The authors review what studies over the past 5 years reveal about the attitudes of psychiatric professionals. Empirical…

  4. Frames of mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies: implications for orthodox mental health care.

    PubMed

    Atilola, Olayinka; Olayiwola, Funmilayo

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the modes of framing mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies. All Yoruba films on display in a convenient sample of movie rental shops in Ibadan (Nigeria) were sampled for content. Of the 103 films studied, 27 (26.2%) contained scenes depicting mental illness. Psychotic symptoms were the most commonly depicted, while effective treatments were mostly depicted as taking place in unorthodox settings. The most commonly depicted aetiology of mental illness was sorcery and enchantment by witches and wizards, as well as other supernatural forces. Scenes of mental illness are common in Nigerian movies and these depictions-though reflecting the popular explanatory models of Yoruba-speaking Nigerians about mental illness- may impede utilization of mental health care services and ongoing efforts to reduce psychiatry stigma in this region. Efforts to reduce stigma and improve service utilization should engage the film industry. PMID:23670966

  5. Practice Wisdom on Custodial Parenting with Mental Illness: A Strengths View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeman, Laura Dreuth; Buila, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Social work principles of strengths, empowerment, and consumer-centered care for persons with mental illness are currently being adapted to broader contexts. This article presents study findings on practice wisdom about custodial parents with mental illness, a potentially increasing group of consumers in light of mental health reform. The research…

  6. Pilot Investigation of the Effectiveness of Respite Care for Carers of an Adult with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jardim, Claudia; Pakenham, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Informal carers of an adult with mental illness have asked that respite care be an integral component of mental health service provision. The present study involved a pilot investigation of the effectiveness of accessing respite care for carers of individuals with a mental illness. It was hypothesised that compared to carers who have not accessed…

  7. Living Arrangements and Social Support: Effects on the Well-Being of Mothers with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol T.; Bybee, Deborah; Hollingsworth, Leslie; Goodkind, Sara; Oyserman, Daphna

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the effects of living arrangements on the well-being of mothers with a serious mental illness. Analyses of data from a National Institute of Mental Health-funded study of an urban, primarily African American sample of 379 mothers with mental illness revealed few differences in parenting or social functioning between mothers…

  8. Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

  9. Breaking Down the Stigma of Mental Illness through an Adventure Camp: A Collaborative Education Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuhlmiller, Cynthia M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an outdoor adventure camp to help mental health consumers and nursing students explore the issues of mental health and illness through experiential and perceived risk challenges. Evaluation data reveals a breakdown in the stigma of mental illness as consumers and students came to know, trust, and count on each other in order to succeed…

  10. Family Intervention and Services for Persons with Mental Illness in the People's Republic of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Kam-shing

    2005-01-01

    Family services and intervention for persons with mental illness is crucial in mental health services. In this paper, the writer attempts to describe family intervention and services for persons with mental illness in the People's Republic of China. Family intervention and services like home-based care, guardianship network, family counseling, and…

  11. Breaking the Silence: Teaching the Next Generation about Mental Illness. For Upper Elementary Grades. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susin, Janet; Kaplan, Lorraine; Slater, Louise

    This guide provides curriculum lessons for the upper elementary school student that put a human face on mental illness and confront myths passed on from one generation to the next. One in five children will be affected by mental illness at some point in their lives. The goal of these lessons is help students understand that severe mental illnesses…

  12. A Study to Examine the Uses of Personal Strength in Relation to Mental Health Recovery in Adults with Serious Mental Illnesses: A Research Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Huiting; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Song Song; Yen, Melissa Sng Siok

    2015-01-01

    This study will explore the relationships among strengths self-efficacy, resourcefulness, stigma experience and mental health recovery in community-dwelling adults with serious mental illnesses. Mental health practices have focued on psychopathphysiology. Stigma heavily plagued clients with mental illnesses and is one of the greatest barriers to mental health recovery. Personal strengths like strengths self-efficacy, people’s confidence in using their personal strengths, and resourcefulness, the ability to carry out daily activities, have been linked to positive mental health. However, the linkage between strengths self-efficacy, resourcefulness and mental health recovery remains uncharted. A cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed methods study will be conducted. A funded study by the Sigma Theta Tau, Upsilon Eta Chapter, August 2013, involving a convenience sample of 100 participants is planned. Included are community dwelling adults between 21 to 65 years old having been diagnosed with serious mental illnesses. Clients with current co-occurring substance abuse will be excluded. Participants complete questionnaires and undergo an interview. Correlations among the study variables will be examined. Regression analysis will determine if recovery can be predicted by strengths self-efficacy, resourcefulness and stigma experience. Interview data will be transcribed and analyzed by thematic analysis. This study will look beyond clients’ disability to focus on their recovery and healing capacities such as strengths self-efficacy and resourcefulness. Findings will expand our knowledge about mental health recovery. Knowledge gained from this study may pave the way for future nursing strategies to aid recovery and inform the development of positive, strengths-based interventions. PMID:26973963

  13. [Suicidality in mental illness – prevention and therapy].

    PubMed

    Röcker, Sabine; Bachmann, Silke

    2015-10-01

    The great majority of suicides and suicide attempts are related to mental illness. Special risk has been attributed to depression, psychosis, substance use, personality, and trauma-related disorders. Many affected persons seek medical attention prior to taking action. Primary care therefor plays an outstanding role in suicide prevention. Doctors should pay attention to potential risk constellations and actively address the issue. This paper presents possibly helpful models and instruments for everyday use. Most importantly, however, professionals’ empathy and time are required as well as appropriate decisions concerning a referral to a psychiatrist or psychiatric inpatient treatment. PMID:26423879

  14. Guns, schools, and mental illness: potential concerns for physicians and mental health professionals.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ryan Chaloner Winton; Friedman, Susan Hatters

    2013-11-01

    Since the recent shootings in Tucson, Arizona; Aurora, Colorado; and Newtown, Connecticut, there has been an ever-increasing state and national debate regarding gun control. All 3 shootings involved an alleged shooter who attended college, and in hindsight, evidence of a mental illness was potentially present in these individuals while in school. What appears to be different about the current round of debate is that both pro-gun control and anti-gun control advocates are focusing on mentally ill individuals, early detection of mental illness during school years, and the interactions of such individuals with physicians and the mental health system as a way to solve gun violence. This raises multiple questions for our profession about the apparent increase in these types of events, dangerousness in mentally ill individuals, when to intervene (voluntary vs involuntary), and what role physicians should play in the debate and ongoing prevention. As is evident from the historic Tarasoff court case, physicians and mental health professionals often have new regulations/duties, changes in the physician-patient relationship, and increased liability resulting from high-profile events such as these. Given that in many ways the prediction of who will actually commit a violent act is difficult to determine with accuracy, physicians need to be cautious with how the current gun debate evolves not only for ourselves (eg, increased liability, becoming de facto agents of the state) but for our patients as well (eg, increased stigma, erosion of civil liberties, and changes in the physician-patient relationship). We provide examples of potential troublesome legislation and suggestions on what can be done to improve safety for our patients and for the public. PMID:24138962

  15. Smoking Use and Cessation Among People with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Aniyizhai; Singh, Noreen; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates in people with serious mental illness (SMI) are disproportionately high compared to the general population. It is a leading contributor to the early mortality in this population. Smoking cessation rates are low in this group, though patients are motivated to quit. Unfortunately, health care providers do not always prioritize smoking cessation for this population. This review provides an overview of prevalence rates, biological effects that maintain smoking, and evidence-based treatments for smoking cessation in SMI. In addition, objective and qualitative data from a chart review of 78 patients with SMI prescribed smoking cessation treatment at one community mental health center are described. Of these, 30 (38.5 percent) were found to either quit (16/78) or reduce (14/78) smoking. Varenicline appeared to be particularly effective. Review of the literature and results of this study suggest that smoking cessation pharmacotherapies are effective for SMI patients and should be offered to those who smoke. PMID:26339210

  16. Smoking Use and Cessation Among People with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Aniyizhai; Singh, Noreen; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2015-09-01

    Smoking rates in people with serious mental illness (SMI) are disproportionately high compared to the general population. It is a leading contributor to the early mortality in this population. Smoking cessation rates are low in this group, though patients are motivated to quit. Unfortunately, health care providers do not always prioritize smoking cessation for this population. This review provides an overview of prevalence rates, biological effects that maintain smoking, and evidence-based treatments for smoking cessation in SMI. In addition, objective and qualitative data from a chart review of 78 patients with SMI prescribed smoking cessation treatment at one community mental health center are described. Of these, 30 (38.5 percent) were found to either quit (16/78) or reduce (14/78) smoking. Varenicline appeared to be particularly effective. Review of the literature and results of this study suggest that smoking cessation pharmacotherapies are effective for SMI patients and should be offered to those who smoke. PMID:26339210

  17. Fathers with serious mental illnesses: a neglected group.

    PubMed

    Styron, Thomas H; Pruett, Marsha Kline; McMahon, Thomas J; Davidson, Larry

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, policy makers, researchers, and practitioners alike have come to recognize how the traditional emphasis on mothers has overshadowed the equally critical contribution of fathers to child development and family life. In spite of this growing recognition of the importance of fathers, the need to better understand and support fathers with serious mental illnesses (SMI) has received little attention within mental health, public welfare, child protection, or criminal justice systems. In an effort to counter the continuing neglect of fathers with SMI, this paper provides an overview of the scant existing research focusing on fathers with SMI and sets forth a series of recommendations highlighting the need for greater inclusion of fathers in future research and ways to support men with SMI in their role as parents. PMID:11859994

  18. Does Humor Influence the Stigma of Mental Illnesses?

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Powell, Karina J.; Fokuo, J. Konadu; Kosyluk, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Public stigma is a barrier for people with mental illness. Humor may have the potential to decrease stigmatizing attitudes in the context of disclosure. Participants completed measures on stigmatizing attitudes and humor style and were then randomized to one of three conditions (self-disclosure comedy sketch, the same comedy sketch with no disclosure, and a control comedy sketch). After reviewing the comedy sketch, participants repeated the attitude measures and provided perceptions of the comic. Humor styles and perceptions significantly interacted with condition to reduce stigma. Perceptions of the self-disclosed comic were associated with reduced stigma. People exhibiting affiliative humor style (i.e., they enjoy making others laugh) were shown to have significantly greater stigma changes in the disclosed condition compared to the non-disclosed and control conditions. Affiliative humor endorsers also interacted with the non-disclosed condition suggesting that mental health comedy might generally reduce stigma in people who use humor to improve relationships. PMID:24727719

  19. Does humor influence the stigma of mental illnesses?

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Fokuo, J Konadu; Kosyluk, Kristin A

    2014-05-01

    Public stigma is a barrier for people with mental illness. Humor may have the potential to decrease stigmatizing attitudes in the context of disclosure. Participants completed measures on stigmatizing attitudes and humor style and were then randomized to one of three conditions (self-disclosure comedy sketch, the same comedy sketch with no disclosure, and a control comedy sketch). After reviewing the comedy sketch, the participants repeated the attitude measures and provided perceptions of the comic. Humor styles and perceptions significantly interacted with condition to reduce stigma. Perceptions of the self-disclosed comic were associated with reduced stigma. People exhibiting affiliative humor style (i.e., they enjoy making others laugh) were shown to have significantly greater stigma changes in the disclosed condition compared with the nondisclosed and control conditions. Affiliative humor endorsers also interacted with the nondisclosed condition, suggesting that mental health comedy might generally reduce stigma in people who use humor to improve relationships. PMID:24727719

  20. The genetics of mental illness: implications for practice.

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, S. E.

    2000-01-01

    Many of the comfortable and relatively simple models of the nature of mental disorders, their causes and their neural substrates now appear quite frayed. Gone is the idea that symptom clusters, course of illness, family history and treatment response would coalesce in a simple way to yield valid diagnoses. Also too simple was the concept, born of early pharmacological successes, that abnormal levels of one or more neurotransmitters would satisfactorily explain the pathogenesis of depression or schizophrenia. Gone is the notion that there is a single gene that causes any mental disorder or determines any behavioural variant. The concept of the causative gene has been replaced by that of genetic complexity, in which multiple genes act in concert with non-genetic factors to produce a risk of mental disorder. Discoveries in genetics and neuroscience can be expected to lead to better models that provide improved representation of the complexity of the brain and behaviour and the development of both. There are likely to be profound implications for clinical practice. The complex genetics of risk should reinvigorate research on the epidemiology and classification of mental disorders and explain the complex patterns of disease transmission within families. Knowledge of the timing of the expression of risk genes during brain development and of their function should not only contribute to an understanding of gene action and the pathophysiology of disease but should also help to direct the search for modifiable environmental risk factors that convert risk into illness. The function of risk genes can only become comprehensible in the context of advances at the molecular, cellular and systems levels in neuroscience and the behavioural sciences. Genetics should yield new therapies aimed not just at symptoms but also at pathogenic processes, thus permitting the targeting of specific therapies to individual patients. PMID:10885164

  1. Daily living: does this matter for people with mental illness?

    PubMed

    Becker, Thomas; Kilian, Reinhold

    2008-12-01

    Structuring their daily life is an important problem for many individuals with chronic mental disorder. Therefore day structuring services are considered as constituent parts of modern mental healthcare systems. In this paper the theoretical and empirical basis for the implementation and evaluation of day structuring services will be discussed from a social science perspective. Recent work in the field of cultural sociology shows that the social framework of everyday behaviour in modern societies provides a great variety of opportunities to create and practice individual lifestyles. The potential to take advantage of these opportunities is related to individual competencies and resources. The few existing qualitative studies on the everyday behaviour of individuals with chronic mental disorders in the community reveal that increased freedom of choice is often combined with an objective or subjective lack of resources and competencies to make use of this variety of opportunities. Therefore, beyond providing a structure for daily life, day structuring services should help empower individuals with chronic mental disorder to make their choices among behavioural alternatives bearing in mind both illness-related limitations and their strengths and resources. PMID:19085403

  2. The effect of severe child sexual abuse and disclosure on mental health during adulthood.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Patrick; Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D

    2010-05-01

    This study examined the relationship among severe child sexual abuse, disclosure, and mental health symptoms during adulthood. The sample consisted of 172 adults who were sexually abused in childhood. The multivariate model showed that respondents in their 30s and 40s who were abused by more than one abuser, who were injured by their abusers, who were abused by a biological relative, who told someone about the abuse when it occurred, and who did not discuss their abuse in depth within one year of the abuse had a greater number of mental health symptoms. Abuse severity and disclosure history should be assessed by professionals to identify clients who are at higher risk of mental health symptoms and to focus therapy. PMID:20509077

  3. Restructuring public mental health and substance abuse service systems.

    PubMed

    Godbole, A; Temkin, T; Cradock, C

    1998-01-01

    The authors originally circulated the concepts in this proposal during May 1995. The purpose was to support an open, public dialogue regarding the restructuring of the mental health and substance abuse services in Illinois in anticipation of Medicaid funding changes. Restructuring mental health and substance abuse service systems should follow certain key principles. These principles are applicable to other states, particularly those large in territory and population. The authors propose the temporary use of multiple managed care companies serving as administrative services only (ASO) organizations, each of whom would have responsibility for a given geographic portion of a state. The role of the ASOs would be to organize providers into networks on a regional basis and transfer managed care expertise in financing and clinical management to the relevant state departments and provider groups. Changes in the service delivery system would be phased in over time with reorganization of key components of the system during each phase. Where the provision of mental health, substance abuse, and social services is split among multiple state agencies, these agencies would be merged to achieve unified funding and administrative efficiency. Patients and advocacy organizations would play a key role in overseeing and shaping system restructuring at all levels, including a governmental board reporting to the governor, overseeing ASO organizations' operations and assuring quality and access at the provider level. The authors propose funding of public behavioral health services through use of a tiered, integrated funding model. PMID:9502053

  4. Substance Use and HIV Risk in a Sample of Severely Mentally Ill Puerto Rican Women

    PubMed Central

    Sajatovic, Martha; Mendez, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Latinos, and Puerto Ricans in particular, have been disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS. Severe mental illness (SMI) is associated with an increase in HIV risk. Relatively little research has focused on the role of SMI among Puerto Rican injection drug users (IDUs) and non-IDUs in susceptibility to and transmission of HIV and there are few published reports on HIV risk among Latina SMI. We conducted a longitudinal mixed methods study with 53 Puerto Rican women with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression to examine the cultural context of HIV risk and HIV knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors among a larger study with Puerto Rican and Mexican women with serious mental illness (SMI). There was a high prevalence of past and current substance use and a high prevalence of substance use-associated HIV risk behaviors, such as unprotected sexual relations with an IDU. The violence associated with substance use frequently increased participants’ HIV risk. Choice of substance of abuse depended on cost, availability, and use within the individual participant's network. Participants attributed their substance use to the need to relieve symptoms associated with their mental illness, ameliorate unpleasant feelings, and deaden emotional pain. HIV prevention interventions for poorer Puerto Rican women with SMI must target the individuals themselves and others within their networks if the women are to be supported in their efforts to reduce substance use-related risk. The content of any intervention must address past and current trauma and its relationship to substance use and HIV risk, as well as strategies to prevent HIV transmission. PMID:21327967

  5. Teaching Medical Students about Communicating with Patients with Major Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Ramanan, Radhika A; Lee, Stacey

    2006-01-01

    Persons with major mental illness often have chronic diseases and poor physical health. Therefore, all practicing physicians should learn about communicating effectively with these patients. Few efforts to teach medical students communication skills have specifically targeted patients with major mental illness. Indeed, most of the limited literature on this topic is decades old, predating significant scientific advances in cognitive neuroscience and psychiatric therapeutics and changes in social policies regarding major mental illness. To gather preliminary insight into training needs, we interviewed 13 final-year students from 2 Boston medical schools. Students' observations coalesced around 4 themes: fears and anxieties about interacting with persons with major mental illness; residents “protecting” students from patients with major mental illness; lack of clinical maturity; and barriers to learning during psychiatry rotations. Educational researchers must explore ways to better prepare young physicians to communicate effectively with patients with major mental illness. PMID:16970561

  6. Smoking and mental illness: results from population surveys in Australia and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    Background Smoking has been associated with a range of mental disorders including schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and depression. People with mental illness have high rates of morbidity and mortality from smoking related illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases and cancer. As many people who meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders do not seek treatment for these conditions, we sought to investigate the relationship between mental illness and smoking in recent population-wide surveys. Methods Survey data from the US National Comorbidity Survey-Replication conducted in 2001–2003, the 2007 Australian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, and the 2007 US National Health Interview Survey were used to investigate the relationship between current smoking, ICD-10 mental disorders and non-specific psychological distress. Population weighted estimates of smoking rates by disorder, and mental disorder rates by smoking status were calculated. Results In both the US and Australia, adults who met ICD-10 criteria for mental disorders in the 12 months prior to the survey smoked at almost twice the rate of adults without mental disorders. While approximately 20% of the adult population had 12-month mental disorders, among adult smokers approximately one-third had a 12-month mental disorder – 31.7% in the US (95% CI: 29.5%–33.8%) and 32.4% in Australia (95% CI: 29.5%–35.3%). Female smokers had higher rates of mental disorders than male smokers, and younger smokers had considerably higher rates than older smokers. The majority of mentally ill smokers were not in contact with mental health services, but their rate of smoking was not different from that of mentally ill smokers who had accessed services for their mental health problem. Smokers with high levels of psychological distress smoked a higher average number of cigarettes per day. Conclusion Mental illness is associated with both higher rates of smoking and higher levels of smoking among

  7. Cost of treating mental illness from a managed care perspective.

    PubMed

    Docherty, J P

    1999-01-01

    The issue of cost-effectiveness in the pharmacoeconomics of mental illness is a new concept. As methodologies for exploring this subject unfold, the most fundamental objective for health care professionals and managed care officials is to find ways in which currently available resources can be used most effectively. The managed care perspective is highly cost-based within the market it serves. In addition to cost, other factors that influence the managed care perspective are a short-term focus, segmentation of budgets, and measurable indicators of outcome, cost, and quality of care. The cost of new psychopharmacology--especially antidepressants and antipsychotics--may be many times that of traditional drugs, and concern about increased drug costs is present in many managed care organizations. Several issues must be addressed to prevent restriction of pharmacotherapeutics in managed care settings. For example, a focus on both outcomes and practice guidelines is needed to help allocate limited resources fairly. This article suggests ways in which available resources can be used more effectively to treat mental illness within the present health care system. PMID:10073378

  8. A social/emotional theory of 'mental illness'.

    PubMed

    Scheff, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    One reason that theories of mental illness have made little progress may be their focus on individuals, omitting the social/relational and emotional world. Adding these components will be difficult, however: in modern societies they have become virtually invisible, particularly the emotion of shame. The theory outlined here is based on the work of Cooley, Elias, Lewis and Goffman: shame is both social and individual and, if anticipation is included, virtually omnipresent in modern societies. It is proposed that most symptoms of mental illness are products of shame and relational feedback loops: emotion and alienation can both spiral leading to further alienation and chaotic or hidden emotions. Almost everyone is especially ashamed of their shame. Being ashamed of one's shame and/or anger can spiral when not acknowledged. Under certain conditions, these spirals continue without limit, generating immense force for acting out symptoms or depression. To the extent that this theory is true, we would need to rename the field using non-medical terms, such as emotional/social dysfunction. PMID:22723517

  9. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Muhammad; Ghulam, Hamzah; Wajih Ullah, Muhammad; Zubair Tariq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI) Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences). Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents). Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8%) had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%). Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3%) considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4%) and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7%) to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1%) considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41%) respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05). Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can play a

  10. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Ahmed; Zubair, Muhammad; Ghulam, Hamzah; Wajih Ullah, Muhammad; Zubair Tariq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI) Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences). Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents). Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8%) had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%). Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3%) considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4%) and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7%) to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1%) considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41%) respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05). Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can play a

  11. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. March/April 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Deborah, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "SAMHSA News" is the national newsletter of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Published six times a year (bimonthly) by SAMHSA's Office of Communications, SAMHSA News contains information about the latest substance abuse and mental health treatment and prevention practices, recent statistics on mental health and…

  12. Reliability of reports of violent victimization and posttraumatic stress disorder among men and women with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Goodman, L A; Thompson, K M; Weinfurt, K; Corl, S; Acker, P; Mueser, K T; Rosenberg, S D

    1999-10-01

    Although violent victimization is highly prevalent among men and women with serious mental illness (SMI; e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder), future research in this area may be impeded by controversy concerning the ability of individuals with SMI to report traumatic events reliably. This article presents the results of a study exploring the temporal consistency of reports of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual abuse, and adult physical abuse, as well as current symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 50 people with SMI. Results show that trauma history and PTSD assessments can, for the most part, yield reliable information essential to further research in this area. The study also demonstrates the importance of using a variety of statistical methods to assess the reliability of self-reports of trauma history. PMID:10646178

  13. Vocational rehabilitation for people with severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Ruth; Marshall, Max; Bond, Gary R; Huxley, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Unemployment rates are high amongst people with severe mental illness, yet surveys show that most want to work. Vocational rehabilitation services exist to help mentally ill people find work. Traditionally, these services have offered a period of preparation (Pre-vocational Training), before trying to place clients in competitive (i.e. open) employment. More recently, some services have begun placing clients in competitive employment immediately whilst providing on-the-job support (Supported Employment). It is unclear which approach is most effective. Objectives To assess the effects of Pre-vocational Training and Supported Employment (for people with severe mental illness) against each other and against standard care (in hospital or community). In addition, to assess the effects of: (a) special varieties of Pre-vocational Training (Clubhouse model) and Supported Employment (Individual Placement and Support model); and (b) techniques for enhancing either approach, for example payment or psychological intervention. Search methods Searches were undertaken of CINAHL (1982-1998), The Cochrane Library (Issue 2, 1999), EMBASE (1980-1998), MEDLINE (1966-1998) and PsycLIT (1887-1998). Reference lists of eligible studies and reviews were inspected and researchers in the field were approached to identify unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of approaches to vocational rehabilitation for people with severe mental illness. Data collection and analysis Included trials were reliably selected by a team of two raters. Data were extracted separately by two reviewers and cross-checked. Authors of trials were contacted for additional information. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of homogeneous dichotomous data were calculated. A random effects model was used for heterogeneous dichotomous data. Continuous data were presented in tables (there were insufficient continuous data for formal meta-analysis). A sensitivity

  14. Tailored Treatment for HIV+ Persons with Mental Illness: The Intervention Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Michael; Eisenberg, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    The public health literature demonstrates disturbingly high HIV risk for persons with a serious mental illness (SMI), who are concurrently co-morbid for substance abuse (SA). Many HIV positives have not been tested, and therefore do not know their status, but for individuals who are triply diagnosed, adherence to HIV treatment results in meaningful reductions in viral loads and CD4 counts. Barriers to treatment compliance are reviewed, low threshold/low intensity community based interventions are discussed, and preliminary evidence is presented for the efficacy of the Intervention Cascade, defined as an integrated intervention delivered by specially trained nurses who individualize a treatment compliance intervention in real time as an adaptive response to demand characteristics of the individual. PMID:23673886

  15. Exposure to child abuse and risk for mental health problems in women.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Renee; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Risk for adult mental health problems associated with child sexual, physical, or emotional abuse and multiple types of child abuse was examined. Logistic regression analyses were used to test study hypotheses in a population-based sample of women (N = 3,936). As expected, child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse were independently associated with increased risk for mental health problems. History of multiple types of child abuse was also associated with elevated risk for mental health problems. In particular, exposure to all three types of child abuse was linked to a 23-fold increase in risk for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Findings underscore relations between child emotional abuse and adult mental health problems and highlight the need for mental health services for survivors of multiple types of child abuse. PMID:18064973

  16. Law & psychiatry: Gun laws and mental illness: how sensible are the current restrictions?

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Paul S; Swanson, Jeffrey W

    2010-07-01

    This column describes federal and state laws to restrict access to firearms among people with mental illness. The contribution to public safety of these laws is likely to be small because only 3%-5% of violent acts are attributable to serious mental illness, and most do not involve guns. The categories of persons with mental illnesses targeted by the laws may not be at higher risk of violence than other subgroups in this population. The laws may deter people from seeking treatment for fear of losing the right to possess firearms and may reinforce stereotypes of persons with mental illnesses as dangerous. PMID:20591996

  17. Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jeffrey W.; McGinty, E. Elizabeth; Fazel, Seena; Mays, Vickie M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders. Methods Research concerning public attitudes toward persons with mental illness is reviewed and juxtaposed with evidence from benchmark epidemiologic and clinical studies of violence and mental illness and of the accuracy of psychiatrists' risk assessments. Selected policies and laws designed to reduce gun violence in relation to mental illness are critically evaluated; evidence-based policy recommendations are presented. Results Media accounts of mass shootings by disturbed individuals galvanize public attention and reinforce popular belief that mental illness often results in violence. Epidemiologic studies show that the large majority of people with serious mental illnesses are never violent. However, mental illness is strongly associated with increased risk of suicide, which accounts for over half of US firearms–related fatalities. Conclusions Policymaking at the interface of gun violence prevention and mental illness should be based on epidemiologic data concerning risk to improve the effectiveness, feasibility, and fairness of policy initiatives. PMID:24861430

  18. Research with the mentally retarded and mentally ill: rights and duties versus compelling state interest.

    PubMed

    Davis, A J; Mahon, K A

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines the assumptions underlying the ethical reasoning involved when the natural right to informed consent has been violated. Ramifications of the compelling need of the state to protect society by overriding the rights of individual freedom receive special attention. Specifically these issues are addressed: natural rights versus state's rights to preserve rights, state's rights versus parental autonomy, rights and duties versus paternalism, self interest and self survival versus the common good, coercion versus progress in research, and benefit versus cost. Building on these ethical considerations, the authors present a theoretical framework for ethical decision making with research involving the mentally retarded and the mentally ill. PMID:6561212

  19. Computational Psychiatry: towards a mathematically informed understanding of mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Huys, Quentin J M; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Computational Psychiatry aims to describe the relationship between the brain's neurobiology, its environment and mental symptoms in computational terms. In so doing, it may improve psychiatric classification and the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. It can unite many levels of description in a mechanistic and rigorous fashion, while avoiding biological reductionism and artificial categorisation. We describe how computational models of cognition can infer the current state of the environment and weigh up future actions, and how these models provide new perspectives on two example disorders, depression and schizophrenia. Reinforcement learning describes how the brain can choose and value courses of actions according to their long-term future value. Some depressive symptoms may result from aberrant valuations, which could arise from prior beliefs about the loss of agency (‘helplessness’), or from an inability to inhibit the mental exploration of aversive events. Predictive coding explains how the brain might perform Bayesian inference about the state of its environment by combining sensory data with prior beliefs, each weighted according to their certainty (or precision). Several cortical abnormalities in schizophrenia might reduce precision at higher levels of the inferential hierarchy, biasing inference towards sensory data and away from prior beliefs. We discuss whether striatal hyperdopaminergia might have an adaptive function in this context, and also how reinforcement learning and incentive salience models may shed light on the disorder. Finally, we review some of Computational Psychiatry's applications to neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, and some pitfalls to avoid when applying its methods. PMID:26157034

  20. Concept analysis of recovery in mental illness in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    McCauley, C O; McKenna, H P; Keeney, S; McLaughlin, D F

    2015-10-01

    Recovery, as a concept, emerged as a core philosophy of the service user movement that began in the late 1960s and 1970s. Previous reviews on recovery in mental health have presented definitions or a conceptual framework; however, over time it has been open to disparate interpretations. The aim of this paper was to conduct the first concept analysis of mental health recovery in young adulthood within various multidisciplinary contexts. Rodgers's (2000) six-stepped evolutionary method enabled the analysis of recovery's conceptual characteristics, the identification of an exemplar and the proposition of a hypothesis with implications for practice. This analysis has revealed the derivation of the term recovery does not convey its identified conceptual characteristics. Identified attributes include the reawakening of hope, reclaiming a positive self and meaning through personal growth. Antecedents include the disruption of illness, stigmatization, internal inventory and contemplative recovery. Identified consequences include the return to normality, reconstruction of self and active social connection. The new conceptual definition is the reawakening of hope and rediscovery of a positive sense of self through finding meaning and purpose within personal growth and connection using creative self-care coping strategies. This paper reveals an apparent disparity between professional and personal interpretations of recovery. Therefore, the implication for mental health nursing is the congruence of recovery-orientated practice with the process of recovery experienced by young adult service users. PMID:26148795

  1. Computational Psychiatry: towards a mathematically informed understanding of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rick A; Huys, Quentin J M; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Computational Psychiatry aims to describe the relationship between the brain's neurobiology, its environment and mental symptoms in computational terms. In so doing, it may improve psychiatric classification and the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. It can unite many levels of description in a mechanistic and rigorous fashion, while avoiding biological reductionism and artificial categorisation. We describe how computational models of cognition can infer the current state of the environment and weigh up future actions, and how these models provide new perspectives on two example disorders, depression and schizophrenia. Reinforcement learning describes how the brain can choose and value courses of actions according to their long-term future value. Some depressive symptoms may result from aberrant valuations, which could arise from prior beliefs about the loss of agency ('helplessness'), or from an inability to inhibit the mental exploration of aversive events. Predictive coding explains how the brain might perform Bayesian inference about the state of its environment by combining sensory data with prior beliefs, each weighted according to their certainty (or precision). Several cortical abnormalities in schizophrenia might reduce precision at higher levels of the inferential hierarchy, biasing inference towards sensory data and away from prior beliefs. We discuss whether striatal hyperdopaminergia might have an adaptive function in this context, and also how reinforcement learning and incentive salience models may shed light on the disorder. Finally, we review some of Computational Psychiatry's applications to neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, and some pitfalls to avoid when applying its methods. PMID:26157034

  2. Associations between mental health, substance use, and sexual abuse experiences among Latinas.

    PubMed

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Ulloa, Emilio C; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18-34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897

  3. Conceptions of Mental Illness: Attitudes of Mental Health Professionals and the General Public

    PubMed Central

    Stuber, Jennifer P.; Rocha, Anita; Christian, Ann; Link, Bruce G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The authors compared attitudes of the U.S. general public and of mental health professionals about the competence and perceived dangerousness of people with mental health problems and the desire for social distance from them. Factors related to negative attitudes and the desire for social distance also were examined. Methods Vignettes describing individuals meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression and schizophrenia were included in the 2006 General Social Survey (GSS) and a 2009 study of mental health professionals, and responses were descriptively compared (GSS, N=397 responses to depression vignette, N=373 responses to schizophrenia vignette; 731 mental health professionals responded to both vignettes). Regression analyses examined whether demographic and provider characteristics were associated with perceptions of less competence and perceived dangerousness of the vignette character and with respondents’ desire for social distance. Results Compared with the American public, mental health professionals had significantly more positive attitudes toward people with mental health problems. However, some providers’ conceptions about the dangerousness of people with schizophrenia and provider desire for social distance from clients in work and personal situations were concerning. Younger age, self-identifying as non-Hispanic white, being female, having at least a four-year college degree, being familiar with mental illness, and certain job titles and more years of experience in the mental health field were predictive of more positive conceptions. Conclusions Although mental health professionals held more positive attitudes than the general public about people with mental health problems, strong stereotypes persisted in both groups, especially concerning schizophrenia. This study identified several demographic and provider characteristics that can inform intervention strategies in both groups. PMID:24430508

  4. Beyond attributions: Understanding public stigma of mental illness with the common sense model.

    PubMed

    Mak, Winnie W S; Chong, Eddie S K; Wong, Celia C Y

    2014-03-01

    The present study applied the common sense model (i.e., cause, controllability, timeline, consequences, and illness coherence) to understand public attitudes toward mental illness and help-seeking intention and to examine the mediating role of perceived controllability between causal attributions with public attitudes and help seeking. Based on a randomized household sample of 941 Chinese community adults in Hong Kong, results of the structural equation modeling demonstrated that people who endorsed cultural lay beliefs tended to perceive the course of mental illness as less controllable, whereas those with psychosocial attributions see its course as more controllable. The more people perceived the course of mental illness as less controllable, more chronic, and incomprehensible, the lower was their acceptance and the greater was mental illness stigma. Furthermore, those who perceived mental illness with dire consequences were more likely to feel greater stigma and social distance. Conversely, when people were more accepting, they were more likely to seek help for psychological services and felt a shorter social distance. The common sense model provides a multidimensional framework in understanding public's mental illness perceptions and stigma. Not only should biopsychosocial determinants of mental illness be advocated to the public, cultural myths toward mental illness must be debunked. PMID:24826933

  5. Children's conceptions of mental illness: a naïve theory approach.

    PubMed

    Fox, Claudine; Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn

    2010-09-01

    This paper reports two studies that investigated children's conceptions of mental illness using a naïve theory approach, drawing upon a conceptual framework for analysing illness representations which distinguishes between the identity, causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of an illness. The studies utilized semi-structured interviewing and card selection tasks to assess 6- to 11-year-old children's conceptions of the causes and consequences (Study 1) and the curability and timeline (Study 2) of different mental and physical illnesses/ailments. The studies revealed that, at all ages, the children held coherent causal-explanatory ideas about the causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of both mental and physical illnesses/ailments. However, while younger children tended to rely on their knowledge of common physical illnesses when thinking about mental illnesses, providing contagion and contamination explanations of cause, older children demonstrated differences in their thinking about mental and physical illnesses. No substantial gender differences were found in the children's thinking. It is argued that children hold coherent conceptions of mental illness at all ages, but that mental illness only emerges as an ontologically distinct conceptual domain by the end of middle childhood. PMID:20849036

  6. Mental health problems and medically unexplained physical symptoms in adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Nelson, S; Baldwin, N; Taylor, J

    2012-04-01

    People sexually abused in childhood are at higher risk than non-abused people of medically unexplained symptoms such as irritable bowel syndrome or chronic pain, with mental ill health and high healthcare use. Friction and frustration, with high, unproductive healthcare costs, can often develop between these patients and health-care professionals such as general practitioners and nursing staff. The aim of this integrative literature review was to seek a sound evidence base from which to develop helpful interventions, improve relationships and identify gaps in knowledge. It found some theories about interconnections among childhood sexual abuse mental health and medically unexplained symptoms, such as 'somatization' or 'secondary gain', were used prejudicially, stigmatizing survivors. Conflicting theories make more difficult the search for effective interventions. Researchers rarely collaborated with sexual abuse specialists. Emphasis on identifying key risk factors, rather than providing support or alleviating distress, and lack of studies where survivors voiced their own experiences, meant very few targeted interventions for this group were proposed. Recommendations to enable effective interventions include making abuse survivors the prime study focus; qualitative research with survivors, to assist doctors and nursing staff with sensitive care; case histories using medical records; prospective studies with sexually abused children; support for the growing field of neurobiological research. PMID:22070785

  7. Food Insecurity among Homeless Adults with Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Parpouchi, Milad; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Russolillo, Angela; Somers, Julian M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of food insecurity and food insufficiency is high among homeless people. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of food insecurity among a cohort of homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Methods Data collected from baseline questionnaires in the Vancouver At Home study were analysed to calculate the prevalence of food insecurity within the sample (n = 421). A modified version of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Adult Food Security Survey Module was used to ascertain food insecurity. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine potential correlates of food insecurity. Results The prevalence of food insecurity was 64%. In the multivariable model, food insecurity was significantly associated with age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95–0.99), less than high school completion (aOR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.35–0.93), needing health care but not receiving it (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.00–2.72), subjective mental health (aOR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.96–0.99), having spent over $500 for drugs and alcohol in the past month (aOR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.16–4.36), HIV/AIDS (aOR = 4.20; 95% CI: 1.36–12.96), heart disease (aOR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.16–0.97) and having gone to a drop-in centre, community meal centre or program/food bank (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.01–2.68). Conclusions The prevalence of food insecurity was extremely high in a cohort with longstanding homelessness and serious mental illness. Younger age, needing health care but not receiving it, poorer subjective mental health, having spent over $500 for drugs and alcohol in the past month, HIV/AIDS and having gone to a drop-in centre, community meal centre or program/food bank each increased odds of food insecurity, while less than high school completion and heart disease each decreased odds of food insecurity. Interventions to reduce food insecurity in this population are urgently needed. PMID:27437937

  8. The effects of news stories on the stigma of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Michaels, Patrick J

    2013-03-01

    The media are often identified as partially responsible for increasing the stigma of mental illness through their negatively focused representations. For many years, training programs have educated journalists on how to report on mental illness to reduce stigma. This purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits of reading a positive, neutral or a negative journalism article that discusses mental illness. Consenting adult participants were randomly assigned to read one of three published articles about recovery from mental illness, a dysfunctional public mental health system, or dental hygiene. The participants completed measures immediately before and after the intervention; the measures administered evaluated stigmatizing and affirming attitudes toward people with mental illness. Public stigma was assessed using the nine-item Attribution Questionnaire and the Stigma Through Knowledge Test (STKT). The STKT is a measure of mental illness stigma less susceptible to the impact of social desirability. Affirming attitudes represent public perceptions about recovery, empowerment, and self-determination, indicated as important to accepting and including people with psychiatric disabilities into society. Significant differences were observed between the articles on recovery and dysfunctional public mental health system, as well as the control condition, on the measures of stigma and affirming attitudes. The recovery article reduced stigma and increased affirming attitudes, whereas the dysfunctional public mental health system article increased stigma and decreased affirming attitudes. Not all journalistic stories have positive effects on attitudes about mental illness. PMID:23407209

  9. Commercialisation of Biomarker Tests for Mental Illnesses: Advances and Obstacles.

    PubMed

    Chan, Man K; Cooper, Jason D; Bahn, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    Substantial strides have been made in the field of biomarker research for mental illnesses over the past few decades. However, no US FDA-cleared blood-based biomarker tests have been translated into routine clinical practice. Here, we review the challenges associated with commercialisation of research findings and discuss how these challenges can impede scientific impact and progress. Overall evidence indicates that a lack of research funding and poor reproducibility of findings were the most important obstacles to commercialization of biomarker tests. Fraud, pre-analytical and analytical limitations, and inappropriate statistical analysis are major contributors to poor reproducibility. Increasingly, these issues are acknowledged and actions are being taken to improve data validity, raising the hope that robust biomarker tests will become available in the foreseeable future. PMID:26549771

  10. Guns, Mental Illness, and the Law: Introduction to This Issue.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Felthous, Alan R

    2015-06-01

    Firearm violence is a top-tier public health problem in the U.S., killing 33,563 and injuring an additional 81,396 people in 2012 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, ). Given constitutional protection and the cultural entrenchment of private gun ownership in the U.S., it is likely that guns will remain widely accessible--and largely unrestricted--for the foreseeable future. Therefore, most policies and laws intended to reduce firearm violence focus selectively on preventing "dangerous people" from having access to guns. That is a formidable challenge. How do we think productively about guns and mental illness in this context, and about the role of law in lessening the toll of gun violence? PMID:25874748

  11. Gender-Atypical Mental Illness as Male Gender Threat.

    PubMed

    Michniewicz, Kenneth S; Bosson, Jennifer K; Lenes, Joshua G; Chen, Jason I

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined whether men view gender-atypical (i.e., feminine) psychological disorders as threats to their gender status. Men and women (N = 355) rated their expectations of gender status loss, feelings of distress, and help-seeking intentions in response to 10 different stereotypically masculine and feminine psychological disorders. Men as compared to women expected greater gender status loss for, and reported more distress to, gender-atypical versus gender-typical disorders. Expectations of gender status loss partially mediated the link between participant gender and distress at the thought of gender-atypical disorders. These findings suggest that feminine disorders pose more powerful gender status threats for men than masculine disorders do and that men's expectations of gender status loss for feminine disorders drive their negative reactions to these mental illnesses. The discussion emphasizes the importance of considering the gender-typicality of disorders, and the implications of these findings for clinical interventions. PMID:25595020

  12. The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gelkopf, Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation. PMID:19687190

  13. Narrative processing of entertainment media and mental illness stigma.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Nicole Mossing; Rouner, Donna

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the narrative effects of familiarity, transportation, whether a story is factual or fiction, and perceived realism on the stigmatizing behavior of social distancing behavior. A sample of N = 137 participants watched a commercial movie about mental illness. Genre was manipulated to determine whether fiction or nonfiction impacted social distancing behavior. Although there was no effect of the genre manipulation, transportation was found to have a relationship with social distancing, with the more relevant the participants found the story, the lower they demonstrated social distancing behavior. How much participants identified with the main character was found to have a partial mediating effect between perceived story relevance and social distancing behavior. PMID:21516556

  14. Medieval and early modern theories of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, R

    1979-04-01

    Historians of medieval and early modern psychiatry have utilized limited source materials in their research. They have focused on printed works, particularly formal treatises by celebrated authors, and neglected manuscript collections. The resulting histories depict early European psychiatric thought as dominated by demonology. Examination of the archives of an early English legal incompetency jurisdiction flatly contradicts this picture. Starting in the 13th century, the English government conducted mental status examinations of psychiatrically disabled individuals, using commonsense, naturalistic criteria of impairment; private, supervised guardians were appointed for such persons. Furthermore, etiological theories entertained by royal officials and laymen relied on physiological and psychological notions of psychiatric illness. These findings raise serious questions about conventional accounts of this period and underline the need for more research using original manuscripts. PMID:371576

  15. Speech deficits in serious mental illness: a cognitive resource issue?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alex S; McGovern, Jessica E; Dinzeo, Thomas J; Covington, Michael A

    2014-12-01

    Speech deficits, notably those involved in psychomotor retardation, blunted affect, alogia and poverty of content of speech, are pronounced in a wide range of serious mental illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia, unipolar depression, bipolar disorders). The present project evaluated the degree to which these deficits manifest as a function of cognitive resource limitations. We examined natural speech from 52 patients meeting criteria for serious mental illnesses (i.e., severe functional deficits with a concomitant diagnosis of schizophrenia, unipolar and/or bipolar affective disorders) and 30 non-psychiatric controls using a range of objective, computer-based measures tapping speech production ("alogia"), variability ("blunted vocal affect") and content ("poverty of content of speech"). Subjects produced natural speech during a baseline condition and while engaging in an experimentally-manipulated cognitively-effortful task. For correlational analysis, cognitive ability was measured using a standardized battery. Generally speaking, speech deficits did not differ as a function of SMI diagnosis. However, every speech production and content measure was significantly abnormal in SMI versus control groups. Speech variability measures generally did not differ between groups. For both patients and controls as a group, speech during the cognitively-effortful task was sparser and less rich in content. Relative to controls, patients were abnormal under cognitive load with respect only to average pause length. Correlations between the speech variables and cognitive ability were only significant for this same variable: average pause length. Results suggest that certain speech deficits, notably involving pause length, may manifest as a function of cognitive resource limitations. Implications for treatment, research and assessment are discussed. PMID:25464920

  16. Speech Deficits in Serious mental Illness: A Cognitive Resource Issue?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alex S.; McGovern, Jessica E.; Dinzeo, Thomas J.; Covington, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Speech deficits, notably those involved in psychomotor retardation, blunted affect, alogia and poverty of content of speech, are pronounced in a wide range of serious mental illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia, unipolar depression, bipolar disorders). The present project evaluated the degree to which these deficits manifest as a function of cognitive resource limitations. We examined natural speech from 52 patients meeting criteria for serious mental illnesses (i.e., severe functional deficits with a concomitant diagnosis of schizophrenia, unipolar and/or bipolar affective disorders) and 30 non-psychiatric controls using a range of objective, computer-based measures tapping speech production (“alogia”), variability (“blunted vocal affect”) and content (“poverty of content of speech”). Subjects produced natural speech during a baseline condition and while engaging in an experimentally-manipulated cognitively-effortful task. For correlational analysis, cognitive ability was measured using a standardized battery. Generally speaking, speech deficits did not differ as a function of SMI diagnosis. However, every speech production and content measure was significantly abnormal in SMI versus control groups. Speech variability measures generally did not differ between groups. For both patients and controls as a group, speech during the cognitively-effortful task was sparser and less rich in content. Relative to controls, patients were abnormal under cognitive load with respect only to average pause length. Correlations between the speech variables and cognitive ability were only significant for this same variable: average pause length. Results suggest that certain speech deficits, notably involving pause length, may manifest as a function of cognitive resource limitations. Implications for treatment, research and assessment are discussed. PMID:25464920

  17. Serious Mental Illness and Acute Hospital Readmission in Diabetic Patientsa

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Jennifer S.; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Goldberg, Richard; Langenberg, Patricia; Day, Hannah R.; Morgan, Daniel J.; Comer, Angela C.; Harris, Anthony D.; Furuno, Jon P.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with serious mental illness (SMI), particularly those with other chronic illnesses, may be vulnerable to unplanned hospital readmission. We hypothesized that SMI would be associated with increased 30-day hospital readmission in a cohort of adult patients with comorbid diabetes admitted to a tertiary-care facility from 2005–2009. SMI was defined by ICD-9 discharge diagnosis codes for schizophrenia, schizo-affective, bipolar, manic, or major depressive disorders, or other psychosis. The primary outcome was 30-day readmission to the index hospital. Among 26,878 eligible admissions, prevalence of SMI was 6% and incidence of 30-day hospital admission was 16%. Among patients aged <35 years, SMI was significantly associated with decreased odds of 30-day hospital readmission (OR 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.91). However, among patients ≥35 years, SMI was not significantly associated with 30-day hospital readmission (OR 1.11, 95%CI: 0.86, 1.42). SMI may not be associated with increased odds of 30-day hospital readmission in this population. PMID:22539798

  18. A comparative study of attitude to mental illness between journalists and nurses in Uyo, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abasiubong, F; Ekott, J U; Bassey, E A

    2007-12-01

    The pernicious attitudes to mental illness often result from ignorance and enduring sociocultural prejudices. The endless negative depiction of mentally ill persons by the society is responsible for poor mental health services and care, thus the increasing number of persons with mental illness roaming the streets in our environment. The objectives of the study were: First to assess the attitude of the Journalists to mental illness. Secondly to compare the journalists' attitudes with that of the Nurses. Two hundred and fifty Journalists in Uyo were randomly assessed for attitudes to mental illness, using Taylor and Dear Inventory of Community Attitude to mental illness. This was compared with Nurses from Health Centers in Uyo. Data from 210 (84.0%) Journalists and 154 (85.6%) Nurses were analyzed, 40 (16.0%) of Journalists and 26 (14.4%) of Nurses were excluded due to incomplete information. The mean age of the two groups was 39.4 +/- 8.3 and 34.4 +/- 7.6 years respectively. The difference in the mean was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Responses were similar in the two groups. Negative opinions were prevalent among the respondents in the region of over 70% among Journalist and 60% in Nurses in most cases. Except marrying people with mental illness, other responses were statistically significant. There is a widespread negative attitude to mental illness among Journalists and this is a reflection of the general population. The media is the primary source of public information. Therefore, accurate and positive portrayal of mental illness on both electronic and printing media may be necessary to sensitize the public so as to improve the negative cultural environment surrounding persons with mental illness. PMID:18564651

  19. Television Viewing Habits and Their Relationship to Tolerance toward People with Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granello, Darcy Haag; Pauley, Pamela S.

    2000-01-01

    Study investigates individuals who receive their information about mental illness primarily from. Results reveal that the amount of television watched per week was significantly and positively related to intolerance and that the type of show watched accounted for significant variance in measures of tolerance toward people with mental illness.…

  20. A Research Agenda Concerning Depictions of Mental Illness in Children's Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coverdale, John H.; Nairn, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To review research on depictions of mental illness in mass media directed to children and to identify requirements for further research in this important field. Methods: The authors identified published research on depictions of mental illness in children's media and the important strengths and weaknesses of such research. Results: Only…

  1. Maternal Mental Illness and the Safety and Stability of Maltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, Patricia L.; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Children of mothers with mental illness are at risk for multiple untoward outcomes, including child maltreatment and foster care placement. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the association between maternal mental illness and children's long term safety and stability. Methods: A multi-sector administrative dataset from the…

  2. Treatment of Persons with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Anna L. S.

    2012-01-01

    The number of mentally ill inmates in the criminal justice system has increased dramatically. This article evaluates the prevalence and causes of mental illness in the criminal justice system and describes the inadequate care that is provided, the effects of imprisonment, and the problem of rehabilitation. (Contains 4 notes.)

  3. Social and legal aspects of marriage in women with mental illness in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Tripathi, C. B.; Pathak, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    The institution of marriage in Hindus is regulated by the prevailing social norms and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955. Married women with mental illness are heavily discriminated. This paper examines the social and legal aspects of Hindu marriage in women with mental illness. The HMA, 1955 lays down the conditions for a Hindu marriage and also provides matrimonial reliefs: Nullity of marriage, restitution of conjugal rights, judicial separation and divorce. The application of the provisions of HMA in the setting mental illness is difficult and challenging. There is a wide gap between the legislative provisions of HMA, and societal value systems and attitudes towards marriage in Indian society. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legal provisions. The disparities are most glaring in the setting of mental illness in women. This is a reflection of social stigma for mental illness and patriarchal attitude towards women. Concerted efforts are needed to bridge the gap between the legislative provisions of HMA and societal value systems and attitudes toward marriage. Awareness programs regarding the nature and types of mental illness, advances in treatment and information about good outcome of severe mental illness will be helpful. Improvement in moral and religious values will overcome to some extent the negative attitudes and patriarchal mind set toward married women with mental illness. PMID:26330650

  4. Pathways for Homeless Mentally Ill People in Washington, D.C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockett, Kathleen H.

    The need for a more responsive service system for people who are both mentally ill and homeless is a salient concern in America today. Preliminary research was conducted to examine how homeless mentally ill persons are processed by the currently organized network of human services in the nation's capital. Data were gathered in the summer of 1985…

  5. Family Physician Support for a Family With a Mentally Ill Member.

    PubMed

    McBride, J LeBron

    2016-09-01

    Mentally ill family members can have a formidable impact on the families in which they reside. Family physicians can intervene in powerful ways when they are sensitive to those who are mentally ill and their families and can provide much needed compassionate support. PMID:27621163

  6. Work Experiences of People with Mental Illness in Malaysia: A Preliminary Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…

  7. Understanding Parental Grief as a Response to Mental Illness: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…

  8. 78 FR 28140 - Tentative Eligibility Determinations; Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Register on March 1, 2012 (77 FR 12522). We provided a 60-day comment period, which ended on April 30, 2012... Psychosis and Other Mental Illness AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This... Persian Gulf War veterans who developed a mental illness other than psychosis within 2 years after...

  9. Teaching Abnormal Psychology to Improve Attitudes toward Mental Illness and Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes…

  10. Effects of Culturally Relevant Psychoeducation for Korean American Families of Persons with Chronic Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sun-Kyung

    2004-01-01

    This study is to identify culturally relevant treatment methods and to assess the effects of family psychoeducational intervention for Korean Americans who had a family member with mental illness. 48 Korean Americans with children with mental illness were randomly assigned to either an experimental group program that provided culturally sensitive…

  11. Stigma Sentiments and Self-Meanings: Exploring the Modified Labeling Theory of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce "stigma sentiments" as a way to operationalize the cultural conceptions of the mentally ill. Stigma sentiments are the evaluation, potency, and activity (EPA) associated with the cultural category "a mentally ill person." We find consistent support for the validity of the evaluation and potency components as measures of these…

  12. Talking about Mental Illness: A Guide for Developing an Awareness Program for Youth. Teacher's Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This guide contains all of the information, support and tools teachers will need to implement "Talking about Mental Illness" in their classroom--an awareness program that has been proven to bring about positive change in students' knowledge and attitudes about mental illness. The program supports teachers in four essential ways: it outlines the…

  13. Unfinished Business: Student Perspectives on Disclosure of Mental Illness and Success in VET. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Annie; Street, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Of all the different types of disability, mental illness can be particularly disruptive to education and training outcomes. In this report, the authors explore the factors contributing to successful course completion for students with a mental illness. The authors especially focus on the role of disclosure and the reasons why students choose to…

  14. Reflections of Adults on Their School Experiences Growing up with a Severely Mentally Ill Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Marie A.

    2013-01-01

    More than five million children in the United States have a parent suffering from a severe mental illness and these children have specific experiences and needs, particularly in school. Children of mentally ill parents are at greater risk of being neglected and of developing psychological, social, emotional, and behavioral problems. They often…

  15. Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This bulletin issue contains five papers on the theme of adults with mental illness who are parents of very young children. "Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children" (John N. Constantino) offers the experience of a trainee in a combined residency in pediatrics and psychiatry, focusing on identification,…

  16. Impact of Parental Severe Mental Illness: Ethical and Clinical Issues for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegelhoff, Sarah F.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This article draws attention to the issue of parental severe mental illness and the ethical and clinical implications for counselors who work with this population. Parents with mental illness face a multitude of life challenges including, but not limited to, parenting difficulties, medication and hospitalization, custody and placement of their…

  17. Social and legal aspects of marriage in women with mental illness in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indira; Tripathi, C B; Pathak, Abhishek

    2015-07-01

    The institution of marriage in Hindus is regulated by the prevailing social norms and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955. Married women with mental illness are heavily discriminated. This paper examines the social and legal aspects of Hindu marriage in women with mental illness. The HMA, 1955 lays down the conditions for a Hindu marriage and also provides matrimonial reliefs: Nullity of marriage, restitution of conjugal rights, judicial separation and divorce. The application of the provisions of HMA in the setting mental illness is difficult and challenging. There is a wide gap between the legislative provisions of HMA, and societal value systems and attitudes towards marriage in Indian society. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legal provisions. The disparities are most glaring in the setting of mental illness in women. This is a reflection of social stigma for mental illness and patriarchal attitude towards women. Concerted efforts are needed to bridge the gap between the legislative provisions of HMA and societal value systems and attitudes toward marriage. Awareness programs regarding the nature and types of mental illness, advances in treatment and information about good outcome of severe mental illness will be helpful. Improvement in moral and religious values will overcome to some extent the negative attitudes and patriarchal mind set toward married women with mental illness. PMID:26330650

  18. Perceptions of Barriers to Employment, Coping Efficacy, and Career Search Efficacy in People with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbiere, Marc; Mercier, Celine; Lesage, Alain

    2004-01-01

    The Barriers to Employment and Coping Efficacy Scale (BECES) and the Career Search Efficacy Scale (CSES) were designed to assist people in their work integration process. The BECES was specifically developed for people with mental illness. Although the CSES was not specifically designed for people with mental illness, its items appear relevant for…

  19. How Mental Illness is Perceived by Iranian Medical Students: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Homayoun; Majdzadeh, Reza; Eftekhar-Ardebili, Hasan; Shabani, Amir; Davari-Ashtiani, Rozita

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to assess medical students' attitudes toward mental illness following a 4-week psychiatry clerkship. All fifth-year medical students from three academic centers in Tehran were asked to participate in the study. They completed the questionnaire on the last day of their 4-week psychiatry clerkship. A self-administered questionnaire was used to examine participants' Attitudes Toward Mental Illness (ATMI). One hundred and sixty eight students completed the questionnaires (88.9% response rate). In general, the students had favorable attitudes toward mental illness at the end of their clerkship, with mean (± SD) ATMI total score of 78.6 (± 8.1) (neutral score, 66.0). The students showed the most favorable opinion (95.2%) about Category 5 (stereotypic attitude toward people with mental illness) whilst they revealed the least favorable opinion (64.3%) regarding Category 1 (social relations with people affected by mental illness). In addition, the students thought that movies were on the top of influential media on shaping the attitudes toward mental illness. Overall, most of Iranian medical students had generally favorable attitudes toward people with mental illness at the end of their clerkship. Therefore, it may be expected next generation of medical doctors show more favorable attitude toward mental illness. PMID:23878611

  20. Prevalence of Criminal Thinking among State Prison Inmates with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, William H.; Duan, Naihua; Mandracchia, Jon T.; Murray, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of criminal thinking in mentally disordered offenders, incarcerated male (n = 265) and female (n = 149) offenders completed measures of psychiatric functioning and criminal thinking. Results indicated 92% of the participants were diagnosed with a serious mental illness, and mentally disordered offenders produced criminal thinking scores on the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) and Criminal Sentiments Scale-Modified (CSS-M) similar to that of non-mentally ill offenders. Collectively, results indicated the clinical presentation of mentally disordered offenders is similar to that of psychiatric patients and criminals. Implications are discussed with specific focus on the need for mental health professionals to treat co-occurring issues of mental illness and criminality in correctional mental health treatment programs. PMID:19551496

  1. Attitudes of Malaysian general hospital staff towards patients with mental illness and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The context of the study is the increased assessment and treatment of persons with mental illness in general hospital settings by general health staff, as the move away from mental hospitals gathers pace in low and middle income countries. The purpose of the study was to examine whether general attitudes of hospital staff towards persons with mental illness, and extent of mental health training and clinical experience, are associated with different attitudes and behaviours towards a patient with mental illness than towards a patients with a general health problem - diabetes. Methods General hospital health professionals in Malaysia were randomly allocated one of two vignettes, one describing a patient with mental illness and the other a patient with diabetes, and invited to complete a questionnaire examining attitudes and health care practices in relation to the case. The questionnaires completed by respondents included questions on demographics, training in mental health, exposure in clinical practice to people with mental illness, attitudes and expected health care behaviour towards the patient in the vignette, and a general questionnaire exploring negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Questionnaires with complete responses were received from 654 study participants. Results Stigmatising attitudes towards persons with mental illness were common. Those responding to the mental illness vignette (N = 356) gave significantly lower ratings on care and support and higher ratings on avoidance and negative stereotype expectations compared with those responding the diabetes vignette (N = 298). Conclusions Results support the view that, in the Malaysian setting, patients with mental illness may receive differential care from general hospital staff and that general stigmatising attitudes among professionals may influence their care practices. More direct measurement of clinician behaviours than able to be implemented through survey method is

  2. Walking the line: specialized and standard probation officer perspectives on supervising probationers with serious mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Epperson, Matthew W; Canada, Kelli; Thompson, Julian; Lurigio, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Specialized probation programs were developed to more effectively address the unique needs of probationers with serious mental illnesses. Probation officers are tasked with serving both law enforcement and rehabilitative functions, and officers play an important gatekeeper function in helping probationers with serious mental illnesses avoid long incarceration sentences. The purpose of this paper was to explore specialized and standard probation officers' work in supervising probationers with serious mental illnesses. Twenty-one probation officers (11 specialized and 10 standard) participated in semi-structured interviews. Qualitative analyses examined: 1 - beliefs on the relationship between mental illness and crime; 2 - purpose of specialized and standard probation units; and 3 - approaches to supervising probationers with serious mental illnesses. Implications for developing more effective probation supervision programs are discussed. PMID:24680641

  3. Newspaper coverage of mental illness in the UK, 1992-2008

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent years have seen a number of attempts to reduce the stigma related to mental illness; the media can play a significant role in perpetuating this stigma. This paper analyses trends in newspaper coverage of mental illness in the UK between 1992-2008 across a range of psychiatric diagnoses. Methods A content analysis was performed on a sample of articles (n = 1361) about mental illness in a range of UK newspapers in 1992, 2000, and 2008. Results There was a significant proportional reduction in negative articles about mental illness between 1992 and 2008, and a significant increase in articles explaining psychiatric disorders. Coverage improved for depression but remained largely negative for schizophrenia. Conclusions Newspaper coverage of mental illness became less stigmatising overall in the 1990s and 2000s, but this was not true for all diagnoses. PMID:21992410

  4. Advance treatment directives for people with severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Leslie Anne; Kisely, Steve R

    2014-01-01

    Background An advance directive is a document specifying a person’s preferences for treatment, should he or she lose capacity to make such decisions in the future. They have been used in end-of-life settings to direct care but should be well suited to the mental health setting. Objectives To examine the effects of advance treatment directives for people with severe mental illness. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s Register (February 2008), the Cochrane Library (Issue 1 2008), BIOSIS (1985 to February 2008), CINAHL (1982 to February 2008), EMBASE (1980 to February 2008), MEDLINE (1966 to February 2008), PsycINFO (1872 to February 2008), as well as SCISEARCH and Google - Internet search engine (February 2008). We inspected relevant references and contacted first authors of included studies. We updated this search on 17 May 2012 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs), involving adults with severe mental illness, comparing any form of advance directive with standard care for health service and clinical outcomes. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For homogenous dichotomous data we calculated fixed-effect relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) and their 95% confidence interval again using a fixed-effect model. Main results We were able to include two trials involving 321 people with severe mental illnesses. There was no significant difference in hospital admission (n=160, 1 RCT, RR 0.69 0.5 to 1.0), or number of psychiatric outpatient attendances between participants given advanced treatment directives or usual care. Similarly, no significant differences were found for compliance with treatment, self harm or number of arrests. Participants given advanced treatment directives needed less use of

  5. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems.

    PubMed

    Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob

    2014-02-01

    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses ("abuses") of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to "my" patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship. PMID:24497237

  6. Mental Health Nursing of Adults With Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Illness: A Review of Empirical Studies 1994-2013.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Trine Lise; Sageng, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Mental health nursing for adults with intellectual disabilities and mental illness is underresearched. The aim of this review is to summarize empirical mental health nursing studies including adults with intellectual disabilities and additional mental illness. Out of 137 hits, 16 articles were reviewed in full text. Thirteen of the articles presented modified nursing interventions. Three articles discussed training and education. The main finding is that mental health nursing interventions in patients with intellectual disabilities and additional mental illness are in line with mental health nursing for the general population. There are still not many publications on empirical studies concerning mental health nursing for adults with intellectual disabilities. Clinical implications are primarily related to the need for facilitated nurse-patient communication adjusted to the patients' cognitive levels. Insights drawn from this review illuminate the importance of mental health nursing interventions adjusting to the particular patients' symptoms, instead of targeting behavior change. The findings underpin factors found to have a positive impact on patients with mental illness in the general population as relevant topics for future research. PMID:26992884

  7. Creating a 'reverse' integrated primary and mental healthcare clinic for those with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Maragakis, Alexandros; Siddharthan, Ragavan; RachBeisel, Jill; Snipes, Cassandra

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) are more likely to experience preventable medical health issues, such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, than the general population. To further compound this issue, these individuals are less likely to seek preventative medical care. These factors result in higher usage of expensive emergency care, lower quality of care, and lower life expectancy. This manuscript presents literature that examines the health disparities this population experiences, and barriers to accessing primary care. Through the identification of these barriers, we recommend that the field of family medicine work in collaboration with the field of mental health to implement 'reverse' integrated care (RIC) systems, and provide primary care services in the mental health settings. By embedding primary care practitioners in mental health settings, where individuals with SMI are more likely to present for treatment, this population may receive treatment for somatic care by experts. This not only would improve the quality of care received by patients, but would also remove the burden of managing complex somatic care from providers trained in mental health. The rationale for this RIC system, as well as training and policy reforms, are discussed. PMID:26586369

  8. From the Sidelines to the Frontline: How the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Embraced Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Santhosh, Lekshmi; Meriwether, Margaret; Saucedo, Catherine; Reyes, Reason; Cheng, Christine; Clark, Brian; Tipperman, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is a major contributor to premature mortality among people with mental illness and substance abuse. Historically, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) did not include smoking cessation in its mission. We describe the development of a unique partnership between SAMHSA and the University of California, San Francisco’s Smoking Cessation Leadership Center. Starting with an educational summit in Virginia in 2007, it progressed to a jointly sponsored “100 Pioneers for Smoking Cessation” campaign that provided grants and technical assistance to organizations promoting cessation. By 2013, the partnership established 7 “Leadership Academies,” state-level multidisciplinary collaboratives of organizations focused on cessation. This academic–public partnership increased tobacco quit attempts, improved collaboration across multiple agencies, and raised awareness about tobacco use in vulnerable populations. PMID:24625143

  9. Provision of Mental Health Services in South African Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Bronwyn; Fakier, Nuraan

    2009-01-01

    To date, South African research has not examined mental health service provision in substance abuse treatment facilities, even though these services improve client retention and treatment outcomes. To describe the extent to which substance abuse treatment facilities in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provide clients with mental health services…

  10. 28 CFR 115.81 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.81 Section 115.81 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED... Care § 115.81 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the...

  11. 28 CFR 115.81 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.81 Section 115.81 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED... Care § 115.81 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the...

  12. 28 CFR 115.81 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.81 Section 115.81 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED... Care § 115.81 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the...

  13. 28 CFR 115.381 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.381 Section 115.381 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED... § 115.381 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the screening...

  14. 28 CFR 115.381 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.381 Section 115.381 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED... § 115.381 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the screening...

  15. 28 CFR 115.381 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.381 Section 115.381 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED... § 115.381 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the screening...

  16. Childhood Abuse and Mental Health Indicators among Ethnically Diverse Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Circo, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Prior research has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people experience higher rates of childhood abuse than heterosexuals. However, there has been little research on the mental health impact of these experiences or how race/ethnicity might influence prevalence and mental health impact of childhood abuse in this…

  17. Preexisting mental illness and risk for developing a new disorder after hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Greer; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Han, Xiaotong; Tharp, Andra Teten; Davis, Teri; Deitch, Elizabeth A; Constans, Joseph I

    2013-02-01

    To investigate predisaster mental illness as a risk factor of poor postdisaster mental health outcomes, veterans with (n = 249) and without (n = 250) preexisting mental illness residing in the Gulf Coast during Hurricane Katrina were surveyed after Katrina and screened for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic. Logistic regression examined the association between preexisting mental disorders and positive screens after the hurricane, adjusting for demographics and exposure to hurricane-related stressors. The odds of screening positive for any new mental disorder were 6.8 times greater for those with preexisting mental illness compared with those without preexisting mental illness. Among those with preexisting PTSD, the odds of screening positive for any new mental illness were 11.9 times greater; among those with schizophrenia, 9.1 times greater; and among those with affective disorders, 4.4 times greater. Persons with preexisting mental illnesses, particularly PTSD, should be considered a high-risk group for poor outcomes after a disaster. PMID:23364127

  18. Public Stigma of Mental Illness in the United States: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.

    2013-01-01

    Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public’s stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public’s stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental disorders and advance research in this area. Public stigma of mental illness in the U.S. was widespread. Findings can inform interventions to reduce the public’s stigma of mental illness. PMID:22833051

  19. Characteristics and Attitudes of Pre-Service Teachers toward Individuals with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey; Maag, John W.; Katsiyannis, Antonis

    2015-01-01

    Mental health in children and adults has always been a controversial topic, however, recent mass shootings in schools have heightened the concern of many and raise questions for how to interact with the mentally ill. Schools, have the capacity to be one of the key stakeholders in delivering services to students with mental health concerns,…

  20. The experience of abuse and mental health in the young Thai population

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Martin; Harpham, Trudy

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of child abuse exposure among Thai people in a suburban community and to describe the association of abuse experiences with common mental disorders (CMD), alcohol use disorders and substance use. Methods A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Northern Bangkok on a representative sample of 202 young residents, aged 16–25 years. Results Thirty eight percent of the respondents reported experiencing some form of abuse during childhood, with 5.8% having been subjected to sexual penetration, 11.7% having been physically abused and 31.8% emotionally abused. A graded relationship was found between the extent of exposure to abuse during childhood and mental problems. After controlling for potential confounders, CMD remained significantly associated with emotional abuse, and alcohol use disorders remained associated with sexual abuse. Strong but non-significant trends were present for associations between CMD and sexual abuse and all forms of abuse with substance use. Conclusion Child abuse experiences were common among the respondents. Childhood abuse, particularly sexual abuse, has a potentially devastating impact on adult mental health. PMID:16328752

  1. Fundamental Causes of Housing Loss among Persons Diagnosed with Serious and Persistent Mental Illness: A Theoretically Guided Test

    PubMed Central

    Schutt, Russell K.; Goldfinger, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research on housing loss among severely mentally ill persons who have been placed in housing after being homeless has been largely atheoretical and has yielded inconsistent results. We develop a theory of housing loss based on identifying fundamental causes—problems in motives, means and social situation—and test these influences in a longitudinal, randomized comparison of housing alternatives. As hypothesized, individuals were more likely to lose housing if they had a history of alcohol or drug abuse, desired strongly to live independently contrary to clinician recommendations, or were African Americans placed in independent housing. Deficits in daily functioning did not explain these influences, but contributed to risk of housing loss. Our results demonstrate the importance of substance abuse, the value of distinguishing support preferences from support needs, and the necessity of explaining effects of race within a social context and thus should help to improve comparative research. PMID:20161654

  2. [Attachment Quality of Young Children with Mentally Ill Parents on the Example of the Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ramberg, Axel; Feldkötter, Sinja

    2015-01-01

    One of the most discussed questions in clinical literature concerns the impact of child abuse by mentally ill parents (cf. Mattejat, 1998). It's obvious that most children cannot understand such a parental behaviour and that this lack of understanding along with the lack of knowledge about their parents' emotional disorder results in childrens' fear, disorientation and uncertainty. The consequences are massive interferences in the relationship between parents and children, who could develop an anxious-resistant insecure or even a disorganized/disoriented attachment. But how does a child react, if the behaviour of its parents is ambivalent itself and alternates from abuse to care? Such a parental behaviour is described as the "Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome". This article regards the effects of a "Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome" on the childrens' attachment development. After discussing the basic assumptions about the "Munchhauen by Proxy Syndrome" and the attachment theory we draw conclusions about the syndrome's effect on childrens' attachment behaviour. PMID:26509970

  3. Disseminating Evidence-Based Practices for Adults with PTSD and Severe Mental Illness in Public-Sector Mental Health Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frueh, B. Christopher; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Cusack, Karen J.; Elhai, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains largely untreated among adults with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The treatment of psychotic symptoms usually takes precedence in the care of adults with SMI. Such oversight is problematic in that PTSD in SMI populations is common (19%-43%), contributes a significant illness burden, and hinders mental…

  4. Attitudes of Jordanian Nursing Students towards Mental Illness: The Effect of Teaching and Contact on Attitudes Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamaideh, Shaher H.; Mudallal, Rola

    2009-01-01

    Purposes: Attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental illness influence the treatment they receive and decisions of policy makers. The purposes of this study were to assess Jordanian nursing students' attitudes towards mental illness, and to assess the effectiveness of teaching and contact on changing nursing students' attitudes about…

  5. Trends In News Media Coverage Of Mental Illness In The United States: 1995–2014

    PubMed Central

    McGinty, Emma E.; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Choksy, Seema; Barry, Colleen L.

    2016-01-01

    The United States is engaged in ongoing dialogue around mental illness. To assess trends in this national discourse, we studied the volume and content of a random sample of 400 news stories about mental illness from the period 1995–2014. Compared to news stories in the first decade of the study period, those in the second decade were more likely to mention mass shootings by people with mental illnesses. The most frequently mentioned topic across the study period was violence (55 percent overall) divided into categories of interpersonal violence or self-directed (suicide) violence, followed by stories about any type of treatment for mental illness (47 percent). Fewer news stories, only 14 percent, described successful treatment for or recovery from mental illness. The news media’s continued emphasis on interpersonal violence is highly disproportionate to actual rates of violence among those with mental illnesses. Research suggests that this focus may exacerbate social stigma and decrease support for public policies that benefit people with mental illnesses. PMID:27269031

  6. Trends In News Media Coverage Of Mental Illness In The United States: 1995-2014.

    PubMed

    McGinty, Emma E; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Choksy, Seema; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-06-01

    The United States is engaged in ongoing dialogue around mental illness. To assess trends in this national discourse, we studied the volume and content of a random sample of 400 news stories about mental illness from the period 1995-2014. Compared to news stories in the first decade of the study period, those in the second decade were more likely to mention mass shootings by people with mental illnesses. The most frequently mentioned topic across the study period was violence (55 percent overall) divided into categories of interpersonal violence or self-directed (suicide) violence, followed by stories about any type of treatment for mental illness (47 percent). Fewer news stories, only 14 percent, described successful treatment for or recovery from mental illness. The news media's continued emphasis on interpersonal violence is highly disproportionate to actual rates of violence among those with mental illnesses. Research suggests that this focus may exacerbate social stigma and decrease support for public policies that benefit people with mental illnesses. PMID:27269031

  7. Effectiveness of an intervention for reducing social stigma towards mental illness in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Vila-Badia, Regina; Martínez-Zambrano, Francisco; Arenas, Otilia; Casas-Anguera, Emma; García-Morales, Esther; Villellas, Raúl; Martín, José Ramón; Pérez-Franco, María Belén; Valduciel, Tamara; Casellas, Diana; García-Franco, Mar; Miguel, Jose; Balsera, Joaquim; Pascual, Gemma; Julia, Eugènia; Ochoa, Susana

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention for reducing social stigma towards mental illness in adolescents. The effect of gender and knowledge of someone with mental illness was measured. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty secondary school students were evaluated using the Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness (CAMI) questionnaire. The schools were randomized and some received the intervention and others acted as the control group. The programme consisted of providing information via a documentary film and of contact with healthcare staff in order to reduce the social stigma within the school environment. RESULTS: The intervention was effective in reducing the CAMI authoritarianism and social restrictiveness subscales. The intervention showed significant changes in girls in terms of authoritarianism and social restrictiveness, while boys only showed significant changes in authoritarianism. Following the intervention, a significant reduction was found in authoritarianism and social restrictiveness in those who knew someone with mental illness, and only in authoritarianism in those who did not know anyone with mental illness. CONCLUSION: The intervention was effective to reduce social stigma towards people with mental illness, especially in the area of authoritarianism. Some differences were found depending on gender and whether or not the subjects knew someone with mental illness. PMID:27354967

  8. A New Outlook on Mental Illnesses: Glial Involvement Beyond the Glue

    PubMed Central

    Elsayed, Maha; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    Mental illnesses have long been perceived as the exclusive consequence of abnormalities in neuronal functioning. Until recently, the role of glial cells in the pathophysiology of mental diseases has largely been overlooked. However recently, multiple lines of evidence suggest more diverse and significant functions of glia with behavior-altering effects. The newly ascribed roles of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia have led to their examination in brain pathology and mental illnesses. Indeed, abnormalities in glial function, structure and density have been observed in postmortem brain studies of subjects diagnosed with mental illnesses. In this review, we discuss the newly identified functions of glia and highlight the findings of glial abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. We discuss these preclinical and clinical findings implicating the involvement of glial cells in mental illnesses with the perspective that these cells may represent a new target for treatment. PMID:26733803

  9. Gender-Specific Research on Mental Illness in the Emergency Department: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Ranney, Megan L.; Locci, Natalie; Adams, Erica J.; Betz, Marian; Burmeister, David B.; Corbin, Ted; Dalawari, Preeti; Jacoby, Jeanne L.; Linden, Judith; Purtle, Jonathan; North, Carol; Houry, Debra E.

    2014-01-01

    Mental illness is a growing, and largely unaddressed, problem for the population and for emergency department (ED) patients in particular. Extensive literature outlines sex and gender differences in mental illness’ epidemiology and risk and protective factors. Few studies, however, examined sex and gender differences in screening, diagnosis, and management of mental illness in the ED setting. Our consensus group used the nominal group technique to outline major gaps in knowledge and research priorities for these areas, including the influence of violence and other risk factors on the course of mental illness for ED patients. Our consensus group urges the pursuit of this research in general, and conscious use of a gender lens when conducting, analyzing, and authoring future ED-based investigations of mental illness. PMID:25413369

  10. "I'm Not Mentally Ill": Identity Deflection as a Form of Stigma Resistance.

    PubMed

    Thoits, Peggy A

    2016-06-01

    Mental illness identity deflection refers to rebuffing the idea that one is mentally ill. Predictors of identity deflection and its consequences for well-being were examined for individuals with mental disorders in the National Comorbidity Study-Replication (N = 1,368). Respondents more often deflected a mental illness identity if they had a nonsevere disorder, had low impairment in functioning, had no treatment experience, viewed possible treatment as undesirable, and held multiple social roles, consistent with theory about stigma resistance. Persons who deflected a mental illness identity had lower distress and more positive affect than those who accepted it, even net of disorder severity, impairment level, and treatment experience. Among those who had ever been in treatment, deflection buffered the negative effects of serious impairment but exacerbated the effects of having a severe disorder on well-being, suggesting more complex consequences of formal labeling (greater stigma but helpful services), consistent with previous research. PMID:27284073

  11. Obesity and Serious Mental Ill Health: A Critical Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Tim; Mairs, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who experience serious mental ill health such as schizophrenia are more likely to be overweight or obese than others in the general population. This high prevalence of obesity and other associated metabolic disturbances, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, contribute to a reduced life expectancy of up to 25 years. Several reasons have been proposed for high levels of obesity including a shared biological vulnerability between serious mental ill health and abnormal metabolic processes, potentially compounded by unhealthy lifestyles. However, emerging evidence suggests that the most significant cause of weight gain is the metabolic side effects of antipsychotic medication, usual treatment for people with serious mental ill health. In this paper we review the prevalence of obesity in people with serious mental ill health, explore the contribution that antipsychotic medication may make to weight gain and discuss the implications of this data for future research and the practice of mental health and other professionals.

  12. Setting the stage for chronic health problems: cumulative childhood adversity among homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well documented that childhood abuse, neglect and household dysfunction are disproportionately present in the backgrounds of homeless adults, and that these experiences adversely impact child development and a wide range of adult outcomes. However, few studies have examined the cumulative impact of adverse childhood experiences on homeless adults with mental illness. This study examines adverse events in childhood as predictors of duration of homelessness, psychiatric and substance use disorders, and physical health in a sample of homeless adults with mental illness. Methods This study was conducted using baseline data from a randomized controlled trial in Vancouver, British Columbia for participants who completed the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale at 18 months follow-up (n = 364). Primary outcomes included current mental disorders; substance use including type, frequency and severity; physical health; duration of homelessness; and vocational functioning. Results In multivariable regression models, ACE total score independently predicted a range of mental health, physical health, and substance use problems, and marginally predicted duration of homelessness. Conclusions Adverse childhood experiences are overrepresented among homeless adults with complex comorbidities and chronic homelessness. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of literature indicating that childhood traumas are potent risk factors for a number of adult health and psychiatric problems, particularly substance use problems. Results are discussed in the context of cumulative adversity and self-trauma theory. Trials registration This trial has been registered with the International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register and assigned ISRCTN42520374. PMID:24726046

  13. Pharmacotherapy of mental illness--a historical analysis.

    PubMed

    Ban, T A

    2001-05-01

    The history of pharmacotherapy of mental illness can be divided into three periods. Introduction of morphine, potassium bromide, chloral hydrate, hyoscine, paraldehyde, etc., during the second half of the 19th century (first period), led to the replacement of physical restraint by pharmacological means in behavior control. Introduction of nicotinic acid, penicillin, thiamine, etc., during the first half of the 20th century (second period), led to significant changes in the diagnostic distribution of psychiatric patients; psychoses due to cerebral pellagra, and dementia due to syphilitic general paralysis virtually disappeared from psychiatric hospitals, and the prevalence of dysmnesias markedly decreased. Treatment with therapeutically effective drugs of mania, schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, Alzheimer's disease, etc., during the second half of the 20th century (third period), brought to attention the heterogeneity of the populations within the diagnostic categories of schizophrenia and depression. Introduction of the first set of psychotropics and the spectrophotofluorimeter during the 1950s triggered the development of neuropsychopharmacology. Introduction of genetic technology for the separation of receptor subtypes in the 1980s opened the path for the "tailoring" of psychotropic drugs by the dawn of the 21st century, to receptor affinities. PMID:11383974

  14. Mental illness and ethnicity - being a stateless person (apatride).

    PubMed

    Jengić, Vesna Sendula; Jonovska, Suzana; Perkić, Nada

    2008-09-01

    The main aim of this study has been to perceive the state of mentally ill stateless person hospitalized in Psychiatric Hospital Rab, Croatia with forensic status. This is a case report of such a person, F.V., 25 years old female, with no documents and other affirmed auto and heteroanamnestic data. Her psychical state and ability of communication do not allow realization of certain autoanamnesis and in the same time she has no family or relatives to give heteroanamnestic data. It is also unknown exact date and place of birth. Only certain data were that she lived in many orphanages, refugees' camps and communes in several European countries. She immigrated illegally in Croatia where she has made some criminal acts and earned forensic status. We tried to evaluated the complex status of our patient from several points of view and tried to answer to the questions where to start and what to do with such a person to do the best for her and including her human rights. As a conclusion, we could say that holistic and individual approach to such patients has been necessary with engagement of many profiles of professionals. PMID:18827781

  15. Identification and Analysis of Learning Preferences of Mentally Ill Adults in Rehabilitative Psychosocial Therapy at the Anderson Mental Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michael K.

    A study identified and analyzed the learning preferences of 17 seriously and chronically mentally ill adults participating in the rehabilitative psychosocial therapy program at the Toxaway Church Site of the Anderson Mental Health Center. Staff perceived as boring and unfocused the traditional treatment approach that relied mainly upon…

  16. Working with Refugees: A Manual for Paraprofessionals. Volume II: The Life Cycle, Mental Health, and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Joseph Jay; And Others

    This staff training manual, the second volume of a three-volume set of materials for use in training paraprofessional refugee workers, deals with the life cycle, mental health, and mental illness, focusing particularly on the unique challenges and pressures of being a refugee. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: psychological…

  17. Attitudes about the VA health-care setting, mental illness, and mental health treatment and their relationship with VA mental health service use among female and male OEF/OIF veterans.

    PubMed

    Fox, Annie B; Meyer, Eric C; Vogt, Dawne

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, the authors explored gender differences in attitudinal barriers to and facilitators of care for Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans and examined the relationship of those factors with VA mental health service use among female and male veterans with probable mental health conditions. Data were collected as part of a national cross-sectional survey of OEF/OIF veterans; the current sample was limited to participants with a probable diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, or alcohol abuse (N = 278). Although negligible gender differences were observed in attitudes about VA care and perceived fit in the VA setting, men reported slightly more negative beliefs about mental illness and mental health treatment than women. In addition, logistic regressions revealed different associations with VA mental health service use for women and men. For women only, positive perceptions of VA care were associated with increased likelihood of seeking mental health treatment. For men only, perceived similarity to other VA care users and negative beliefs about mental health treatment were associated with increased likelihood of service use, whereas negative beliefs about mental illness were associated with lower likelihood of service use. For both women and men, perceived entitlement to VA care was associated with increased likelihood of service use and negative beliefs about treatment-seeking were associated with a reduced likelihood of seeking mental health care in the past 6 months. Results support the need for tailored outreach to address unique barriers to mental health treatment for female and male OEF/OIF veterans. PMID:25365245

  18. Early Efforts By Medicare Accountable Care Organizations Have Limited Effect On Mental Illness Care And Management.

    PubMed

    Busch, Alisa B; Huskamp, Haiden A; McWilliams, J Michael

    2016-07-01

    People with mental illness use more health care and have worse outcomes than those without such illnesses. In response to incentives to reduce spending, accountable care organizations (ACOs) may therefore attempt to improve their management of mental illness. We examined changes in mental health spending, utilization, and quality measures associated with ACO contracts in the Medicare Shared Savings Program and Pioneer model for beneficiaries with mental illness, using Medicare claims for the period 2008-13 and difference-in-differences comparisons with local non-ACO providers. Pioneer contracts were associated with lower spending on mental health admissions in the first year of the contract, an effect that was attenuated in the second year. Otherwise, ACO contracts were associated with no changes in mental health spending or readmissions, outpatient follow-up after mental health admissions, rates of depression diagnosis, or mental health status. These results suggest that ACOs have not yet focused on mental illness or have been largely unsuccessful in early efforts to improve their management of it. PMID:27385241

  19. Stigma: a Unique Source of Distress for Family Members of Individuals with Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Anjana; Lucksted, Alicia; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Li Juan; Dixon, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    To distinguish the impact of mental illness stigma from that of other negative caregiving experiences, this study examined the unique relationships between stigma and caregiver/family functioning. Adult relatives (n = 437) of individuals with mental illness completed questionnaires regarding caregiving experiences, distress, empowerment, and family functioning, as part of a larger study. Regression analyses examined the relationship between stigma and caregiver/family variables, while controlling for other negative caregiving experiences. Stigma was uniquely associated with caregiver distress, empowerment, and family functioning. Mental illness stigma is a potent source of distress for families and an important target of family services. PMID:25168187

  20. Marketing to the marginalised: tobacco industry targeting of the homeless and mentally ill

    PubMed Central

    Apollonio, D; Malone, R

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the tobacco industry's relationships with and influence on homeless and mentally ill smokers and organisations providing services to them. Methods: Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents and journal articles. Results: The tobacco industry has marketed cigarettes to the homeless and seriously mentally ill, part of its "downscale" market, and has developed relationships with homeless shelters and advocacy groups, gaining positive media coverage and political support. Discussion: Tobacco control advocates and public health organisations should consider how to target programmes to homeless and seriously mentally ill individuals. Education of service providers about tobacco industry efforts to cultivate this market may help in reducing smoking in these populations. PMID:16319365

  1. Adolescents' attitudes about the role of mental illness in suicide, and their association with suicide risk.

    PubMed

    Lake, Alison M; Kandasamy, Suganthi; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S

    2013-12-01

    We examined teenagers' attitudes about the role of mental illness in suicidal behavior and the relationship between these attitudes and suicide risk. Serious suicidal ideation or behavior and associated risk factors (gender, depression, substance problems, and first-hand experience with a suicidal peer) were assessed in 2,419 students at six New York high schools. Less than one fifth of students thought that mental illness was a major contributor to suicide. Suicidal adolescents and those at risk were less likely than their nonsuicidal and low-risk counterparts to associate suicide with mental illness. Our findings contribute to the debate over whether accepting attitudes toward suicide increase suicide risk. PMID:23952811

  2. A review of factors associated with mental health in siblings of children with chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Incledon, Emily; Williams, Lauren; Hazell, Trevor; Heard, Todd R; Flowers, Alexandra; Hiscock, Harriet

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the literature on modifiable factors associated with mental health in siblings of children with chronic illness. Three clinical databases were searched. A total of 17 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several key themes emerged from the review. Better sibling mental health was associated with camp attendance, perceived parent/peer support, illness education and enhancing control through cognitive coping strategies and routine. Parental and sibling psychoeducation interventions and social support may enhance children's mental health when their sibling has a chronic illness. PMID:24270987

  3. [Homicide by mentally ill: clinical and criminological analysis].

    PubMed

    Pera, S Barbera; Dailliet, A

    2005-01-01

    The present study analysed the characteristics of homicide in internees according to the Social Defence system in Belgium. The Social Defence system was inaugurated in 1930, following the ideas of Adolphe Prins, a Belgian specialist in the criminal law. The Social Defence system concerns those offenders who are considered as mentally ill at large. The concept of mental illness encompasses the classical notion of "dementia" but also those people with mental unbalance as personality disordered offenders and mentally retarded persons. In the present study, we considered all those internees who committed a homicide or a homicide attempt and whose cases were examined by the review board between September 1998 and June 2000. We collected 99 cases and studied the age at the time of the offence (mean: 32.2 years), their diagnoses, the status of victims. These 99 murderers committed 111 "facts", a fact being a murder or murder attempt on one or several person(s) without arrest between the different phases of the commitment. These facts provoked 132 victims (72 men and 60 women); 61.36 % deceased. There was no significant difference in the characteristics of homicide versus homicide attempt. The results showed that, in our population, 59.6 % of the patients endorsed a diagnosis of psychosis (37 cases of paranoid schizophrenia, 2 schizophrenias of other types, 7 schizo-affective disorders, 1 autistic disorder, and 12 delusional disorders). Other axis I disorders were 3 intermittent explosive disorders, 2 major depressive disorders, 2 paraphilias and 1 bipolar disorder. The 32 offenders with no axis I major mental diseases presented such diagnoses, alone or comorbid, as antisocial personality disorder (n = 17), borderline personality disorder (n = 8), paranoid personality disorder (n = 4), and schizoid personality disorder (n = 2), 14 were mentally retarded and 5 presented a cerebral damage or an epilepsy. The age of the offender at the first homicide was not significantly

  4. A model of integrated primary care for HIV-positive patients with underlying substance use and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Zaller, N; Gillani, F S; Rich, J D

    2007-10-01

    There is a high burden of underlying substance use and mental illness in HIV-infected populations. HIV-care settings provide an important opportunity to assess substance and mental health needs among HIV-positive patients and to provide or make referrals for appropriate treatment services. In 2003, with funding from the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT), we developed a model of integrated substance-use counselling and referral for treatment within a primary care HIV-care setting at The Miriam Hospital in Providence, Rhode Island. The project uses a multidisciplinary approach to provide linkage to treatment services for substance use and mental illness as well as to help participants with social service needs, such as housing and medical coverage, to ensure continuity of care and optimal HIV treatment adherence. Twelve percent of the 965 HIV-infected patients in care at our center have been enrolled in the project. Of these, all have a current substance-use disorder and 79.3% have been diagnosed with a mental illness. In addition, most participants are hepatitis C-positive (HCV) (65.5%). The majority of participants are on antiretroviral therapy (76.7%). Participants have been referred for the following treatment modalities: intensive outpatient services, methadone, buprenorphine, outpatient services and residential as well as individual and group counselling. Our model has been successful in assessing the substance-use and mental health needs of HIV-infected individuals with numerous co-morbidities and referring them for ancillary medical and social services. PMID:18058396

  5. Extermination of the Jewish mentally-ill during the Nazi era--the "doubly cursed".

    PubMed

    Strous, Rael

    2008-01-01

    In Nazi Germany, physicians initiated a program of sterilization and euthanasia directed at the mentally-ill and physically disabled. Relatively little is known regarding the fate of the Jewish mentally-ill. Jewish mentally-ill were definitely included and targeted and were among the first who fell victim. They were systematically murdered following transfer as a specialized group, as well as killed in the general euthanasia program along with non-Jewish mentally ill. Their murder constituted an important link between euthanasia and the Final Solution. The targeting of the Jewish mentally-ill was comprised of four processes including public assistance withdrawal, hospital treatment limitations, sterilization and murder. Jewish "patients" became indiscriminate victims not only on the basis of psychiatric diagnosis, but also on the basis of race. The killing was efficiently coordinated with assembly in collection centers prior to being transferred to their deaths. The process included deceiving Jewish patients' family members and caregivers in order to extract financial support long after patients had been killed. Jewish patients were targeted since they were helpless and considered the embodiment of evil. Since nobody stood up for the Jews, the Nazis could treat the Jewish patients as they saw fit. Several differences existed between euthanasia of Jews and non-Jews, among which the Jewish mentally-ill were killed regardless of work ability, hospitalization length or illness severity. Furthermore, there was discrimination in the process leading up to killing (overcrowding, less food). For the Nazis, Jewish mentally-ill patients were unique among victims in that they embodied both "hazardous genes" and "racial toxins." For many years there has been silence relating to the fate of the Jewish mentally-ill. This deserves to be corrected. PMID:19439830

  6. Violent victimization of adult patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched using several terms related to severe mental illness in successive combinations with terms describing victimization. The searches identified 34 studies. Nine epidemiological studies indicate that patients with severe mental illness are more likely to be violently victimized than other community members. Young age, comorbid substance use, and homelessness are risk factors for victimization. Victimized patients are more likely to engage in violent behavior than other members of the community. Violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences for the course of their illness, and further impairs the quality of lives of patients and their families. Victimization of persons with severe mental illness is a serious medical and social problem. Prevention and management of victimization should become a part of routine clinical care for patients with severe mental illness. PMID:25336958

  7. Mind-language in the age of the brain: is "mental illness" a useful term?

    PubMed

    Pies, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The term "mental illness" has been criticized on a variety of grounds, most notably by those who have argued that the term is merely a "myth" or a "metaphor." Some have argued that if and when so-called mental illnesses are exhaustively explained by disturbed brain function or structure, we will no longer need the term "mental illness," on the supposition that neuropathology and psychopathology are mutually exclusive constructs. The author argues that, on the contrary, the locution "mental illness" is not rendered useless or unnecessary when neuropathology is discovered, nor is the term "mental illness" a metaphor. Rather, it is an instance of "ordinary language" that we apply quite literally to certain types of suffering and incapacity in the realm of thought, emotion, cognition, and behavior. Although its use carries the risk of perpetuating mind-body dualism and it may be misused as a pejorative label, "mental illness" is likely to remain a useful and meaningful descriptive term, even as we discover the neurobiological underpinnings of psychiatric illness. PMID:25603455

  8. Mobile Technologies Among People with Serious Mental Illness: Opportunities for Future Services

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kristin E.; Kaiser, Susan; Krzsos, Izabela; Drake, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Several national bodies have proposed using mobile technology to improve mental health services. But rates of current use and interest in using technology to enhance services among individuals with serious mental illness are uncertain. The authors surveyed 1,592 individuals with serious mental illness regarding their use of mobile devices and interest in using mobile technologies to enhance mental health services. Seventy-two percent of survey respondents reported currently owning a mobile device, a rate approximately 12 % lower than the general adult population. The most common uses were for talking, followed by texting, and internet activities. Both mobile device users and nonusers expressed interest in future mobile services. PMID:22648635

  9. Emotional Intelligence and resilience in mental health professionals caring for patients with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Pardeller, Silvia; Kemmler, Georg; Hofer, Alex

    2016-09-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) and resilience may be considered as prerequisites for mental health professionals caring for patients with serious mental illness (SMI), since they are often exposed to severe emotional stress during daily work. Accordingly, this cross-sectional study assessed both EI and resilience and their interrelationship in 61 individuals belonging to an assertive outreach team for patients suffering from SMI compared 61 control subjects without healthcare-related working conditions. EI was assessed by means of the German version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso-Emotional-Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), resilience was assessed using the German version of the Resilience Scale. Both groups showed an average level of EI in all categories of the MSCEIT and indicated high levels of resilience. They did not differ significantly from each other, neither in terms of EI nor resilience. Correlation analysis revealed a positive association between EI and resilience, albeit small in magnitude. Our results suggest that mental health professionals are not more resilient and therefore not more 'protected' from stressors than the general population. Though this finding warrants cautious interpretation, the positive correlation between EI and resilience suggests that EI may be a potential target for education and training in order to strengthen resilience even in healthy individuals and vice versa. PMID:26681627

  10. Mental representations of physically and sexually abused latency-aged females.

    PubMed

    Stovall, G; Craig, R J

    1990-01-01

    The mental representations and self-concept of 20 sexually abused, 20 physically abused, and 20 nonabused but distressed females, ages 7-12, were studied using the TAT and the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale. Results were analyzed both statistically from objective scoring systems, and clinically from direct observations and from an analysis of the interaction of abused children with the examiner. The results show that while the mental representations did not statistically differ between the sexually and physically abused children, the abused groups did differ in their internal images compared to nonabused but distressed children. Also, abused children tended to split off from consciousness the more negative aspects of their perceptions. The results demonstrate that it is abuse per se, and not simply family distress, that results in impaired object relations. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:2340431

  11. Zuclopenthixol acetate for acute schizophrenia and similar serious mental illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Jayakody, Kaushadh; Gibson, Roger Carl; Kumar, Ajit; Gunadasa, Shalmini

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication used for acute aggression in psychiatry must have rapid onset of effect, low frequency of administration and low levels of adverse effects. Zuclopenthixol acetate is said to have these properties. Objectives To estimate the clinical effects of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of acute aggression or violence thought to be due to serious mental illnesses, in comparison to other drugs used to treat similar conditions. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia’s Group Trials Register (July 2011). We supplemented this by citation searching and personal contact with authors and relevant pharmaceutical companies. Selection criteria All randomised clinical trials involving people thought to have serious mental illnesses comparing zuclopenthixol acetate with other drugs. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted and cross-checked data independently. We calculated fixed-effect relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data. We analysed by intention-to-treat. We used mean differences (MD) for continuous variables. Main results We found no data for the primary outcome, tranquillisation. Compared with haloperidol, zuclopenthixol acetate was no more sedating at two hours (n = 40, 1 RCT, RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.34). People given zuclopenthixol acetate were not at reduced risk of being given supplementary antipsychotics (n = 134, 3 RCTs, RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.30) although additional use of benzodiazepines was less (n = 50, 1 RCT, RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.47). People given zuclopenthixol acetate had fewer injections over seven days compared with those allocated to haloperidol IM (n = 70, 1 RCT, RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.84, NNT 4, CI 3 to 14). We found no data on more episodes of aggression or harm to self or others. One trial (n = 148) reported no significant difference in adverse effects for people receiving zuclopenthixol acetate compared with those allocated haloperidol at one, three

  12. Gene–Environment Interactions in Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Uher, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Severe mental illness (SMI) is a broad category that includes schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and severe depression. Both genetic disposition and environmental exposures play important roles in the development of SMI. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the roles of genetic and environmental factors depend on each other. Gene–environment interactions may underlie the paradox of strong environmental factors for highly heritable disorders, the low estimates of shared environmental influences in twin studies of SMI, and the heritability gap between twin and molecular heritability estimates. Sons and daughters of parents with SMI are more vulnerable to the effects of prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures, suggesting that the expression of genetic liability depends on environment. In the last decade, gene–environment interactions involving specific molecular variants in candidate genes have been identified. Replicated findings include an interaction between a polymorphism in the AKT1 gene and cannabis use in the development of psychosis and an interaction between the length polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene and childhood maltreatment in the development of persistent depressive disorder. Bipolar disorder has been underinvestigated, with only a single study showing an interaction between a functional polymorphism in the BDNF gene and stressful life events triggering bipolar depressive episodes. The first systematic search for gene–environment interactions has found that a polymorphism in CTNNA3 may sensitize the developing brain to the pathogenic effect of cytomegalovirus in utero, leading to schizophrenia in adulthood. Strategies for genome-wide investigations will likely include coordination between epidemiological and genetic research efforts, systematic assessment of multiple environmental factors in large samples, and prioritization of genetic variants. PMID:24860514

  13. Addressing Public Stigma and Disparities Among Persons With Mental Illness: The Role of Federal Policy

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Stephen M.; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2013-01-01

    Stigma against mental illness is a complex construct with affective, cognitive, and behavioral components. Beyond its symbolic value, federal law can only directly address one component of stigma: discrimination. This article reviews three landmark antidiscrimination laws that expanded protections over time for individuals with mental illness. Despite these legislative advances, protections are still not uniform for all subpopulations with mental illness. Furthermore, multiple components of stigma (e.g., prejudice) are beyond the reach of legislation, as demonstrated by the phenomenon of label avoidance; individuals may not seek protection from discrimination because of fear of the stigma that may ensue after disclosing their mental illness. To yield the greatest improvements, antidiscrimination laws must be coupled with antistigma programs that directly address other components of stigma. PMID:23488484

  14. Take Action against Hepatitis C (for People in Recovery from Mental Illness or Addiction)

    MedlinePlus

    ... For People in Recovery From Mental Illness or Addiction Attention treatment providers in behavioral health programs! This ... hepatitis C. If you have a history of addiction, you are at higher risk for hepatitis C. ...

  15. Health risks and changes in self-efficacy following community health screening of adults with serious mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Cook, Judith A; Razzano, Lisa A; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Jonikas, Jessica A; Yost, Chantelle; Burke, Larisa; Steigman, Pamela J; Santos, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Physical health screenings were conducted by researchers and peer wellness specialists for adults attending publicly-funded community mental health programs. A total of 457 adults with serious mental illnesses attended health fairs in 4 U.S. states and were screened for 8 common medical co-morbidities and health risk factors. Also assessed were self-reported health competencies, medical conditions, and health service utilization. Compared to non-institutionalized U.S. adults, markedly higher proportions screened positive for obesity (60%), hypertension (32%), diabetes (14%), smoking (44%), nicotine dependence (62%), alcohol abuse (17%), drug abuse (11%), and coronary heart disease (10%). A lower proportion screened positive for hyperlipidemia (7%). Multivariable random regression analysis found significant pre- to post-screening increases in participants' self-rated abilities for health practices, competence for health maintenance, and health locus of control. Screening identified 82 instances of undiagnosed diabetes, hypertension or hyperlipidemia, and 76 instances where these disorders were treated but uncontrolled. These results are discussed in the context of how this global public health approach holds promise for furthering the goal of integrating health and mental health care. PMID:25875181

  16. Health Risks and Changes in Self-Efficacy Following Community Health Screening of Adults with Serious Mental Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Judith A.; Razzano, Lisa A.; Swarbrick, Margaret A.; Jonikas, Jessica A.; Yost, Chantelle; Burke, Larisa; Steigman, Pamela J.; Santos, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Physical health screenings were conducted by researchers and peer wellness specialists for adults attending publicly-funded community mental health programs. A total of 457 adults with serious mental illnesses attended health fairs in 4 U.S. states and were screened for 8 common medical co-morbidities and health risk factors. Also assessed were self-reported health competencies, medical conditions, and health service utilization. Compared to non-institutionalized U.S. adults, markedly higher proportions screened positive for obesity (60%), hypertension (32%), diabetes (14%), smoking (44%), nicotine dependence (62%), alcohol abuse (17%), drug abuse (11%), and coronary heart disease (10%). A lower proportion screened positive for hyperlipidemia (7%). Multivariable random regression analysis found significant pre- to post-screening increases in participants’ self-rated abilities for health practices, competence for health maintenance, and health locus of control. Screening identified 82 instances of undiagnosed diabetes, hypertension or hyperlipidemia, and 76 instances where these disorders were treated but uncontrolled. These results are discussed in the context of how this global public health approach holds promise for furthering the goal of integrating health and mental health care. PMID:25875181

  17. Mental Health and Substance Abuse Insurance Parity for Federal Employees: How Did Health Plans Respond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Colleen L.; Ridgely, M. Susan

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental concern with competitive health insurance markets is that they will not supply efficient levels of coverage for treatment of costly, chronic, and predictable illnesses, such as mental illness. Since the inception of employer-based health insurance, coverage for mental health services has been offered on a more limited basis than…

  18. The high prevalence of poor physical health and unhealthy lifestyle behaviours in individuals with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Happell, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Recent mental health care policy has addressed the need for health care professionals to consider the physical health of consumers. Mental health nurses are particularly well-placed for this role. To provide mental health nurses with practical information, this narrative review summarises evidence from recent research on the physical health of individuals with Serious Mental Illness (SMI). In those with SMI, the international prevalence of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, symptoms of cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease all exceed that of the general population by at least two times, and HIV prevalence may be increased by as much as eight times. This increased prevalence of chronic disease may be largely responsible for an increased risk of death of up to five times, resulting in as much as 30 years of potential life lost. Of particular concern, the recent evidence suggests that for physical health and increased mortality, the gap between individuals with SMI and the general population is worsening. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours undoubtedly play a role in the development of poor physical health and chronic disease, and the present review indicates that low physical activity, poor diet, smoking, alcohol and substance abuse, and risky sexual behaviour are common in individuals with SMI. This narrative review demonstrates that the prevalence of poor physical health and health behaviours in people with SMI far exceed that observed in the general population, and reinforces the urgent need for mental health nurses to address physical health concerns in patients. PMID:21859410

  19. John Stuart Mill on the liberty of the mentally ill: a historical note.

    PubMed

    Monahan, J

    1977-12-01

    The author discusses the quote from Mill's On Liberty that is often cited by libertarians in opposition to involuntary commitment of the mentally ill. This quote has been taken out of context; other statements in the document indicate that Mill excluded from his libertarian credo those "without the ordinary amount of understanding," i.e., those people who would now be considered mentally ill. PMID:335904

  20. [Knowledge of family members on the rights of individuals affected by mental illness].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Vania; Barbosa, Guilherme Correa

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to understand what family members know about the rights of individuals affected by mental illness. To this end, a qualitative exploratory study was conducted. A semi-structured interview was used for data collection. Eighteen family members were interviewed at a psychosocial care center (CAPS) and a civil society organization (CSO) located in a municipality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, between March and September 2013. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis and the following categories were constructed: mental health services and the rights of individuals affected by mental illness. We were able to infer that in addition to drug-based therapy, mental health services must provide therapeutic activities. Family members of those affected by mental illness were unaware of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform Law and mentioned the following rights: welfare benefits, free public transport, basic food basket and medications. PMID:26098801

  1. Examining the Meaning Attached to Mental Illness and Mental Health Services Among Justice System-Involved Youth and Their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Amy C.; Kelly, Brian L.; Vidalon, Theresa M.

    2010-01-01

    A large percentage of youth involved in the juvenile justice system experience mental health problems, yet many do not receive mental health care. In this study, we used a process-focused framework of mental health decision making to gain insight into the use of mental health services among these youth. In-depth interviews were conducted with nine youth and nine parents participating in a program servicing youth with mental health problems who have been in detention. Themes related to problem recognition, the decision to seek and participate in services, subjective norms, and juvenile justice system involvement emerged. Most families acknowledged their youth was having problems, but few defined those problems in mental health terms. This did not prevent them from seeking services, although some were not able to access adequate services until the justice system became involved. Participants were aware of negative attitudes about mental illness, and might have limited their social networks to shield themselves. PMID:19638602

  2. Offenders with mental illness have criminogenic needs, too: toward recidivism reduction.

    PubMed

    Skeem, Jennifer L; Winter, Eliza; Kennealy, Patrick J; Louden, Jennifer Eno; Tatar, Joseph R

    2014-06-01

    Many programs for offenders with mental illness (OMIs) seem to assume that serious mental illness directly causes criminal justice involvement. To help evaluate this assumption, we assessed a matched sample of 221 parolees with and without mental illness and then followed them for over 1 year to track recidivism. First, compared with their relatively healthy counterparts, OMIs were equally likely to be rearrested, but were more likely to return to prison custody. Second, beyond risk factors unique to mental illness (e.g., acute symptoms; operationalized with part of the Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20; Webster, Douglas, Eaves, & Hart, 1997), OMIs also had significantly more general risk factors for recidivism (e.g., antisocial pattern; operationalized with the Level of Service/Case Management Inventory; Andrews, Bonta, & Wormith, 2004) than offenders without mental illness. Third, these general risk factors significantly predicted recidivism, with no incremental utility added by risk factors unique to mental illness. Implications for broadening the policy model to explicitly target general risk factors for recidivism such as antisocial traits are discussed. PMID:24377913

  3. Experiences of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination: a review of measures

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been a substantial increase in research on mental illness related stigma over the past 10 years, with many measures in use. This study aims to review current practice in the survey measurement of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination experienced by people who have personal experience of mental illness. We will identify measures used, their characteristics and psychometric properties. Method A narrative literature review of survey measures of mental illness stigma was conducted. The databases Medline, PsychInfo and the British Nursing Index were searched for the period 1990-2009. Results 57 studies were included in the review. 14 survey measures of mental illness stigma were identified. Seven of the located measures addressed aspects of perceived stigma, 10 aspects of experienced stigma and 5 aspects of self-stigma. Of the identified studies, 79% used one of the measures of perceived stigma, 46% one of the measures of experienced stigma and 33% one of the measures of self-stigma. All measures presented some information on psychometric properties. Conclusions The review was structured by considering perceived, experienced and self stigma as separate but related constructs. It provides a resource to aid researchers in selecting the measure of mental illness stigma which is most appropriate to their purpose. PMID:20338040

  4. Major mental illness and violence history as predictors of institutional misconduct and recidivism: main and interaction effects.

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D; Crawford, Gregory

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether major mental illness (MMI) and violence history (VH) interact in their effect on institutional misconduct and recidivism. MMI and VH were measured in two overlapping groups of male medium security federal prisoners and correlated with institutional misconduct and recidivism. Age and the main effect of MMI were significant predictors of general and aggressive infractions in 2,627 male prison inmates before the MMI × VH interaction term was entered into a Cox regression equation. Once the interaction term was entered into the equation, the MMI × VH interaction predicted relative hazard (risk) but neither main effect (MMI, VH) was significant. There was no interaction effect, however, when age, prior substance abuse, MMI, VH, and the MMI × VH interaction were used to predict general and aggressive recidivism in a group of 1,163 male inmates previously released from custody. Age and the VH main effect achieved significance in both recidivism analyses whereas the MMI main effect failed to achieve significance in either analysis. Whereas major mental illness was not a risk factor for future antisocial behavior in current and former prison inmates, when paired with a history of violence it predicted increased risk of general and aggressive institutional misconduct. Violence history, on the other hand, was a consistent predictor of recidivism. These results indicate that it may be advisable to review both mental health and violence history when screening inmates as a prelude to managing concomitant MMI and violence propensity. PMID:24127894

  5. Roles of religious and spiritual advisors among adults in Singapore with mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Picco, Louisa; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Zhang, Yunjue; Chong, Siow Ann

    2013-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Information is limited concerning the role of religious and spiritual advisors in providing help to people with mental illnesses in Singapore. This study examined that role, as well as the satisfaction with and the perceived effectiveness of the services provided, among people with mental health problems. METHODS Data were collected as part of a nationally representative household survey of residents 18 years and older in Singapore. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3.0, was used to diagnose mental illness as well as to collect information about the mental health services respondents had sought. RESULTS A total of 6,616 respondents completed the survey; in the overall sample, 1.5% reported seeking help from religious or spiritual advisors. This rate increased to 6.6% among those with at least one mental illness, with the prevalence being higher among respondents with lifetime dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, or bipolar disorder. Sociodemographic correlates associated with a lower likelihood of consultation with a religious or spiritual advisor included reporting "other" race-ethnicity as well as faith in Buddhism, Hinduism, or Islam. Most respondents who sought help from a religious or spiritual advisor in the last 12 months were satisfied with the help they received, and about half reported it to be very useful. CONCLUSIONS Religious and spiritual advisors are an important source of help for people with mental illness, and a majority of respondents with a mental illness were satisfied with the support they received from these sources. PMID:23903293

  6. Families of Chronically Mentally Ill Patients: Their Structure, Coping Resources, and Tolerance for Deviant Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Joan; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Interviewed 105 families of chronically ill psychiatric patients to explore their attitudes toward caring for mentally ill member at home. Found significant relationship between respondent's belief in his/her ability to manage patient behavior and willingness to accept patient in home. Found no significant relationships between family resources,…

  7. Community Attitudes towards Culture-Influenced Mental Illness: Scrupulosity vs. Nonreligious OCD among Orthodox Jews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirutinsky, Steven; Rosmarin, David H.; Pargament, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Culture may particularly influence community attitudes towards mental illness, when the illness itself is shaped by a cultural context. To explore the influence of culture-specific, religious symptoms on Orthodox Jewish community attitudes, the authors compared the attitudes of 169 Orthodox Jews, who randomly viewed one of two vignettes describing…

  8. [Representations of mental illness in the Greek Press: 2001 vs 2011].

    PubMed

    Economou, M; Louki, E; Charitsi, M; Alexiou, T; Patelakis, A; Christakaki, A; Papadimitriou, G N

    2015-01-01

    The media seem to have played a prominent role in shaping the contemporary social image of people with mental illness, by perpetuating the stigma attached to it. Worldwide, a vast amount of research findings converge to the stigmatizing representation of people with mental illness by the media, with reference to the dominant stereotype of violence. The present study aims to explore the representations of mental illness in the Greek Press using a quantitative and qualitative approach. Potential changes in the media portrayal of mental illness during the last decade are also being examined: findings are compared to those of a previous research that took place in 2001, following the same methodology. The sample consisted of press articles referring to mental illness, that were indexed daily from the Greek newspapers during the period July-November 2011. The items were categorized into thematic categories and further analyzed taking in account the use of stigmatizing vocabulary, the reproduction of common myths concerning mental illness, the overall valence of each article (stigmatizing, neutral or anti-stigmatizing) towards people with mental illness, as well as the contextual implications conveyed in the use of psychiatric terms as a metaphor. The largest thematic category that emerged from the sample was that referring to the repercussions of the economic crisis to mental health, followed by the category of articles where psychiatric terms are used as a metaphor. The comparisons made between 2001 and 2011 revealed an improved representation of mental illness in terms of stigma, especially regarding schizophrenia. The public expression of stigma has decreased, with fewer stigmatizing articles and notably more neutral in valence articles. The findings of this study suggest a decline of the media propensity for emotionally charged descriptions and a shift towards objective journalism regarding mental illness. This is most likely to be attributed to the anti

  9. Open-ended and Open-door Treatment Groups for Young People with Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    MILLER, RACHEL; MASON, SUSAN E.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of open-ended groups is expanded to include an open-door model (OEOD) wherein members with severe mental illnesses, including schizophrenia disorders and bi-polar, can join, leave, and re-enter groups as their life circumstances dictate their availability and willingness for treatment. This model is grounded on the work of Schopler and Galinsky’s (1984/2006) and Galinsky and Schopler’s (1989) theses on the value and processes of open-ended groups and includes perspectives on mutual aid and group development. Groupwork with the OEOD format is illustrated with examples taken from a group of 79 participants diagnosed with first-episode schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorders, 40 of who had co-occurring substance abuse. Of the 79 participants in the OEOD group program, 70 (89%) remained in treatment for the maximum of 3 years. The over-all value of group treatment for this population is reviewed along with the small number of available publications on open-ended and open-door-type groups. PMID:22427713

  10. The gendered experience of stigmatization in severe and persistent mental illness in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Robillard, Chantal

    2010-12-01

    Although power differentials which enable the components of stigma to unfold have been identified, literature that demonstrates the gendered disparities in stigmatization is scarce. Using a gender-based framework, this paper aims first at understanding the gendered social cues which produce the stigma in mental illness enacted by the general population. Second, it highlights the influence of gender on the everyday experiences of a severe and persistent mental illness and the related stigmatization. Results are drawn from a combination of ethnographic and qualitative methods including a field ethnography of two health centres, one psychiatric hospital, and participants' households and neighbourhoods, two group discussions with members of the general population participating in gender-specific social support groups (N = 12 women/5 men), and illness narratives of men and women with a severe and persistent mental illness (N = 22), which was conducted from May to August 2006 in a poor, urban district of Peru. It is argued that in a society like that of Peru where gender roles are segregated into specific social and economic fields, gendered expectations shape both the experience of a severe and persistent mental illness and the stigmatization of people with such a mental illness in a gender-specific way. Not only do gender inequalities create the conditions leading to a power differential which enables stigmatization to unfold, but stigma is constructed as much around gendered-defined social roles as it is enacted in distinct social spheres for men and women with a severe and persistent mental illness. The gendered experience of stigmatization must, therefore, be fully understood in order to design more effective interventions that would challenge stereotypical perceptions and discriminatory practices, and reduce their effect on the everyday life of the mentally ill in Peru. PMID:21050630

  11. Violence and the Costs of Caring for a Family Member with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Maxine Seaborn

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on the stress paradigm and using data from the Duke Mental Health Study, this paper investigates the links between violence by and against persons with severe mental illness and their caregivers' financial burden (e.g., number of financial contributions and perceived financial strain). In addition to violence, substance use and medication…

  12. Law Students' Attitudes toward and Preparedness for Mentally Ill Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Lisa-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Currently in the United States, there are far more mentally ill individuals in jails and prisons than in mental hospitals or other treatment facilities. Stigma toward this population presents as a major barrier to eradicating this indictment, yet research has shown that education can help to reduce stigma and, in turn, possibly decreasing the…

  13. Using Relationship Enhancement Therapy with an Adolescent with Serious Mental Illness and Substance Dependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accordino, Michael P.; Keat, Donald B., II; Guerney, Bernard G., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Relationship Enhancement (RE) therapy can be a useful intervention for adolescents with serious mental illness and their family members. This article reviews the basic concepts and effectiveness of RE therapy and illustrates how it is implemented. Presents a case example and discusses implications for research and mental health counseling.…

  14. New Research into General Psychiatric Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There are a variety of models for the mental health care of adults with comorbid intellectual disability (ID) and mental illness. There has been a long-running debate as to whether this should be provided by general psychiatric or specialised ID services. A previous review concluded that there was no clear evidence to support either…

  15. Rates of Mental Illness and Associated Academic Impacts in Ontario's College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Alana; Silvestri, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Staff at campus-based counselling and disability centres in 15 of Ontario's 24 community colleges completed 3,536 surveys on 1,964 individual students querying the presence of mental illness and academic challenges as reported by students accessing these services. Survey data were analyzed to determine prevalence rates of mental disorders and…

  16. Perceptions of Mental Illness Stigma: Comparisons of Athletes to Nonathlete Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaier, Emily; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Johnson, Mitchell D.; Strunk, Kathleen; Davis, Joanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Stigma related to mental health and its treatment can thwart help-seeking. The current study assessed college athletes' personal and perceived public mental illness stigma and compared this to nonathlete students. Athletes (N = 304) were National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletes representing 16 teams. Results indicated…

  17. Mental Illness in the Family. Families Today: A Research Sampler on Families and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corfman, Eunice, Ed.

    Science Monographs, published by the National Institute of Mental Health, are book-length, integrative state-of-the-art reviews, critical evaluations of findings, or program assessments of current research on topics related to the NIMH mandate. This set of articles concentrate on mental illness in the family. "Depression and Low-Income,…

  18. Influences of Maternal Mental Illness on Psychological Outcomes for Adolescent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyserman, Daphna; Bybee, Deborah; Mowbray, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Explores the effects of maternal psychiatric symptoms and community functioning on child outcomes in a diverse sample of seriously mentally ill women caring for their teenaged children. In hierarchical multiple regression, for youth depression, we find effects for parenting style and maternal mental health; for youth anxiety and efficacy, effects…

  19. Student-Athletes' Perceptions of Mental Illness and Attitudes toward Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Jordan D.

    2016-01-01

    Given that there is evidence that college student-athletes may be at risk for psychological disturbances (Pinkerton, Hintz, & Barrow, 1989), and possibly underutilizing college mental health services (Watson & Kissinger, 2007), the purpose of this study was to examine attitudes toward mental illness and help seeking among college…

  20. Perceptions of Biopsychosocial Services Needs among Older Adults with Severe Mental Illness: Met and Unmet Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Sherry M.; Cassie, Kimberly McClure

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to identify the psychiatric, physical, and social services needs experienced by older adults with severe mental illness (SMI) and to examine factors influencing their experience of need and service provision adequacy. Seventy-five older adults with SMI were recruited from a community mental health center to participate in the…

  1. Prevention Service Programs for Infants of Mentally-Ill Mothers. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnellan, Gerard J.; And Others

    This paper reports the progress of an ongoing clinical research project on prevention services for at risk infants of mentally ill mothers. This project extends the prevention focus of early education programs into the mental health field. Previous research findings indicate that maximum preventive effects are achieved when programs (a) begin…

  2. Social Tie Characteristics and Psychiatric Rehabilitation Outcomes among Adults with Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chronister, Julie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social support has achieved national attention as a key component of the mental health recovery paradigm for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of variance accounted for by four social tie characteristics (social network orientation, emotional support, tangible support, and negative…

  3. Teaching Children about Mental Health and Illness: A School Nurse Health Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSocio, Janiece; Stember, Lisa; Schrinsky, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    A mental health education program designed by school nurses for children ages 10-12 was developed in 2000-2001 and expanded with broader distribution in 2004-2005. Six classroom sessions, each 45 minutes in length, provided information and activities to increase children's awareness of mental health and illness. Education program content included…

  4. The role and experiences of family members during the rehabilitation of mentally ill offenders.

    PubMed

    Rowaert, Sara; Vandevelde, Stijn; Lemmens, Gilbert; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Vander Beken, Tom; Vander Laenen, Freya; Audenaert, Kurt

    2016-03-01

    Taking care of a family member with a mental illness imposes a burden on various aspects of family life. This burden may be enhanced if the mentally ill individual has a criminal history. This paper aims to summarize the scientific literature dealing with the experiences, needs and burdens of families of mentally ill offenders. We aim to explore the roles that family members play in the rehabilitation of their relative and review the families' needs and burdens. Finally, we aim to investigate whether or not the family strengths are considered in the literature. A literature search in line with the PRISMA statement for systematic reviews and with the recommendations for an integrative review was performed in the ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct and ProQuest databases. Limited research has been carried out into the experiences, needs and burdens of families of mentally ill offenders, with only eight studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Families of mentally ill offenders experience more stress than those of mentally ill individuals with no judicial involvement. This is because of the fact that these family members have to deal with both mental health services and judicial systems. The eight retrieved studies focus on needs and burdens, with little reference to strengths or capabilities. The review has highlighted the need for further research into the needs and burdens of families with mentally ill offenders, with a focus on strengths rather than an exclusively problem-oriented perspective. It is important that families become more involved in the health and social care of their relatives to avoid being considered 'second patients'. PMID:26756851

  5. National Instant Criminal Background Check Improvement Act: implications for persons with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Price, Marilyn; Norris, Donna M

    2008-01-01

    The National Instant Criminal Background Check Improvement Act has serious implications for persons with mental illness with regard to the ability to purchase firearms. Federally prohibited persons include those who have been adjudicated as mentally defective, or have been committed to a mental institution, or are unlawful users of or are addicted to a controlled substance. The legislation was intended to expand the reporting practices of states by providing significant financial incentives and disincentives for releasing all relevant records, including those contained within mental health databases, to the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS). As of April 2007, only 22 states were voluntarily submitting records from mental health databases to the NICS. The legislation was introduced following the Virginia Tech tragedy, when public opinion favored tightening control over access to firearms of persons with mental illness. PMID:18354133

  6. Mental illness research in the Gulf Cooperation Council: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Jason E; Pryjmachuk, Steven; Waterman, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Rapid growth and development in recent decades has seen mental health and mental illness emerge as priority health concerns for the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). As a result, mental health services in the region are being redefined and expanded. However, there is a paucity of local research to guide ongoing service development. Local research is important because service users' experience of mental illness and mental health services are linked to their sociocultural context. In order for service development to be most effective, there is a need for increased understanding of the people who use these services.This article aims to review and synthesize mental health research from the Gulf Cooperation Council. It also seeks to identify gaps in the literature and suggest directions for future research. A scoping framework was used to conduct this review. To identify studies, database searches were undertaken, regional journals were hand-searched, and reference lists of included articles were examined. Empirical studies undertaken in the Gulf Cooperation Council that reported mental health service users' experience of mental illness were included. Framework analysis was used to synthesize results. Fifty-five studies met inclusion criteria and the following themes were identified: service preferences, illness (symptomology, perceived cause, impact), and recovery (traditional healing, family support, religion). Gaps included contradictory findings related to the supportive role of the Arabic extended family and religion, under-representation of women in study samples, and limited attention on illness management outside of the hospital setting.From this review, it is clear that the sociocultural context in the region is linked to service users' experience of mental illness. Future research that aims to fill the identified gaps and develop and test culturally appropriate interventions will aid practice

  7. Mental ill-health across the continuum of body mass index

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies have found a non-linear relationship between mental ill-health and BMI with higher rates in both the underweight and the obese. This study evaluated the shape of the relationship between BMI and distress, suicidal ideation and self-reported mental ill-health conditions in a large population sample. Methods Data were drawn from the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System (SAMSS) for the years 2002 to 2009 (n = 46,704). SAMSS monitors population trends in state and national risk factors and chronic diseases. Samples are drawn from all households with a functioning number in the Australian White Pages. Computer assisted telephone interviews collected information on self-reported height and weight, demographic and health behaviours. Respondents completed the Kessler Distress and suicidal ideation scales and reported specific mental ill-health conditions. BMI was categorized into deciles to allow for assessment of the shape of any associations with other variables. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between each mental ill-health condition and BMI-decile controlling for age in the base model. This was followed by a full model that added SES and the health-adverse coping behaviours of smoking, alcohol and physical activity to test for changes from the base model. Results Non-linear associations were observed between BMI-decile and mental ill-health but statistically significantly greater odds of mental ill-health were observed only in the obese and not in the underweight after controlling for age, health-adverse behaviours and socioeconomic status. The association between BMI and mental ill-health might best be described as 'threshold'. Elevated odds were apparent for middle-aged persons, whereas younger and older individuals had a significantly lower odds of having a mental ill-health condition. Conclusions In conclusion, this study has provided no support for the hypothesis of increased mental ill-health problems

  8. Locating the Social Origins of Mental Illness: The Explanatory Models of Mental Illness Among Clergy from Different Ethnic and Faith Backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Leavey, Gerard; Loewenthal, Kate; King, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Clergy have historically provided 'healing' through various spiritual and medical modalities and even in modern, developed welfare economies they may still be an important help-seeking resource. Partnerships between religion and psychiatry are regularly advocated, but there is scant research on clergy explanatory models of illness. This paper aimed to explore their relationship with psychiatry and to examine how clergy in various faith groups conceptualised mental health problems. In this qualitative study using in-depth interviews, these issues were explored with 32 practising clergy in the UK from a range of different Christian, Muslim and Jewish faith organisations and ethnic backgrounds. This paper presents findings related to clergy explanatory models of mental illness and, in particular, how the social factors involved in causation are tinged with spiritual influences and implications, and how the meanings of mental distress assume a social and moral significance in distinctive localised matters. PMID:26874526

  9. Using research evidence to reframe the policy debate around mental illness and guns: process and recommendations.

    PubMed

    McGinty, Emma E; Frattaroli, Shannon; Appelbaum, Paul S; Bonnie, Richard J; Grilley, Anna; Horwitz, Joshua; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Webster, Daniel W

    2014-11-01

    Recent mass shootings have prompted a national dialogue around mental illness and gun policy. To advance an evidence-informed policy agenda on this controversial issue, we formed a consortium of national gun violence prevention and mental health experts. The consortium agreed on a guiding principle for future policy recommendations: restricting firearm access on the basis of certain dangerous behaviors is supported by the evidence; restricting access on the basis of mental illness diagnoses is not. We describe the group's process and recommendations. PMID:25211757

  10. The Consequences of Official Labels: An Examination of the Rights Lost by the Mentally Ill and Mentally Incompetent Since 1989.

    PubMed

    Walker, Andrea M; Klein, Michael S; Hemmens, Craig; Stohr, Mary K; Burton, Velmer S

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a survey of state statutes which restrict the civil rights of persons with a mental illness or who have been declared mentally incompetent. Five civil rights (voting, holding public office, jury service, parenting, and marriage) are examined. The results of this study are compared with the results of studies conducted in 1989 and 1999 to determine what changes have occurred over time in the restriction of civil rights of those suffering from mental health problems. This comparison reveals that states continue to restrict the rights of the mentally ill and incompetent, and that there is a trend towards increased restriction of political rights, including the right to vote and hold public office. PMID:26403304

  11. Evidence for Specific Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Mental Well-Being and Physical Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brayden, Robert M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The effect of child sexual abuse on female adult mental health and physical self-esteem was studied, based on a mental health survey in which 98 women reported sexual abuse and 110 served as comparisons. Women sexually abused as children obtained lower scores on well-being and physical self-concept measures. (SW)

  12. [Progress and living situations among the elderly with severe mental illness: perspectives of psychosocial services].

    PubMed

    Dallaire, Bernadette; McCubbin, Michael; Provost, Mélanie; Carpentier, Normand; Clément, Michèle

    2010-06-01

    Services for elders with severe mental illness (SMI) have major deficiencies, among them a lack of adequate psychosocial services. Some analysts have attributed this situation to "double stigmatization" targeting both ageing and mental illness in our societies. Using qualitative methods (23 semi-directed interviews, theme-based content analysis), our exploratory research aims to understand better the perceptions of psychosocial practitioners working in community and institutional settings about the elderly with SMI and their living situations. Our informants evoke living situations marked by a lack of support (isolation), of resources (financial precariousness/poverty) and of power (learned passivity), traits that are related not only to mental illness per se, but also to long term psychiatric institutionalization. For them, the current situation of elders with SMI is the end product of biographies in which life-course, illness-course and life in services and/or institutions join and, sometimes, become indistinguishable. Implications for psychosocial practices are discussed. PMID:20420749

  13. Cancer diagnosis in people with severe mental illness: practical and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Howard, Louise M; Barley, Elizabeth A; Davies, Elizabeth; Rigg, Anne; Lempp, Heidi; Rose, Diana; Taylor, David; Thornicroft, Graham

    2010-08-01

    There has been increasing recognition of the high physical morbidity in patients with severe mental illness, but little has been written about cancer in these patients. Therefore, we review the published work on risk of cancer in patients with severe mental illness, treatment challenges, and ethical issues. Severe mental illness is associated with behaviours that predispose an individual to an increased risk of some cancers, including lung and breast cancer, although lower rates of other cancers are reported in this population. Severe mental illness is also associated with disparities in screening for cancer and with higher case-fatality rates. This higher rate is partly due to the specific challenges of treating these patients, including medical comorbidity, drug interactions, lack of capacity, and difficulties in coping with the treatment regimen as a result of psychiatric symptoms. To ensure that patients with severe mental illness receive effective treatment, inequalities in care need to be addressed by all health-care professionals involved, including those from mental health services and the surgical and oncology teams. PMID:20599423

  14. Association between recognizing dementia as a mental illness and dementia knowledge among elderly Chinese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xin; Woo, Benjamin K P

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether older Chinese Americans perceive dementia as a mental illness and the relationship between such perception and their general understanding of dementia remains unclear. Our study aims to understand this relationship and its future implication on improving dementia literacy among ethnic minorities. METHODS: Elderly Chinese American participants from the Greater Los Angeles were asked to complete an 11-item dementia questionnaire, following a community health seminar. Cross-sectional survey data was analyzed using standard statistical methods. RESULTS: The questionnaire received an 88.3% response rate. Among 316 responders, only 28.8% (n = 91) of elderly Chinese Americans identified dementia as a mental illness, and 71.2% (n = 225) did not recognize its mental disease origin. Furthermore, in comparison between these two groups, the first group demonstrated significantly higher level of baseline knowledge of the disease. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that only approximately 1 out of 4 older Chinese Americans recognized dementia as a mental illness, consistent with previous studies on Asian Americans. Our study however showed that when dementia was being perceived as a mental illness, such perception was associated with a higher level of baseline dementia understanding. The current study suggested the potential of improving older Chinese Americans dementia literacy by increasing awareness of its mental illness origin. PMID:27354966

  15. Sudden losses and negative appraisal in people with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Thomas; Sherrer, Margaret V; Shen, Ce

    2014-11-01

    Research on the impact of sudden or unexpected losses in people with severe mental illness is scarce. The purpose of our study was to examine the relationship between subjective distress from sudden losses in people with severe mental illness and posttraumatic stress symptoms while controlling for gender, psychiatric symptoms, and negative appraisals. As part of routine care, treatment personnel collected data from 371 community mental health clients diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Hierarchical linear regression revealed that negative appraisals of the self and the world correlated significantly with posttraumatic stress symptoms, and distress from losses accounted for the greatest amount of variance in posttraumatic stress symptoms of the 6 traumas tested. When examined by diagnostic group, only those with schizophrenia spectrum disorder showed a significant association between distress from sudden losses and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Relative to other factors including symptoms of severe mental illness, distress from sudden losses in people with severe mental illness appears to be strongly associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms. PMID:25110974

  16. S3 guideline on psychosocial therapies in severe mental illness: evidence and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Gühne, Uta; Weinmann, Stefan; Arnold, Katrin; Becker, Thomas; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2015-04-01

    The burden of severe and persistent mental illness is high. Beside somatic treatment and psychotherapeutic interventions, treatment options for patients with severe mental illness also include psychosocial interventions. This paper summarizes the results of a number of systematic literature searches on psychosocial interventions for people with severe mental illness. Based on this evidence appraisal, recommendations for the treatment of people with severe mental illness were formulated and published in the evidence-based guideline series of the German Society for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology (DGPPN) as an evidence-based consensus guideline ("S3 guideline"). Recommendations were strongly based on study results, but used consensus processes to consider external validity and transferability of the recommended practices to the German mental healthcare system. A distinction is made between system-level interventions (multidisciplinary team-based psychiatric community care, case management, vocational rehabilitation and participation in work life and residential care interventions) and single psychosocial interventions (psychoeducation, social skills training, arts therapies, occupational therapy and exercise therapy). There is good evidence for the efficacy of the majority of psychosocial interventions in the target group. The best available evidence exists for multidisciplinary team-based psychiatric community care, family psychoeducation, social skills training and supported employment. The present guideline offers an important opportunity to further improve health services for people with severe mental illness in Germany. Moreover, the guideline highlights areas for further research. PMID:25384674

  17. Dysthymia among Substance Abusers: An Exploratory Study of Individual and Mental Health Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Naelys; Horton, Eloise G.; McIlveen, John; Weiner, Michael; Nelson, Jenniffer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the individual characteristics and mental health factors of dysthymic and nondysthymic substance abusers. Out of a total of 1,209 medical records reviewed to select cases of dysthymic and nondysthymic substance abusers attending a community drug treatment program, 183 medical records were selected, 48% of…

  18. Profiles of Women Who Have Mental Retardation with and without a Documented History of Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickson, Linda; Khemka, Ishita; Golden, Harriet; Chatzistyli, Aikaterini

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-six women with mental retardation were divided into two groups on the basis of whether they had a documented history of abuse during the preceding 5 years. The women with this history were more likely than the women with no documented history of abuse to be employing passive/avoidant decision-making strategies, reporting higher levels of…

  19. Case Series: Mental Health Needs and Perspectives of Rural Children Reared by Parents Who Abuse Methamphetamine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Teresa; Haight, Wendy; Black, James; Choi, Ga-Young; Kingery, Linda; Sheridan, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This case-based, mixed-methods study was undertaken to understand the perspectives and mental health needs of rural children exposed to parental methamphetamine abuse. Method: Participants were 23 children involved with a state child protective agency because of parental methamphetamine abuse. A semistructured interview provided…

  20. Mental Health Providers and Child Abuse: An Analysis of the Decision to Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crenshaw, Wesley B.; Lichtenberg, James W.

    When deciding to report cases of child abuse, Mental Health Providers (MHPs) must confront legal mandates, concerns for client welfare, and a series of systemic and ethical issues. All 51 jurisdictions in the United States require MHPs to report suspected or known child abuse to appropriate authorities, with criminal penalties for noncompliance.…

  1. "Satan has afflicted me!" Jinn-possession and mental illness in the Qur'an.

    PubMed

    Islam, F; Campbell, R A

    2014-02-01

    Mental health stigma in Muslim communities may be partly due to a commonly held belief among some Muslims about the supernatural causes of mental illness (i.e. jinn-possession brought on by one's sinful life). A thematic analysis was carried out on four English translations and the Arabic text of the Qur'an to explore whether the connection between jinn-possession and insanity exists within the Muslim holy book. No connection between spirit-possession and madness or mental illness was found. Pagans taunted and labelled people as jinn-possessed only to ostracize and scapegoat. Linking the labelling of people as jinn-possession to a pagan practice may be used to educate Muslims, so they can reassess their community's stigma towards the mentally ill. PMID:22688386

  2. Narratives About Mental Illnesses in China: The Voices of Generation Y.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lu; Bie, Bijie

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the cultured understanding of mental health and mental illnesses among members of Generation Y in China through a narrative approach. Five prominent narratives are identified through the analysis of stories about mental illnesses collected through semistructured interviews with college students. These five narratives feature the tragic genius, the psychotic criminal, the fragile victim, the antisocial recluse, and the homosexual. These narratives are gendered, in that women are the primary protagonists in the narrative about the fragile victim, while men are featured prominently in the narratives about the tragic genius, the psychotic criminal, and the antisocial recluse. Our study demonstrates that these narratives are based on, and will further reinforce, highly cultural-specific stereotypes and biases about mental illnesses in China. Theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed. PMID:26086419

  3. Solitary confinement and mental illness in U.S. prisons: a challenge for medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Metzner, Jeffrey L; Fellner, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, prison officials have increasingly turned to solitary confinement as a way to manage difficult or dangerous prisoners. Many of the prisoners subjected to isolation, which can extend for years, have serious mental illness, and the conditions of solitary confinement can exacerbate their symptoms or provoke recurrence. Prison rules for isolated prisoners, however, greatly restrict the nature and quantity of mental health services that they can receive. In this article, we describe the use of isolation (called segregation by prison officials) to confine prisoners with serious mental illness, the psychological consequences of such confinement, and the response of U.S. courts and human rights experts. We then address the challenges and human rights responsibilities of physicians confronting this prison practice. We conclude by urging professional organizations to adopt formal positions against the prolonged isolation of prisoners with serious mental illness. PMID:20305083

  4. Previous Homelessness as a Risk Factor for Recovery from Serious Mental Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Castellow, Jennifer; Kloos, Bret; Townley, Greg

    2015-08-01

    This paper argues that the experience of homelessness is inherently traumatic and thus has the potential to affect the manifestation of mental illness. The experiences related to being homeless might act as specific and unique sources of vulnerability. This study included 424 people diagnosed with serious mental illnesses living in supported housing programs in South Carolina. Three hierarchical regression analyses measuring the impact of homelessness on three types of outcomes revealed the following: (1) ever experiencing homelessness as well as the amount of time spent homeless were related to higher levels of psychiatric distress, (2) ever experiencing homelessness was related to higher levels of reported alcohol use, and (3) total amount of time spent homeless was related to lower perceived recovery from mental illness. These findings suggest that experiencing homelessness might contribute to psychosocial vulnerability to negative mental health outcomes. Future investigations examining this concept of risk and vulnerability as a result of homelessness are in order. PMID:25566947

  5. African American Women's Beliefs About Mental Illness, Stigma, and Preferred Coping Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Heidrich, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, including family-related stress and social stress due to racism, is cyclical, and has serious consequences but can be controlled by treatment. Participants endorsed low perceptions of stigma. Major preferred coping strategies included praying and seeking medical and mental health care. Age differences were found in all variables except stigma. PMID:19650070

  6. The Recognition of Mental Illness, Schizophrenia Identification, and Help-Seeking from Friends in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Syudo; Ando, Shuntaro; Shimodera, Shinji; Endo, Kaori; Okazaki, Yuji; Asukai, Nozomu; Usami, Satoshi; Nishida, Atsushi; Sasaki, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The recognition of mental illness without anticipating stigma might encourage adolescents’ help-seeking behavior. We aimed to identify the relationship between mental illness identification and adolescents’ intention to seek help if faced with mental illness. Method We examined the relationships between help-seeking intentions and recognition of mental illness (RMI) without correctly identifying the disease name, as well as correct labelling of schizophrenia (LSC) using a vignette about a person with schizophrenia in a cross-sectional survey of 9,484 Japanese high-school students aged 15–18 years. Results When compared with adolescents who were unable to recognize the mental illness (UMI) in the vignette, those in the RMI group reported they were significantly more likely to seek help from friends (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.17–1.41; P < 0.001) and expressed an increased likelihood to seek help from professionals (all P < .05). Those in the LSC group reported they were significantly less likely to exhibit help-seeking behavior (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.65–0.92, P = 0.003) and expressed an increased likelihood of help-seeking from health professionals than the UMI group (all P < .05). Conclusion The ability to recognize mental illness without identifying the disease may increase help-seeking from friends, while the ability to identify the disease as schizophrenia might decrease late adolescents’ help-seeking. To promote help-seeking behavior among adolescents, improving their ability to recognize mental illness generally is recommended. PMID:26967510

  7. [Stigmatization on the way to recovery in mental illness - the factors associated with social functioning].

    PubMed

    Podogrodzka-Niell, Magdalena; Tyszkowska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Persons with mental disorders often experience stigmatization. There is a number of social factors that may affect the process of recovery and at the same time, in certain circumstances, could be a source of stigma. Mentally ill may find strength in themselves to fight against the disease or the opposite - can internalize the negative attitudes of the society and become self-stigmatized. The patient's family, on the one hand, is often the only source of social support, on the other hand, can experience a destructive influence of courtesy-stigma. Mentally ill have to face social reluctance which is reinforced by stereotypical media coverage of mental disorders. The social network of patients is poor and often limited to a family system. Negative views about persons diagnosed with mental illness are most visible in the labour market. Patients experience many types of discrimination at work,have lower employment rates and lower mean wages than healthy ones. Structural discrimination is a form of stigma which is revealed in underfunded and inefficient system of mental health care. All the social factors mentioned above are necessary for recovery (positive stimulation of functioning), but can also increase stigma and become a significant barrier in the recovery of psychiatric patients. This paper highlights the complex and ambiguous nature of the relationship between social factors and the recovery of the mentally ill basing on the data from the literature. PMID:25717489

  8. Integrated IMR for Psychiatric and General Medical Illness for Adults Aged 50 or Older With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Stephen J.; Pratt, Sarah I.; Mueser, Kim T.; Naslund, John A.; Wolfe, Rosemarie S.; Santos, Meghan; Xie, Haiyi; Riera, Erik G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Self-management is promoted as a strategy for improving outcomes for serious mental illness as well as for chronic general medical conditions. This study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of an eight-month program combining training in self-management for both psychiatric and general medical illness, including embedded nurse care management. Methods Participants were 71 middle-aged and older adults (mean age=60.3±6.5) with serious mental illness and chronic general medical conditions who were randomly assigned to receive integrated Illness Management and Recovery (I-IMR) (N=36) or usual care (N=35). Feasibility was determined by attendance at I-IMR and nurse sessions. Effectiveness outcomes were measured two and six months after the intervention (ten- and 14-month follow-ups) and included self-management of psychiatric and general medical illness, participation in psychiatric and general medical encounters, and self-reported acute health care utilization. Results I-IMR participants attended 15.8±9.5 I-IMR and 8.2±5.9 nurse sessions, with 75% attending at least ten I-IMR and five nurse sessions. Compared with usual care, I-IMR was associated with greater improvements in participant and clinician ratings for psychiatric illness self-management, greater diabetes self-management, and an increased preference for detailed diagnosis and treatment information during primary care encounters. The proportion of I-IMR participants with at least one psychiatric or general medical hospitalization decreased significantly between baseline and ten- and 14-month follow-ups. Conclusions I-IMR is a feasible intervention for this at-risk group and demonstrated potential effectiveness by improving self-management of psychiatric illness and diabetes and by reducing the proportion of participants requiring psychi atric or general medical hospitalizations. PMID:24292559

  9. Intimate partner abuse before and during pregnancy as risk factors for postpartum mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although research has established the profound effects that intimate partner abuse can have on postpartum mental health, little is known regarding how this association may change as a function of the timing and type of abuse. This study examined associations of psychological, physical and sexual abuse experienced as adults before and during pregnancy with symptoms of postpartum mental health problems in a non-clinical sample of women. Methods English-speaking mothers aged 18 years and older in the metropolitan area of a large, Western Canadian city were recruited to participate in a study of women’s health after pregnancy. The study was advertised in hospitals, local newspapers, community venues, and relevant websites. One-hundred women completed standardized, self-report questionnaires during semi-structured interviews conducted by female research assistants at approximately 2 months postpartum. In addition to questions about their general health and well-being, participants answered questions about their experiences of intimate partner abuse and about their mental health during the postpartum period. Results Almost two-thirds (61.0%) of women reported postpartum mental health symptoms above normal levels, with 47.0% reporting symptoms at moderate or higher levels. The majority reported some form of intimate partner abuse before pregnancy (84.0%) and more than two-thirds (70.0%), during pregnancy; however, the abuse was typically minor in nature. Multivariate models revealed that women who experienced intimate partner abuse—whether before or during pregnancy—reported higher levels of postpartum mental health problems; however, associations differed as a function of the timing and type of abuse, as well as specific mental health symptoms. Multivariate models also showed that as the number of types of intimate partner abuse experienced increased, so did the negative effects on postpartum mental health. Conclusions Results of this study provide

  10. Effects of contact with treatment users on mental illness stigma: evidence from university roommate assignments.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Daniel; Downs, Marilyn F; Golberstein, Ezra

    2012-09-01

    Mental illness stigma refers to negative stereotypes and prejudices about people with mental illness, and is a widespread phenomenon with damaging social, psychological, and economic consequences. Despite considerable policy attention, mental illness stigma does not appear to have declined significantly in recent years. Interpersonal contact with persons with mental illness has been identified as a promising approach to reducing mental illness stigma. This study investigates the effect of contact with mental health treatment users on stigma using an observational research design that is free of self-selection bias. The research design is based on the quasi-experiment in which university students are assigned to live together as roommates. Survey data were collected from first-year undergraduates at two large universities in the United States (N = 1605). Multivariable regressions were used to estimate the effect of assignment to a roommate with a history of mental health treatment on a brief measure of stigmatizing attitudes. Contact with a treatment user caused a modest increase in stigma (standardized effect size = 0.15, p = 0.03). This effect was present among students without a prior treatment history of their own, but not among those with a prior history. The findings indicate that naturalistic contact alone does not necessarily yield a reduction in mental illness stigma. This may help explain why stigma has not declined in societies such as the United States even as treatment use has risen substantially. The findings also highlight the importance of isolating the specific components, beyond contact per se, that are necessary to reduce stigma in contact-based interventions. PMID:22703886

  11. Maternal mental illness and the safety and stability of maltreated children

    PubMed Central

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Objective Children of mothers with mental illness are at risk for multiple untoward outcomes, including child maltreatment and foster care placement. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the association between maternal mental illness and children’s long term safety and stability. Methods A multi-sector administrative dataset from the Department of Social Services (DSS) and Department of Mental Health (DMH) was analyzed. The sample was 4,895 low income families (mother and child dyads) first reported to child welfare in 1993 or 1994. Families were followed until March of 2009. Dates of new report and foster care placement were obtained from DSS data. ICD-09 or ICD-10 diagnostic codes were obtained from Department of Mental Health data. Schizophrenic disorders, episodic mood disorders, anxiety disorders and personality disorders were examined. Results New reports were more likely for children of mothers with mental illness, regardless of diagnosis. While overall 67% of children had a new report over the course of their childhood, rates ranged from 80–90% for children of mothers with mental illness and occurred within a shorter time frame than for other children. In the multivariate models, mood (HR=1.41, p<.001) and anxiety disorders (HR=1.32, p<.05) placed children at greater risk for new reports. The proportion of children with foster placements was more than double for children of mothers with mental illness than for other children. In the multivariate model, anxiety disorders were strongly associated with the risk of placement (HR = 1.75, p < .001). Conclusions and Practice Implications Important differences in safety and stability were found between children of mothers with and without mental illnesses, as well as some variability across diagnoses. Since these mothers had already received services our findings suggest that access is not enough. The services they are receiving or have received may be an ineffective approach to helping them parent

  12. Assessing administrative costs of mental health and substance abuse services.

    PubMed

    Broyles, Robert W; Narine, Lutchmie; Robertson, Madeline J

    2004-05-01

    Increasing competition in the market for mental health and substance abuse MHSA services and the potential to realize significant administrative savings have created an imperative to monitor, evaluate, and control spending on administrative functions. This paper develops a generic model that evaluates spending on administrative personnel by a group of providers. The precision of the model is demonstrated by examining a set of data assembled from five MHSA service providers. The model examines a differential cost construction derived from inter-facility comparisons of administrative expenses. After controlling for the scale of operations, the results enable MHSA programs to control the efficiency of administrative personnel and related rates of compensation. The results indicate that the efficiency of using the administrative complement and the scale of operations represent the lion's share of the total differential cost. The analysis also indicates that a modest improvement in the use of administrative personnel results in substantial cost savings, an increase in the net cash flow derived from operations, an improvement in the fiscal performance of the provider, and a decline in opportunity costs that assume the form of foregone direct patient care. PMID:15379386

  13. "What matters most:" a cultural mechanism moderating structural vulnerability and moral experience of mental illness stigma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lawrence H; Chen, Fang-pei; Sia, Kathleen Janel; Lam, Jonathan; Lam, Katherine; Ngo, Hong; Lee, Sing; Kleinman, Arthur; Good, Byron

    2014-02-01

    To understand Chinese immigrants' experiences with mental illness stigma and mental health disparities, we integrate frameworks of 'structural vulnerability' and 'moral experience' to identify how interaction between structural discrimination and cultural engagements might shape stigma. Fifty Chinese immigrants, including 64% Fuzhounese immigrants who experienced particularly harsh socio-economical deprivation, from two Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units in New York City were interviewed from 2006 to 2010 about their experiences of mental illness stigma. Interview questions were derived from 4 stigma measures, covering various life domains. Participants were asked to elaborate their rating of measure items, and thus provided open-ended, narrative data. Analysis of the narrative data followed a deductive approach, guided by frameworks of structural discrimination and "what matters most" - a cultural mechanism signifying meaningful participation in the community. After identifying initial coding classifications, analysis focused on the interface between the two main concepts. Results indicated that experiences with mental illness stigma were contingent on the degree to which immigrants were able to participate in work to achieve "what mattered most" in their cultural context, i.e., accumulation of financial resources. Structural vulnerability - being situated in an inferior position when facing structural discrimination - made access to affordable mental health services challenging. As such, structural discrimination increased healthcare spending and interfered with financial accumulation, often resulting in future treatment nonadherence and enforcing mental health disparities. Study participants' internalizing their structurally-vulnerable position further led to a depreciated sense of self, resulting in a reduced capacity to advocate for healthcare system changes. Paradoxically, the multi-layered structural marginalization experienced by Chinese

  14. Mental ill health in the elderly: medical students' social representations in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Bruno; Foster, Juliet

    2014-12-01

    Objective This study aims to explore medical students' social representations of mental ill health in older adults. Method It comprises an exploratory and qualitative investigation based on the theory of social representations. Two focus groups with pre-clinical medics (group 1, N=4; group 2, N=4) and 10 individual interviews with clinical medical students were conducted. Thematic analysis at a latent level explored meanings and differences between groups. Results Three overarching themes reflect participants' representations of mental health problems in later life - mental ill health in old age, polarisation of care, and challenges to care. Primary health care appears as an important strategy to overcome barriers to mental health care in the community. Nevertheless, disqualifying representations, stigma and organization of services constitute the main challenges to quality mental health care in later life. Conclusion This paper highlights the need to address cultural and organizational barriers to promote quality care. PMID:25830747

  15. Stigma and mental disorder: conceptions of illness, public attitudes, personal disclosure, and social policy.

    PubMed

    Hinshaw, S P; Cicchetti, D

    2000-01-01

    The end of the last millennium witnessed an unprecedented degree of public awareness regarding mental disorder as well as motivation for policy change. Like Sartorius, we contend that the continued stigmatization of mental illness may well be the central issue facing the field, as nearly all attendant issues (e.g., standards of care, funding for basic and applied research efforts) emanate from professional, societal, and personal attitudes towards persons with aberrant behavior. We discuss empirical and narrative evidence for stigmatization as well as historical trends regarding conceptualizations of mental illness, including the field's increasing focus on genetic and neurobiological causes and determinants of mental disorder. We next define stigma explicitly, noting both the multiple levels (community, societal, familial, individual) through which stigma operates to dehumanize and delegitimize individuals with mental disorders and the impact of stigma across development. Key developmental psychopathology principles are salient in this regard. We express concern over the recent oversimplification of mental illness as "brain disorder," supporting instead transactional models which account for the dynamic interplay of genes, neurobiology, environment, and self across development and which are consistent with both compassion and societal responsibility. Finally, we consider educational and policy-related initiatives regarding the destigmatization of mental disorder. We conclude that attitudes and policy regarding mental disorder reflect, in microcosmic form, two crucial issues for the next century and millennium: (a) tolerance for diversity (vs. pressure for conformity) and (b) intentional direction of our species' evolution, given fast-breaking genetic advances. PMID:11202034

  16. [Depression in older adults: the National Mental Care Project for People with Physical Illness].

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroto; Fukuda, Koji; Hattori, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    Political attention is being increasingly directed to mental health in Japan. Mental disorders are now the fifth priority disease after cancer, stroke, acute myocardial infarction and diabetes for national medical services since April 2013. Each prefecture has to implement strategic mental healthcare plans at the regional level. With the increase in co-morbid mental and physical illnesses, patient information should be shared between psychiatric and non-psychiatric healthcare providers, and coordination is required in the healthcare systems. A better understanding of mental health between patients and medical staffs could contribute to improved access to psychiatric services in the integrated mental health care system. Collaborative care programs focusing on depression screening and management in the Mental Health Care Project for Patients with Physical Illness have been launched among six national specialized care and research centers (cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, child care, geriatric care and neurology and psychiatry) since 2012. These efforts to integrate mental health care into the general health care system would help to improve psychiatric care for elderly patients with physical illnesses. PMID:24622214

  17. Identification of a Common Neurobiological Substrate for Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Goodkind, Madeleine; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Oathes, Desmond J.; Jiang, Ying; Chang, Andrew; Jones-Hagata, Laura B.; Ortega, Brissa N.; Zaiko, Yevgeniya V.; Roach, Erika L.; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S.; Grieve, Stuart M.; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac; Fox, Peter T.; Etkin, Amit

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Psychiatric diagnoses are currently distinguished based on sets of specific symptoms. However, genetic and clinical analyses find similarities across a wide variety of diagnoses, suggesting that a common neurobiological substrate may exist across mental illness. OBJECTIVE To conduct a meta-analysis of structural neuroimaging studies across multiple psychiatric diagnoses, followed by parallel analyses of 3 large-scale healthy participant data sets to help interpret structural findings in the meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES PubMed was searched to identify voxel-based morphometry studies through July 2012 comparing psychiatric patients to healthy control individuals for the meta-analysis. The 3 parallel healthy participant data sets included resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, a database of activation foci across thousands of neuroimaging experiments, and a data set with structural imaging and cognitive task performance data. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they reported voxel-based morphometry differences between patients with an Axis I diagnosis and control individuals in stereotactic coordinates across the whole brain, did not present predominantly in childhood, and had at least 10 studies contributing to that diagnosis (or across closely related diagnoses). The meta-analysis was conducted on peak voxel coordinates using an activation likelihood estimation approach. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We tested for areas of common gray matter volume increase or decrease across Axis I diagnoses, as well as areas differing between diagnoses. Follow-up analyses on other healthy participant data sets tested connectivity related to regions arising from the meta-analysis and the relationship of gray matter volume to cognition. RESULTS Based on the voxel-based morphometry meta-analysis of 193 studies comprising 15 892 individuals across 6 diverse diagnostic groups (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression

  18. "Tangled wires in the head": older migrant Chinese's perception of mental illness in Britain.

    PubMed

    Li, Sarah; Hatzidimitriadou, Eleni; Psoinos, Maria

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the authors explored Cantonese-speaking older Chinese migrants knowledge, attitudes and expectations regarding mental illness. They obtained verbatim data from semi-structured interviews with eight participants recruited from London-based Chinese and church communities in Britain. They analyzed the data using the principles of Grounded Theory and in-depth content analysis. They examined cultural idioms in participants' accounts. Findings suggested that Western diagnostic categories of mental illness were alien to participants. They had a culturally constructed way of defining and characterizing mental illness. Participants used idioms of 'nerve', 'mood', 'behavior', 'personality', 'normal life', 'compassion' and the idiom of 'others' to construct an alternative world for stigma management. They erected an invisible but permeable barrier to limit access to their normal world. The role of traditional Chinese culture of Confucianism was significant in shaping perceptions and conceptions of mental illness. This article offered another perspective on the alternative world of Chinese migrants' cultural understandings of mental illness, an area with limited understanding at present. The authors discussed important implications for future research and social policy. PMID:24984910

  19. Undergraduate Nursing Students’ Attitudes towards Mental Illness: Implications for Specific Academic Education

    PubMed Central

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Pashupu, Dharma Reddy; Ramachandra; Badamath, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health care professions are not immune to social prejudices and surprisingly share the general public's attitude attributed to people with mental illness. Nursing students are future health manpower research related to nursing students attitudes toward mental illness is limited. Aim: The aim of this following study is to examine the undergraduate nursing students’ attitudes toward people with mental illness. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive design was adopted for the present study. A total of 148 undergraduate nursing students were purposively selected to complete self-reported questionnaires. Results: The nursing students have significant positive attitudes towards mental illness in three of the six attitudes factors: Restrictiveness (8.59), benevolence (29.8) and stigmatization (9.18). However, these students have negative attitudes in separatism (27.1), stereotype (11.5) and pessimistic predictions (11.7) domains as they rated high. Conclusion: Academic education in this area must be planned so as to favor the change of the attitudes that include greater use of teaching strategies that challenge beliefs and assumptions and promote a commitment to provide holistic care to people with mental illness. PMID:25336767

  20. [Care for the mentally ill in the Norwegian counties Troms and Finnmark 1891-1940].

    PubMed

    Fause, Ashild

    2008-12-18

    The article discusses care for the mentally ill, as it emerged and developed in Troms and Finnmark counties in 1891 - 1940. The main objective was to document how publicly supported private care functioned with respect to the well-being of the mentally ill and their situation. How mental illness was defined and perceived by close relatives, care providers, medical practitioners and public authorities was also assessed. Medical records written by district physicians have been central sources; other sources were records from the county council proceedings and public statistics on poverty and health. The private care arrangement was the dominant type of care for the mentally ill in the region throughout the period. This arrangement was subject to public supervision, but its functioning depended on periodic support from somatic institutions and even prisons. The study shows that private care was a well-functioning arrangement in many cases. The mentally ill were often included in the household work and daily-life practices on the farm. The private care system however displayed wide variations, as its quality depended on the care providers, district physicians and last but not least economic support from the local community. PMID:19092966