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1

Facts on Mentally Ill Chemical Abusers. Clearinghouse Fact Sheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals are considered mentally ill chemical abusers (MICAs) when they exhibit psychotic behaviors and are actively abusing alcohol and/or drugs; are actively psychotic with a history of alcohol or drug abuse; and/or are actively abusing alcohol or other drugs and have a history of severe psychiatric diagnoses. Although some practitioners use…

Fiorentino, Nancy; Reilly, Phyllis

2

Treatment of substance abuse in severely mentally ill patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance abuse is the most common comorbid complication of severe mental illness. Current clinical research converges on several emerging principles of treatment that address the scope, pace, intensity, and structure of dual-diagnosis programs. They include a) assertive outreach to facilitate engagement and participation in substance abuse treatment, b) close monitoring to provide structure and social reinforcement, c) integrating substance abuse

Robert E. Drake; Stephen J. Bartels; Gregory B. Teague; Douglas L. Noordsy; Robin E. Clark

1993-01-01

3

Mental Illness: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with mental illness notes the incidence of mental illness and types of conditions. The incidence of alcohol and other drug abuse problems in this population is discussed, emphasizing the difficulty in dealing with the dual problem of substance abuse and chronic mental illness.…

VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

4

New directions for treatment research on sequelae of sexual abuse in persons with severe mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual abuse in childhood is increasingly recognized as an important etiologic component in a number of psychiatric disorders. One-quarter to one-third of all female children suffer sexual abuse before their eighteenth birthday, and at least one half of women with severe mental illness acknowledge such events. An even higher percentage of a particularly vulnerable group, dually diagnosed homeless women, appear

Stanley D. Rosenberg; Robert E. Drake; Kim Mueser

1996-01-01

5

Group therapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse who are severely and persistently mentally ill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few researchers have investigated the effectiveness of long-term group psychotherapy with women who have a core issue of childhood sexual abuse, particularly those who are designated as being severely and persistently mentally ill (SPMI). Women so labeled are usually treated within a biological framework. Medications and supportive care are often the preferred therapies, denying the necessity of dealing with

Maryhelen C Kriedler; Richard L Einsporn; Melissa K Zupancic; Colleen Masterson

1999-01-01

6

Group Therapy for Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse Who Are Severely and Persistently Mentally Ill  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few researchers have investigated the effectiveness of long-term group psychotherapy with women who have a core issue of childhood sexual abuse, particularly those who are designated as being severely and persistently mentally ill (SPMI). Women so labeled are usually treated within a biological framework. Medications and supportive care are often the preferred therapies, denying the necessity of dealing with

Maryhelen C. Kriedler; Richard L. Einsporn; Melissa K. Zupancic; Colleen Masterson

1999-01-01

7

The effects of early sexual abuse on adult risky sexual behaviors among persons with severe mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThere were two aims: first, to examine the relationship between prior sexual abuse and three types of adult risky sexual behaviors [(1) ever traded sex for drugs or money, (2) had unprotected sex in the past 6 months, and (3) frequency of unprotected sex in the past 6 months] among persons with severe mental illness (SMI), and second, to examine

Richard A. Van Dorn; Sarah Mustillo; Eric B. Elbogen; Shannon Dorsey; Jeffrey W. Swanson; Marvin S. Swartz

2005-01-01

8

Comorbidity: Addiction and Other Mental Illnesses  

MedlinePLUS

... Other Mental Illnesses » Letter From the Director Comorbidity: Addiction and Other Mental Illnesses Email Facebook Twitter Letter From ... diseases commonly co-occur with drug abuse and addiction (e.g., HIV, hepatitis C, cancer, cardiovascular disease), ...

9

Substance Abuse Recovery after Experiencing Homelessness and Mental Illness: Case Studies of Change Over Time  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper addresses how consumers with dual diagnosis, who were formerly homeless but are now living in supportive housing, understand their recovery from substance abuse (i.e., substance abuse or dependence). Specifically, this study examined: What can be learned about substance abuse recovery from consumers considered to be doing well; how past substance abuse fits into their present-day narratives; and how (if at all) policies of harm reduction versus abstinence are regarded as affecting recovery efforts. Methods As part of a federally-funded qualitative study, 38 individuals who met criteria for having achieved a measure of success in mental health recovery were purposively sampled from two supportive housing agencies – one using a harm reduction and the other an abstinence model. Researchers conducted in-depth interviews and used case study analysis, the latter including the development of case summaries and data matrices, to focus on substance abuse recovery in the larger context of participants’ lives. Results Recovery from substance abuse was depicted as occurring either through discrete decisions or gradual processes; achieving recovery was distinct from maintaining recovery. Emergent themes related to achievement included: (a) pivotal events and people (b) maturation, and (c) institutionalization. Central themes to maintaining recovery were: (a) housing, (b) self-help, and (c) the influence of significant others. Conclusions These findings capture a complex picture of overcoming substance abuse that largely took place outside of formal treatment and was heavily dependent on broader contexts. Equally important is that consumers themselves did not necessarily view substance abuse recovery as a defining feature of their life story. Indeed, recovery from substance abuse was seen as overcoming one adversity among many others during their troubled life courses. PMID:22962547

Padgett, Deborah K.; Smith, Bikki Tran; Tiderington, Emmy

2012-01-01

10

The Cost-Effectiveness of Criminal Justice Diversion Programs for People with Serious Mental Illness Co-Occurring with Substance AbuseFour Case Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many cities, counties, and states have criminal justice diversion or jail diversion programs, in which those committing low-level offenses and who have mental illness or substance abuse are diverted from the criminal justice system into treatment. However, there is little existing evidence on the cost and cost-effectiveness of such programs. This article presents the first such estimates for four sites.

Alexander J. Cowell; Nahama Broner; Randolph Dupont

2004-01-01

11

[Mental illness and pregnancy].  

PubMed

Pregnancy was once thought a period of bliss devoid of mental illness. We now know this is not so. It is well documented that pregnancy and the peripartum are not only a time when preexisting mental illness will persist but that it is also a high-risk period for renewed episodes of mental illness, whether de novo or relapse. In this paper, we will describe the three main axis of management of maternal mental illness during the peripartum: maternal psychiatric illness, fetal, neonatal and infant development and future mother-infant relationship. We will give an overview of how to organize care for mothers with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Good practice management of psychotropic medication during this period will be described. Finally the importance of networking and multidisciplinary management of these situations will be underlined. PMID:23236865

Apter, Gisèle; Garez, Valérie; Medjkane, François

2012-09-01

12

Treating substance abuse in the context of severe and persistent mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with comorbid substance use and major mental disorders are treated frequently in the mental health system. Treatment models relevant for this subset of patients have emerged in recent years, however, few have been validated empirically and so relatively few sites benefit from this treatment development activity. Important additional sources of information about good treatment practices are the clinicians who

Kate B Carey; Daniel M Purnine; Stephen A Maisto; Michael P Carey; Jeffrey S Simons

2000-01-01

13

Disparities in Access to Substance Abuse Treatment among People with Intellectual Disabilities and Serious Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have experienced increasing levels of community participation since deinstitutionalization. This freedom has facilitated community inclusion, access to alcohol and drugs, and the potential for developing substance abuse (SA) disorders. People with ID, who are known to have high rates of co-occurring…

Slayter, Elspeth M.

2010-01-01

14

Working effectively with patients with comorbid mental illness and substance abuse: a case study using a structured motivational behavioural approach  

PubMed Central

This case describes the use of innovative person-centred motivational behaviour change tools to enhance chronic condition self-management with a person with chronic paranoid schizophrenia, significant drug abuse and multiple psychosocial issues. In standard care, the complexity of this patient’s presentation, their cognitive impairment level and history of violence would likely exclude them from many therapies and treatment programs as unsuitable or in the “too hard” basket. In fact, using a motivational and highly person-centred approach proved to be extremely necessary and rewarding for the person and their mental health worker. This approach provided a clear structure, actual tools and a clear rationale for what many would argue, yet is often ill-defined, was “just good clinical practice”. However, it also facilitated the development of “something special” in the relationship between the person and their worker that is central to person-centred care. Through a semistructured, motivational, sequential process that encouraged gradual disclosure and greater self-awareness by the client and active listening by the worker, greater collaboration and shared responsibility was enhanced. PMID:21686687

Lawn, Sharon; Pols, Rene G; Battersby, Malcolm W

2009-01-01

15

Mentally Ill Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Estimates suggest that about 15% of all children have some form of mental disturbance. Potential causes can be of a physical, psychological, or environmental origin. Symptoms which indicate that a child needs professional help usually involve emotional overreaction to changes. Diagnosis of a child evidencing symptoms of mental illness should take…

Blai, Boris, Jr.

16

Hinduism, marriage and mental illness  

PubMed Central

For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262

Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

2013-01-01

17

The Stigma of Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

2008-01-01

18

Housing First Services for People Who Are Homeless With Co-Occurring Serious Mental Illness and Substance Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on homeless adults with severe mental illness is generally silent on a critical issue surrounding service delivery—the contrast between housing first and treatment first program philosophies. This study draws on data from a longitudinal experiment contrasting a housing first program (which offers immediate permanent housing without requiring treatment compliance or abstinence) and treatment first (standard care) programs for

Deborah K. Padgett; Leyla Gulcur; Sam Tsemberis

2006-01-01

19

The Neuropsychology of Mental Illness  

E-print Network

The Neuropsychology of Mental Illness Edited by Stephen J. Wood Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre The neuropsychology of mental illness / edited by Stephen J. Wood, Nicholas B. Allen, Christos Pantelis. p. ; cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-521-86289-9 (hardback) 1. Mental illness

Kuperberg, Gina

20

Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston  

PubMed Central

In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183

Szasz, T

2001-01-01

21

Sexual risk behaviours and sexual abuse in persons with severe mental illness in Uganda: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) engage in risky sexual behaviours and have high prevalence of HIV in high-income countries. Little is known about sexual behaviours and HIV risk among persons with SMI in sub-Saharan Africa. In this qualitative study we explored how SMI may influence sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks in Uganda. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7 male and 13 female psychiatric patients aged 18-49 years. Participants were interviewed in hospital when clinically stable and capable of giving informed consent. Interview transcripts were analysed using manifest content analysis, generating the categories: (1) casual sex during illness episodes, (2) rape by non-partners, (3) exploitation by partners, (4) non-monogamous partners, and (5) sexual inactivity. Our findings suggest that SMI exacerbated sexual vulnerability in the women interviewed, by contributing to casual sex, to exploitative and non-monogamous sexual relationships, and to sexual assault by non-partners. No link could be established between SMI and increased sexual risk behaviours in the men interviewed, due to a small sample of men, and given that men's accounts showed little variability. Our findings also suggest that SMI caused sexual inactivity due to decreased sexual desire, and in men, due to difficulties forming an intimate relationship. Overall, our study highlights how SMI and gender inequality can contribute to the shaping of sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks, including HIV risk, among persons with SMI in this Ugandan setting. PMID:22253770

Lundberg, Patric; Johansson, Eva; Okello, Elialilia; Allebeck, Peter; Thorson, Anna

2012-01-01

22

Some myths about "mental illness".  

PubMed

Radical psychiatrists and others assert that mental illness is a myth. The opening and closing portions of the article deal with the impact such an argument has had in law and psychiatry. The body of the article discusses the five following versions of the myth argument prevalent in radical psychiatry: (1) that there is no such thing as mental illness; (2) that those called "mentally ill" are really as rational as everyone else, only with different aims, that the only reasons anyone ever thought differently was (3) because of unsophisticated category mistakes or (4) because of an adherence to the epistemology of a sick society; and (5) that the phrase "mental illness" is used to mask value judgments about others' behavior in pseudoscientific respectability. Reasons are given for rejecting each of these versions of the argument that mental illness is a myth. PMID:1200768

Moore, M S

1975-12-01

23

Access to Primary Care for Homeless Veterans with Serious Mental Illness or Substance Abuse: A Follow-up Evaluation of Co-Located Primary Care and Homeless Social Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the hypothesis that a demonstration clinic integrating homeless, primary care, and mental health services for homeless\\u000a veterans with serious mental illness or substance abuse would improve medical health care access and physical health status.\\u000a A quasi-experimental design comparing a ‘usual VA care’ group before the demonstration clinic opened (N = 130) and the ‘integrated care’ group (N = 130). Regression models indicated

James McGuire; Lillian Gelberg; Jessica Blue-Howells; Robert A. Rosenheck

2009-01-01

24

Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

1974-01-01

25

Implementing dual diagnosis services for clients with severe mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 20 years of development and research, dual diagnosis services for clients with severe mental illness are emerging as an evidence-based practice. Effective dual diagnosis programs combine mental health and substance abuse interventions that are tailored for the complex needs of clients with comorbid disorders. The authors describe the critical components of effective programs, which include a comprehensive, long-term, staged

Robert E. Drake; Susan M. Essock; Andrew Shaner; Kate B. Carey; Kenneth Minkoff; Lenore Kola; David Lynde; Fred C. Osher; Robin E. Clark; Lawrence Rickards

2001-01-01

26

Characteristics of mentally ill offenders from 100 psychiatric court reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing probability that the psychiatrist will, willingly or not, come into contact with mentally ill offenders in the course of their practice. There are increasing rates of violence, substance abuse and other psychiatric disorders that are of legal importance. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the rates of different mental disorders in 100

Yasser A Elsayed; Mohamed Al-Zahrani; Mahmoud M Rashad

2010-01-01

27

U.S. Adult Mental Illness Surveillance Report  

MedlinePLUS

... What's this? Submit Button CDC Features U.S. Adult Mental Illness Surveillance Report Share Compartir Mental illness is an ... illness in the U.S. adult population. What is mental illness? The term mental illness refers collectively to all ...

28

Public Conceptions of Serious Mental Illness and Substance Abuse, Their Causes and Treatments: Findings from the 1996 General Social Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We examined the degree to which lay beliefs about the causes of disorders may predict beliefs about what constitutes appropriate treatment. Methods. We analyzed randomized vignette data from the MacArthur Mental Health Module of the 1996 General Social Survey (n = 1010). Results. Beliefs in biological causes (i.e., chemical imbalance, genes) were significantly associated with the endorsement of professional,

Sara Kuppin; Richard M. Carpiano

2006-01-01

29

Recovery From Serious Mental Illness: Trajectories, Characteristics,  

E-print Network

Recovery From Serious Mental Illness: Trajectories, Characteristics, and the Role of Mental Health trajectories of recovery from serious mental illnesses. Methods: A total of 177 members (92 women; 85 men with mental health clinicians, resources and strains, satisfaction with medications, and mental health service

Squire, Larry R.

30

Mentally Ill Elderly Jail Detainees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively little research has focused specifically on elderly offenders with severe mental illness. This study assessed psychosocial and legal issues in 83 male detainees, age 62 and above, who were hospitalized on a psychiatric forensic unit. This group included 38 Non-Hispanic whites, 31 blacks, 12 Hispanics, and 2 from other groups. Forty percent were diagnosed with a psychotic disorder. A

Cheryl Paradis; Nahama Broner; Lisa-Marie Maher; Thomas Orourke

2000-01-01

31

Mental Health Continuum Healthy Reacting Injured Illness  

E-print Network

Mental Health Continuum Healthy Reacting Injured Illness Calm, steady Normal mood fluctuations Fit, fed, rested In control (physically, mentally, emotionally) Performing well Behaving ethically or withdrawing Neglecting hygiene Healthy Reacting Injured Illness Get to know your staff Foster healthy work

Brownstone, Rob

32

The epidemiology of mental illness in Afro-Americans.  

PubMed

The epidemiologic study of mental illness among Afro-Americans has progressed since the antebellum period when the rate of mental illness among free Afro-Americans living in the North was inflated to justify continued slavery. Community-wide surveys conducted after World War II demonstrated that when socioeconomic variables were controlled, the rate of mental illness among Afro-Americans was no higher than that of other groups. The rates of mental illness and substance abuse of Afro-Americans vary according to socioeconomic class and are also related to differential family structure, early performance in school, and antisocial behavior of fathers. Despite progress, undersampling of middle-class Afro-Americans and poor, unemployed, young, urban Afro-American males are consistent deficiencies of surveys that even the ambitious NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program seems to share. PMID:3510954

Williams, D H

1986-01-01

33

A Dynamic Cycle of Familial Mental Illness.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present A Dynamic Cycle of Familial Mental Illness; an innovative framework, which considers family members' experiences and responses to mental illness. There is an acknowledged discourse noting parental experiences of mental illness alongside a growing body of knowledge acknowledging children's needs while living with parental mental illness. However, there is a paucity of literature that makes reference to the concept of familial mental illness and the cyclic interface of parental and child distress and symptoms. The model is supported by published research studies from several differing disciplines to demonstrate the relationship between parent and child experiences and to synthesise the published short- and longer-term possible impact of familial mental illness. An extensive search of the literature using recognised search engines, keywords and phrases has been undertaken, to generate an appropriate literature base for this work. This literature demonstrates how a child's possible emotional distancing as a response to parental mental illness could increase parental distress. A Dynamic Cycle of Familial Mental Illness adopts the underpinning philosophy of a Stress Vulnerability Model of Mental Illness, which assumes that predisposing factors and increased stress for a parent may have possible links to exacerbation of parental mental distress and symptomology. We advocate for further research of familial mental illness, and argue for a family approach to mental health assessment and treatment in mainstream health and social care sectors. PMID:25426750

Murphy, Gillian; Peters, Kathleen; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra

2014-12-01

34

Blasphemy laws and mental illness in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

There is emerging evidence that individuals who are mentally ill are overrepresented in the group of defendants prosecuted under the blasphemy laws of Pakistan. This article discusses the background of blasphemy legislation in Pakistan, and proposes causal interactions between underlying mental illness in the defendant and prosecution for blasphemy. It sketches possible legal safeguards for such blasphemy defendants with mental illness in mental health legislation. PMID:25237489

Husain, Muzaffar

2014-01-01

35

Affective illness in substance abusers.  

PubMed

The evaluation and treatment of substance abusers are complicated tasks, requiring a multifaceted approach. In addition to the patient's substance abuse problems, a substantial minority appear to be suffering from concurrent, nondrug-related psychiatric disorders. The early identification of such individuals allows for the development of specific treatment strategies that address both the substance abuse and the associated nondrug psychopathology. On the other hand, attention to nondrug psychopathology should not preclude our simultaneously addressing the patient's substance abuse problem. Thus, manic depressive patients who are also alcoholic may need a treatment program that includes alcoholism counseling. Alcoholics Anonymous, and chronic administration of disulfiram in addition to lithium carbonate and a supportive psychotherapeutic relationship. As in other areas of medicine, attention to the "whole patient" is the sine qua non of good treatment. PMID:2877447

Mirin, S M; Weiss, R D

1986-09-01

36

"Helpful People in Touch" Consumer Led Self Help Programs for People with Multiple Disorders, Mental Illness, Drug Addiction, and Alcoholism (MIDAA).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the consumer program, "Helpful People in Touch," a self-help treatment program for people with the multiple disorders of mental illness, drug addiction, and/or alcoholism. First, the terms, "Mentally Ill Chemical Abusers and Addicted" (MICAA) and "Chemical Abusing Mentally Ill" (CAMI) are defined and differentiated, with…

Sciacca, Kathleen

37

The course, treatment, and outcome of substance disorder in persons with severe mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with co-occurring substance abuse and severe mental illness are particularly vulnerable to negative outcomes. This paper reviews findings on the longitudinal course of dual disorders in traditional treatment systems, which provide separate mental health and substance-abuse programs; describes the movement toward programs that integrate both types of treatment at the clinical level; reviews evidence related to outcomes in integrated

Robert E. Drake; Kim T. Mueser; Robin E. Clark; Michael E. Wallach

1996-01-01

38

Access to primary care for homeless veterans with serious mental illness or substance abuse: a follow-up evaluation of co-located primary care and homeless social services.  

PubMed

To examine the hypothesis that a demonstration clinic integrating homeless, primary care, and mental health services for homeless veterans with serious mental illness or substance abuse would improve medical health care access and physical health status. A quasi-experimental design comparing a 'usual VA care' group before the demonstration clinic opened (N = 130) and the 'integrated care' group (N = 130). Regression models indicated that the integrated care group was more rapidly enrolled in primary care, received more prevention services and primary care visits, and fewer emergency department visits, and was not different in inpatient utilization or in physical health status over 18 months. The demonstration clinic improved access to primary care services and reduced emergency services but did not improve perceived physical health status over 18 months. Further research is needed to determine generalizability and longer term effects. PMID:19280333

McGuire, James; Gelberg, Lillian; Blue-Howells, Jessica; Rosenheck, Robert A

2009-07-01

39

Child abuse and mental disorders in Canada  

PubMed Central

Background: Nationally representative Canadian data on the prevalence of child abuse and its relation with mental disorders are lacking. We used contemporary, nationally representative data to examine the prevalence of 3 types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse and exposure to intimate partner violence) and their association with 14 mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Methods: We obtained data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health, collected from the 10 provinces. Respondents aged 18 years and older were asked about child abuse and were selected for the study sample (n = 23 395). The survey had a multistage stratified cluster design (household response rate 79.8%). Results: The prevalence of any child abuse was 32% (individual types ranged from 8% to 26%). All types of child abuse were associated with all mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.4 to 7.9). We found a dose–response relation, with increasing number of abuse types experienced corresponding with greater odds of mental conditions. Associations between child abuse and attention deficit disorder, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts showed stronger effects for women than men. Interpretation: We found robust associations between child abuse and mental conditions. Health care providers, especially those assessing patients with mental health problems, need to be aware of the relation between specific types of child abuse and certain mental conditions. Success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:24756625

Afifi, Tracie O.; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Boyle, Michael; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Sareen, Jitender

2014-01-01

40

Mental Illness in Persons with Mental Retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is mental health? Mental health is a goal for all people, including those with mental retardation, not just those having difficulties. Mental health is an essential ingredient in the quality of life. The two main aspects of mental health are emotional well-being and rewarding social and interpersonal relationships. Emotional well-being is an important part of the gift of human

Steven Reiss; Ruth Ryan

41

Care of Underserved People with Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Before delving into a discussion about care of the uninsured and underserved mentally ill population, it is important to reflect\\u000a on the historical under-representation of the field of mental health as a whole from a medical, political, social, and economic\\u000a standpoint. The approach to the care of the mentally ill has been an area of debate for centuries, and the

Francisco A. Moreno; Sarah Heron

42

A review of research on residential programs for people with severe mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance use disorder is the most common and clinically significant co-morbidity among clients with severe mental illnesses, associated with poor treatment response, homelessness and other adverse outcomes. Residential programs for clients with dual disorders integrate mental health treatment, substance abuse interventions, housing and other supports. Ten controlled studies suggest that greater levels of integration of substance abuse and mental health

MARY F. BRUNETTE; KIM T. MUESER; ROBERT E. DRAKE

2004-01-01

43

Arrested Adults Awaiting Arraignment: Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Criminal Justice Characteristics and Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Study is one of the first to look at the mentally ill during the pre-arraignment process. The pre-arraignment process is an excellent place to identify individuals with mental health and substance abuse problems, to examine those problems, to consider legal interventions, such as diversion or routing to specialized courts, for instance, drug and mental health courts, and to plan

Nahama Broner; Stacy S. Lamon; Damon W. Mayrl; Martin G. Karopkin

2003-01-01

44

Attitudes Toward Mental Illness Among Mental Health Volunteers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many research efforts have demonstrated relationships between the experience of mental health volunteers and their attitudes toward mental illness. Questionnaire surveys were completed by adult volunteers in psychiatric and nonpsychiatric programs in order to assess general attitudes toward mental patients and to control for the potential effects…

Wahl, Otto F.; And Others

45

Barriers to employment in severe mental illness.  

PubMed

This article explores two issues related to the barriers to employment for people with severe mental illness: the mental health service user's perspective; and the efficacy of mental health nurses and community mental health teams. It suggests that clinical practice needs to be modified and further research carried out if these barriers are to be removed. This is a summary: the full paper and reference list can be accessed at nursingtimes.net. PMID:17564362

Gannon, Donna; Gregory, Nathan

46

Stigma of Mental Illness-1: Clinical reflections  

PubMed Central

Although the quality and effectiveness of mental health treatments and services have improved greatly over the past 50 years, therapeutic revolutions in psychiatry have not yet been able to reduce stigma. Stigma is a risk factor leading to negative mental health outcomes. It is responsible for treatment seeking delays and reduces the likelihood that a mentally ill patient will receive adequate care. It is evident that delay due to stigma can have devastating consequences. This review will discuss the causes and consequences of stigma related to mental illness. PMID:22654383

Shrivastava, Amresh; Johnston, Megan; Bureau, Yves

2012-01-01

47

MENTAL ILLNESS in the CLASSROOM  

E-print Network

Health: http://bit.ly/187rK7m · Children's Mental Health Ontario: http://bit.ly/futUt5 · Teen Mental a general population sample: http://1.usa.gov/17d9ZDE 4 Teen Mental Health ­ Educators training programs: http://bit.ly/1b9gJF3 5 Teen Mental Health ­ For educators: http://bit.ly/1cRRg4i 6 Cross

48

Editors' Introduction: Building Mental Illness Stigma Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

deter persons with symptoms of mental illness from acknowledging that something is wrong, seeking help, and sticking with treatments long enough for them to be effective. When symptoms of treatable illnesses are not recognized, accurate diagnosis and treatment are delayed, and access to lifesaving care is denied, personal tragedy, needless suffering, and wasted human and economic potential are the result.

Emeline Otey; Wayne S. Fenton

2004-01-01

49

Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

Ostler, Teresa

2009-01-01

50

Resisting the Stigma of Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…

Thoits, Peggy A.

2011-01-01

51

Physical Health, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems of Shelter Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined physical health of 72 users of homeless shelters, comparing shelter users with mental illness or substance abuse problems with those without these problems. Found that alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to have low blood pressure, symptoms of liver disease, and tuberculosis treatment history. Found no health differences for…

Harris, Shirley N.; And Others

1994-01-01

52

Sterilization of the Mentally Ill and the Mentally Retarded.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported were the results of a survey on the sterilization of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded. Thirty-three states responded to the survey. It was found that 17 states have a sterilization statute, but the existence of the statute was explained not to mean that the procedure was used. Sixteen states responded that they did not have a…

National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Washington, DC.

53

Mental Illness among Us: A New Curriculum to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma among Medical Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…

Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.

2013-01-01

54

Mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of Hurricane Katrina on mental illness and suicidality by comparing results of a post-Katrina survey with those of an earlier survey. METHODS: The National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, conducted between February 2001 and February 2003, interviewed 826 adults in the Census Divisions later affected by Hurricane Katrina. The post-Katrina survey interviewed a new sample of 1043 adults who lived in the same area before the hurricane. Identical questions were asked about mental illness and suicidality. The post-Katrina survey also assessed several dimensions of personal growth that resulted from the trauma (for example, increased closeness to a loved one, increased religiosity). Outcome measures used were the K6 screening scale of serious mental illness and mild-moderate mental illness and questions about suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. FINDINGS: Respondents to the post-Katrina survey had a significantly higher estimated prevalence of serious mental illness than respondents to the earlier survey (11.3% after Katrina versus 6.1% before; chi(2)1= 10.9; P < 0.001) and mild-moderate mental illness (19.9% after Katrina versus 9.7% before; chi(2)1 = 22.5; P < 0.001). Among respondents estimated to have mental illness, though, the prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans was significantly lower in the post-Katrina survey (suicidal ideation 0.7% after Katrina versus 8.4% before; chi(2)1 = 13.1; P < 0.001; plans for suicide 0.4% after Katrina versus 3.6% before; chi(2)1 = 6.0; P = 0.014). This lower conditional prevalence of suicidality was strongly related to two dimensions of personal growth after the trauma (faith in one's own ability to rebuild one's life, and realization of inner strength), without which between-survey differences in suicidality were insignificant. CONCLUSION: Despite the estimated prevalence of mental illness doubling after Hurricane Katrina, the prevalence of suicidality was unexpectedly low. The role of post-traumatic personal growth in ameliorating the effects of trauma-related mental illness on suicidality warrants further investigation. PMID:17242828

Kessler, Ronald C.; Galea, Sandro; Jones, Russell T.; Parker, Holly A.

2006-01-01

55

Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities  

PubMed Central

Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person’s participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese-immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) has specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese-immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from two Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semi-structured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants’ consideration of three critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship-building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network involuntary disclosure could happen without participants’ permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations where they experienced little discriminatory treatment and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed. PMID:23647389

Chen, Fang-pei; Ying-Chi Lai, Grace; Yang, Lawrence

2014-01-01

56

"Alternative to Prison" Programs for the Mentally Ill Offender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mentally ill offenders represent a substantial proportion of jail and prison inmates. Despite the fact that confining mentally ill offenders can and often will exacerbate their mental illness, the quality of mental health services available to them remains poor and insufficient. Up to date, only a few cities and counties have considered a more…

Schaefer, Nicole J.; Stefancic, Ana

2003-01-01

57

[Stigmatizing of persons with a mental illness].  

PubMed

Persons with a mental illness and their relatives experience discrimination and expect to be discriminated. The public regards them as unpredictable and dangerous and do not wish to have any relation with them neither in private nor at work. This opinion is shared by people working in health care or social care. The myth of dangerousness is out of proportion and the media is to blame as they most often mention persons with mental illnesses as dangerous. Many countries make a great effort to reduce stigma and this is also under planning in Denmark. PMID:21501561

Vendsborg, Per; Nordentoft, Merete; Lindhardt, Anne

2011-04-18

58

Comorbidity Profile and Health Care Utilization in Elderly Patients with Serious Mental Illnesses  

PubMed Central

Objectives Patients with serious mental illness are living longer. Yet there remain few studies that focus on health care utilization and its relationship to comorbidities in these elderly mentally ill patients. Design Comparative study. Information on demographics, comorbidities and health care utilization were taken from an electronic medical record system. Setting Wishard Health Services senior care and community mental health clinics. Participants Patients age 65 years and over-255 patients with serious mental illness (schizophrenia, major recurrent depression and bipolar illness) attending a mental health clinic and a representative sample of 533 non-demented patients without serious mental illness attending primary care clinics. Results Patients having serious mental illness had significantly higher rates of medical emergency room visits (p=0.0027) and significantly longer lengths of medical hospitalizations (p<0.0001) than did the primary care control group. The frequency of medical comorbidities such as diabetes, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, thyroid disease, and cancer were not significantly different between the groups. Hypertension was lower in the mentally ill group (p<0.0001). Reported falls (p<0.0001), diagnoses of substance abuse (p=0.02), and alcoholism (p=0.0016) were higher in the seriously mentally ill. The differences in health care utilization between the groups remained significant after adjusting for comorbidity levels, lifestyle factors, and attending primary care. Conclusions Our findings of higher rates of emergency care, longer hospitalizations, and increased frequency of falls, substance abuse, and alcoholism suggest the elderly seriously mentally ill remain a vulnerable population requiring an integrated model of health care. PMID:24206938

Hendrie, Hugh C.; Hay, Don; Lane, Kathleen A.; Gao, Sujuan; Purnell, Christianna; Munger, Stephanie; Smith, Faye; Dickens, Jeanne; Boustani, Malaz A.; Callahan, Christopher M.

2012-01-01

59

National Alliance for the Mentally Ill  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI) sponsors a broad range of public outreach projects and research studies dedicated to providing a more nuanced and multi-faceted understanding of the immense complexity of the many mental health issues that affect millions of persons each day. Within the Find Support section of the site, individuals can learn about local branches of NAMI, learn about support networks for young people dealing with mental health issues, and the presence of NAMI on college campuses. The public policy section of the site is quite strong, as visitors to this area can learn about policy news and alerts about mental health issues, download resource materials about assisting those grappling with mental health afflictions, and read Issue Spotlights that deal with a host of subjects such as managed care, Medicaid, parity, and confidentiality.

60

Neuropsychiatric rehabilitation for persistent mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits of new knowledge on the psychobiology and neuropsychology of serious mental illnesses have been slow to impact on psychiatric rehabilitation technology. A literature review reveals that, at least in the case of schizophrenia, enough is known about neurobiological deficits and their impact on neurocognitive functioning to justify a more informed approach to psychiatric rehabilitation. Essential elements for a

Judith Jaeger; Estelle Douglas

1992-01-01

61

The Stigma of Families with Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…

Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick

2008-01-01

62

Siblings and Mental Illness: Heredity vs. Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Siblings are far more likely to be different than alike in personality and psychopathology. Different genes and different environmental experiences can account for why one sibling becomes mentally ill and another is not affected. Environmental experiences play a much greater role in sibling differentiation than has been previously recognized.…

Rowe, David C.; Elam, Patricia

1987-01-01

63

Coercion and the Mentally Ill: Ethical Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legal procedures have long been implemented to protect the rights of persons with mental illness, to mandate treatment for those unable to care for themselves, and to protect society from dangerous behavior. Although legal, mandated treatment poses ethical concerns. This article analyzes ethical issues emerging from a case study. Ethical principles, considered within a common morality framework, are applied to

Cindy Diamond Zolnierek

2007-01-01

64

The Relationship Between Military Service Eras and Psychosocial Treatment Needs Among Homeless Veterans With a Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Mental Health Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will examine baseline assessment data from consecutive admissions to the MISSION Program, a transitional case management program for homeless veterans, to better understand the differences across military service eras that impact the psychosocial treatment needs of homeless, mentally ill, substance-abusing veterans. In all, 373 homeless veterans with a co-occurring mental illness and substance abuse disorder received the Structured

Anna Kline; Lanora Callahan; Mark Butler; Lauren St. Hill; Miklos F. Losonczy; David A. Smelson

2009-01-01

65

Perspectives on effective advocacy for homeless mentally ill persons.  

PubMed

To make appropriate treatment and public policy recommendations to address the problems of homeless mentally ill persons, it is important to differentiate the homeless mentally ill population from the homeless population in general. Effective advocacy for homeless mentally ill persons should have realistic goals that address the specific needs of that population rather than attempt to change the basic problems of society. The effective advocacy that has secured services for developmentally disabled persons can serve as a model. Mental health professionals' limited response to the problems of homeless mentally ill persons has further stigmatized mentally ill persons in general; one of the most powerful actions mental health professionals could take to fight stigma would be to help provide treatment and residential alternatives for homeless mentally ill persons. The recommendations of both the first and the second American Psychiatric Association task forces on the homeless mentally ill are discussed. PMID:1459542

Lamb, H R

1992-12-01

66

Social Meanings Versus the Psychiatric Concept of Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

According to the societal reaction perspective, mental illness develops when symptoms are molded and imputed by societal reaction into a stable and organized social role. Individuals are thrust into the role by being labeled mentally ill. In contrast, the psychiatric concept assumes that mental illness is a disease. Its purpose is to order, predict, and control the symptoms of mental disease. This paper examines some social theories of mental disorder and compares the societal reaction perspective to the psychiatric concept.

Smith, Dorothy L.

1982-01-01

67

Arranged matches and mental illness: therapists' dilemmas.  

PubMed

Traditional societies place especial value on marriage and having children, and marriages are often arranged. A series of situations and dilemmas associated with arranged matches and their consequences are described in the course of mental health work with ultra-orthodox Jewish people with severe mental illness. Issues of confidentiality may arise with parents and matchmakers; on the other hand, respectful cooperation with religious authorities, counselors in the community, and family members is important. Information on genetic counseling, contraception, medication during pregnancy, and breastfeeding are considered and interact with communal structures and practices. There is a need for close support and evaluation during the process of marriage, childbearing, and parenthood. PMID:23244012

Greenberg, David; Buchbinder, Jacob Tuvia; Witztum, Eliezer

2012-01-01

68

Mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To estimate the impact of Hurricane Katrina on mental illness and suicidality by comparing results of a post-Katrina survey with those of an earlier survey. Methods The National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, conducted between February 2001 and February 2003, interviewed 826 adults in the Census Divisions later affected by Hurricane Katrina. The post-Katrina survey interviewed a new sample of 1043 adults

Ronald C. Kessler; Russell T. Jones; Holly A. Parker

2006-01-01

69

Stigma, Poverty, and Victimization: Roadblocks to Recovery for Individuals With Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roadblocks to recovery of individuals with severe mental illness include stigma, poverty, and victimization. Stigma cre- ates barriers to accessing safe housing, employment, and community integration. Poverty decreases ability to meet needs and increases risk for victimization. Victimization occurs as direct violence, exploitation, neglect, and abuse by care providers. It results in worsening of psychiatric disorders, increased need for care,

Eris F. Perese

2010-01-01

70

The Relationship Between Violence Dimensions and Symptom Severity Among Homeless, Mentally Ill Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the relationship between violence and symptomatology in the lives of homeless, mentally ill women. This study investigates the possibility that specific dimensions of violence—frequency, recentness and type—may be associated with severity of psychiatric symptomatology in this population. Results indicate that each of the abuse dimensions is associated with a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and, in

Lisa A. Goodman; Mary Ann Dutton; Maxine Harris

1997-01-01

71

Opinions about mental illness: A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the major measures and studies of attitudes about mental illness, mental hospitals, and mental patients. Historical trends in such attitudes are delineated, and studies of attitudes of different groups are summarized, including those of the general public, mental health professionals, college students, and mental patients. Analysis of the susceptibility of such attitudes to modification through academic or practical experience

Judith G. Rabkin

1972-01-01

72

Self-Stigma of Mental Illness in High School Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the prevalence of mental health problems, society continues to stigmatize and discriminate against people with mental illness and in particular, schizophrenia. Among the negative consequences of stigma, is that some individuals with mental illness internalize negative stereotypes about themselves, referred to as self-stigma, which is…

Hartman, Leah I.; Michel, Natalie M.; Winter, Ariella; Young, Rebecca E.; Flett, Gordon L.; Goldberg, Joel O.

2013-01-01

73

How Clinical Diagnosis Might Exacerbate the Stigma of Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stigma can greatly exacerbate the experience of mental illness. Diagnostic classification frequently used by clinical social workers may intensify this stigma by enhancing the public's sense of "groupness" and "differentness" when perceiving people with mental illness. The homogeneity assumed by stereotypes may lead mental health professionals and…

Corrigan, Patrick W.

2007-01-01

74

Mental Illness in Offender Populations: Prevalence, Duty and Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prisons are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness. This paper examines the prevalence of mental illness in American jails and prisons, the duty government and society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment, and the implications for inmate safety, costs, recidivism, and community reintegration if…

Soderstrom, Irina R.

2007-01-01

75

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Congress established the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in 1992 to "target effectively substance abuse and mental health services to the people most in need." SAMHSA also administers a number of block grant programs and data collection activities. On their homepage, visitors can get started by clicking on the "Data" link at the top of the page and reading through the "What We Are Doing" section. Here interested parties will find highlights of recent reports, state-level data on these topics, and a series of mental health statistics reports. The top of their homepage contains additional sections of interest, including "Grants", "Publications", "Data", and "Newsroom". Visitors should also take a look at the "Featured Resource", which is also on the homepage. In addition, many of the site's materials are available in Spanish. Visitors can follow SAMHSA on various social networks including Facebook YouTube, and Twitter, and they can also sign up for their mailing list if they wish to keep up with this valuable organization.

76

Modern Christian healing of mental illness.  

PubMed

Healing of mental illness through religious practices was a key element of early Christianity. In the early twentieth century such healing was associated with blue-collar and rural Fundamentalists, but religious healing practices have gained widespread acceptance by many middle-class, conservative Christian groups. "Evil demons" are now equated with envy, pride, avarice, hatred, and obsessions with alcohol and gambling. Many psychotherapeutic techniques of modern Christian healers appear to be rediscoveries of psychoanalytic insights expressed in religious metaphors. Most responsible healers encourage clients to seek medical and psychiatric help, especially for serious mental disorders. Psychiatrists need not share patients' religious beliefs, but for treatment to be effective these beliefs must be understood and respected. PMID:7081485

Favazza, A R

1982-06-01

77

[Women and mental illness : a cultural problem?].  

PubMed

The author tries with the help of a cultural model to explain the increase of mental illnessess in women since the last world war. Her parameters, taken from Bateson, are ; group systems (complementary, symetrical and reciprocal différenciation) and some aspects : cultural, structural, pragmatical and ethological linked to conformism, needs and emotions. Following her analysis she concludes that four factors are responsible for this increase of feminine mental illness : 1) change in social aspirations now more oriented towards self-fullfilment than usefulness 2) necessity to be happy for two in marriage without the benifice of an autonomous position 3) difficulty to self-assert and know her own needs 4) repression of the anger caused by the frustrations of her situation. The author ends her thesis with helping suggestions on how to live this transitory period. PMID:17093684

Lamarre, S

1979-01-01

78

Severely mentally ill consumers' perspectives on drug use.  

PubMed

Substance use disorders have serious negative consequences for severely mentally ill (SMI) adults, but many do not receive adequate substance abuse treatment. As part of a larger project on access barriers to substance abuse treatment for SMI clients, this qualitative study examined two potential client-level barriers to treatment: minimization of drug problems and perceived acceptability of drug use to reduce psychiatric symptoms. Open-ended interviews about drug use were conducted with 24 SMI adults with substance use problems. The majority of respondents identified drug use as a major problem in their lives. Respondents were aware of the impact of drugs on psychiatric symptoms, and most believed that the negative effects of drug use outweighed any short-term benefits. Nearly all respondents believed it was not acceptable for SMI adults to use drugs except marijuana. Contrary to findings in the literature that SMI adults deny or minimize drug problems, most respondents acknowledged the seriousness of their drug use, were aware of the negative effects of drug use on their psychiatric symptoms, and endorsed abstinence as the optimal treatment goal. These findings have implications for substance abuse treatment for SMI clients, particularly interventions that emphasize education about drug use as a way to increase motivation for treatment. PMID:15559681

Alvidrez, Jennifer; Kaiser, Dawn; Havassy, Barbara E

2004-09-01

79

Responding to the needs of the homeless mentally ill.  

PubMed Central

The homeless mentally ill represent a pivotal and urgent challenge to the mental health field in the 1980s. Those homeless who have extended histories of psychiatric hospitalization stand as harsh reminders of the failures of deinstitutionalization, while young mentally ill homeless adults who never have been treated as inpatients testify to the gaps and unrealized promises of community-based care under deinstitutionalization. Homelessness and mental illness are social and clinical problems, respectively, distinct in some ways but intertwined in others. Some of the factors that contribute to homelessness--such as economic deprivations, a dearth of low-cost housing, discontinuities in social service systems, and radical changes in the composition of American families--are felt particularly keenly by many persons who are mentally ill. And symptoms of mental disorders, in turn, frequently impede an individual's capacities to cope with those, as well as other, stressors. Developing appropriate and effective responses to the needs of homeless people who are mentally ill requires precise definition and identification of the target population, innovations in the mental health service system, encouragement of those who staff it to work with homeless mentally ill patients, and public education. Ultimately, however, fundamental answers will be found in an improved understanding of severe mental illness, enhanced treatment capacities, and greater attention to the rehabilitative needs of mentally ill persons. PMID:3931159

Frazier, S H

1985-01-01

80

Lifetime trauma and suicide attempts in people with severe mental illness.  

PubMed

We examined associations among six forms of common lifetime traumatic/adverse events and lifetime suicide attempts while controlling for gender, psychiatric symptoms, self-injury, and substance use in 371 community mental health clients with severe mental illness. Most clients (88.1%) reported at least one traumatic event, and more than half had attempted suicide at least once. Regression revealed that three factors were significantly associated with lifetime suicide attempts: lifetime self-injurious behaviors, lifetime physical abuse, and alcohol use. Having been physically abused appears to be uniquely associated with lifetime suicide attempts when other key risk factors are controlled. Limitations include the cross-sectional design. PMID:24282033

O'Hare, Thomas; Shen, Ce; Sherrer, Margaret

2014-08-01

81

Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale: a multinational review.  

PubMed

The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale is a 29-item questionnaire measuring self-stigma among persons with psychiatric disorders. It was developed with substantial consumer input and has been widely used, but its psychometric qualities have not been comprehensively evaluated across multiple versions. Here we review the 55 known versions, and provide the 47 available versions, including: Arabic, Armenian, Bengali, Bulgarian, Chinese (Mainland, Taiwan, Hong Kong), Croatian, Dutch, English (USA, South Africa), Estonian, Farsi, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Japanese, Khmer, Korean, Lithuanian, Lugandan, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese (Portugal, Brazil), Romanian, Russian, Samoan, Slovenian, Spanish (Spain), Swahili, Swedish, Tongan, Turkish, Urdu, and Yoruba, and qualitative English and Swahili versions, as well as versions for depression, schizophrenia, substance abuse, eating disorders, epilepsy, inflammatory bowel disease, leprosy, smoking, parents and caregivers of people with mental illness, and ethnicity. The various versions show reliability and validity across a wide range of languages, cultures, and writing systems. The most commonly reported findings of studies using the ISMI are that internalized stigma correlates with higher depression, lower self esteem, and higher symptom severity. Initial studies of ways to reduce internalized stigma are promising and warrant further investigation. PMID:24060237

Boyd, Jennifer E; Adler, Emerald P; Otilingam, Poorni G; Peters, Townley

2014-01-01

82

Mental health/psychiatric issues in elder abuse and neglect.  

PubMed

Elder abuse may be defined as a violation of a vulnerable older person's human and civil rights. Psychiatric illness is an important cause of vulnerability to abuse, especially when it is comorbid with other risk factors, such as physical frailty, sensory impairment, social isolation, and physical dependency. Health care providers are likely to encounter elder abuse regularly, and therefore have an important role in its detection and management, and in the treatment of subsequent psychiatric illness. This article reviews the relationships between psychiatric illnesses and elder abuse and neglect, examines the psychiatric consequences, and discusses how these may be treated. PMID:25439645

Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill

2014-11-01

83

28 CFR 115.283 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...115.283 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...facility shall offer medical and mental health evaluation and, as...

2012-07-01

84

28 CFR 115.283 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...115.283 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...facility shall offer medical and mental health evaluation and, as...

2013-07-01

85

28 CFR 115.83 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...115.83 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...facility shall offer medical and mental health evaluation and, as...

2012-07-01

86

Stigma Keeps Employees from Admitting to a Mental Illness  

MedlinePLUS

... Many workers say they wouldn't tell their manager if they had a mental health problem, a ... would not disclose a mental illness to a manager. Their reasons for keeping quiet included fears about ...

87

Training in Illness Self-Management for People with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite evidence supporting the utility of teaching people with severe mental illness how to manage their psychiatric disorders more effectively in collaboration with others, little is known about the use of such programs in criminal justice settings. This article provides an overview of the background, principles, and empirical basis for teaching illness self-management strategies to persons with severe mental illness,

SALLY JOY MACKAIN; KIM T. MUESER

2009-01-01

88

Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness  

MedlinePLUS

... Borderline Personality Disorder Depression Dissociative Disorders Eating Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Schizoaffective Disorder Schizophrenia Related Conditions Dual Diagnosis ...

89

SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND MENTAL HEALTH DATA ARCHIVE (SAMHDA)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Data Archive (SAMHDA) is an initiative of the Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The goal of the archive is to provide re...

90

Prevalence and impact of childhood abuse in people with a psychotic illness. Data from the second Australian National Survey of Psychosis.  

PubMed

Child abuse has been associated with risk of mental illness, including schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders and, among those with mental illness, with a more severe clinical profile. Using an extensively characterised and epidemiologically representative sample of 1825 Australians with a psychotic illness aged 18-64 years and in contact with mental health services, we estimated the proportion of individuals with psychotic disorders who self-reported child abuse and examined its relationship with clinical and other characteristics. The prevalence of child abuse in this nationally representative sample of people with psychotic illness was 30.6%. Women were almost three times more likely to report child abuse compared to males (OR, 2.8, 95% CI 2.3-3.4). When adjusted for age at interview and socio-economic status, there was no significant relationship between self-reported child abuse and type of psychosis or course of illness. Participants with child abuse were significantly more likely to have subjective thought disorder, lifetime suicide attempt and premorbid personality disorder (females only) and anxiety (males only). Our findings demonstrate that child abuse is relatively common across the range of psychotic disorders, with an elevated risk for women in particular, compounding the already high burden associated with psychotic illness. Clinicians need to inquire routinely about child abuse in order to develop appropriate treatment plans tailored to individual needs. PMID:25107848

Shah, Sonal; Mackinnon, Andrew; Galletly, Cherrie; Carr, Vaughan; McGrath, John J; Stain, Helen J; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Sweeney, Shaun; Morgan, Vera A

2014-10-01

91

Mental Illness, Your Client and the Criminal Law: A Handbook for Attorneys Who Represent Persons with Mental Illness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook for attorneys represents part of an effort to improve legal representation for criminal defendants with mental illness. The handbook was developed and reviewed by both mental health professionals and attorneys experienced in criminal and mental health law. However, it is not a comprehensive guide on mental health law or on how to…

2002

92

Mental illness and suicide in British South Asian adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

South Asians make up about 5% of the UK population. Their rates for mental illness and suicide have been shown by some researchers to be rather lower than that of the total UK population, using a variety of measures, and considering many psychiatric conditions. This paper reviews the literature on the extent of mental illness among British South Asian adults,

Bernard Ineichen

2012-01-01

93

Improving Employment Outcomes for Persons With Severe Mental Illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Unemployment remains a major conse- quence of schizophrenia and other severe mental ill- nesses. This study assesses the effectiveness of the Indi- vidual Placement and Support model of supportive employment relative to usual psychosocial rehabilita- tion services for improving employment among inner- city patients with these disorders. Methods: Two hundred nineteen outpatients with se- vere mental illnesses, 75% with

Anthony F. Lehman; Richard Goldberg; Lisa B. Dixon; Scot McNary; Leticia Postrado; Ann Hackman; Karen McDonnell

2002-01-01

94

Art Education and Disability Studies Perspectives on Mental Illness Discourses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation critically examines mental illness discourses through the intersecting disciplinary lenses of art education and disability studies. Research from multiple disciplines is compared and theorized to uncover the ways in which discourses, or language systems, have oppressively constructed and represented "mental illness." To establish…

Derby, John K.

2009-01-01

95

Career Counseling with Clients Who Have a Severe Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals who are diagnosed with a serious mental illness encounter a variety of barriers that can impede their career development. In this article, the career barriers of clients who have a severe mental illness are reviewed, and a developmental approach to career counseling with this population is described. A case example is provided to…

Caporoso, Robyn A.; Kiselica, Mark S.

2004-01-01

96

New Strategies for Representing Mental Illness on Canadian Stages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Workman Arts, a Toronto-based theatre and visual arts company with a 20-year history, provides a rich site for re-imagining stigmatised representations of mental illness. Writing and performing against a long tradition of representing people with mental illnesses as incoherent speakers and visually different, company members seek to re-imagine…

Johnston, Kirsty

2009-01-01

97

Mental Illness as a Barrier to Marriage among Unmarried Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores how mental illness shapes transitions to marriage among unwed mothers using augmented data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (N = 2,351). We estimate proportional hazard models to assess the effects of mental illness on the likelihood of marriage over a 5-year period following a nonmarital birth. Diagnosed…

Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.

2008-01-01

98

Resilience Factors in Families Living with People with Mental Illnesses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In South Africa, a substantial burden is placed on families living with people with mental illnesses. The aim of this study was to identify resilience factors in families living in an underprivileged area, caring for people with mental illnesses. Data was obtained from family representatives (N=34) using semistructured interviews and a set of…

Jonker, Liezl; Greeff, Abraham P.

2009-01-01

99

Mental illness and violence: lessons from the evidence.  

PubMed

The debate about addressing mental illness and violence often ignores key facts. Many people experience mental illnesses, so having had a diagnosed illness is not a very specific predictor of violent behavior. This means that many proposed policy approaches, from expanded screening to more institutionalization, are unlikely to be effective. Expanded access to effective treatments, although desirable, will have only modest impacts on violence rates. Most people with mental health problems do not commit violent acts, and most violent acts are not committed by people with diagnosed mental disorders. PMID:24328636

Glied, Sherry; Frank, Richard G

2014-02-01

100

The Effect of Economic, Physical, and Psychological Abuse on Mental Health: A Population-Based Study of Women in the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Background. The comparative effect of economic abuse and other forms of abuse in predicting depression and other mental health disorders has not been previously investigated despite its relevance for mental illness prevention. Objective. To determine the differential association of economic abuse on psychological distress and suicide attempts. Study Design. We used cross-sectional data from women aged 15–49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) (N = 9,316). Results. Adjusting for sociodemographic confounders revealed positive associations between economic, physical, or psychological abuse and suicide attempts and psychological distress. Psychological and economic abuse were the strongest predictors of suicide attempts and psychological distress, respectively. Economic abuse was also negatively associated with psychological distress. Comorbidity with one mental health disorder greatly increased the odds of reporting the other mental health disorder. Conclusion. Overall, the results elucidate the differential effects of these forms of abuse on women's mental health. PMID:25525517

Antai, Diddy; Oke, Ayo; Braithwaite, Patrick; Lopez, Gerald Bryan

2014-01-01

101

"The myth of mental illness:" continuing controversies and their implications for mental health professionals.  

PubMed

Since the publication of "The Myth of Mental Illness" in 1960, there has been an ongoing debate about Thomas Szasz's ideas concerning mental illness. In this paper, Szasz's views are summarized, as are the views of Szasz's critics. Specifically, the following areas are addressed: Szasz's definition of disease, his notions regarding the unconscious and rationality, his beliefs regarding culpability, his proposed differences between psychiatry and other branches of medicine, the uses of the term "mental illness," and the possibility of implicating physical lesions in some mental illnesses. With this discussion as a backdrop, the importance of these issues to mental health practitioners is addressed. PMID:9397335

Dammann, E J

1997-11-01

102

Children's Conceptions of Mental Illness: A Naive Theory Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports two studies that investigated children's conceptions of mental illness using a naive theory approach, drawing upon a conceptual framework for analysing illness representations which distinguishes between the identity, causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of an illness. The studies utilized semi-structured interviewing…

Fox, Claudine; Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn

2010-01-01

103

Treatment of Children with Mental Illness: Frequently Asked Questions about the Treatment of Mental Illness in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that half of all lifetime cases of mental illness begin by age 14. Scientists are discovering that changes in the body leading to mental illness may start much earlier, before any symptoms appear. Through greater understanding of when and how fast specific areas of children's brains develop, we are learning more about the early…

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 2009

2009-01-01

104

38 CFR 17.109 - Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis. 17...Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis. (a...day of the Persian Gulf War. (b) Mental illness (other than psychosis)....

2013-07-01

105

38 CFR 17.109 - Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis.  

...Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis. 17...Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis. (a...day of the Persian Gulf War. (b) Mental illness (other than psychosis)....

2014-07-01

106

77 FR 12522 - Tentative Eligibility Determinations; Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness AGENCY: Department of Veterans...Persian Gulf War veterans who developed a mental illness other than psychosis within two...Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and other mental illness.'' Copies of comments...

2012-03-01

107

78 FR 28140 - Tentative Eligibility Determinations; Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness AGENCY: Department of Veterans...Persian Gulf War veterans who developed a mental illness other than psychosis within 2...to include veterans with psychosis or mental illness other than psychosis. We...

2013-05-14

108

Actitudes Haci la Enfermedad Mental: Revision Bibliografica (Attitudes toward Mental Illness: Revised Bibliography). Publication No. 40.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this work, some of the most important instruments used to measure attitudes toward mental illness were analysed. A revision of different experimental investigations which studied attitudes toward mental illness among general public, mental health professionals and patients and their relatives was made. Some of the strategies applied to change…

Stefani, Dorina

109

Mental Health Promotion and Illness Prevention: A Challenge for Psychiatrists  

PubMed Central

Mental health is essential for individual and public health. To improve mental health, promotion, prevention, and the treatment of disease are required. These three kinds of interventions are interrelated but independent from one another. Although separate efforts for mental health promotion and prevention are needed as well as the public need of mental health promotion and well-being, psychiatrists usually are not accustomed to mental health promotion and prevention. This review introduces an overview of the concept, subjects according to target populations, and various intervention strategies for mental health promotion and prevention of mental illnesses. Based on literatures to date, understanding of developmental psychology, lifestyle medicine, and biopsychosocial contributors of mental health with a macroscopic perspective might help to practice mental health promotion and illness prevention. PMID:24474978

Min, Jung-Ah; Lee, Chang-Uk

2013-01-01

110

Mental Illness, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Medicaid Expenditures  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the rates of mental illness among Medicaid beneficiaries with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and associated Medicaid-paid expenditures. Design Retrospective claims-based calendar year data. Setting Claims data. Participants Medicaid recipients with diagnosed TBI and mental illness who received Medicaid services in 4 states in 1995. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Annual expenditures for total, inpatient, and noninpatient services, as derived from Medicaid personal summary files. Mental illness and TBI were identified by using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes recorded in Medicaid claims. Results Of a total of 493,663 Medicaid recipients, 3641 (0.7%) were diagnosed with TBI in the 4 states. Significant demographic and racial differences were found in the rates of TBI; 18% of patients with TBI were diagnosed with serious mental illness. People with TBI in the age group 40 to 49 years were more likely to have a mental disorder. There were significant differences in estimated total, inpatient, and noninpatient expenditures between those with and without mental illness. In general, those with serious mental illness had higher Medicaid-paid expenditures than those without any mental illness. Conclusions Psychiatric comorbidity in TBI increases the overall expenditures in this population. This increased cost is an important consideration in programming for those with TBI. PMID:15895335

Wei, Wenhui; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Crystal, Stephen; Findley, Patricia A.

2007-01-01

111

Parental Mental Illness. Building Community Systems for Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Families are the principal influence on development in the first years of life, so the mental health of parents is an issue that affects every child in California. The most common mental health concerns facing parents involve stress and anxiety. These needs can be addressed through public health messages that de-stigmatize mental illness and…

Hendrick, Victoria; Daly, Kathleen

112

Local suffering and the global discourse of mental health and human rights: An ethnographic study of responses to mental illness in rural Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background The Global Movement for Mental Health has brought renewed attention to the neglect of people with mental illness within health policy worldwide. The maltreatment of the mentally ill in many low-income countries is widely reported within psychiatric hospitals, informal healing centres, and family homes. International agencies have called for the development of legislation and policy to address these abuses. However such initiatives exemplify a top-down approach to promoting human rights which historically has had limited impact at the level of those living with mental illness and their families. Methods This research forms part of a longitudinal anthropological study of people with severe mental illness in rural Ghana. Visits were made to over 40 households with a family member with mental illness, as well as churches, shrines, hospitals and clinics. Ethnographic methods included observation, conversation, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with people with mental illness, carers, healers, health workers and community members. Results Chaining and beating of the mentally ill was found to be commonplace in homes and treatment centres in the communities studied, as well as with-holding of food ('fasting'). However responses to mental illness were embedded within spiritual and moral perspectives and such treatment provoked little sanction at the local level. Families struggled to provide care for severely mentally ill relatives with very little support from formal health services. Psychiatric services were difficult to access, particularly in rural communities, and also seen to have limitations in their effectiveness. Traditional and faith healers remained highly popular despite the routine maltreatment of the mentally ill in their facilities. Conclusion Efforts to promote the human rights of those with mental illness must engage with the experiences of mental illness within communities affected in order to grasp how these may underpin the use of practices such as mechanical restraint. Interventions which operate at the local level with those living with mental illness within rural communities, as well as family members and healers, may have greater potential to effect change in the treatment of the mentally ill than legislation or investment in services alone. PMID:19825191

Read, Ursula M; Adiibokah, Edward; Nyame, Solomon

2009-01-01

113

Treatment Considerations for HIV-Infected Individuals with Severe Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

There has been a general recognition of a syndemic that includes HIV/AIDS and serve mental illnesses including schizophrenia, major depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and others. The pathophysiology and direction of effects between severe mental illness and HIV infection is less clear however, and relatively little work has been done on prevention and treatment for people with these complex, co-occurring conditions. Here we present the most recent work that has been published on HIV and mental illness. Further, we describe the need for better treatments for “triply diagnosed persons”; those with HIV, mental illness, and substance abuse and dependence. Finally, we describe the potential drug-drug interactions between psychotropic medications and anti-retrovirals, and the need for better treatment guidelines in this area. We describe one example of an individually tailored intervention for persons with serious mental illness and HIV (PATH+) that shows that integrated community-based treatments using advanced practice nurses (APNs) as health navigators can be successful in improving health-related quality of life and reducing the burden of disease in these persons. PMID:24158425

Himelhoch, Seth; Walkup, James; Eisenberg, Marlene M.

2013-01-01

114

Grant Title: POSTDOCTORAL FELLOWSHIP IN MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE SERVICES Funding Opportunity Number: NA  

E-print Network

Grant Title: POSTDOCTORAL FELLOWSHIP IN MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE SERVICES (MHSAS) Funding Opportunity Number: NA Agency/Department: American Psychological Association (APA), Substance Abuse and Mental health and substance abuse services and research. Release and Expiration: NA Application Deadline

Farritor, Shane

115

Mental illness, supported education, employment and recovery: Ben's story.  

PubMed

Supported education programs aim to facilitate the successful return to higher education for people living with mental illness who may have experienced educational interruptions due to their illness. This article shares the story of Ben who lives with mental illness and his experience of participating in an Australian supported education course. The two authors draw on a qualitative life history approach as they reflected on Ben's experiences of mental illness, educational disruption and returning to education and employment. The losses associated with educational disruption and the positive and empowering experience of becoming a student again are described as positively impacting recovery. Ben's story is shared in anticipation that other people living with mental illness, their family and carers, or workers supporting those people, may draw from his determination and success, in their own journeys of recovery. PMID:22907327

Rinaudo, Ben; Ennals, Priscilla

2012-01-01

116

Components of Implicit Stigma against Mental Illness among Chinese Students  

PubMed Central

Although some research has examined negative automatic aspects of attitudes toward mental illness via relatively indirect measures among Western samples, it is unclear whether negative attitudes can be automatically activated in individuals from non-Western countries. This study attempted to validate results from Western samples with Chinese college students. We first examined the three-component model of implicit stigma (negative cognition, negative affect, and discriminatory tendencies) toward mental illness with the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT). We also explored the relationship between explicit and implicit stigma among 56 Chinese university college students. In the three separate SC-IATs and the combined SC-IAT, automatic associations between mental illness and negative descriptors were stronger relative to those with positive descriptors and the implicit effect of cognitive and affective SC-IATs were significant. Explicit and implicit measures of stigma toward mental illness were unrelated. In our sample, women's overall attitudes toward mental illness were more negative than men's were, but no gender differences were found for explicit measures. These findings suggested that implicit stigma toward mental illness exists in Chinese students, and provide some support for the three-component model of implicit stigma toward mental illness. Future studies that focus on automatic components of stigmatization and stigma-reduction in China are warranted. PMID:23029366

Wang, Xiaogang; Huang, Xiting; Jackson, Todd; Chen, Ruijun

2012-01-01

117

Components of implicit stigma against mental illness among Chinese students.  

PubMed

Although some research has examined negative automatic aspects of attitudes toward mental illness via relatively indirect measures among Western samples, it is unclear whether negative attitudes can be automatically activated in individuals from non-Western countries. This study attempted to validate results from Western samples with Chinese college students. We first examined the three-component model of implicit stigma (negative cognition, negative affect, and discriminatory tendencies) toward mental illness with the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT). We also explored the relationship between explicit and implicit stigma among 56 Chinese university college students. In the three separate SC-IATs and the combined SC-IAT, automatic associations between mental illness and negative descriptors were stronger relative to those with positive descriptors and the implicit effect of cognitive and affective SC-IATs were significant. Explicit and implicit measures of stigma toward mental illness were unrelated. In our sample, women's overall attitudes toward mental illness were more negative than men's were, but no gender differences were found for explicit measures. These findings suggested that implicit stigma toward mental illness exists in Chinese students, and provide some support for the three-component model of implicit stigma toward mental illness. Future studies that focus on automatic components of stigmatization and stigma-reduction in China are warranted. PMID:23029366

Wang, Xiaogang; Huang, Xiting; Jackson, Todd; Chen, Ruijun

2012-01-01

118

A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism.  

PubMed

We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25133916

Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul

2015-02-01

119

Reinforcing stigmatization: coverage of mental illness in Spanish newspapers.  

PubMed

Because the media influences society's perceptions of reality, the treatment of mental illness in the news can have an effect on the societal stigma related to it. This study aimed to analyze the content and form of news items related to mental illness in Spanish newspapers in order to understand their role in propagating or attenuating stereotypes, prejudices, and stigma. The authors conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study on the basis of a review of news items related to mental illness appearing in the Spanish print media. A sample was taken from articles published on the subject in the 20 Spanish newspapers with the widest circulations over the course of the year 2010. Formal elements and content were analyzed by means of a structured evaluation system. The authors analyzed 695 news items. The content of 47.9% (n = 333) of the articles was not strictly related to mental illness, but rather clinical or psychiatric terms were used metaphorically, and frequently in a pejorative sense. The remaining 52.1% (n = 362) consisted of news items related specifically to mental illness. Of these, news items linking mental illness to danger were the most common (178 texts, 49.2%), specifically those associating mental illness with violent crime (130 texts, 35.9%) or a danger to others (126 texts, 34.8%). The results confirm the hypothesis that the press treats mental illness in a manner that encourages stigmatization. The authors appeal to the press's responsibility to society and advocate an active role in reducing the stigma towards mental illness. PMID:24708534

Aragonès, Enric; López-Muntaner, Judit; Ceruelo, Santiago; Basora, Josep

2014-01-01

120

Intensive case management for severe mental illness  

PubMed Central

Background Intensive Case Management (ICM) is a community based package of care, aiming to provide long term care for severely mentally ill people who do not require immediate admission. ICM evolved from two original community models of care, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management (CM), where ICM emphasises the importance of small caseload (less than 20) and high intensity input. Objectives To assess the effects of Intensive Case Management (caseload <20) in comparison with non-Intensive Case Management (caseload > 20) and with standard community care in people with severe mental illness. To evaluate whether the effect of ICM on hospitalisation depends on its fidelity to the ACT model and on the setting. Search methods For the current update of this review we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (February 2009), which is compiled by systematic searches of major databases, hand searches and conference proceedings. Selection criteria All relevant randomised clinical trials focusing on people with severe mental illness, aged 18 to 65 years and treated in the community-care setting, where Intensive Case Management, non-Intensive Case Management or standard care were compared. Outcomes such as service use, adverse effects, global state, social functioning, mental state, behaviour, quality of life, satisfaction and costs were sought. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For binary outcomes we calculated relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data we estimated mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% confidence interval (CI). We employed a random-effects model for analyses. We performed a random-effects meta-regression analysis to examine the association of the intervention’s fidelity to the ACT model and the rate of hospital use in the setting where the trial was conducted with the treatment effect. Main results We included 38 trials (7328 participants) in this review. The trials provided data for two comparisons: 1. ICM versus standard care, 2. ICM versus non-ICM. 1. ICM versus standard care Twenty-four trials provided data on length of hospitalisation, and results favoured Intensive Case Management (n=3595, 24 RCTs, MD ?0.86 CI ?1.37 to ?0.34). There was a high level of heterogeneity, but this significance still remained when the outlier studies were excluded from the analysis (n=3143, 20 RCTs, MD ?0.62 CI ?1.00 to ?0.23). Nine studies found participants in the ICM group were less likely to be lost to psychiatric services (n=1633, 9 RCTs, RR 0.43 CI 0.30 to 0.61, I2=49%, p=0.05). One global state scale did show an Improvement in global state for those receiving ICM, the GAF scale (n=818, 5 RCTs, MD 3.41 CI 1.66 to 5.16). Results for mental state as measured through various rating scales, however, were equivocal, with no compelling evidence that ICM was really any better than standard care in improving mental state. No differences in mortality between ICM and standard care groups occurred, either due to ’all causes’ (n=1456, 9 RCTs, RR 0.84 CI 0.48 to 1.47) or to ’suicide’ (n=1456, 9 RCTs, RR 0.68 CI 0.31 to 1.51). Social functioning results varied, no differences were found in terms of contact with the legal system and with employment status, whereas significant improvement in accommodation status was found, as was the incidence of not living independently, which was lower in the ICM group (n=1185, 4 RCTs, RR 0.65 CI 0.49 to 0.88). Quality of life data found no significant difference between groups, but data were weak. CSQ scores showed a greater participant satisfaction in the ICM group (n=423, 2 RCTs, MD 3.23 CI 2.31 to 4.14). 2. ICM versus non-ICM The included studies failed to show a significant advantage of ICM in reducing the average length of hospitalisation (n=2220, 21 RCTs, MD ?0.08 CI ?0.37 to 0.21). They did find ICM to be more advantageous than non-ICM in reducing rate of lost to follo

Dieterich, Marina; Irving, Claire B; Park, Bert; Marshall, Max

2014-01-01

121

Treatment Research in Mental Illness: Improving the Nation's Public Mental Health Care  

E-print Network

Treatment Research in Mental Illness: Improving the Nation's Public Mental Health Care through NIMH Funded Interventions Research Report of the National Advisory Mental Health Council's Workgroup on Clinical Trials EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The mission of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH

Baker, Chris I.

122

Census enumeration of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded in the nineteenth century  

PubMed Central

Enumerations of the mentally ill and mentally retarded were included in the six U.S. censuses conducted between 1840 and 1890. Inclusion of these categories reflected the new concern for the mentally ill and mentally retarded that was emerging at that time as part of a new social consciousness. Dr. Gorwitz analyzes these census results, considers the limitations of the data, and discusses the factors that led to discontinuation of the enumerations of the two groups after the 1890 census. PMID:4274650

Gorwitz, Kurt

1974-01-01

123

Elder Abuse and Neglect: Considerations for Mental Health Practitioners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elder abuse and neglect are prevalent throughout the U.S. and are often unrecognized and untreated. It is projected that by the year 2030, the number of older adults (age 60 and older) will double, thereby increasing the likelihood that mental health practitioners will encounter instances of elder abuse and neglect. The authors address the…

Thompson, Heather; Priest, Ronnie

2005-01-01

124

Mental illness in elementary-school-aged children.  

PubMed Central

We conducted a retrospective analysis of 1992 hospital discharge data to determine the incidence of mental illness hospitalizations among elementary-school-aged children and to analyze differences in hospital use by selected population characteristics. We analyzed population-based records of hospitalizations of 6- to 12-year-olds (n = 4,460) with a principal diagnosis of mental illness and calculated relative risks (RRs) for hospitalization by sex, race/ethnicity, and payment source. Mental illnesses accounted for 8.1% of hospitalizations and 28.9% of hospital days for 6- to 12-year-olds. Hospital charges totaled $85 million. Boys had a higher risk of mental illness hospitalization than girls (RR 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.84-2.08). Latino children had a lower risk than whites (RR 0.22; 95% CI 0.20-0.24), as did children in the "Asian/other" group (RR 0.12, 95% CI 0.10-0.15). Inpatient hospitalizations for mental illness have a major impact on hospital morbidity for elementary-school-age children. Boys are overrepresented and Latinos and Asians/others are underrepresented among mental illness hospitalizations. Clinical implications for these findings and barriers to the delivery of inpatient mental health care are discussed. PMID:9926733

Chabra, A; Chávez, G F; Harris, E S

1999-01-01

125

Social capital and mental illness: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Study objective: The concept of social capital has influenced mental health policies of nations and international organisations despite its limited evidence base. This papers aims to systematically review quantitative studies examining the association between social capital and mental illness. Design and setting: Twenty electronic databases and the reference sections of papers were searched to identify published studies. Authors of papers were contacted for unpublished work. Anonymised papers were reviewed by the authors of this paper. Papers with a validated mental illness outcome and an exposure variable agreed as measuring social capital were included. No limitations were put on date or language of publication. Main results: Twenty one studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. Fourteen measured social capital at the individual level and seven at an ecological level. The former offered evidence for an inverse relation between cognitive social capital and common mental disorders. There was moderate evidence for an inverse relation between cognitive social capital and child mental illness, and combined measures of social capital and common mental disorders. The seven ecological studies were diverse in methodology, populations investigated, and mental illness outcomes, making them difficult to summarise. Conclusions: Individual and ecological social capital may measure different aspects of the social environment. Current evidence is inadequate to inform the development of specific social capital interventions to combat mental illness. PMID:16020636

De Silva, M. J; McKenzie, K.; Harpham, T.; Huttly, S.

2005-01-01

126

Mental Illness, Mass Shootings, and the Politics of American Firearms  

PubMed Central

Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control “won’t prevent” another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when “mentally ill” ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

MacLeish, Kenneth T.

2015-01-01

127

Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of american firearms.  

PubMed

Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T

2015-02-01

128

Abandoned minds : the escalating crisis of geriatric mental illness  

E-print Network

Older adults are susceptible to the same mental afflictions that affect other age groups; depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, and other illnesses affect all adult age groups to varying degrees. Yet despite recent ...

Sipics, Michelle

2006-01-01

129

Determinants of mental illness in a rural Ethiopian adult population  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 2000 adult Ethiopians living in rural communities to determine firstly the prevalence of mental illness and secondly its association with stress and demographic variables. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire developed by WHO experts was used as the measure of mental illness. A modified version of the Holmes-Rahe Social Readjustment Scale was the measure of stress. Respondents

Solomon Tafari; Frances E. Aboud; Charles P. Larson

1991-01-01

130

When Parents with Severe Mental Illness Lose Contact with Their Children: Are Psychiatric Symptoms or Substance Use to Blame?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month…

Jones, Danson; Macias, Rosemarie Lillianne; Gold, Paul B.; Barreira, Paul; Fisher, William

2008-01-01

131

Predicting Post-Treatment-Initiation Alcohol Use among Patients with Severe Mental Illness and Alcohol Use Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few investigators studying alcohol abuse among individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) have examined predictors of posttreatment alcohol outcomes. In the present study, a multivariate approach based on a theoretical model was used to study the relationship between psychosocial factors and post-treatment-initiation alcohol use. Predictors of…

Bradizza, Clara M.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Vincent, Paula C.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Connors, Gerard J.; Mercer, Nicole D.

2009-01-01

132

Deliverance, demonic possession, and mental illness: some considerations for mental health professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines an unconventional treatment for mental illness, the exorcism or deliverance ritual used by Pentecostals and some other charismatic Christians. Deliverance beliefs and practices are based on the assumption that both mental and physical ills result from possession of the sufferer by demons, and are to be treated by the expulsion of those demons. Deliverance practitioners claim to

Jean Mercer

2012-01-01

133

DIMACS Technical Report 2005-10 MENTAL ILLNESS AND LENGTH OF HOSPITAL STAY  

E-print Network

. 1 DIMACS Technical Report 2005-10 March 2005 MENTAL ILLNESS AND LENGTH OF HOSPITAL STAY of inpatient stay (LOS) for HIV-infected Medicaid recipients with; Severe Mental Illness History (SMI-H), Other (Less Severe) Mental Illness History (OMI-H), and diagnosis with Acute Mental Illness (AMI) during

134

Pica in the Geriatric Mentally Ill: Unrelenting and Potentially Fatal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pica has rarely been reported in patients with geriatric mental illness. The authors describe 3 male patients with pica in the geriatric unit of a state mental hospital. Two of these patients had a diagnosis of developmental delay with concomitant diagnoses of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, respectively. The third patient was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. In all 3 cases, pica

Noel I. Dumaguing; Indra Singh; Mohammad Sethi; D. P. Devanand

2003-01-01

135

Surgeon General Releases Comprehensive Report on Mental Illness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yesterday, the Surgeon General's office issued a comprehensive new report on Mental Illness in America, the first report of its kind in terms of scope and source. According to the report's findings, one in five Americans experiences a mental illness in any given year and half experience a mental disorder at some time in their lives. But the report's most compelling language was reserved for the obstacles to effective treatment of the mentally ill. Citing stigmas, ignorance of the efficacy of treatment, and a health insurance system that does not accord the same coverage (or respect) to mental illnesses as it does to physical ones, the report calls for an expansion in the supply of mental health services and, specifically, an increase in the number of mental health professionals caring for children and adolescents. Michael M. Faenza, president of the National Mental Health Association, said the report could be a turning point, if it improves access to services, or "it could be meaningless, if Congress and state legislators do not have the backbone and the political will to act on it."

Charbonneau, David D.

136

Seeking Professional Help: Etiology Beliefs about Mental Illness across Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, the authors examined the contributions of cultural beliefs about the etiology of mental illness to the seeking of help from mental health professionals among college students in 4 cultural groups, European Americans, Chinese Americans, Hong Kong Chinese, and Mainland Chinese. Group differences were found in help-seeking…

Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Mak, Winnie W. S.

2008-01-01

137

Serious Mental Illness in Florida Nursing Homes: Need for Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how the mental health needs of nursing home (NH) residents with serious mental illness (SMI) are addressed. Data were collected from three sources: interviews with 84 SMI stakeholders; surveys of 206 NH staff members; and focus groups at two psychiatry specialty NHs. Four common themes emerged: placement of older adults with…

Molinari, Victor A.; Merritt, Stacy S.; Mills, Whitney L.; Chiriboga, David A.; Conboy, Ann; Hyer, Kathryn; Becker, Marion A.

2008-01-01

138

Risky Business: Mental Illness, Disclosure and the TAFE Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper meets at the crossroads of personal experience and public policy. The personal is the experience of learning as described by five TAFE students with a mental illness. The public policy context is the increased political pressure on Australia's major vocational training providers to increase workforce participation of people with mental

Venville, Annie

2010-01-01

139

A model of integrated primary care for HIV-positive patients with underlying substance use and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a high burden of underlying substance use and mental illness in HIV-infected populations. HIV-care settings provide an important opportunity to assess substance and mental health needs among HIV-positive patients and to provide or make referrals for appropriate treatment services. In 2003, with funding from the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT), we developed a model of integrated substance-use

N. Zaller; F. S. Gillani; J. D. Rich

2007-01-01

140

Assessing the knowledge of perinatal mental illness among student midwives.  

PubMed

The experience of perinatal mental illness (mental illness occurring around the time of pregnancy) currently affect 1 in 10 women and can have adverse effects on the mother and her child (Massie and Szajnberg, 2002; O'Connor et al., 2002). The care and effective management of women experiencing perinatal mental illness is therefore an important issue for health care staff, managers, psychiatrists, commissioners and campaigners. Midwives play a significant part in caring for women throughout their pregnancies, during labour and up to the first month after birth. Midwives are in a unique position to assess a woman's well-being and to offer appropriate support. However, previous research has revealed that midwives often have poor understanding and knowledge of perinatal mental health issues and require improved training (Ross-Davie et al, 2006; McCann and Clark, 2010). This research project aims to systematically assess student midwives awareness of perinatal mental illness. The findings of this study will inform curriculum development for graduate and post-graduate midwifery students therefore improving the care and support women with mental illness receive from antenatal services. The findings from this study will also be used for the formation of an educational web-based programme for student and qualified midwives. PMID:25300675

Phillips, Louise

2014-09-28

141

The emerging problem of diabetes in the seriously mentally ill.  

PubMed

We describe the increasing prevalence of chronic illnesses such as obesity and type 2 diabetes have markedly increased in both developed and developing countries. We describe the relationship between type 2 diabetes and mental illness. The extant literature suggests a critical need for innovative treatments targeted to individuals with comorbid diabetes and mental illness. Given the complexity and challenge of both of these disorders in tandem with the interactive challenges and burdens of psychiatric and medical comorbidity, it is essential that interventions address the issue of mental and medical health from the perspective of the individual with the disorder, engage individuals to actively participate in illness self-management, and include consideration of the multiple barriers to care. PMID:21057391

Sajatovic, Martha; Dawson, Neal V

2010-11-01

142

Microaggressions Experienced by Persons With Mental Illnesses: An Exploratory Study.  

PubMed

Objective: Microaggressions are subtle verbal or behavioral communications of disparaging messages to people based upon membership in a socially marginalized group. Their negative impact has been demonstrated for racial/ethnic groups, gender, sexual orientation, and physical disability, but currently no research exists on microaggressions as experienced by persons with mental illnesses. Method: Qualitative data were gathered from 4 focus groups with 2 samples: adult mental health consumers in an assertive community treatment program and college students with mental illness diagnoses. Focus group transcripts were then analyzed using an open coding approach (Strauss & Corbin, 1990) to identify hierarchical themes and categories. Results: Five major themes were identified, including invalidation, assumption of inferiority, fear of mental illness, shaming of mental illness, and second class citizen. Perpetrators of microaggressions were most commonly identified as being close friends, family members, and authority figures. Importantly, participants reported experiencing more overt discrimination experiences than subtle microaggression experiences. Reported negative outcomes related to microaggression experiences included isolation, negative emotions, and treatment nonadherence. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: Reported consequences of microaggressions have important implications for mental health treatment, especially as perpetrators were reported to include treatment providers and were usually unaware of such negative social exchanges. Loss of social support reported by participants and the frequent occurrence of microaggressions within close relationships implies these experiences could contribute to internalization of stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness. Directions for future research include an investigation of motivation and reasoning behind perpetration of microaggressions against persons with mental illnesses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25402611

Gonzales, Lauren; Davidoff, Kristin C; Nadal, Kevin L; Yanos, Philip T

2014-11-17

143

Greek adolescents' views of people with mental illness through drawings: mental health education's impact.  

PubMed

People with mental illness are among the most stigmatized and discriminated against as a result of lack of knowledge among the public. Our study explored adolescents' perceptions of people with mental illness through drawings, described these perceptions, and tested the possible changes in perceptions after an educational mental health intervention. Drawings were collected before and after an educational mental health intervention from 59 Greek secondary school students. One group of participants served as the experimental group and received the educational mental health intervention. Content analysis of the drawings was used to analyze data. The drawings provided a clear understanding of adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. After the educational mental health intervention the negative elements presenting the people with mental illness were less among the experimental group, while the drawings among the comparison group did not change. The findings support that educational mental health intervention can have a positive impact on adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. Health professionals can use the findings of our study in order to develop and implement similar interventions. PMID:24382318

Sakellari, Evanthia; Lehtonen, Kimmo; Sourander, Andre; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, Athena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

2014-09-01

144

Impact of psychiatric and social characteristics on HIV sexual risk behavior in Puerto Rican women with severe mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Latinos in the United States have been identified as a high-risk group for depression, anxiety, and substance abuse. HIV\\/AIDS\\u000a has disproportionately impacted Latinos. Review findings suggest that HIV-risk behaviors among persons with severe mental\\u000a illness (SMI) are influenced by a multitude of factors including psychiatric illness, cognitive-behavioral factors, substance\\u000a use, childhood abuse, and social relationships.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To examine the impact of

Emily Lenore Goldman Heaphy; Sana Loue; Martha Sajatovic; Daniel J. Tisch

2010-01-01

145

Postsecondary education: kindling opportunities for people with mental illness.  

PubMed

Education is recognized in many sectors of society as essential for empowerment and better lives, and postsecondary education is increasingly a prerequisite for many occupations. Given its onset in late adolescence and early adulthood, mental illness frequently disrupts secondary or tertiary education, and resulting lower educational attainment contributes to reduced lifetime employment and earning potential. Yet, supporting people with mental illnesses to pursue postsecondary education offers pathways to vocational qualifications and more diverse opportunities for employment and career advancement. While substantial efforts have been made to develop evidence-based interventions to improve employment outcomes for people with mental ill health, less is known about the best ways to enable people with mental illness to successfully return to study and to pursue their educational goals. This paper briefly discusses supported education, an approach designed to provide pathways and supports for reengagement in education; it highlights the potential of modeling educational support on Individual Placement and Support principles used in supported employment programs; and calls for greater efforts in research and practice to enable youth or adults with mental illness to reengage in education so as to improve their educational outcomes and career prospects. PMID:23857720

Ennals, Priscilla; Fossey, Ellie M; Harvey, Carol A; Killackey, Eóin

2014-06-01

146

Eugenics, genetics, and mental illness stigma in Chinese Americans  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing interest in the genetic causes of mental disorders may exacerbate existing stigma if negative beliefs about a genetic illness are generally accepted. China’s history of policy-level eugenics and genetic discrimination in the workplace suggests that Chinese communities will view genetic mental illness less favorably than mental illness with non-genetic causes. The aim of this study is to identify differences between Chinese Americans and European Americans in eugenic beliefs and stigma toward people with genetic mental illness. Methods We utilized data from a 2003 national telephone survey designed to measure how public perceptions of mental illness differ if the illness is described as genetic. The Chinese American (n = 42) and European American (n = 428) subsamples were analyzed to compare their support of eugenic belief items and measures of stigma. Results Chinese Americans endorsed all four eugenic statements more strongly than European Americans. Ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between genetic attribution and three out of five stigma outcomes; however, genetic attribution actually appeared to be de-stigmatizing for Chinese Americans while it increased stigma or made no difference for European Americans. Conclusions Our findings show that while Chinese Americans hold more eugenic beliefs than European Americans, these attributions do not have the same effect on stigma as they do in Western cultures. These results suggest that future anti-stigma efforts must focus on eugenic attitudes as well as cultural beliefs for Chinese Americans, and that the effects of genetic attributions for mental illness should be examined relative to other social, moral, and religious attributions common in Chinese culture. PMID:21079911

Yang, Lawrence H.; Link, Bruce G.; Phelan, Jo C.

2011-01-01

147

Inequalities in healthcare provision for people with severe mental illness  

PubMed Central

There are many factors that contribute to the poor physical health of people with severe mental illness (SMI), including lifestyle factors and medication side effects. However, there is increasing evidence that disparities in healthcare provision contribute to poor physical health outcomes. These inequalities have been attributed to a combination of factors including systemic issues, such as the separation of mental health services from other medical services, healthcare provider issues including the pervasive stigma associated with mental illness, and consequences of mental illness and side effects of its treatment. A number of solutions have been proposed. To tackle systemic barriers to healthcare provision integrated care models could be employed including co-location of physical and mental health services or the use of case managers or other staff to undertake a co-ordination or liaison role between services. The health care sector could be targeted for programmes aimed at reducing the stigma of mental illness. The cognitive deficits and other consequences of SMI could be addressed through the provision of healthcare skills training to people with SMI or by the use of peer supporters. Population health and health promotion approaches could be developed and targeted at this population, by integrating health promotion activities across domains of interest. To date there have only been small-scale trials to evaluate these ideas suggesting that a range of models may have benefit. More work is needed to build the evidence base in this area. PMID:20923921

Lawrence, David; Kisely, Stephen

2010-01-01

148

Challenging claims that mental illness has been increasing and mental well-being declining.  

PubMed

There has been a tendency by some social scientists and the media to claim that in advanced western societies like Britain and the US mental illness has been increasing and mental well-being declining over the period since the Second World War. In this paper I consider the evidence that is invoked in making such claims, along with the counter-evidence. In order to assess the evidence it is essential to take account of the different ways mental illness and mental well-being are measured and the definitions the measures embed. I argue that when the findings from studies using similar measures at different points in time are compared, there is little evidence of consistent secular increases in mental illness or declines in mental well-being. I suggest that such claims are encouraged by two main factors: first and most importantly, the major changes that have occurred in the official boundaries of mental disorder over the post-war period, which have also changed the ideas and perceptions of professionals and the public about mental health and illness; and second, the ready way in which data on mental health and illness can be used to support criticism of certain features of present-day society. PMID:22591824

Busfield, Joan

2012-08-01

149

Mental illness and mental health: is the glass half empty or half full?  

PubMed

During the past century, the scope of mental health intervention in North America has gradually expanded from an initial focus on hospitalized patients with psychoses to outpatients with neurotic disorders, including the so-called worried well. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fifth Edition, is further embracing the concept of a mental illness spectrum, such that increasing attention to the softer end of the continuum can be expected in the future. This anticipated shift rekindles important questions about how mental illness is defined, how to distinguish between mental disorders and normal reactions, whether psychiatry is guilty of prevalence inflation, and when somatic therapies should be used to treat problems of living. Such debates are aptly illustrated by the example of complicated bereavement, which is best characterized as a form of adjustment disorder. Achieving an overarching definition of mental illness is challenging, owing to the many different contexts in which DSM diagnoses are used. Careful analyses of such contextual utility must inform future decisions about what ends up in DSM, as well as how mental illness is defined by public health policy and society at large. A viable vision for the future of psychiatry should include a spectrum model of mental health (as opposed to exclusively mental illness) that incorporates graded, evidence-based interventions delivered by a range of providers at each point along its continuum. PMID:23149280

Pierre, Joseph M

2012-11-01

150

A Preliminary Classification System for Homeless Veterans With Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was that of defining psychiatric profiles among veterans based on a structured interview of 3,595 individuals administered by outreach mental health clinicians to individuals who were presently or recently homeless. The interview included ratings of presence or absence of current psychiatric disorders; alcoholism, drug abuse, psychosis, mood disorders, personality disorders, PTSD, and adjustment disorders. We

Gerald Goldstein; James F. Luther; Aaron M. Jacoby; Gretchen L. Haas; Adam J. Gordon

2008-01-01

151

Mentalization in children exposed to parental methamphetamine abuse: relations to children's mental health and behavioral outcomes.  

PubMed

This study examined the mentalization capabilities of children exposed to parental methamphetamine abuse in relation to symptom underreporting, mental health, and behavioral outcomes. Twenty-six school-aged children in foster care participated in this study. Mentalization was assessed using the My Family Stories Interview (MFSI), a semi-structured interview in which children recalled family stories about a happy, sad or scary and fun time. An established scale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC), a self-report measure, provided information on children's symptom underreporting. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), completed by the children's foster caregivers, assessed children's mental health and behavioral outcomes. Children with higher mentalization were significantly less prone to underreport symptoms. These children had fewer mental health problems and were rated by their foster caregivers as more socially competent. The findings underscore that mentalization could be an important protective factor for children who have experienced parental substance abuse. PMID:20473793

Ostler, Teresa; Bahar, Ozge Sensoy; Jessee, Allison

2010-05-01

152

Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

2010-01-01

153

Farming and Mental Health Problems and Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Farmers experience one of the highest rates of suicide of any industry and there is growing evidence that those involved in farming are at higher risk of developing mental health problems. This article provides an overview of the literature examining mental health issues experienced by farming populations in the United Kingdom, Europe, Australia, Canada and the United States and

C. E. Fraser; K. B. Smith; F. Judd; J. S. Humphreys; L. J. Fragar; A. Henderson

2005-01-01

154

Mental health consequences of intimate partner abuse: a multidimensional assessment of four different forms of abuse.  

PubMed

Battered women are exposed to multiple forms of intimate partner abuse. This article explores the independent contributions of physical violence, sexual coercion, psychological abuse, and stalking on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among a sample of 413 severely battered, help-seeking women. The authors test the unique effects of psychological abuse and stalking on mental health outcomes, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Mean scores for the sample fall into the moderate to severe range for PTSD and within the moderate category for depression scores. Hierarchical regressions test the unique effects of stalking and psychological abuse, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Psychological abuse and stalking contribute uniquely to the prediction of PTSD and depression symptoms, even after controlling for the effects of physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Results highlight the importance of examining multiple dimensions of intimate partner abuse. PMID:18535306

Mechanic, Mindy B; Weaver, Terri L; Resick, Patricia A

2008-06-01

155

Narrative, ethics and people with severe mental illness.  

PubMed

Starting from the premise that people are essentially narrative beings, I argue that the onset of severe mental illness compromises the narrative enterprise of being able to construct one's Self and one's relationships in meaningful and coherent ways. This is due to both the curtailment of opportunities for narrative engagement and the dispossession of those whose narratives do not conform to the current conceptualization of narrative and narrativity. In these circumstances, supporting the narrative enterprise is an ethical endeavour that requires that we examine not only which narratives we construct, but also how we construct them. This requires a re-thinking of what might constitute narrative and how we might facilitate or enhance the narrativity of people with severe mental illness. Following this, I suggest four means to support the narrativity of people with severe mental illness: through maintaining narrative continuity, maintaining narrative agency, countering master narratives and attention to small stories. PMID:16343305

Baldwin, Clive

2005-01-01

156

Mental Illness, Violence, and Risk Assessment: An Evidence-Based Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presumed link between violence and mental illness has long been an ongoing subject of investigation. Are the mentally ill more likely than those without mental illness to commit violent crimes? Can mental health and criminal justice professionals accurately assess the likelihood of violence? In the current review, we describe scientific evidence to explore these questions. This article is divided

Arthur J. Lurigio; Andrew J. Harris

2009-01-01

157

Koran reading and negotiation with jinn: strategies to deal with mental ill health among Swedish Somalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss traditional Somali concepts of mental ill health. Qualitative interviews were conducted with some 20 Swedish Somali interviewees about factors causing mental ill health, traditional classification, strategies to deal with mental ill health, and attitudes to the mental health care services in Sweden. Social mobilisation and religious healing are cornerstones of traditional Somali measures to deal

Sara Johnsdotter; Karin Ingvarsdotter; Margareta Östman; Aje Carlbom

2011-01-01

158

The criminalization of the mentally ill: Speculation in search of data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the evidence for the speculation that mentally ill persons who would previously have been treated within mental hospitals are now processed through the criminal justice system and constitute an ever-increasing proportion of the jail population. Three factors underlie this speculation: the increase in mentally ill persons residing in the community, police handling of the mentally ill, and evidence that

Linda A. Teplin

1983-01-01

159

Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Children and Adults with Mental Retardation and Other Handicaps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues in the sexual abuse and exploitation of individuals with mental retardation are discussed, including sociolegal considerations of special protection from abuse and neglect, incidence of sexual abuse, increased vulnerability of individuals with mental retardation, nature of the abuse, initial and long-term effects, professional response, and…

Tharinger, Deborah; And Others

1990-01-01

160

National Resource Center on Homelessness and Mental Illness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Operated by a private research firm under contract to the Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the National Resource Center on Homelessness and Mental Illness serves as a clearinghouse for technical assistance and research information. Included here are comprehensive, well-annotated national listings of organizations concerned with mental health, housing and homelessness, as well as housing-related technical assistance resources. The site also provides an "extensive bibliographic database on homelessness and mental illness" broken down by subject; a listing of research monographs and papers commissioned by the center, some of which may be accessed online; an annotated directory of online resources; information about technical assistance given by the Center to professionals in the field; and selected posted articles from issues of Access, a periodic information letter to the field.

161

Family Influence in Recovery from Severe Mental Illness.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived influence of family on recovery from severe mental illness. 54 semi-structured interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of people with severe mental illness living in Montreal. Results indicated that family both facilitated and impeded recovery processes. Specifically, family facilitated recovery through providing (a) moral support, (b) practical support and (c) motivation to recover. However family impeded recovery through (a) acting as a stressor, (b) displaying stigma and lack of understanding, and (c) forcing hospitalization. The study indicates the importance of family psychoeducation in promoting recovery. PMID:25492380

Aldersey, Heather Michelle; Whitley, Rob

2014-12-10

162

A qualitative study of undergraduates' conceptualizations of mental illness.  

PubMed

This qualitative study examined three stigma reduction interventions against mental illness stigma: education, video, and contact. Undergraduates (N = 69) in three introductory psychology classes from a small, Catholic, liberal arts university in the northeast United States participated. Responses to two open-ended questions revealed common negative and stereotypical themes associated with mental illness. The benefits of supplementing traditional social distance measures with a qualitative approach, as well as the importance of considering a social developmental approach to stigma education are discussed. PMID:24010560

Matteo, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

163

How to Improve Interactions between Police and the Mentally Ill  

PubMed Central

There have been repeated instances of police forces having violent, sometimes fatal, interactions with individuals with mental illness. Police forces are frequently first responders to those with mental illness. Despite this, training police in how to best interact with individuals who have a mental illness has been poorly studied. The present article reviews the literature examining mental illness training programs delivered to law-enforcement officers. Some of the key findings are the benefits of training utilizing realistic “hands-on” scenarios, which focus primarily on verbal and non-verbal communication, increasing empathy, and de-escalation strategies. Current issues in training police officers are firstly the tendency for organizations to provide training without proper outcome measures of effectiveness, secondly the focus of training is on changing attitudes although there is little evidence to demonstrate this relates to behavioral change, and thirdly the belief that a mental health training program given on a single occasion is sufficient to improve interactions over the longer-term. Future police training needs to address these issues. PMID:25642196

Krameddine, Yasmeen I.; Silverstone, Peter H.

2015-01-01

164

Sexual Abuse, Incest, and Sexual Exploitation: Mental Health Practitioners' Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a 33-item questionnaire based on Alexander G. Zaphiris's conceptualization of the terminology of sexual mistreatment. Results indicate that mental health counselors (N=300) who encountered sexual abuse, incest, and sexual exploitation agreed with Zaphiris's conceptualization but did not use this system of classification in actual…

Freet, Mary A.; Scalise, Joseph J.; Ginter, Earl J.

1996-01-01

165

Stigma, agency and recovery amongst people with severe mental illness.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that people with a severe mental illness still suffer high levels of stigma and discrimination. However little is known about how people with a severe mental illness manage such stigma. As such, the overall aim of this study is to document and analyze behavioral and psychological strategies of stigma management and control in a sample of people in recovery from a severe mental illness. To meet this aim, we conducted a five-year (2008-2012) qualitative longitudinal study in Washington D.C. Participants were recruited from small-scale congregate housing units ('recovery communities') for people in recovery, provided by a public mental health agency. We conducted regular focus groups at these communities, augmented by in-depth participant observation. Analysis was propelled by the grounded theory approach. A key finding of this study is that stigma and discrimination were not perceived as commonly experienced problems by participants. Instead, stigma and discrimination were perceived as omnipresent potential problems to which participants remained eternally vigilant, taking various preventive measures. Most notable among these measures was a concerted and self-conscious effort to behave and look 'normal'; through dress, appearance, conduct and demeanor. In this endeavor, participants possessed and deployed a considered degree of agency to prevent, avoid or preempt stigma and discrimination. These efforts appeared to have a strong semiotic dimension, as participants reported their developing 'normality' (and increased agentic power) was tangible proof of their ongoing recovery. Participants also routinely discussed severe mental illness in normative terms, noting its similarity to physical illnesses such as diabetes, or to generic mental health problems experienced by all. These behavioral and psychological strategies of normalization appeared to be consolidated within the recovery communities, which provided physical shelter and highly-valued peer support. This fostered participants' ability to face and embrace the outside world with confidence, pride and dignity. PMID:24602965

Whitley, Rob; Campbell, Rosalyn Denise

2014-04-01

166

"Idiots, infants, and the insane": mental illness and legal incompetence  

PubMed Central

Prior to the second world war, most persons confined in insane asylums were regarded as legally incompetent and had guardians appointed for them. Today, most persons confined in mental hospitals (or treated involuntarily, committed to outpatient treatment) are, in law, competent; nevertheless, in fact, they are treated as if they were incompetent. Should the goal of mental health policy be providing better psychiatric services to more and more people, or the reduction and ultimate elimination of the number of persons in the population treated as mentally ill? PMID:15681670

Szasz, T

2005-01-01

167

Stigmatizing Attitudes About Mental Illness and Allocation of Resources to Mental Health Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests a social psychological model (Skitka & Tetlock, 1992). Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 28, 491–522; [1993]. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 65, 1205–1223 stating that policy maker decisions regarding the allocation of resources to mental health services are influenced by their attitudes towards people with mental illness and treatment efficacy. Fifty four individuals participated in a

Patrick W. Corrigan; Amy C. Watson; Amy C. Warpinski; Gabriela Gracia

2004-01-01

168

Medication compliance among the seriously mentally ill in a public mental health system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medication non-compliance, a pervasive problem among persons with serious, chronic mental illness, has been linked to increased inpatient resources use in public mental health systems. The objective of this analysis was to determine which factors are associated with medication compliance in this population so that more appropriate screening and intervention programs can be designed. Using knowledge gained from clinical research

C. Nageotte; G. Sullivan; N. Duan; P. L. Camp

1997-01-01

169

Impact of Childhood Abuse: Biopsychosocial Pathways Through Which Adult Mental Health is Compromised  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between childhood abuse and adult mental and physical health problems is well documented. Over the lifespan of victims of child abuse, social, psychological and biological consequences of abuse interact in complex ways. A biopsychosocial model is applied to the experiences of adult victims of child abuse to make sense of the complex and varied impacts of child abuse.

Dominiek Coates

2010-01-01

170

Chronic Mental Illness and Community Treatment Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The movement from institutional to community care has been a key component of national mental health reform in Australia. In Victoria, where a model of community care has been fully implemented, a specialized forensic hospital is the sole remaining stand-alone psychiatric inpatient facility and access to long-term inpatient beds is severely limited. Clinical experience suggests that some high-needs patients

Alex Holmes; Mark Hodge; Simon Lenten; John Fielding; David Castle; Dennis Velakoulis; Gail Bradley

2006-01-01

171

Teaching Students with Emotional Disorders and/or Mental Illnesses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource manual is designed to assist Alberta teachers in the identification and education of students with emotional disorders and/or mental illnesses. It takes a comprehensive look at six emotional disorders. The first section focuses on eating disorders. It describes the characteristics and symptoms of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

172

African Americans and Recovery from Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This hermeneutic phenomenological study examined the lived experience of African-American persons recovering from serious and persistent mental illness (SPMI). Semi-structured interviews were conducted at three time points (6, 12, and 18 months) with nine African Americans with SPMI. A culturally sensitive perspective informed the data analysis. Interviews were transcribed, read, and coded to cluster thematic aspects in each case and

Marilyn Peterson Armour; William Bradshaw; David Roseborough

2009-01-01

173

Perceived Mental Illness Stigma among Youth in Psychiatric Outpatient Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to the…

Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

2012-01-01

174

Stigma, Reflected Appraisals, and Recovery Outcomes in Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on modified labeling theory and the reflected appraisals process and using longitudinal data from 129 mothers and their adult children with schizophrenia, we estimate models of the effects of mothers' stigmatized identity appraisals of their mentally ill children on reflected and self-appraisals, and how appraisals affect outcomes…

Markowitz, Fred E.; Angell, Beth; Greenberg, Jan S.

2011-01-01

175

Cultivating Empathy for the Mentally Ill Using Simulated Auditory Hallucinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors address the issue of cultivating medical students' empathy for the mentally ill by examining medical student empathy pre- and postsimulated auditory hallucination experience. Methods: At the University of Utah, 150 medical students participated in this study during their 6-week psychiatry rotation. The Jefferson Scale of…

Bunn, William; Terpstra, Jan

2009-01-01

176

The Future of Psychotherapy for Mentally Ill Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Given striking advances in translational developmental neuroscience and its convergence with developmental psychopathology and developmental epidemiology, it is now clear that mental illnesses are best thought of as neurodevelopmental disorders. This simple fact has enormous implications for the nature and organization of psychotherapy…

March, John S.

2009-01-01

177

Jail hospitalization of prearraignment patient arrestees with mental illness.  

PubMed

A growing number of individuals with mental illness are receiving psychiatric treatment in the criminal justice system. However, mental health problems facing individuals immediately after arrest and before arraignment have not been adequately studied. In New York City, prearraignment arrestees who require psychiatric hospitalization are temporarily transferred from police custody to correctional custody and admitted to the Bellevue Jail Psychiatry Service (BJPS) for treatment. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the impact of this jail hospitalization on the legal disposition of this vulnerable population. A retrospective chart review was conducted of 204 consecutively admitted male patient-arrestees on the BJPS. Results showed that admission to the BJPS delayed arraignment by an average of 8.03 days, with longer delays for individuals arrested outside of Manhattan. Although these delays are considered acceptable under legal precedent, concerns arise about the therapeutic impact of this practice on newly arrested individuals with severe mental illness. PMID:24618522

Gray, Susan M; Racine, Christopher W; Smith, Christopher W; Ford, Elizabeth B

2014-01-01

178

1 in 5 U.S. Adults Dealt with a Mental Illness in 2013  

MedlinePLUS

... 1 in 5 U.S. Adults Dealt With a Mental Illness in 2013 Federal official urges people to seek ... adults -- 43.8 million people -- had a diagnosable mental illness in 2013, federal officials reported Thursday. The report ...

179

Coping Tips for Siblings and Adult Children of Persons with Mental Illness  

MedlinePLUS

... for Siblings and Adult Children of Persons with Mental Illness If you find it difficult to come to ... the challenges presented by your sibling's or parent's mental illness, you are not alone: there are many others ...

180

Postmortem Brain: An Underutilized Substrate for Studying Severe Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

We propose that postmortem tissue is an underutilized substrate that may be used to translate genetic and/or preclinical studies, particularly for neuropsychiatric illnesses with complex etiologies. Postmortem brain tissues from subjects with schizophrenia have been extensively studied, and thus serve as a useful vehicle for illustrating the challenges associated with this biological substrate. Schizophrenia is likely caused by a combination of genetic risk and environmental factors that combine to create a disease phenotype that is typically not apparent until late adolescence. The complexity of this illness creates challenges for hypothesis testing aimed at understanding the pathophysiology of the illness, as postmortem brain tissues collected from individuals with schizophrenia reflect neuroplastic changes from a lifetime of severe mental illness, as well as treatment with antipsychotic medications. While there are significant challenges with studying postmortem brain, such as the postmortem interval, it confers a translational element that is difficult to recapitulate in animal models. On the other hand, data derived from animal models typically provide specific mechanistic and behavioral measures that cannot be generated using human subjects. Convergence of these two approaches has led to important insights for understanding molecular deficits and their causes in this illness. In this review, we discuss the problem of schizophrenia, review the common challenges related to postmortem studies, discuss the application of biochemical approaches to this substrate, and present examples of postmortem schizophrenia studies that illustrate the role of the postmortem approach for generating important new leads for understanding the pathophysiology of severe mental illness. PMID:24091486

McCullumsmith, Robert E; Hammond, John H; Shan, Dan; Meador-Woodruff, James H

2014-01-01

181

Psychometric Evaluation of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale for Patients with Mental Illnesses: Measurement Invariance across Time  

PubMed Central

Background The current investigation examined the psychometric properties of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale in a sample of patients with mental illness. In addition to the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity that previous studies have tested for the ISMI, we extended the evaluation to its construct validity and measurement invariance using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Methods Three hundred forty-seven participants completed two questionnaires (i.e., the ISMI and the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale [DSSS]), and 162 filled out the ISMI again after 50.23±31.18 days. Results The results of this study confirmed the frame structure of the ISMI; however, the Stigma Resistance subscale in the ISMI seemed weak. In addition, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity were all satisfactory for all subscales and the total score of the ISMI, except for Stigma Resistance (??=?0.66; ICC?=?0.52, and r?=?0.02 to 0.06 with DSSS). Therefore, we hypothesize that Stigma Resistance is a new concept rather than a concept in internalized stigma. The acceptable fit indices supported the measurement invariance of the ISMI across time, and suggested that people with mental illness interpret the ISMI items the same at different times. Conclusion The clinical implication of our finding is that clinicians, when they design interventions, may want to use the valid and reliable ISMI without the Stigma Resistance subscale to evaluate the internalized stigma of people with mental illness. PMID:24887440

Chang, Chih-Cheng; Wu, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Chih-Yin; Wang, Jung-Der; Lin, Chung-Ying

2014-01-01

182

Does Mental Illness Stigma Contribute to Adolescent Standardized Patients' Discomfort With Simulations of Mental Illness and Adverse Psychosocial Experiences?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…

Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.

2008-01-01

183

Parents with serious mental illness: Differences in internalised and externalised mental illness stigma and gender stigma between mothers and fathers.  

PubMed

Research demonstrates that people living with serious mental illness (SMI) contend with widespread public stigma; however, little is known about the specific experiences of stigma that mothers, and in particular fathers, with SMI encounter as parents. This study aimed to explore and compare the experiences of stigma for mothers and fathers with SMI inferred not only by living with a mental illness but also potential compounding gender effects, and the associated impact of stigma on parenting. Telephone surveys were conducted with 93 participants with SMI who previously identified as parents in the Second Australian National Survey of Psychosis. Results indicated that mothers were more likely than fathers to perceive and internalise stigma associated with their mental illness. Conversely, fathers were more inclined to perceive stigma relating to their gender and to hold stigmatising attitudes towards others. Mental illness and gender stigma predicted poorer self-reported parenting experiences for both mothers and fathers. These findings may assist in tailoring interventions for mothers and fathers with SMI. PMID:25524813

Lacey, Melanie; Paolini, Stefania; Hanlon, Mary-Claire; Melville, Jessica; Galletly, Cherrie; Campbell, Linda E

2015-02-28

184

Parents of Children With Mental Illness: Exploring the Caregiver Experience and Caregiver-Focused Interventions  

E-print Network

Mendenhall & Mount | Parents of Children With Mental Illness: Exploring the Caregiver Experience and Caregiver-Focused Interventions 183 Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services | www.FamiliesinSociety.org DOI: 10....1606/1044-3894.4097 | ©2011 Alliance for Children and Families MENTAL ILLNESS AND FAMILY SUPPORT Parents of Children With Mental Illness: Exploring the Caregiver Experience and Caregiver-Focused Interventions Amy N. Mendenhall & Katherine Mount Serious mental illness...

Mendenhall, Amy N.; Mount, Katherine

2011-01-01

185

Breaking the Silence: Teaching the Next Generation about Mental Illness. For Upper Elementary Grades. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides curriculum lessons for the upper elementary school student that put a human face on mental illness and confront myths passed on from one generation to the next. One in five children will be affected by mental illness at some point in their lives. The goal of these lessons is help students understand that severe mental illnesses

Susin, Janet; Kaplan, Lorraine; Slater, Louise

186

The Homeless Mentally Ill: No Longer Out of Sight and Out of Mind. Human Resources Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing presence of the mentally ill among the nation's homeless is the topic of this report. The problems presented by deinstitutionalization are discussed, including: (1) the homeless mentally ill as a disruptive element of society; (2) mentally ill persons who shuttle between the hospital and the community; (3) young chronic patients who…

Paterson, Andrea; Craig, Rebecca T.

1985-01-01

187

On-Screen Portrayals of Mental Illness: Extent, Nature, and Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the published literature on the extent, nature, and impacts of portrayal of mental illness in fictional films and television programs. The literature suggests that on-screen portrayals are frequent and generally negative, and have a cumulative effect on the public's perception of people with mental illness and on the likelihood of people with mental illness seeking appropriate help.

Jane Pirkis; R. Warwick Blood; Catherine Francis; Kerry McCallum

2006-01-01

188

VOLUME 7: NO. 1 JANUARY 2010 Evolving Definitions of Mental Illness  

E-print Network

VOLUME 7: NO. 1 JANUARY 2010 Evolving Definitions of Mental Illness and Wellness SPECIAL TOPIC, Strine TW. Evolving definitions of mental illness and well- ness. Prev Chronic Dis 2010;7(1). http-focused to a person-focused defini- tion of mental illnesses, and from an "absence of disease" model to one

Mladenoff, David

189

The First Steps to Learning with a Child Who Has a Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article shares the author's experience in dealing with her child who has a mental illness. The author hopes that other teachers and school administrators would find her experience helpful when dealing with mentally ill children. The author describes the first steps to learning with a child with a mental illness.

Baxter, Joanne

2009-01-01

190

Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 1 The Blame Game  

E-print Network

Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 1 The Blame Game: Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness Margaret A. Martinez Senior Thesis in Psychology Advisor: Susan Nolen-Hoeksema April 19, 2010 #12;Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 2 Abstract The present study

Scholl, Brian

191

Daily Gazette, The (Schenectady, NY) RealJobs NY program helps the mentally ill find employment  

E-print Network

Daily Gazette, The (Schenectady, NY) RealJobs NY program helps the mentally ill find employment with mental illnesses find work. After seven months of searching, he finally found a job as an assistant chef;To be eligible for RealJobs NY, people must have a diagnosed mental illness. They check in a couple

McConnell, Terry

192

Envisioning a world in which mental illnesses are prevented and cured  

E-print Network

illnesses are prevented and cured #12;national institute of mental health strategic plan NIMH StrategIc Pla Mental Illness trajectories to Determine When, Where, and How to Intervene We will chart the course Interventions that Incorporate the Diverse Needs and circumstances of People with Mental Illnesses We

Baker, Chris I.

193

Experts, actor clash on cause of mental ills By Tina Hesman  

E-print Network

Experts, actor clash on cause of mental ills By Tina Hesman Of the Post-Dispatch 06 of mental illness, neuroscientists say. Advertisement "It's safe to say that we know that metabolic changes in the brain are present for all major mental illnesses," Conway said. The case for brain changes accompanying

194

For Immediate Release --Friday, April 11, 2014 Advocate for the mentally ill, Austin Mardon, to receive  

E-print Network

for the mentally ill, Austin Mardon, to receive University of Lethbridge honorary degree for the mentally ill, Austin Mardon. "We're very excited that Austin has accepted our he has done over the years to bring issues of mental illness

Seldin, Jonathan P.

195

Talking about Mental Illness: A Guide for Developing an Awareness Program for Youth. Community Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains all of the information, support and tools that community members need to implement "Talking About Mental Illness" in their community--an awareness program proven to be effective in bringing about positive change in young people's knowledge about mental illness, and in reducing stigma that surrounds mental illness. The program…

2001

196

Breaking the Silence: Teaching the Next Generation about Mental Illness. For Middle School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a campaign to end discrimination against mentally ill persons, this educational packet is designed to provide health educators with the material necessary to teach the facts about mental illness. The objectives of the lesson plans are for middle school students to: (1) identify the stigmatizing words associated with mental illness and…

Susin, Janet; Kaplan, Lorraine; Slater, Louise

197

Portrayal of Depression and Other Mental Illnesses in Australian Nonfiction Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes Australian media portrayal of mental illnesses, focusing on depression. A random sample of 1,123 items was selected for analysis from a pool of 13,389 nonfictional media items about mental illness collected between March 2000 and February 2001. Depression was portrayed more frequently than other mental illnesses. Items about…

Francis, Catherine; Pirkis, Jane; Blood, R. Warwick; Dunt, David; Burgess, Philip; Morley, Belinda; Stewart, Andrew

2005-01-01

198

The census of India and the mentally ill  

PubMed Central

Context/Background: Epidemiological data have long been considered essential for documenting incidence of disability and planning services. India has been conducting census operations for a long time, and this information may be relevant in the current context. Aims: To document the prevalence of insanity, and discussions about treatment and disability arising out of mental illness in India (1850-1950). Settings and Design: The material used was located at the British Library and the Wellcome Library, London; the Teen Murti Library, Delhi, and web-based archives. Materials and Methods: We have retrieved and summarized the coverage of psychiatric illness in previous census reports from the 19th and 20th century. Statistical Analysis: None, this relies upon historical archives and documents. Results and Conclusions: Differences in incidence and prevalence of insanity, as well as biological and psycho-social factors in the causation, and outcomes, of mental illness are all discussed in these census reports. Comparisons are often drawn to other countries and cultures, and impressions drawn about these differences and similarities. Similar concerns persist to this day. Disabilities and mental illness were not enumerated since the census of 1941 and have been restored only recently, and this lacuna has hampered planning in the post-Independence era. As we debate policy and plan interventions using contemporary census data, it may be useful to remind ourselves of the issues, then and now. PMID:22556434

Sarin, Alok; Jain, Sanjeev

2012-01-01

199

Involuntary detention and treatment of the mentally ill: China's 2012 Mental Health Law.  

PubMed

The long-awaited Mental Health Law of China was passed on 26 October 2012 and took effect on 1 May 2013. Being the first national legislation on mental health, it establishes a basic legal framework to regulate mental health practice and recognizes the fundamental rights of persons with mental disorders. This article focuses on the system of involuntary detention and treatment of the mentally ill under the new law, which is expected to prevent the so-called "Being misidentified as mentally disordered" cases in China. A systematic examination of the new system demonstrates that the Mental Health Law of China implicitly holds two problematic assumptions and does not provide adequate protection of the fundamental rights of the involuntary patients. Administrative enactments and further national legislative efforts are needed to remedy these flaws in the new law. PMID:24630738

Ding, Chunyan

2014-01-01

200

Crisis intervention for people with severe mental illnesses  

PubMed Central

Background A particularly difficult challenge for community treatment of people with serious mental illnesses is the delivery of an acceptable level of care during the acute phases of severe mental illness. Crisis intervention models of care were developed as a possible solution. Objectives To review the effects of crisis intervention models for anyone with serious mental illness experiencing an acute episode, compared with ‘standard care’. Search methods We updated the 1998, 2003 and 2006 searches with a search of the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s Register of trials (2010) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials of crisis intervention models versus standard care for people with severe mental illnesses. Data collection and analysis We independently extracted data from these trials and we estimated risk ratios (RR) or mean differences (MD), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assumed that people who left early from a trial had no improvement. Main results Three new studies have been found since the last review in 2006 to add to the five studies already included in this review. None of the previously included studies investigated crisis intervention alone; all used a form of home care for acutely ill people, which included elements of crisis intervention. However, one of the new studies focuses purely on crisis intervention as provided by Crisis Resolution Home Teams within the UK; the two other new studies investigated crisis houses i.e. residential alternatives to hospitalisation providing home-like environments. Crisis intervention appears to reduce repeat admissions to hospital after the initial ‘index’ crises investigated in the included studies, this was particularly so for mobile crisis teams supporting patients in their own homes. Crisis intervention reduces the number of people leaving the study early, reduces family burden, is a more satisfactory form of care for both patients and families and at three months after crisis, mental state is superior to standard care. We found no differences in death outcomes. Some studies found crisis interventions to be more cost effective than hospital care but all numerical data were either skewed or unusable. No data on staff satisfaction, carer input, complications with medication or number of relapses were available. Authors’ conclusions Care based on crisis intervention principles, with or without an ongoing home care package, appears to be a viable and acceptable way of treating people with serious mental illnesses. If this approach is to be widely implemented it would seem that more evaluative studies are still needed. PMID:22592673

Murphy, Suzanne; Irving, Claire B; Adams, Clive E; Driver, Ron

2014-01-01

201

A Qualitative Study of Attitudes toward Mental Illness: Implications for Public Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efforts to foster mental health care in society have always been hampered by the stigma attached to mental illness. To identify differential patterns of attitude hierarchies among people who live in or provide mental health services in a typical urban area, 54 adults participated in a Q methodology study of their attitudes toward mental illness.…

Bissland, James H.; Munger, Richard

202

The Contribution of Exercise and Sport to Mental Health Promotion in Serious Mental Illness: An Interpretive Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we synthesise the findings of previous research to explore the question: How can exercise and sport contribute to mental health promotion in the context of serious mental illness? We used an interpretive approach to gain insights into the sport and exercise experiences of 11 men with serious mental illness. Data were gathered through interviews and participant observation,

David Carless; Kitrina Douglas

2008-01-01

203

Rehabilitation programmes and quality of life in severe mental illness.  

PubMed

Quality of life is increasingly identified as a key outcome measure for evaluating the efficacy of community mental health services and novel antipsychotics. However, there is a relative paucity of research on the impact of rehabilitation programmes on quality of life. This report outlines the results of two 'naturalistic' studies carried out in a catchment area psychiatric service to evaluate the benefits associated with a supported employment programme and a psychosocial/educational intervention. The findings suggest that outpatient based programmes which provide opportunities for vocational or prevocational rehabilitation may have significant quality of life benefits for individuals with severe mental illness. PMID:10689614

Browne, S

1999-01-01

204

The effect of severe child sexual abuse and disclosure on mental health during adulthood.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship among severe child sexual abuse, disclosure, and mental health symptoms during adulthood. The sample consisted of 172 adults who were sexually abused in childhood. The multivariate model showed that respondents in their 30s and 40s who were abused by more than one abuser, who were injured by their abusers, who were abused by a biological relative, who told someone about the abuse when it occurred, and who did not discuss their abuse in depth within one year of the abuse had a greater number of mental health symptoms. Abuse severity and disclosure history should be assessed by professionals to identify clients who are at higher risk of mental health symptoms and to focus therapy. PMID:20509077

O'Leary, Patrick; Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D

2010-05-01

205

Attitudes towards mental illness in Sweden: adaptation and development of the Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness questionnaire.  

PubMed

The main purpose for the expansion of supported community care for persons with serious mental illness in Sweden was to ensure the right for these persons to live as citizens in the community. However, earlier research shows that negative attitudes towards mental illness present an obstacle for social integration of persons with serious mental illness. The aim of this study, conducted in Sweden, was to evaluate an existing instrument's (Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness, CAMI), validity and reliability. An additional aim was to adapt and develop the questionnaire to Swedish circumstances. After translation and modification of the original CAMI, the Swedish version of the questionnaire (CAMI-S) was distributed to all student nurses at three different universities in Sweden. The overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.90 of the original CAMI-S. A corrected inter-item total correlation excluded 20 items because they showed loading <0.43. The overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient on the 20 items (new CAMI-S) that showed loading, >0.43, was 0.903. A factor analysis of these items revealed that the data could be extracted in three factors labelled as: open-minded and pro-integration, fear and avoidance and community mental health ideology. Finally, in order to reach reliable results in attitude research, it is important to measure the respondent's attitude towards the object in common as well as the respondent's attitude to interact with the object. Accordingly, it is important to add behavioural intention items to the 'new CAMI-S'. Statements exemplifying how something 'ought to be' in an impersonal way have a good degree of stability over time and place. PMID:18789039

Högberg, Torbjörn; Magnusson, Annabella; Ewertzon, Mats; Lützén, Kim

2008-10-01

206

Neighborhood Effects, Mental Illness and Criminal Behavior: A Review.  

PubMed

This paper briefly reviews the social science on "neighborhood effects" as an independent force in shaping poor outcomes, specifically mental illness and criminal behavior, before discussing the implications of that research for understanding the relationship between neighborhoods, race and class. Neighborhood effects research has proliferated in recent years with extensive attention again being focused on the social context of family and individual development and life course. Moreover, recent work has suggested the need to consider the developmental effects of neighborhoods that persist across life-span. This paper will focus specifically on mental illness and criminal behavior as outcomes for understanding neighborhood effects, but will also consider what the structural causes of individual behavior and functioning mean for clinical assessment, especially forensic assessment. PMID:25250101

Freedman, David; Woods, George W

2013-09-01

207

Mental illness and metabolic syndrome - a literature review.  

PubMed

introduction and objective. Researchers' opinions are divided on whether metabolic syndrome is a separate clinical entity. Undoubtedly, the components of the syndrome, such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridaemia, adversely affect metabolism, bringing with it a number of consequences, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which significantly impair the quality of life. abbreviated description of the state of knowledge. In recent years, much attention has been paid to research on the prevalence of metabolic disorders in mentally ill patients. This is due to a growing awareness that some antipsychotic medications contribute to weight gain in patients suffering from mental illness, and consequently lead to the development of a number of interrelated somatic factors, such as abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridaemia, and hypertension. Weight gain and other metabolic syndrome components have been noticed not only in patients, but also in their families. This paper presents current research on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in people with mental illness. An analysis of the causes of metabolic disorders in this population has been conducted, including the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and cortisol secretion in the development of components of metabolic syndrome. conclusions. Components of the metabolic syndrome are especially observed in mentally ill people. The mechanisms of their formation are not fully understood. A large role in their formation besides the negative effects of antipsychotic medication and specific lifestyle, play a specific dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Undoubtedly, further research and analysis in this area is necessary. PMID:25528926

?opusza?ska, Urszula J; Skorzy?ska-Dziduszko, Katarzyna; Lupa-Zatwarnicka, Krystyna; Makara-Studzi?ska, Marta

2014-11-26

208

Homelessness, Mental Illness, and Criminal Activity: Examining Patterns Over Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether street homelessness, sheltered homelessness, and the severity of psychological symptoms predicted\\u000a non-violent and violent crime among 207 mentally ill participants who were homeless at baseline. Participants were interviewed\\u000a at 9 time points over 4 years. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine whether changes in homelessness status\\u000a and symptom severity predicted changes in criminal activity over

Sean N. Fischer; Marybeth Shinn; Patrick Shrout; Sam Tsemberis

2008-01-01

209

Treating Offenders with Mental Illness: A Research Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research synthesis was to examine treatment effects across studies of the service providers to offenders\\u000a with mental illness. Meta-analytic techniques were applied to 26 empirical studies obtained from a review of 12,154 research\\u000a documents. Outcomes of interest in this review included measures of both psychiatric and criminal functioning. Although meta-analytic\\u000a results are based on a small

Robert D. Morgan; David B. Flora; Daryl G. Kroner; Jeremy F. Mills; Femina Varghese; Jarrod S. Steffan

210

Self-Stigma and Coming Out about One's Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-stigma can undermine self-esteem and self-efficacy of people with serious mental illness. Coming out may be one way of handling self-stigma and it was expected that coming out would mediate the effects of self-stigma on quality of life. This study compares coming out to other approaches of controlling self-stigma. Eighty-five people with…

Corrigan, Patrick W.; Morris, Scott; Larson, Jon; Rafacz, Jennifer; Wassel, Abigail; Michaels, Patrick; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen; Rusch, Nicolas

2010-01-01

211

[The mentally ill artist--a historical retrospect].  

PubMed

The painting of the mentally ill has fascinated artists and their public throughout the 20th century. Yet the psychologically as well as art-historically interesting topic can be traced back over a long period in the history of Western culture. Aristotle emphasizes that all men who create great works, such as artists, philosophers, poets and politicians, are prone to melancholy, that excess of black gall which is characteristic of artists and depressive. Although Plato distinguished between creative and clinical mania, the topos of "genius and madness" prevails up to our century. The cult of melancholy is taken up bei Marsilio Ficino and becomes fashionable among the artists of the 16th and 17th centuries. During the Romantic period of the early 19th century the psychologically unstable or even sick intellectual and artist becomes the focus of attention. Artistic madness is glorified in an almost mystical fashion. However, disillusionment was soon to follow. Schopenhauer, Lombroso and many physicians stress the close relationship between genius and madness. However, they judge madness to be merely morbid and negative. During the 20th century the artists of the avantgarde show much interest in psychoanalysis and in the art of the mentally ill. The rise of National Socialism brought about a drastic break in the appraisal of the art of the mentally ill, which today is an acknowledged factor in contemporary art. PMID:7672748

Bergdolt, K

1995-07-01

212

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. March/April 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"SAMHSA News" is the national newsletter of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Published six times a year (bimonthly) by SAMHSA's Office of Communications, SAMHSA News contains information about the latest substance abuse and mental health treatment and prevention practices, recent statistics on mental health and…

Goodman, Deborah, Ed.

2008-01-01

213

Department of Human Services Division of Substance Abuse and Mental Health (DSAMH)  

E-print Network

Department of Human Services Division of Substance Abuse and Mental Health (DSAMH) I. Internal Scan will likely need other medical services beyond just substance abuse and mental health issues complex mental health issues, and some service expectations may be shifted to DSAMH. Baby boomers are also

Tipple, Brett

214

Soldier Characteristics, Alcohol Abuse Risk, and Mental Health Risk as Treatment Predictors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combat exposure and other factors associated with military service may place soldiers at increased risk of substance use and mental health issues. We examine the importance of soldier characteristics and risk for alcohol abuse and mental health issues in predicting entry into treatment for alcohol abuse and treatment for mental health issues among active duty soldiers (n = 43,342). Results

A. Monique Clinton-Sherrod; Kelle Barrick; Deborah A. Gibbs

2011-01-01

215

Effects of illness attribution and depression on the quality of life among persons with serious mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attributing one's problems to a mental illness is associated with reduced subjective quality of life (QOL) among persons with schizophrenia, controlling for a broad range of socio-demographic, social, clinical, and psychosocial variables. Persons who attributed their problems to a 'physical, medical, or biological' problem in contrast to a 'mental illness' reported more positive social relations and higher overall quality of

David Mechanic; Donna McAlpine; Sarah Rosenfield; Diane Davis

1994-01-01

216

A method for estimating the chronic mentally ill population in state and local areas.  

PubMed

A practical method for estimating the size of the noninstitutionalized chronic mentally ill population in state and local areas, including those not currently receiving services, has been developed. The method relies on national and state counts by zip code area of persons receiving Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) because of mental illness, and on full or sample counts by SSI and SSDI status of chronic mentally ill persons in publicly funded community mental health programs. PMID:3873391

Ashbaugh, J W; Manderscheid, R W

1985-04-01

217

[Bonhoeffer's position on sterilization of the mentally ill.  

PubMed

Karl Bonhoeffer was head of the psychiatric department of the Charité University Hospital from 1912 to 1938 and in 1923 expressed his expert opinion for the Prussian Provincial Health Council regarding the demand of the Saxon physician Gustav Boeters for the implementation of a sterilization law. Bonhoeffer wrote that eugenic sterilization cannot be successful because only obvious bearers of severe forms of mental illness can be registered but not the carriers of hereditary illness factors if they only lead to mildly expressed forms of illness or even if the carriers remain without symptoms. However, after the adoption of the "law for the prevention of offspring with hereditary diseases" in 1933 Bonhoeffer gave courses on hereditary health issues supporting the execution of the law. How should this change be understood going from a scientifically critical position against eugenically preventive sterilization of the mentally ill to acting as an expert advocate in discussions about hereditary health and thereby as a seeming protagonist, a coperpetrator and forerunner of National Socialist health policy? To understand this it seems necessary to consider the situation of that time which was increasingly dominated by a biologically and socially oriented medicine in connection with the eugenic movement. Then the effects and motives of Bonhoeffer's position toward sterilization will be questioned. Effects can be seen on the one hand in that the leading authority of the discipline apparently supported the execution of the law by giving courses on the subject and as an expert advocate and by that eliminating doubts in the justification of the law. On the other hand Bonhoeffer's "restrictive statements about eugenic sterilization…were used to support argumentation and precedence cases as a basis for cautious indications". It remains a fact that his expert judgments more frequently than not saved some mentally ill persons from sterilization but nonetheless demanded this of others.Questions:1. Did Bonhoeffer accept eugenic sterilization as justified in cases of unequivocally inherited defects in mentally ill patients?2. Why did Bonhoeffer not boycott the law in his realm of influence or make this rejection public by resignation?The answers will try to create an understanding for the behavior of an influential person, now seen as controversial, within the context of his time in order to sensitize those of us born later for the present effects in our own times. PMID:24595740

Helmchen, H

2014-03-01

218

Associations between Mental Health, Substance Use, and Sexual Abuse Experiences among Latinas.  

PubMed

This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18-34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897

Ulibarri, Monica D; Ulloa, Emilio C; Salazar, Marissa

2015-01-01

219

Patterns and Predictors of Mental Health Service Use and Mental Illness Among Older and Younger Adults in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined patterns of serious mental illness (SMI), specific mental health syndromes, and service use among older (65+) and younger (18–64) adults throughout the United States, and the extent to which various factors predict SMI and the use and magnitude of mental health treatment. Despite recent developments designed to improve mental healthcare access and treatment for older adults,

Bradley E. Karlin; Michael Duffy; David H. Gleaves

2008-01-01

220

Treating Older Persons with Severe Mental Illness in the Community: Impact of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Mental Health Team  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information is available concerning community-based interventions to treat the growing number older persons with severe mental illness. This study examined treatment efficacy of a specialized interdisciplinary geriatric mental health team (mental health geriatric interdisciplinary teams or MHGITs) for 69 older clients with severe mental disorders. Depression, life satisfaction, health, and psychiatric and medical hospitalization data were gathered. A decrease

Sherry M. Cummings

2008-01-01

221

Attitudes of Mental Health Professionals about Mental Illness: A Review of the Recent Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large body of research has documented public attitudes toward people with mental illness. The current attitudes of the people who provide services to those with psychiatric disorders are important to understand, as well. The authors review what studies over the past 5 years reveal about the attitudes of psychiatric professionals. Empirical…

Wahl, Otto; Aroesty-Cohen, Eli

2010-01-01

222

A qualitative study of primary health care access, barriers and satisfaction among people with mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has found that a substantial proportion of individuals with mental illness have high morbidity and mortality rates, and high under-diagnosis of major physical illnesses. Furthermore, people with a mental illness tend not to seek out or utilise health care services. The reasons for the negative attitudes and behaviour towards health care services among this population have not been investigated.

Marita P. McCabe; Loranie Leas

2008-01-01

223

Recovery and Severe Mental Illness: Description and Analysis  

PubMed Central

The notion of recovery has been embraced by key stakeholders across Canada and elsewhere. This has led to a proliferation of definitions, models, and research on recovery, making it vitally important to examine the data to disentangle the evidence from the rhetoric. In this paper, first we ask, what do people living with severe mental illness (SMI) say about recovery in autobiographical accounts? Second, what do they say about recovery in qualitative studies? Third, from what we have uncovered about recovery, can we learn anything from quantitative studies about proportions of people leading lives of recovery? Finally, can we identify interventions and approaches that may be consistent or inconsistent with the grounded notions of recovery unearthed in this paper? We found that people with mental illness frequently state that recovery is a journey, characterized by a growing sense of agency and autonomy, as well as greater participation in normative activities, such as employment, education, and community life. However, the evidence suggests that most people with SMI still live in a manner inconsistent with recovery; for example, their unemployment rate is over 80%, and they are disproportionately vulnerable to homelessness, stigma, and victimization. Research stemming from rehabilitation science suggests that recovery can be enhanced by various evidence-based services, such as supported employment, as well as by clinical approaches, such as shared decision making and peer support. But these are not routinely available. As such, significant systemic changes are necessary to truly create a recovery-oriented mental health system. PMID:25007276

Drake, Robert E; Whitley, Rob

2014-01-01

224

Recovery and severe mental illness: description and analysis.  

PubMed

The notion of recovery has been embraced by key stakeholders across Canada and elsewhere. This has led to a proliferation of definitions, models, and research on recovery, making it vitally important to examine the data to disentangle the evidence from the rhetoric. In this paper, first we ask, what do people living with severe mental illness (SMI) say about recovery in autobiographical accounts? Second, what do they say about recovery in qualitative studies? Third, from what we have uncovered about recovery, can we learn anything from quantitative studies about proportions of people leading lives of recovery? Finally, can we identify interventions and approaches that may be consistent or inconsistent with the grounded notions of recovery unearthed in this paper? We found that people with mental illness frequently state that recovery is a journey, characterized by a growing sense of agency and autonomy, as well as greater participation in normative activities, such as employment, education, and community life. However, the evidence suggests that most people with SMI still live in a manner inconsistent with recovery; for example, their unemployment rate is over 80%, and they are disproportionately vulnerable to homelessness, stigma, and victimization. Research stemming from rehabilitation science suggests that recovery can be enhanced by various evidence-based services, such as supported employment, as well as by clinical approaches, such as shared decision making and peer support. But these are not routinely available. As such, significant systemic changes are necessary to truly create a recovery-oriented mental health system. PMID:25007276

Drake, Robert E; Whitley, Rob

2014-05-01

225

Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

2012-01-01

226

Racial Disparities in Prescription Drug Use for Mental Illness among Population in US  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Racial minorities are a rapidly growing portion of the US population. Research suggests that racial minorities are more vulnerable to mental illness due to risk factors, such as higher rates of poverty. Given that the burden of mental illnesses is significant, equal likelihood of mental health services utilization is important to reduce such burden. Racial minorities have been known

Euna Han; Gordon G. Liu

2005-01-01

227

Review of arts-based therapies for Canadian youth with lived experience of mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canadian youth can experience a range of mental health problems and mental illness, many of which perpetuate into adulthood. In contrast with preventative and medical care for physical problems, youth who experience difficulties with mental health or illness meet restricted access to evaluation, diagnostic and treatment services. Obstacles vary from low funding levels for services to the fear of being

Belinda Boekhoven; Anne Bowker; Simon Davidson; Angelina Cacciato; Barb Gray

2012-01-01

228

Promoting Recovery in Mental Illness: A Shared Decision Making Program Michelle Salyers  

E-print Network

Promoting Recovery in Mental Illness: A Shared Decision Making Program Michelle Salyers School provide services to adults with severe mental illness that are based on the best research evidence and that promote recovery. One way to promote recovery is to help consumers of mental health services work more

Zhou, Yaoqi

229

Practice Wisdom on Custodial Parenting with Mental Illness: A Strengths View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social work principles of strengths, empowerment, and consumer-centered care for persons with mental illness are currently being adapted to broader contexts. This article presents study findings on practice wisdom about custodial parents with mental illness, a potentially increasing group of consumers in light of mental health reform. The research…

Zeman, Laura Dreuth; Buila, Sarah

2006-01-01

230

The Silent Parent: Developing Knowledge about the Experiences of Parents with Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the lived experiences of parents with mental illness in Australia. It draws on in-depth interviews with parents (n = 10) who have mental illness and provides an analysis of national mental health policies. The analysis of the parents' narratives is essential in building a picture for those involved in the issues associated with…

Boursnell, Melanie

2007-01-01

231

Family Intervention and Services for Persons with Mental Illness in the People's Republic of China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family services and intervention for persons with mental illness is crucial in mental health services. In this paper, the writer attempts to describe family intervention and services for persons with mental illness in the People's Republic of China. Family intervention and services like home-based care, guardianship network, family counseling, and…

Yip, Kam-shing

2005-01-01

232

Breaking Down the Stigma of Mental Illness through an Adventure Camp: A Collaborative Education Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an outdoor adventure camp to help mental health consumers and nursing students explore the issues of mental health and illness through experiential and perceived risk challenges. Evaluation data reveals a breakdown in the stigma of mental illness as consumers and students came to know, trust, and count on each other in order to succeed…

Stuhlmiller, Cynthia M.

2003-01-01

233

CONCEPTUAL AND METHODOLOGICAL CHALLENGES IN EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MENTAL ILLNESS AND VIOLENT BEHAVIOUR AND CRIME  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a longstanding view within the general population and the criminal justice system that the mentally ill are more prone than the mentally healthy to violence and. This view, however, is not fully supported by empirical research, in particular due to conceptual and methodological challenges that arise when the relationship between mental illness and crime is examined. This paper

Thomas Hugh Richardson

234

Dealing with mentally ill domestic violence perpetrators: A therapeutic jurisprudence judicial model  

Microsoft Academic Search

People suffering from mental illness are increasingly referred to the domestic violence court. Yet the typical diversion programs available, including batterer's intervention programs, are inappropriate for those with serious mental illness. As a result, the Miami-Dade Domestic Violence Court has developed a new approach for dealing with this population that applies mental health court techniques in domestic violence court. This

Bruce J. Winick; Richard Wiener; Anthony Castro; Aryn Emmert; Leah S. Georges

2010-01-01

235

Mental illness and Irish people: stereotypes, determinants and changing perspectives.  

PubMed

The causes of psychological illness in Irish people have been identified with colonial rule and the catastrophic conditions deriving from famine in the nineteenth century. In particular, the scourge of unremitting emigration, resulting from famine, has formed a background against which speculative theories of inferiority, alienation and mental illness have been constructed. In particular, the long standing idea that Irish people exhibit higher rates of schizophrenia, both in Ireland and abroad, is discussed. Contemporary studies which suggest that these elevated rates do not correspond to international diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia are introduced. Rather, these enhanced rates may reflect a malaise which resembles schizophrenia but which is really a product of historical dispossession. The importance of these factors is underscored by the previous neglect of Irish people, considered as an ethnic minority, as well as the particular distaste which many Irish people display towards such a notion. PMID:9807368

Clarke, L

1998-08-01

236

Mental illness and Irish people: stereotypes, determinants and changing perspectives.  

PubMed

The causes of psychological illness in Irish people have been identified with colonial rule and the catastrophic conditions deriving from famine in the nineteenth century. In particular, the scourge of unremitting emigration, resulting from famine, has formed a background against which speculative theories of inferiority, alienation and mental illness have been constructed. In particular, the long standing idea that Irish people exhibit higher rates of schizophrenia, both in Ireland and abroad, is discussed. Contemporary studies which suggest that these elevated rates do not correspond to international diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia are introduced. Rather, these enhanced rates may reflect a malaise which resembles schizophrenia but which is really a product of historical dispossession. The importance of these factors is underscored by the previous neglect of Irish people, considered as an ethnic minority, as well as the particular distaste which many Irish people display towards such a notion. PMID:10076286

Clarke, L

1998-12-01

237

Commentary: Police officers and persons with mental illness.  

PubMed

Silverstone et al. present a study outlining the success of a novel training program implemented in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, to train police officers to interact with persons who may have a psychiatric disorder. The training was well accepted by the participants and was novel in its use of professional actors to portray persons with mental illness across six model scenarios. I outline the need for such training and comment on certain aspects of this particular program, including overall design, usefulness, and limitations. PMID:24051587

Frierson, Richard L

2013-01-01

238

Supporting families of parents with mental illness in general practice.  

PubMed

The general-practice setting provides a unique opportunity to positively influence the impact of mental illness on individuals and families. Intervention can begin from the moment an individual seeks professional help. Using a family-focused approach, and supporting parents to develop practical strategies to promote resilience in their children, can aid parents' recovery and promote the optimal emotional wellbeing of their children. We suggest a family-orientated therapeutic approach relevant to the general-practice setting, with particular consideration of the value of communicating with children according to the child's stage of emotional development. PMID:25369841

Baulderstone, Michaela J; Morgan, Bradley S; Fudge, Elizabeth A

2013-08-01

239

The genetics of mental illness: implications for practice.  

PubMed Central

Many of the comfortable and relatively simple models of the nature of mental disorders, their causes and their neural substrates now appear quite frayed. Gone is the idea that symptom clusters, course of illness, family history and treatment response would coalesce in a simple way to yield valid diagnoses. Also too simple was the concept, born of early pharmacological successes, that abnormal levels of one or more neurotransmitters would satisfactorily explain the pathogenesis of depression or schizophrenia. Gone is the notion that there is a single gene that causes any mental disorder or determines any behavioural variant. The concept of the causative gene has been replaced by that of genetic complexity, in which multiple genes act in concert with non-genetic factors to produce a risk of mental disorder. Discoveries in genetics and neuroscience can be expected to lead to better models that provide improved representation of the complexity of the brain and behaviour and the development of both. There are likely to be profound implications for clinical practice. The complex genetics of risk should reinvigorate research on the epidemiology and classification of mental disorders and explain the complex patterns of disease transmission within families. Knowledge of the timing of the expression of risk genes during brain development and of their function should not only contribute to an understanding of gene action and the pathophysiology of disease but should also help to direct the search for modifiable environmental risk factors that convert risk into illness. The function of risk genes can only become comprehensible in the context of advances at the molecular, cellular and systems levels in neuroscience and the behavioural sciences. Genetics should yield new therapies aimed not just at symptoms but also at pathogenic processes, thus permitting the targeting of specific therapies to individual patients. PMID:10885164

Hyman, S. E.

2000-01-01

240

28 CFR 115.83 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.  

...victims and abusers. 115.83 Section 115.83 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Medical and Mental Care § 115.83...

2014-07-01

241

28 CFR 115.83 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...victims and abusers. 115.83 Section 115.83 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Medical and Mental Care § 115.83...

2013-07-01

242

28 CFR 115.383 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...victims and abusers. 115.383 Section 115.383 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Medical and Mental Care § 115.383 Ongoing...

2013-07-01

243

28 CFR 115.383 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...victims and abusers. 115.383 Section 115.383 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Medical and Mental Care § 115.383 Ongoing...

2012-07-01

244

Child abuse - physical  

MedlinePLUS

... abuse Being a single parent Lack of education Poverty However, it is important to note that cases ... or mental illness Have high stress factors, including poverty Not look after the child's hygiene or care ...

245

The attitudes of mental health professionals towards patients with mental illness in an inpatient setting in Palestine.  

PubMed

Culture plays a vital role in shaping public and professional attitudes towards mental illness. In Arab cultures negative attitudes toward patients experiencing mental illnesses are common. There is a lack of studies that investigate the attitudes of professionals towards patients in inpatient mental health settings. This study aimed to assess the attitudes of professionals towards patients with mental illnesses in the only psychiatric hospital in Palestine. A survey was undertaken using the Attitudes Toward Acute Mental Health Scale (ATAMHS 33). The scale was distributed to a variety of professionals at the only psychiatric hospital in Bethlehem. Data was managed and analysed by using SPSS 15 (a statistical package for social sciences). The participants (mostly nurses) expressed both negative and positive attitudes toward patients, however, results revealed more negative than positive attitudes, particularly in relation to alcohol misuse, medication, patients' ability to control their emotions, and genetic predisposition to mental illness. This paper provides baseline data about the attitude of mental health professionals towards patients experiencing mental illnesses. Education and direct contact with patients with mental illness may not be enough to foster positive attitudes towards them. This may indicate the need to revise educational curriculum at the Palestinian universities and offer more training for mental health professionals in order to change their attitudes. PMID:20887610

Ahmead, Muna K; Rahhal, Ahmad A; Baker, John A

2010-10-01

246

Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems  

PubMed Central

An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses (“abuses”) of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to “my” patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship. PMID:24497237

Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob

2014-01-01

247

Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI) Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences). Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents). Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8%) had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%). Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3%) considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4%) and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7%) to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1%) considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41%) respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05). Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can play a role in treatment. PMID:25548734

Zubair, Muhammad; Ghulam, Hamzah; Wajih Ullah, Muhammad; Zubair Tariq, Muhammad

2014-01-01

248

South African Muslim Faith Healers Perceptions of Mental Illness: Understanding, Aetiology and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The important role that religious beliefs may have on perceptions of mental illness cannot be ignored. Many religions including\\u000a Islam advocate witchcraft and spirit possession—all of which are thought to influence the behaviour of a person so as to resemble\\u000a that of a mentally ill individual. Thus this research explored Muslim Faith Healers perceptions of mental and spiritual illness\\u000a in

Yaseen Ally; Sumaya Laher

2008-01-01

249

The HIV epidemic among individuals with mental illness in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with depression and other mental illness comprise a growing proportion of individuals living with HIV in the United\\u000a States; at the same time, the prevalence of HIV among mentally ill individuals is at least seven times higher than in the\\u000a general population. Individuals with mental illness are particularly vulnerable to infection with HIV because of several factors,\\u000a including the

Sheri D. Weiser; William R. Wolfe; David R. Bangsberg

2004-01-01

250

Examining causal beliefs and stigmatizing attitudes toward persons diagnosed with severe mental illness.  

E-print Network

??Persons diagnosed with severe mental illness are frequently stigmatized as dangerous and unpredictable. Historically, these attitudes have perpetuated years of cruel, inhumane treatment of persons… (more)

Reese, Emily K.

2010-01-01

251

HOW EMPLOYABLE ARE PEOPLE WITH SERIOUS MENTAL ILLNESS? CASE MANAGERS’ AND UNDERGRADUATES’ EXPECTATIONS.  

E-print Network

??This study examines 107 case managers' and 159 undergraduates' employment-related expectations for adults with serious mental illness. The psychometric properties of Expectations about Employment for… (more)

Abraham, Kristen M

2007-01-01

252

A social/emotional theory of 'mental illness'.  

PubMed

One reason that theories of mental illness have made little progress may be their focus on individuals, omitting the social/relational and emotional world. Adding these components will be difficult, however: in modern societies they have become virtually invisible, particularly the emotion of shame. The theory outlined here is based on the work of Cooley, Elias, Lewis and Goffman: shame is both social and individual and, if anticipation is included, virtually omnipresent in modern societies. It is proposed that most symptoms of mental illness are products of shame and relational feedback loops: emotion and alienation can both spiral leading to further alienation and chaotic or hidden emotions. Almost everyone is especially ashamed of their shame. Being ashamed of one's shame and/or anger can spiral when not acknowledged. Under certain conditions, these spirals continue without limit, generating immense force for acting out symptoms or depression. To the extent that this theory is true, we would need to rename the field using non-medical terms, such as emotional/social dysfunction. PMID:22723517

Scheff, Thomas

2013-02-01

253

Cytokines and the neurodevelopmental basis of mental illness  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies suggest that prenatal exposure to different types of viral or bacterial infections may be associated with similar outcomes; i.e., an increased risk of mental illness disorders in the offspring. Infections arising from various causes have similar debilitating effects in later life, suggesting that the exact pathogen may not be the critical factor in determining the neurological and cognitive outcome in the offspring. Instead, it is thought that response of the innate immune system, specifically the increased production of inflammatory cytokines, may be the critical mediator in altering fetal brain development pre-disposing the offspring to mental illness disorders later in life. Inflammatory cytokines are essential for normal brain development. Factors such as the site of cytokine production, a change in balance between anti- and pro- inflammatory cytokines, placental transfer of cytokines, the effects of cytokines on glial cells, and the effects of glucocorticoids are important when evaluating the impact of maternal infection on fetal brain development. Although it is clear that cytokines are altered in the fetal brain following maternal infection, further evidence is required to determine if cytokines are the critical factor that alters the trajectory of brain development, subsequently leading to postnatal behavioral and neurological abnormalities. PMID:24146637

Ratnayake, Udani; Quinn, Tracey; Walker, David W.; Dickinson, Hayley

2013-01-01

254

Comparative analysis of state requirements for the training of substance abuse and mental health counselors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on minimum state requirements for drug and alcohol counselors and mental health counselors in all 50 states and Washington, DC, suggest that training as a mental health counselor is primarily structured through formal education, whereas training as a substance abuse counselor resembles an apprentice model. Fewer states offer or require certification or licensure of substance abuse counselors, compared to

MaryLouise E. Kerwin; Katherine Walker-Smith; Kimberly C. Kirby

2006-01-01

255

Provision of Mental Health Services in South African Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, South African research has not examined mental health service provision in substance abuse treatment facilities, even though these services improve client retention and treatment outcomes. To describe the extent to which substance abuse treatment facilities in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provide clients with mental health services…

Myers, Bronwyn; Fakier, Nuraan

2009-01-01

256

Childhood Abuse and Mental Health Indicators among Ethnically Diverse Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Prior research has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people experience higher rates of childhood abuse than heterosexuals. However, there has been little research on the mental health impact of these experiences or how race/ethnicity might influence prevalence and mental health impact of childhood abuse in this…

Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Circo, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

257

Mental health, demographic, and risk behavior profiles of pregnant survivors of childhood and adult abuse  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to address the gap in knowledge about the extent to which perinatal mental health and risk behaviors are associated with childhood and adult experiences of abuse that arises because of barriers to screening and disclosure about past and current abuse. Survey data from an ongoing study of the effects of posttraumatic stress on childbearing were used to describe four groups of nulliparous women: those with no abuse history, adult abuse only, childhood abuse only, and abuse that occurred during both periods. The rates of abuse history disclosure were higher in the research context than in the clinical settings. Mental health morbidity and risk behaviors occurred in a dose-response pattern with cumulative abuse exposure. Rates of current posttraumatic stress disorder ranged from 4.1% among those never abused to 11.4% (adult only), 16.0% (childhood only), and 39.2% (both periods). Women abused during both periods also were more likely to be using tobacco (21.5%) and drugs (16.5%) during pregnancy. We conclude that mental health and behavioral risk sequelae affect a significant portion of both childhood and adult abuse survivors in prenatal care. The integration into the maternity setting of existing evidence-based interventions for the mental health and behavioral sequelae of abuse is needed. PMID:18984507

Seng, Julia S.; Sperlich, Mickey; Low, Lisa Kane

2015-01-01

258

Carers of Mentally Ill People in Queensland: Their Perceived Relationships with Professional Mental Health Service Providers: Report on a Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the relationships of caregivers of mentally ill people with professional mental health providers since the introduction of community-based services. Respondents perceived mental health workers to be professional, friendly, respectful and positive in outlook. However they indicated dissatisfaction with accessibility, communication about…

Hodgson, Orme; King, Robert; Leggatt, Margaret

2002-01-01

259

Impact of work experience placements on school students’ attitude towards mental illness  

PubMed Central

Aims and method Research shows that 16- to 19-year-olds express the greatest level of negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of work experience placements in influencing secondary-school students’ attitudes towards mental illness and career choices. The Adolescent Attitude Towards Mental Illness questionnaire measured and assessed the adolescents’ attitude changes. Pre- and post-evaluation questionnaires assessed changes in their career choices. Results There was a statistically significant change in the adolescents’ attitudes, especially regarding categorical thinking and perceptions that people with mental illness are violent and out of control. There was also a positive shift in their career choices towards options in the field of mental health. Clinical implications Work experience placements can have a positive impact on secondary-school students’ attitudes towards mental illness and may improve the level of student recruitment into the field of psychiatry. PMID:25237537

Kennedy, Vanathi; Belgamwar, Ravindra B.

2014-01-01

260

The effects of news stories on the stigma of mental illness.  

PubMed

The media are often identified as partially responsible for increasing the stigma of mental illness through their negatively focused representations. For many years, training programs have educated journalists on how to report on mental illness to reduce stigma. This purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits of reading a positive, neutral or a negative journalism article that discusses mental illness. Consenting adult participants were randomly assigned to read one of three published articles about recovery from mental illness, a dysfunctional public mental health system, or dental hygiene. The participants completed measures immediately before and after the intervention; the measures administered evaluated stigmatizing and affirming attitudes toward people with mental illness. Public stigma was assessed using the nine-item Attribution Questionnaire and the Stigma Through Knowledge Test (STKT). The STKT is a measure of mental illness stigma less susceptible to the impact of social desirability. Affirming attitudes represent public perceptions about recovery, empowerment, and self-determination, indicated as important to accepting and including people with psychiatric disabilities into society. Significant differences were observed between the articles on recovery and dysfunctional public mental health system, as well as the control condition, on the measures of stigma and affirming attitudes. The recovery article reduced stigma and increased affirming attitudes, whereas the dysfunctional public mental health system article increased stigma and decreased affirming attitudes. Not all journalistic stories have positive effects on attitudes about mental illness. PMID:23407209

Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Michaels, Patrick J

2013-03-01

261

Provision of Mental Health Services in South African Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, South African research has not examined mental health service provision in substance abuse treatment facilities,\\u000a even though these services improve client retention and treatment outcomes. To describe the extent to which substance abuse\\u000a treatment facilities in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provide clients with mental health services during the course\\u000a of treatment and to compare mental health service provision

Bronwyn Myers; Nuraan Fakier

2009-01-01

262

[Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].  

PubMed

The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to normal intelligence adolescents with behavioral disorders. Risk factors that increase the chances of developing either simple or more complicated types of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation have been found to be based on individual, family and social levels. On the other hand, the individual characteristics of adolescents (intellectual level, attention capacity, understandable linguistic expression, overall progress until adolescence), the existence of a supportive family environment and the presence of social support and awareness through the creation of special counseling, education and medical services, are the most important protective factors which contribute to the prevention of several forms of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation. For the writing of the literature review, the following electronic databases were used: PubMed, Scopus, Psycinfo, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The key words used were: Intellectual Disability, Behavioral disorders, Adolescents, Mental Retardation, Learning disabilities, Developmental Disabilities, Disruptive behaviour disorders, Conduct disorder, Substance Abuse, Substance Misuse, Oppositional defiant disorder, Alcohol and illicit drug use, Smoking Use, Young people, Teenagers, Youths. PMID:25035183

Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

2014-01-01

263

Prevalence of Criminal Thinking among State Prison Inmates with Serious Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

To examine the prevalence of criminal thinking in mentally disordered offenders, incarcerated male (n = 265) and female (n = 149) offenders completed measures of psychiatric functioning and criminal thinking. Results indicated 92% of the participants were diagnosed with a serious mental illness, and mentally disordered offenders produced criminal thinking scores on the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) and Criminal Sentiments Scale-Modified (CSS-M) similar to that of non-mentally ill offenders. Collectively, results indicated the clinical presentation of mentally disordered offenders is similar to that of psychiatric patients and criminals. Implications are discussed with specific focus on the need for mental health professionals to treat co-occurring issues of mental illness and criminality in correctional mental health treatment programs. PMID:19551496

Fisher, William H.; Duan, Naihua; Mandracchia, Jon T.; Murray, Danielle

2010-01-01

264

Financial Victimization of Adults With Severe Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

Objective People with severe mental illness are vulnerable to having other people directly take or misappropriate their disability payments. This study investigated the prevalence of different types of financial victimization and the client characteristics associated with being financially victimized. Methods Adults (N=122) receiving inpatient or intensive outpatient psychiatric treatment who received Social Security disability payments completed assessments about money management and victimization. A path model was used to estimate the association of victimization with participant characteristics. Results Seventy percent of participants experienced at least one type of financial victimization in the preceding 28 days; 35% ran out of money because of victimization. Victimization was significantly associated with being younger, having had more psychiatric hospitalizations, having more recent alcohol use, and, most robustly, having problems managing money (?=.52, p<.01). Conclusions Financial victimization of disability recipients in acute care settings is common and more likely among people with recent substance use and difficulty managing their funds. PMID:24026837

Claycomb, Meredith; Black, Anne C.; Wilber, Charles; Brocke, Sophy; Lazar, Christina M.; Rosen, Marc I.

2014-01-01

265

The Myth of Mental Illness Game: Sick is Just a Four Letter Word  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparative study of two high school courses about mental illness shows that a medical model course increased students' feelings that causal determinants of problems in living are rooted in childhood, whereas a course using the Mental Illness Game promoted increased emphasis on psychosocial influences and social tolerance. (Author/AV)

Gardner, James M.

1976-01-01

266

Understanding Parental Grief as a Response to Mental Illness: Implications for Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and their parents are discussed. Acknowledging and understanding parental grief, while providing

Jeanine A. Penzo; Pat Harvey

2008-01-01

267

One Year Later: Mental Illness Prevalence and Disparities Among New Orleans Residents Displaced by Hurricane Katrina  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether there were high levels of mental illness among displaced New Orleans, LA, residents in the fall of 2006, 1 year after Hurricane Katrina. Methods. We used data from the Displaced New Orleans Residents Pilot Study, which measured the prevalence of probable mild or moderate and serious mental illness among a representative sample of people who resided in New Orleans at the time of the hurricane, including people who evacuated the city and did not return. We also analyzed disparities in mental illness by race, education, and income. Results. We found high rates of mental illness in our sample and major disparities in mental illness by race, education, and income. Severe damage to or destruction of an individual's home was a major covariate of mental illness. Conclusions. The prevalence of mental illness remained high in the year following Hurricane Katrina, in contrast to the pattern found after other disasters. Economic losses and displacement may account for this finding as well as the disparity in mental illness between Blacks and Whites. PMID:19890178

VanLandingham, Mark

2009-01-01

268

Reflections of Adults on Their School Experiences Growing up with a Severely Mentally Ill Parent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than five million children in the United States have a parent suffering from a severe mental illness and these children have specific experiences and needs, particularly in school. Children of mentally ill parents are at greater risk of being neglected and of developing psychological, social, emotional, and behavioral problems. They often…

Leahy, Marie A.

2013-01-01

269

Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin issue contains five papers on the theme of adults with mental illness who are parents of very young children. "Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children" (John N. Constantino) offers the experience of a trainee in a combined residency in pediatrics and psychiatry, focusing on identification,…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

1993-01-01

270

September 2000 The Deinstitutionalization of the Mentally Ill and Growth in the  

E-print Network

of hospitalization rates on prison incarceration rates. The estimation results imply that deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill adult population is incarcerated, a figure roughly six times the incarceration rate severe mental illness over the course of a year (Torrey 1997), these figures indicate an incarceration

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

271

STIGMA ARISING FROM FAMILY MEMBERS OF THE MENTALLY ILL PATIENTS IN HOSPITAL TAIPING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although public stigma towards the mentally ill is a known challenge, stigma from within the family has not been widely studied. This study aimed to compare the experience of stigma between mentally ill patients and diabetic controls, particularly focusing on stigma arising from family members. This is a cross sectional case control study. The case group consisted of 63 patients

Nursyuhaida MN; Nik Siti; Fatimah M

272

Measuring the Effects of Group Interpretations with the Severely Mentally Ill  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the difficulties in working interpretatively with severely mentally ill patients in groups. Often patients ignore or defeat the interpretative interventions of the group therapist. This research explores the relationship between group interpretations and the responsiveness of groups of severely mentally ill patients to these interpretations. Seven elements or dimensions of interpretation are identified. A coding manual

Raman Kapur

1993-01-01

273

Treatment of Persons with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System: A Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of mentally ill inmates in the criminal justice system has increased dramatically. This article evaluates the prevalence and causes of mental illness in the criminal justice system and describes the inadequate care that is provided, the effects of imprisonment, and the problem of rehabilitation. (Contains 4 notes.)

Brandt, Anna L. S.

2012-01-01

274

Understanding Parental Grief as a Response to Mental Illness: Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…

Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat

2008-01-01

275

Impact of Parental Severe Mental Illness: Ethical and Clinical Issues for Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws attention to the issue of parental severe mental illness and the ethical and clinical implications for counselors who work with this population. Parents with mental illness face a multitude of life challenges including, but not limited to, parenting difficulties, medication and hospitalization, custody and placement of their…

Spiegelhoff, Sarah F.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel

2011-01-01

276

Work Experiences of People with Mental Illness in Malaysia: A Preliminary Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…

Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng

2011-01-01

277

A Research Agenda Concerning Depictions of Mental Illness in Children's Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To review research on depictions of mental illness in mass media directed to children and to identify requirements for further research in this important field. Methods: The authors identified published research on depictions of mental illness in children's media and the important strengths and weaknesses of such research. Results: Only…

Coverdale, John H.; Nairn, Raymond

2006-01-01

278

Perceptions of Barriers to Employment, Coping Efficacy, and Career Search Efficacy in People with Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Barriers to Employment and Coping Efficacy Scale (BECES) and the Career Search Efficacy Scale (CSES) were designed to assist people in their work integration process. The BECES was specifically developed for people with mental illness. Although the CSES was not specifically designed for people with mental illness, its items appear relevant for…

Corbiere, Marc; Mercier, Celine; Lesage, Alain

2004-01-01

279

Turning of the tide: changing systems to address smoking for people with a mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking tobacco is common among people with a mental illness. A number of behavioural and environmental factors underlie the high smoking prevalence rates. Evidence suggests that smokers with mental illness require additional targeted support to help them stop smoking. By using a selective review of the international literature, this article will argue that a systems-level change approach is an appropriate

B. Bonevski; J. Bowman; R. Richmond; J. Bryant; P. Wye; E. Stockings; K. Wilhelm; T. Butler; D. Indig; A. Wodak

2011-01-01

280

Unfinished Business: Student Perspectives on Disclosure of Mental Illness and Success in VET. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of all the different types of disability, mental illness can be particularly disruptive to education and training outcomes. In this report, the authors explore the factors contributing to successful course completion for students with a mental illness. The authors especially focus on the role of disclosure and the reasons why students choose to…

Venville, Annie; Street, Annette

2012-01-01

281

Talking about Mental Illness: A Guide for Developing an Awareness Program for Youth. Teacher's Resource.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains all of the information, support and tools teachers will need to implement "Talking about Mental Illness" in their classroom--an awareness program that has been proven to bring about positive change in students' knowledge and attitudes about mental illness. The program supports teachers in four essential ways: it outlines the…

2001

282

Reducing students' fear of mental illness by means of seminar-induced belief change.  

PubMed

Demonstrated that through brief demythologizing, college students' (N = 32) attitudes toward mental illness could be changed significantly in a non-medical model or psychosocial direction and that this attitude change apparently induced students to report a significantly reduced fear of contracting mental illness. Pretest-follow-up data comparisons confirmed the validity of these findings. PMID:7391242

Morrison, J K; Teta, D C

1980-01-01

283

Persons with Mental Illness and the Americans With Disabilities Act: Implications for the Social Work Profession  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although persons who are diagnosed with a mental illness are potentially protected from employment discrimination by the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990, a rather perplexing set of questions arises when attempting to delineate exactly which such workers are accorded protection against discrimination. This article considers the status of persons with mental illness within the context of the ADA,

Gerald V. OBrien; Melinda S. Brown

2009-01-01

284

Speech deficits in serious mental illness: a cognitive resource issue?  

PubMed

Speech deficits, notably those involved in psychomotor retardation, blunted affect, alogia and poverty of content of speech, are pronounced in a wide range of serious mental illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia, unipolar depression, bipolar disorders). The present project evaluated the degree to which these deficits manifest as a function of cognitive resource limitations. We examined natural speech from 52 patients meeting criteria for serious mental illnesses (i.e., severe functional deficits with a concomitant diagnosis of schizophrenia, unipolar and/or bipolar affective disorders) and 30 non-psychiatric controls using a range of objective, computer-based measures tapping speech production ("alogia"), variability ("blunted vocal affect") and content ("poverty of content of speech"). Subjects produced natural speech during a baseline condition and while engaging in an experimentally-manipulated cognitively-effortful task. For correlational analysis, cognitive ability was measured using a standardized battery. Generally speaking, speech deficits did not differ as a function of SMI diagnosis. However, every speech production and content measure was significantly abnormal in SMI versus control groups. Speech variability measures generally did not differ between groups. For both patients and controls as a group, speech during the cognitively-effortful task was sparser and less rich in content. Relative to controls, patients were abnormal under cognitive load with respect only to average pause length. Correlations between the speech variables and cognitive ability were only significant for this same variable: average pause length. Results suggest that certain speech deficits, notably involving pause length, may manifest as a function of cognitive resource limitations. Implications for treatment, research and assessment are discussed. PMID:25464920

Cohen, Alex S; McGovern, Jessica E; Dinzeo, Thomas J; Covington, Michael A

2014-12-01

285

Older men and older women remand prisoners: mental illness, physical illness, offending patterns and needs.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: Older prisoners are the fastest growing group of prisoners in most countries. They have high rates of physical and psychiatric co-morbidity, compared to community dwelling older persons and also compared with other prisoner groups. Very high rates of mental illness have been found in remand (pre-trial) prisoners when compared with other prisoner groups; however to date there have been no studies examining older male and female remand prisoners. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of all remands, to a male and a female prison, over a six and half-year period. Demographic data were collected pertaining to psychiatric and medical diagnoses and seriousness of offending. Results: We found rising numbers of older prisoners amongst male remand prisoners. Older remand prisoners had very high rates of affective disorder and alcohol misuse. They had rates of psychotic illnesses and deliberate self-harm comparable to younger remand prisoners. High rates of vulnerability were found among older prisoners and older prisoners had a greater need for general medical and psychiatric services than younger prisoners. We also found comparable offending patterns with younger prisoners and high rates of sexual offending among the older male prisoner group. Conclusions: Given the ageing population of many countries it is likely the numbers of older prisoners will continue to grow and given their high levels of both physical and psychiatric illness this will have implications for future service delivery. PMID:25428523

Davoren, Mary; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Caddow, Fintan; Caddow, Martin; O'Neill, Conor; O'Neill, Helen; Kennedy, Harry G

2014-11-27

286

Grant Title: MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE SERVICES FELLOWSHIP Funding Opportunity Number: NA  

E-print Network

Grant Title: MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE SERVICES FELLOWSHIP Funding Opportunity Number: NA and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Area of Research: Fellowship aimed at those pursuing doctoral degrees in clinical, counseling, and school psychology, or other mental health services areas

Farritor, Shane

287

The long-term psychiatric and medical prognosis of perinatal mental illness.  

PubMed

The perinatal period provides an important window into a woman's long-term health. Perinatal mental illness is a common condition conferring potential serious long-term psychiatric and medical consequences for the mother and family. It is known that childbirth acts as a powerful trigger for depressive episodes in some women, and that women with histories of a mood disorder are particularly vulnerable. Some evidence links perinatal mental illness with obstetrical complications and reduced lactation initiation and duration. Therefore, perinatal mental illness may be a marker for long-term risk, and may contribute directly to subsequent cardiometabolic disease through both neuroendocrine mechanisms and the effects of mental illness on health behaviours. In clinical practice, these associations underscore the importance of screening and treating women with perinatal mental illness to ensure best possible long-term outcomes. Early screening and treatment may both mitigate the primary disease process and reduce the risk of comorbid medical conditions. PMID:24063973

Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Stuebe, Alison

2014-01-01

288

Walking the line: specialized and standard probation officer perspectives on supervising probationers with serious mental illnesses.  

PubMed

Specialized probation programs were developed to more effectively address the unique needs of probationers with serious mental illnesses. Probation officers are tasked with serving both law enforcement and rehabilitative functions, and officers play an important gatekeeper function in helping probationers with serious mental illnesses avoid long incarceration sentences. The purpose of this paper was to explore specialized and standard probation officers' work in supervising probationers with serious mental illnesses. Twenty-one probation officers (11 specialized and 10 standard) participated in semi-structured interviews. Qualitative analyses examined: 1 - beliefs on the relationship between mental illness and crime; 2 - purpose of specialized and standard probation units; and 3 - approaches to supervising probationers with serious mental illnesses. Implications for developing more effective probation supervision programs are discussed. PMID:24680641

Epperson, Matthew W; Canada, Kelli; Thompson, Julian; Lurigio, Arthur

2014-01-01

289

[Medical students' attitudes towards mental illness: a matter of studies or personality?].  

PubMed

Stigmatization of mental illness is a widespread phenomenon even among health professionals. To explore the origins of this inappropriate attitude, medical students at the beginning and in the end of their studies were examined with self-report measures of social distance towards mentally ill persons, beliefs about etiology of mental disorders, valuation of psychotherapy and the personality features empathy and narcissism. While the students' attitudes turn out to be unrelated to the personality features, significant differences between the two groups were found indicating that distance towards mentally ill patients in the medical role and ambivalence about the etiological factors of mental disorders are stronger pronounced in the end of the studies compared to the beginning. These findings underline the need to prepare medical students better for contacts with mentally ill patients. PMID:22334088

Neumann, Eva; Obliers, Rainer; Albus, Christian

2012-02-01

290

Community mental health teams (CMHTs) for people with severe mental illnesses and disordered personality  

PubMed Central

Background Closure of asylums and institutions for the mentally ill, coupled with government policies focusing on reducing the number of hospital beds for people with severe mental illness in favour of providing care in a variety of non-hospital settings, underpins the rationale behind care in the community. A major thrust towards community care has been the development of community mental health teams (CMHT). Objectives To evaluate the effects of community mental health team (CMHT) treatment for anyone with serious mental illness compared with standard non-team management. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (March 2006). We manually searched the Journal of Personality Disorders, and contacted colleagues at ENMESH, ISSPD and in forensic psychiatry. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials of CMHT management versus non-team standard care. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a fixed effects model. We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) again based on a fixed effects model. Main results CMHT management did not reveal any statistically significant difference in death by suicide and in suspicious circumstances (n=587, 3 RCTs, RR 0.49 CI 0.1 to 2.2) although overall, fewer deaths occurred in the CMHT group. We found no significant differences in the number of people leaving the studies early (n=253, 2 RCTs, RR 1.10 CI 0.7 to 1.8). Significantly fewer people in the CMHT group were not satisfied with services compared with those receiving standard care (n=87, RR 0.37 CI 0.2 to 0.8, NNT 4 CI 3 to 11). Also, hospital admission rates were significantly lower in the CMHT group (n=587, 3 RCTs, RR 0.81 CI 0.7 to 1.0, NNT 17 CI 10 to 104) compared with standard care. Admittance to accident and emergency services, contact with primary care, and contact with social services did not reveal any statistical difference between comparison groups. Authors’ conclusions Community mental health team management is not inferior to non-team standard care in any important respects and is superior in promoting greater acceptance of treatment. It may also be superior in reducing hospital admission and avoiding death by suicide. The evidence for CMHT based care is insubstantial considering the massive impact the drive toward community care has on patients, carers, clinicians and the community at large. PMID:17636625

Malone, Darren; Marriott, Sarah; Newton-Howes, Giles; Simmonds, Shaeda; Tyrer, Peter

2014-01-01

291

UPDATES IN HIV: Mental health  

E-print Network

by high-risk behavior8 . Mental illness is associated with both risky sexual behavior and substance abuse behavior. This is particularly concerning since the overall contribution of mental illness to the global sexual partners over a 12-month period.8 Tlaleletso UPDATES IN HIV: Diagnosing & managing ILLNESS

Sharp, Kim

292

Public Stigma of Mental Illness in the United States: A Systematic Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public’s stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public’s stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental disorders and advance research in this area. Public stigma of mental illness in the U.S. was widespread. Findings can inform interventions to reduce the public’s stigma of mental illness. PMID:22833051

Cabassa, Leopoldo J.

2013-01-01

293

Preexisting mental illness and risk for developing a new disorder after hurricane Katrina.  

PubMed

To investigate predisaster mental illness as a risk factor of poor postdisaster mental health outcomes, veterans with (n = 249) and without (n = 250) preexisting mental illness residing in the Gulf Coast during Hurricane Katrina were surveyed after Katrina and screened for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic. Logistic regression examined the association between preexisting mental disorders and positive screens after the hurricane, adjusting for demographics and exposure to hurricane-related stressors. The odds of screening positive for any new mental disorder were 6.8 times greater for those with preexisting mental illness compared with those without preexisting mental illness. Among those with preexisting PTSD, the odds of screening positive for any new mental illness were 11.9 times greater; among those with schizophrenia, 9.1 times greater; and among those with affective disorders, 4.4 times greater. Persons with preexisting mental illnesses, particularly PTSD, should be considered a high-risk group for poor outcomes after a disaster. PMID:23364127

Sullivan, Greer; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Han, Xiaotong; Tharp, Andra Teten; Davis, Teri; Deitch, Elizabeth A; Constans, Joseph I

2013-02-01

294

"The Unhealthy American Dream? Correlates of Mental Illness among Asian Immigrant Youth"  

E-print Network

"The Unhealthy American Dream? Correlates of Mental Illness among Asian Immigrant Youth" Wednesday home and school as biculturals. Findings suggest that risk and protective factors for mental health is a cultural psychologist who studies immigrant mental health, biculturalism, multiple social identities

Hochberg, Michael

295

Fundamental Causes of Housing Loss among Persons Diagnosed with Serious and Persistent Mental Illness: A Theoretically Guided Test  

PubMed Central

Previous research on housing loss among severely mentally ill persons who have been placed in housing after being homeless has been largely atheoretical and has yielded inconsistent results. We develop a theory of housing loss based on identifying fundamental causes—problems in motives, means and social situation—and test these influences in a longitudinal, randomized comparison of housing alternatives. As hypothesized, individuals were more likely to lose housing if they had a history of alcohol or drug abuse, desired strongly to live independently contrary to clinician recommendations, or were African Americans placed in independent housing. Deficits in daily functioning did not explain these influences, but contributed to risk of housing loss. Our results demonstrate the importance of substance abuse, the value of distinguishing support preferences from support needs, and the necessity of explaining effects of race within a social context and thus should help to improve comparative research. PMID:20161654

Schutt, Russell K.; Goldfinger, Stephen M.

2009-01-01

296

Recovery from Mental Illness: The Guiding Vision of the Mental Health Service System in the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

he implementation of deinstitutional- ization in the 1960s and 1970s, and the increasing ascendance of the com- munity support system concept and the practice of psychiatric rehabilitation in the 1980s, have laid the foundation for a new 1990s vision of service delivery for people who have men- tal illness. Recovery from mental illness is the vision that will guide the

William A. Anthony

297

Setting the stage for chronic health problems: cumulative childhood adversity among homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia  

PubMed Central

Background It is well documented that childhood abuse, neglect and household dysfunction are disproportionately present in the backgrounds of homeless adults, and that these experiences adversely impact child development and a wide range of adult outcomes. However, few studies have examined the cumulative impact of adverse childhood experiences on homeless adults with mental illness. This study examines adverse events in childhood as predictors of duration of homelessness, psychiatric and substance use disorders, and physical health in a sample of homeless adults with mental illness. Methods This study was conducted using baseline data from a randomized controlled trial in Vancouver, British Columbia for participants who completed the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale at 18 months follow-up (n?=?364). Primary outcomes included current mental disorders; substance use including type, frequency and severity; physical health; duration of homelessness; and vocational functioning. Results In multivariable regression models, ACE total score independently predicted a range of mental health, physical health, and substance use problems, and marginally predicted duration of homelessness. Conclusions Adverse childhood experiences are overrepresented among homeless adults with complex comorbidities and chronic homelessness. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of literature indicating that childhood traumas are potent risk factors for a number of adult health and psychiatric problems, particularly substance use problems. Results are discussed in the context of cumulative adversity and self-trauma theory. Trials registration This trial has been registered with the International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register and assigned ISRCTN42520374. PMID:24726046

2014-01-01

298

Attitudes of Jordanian Nursing Students towards Mental Illness: The Effect of Teaching and Contact on Attitudes Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purposes: Attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental illness influence the treatment they receive and decisions of policy makers. The purposes of this study were to assess Jordanian nursing students' attitudes towards mental illness, and to assess the effectiveness of teaching and contact on changing nursing students' attitudes about…

Hamaideh, Shaher H.; Mudallal, Rola

2009-01-01

299

Identification and Analysis of Learning Preferences of Mentally Ill Adults in Rehabilitative Psychosocial Therapy at the Anderson Mental Health Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study identified and analyzed the learning preferences of 17 seriously and chronically mentally ill adults participating in the rehabilitative psychosocial therapy program at the Toxaway Church Site of the Anderson Mental Health Center. Staff perceived as boring and unfocused the traditional treatment approach that relied mainly upon…

Newman, Michael K.

300

Public perceptions of risk in criminality: the effects of mental illness and social disadvantage.  

PubMed

We examined how different types of mental illness elicited varying levels of predicted criminality and compared this with factors which might also elicit a negative response, specifically, a criminal history and social disadvantage. A sample of 243 participants undertook an anonymous, online experiment. Each participant was exposed to one of six vignettes: three involved mental illness (schizophrenia, depression/anxiety, or alcohol dependency); two in which socio-economic background was manipulated; and a control. The impact of mental illness, history of criminality and social disadvantage on the likelihood that the character in the vignette would commit future crime, and levels of sympathy, trust and potential for rehabilitation in the character were measured. Age and personal experience of mental illness and/or criminal behaviour in the participants was also examined. The sample were significantly more likely to think that a character would 'possibly' commit future crime if he had mental illness in comparison to the control, but crimes were expected to be minor. Significantly more discriminatory behaviour was reported towards the character with no mental illness but a disadvantaged background. Familiarity ameliorated this effect. Prejudice towards those with a criminal past and a disadvantaged background may be stronger than prejudice against those with mental illnesses. PMID:23473655

Nee, Claire; Witt, Clare

2013-10-30

301

CDC Vital Signs: Adult Smoking among People with Mental Illness  

MedlinePLUS

... in place. More progress can be achieved: By mental health professionals Asking their patients if they use tobacco; ... in people trying to quit using tobacco. By mental health facilities Including quitting treatments as part of mental ...

302

28 CFR 115.81 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...history of sexual abuse. 115.81 Section 115.81 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Medical and Mental Care § 115.81...

2013-07-01

303

28 CFR 115.81 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.  

...history of sexual abuse. 115.81 Section 115.81 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Medical and Mental Care § 115.81...

2014-07-01

304

Intimate partner abuse before and during pregnancy as risk factors for postpartum mental health problems  

PubMed Central

Background Although research has established the profound effects that intimate partner abuse can have on postpartum mental health, little is known regarding how this association may change as a function of the timing and type of abuse. This study examined associations of psychological, physical and sexual abuse experienced as adults before and during pregnancy with symptoms of postpartum mental health problems in a non-clinical sample of women. Methods English-speaking mothers aged 18 years and older in the metropolitan area of a large, Western Canadian city were recruited to participate in a study of women’s health after pregnancy. The study was advertised in hospitals, local newspapers, community venues, and relevant websites. One-hundred women completed standardized, self-report questionnaires during semi-structured interviews conducted by female research assistants at approximately 2 months postpartum. In addition to questions about their general health and well-being, participants answered questions about their experiences of intimate partner abuse and about their mental health during the postpartum period. Results Almost two-thirds (61.0%) of women reported postpartum mental health symptoms above normal levels, with 47.0% reporting symptoms at moderate or higher levels. The majority reported some form of intimate partner abuse before pregnancy (84.0%) and more than two-thirds (70.0%), during pregnancy; however, the abuse was typically minor in nature. Multivariate models revealed that women who experienced intimate partner abuse—whether before or during pregnancy—reported higher levels of postpartum mental health problems; however, associations differed as a function of the timing and type of abuse, as well as specific mental health symptoms. Multivariate models also showed that as the number of types of intimate partner abuse experienced increased, so did the negative effects on postpartum mental health. Conclusions Results of this study provide further evidence that intimate partner abuse is a risk factor for postpartum mental health problems. They also underscore the complex risks and needs associated with intimate partner abuse among postpartum women and support the use of integrated approaches to treating postpartum mental health problems. Future efforts should focus on the extent to which strategies designed to reduce intimate partner abuse also improve postpartum mental health and vice versus. PMID:24708777

2014-01-01

305

'One flew over the psychiatric unit': mental illness and the media.  

PubMed

Media representation of mental illness has received growing research attention within a variety of academic disciplines. Cultural and media studies have often dominated in this research and discussion. More recently healthcare professionals have become interested in this debate, yet despite the importance of this subject only a selection of papers have been published in professional journals relating to nursing and healthcare. This paper examines the way in which mental illness in the United Kingdom is portrayed in public life. Literature from the field of media studies is explored alongside the available material from the field of mental healthcare. Three main areas are used to put forward an alternative approach: film representation and newspaper reporting of mental illness; the nature of the audience; and finally the concept of myth. The paper concludes by considering this approach in the context of current mental health policy on mental health promotion. PMID:12755914

Anderson, M

2003-06-01

306

Marketing to the marginalised: tobacco industry targeting of the homeless and mentally ill  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To describe the tobacco industry's relationships with and influence on homeless and mentally ill smokers and organisations providing services to them. Methods: Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents and journal articles. Results: The tobacco industry has marketed cigarettes to the homeless and seriously mentally ill, part of its "downscale" market, and has developed relationships with homeless shelters and advocacy groups, gaining positive media coverage and political support. Discussion: Tobacco control advocates and public health organisations should consider how to target programmes to homeless and seriously mentally ill individuals. Education of service providers about tobacco industry efforts to cultivate this market may help in reducing smoking in these populations. PMID:16319365

Apollonio, D; Malone, R

2005-01-01

307

Social firms as a means of vocational recovery for people with mental illness: a UK survey  

PubMed Central

Background Employment is associated with better quality of life and wellbeing in people with mental illness. Unemployment is associated with greater levels of psychological illness and is viewed as a core part of the social exclusion faced by people with mental illness. Social Firms offer paid employment to people with mental illness but are under-investigated in the UK. The aims of this phase of the Social Firms A Route to Recovery (SoFARR) project were to describe the availability and spread of Social Firms across the UK, to outline the range of opportunities Social Firms offer people with severe mental illness and to understand the extent to which they are employed within these firms. Method A UK national survey of Social Firms, other social enterprises and supported businesses was completed to understand the extent to which they provide paid employment for the mentally ill. A study-specific questionnaire was developed. It covered two broad areas asking employers about the nature of the Social Firm itself and about the employees with mental illness working there. Results We obtained returns from 76 Social Firms and social enterprises / supported businesses employing 692 people with mental illness. Forty per cent of Social Firms were in the south of England, 24% in the North and the Midlands, 18% in Scotland and 18% in Wales. Other social enterprises/supported businesses were similarly distributed. Trading activities were confined mainly to manufacturing, service industry, recycling, horticulture and catering. The number of employees with mental illness working in Social Firms and other social enterprises/supported businesses was small (median of 3 and 6.5 respectively). Over 50% employed people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, though the greatest proportion of employees with mental illness had depression or anxiety. Over two thirds of Social Firms liaised with mental health services and over a quarter received funding from the NHS or a mental health charity. Most workers with mental illness in Social Firms had been employed for over 2 years. Conclusions Social Firms have significant potential to be a viable addition to Individual Placement and Support (IPS), supporting recovery orientated services for people with the full range of mental disorders. They are currently an underdeveloped sector in the UK. PMID:23844779

2013-01-01

308

Dysthymia among Substance Abusers: An Exploratory Study of Individual and Mental Health Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the individual characteristics and mental health factors of dysthymic and nondysthymic substance abusers. Out of a total of 1,209 medical records reviewed to select cases of dysthymic and nondysthymic substance abusers attending a community drug treatment program, 183 medical records were selected, 48% of…

Diaz, Naelys; Horton, Eloise G.; McIlveen, John; Weiner, Michael; Nelson, Jenniffer

2009-01-01

309

Ethical Dilemmas of Child Abuse Reporting: Implications for Mental Health Counselors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores effect of child abuse reporting on counselor-client relationship, mental health profession, and child protective services system. Uses ecological systems approach in exploration of interventions needed to help resolve child abuse reporting dilemma. Within ecosystems framework, discusses ethical guidelines and policymaking for reporting…

MacNair, Rebecca R.

1992-01-01

310

DISC1 as a therapeutic target for mental illnesses  

PubMed Central

Introduction Many genetic studies have indicated that DISC1 is not merely “disrupted-in-schizophrenia,” but is more generally implicated in various brain dysfunctions associated with aberrant neurodevelopment and intracellular signaling pathways. Thus, the DISC1 gene is mildly associated with a variety of brain disorders, including schizophrenia, mood disorders, and autism. This novel concept fits with the results from biological studies of DISC1, which include cell and animal models. Areas covered We review the molecular structure and functions of DISC1, particularly those in conjunction with its important interactors. Functions of these interacting proteins are also introduced under the concept of the “DISC1 interactome.” Finally, we discuss how the DISC1 interactome can provide potential therapeutic targets for mental illnesses. Expert opinion Modulation of DISC1 stability and post-transcriptional modifications may be key targets to address DISC1-related pathology. In addition, modulation of DISC1 interactors and the mechanisms of their interactions with DISC1 may also provide drug targets. Disc1 rodent models can subsequently be used as templates for in vivo validations of compounds designed for DISC1 and its interacting proteins. Furthermore, these rodents will serve as genetic models for schizophrenia and related conditions, especially in conjunction with their pathologies during the neurodevelopmental trajectory. PMID:23130881

Hikida, Takatoshi; Gamo, Nao J.; Sawa, Akira

2014-01-01

311

Mind-language in the Age of the Brain: Is "Mental illness" a Useful Term?  

PubMed

The term "mental illness" has been criticized on a variety of grounds, most notably by those who have argued that the term is merely a "myth" or a "metaphor." Some have argued that if and when so-called mental illnesses are exhaustively explained by disturbed brain function or structure, we will no longer need the term "mental illness," on the supposition that neuropathology and psychopathology are mutually exclusive constructs. The author argues that, on the contrary, the locution "mental illness" is not rendered useless or unnecessary when neuropathology is discovered, nor is the term "mental illness" a metaphor. Rather, it is an instance of "ordinary language" that we apply quite literally to certain types of suffering and incapacity in the realm of thought, emotion, cognition, and behavior. Although its use carries the risk of perpetuating mind-body dualism and it may be misused as a pejorative label, "mental illness" is likely to remain a useful and meaningful descriptive term, even as we discover the neurobiological underpinnings of psychiatric illness. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2015;21:79-83). PMID:25603455

Pies, Ronald

2015-01-01

312

Life-sharing experiences of relatives of persons with severe mental illness - a phenomenographic study.  

PubMed

Relatives of those suffering from severe mental illness experience multiple challenges and a complex life situation. The aim of this study was to describe life-sharing experiences from the perspective of relatives of someone with severe mental illness. A qualitative, descriptive study was performed, and interviews were carried out with eighteen relatives of persons with severe mental illness. A phenomenographic analysis, according to the steps described by Dahlgren and Fallsberg, was used to describe the relatives' conceptions of their situation. The findings show that the experiences of these relatives can be summarized in one main category: 'The art of balancing between multiple concerns'. Two descriptive categories emerged: 'Making choices on behalf of others and oneself' and 'Constantly struggling between opposing feelings and between reflections'. Relatives report that they have to manoeuvre between different ways to act and to prioritize between different wishes and needs. In addition, they face a wide range of strong feelings and they search for hope and meaning. Relatives of someone with severe mental illness have to balance multiple concerns, which induce ethical dilemmas. They felt love, compassion or sense of duty towards the mentally ill person. The changeable situation made it difficult for the relatives to establish a balance in their lives. To be able to prioritize some private time was important. Relatives need own support and sufficient follow-up of the mentally ill next of kin from the mental health services. PMID:22583154

Weimand, Bente M; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise; Sällström, Christina; Hedelin, Birgitta

2013-03-01

313

Impact of psychiatry training on attitude of medical students toward mental illness and psychiatry  

PubMed Central

Context: Attitude of fresh graduates toward psychiatric patients is important to bridge the treatment gap due to mental illness. Psychiatry as a subject has been neglected in the undergraduates of MBBS. Aims: (1) To compare the attitude of medical students and interns in a medical college toward mental illness and psychiatry. (2) To assess the impact of psychiatric training on attitude toward the mentally ill person and mental illness. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional, single assessment study conducted at a tertiary hospital. Subjects and Methods: Participants consisted of medical students of 1st and 2nd year who didn’t have any exposure to psychiatry and interns, who had completed their compulsory 2 week clinical posting in psychiatry. Participants were individually administered sociodemographic proforma, General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), opinion about mental illness (OMI) scale, and attitude to psychiatry-29 (ATP-29) scale. Statistical Analysis: Standard descriptive statistics (mean, percentage), Chi-square test. Results: A total of 135 participants formed the study sample, with 48, 47, and 40 participants from 1st year, 2nd year and interns, respectively. Mean GHQ score was 14.03 for the entire sample. There was better outlook of interns toward psychiatry and patients with mental disorders in comparison to fresh graduate students in some areas. Overall, negative attitude toward mental illness and psychiatry was reflected. Conclusions: Exposure to psychiatry as per the current curriculum seems to have a limited influence in bringing a positive change in OMI and psychiatry. PMID:25316938

Gulati, Prannay; Das, Subhash; Chavan, B. S.

2014-01-01

314

African American Men and Women's Attitude Toward Mental Illness, Perceptions of Stigma, and Preferred Coping Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Background Although research focused on African Americans with mental illness has been increasing, few researchers have addressed gender and age differences in beliefs, attitudes, and coping. Objective To examine African Americans' beliefs about mental illness, attitudes toward seeking mental health services, preferred coping behaviors, and whether these variables differ by gender and age. Method An exploratory, cross-sectional survey design was used. Participants were 272 community-dwelling African Americans aged 25-72 years. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and general linear regression models. Results Depression was the most common mental illness and there were no gender differences in prevalence. Both men and women believed they knew some of the symptoms and causal factors of mental illness. Their attitudes suggested they are not very open to acknowledging psychological problems, are very concerned about stigma associated with mental illness, and are somewhat open to seeking mental health services, but they prefer religious coping. Significant gender and age differences were evident in attitudes and preferred coping. Discussion Our findings have implications for gender and age-specific psychoeducation interventions and future research. For instance, psychoeducation or community awareness programs designed to increase openness to psychological problems and reducing stigma are needed. Also, exploration of partnerships between faith-based organizations and mental health services could be helpful to African Americans. PMID:23328705

Ward, Earlise; Wiltshire, Jacqueline C.; Detry, Michelle A.; Brown, R. L.

2014-01-01

315

Addressing public stigma and disparities among persons with mental illness: the role of federal policy.  

PubMed

Stigma against mental illness is a complex construct with affective, cognitive, and behavioral components. Beyond its symbolic value, federal law can only directly address one component of stigma: discrimination. This article reviews three landmark antidiscrimination laws that expanded protections over time for individuals with mental illness. Despite these legislative advances, protections are still not uniform for all subpopulations with mental illness. Furthermore, multiple components of stigma (e.g., prejudice) are beyond the reach of legislation, as demonstrated by the phenomenon of label avoidance; individuals may not seek protection from discrimination because of fear of the stigma that may ensue after disclosing their mental illness. To yield the greatest improvements, antidiscrimination laws must be coupled with antistigma programs that directly address other components of stigma. PMID:23488484

Cummings, Janet R; Lucas, Stephen M; Druss, Benjamin G

2013-05-01

316

Genome wide gene expression analysis of two ENU mouse models of major mental illness   

E-print Network

Major mental illness is now recognised as one of the leading causes of adult morbidity. Of the adult onset psychiatric disorders, the functional psychoses (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and recurrent major depression) ...

Brown, Sarah Mills

2011-01-01

317

Police experiences of committing people with mental illness to a hospital.  

PubMed

To a large extent today, caring for people with mental illness takes place outside of institutional care. Sometimes, assistance from a special police group may be required to commit the patient to a hospital for continued psychiatric treatment. The aim of this study was to describe a group of police officers and their experiences of committing individuals with mental illness to the hospital for treatment. Two specialised commitment groups within the police were interviewed. A qualitative content analysis was used to identify topics of greater significance in the data. The interviews show that the informants desire greater cooperation with psychiatric care personnel and want to know more about mental illness and how to approach those with mental illness. PMID:23875557

Erdner, Anette; Piskator, Ragnar

2013-07-01

318

Review of Integrated Mental Health and Substance Abuse Treatment for Patients With Dual Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia and co-occurring substance use disorders traditionally received treatments for their two disorders from two different sets of clinicians in parallel treatment systems. Dissatisfaction with this clinical tradition led to the development of integrated treatment models in which the same clinicians or teams of clinicians provide substance abuse treatment and mental health treatment

Robert E. Drake; Carolyn Mercer-McFadden; Kim T. Mueser; Gregory J. McHugo; Gary R. Bond

1998-01-01

319

Reducing the stigma of mental illness in undergraduate medical education: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The stigma of mental illness among medical students is a prevalent concern that has far reaching negative consequences. Attempts to combat this stigma through educational initiatives have had mixed results. This study examined the impact of a one-time contact-based educational intervention on the stigma of mental illness among medical students and compared this with a multimodal undergraduate psychiatry course at the University of Calgary, Canada that integrates contact-based educational strategies. Attitudes towards mental illness were compared with those towards type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Method A cluster-randomized trial design was used to evaluate the impact of contact-based educational interventions delivered at two points in time. The impact was assessed by collecting data at 4 time points using the Opening Minds Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC) to assess changes in stigma. Results Baseline surveys were completed by 62% (n=111) of students before the start of the course and post-intervention ratings were available from 90 of these. Stigma scores for both groups were significantly reduced upon course completion (p < 0.0001), but were not significantly changed following the one-time contact based educational intervention in the primary analysis. Student confidence in working with people with a mental illness and interest in a psychiatric career was increased at the end of the course. Stigma towards mental illness remained greater than for T2DM at all time points. Conclusions Psychiatric education can decrease the stigma of mental illness and increase student confidence. However, one-time, contact-based educational interventions require further evaluation in this context. The key components are postulated to be contact, knowledge and attention to process, where attending to the student’s internal experience of working with people with mental illness is an integral factor in modulating perceptions of mental illness and a psychiatric career. PMID:24156397

2013-01-01

320

[Psychosocial interventions in severe mental illness: evidence and recommendations: psychoeducation, social skill training and exercise].  

PubMed

This paper summarizes the results of a systematic literature search on three widely used psychosocial interventions for people with severe mental illness: psychoeducation for patients and relatives, social skill training and physical exercise. Based on this evidence, recommendations given in the S3 guidelines on psychosocial therapies in severe mental illness of the German Society for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology (DGPPN) will be reported. Areas of future research are identified. PMID:22729513

Riedel-Heller, S G; Gühne, U; Weinmann, S; Arnold, K; Ay, E-S; Becker, T

2012-07-01

321

Gene–Environment Interactions in Severe Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

Severe mental illness (SMI) is a broad category that includes schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and severe depression. Both genetic disposition and environmental exposures play important roles in the development of SMI. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the roles of genetic and environmental factors depend on each other. Gene–environment interactions may underlie the paradox of strong environmental factors for highly heritable disorders, the low estimates of shared environmental influences in twin studies of SMI, and the heritability gap between twin and molecular heritability estimates. Sons and daughters of parents with SMI are more vulnerable to the effects of prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures, suggesting that the expression of genetic liability depends on environment. In the last decade, gene–environment interactions involving specific molecular variants in candidate genes have been identified. Replicated findings include an interaction between a polymorphism in the AKT1 gene and cannabis use in the development of psychosis and an interaction between the length polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene and childhood maltreatment in the development of persistent depressive disorder. Bipolar disorder has been underinvestigated, with only a single study showing an interaction between a functional polymorphism in the BDNF gene and stressful life events triggering bipolar depressive episodes. The first systematic search for gene–environment interactions has found that a polymorphism in CTNNA3 may sensitize the developing brain to the pathogenic effect of cytomegalovirus in utero, leading to schizophrenia in adulthood. Strategies for genome-wide investigations will likely include coordination between epidemiological and genetic research efforts, systematic assessment of multiple environmental factors in large samples, and prioritization of genetic variants. PMID:24860514

Uher, Rudolf

2014-01-01

322

Offenders with mental illness have criminogenic needs, too: toward recidivism reduction.  

PubMed

Many programs for offenders with mental illness (OMIs) seem to assume that serious mental illness directly causes criminal justice involvement. To help evaluate this assumption, we assessed a matched sample of 221 parolees with and without mental illness and then followed them for over 1 year to track recidivism. First, compared with their relatively healthy counterparts, OMIs were equally likely to be rearrested, but were more likely to return to prison custody. Second, beyond risk factors unique to mental illness (e.g., acute symptoms; operationalized with part of the Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20; Webster, Douglas, Eaves, & Hart, 1997), OMIs also had significantly more general risk factors for recidivism (e.g., antisocial pattern; operationalized with the Level of Service/Case Management Inventory; Andrews, Bonta, & Wormith, 2004) than offenders without mental illness. Third, these general risk factors significantly predicted recidivism, with no incremental utility added by risk factors unique to mental illness. Implications for broadening the policy model to explicitly target general risk factors for recidivism such as antisocial traits are discussed. PMID:24377913

Skeem, Jennifer L; Winter, Eliza; Kennealy, Patrick J; Louden, Jennifer Eno; Tatar, Joseph R

2014-06-01

323

Caregiver experience in mental illness: a perspective from a rural community in South Africa.  

PubMed

After the democratization of South Africa in 1994, the health-care system was reorganized in accordance with the primary health-care philosophy advocated by the World Health Organization. This was accompanied by a process of deinstitutionalization of mental health-care services, which has led families to become the main providers of care to individuals with mental illness. This study explores the experiences of informal family caregivers of persons with mental illness in a rural area in South Africa. Data were collected through eight individual semistructured interviews of informal caregivers who cared for relatives with mental illness and collect medications monthly at a community clinic in the Makhuduthamaga local municipality in Limpopo, South Africa. A qualitative research design was used, which was explorative, descriptive, and contextual. The data analysis revealed four major themes: (i) experiences of providing for physiological/physical needs; (ii) experiences of providing for emotional needs; (iii) experiences of providing for security needs; and (iv) experiences associated with the medical health-care programme. The study revealed that the experiences of family caregivers were conceptualized negatively, although the interview questions were intentionally neutral. This is believed to be due to the cultural explanatory models of mental illness prevalent in this region of South Africa. It is suggested that to increase compliance with medication, reduce relapse, and mitigate stigma associated mental illness, medical professionals need to incorporate aspects of cultural explanatory models into their explanations of the causes of illness. PMID:19740145

Mavundla, Thandisizwe R; Toth, Ferenc; Mphelane, Makua L

2009-10-01

324

Portrayal of Mental Illness on the TV Series Monk: Presumed Influence and Consequences of Exposure.  

PubMed

This study of responses to the TV series Monk, about a detective with obsessive-compulsive disorder, examines perceptions and behaviors related to mental illness. A total of 172 respondents completed an online survey. A parasocial bond with Monk was associated with lower stereotypes of mental illness and less social distance. Predictors and outcomes of perceived influence of the series on self and others were also examined. Perceived (positive) influence of the series on others' attitudes was predicted by respondents' favorable evaluation of the series's depiction of mental illness, as well as greater perceived exposure to and favorable evaluations among family and friends. Perceived influence on others also was associated with greater willingness to disclose mental health treatment, but only among people without personal or family experience with mental illness. In contrast, perceived influence of the series on self was predicted only by respondents' own evaluations of the series, and was related to willingness to seek mental health treatment-but only among those who had personally dealt with mental illness. PMID:25317727

Hoffner, Cynthia A; Cohen, Elizabeth L

2014-10-15

325

Friendship, intimacy and sexuality among persons with serious mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genuinely user-centred mental health services claim to respond to the wants and aspirations of people with mental health problems. Surveys of service users' wants show that they are much like those of the rest of us - a decent home, a reasonable income, a good social life and activity we find meaningful. However, mental health service users' wants in terms

Nan Rich; William Whetstone; David Lowson

2002-01-01

326

Examination of grief among family members of individuals with serious and persistent mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many family members experience a profound sense of loss when a relative becomes mentally ill. The adjustment to this loss is similar to grief as a response to death. The extent of this grief may be explained by personal characteristics of family members, the severity of the illness, and the extent of social support available. A family member's emotional response

Phyllis Solomon; Jeffrey Draine

1996-01-01

327

Did schizophrenia change the course of English history? The mental illness of Henry VI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Henry VI, King of England, at age 19 founded Eton College and King's College, Cambridge. At 31 he had a sudden, dramatic mental illness in which he was mute and unresponsive. Before, he had been paranoid, grandiose, and indecisive. After, he was apathetic with deterioration of ability, drive, interest and self-care, and hallucinations and religious delusions. This illness, which is

Nigel Bark

2002-01-01

328

Community Attitudes towards Culture-Influenced Mental Illness: Scrupulosity vs. Nonreligious OCD among Orthodox Jews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culture may particularly influence community attitudes towards mental illness, when the illness itself is shaped by a cultural context. To explore the influence of culture-specific, religious symptoms on Orthodox Jewish community attitudes, the authors compared the attitudes of 169 Orthodox Jews, who randomly viewed one of two vignettes describing…

Pirutinsky, Steven; Rosmarin, David H.; Pargament, Kenneth I.

2009-01-01

329

Housing for the Mentally Ill: A Place Called Home. Human Services Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Housing is a critical component of community care for people with long-term mental illness. Without a place to live, the best mental health treatment and the most sophisticated rehabilitation services cannot be effective. The first phase of the deinstitutionalization movement, releasing large numbers of patients from the state hospitals and…

Paterson, Andrea; Rhubright, Ellen

1988-01-01

330

Perceptions of Biopsychosocial Services Needs among Older Adults with Severe Mental Illness: Met and Unmet Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to identify the psychiatric, physical, and social services needs experienced by older adults with severe mental illness (SMI) and to examine factors influencing their experience of need and service provision adequacy. Seventy-five older adults with SMI were recruited from a community mental health center to participate in the…

Cummings, Sherry M.; Cassie, Kimberly McClure

2008-01-01

331

Case Management Models for Persons Who Are Homeless and Mentally Ill: The ACCESS Demonstration Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons who are homeless and mentally illpresent unique challenges to service providers and humanservice systems. In vivo case management approaches suchas assertive community treatment (ACT) have shown promise in engaging this population. This paperexplores case management models employed within theACCESS program, a five year, 18-site demonstrationprogram enriching services for homeless persons with serious mental illness. We describe theimplementation of case

Matthew Johnsen; Laura Samberg; Robert Calsyn; Margaret Blasinsky; Wendy Landow; Howard Goldman

1999-01-01

332

The effect of an abnormal psychology course on students' attitudes toward mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Opinions about Mental Illness Scale was administered at the beginning and end of the semester to an abnormal psychology class (38 men, 32 women) and to a control class of sociology students (60 men, 67 women). 5 attitudes were measured: Authoritarianism, Unsophisticated Benevolence, Mental Hygiene Ideology, Social Restrictiveness, and Interpersonal Etiology. Analysis of covariance revealed that changes which could

Frank Costin; William D. Kerr

1962-01-01

333

The loneliness of the long-anxious learner: mental illness, narrative biography and learning to write  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on selected findings of a 3-year research study which explored mentally ill adults' experience of attending a basic literacy\\/expressive writing course in a community mental health setting. It focuses on the theme of loneliness as experienced by participants as an inescapable part of their learning, writing and engagement with biographic material. One case study in particular is

Olivia Sagan

2008-01-01

334

Soldiers Hospitalized for Mental Illness Face Raised Suicide Risk, Study Shows  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Soldiers Hospitalized for Mental Illness Face Raised Suicide Risk, Study Shows Most vulnerable period is the year after they are discharged from treatment, researchers report (*this news ... -- American soldiers hospitalized with mental health disorders have a significantly increased risk of ...

335

Development of a Web-Based Officer's Field Guide to Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Probation and parole officers supervise a disproportionate amount of offenders with mental illness. Many causes contribute to this over-representation ranging from deinstitutionalization, to co-occurring disorders, to homelessness. It appears there may be a lack of training specifically for probation and parole officers on the topic of mental

Staley, Georgiana M.

2012-01-01

336

Social Tie Characteristics and Psychiatric Rehabilitation Outcomes among Adults with Serious Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social support has achieved national attention as a key component of the mental health recovery paradigm for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of variance accounted for by four social tie characteristics (social network orientation, emotional support, tangible support, and negative…

Chou, Chih-Chin; Chronister, Julie Ann

2012-01-01

337

Gender differences in mental and physical illness: The effects of fixed roles and nurturant roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decade ago it was widely assumed that there were no gender differences in mental illness\\/mental health and that any evidence that suggested that women experienced more psychological distress than men was due to women being more willing to admit to psychological distress, being more willing to seek treatment and\\/or sex bias on the part of clinicians. Furthermore, although it

Walter R. Gove

1984-01-01

338

Implementing evidence-based practices for persons with severe mental illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive empirical research, summarized in several reviews and codified in practice guidelines, recommendations, and algorithms, demonstrates that several pharmacological and psychosocial interventions are effective in improving the lives of persons with severe mental illnesses. Yet the practices validated by research are not widely offered in routine mental health practice settings. As part of an effort to promote the implementation of

William C. Torrey; Robert E. Drake; Lisa Dixon; Barbara J. Burns; Laurie Flynn; A. John Rush; Robin E. Clark; Dale Klatzker

2001-01-01

339

Reducing Stigma by Meeting and Learning from People with Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examines the effects of a public education program, devel- oped in large part by consumers of mental health services, on the attitudes of high school students toward people with mental illnesses. Methods: Four hundred and twenty-six students were provided an informational session delivered by con- sumers and a faculty member from the University of Medicine and Dentistry

Amy B. Spagnolo; Ann A. Murphy

2008-01-01

340

Violence and the Costs of Caring for a Family Member with Severe Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on the stress paradigm and using data from the Duke Mental Health Study, this paper investigates the links between violence by and against persons with severe mental illness and their caregivers' financial burden (e.g., number of financial contributions and perceived financial strain). In addition to violence, substance use and medication…

Thompson, Maxine Seaborn

2007-01-01

341

A comparison of adherence to hypoglycemic medications between Type 2 diabetes patients with and without serious mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inadequate self-management of chronic medical conditions like Type 2 diabetes may play a role in the poor health status of individuals with serious mental illnesses. We compared adherence to hypoglycemic medications and blood glucose control between 44 diabetes patients with a serious mental illness and 30 patients without a psychiatric illness. The two groups did not differ in their ability

Julie Kreyenbuhl; Jaclyn Leith; Deborah R. Medoff; LiJuan Fang; Faith B. Dickerson; Clayton H. Brown; Richard W. Goldberg; Wendy Potts; Lisa B. Dixon

2011-01-01

342

Effects of mental illness on the family: experiential family assessment to promote students' affective learning.  

PubMed

Mental health nursing faculty are challenged to connect with students on an affective level in their courses. One important strategy to promote affective learning is to understand the experience of the family caregiver. There is relatively little student access to family caregivers of individuals who are identified as severely and persistently mentally ill. Consequently, nursing students may not appreciate the myriad psychosocial challenges and adaptations that family caregivers of these individuals are forced to make, often for a lifetime. This article describes a unique teaching strategy that promotes cognitive and affective learning while also providing students with a clear window into the dynamics of families of people with mental illness. PMID:22148934

Keeley, Ann C; Chase, Lana

2012-02-01

343

Using research evidence to reframe the policy debate around mental illness and guns: process and recommendations.  

PubMed

Recent mass shootings have prompted a national dialogue around mental illness and gun policy. To advance an evidence-informed policy agenda on this controversial issue, we formed a consortium of national gun violence prevention and mental health experts. The consortium agreed on a guiding principle for future policy recommendations: restricting firearm access on the basis of certain dangerous behaviors is supported by the evidence; restricting access on the basis of mental illness diagnoses is not. We describe the group's process and recommendations. PMID:25211757

McGinty, Emma E; Frattaroli, Shannon; Appelbaum, Paul S; Bonnie, Richard J; Grilley, Anna; Horwitz, Joshua; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Webster, Daniel W

2014-11-01

344

Linking neurodevelopmental and synaptic theories of mental illness via DISC1  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in our understanding of the underlying genetic architecture of psychiatric disorders, has blown away “old” diagnostic boundaries defined by currently used diagnostic manuals. The DISC1 gene was originally discovered at the breakpoint of an inherited chromosomal translocation, which segregates with major mental illnesses. Many biological studies have indicated the role of DISC1 in early neurodevelopment and synaptic regulation. Given the additional insight that DISC1 is thought to drive a range of endophenotypes, which underlie major mental conditions, the biology of DISC1 may provide a hint on constructing new diagnostic categories for mental illnesses with more meaningful biological foundation. PMID:22095064

Brandon, Nicholas J.; Sawa, Akira

2014-01-01

345

Addiction Treatment Key to Curbing Violence in Mentally Ill  

MedlinePLUS

... drug use at the outset curbs odds of aggression, study says (*this news item will not be ... was not the primary factor in predicting later aggression. Rather, the patient's substance abuse was the factor ...

346

Causal accounts as a consequential device in categorizing mental health and substance abuse problems.  

PubMed

Professionals in human service work are at the centre of complicated client cases. The ways client cases are constructed and the problems explained form the basis for professionals' assessments, decisions, actions and interventions. In this article the ways professionals make sense of dual-diagnosis client cases are examined. Applying the concept of causal accounting, it is argued that 'theories of cause' are embedded in professional discourse and profoundly shape professionals' understandings of social and health problems, as well as of their own roles and responsibilities and of what interventions and outcomes are possible. The data consist of 48 tape-recorded weekly team meetings among professionals in a supported housing unit targeted for clients with both mental health and substance abuse problems. It was found that professionals reason about the relationship between these two problems in four different ways: (1) substance abuse causes or makes mental health problems worse; (2) substance abuse eases mental health problems; (3) mental health problems cause or make substance abuse worse; or (4) good mental health reduces substance abuse. Causal account research makes visible the ways professionals do institutional work by categorizing clients, accounting for responsibilities as well as assessing their work and clients' achievements according to moral expectations of a 'good'professional and a worthy client. PMID:25233561

Raitakari, Suvi; Günther, Kirsi; Juhila, Kirsi; Saario, Sirpa

2013-01-01

347

Sudden losses and negative appraisal in people with severe mental illness.  

PubMed

Research on the impact of sudden or unexpected losses in people with severe mental illness is scarce. The purpose of our study was to examine the relationship between subjective distress from sudden losses in people with severe mental illness and posttraumatic stress symptoms while controlling for gender, psychiatric symptoms, and negative appraisals. As part of routine care, treatment personnel collected data from 371 community mental health clients diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Hierarchical linear regression revealed that negative appraisals of the self and the world correlated significantly with posttraumatic stress symptoms, and distress from losses accounted for the greatest amount of variance in posttraumatic stress symptoms of the 6 traumas tested. When examined by diagnostic group, only those with schizophrenia spectrum disorder showed a significant association between distress from sudden losses and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Relative to other factors including symptoms of severe mental illness, distress from sudden losses in people with severe mental illness appears to be strongly associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25110974

O'Hare, Thomas; Sherrer, Margaret V; Shen, Ce

2014-11-01

348

S3 guideline on psychosocial therapies in severe mental illness: evidence and recommendations.  

PubMed

The burden of severe and persistent mental illness is high. Beside somatic treatment and psychotherapeutic interventions, treatment options for patients with severe mental illness also include psychosocial interventions. This paper summarizes the results of a number of systematic literature searches on psychosocial interventions for people with severe mental illness. Based on this evidence appraisal, recommendations for the treatment of people with severe mental illness were formulated and published in the evidence-based guideline series of the German Society for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology (DGPPN) as an evidence-based consensus guideline ("S3 guideline"). Recommendations were strongly based on study results, but used consensus processes to consider external validity and transferability of the recommended practices to the German mental healthcare system. A distinction is made between system-level interventions (multidisciplinary team-based psychiatric community care, case management, vocational rehabilitation and participation in work life and residential care interventions) and single psychosocial interventions (psychoeducation, social skills training, arts therapies, occupational therapy and exercise therapy). There is good evidence for the efficacy of the majority of psychosocial interventions in the target group. The best available evidence exists for multidisciplinary team-based psychiatric community care, family psychoeducation, social skills training and supported employment. The present guideline offers an important opportunity to further improve health services for people with severe mental illness in Germany. Moreover, the guideline highlights areas for further research. PMID:25384674

Gühne, Uta; Weinmann, Stefan; Arnold, Katrin; Becker, Thomas; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

2014-11-11

349

'Old' and 'new' institutions for persons with mental illness: treatment, punishment or preventive confinement?  

PubMed

Despite countless promises for a better life by national commissions, governments and the international community, there has evolved a vicious cycle of neglect, abandonment, indignity, cruel and inhuman treatment, and punishment of persons with mental illness. This shameful history of benign, and sometimes malignant, neglect of persons with mental illness is well understood, with the deep stigma and unredressed discrimination, the deplorable living conditions, and the physical and social barriers preventing their integration and full participation in society. The maltreatment of this vulnerable population has been reinforced by the hurtful stereotypes of incompetency and dangerousness. The belief that persons with mental illness are uniformly dangerous is an equally harmful myth. It provides policy makers with an ostensible justification to exercise control over persons with mental illness, even if they have not committed a violent offence. However, research demonstrates that the class of persons with most mental illnesses is no more dangerous than other populations, and that the vast majority of violence is committed by persons without mental illness. This article will show how this vulnerable population has been unconscionably treated. First, the gross violations of human rights that have occurred, and continue to occur, in 'old' psychiatric institutions will be examined. The deinstitutionalization movement, however, resulted in new places of confinement for this population, such as jails, prisons and homeless shelters. The second part of this paper will explore the new realities of criminal confinement of persons with mental illness. As we will see, incarceration of this vulnerable population in the criminal justice system has caused enormous suffering. If Dostoyevsky was correct that the 'degree of civilization... can be judged by entering its prisons', then by that measure, we are a deeply uncivilized society. PMID:18555496

Gostin, Lawrence O

2008-09-01

350

Self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness: toward caregivers’ empowerment  

PubMed Central

Background In addition to economic and material burdens, caregivers of people with mental illness are exposed to psychosocial challenges. Self-stigma is among the psychological challenges that can be exacerbated by intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors. Caregivers’ self-stigma can negatively influence the patients’ treatment and rehabilitation process. The objective of this study was to measure the level and correlates of self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness. Methods An interviewer-administered cross-sectional study was conducted in the Jimma University Specialized Hospital Psychiatry Clinic in Ethiopia on a sample of 422 caregivers. Data were collected by trained nurses working in the clinic using a pretested questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression was performed to identify the correlates of self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness. Results The majority (70.38%) of the caregivers were male. On a scale of 0 to 15, with 0 being low and 15 being high, the average self-stigmatizing attitude score was 4.68 (±4.11). A statistically significant difference in mean self-stigma score was found between urban and rural respondents (t=3.95, P<0.05). Self-stigma of caregivers showed significant positive correlation with perceived signs of mental illness (r=0.18, P<0.001), perceived supernatural explanations of mental illness (r=0.26, P<0.001), and perceived psychosocial and biological explanations of mental illness (r=0.12, P<0.01). The only independent predictor of caregivers’ self-stigma was perceived supernatural explanation of mental illness (standardized ?=0.22, P<0.001). Conclusion The tendency of caregivers to avoid being identified with the patients was observed. Low exposure to mental health information was also reported. Caregivers’ self-stigma in this study was significantly correlated with perceived supernatural explanation of mental illness. Since caregivers’ self-stigma may negatively influence patients’ treatment-seeking, adherence, and rehabilitation processes, programs that enhance coping strategies by strengthening self-esteem and empowerment by health care providers and establish family support groups may be helpful to tackle self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness. PMID:24470760

Girma, Eshetu; Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Dehning, Sandra; Mueller, Norbert; Tesfaye, Markos; Froeschl, Guenter

2014-01-01

351

Effects of contact with treatment users on mental illness stigma: evidence from university roommate assignments.  

PubMed

Mental illness stigma refers to negative stereotypes and prejudices about people with mental illness, and is a widespread phenomenon with damaging social, psychological, and economic consequences. Despite considerable policy attention, mental illness stigma does not appear to have declined significantly in recent years. Interpersonal contact with persons with mental illness has been identified as a promising approach to reducing mental illness stigma. This study investigates the effect of contact with mental health treatment users on stigma using an observational research design that is free of self-selection bias. The research design is based on the quasi-experiment in which university students are assigned to live together as roommates. Survey data were collected from first-year undergraduates at two large universities in the United States (N = 1605). Multivariable regressions were used to estimate the effect of assignment to a roommate with a history of mental health treatment on a brief measure of stigmatizing attitudes. Contact with a treatment user caused a modest increase in stigma (standardized effect size = 0.15, p = 0.03). This effect was present among students without a prior treatment history of their own, but not among those with a prior history. The findings indicate that naturalistic contact alone does not necessarily yield a reduction in mental illness stigma. This may help explain why stigma has not declined in societies such as the United States even as treatment use has risen substantially. The findings also highlight the importance of isolating the specific components, beyond contact per se, that are necessary to reduce stigma in contact-based interventions. PMID:22703886

Eisenberg, Daniel; Downs, Marilyn F; Golberstein, Ezra

2012-09-01

352

The Mental Health Recovery Movement and Family Therapy, Part I: Consumer-Led Reform of Services to Persons Diagnosed with Severe Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2004, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued a consensus statement on mental health recovery based on the New Freedom Commission's recommendation that public mental health organizations adopt a "recovery" approach to severe and persistent mental illness, including services to those dually diagnosed with mental health and…

Gehart, Diane R.

2012-01-01

353

Mental health first aid training for the Chinese community in Melbourne, Australia: effects on knowledge about and attitudes toward people with mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate in members of the Chinese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training on knowledge about mental disorders and on attitudes to people with mental illness. The hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and related treatments,

Angus YK Lam; Anthony F Jorm; Daniel FK Wong

2010-01-01

354

Psychiatric Illness in Mentally Retarded Adolescents: Clinical Features.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the clinical features of the most important psychiatric disorders in mentally retarded adolescents: mood disorders, psychotic disorders, severe behavioral disorders, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and attention-deficit The impact of mental retardation on personality development is confirmed by the high psychopathological…

Masi, Gabriele

1998-01-01

355

Stigma and mental disorder: conceptions of illness, public attitudes, personal disclosure, and social policy.  

PubMed

The end of the last millennium witnessed an unprecedented degree of public awareness regarding mental disorder as well as motivation for policy change. Like Sartorius, we contend that the continued stigmatization of mental illness may well be the central issue facing the field, as nearly all attendant issues (e.g., standards of care, funding for basic and applied research efforts) emanate from professional, societal, and personal attitudes towards persons with aberrant behavior. We discuss empirical and narrative evidence for stigmatization as well as historical trends regarding conceptualizations of mental illness, including the field's increasing focus on genetic and neurobiological causes and determinants of mental disorder. We next define stigma explicitly, noting both the multiple levels (community, societal, familial, individual) through which stigma operates to dehumanize and delegitimize individuals with mental disorders and the impact of stigma across development. Key developmental psychopathology principles are salient in this regard. We express concern over the recent oversimplification of mental illness as "brain disorder," supporting instead transactional models which account for the dynamic interplay of genes, neurobiology, environment, and self across development and which are consistent with both compassion and societal responsibility. Finally, we consider educational and policy-related initiatives regarding the destigmatization of mental disorder. We conclude that attitudes and policy regarding mental disorder reflect, in microcosmic form, two crucial issues for the next century and millennium: (a) tolerance for diversity (vs. pressure for conformity) and (b) intentional direction of our species' evolution, given fast-breaking genetic advances. PMID:11202034

Hinshaw, S P; Cicchetti, D

2000-01-01

356

Childhood Sexual Abuse is Associated With Physical Illness Burden and Functioning in Psychiatric Patients 50 Years of Age and Older  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) with cumulative illness burden, physical function, and bodily pain (BP) in a sample of male and female psychiatric patients ?50 years of age. Previous research on the health consequences of sexual abuse has focused on nonpsychiatric samples of younger-age adults, especially women. The health implications of abuse for mixed-gender samples of older psychiatric patients have not been explored. Methods Participants were 163 patients with primary mood disorders. Sexual abuse histories were collected via patient self-report, as was BP. The measure of medical illness burden was based on chart review. Clinical interviewers rated physical function, using the activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) scales. Linear and logistic regressions examined the association between CSA and health outcomes. Results As hypothesized, severe childhood sexual abuse was associated with higher cumulative medical illness burden, worse physical function, and greater BP. Comparisons of regression coefficients revealed that severe CSA’s influence on illness burden is roughly comparable to the effects of adding 8 years of age. For ADL impairment and BP, the effects are comparable to adding 20 years of age. Conclusions Strong relationships exist between CSA and medical illness burden, function, and pain among psychiatric patients ?50 years of age. These relationships cannot be ascribed to shared method variance. Early detection of patients’ abuse histories could inform targeted interventions to prevent or decelerate the progression of morbidity in this high-risk group. PMID:19251869

Talbot, Nancy L.; Chapman, Ben; Conwell, Yeates; McCollumn, Kelly; Franus, Nathan; Cotescu, Stefan; Duberstein, Paul R.

2009-01-01

357

Mental Health Services Research and Its Impact on Social Work Practice with Adults Who Have Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report discusses services and services research for adults with severe mental illness from an historical perspective, using the author's own research as examples. Suggestions for future research directions and implications for practice that ensure the most effective service provision for this vulnerable population are offered.

Phyllis Solomon

2008-01-01

358

HIV Risk Reduction for Substance Using Seriously Mentally Ill Adults: Test of the Information-Motivation-Behavior Skills (IMB) Model  

PubMed Central

The information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model (Fisher & Fisher, 1992) was used as the theoretical framework for predicting unprotected sexual behavior among substance abusing men and women diagnosed with serious mental illnesses (n = 320; 150 men and 170 women, primarily of minority ethnicity). In a structural equation model, gender, HIV transmission knowledge, and motivational variables of pro-condom norms and attitudes, and perceived susceptibility predicted behavioral skills markers: condom use skills and condom use self-efficacy. Along with the other variables in the model, condom skills and condom self-efficacy were hypothesized to predict condom use over a six-month period. Results showed that greater condom skills were predicted by female gender, positive condom attitudes, and transmission knowledge. Engaging in lower rates of unprotected sex was predicted by pro-condom norms, less perceived susceptibility, and greater condom self-efficacy. Positive attitudes toward condoms had a significant indirect effect on rates of unprotected sex, exerting its influence through condom use self-efficacy. Results suggest that changing personal attitudes about condoms and reinforcing pro-condom attitudes among significant others will encourage condom use among seriously mentally ill (SMI) adults who are at high risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). PMID:16131007

Kalichman, Seth; Malow, Robert; Dévieux, Jessy; Stein, Judith A.; Piedman, Fred

2007-01-01

359

Effects of a documentary film on public stigma related to mental illness among genetic counselors.  

PubMed

Many people, including genetic counselors, have been found to hold stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illnesses. We aimed to determine whether these attitudes could be changed by exposing genetic counselors and genetic counseling students to a documentary film about people with mental illness. We screened the documentary at the 2010 North American conferences for genetic counselors. Immediately before (T1), immediately after (T2), and one month after (T3) watching the documentary, participants self-rated their comfort with asking patients about mental illness, and they completed scales measuring two aspects of stigma: stereotype endorsement, and desire for social distance. A total of 87 T1 and T2 questionnaires, and 39 T3 questionnaires were returned. At T2 and T3, 34.5% and 48.7% respectively reported feeling more comfortable to ask patients about mental illness. Scores on the social distance and stereotype endorsement scales decreased significantly from T1 to T2, but returned to initial levels at T3. The findings suggest the documentary increased genetic counselors' and genetic counseling students' comfort with asking about mental illness and temporarily decreased their stigmatizing attitudes. PMID:22037897

Anderson, Kelly; Austin, Jehannine C

2012-08-01

360

"Tangled wires in the head": older migrant Chinese's perception of mental illness in Britain.  

PubMed

In this article, the authors explored Cantonese-speaking older Chinese migrants knowledge, attitudes and expectations regarding mental illness. They obtained verbatim data from semi-structured interviews with eight participants recruited from London-based Chinese and church communities in Britain. They analyzed the data using the principles of Grounded Theory and in-depth content analysis. They examined cultural idioms in participants' accounts. Findings suggested that Western diagnostic categories of mental illness were alien to participants. They had a culturally constructed way of defining and characterizing mental illness. Participants used idioms of 'nerve', 'mood', 'behavior', 'personality', 'normal life', 'compassion' and the idiom of 'others' to construct an alternative world for stigma management. They erected an invisible but permeable barrier to limit access to their normal world. The role of traditional Chinese culture of Confucianism was significant in shaping perceptions and conceptions of mental illness. This article offered another perspective on the alternative world of Chinese migrants' cultural understandings of mental illness, an area with limited understanding at present. The authors discussed important implications for future research and social policy. PMID:24984910

Li, Sarah; Hatzidimitriadou, Eleni; Psoinos, Maria

2014-08-01

361

Undergraduate Nursing Students’ Attitudes towards Mental Illness: Implications for Specific Academic Education  

PubMed Central

Background: Health care professions are not immune to social prejudices and surprisingly share the general public's attitude attributed to people with mental illness. Nursing students are future health manpower research related to nursing students attitudes toward mental illness is limited. Aim: The aim of this following study is to examine the undergraduate nursing students’ attitudes toward people with mental illness. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive design was adopted for the present study. A total of 148 undergraduate nursing students were purposively selected to complete self-reported questionnaires. Results: The nursing students have significant positive attitudes towards mental illness in three of the six attitudes factors: Restrictiveness (8.59), benevolence (29.8) and stigmatization (9.18). However, these students have negative attitudes in separatism (27.1), stereotype (11.5) and pessimistic predictions (11.7) domains as they rated high. Conclusion: Academic education in this area must be planned so as to favor the change of the attitudes that include greater use of teaching strategies that challenge beliefs and assumptions and promote a commitment to provide holistic care to people with mental illness. PMID:25336767

Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Pashupu, Dharma Reddy; Ramachandra; Badamath, Suresh

2014-01-01

362

Social and existential alienation experienced by people with long-term mental illness.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore how people suffering from long-term mental illness and who live in the community experience their daily lives. The study was based on an ethnographic framework involving participant observations with 23 individuals from two rehabilitation centres and interviews with six women and two men. The observational notes and interviews were recorded, transcribed into the data and analysed based on the phases of hermeneutic interpretation. The process consisted of identifying tentative interpretations that highlighted various impediments that prevent people with long-term mental illness from having an active life. The impediments can also be interpreted as a form of alienation, an interpersonal phenomenon and a consequence due to of the lack of social acceptance towards mental illness. The participants expressed concern about the future and lack of hope. Viewing themselves as being 'odd' is not a symptom of mental illness, but rather evidence of experiencing existential and social alienation not only as a consequence of other people's reactions but also their own negative attitudes towards mental illness and effects of their cognitive dysfunction. PMID:16324062

Erdner, Anette; Magnusson, Annabella; Nyström, Maria; Lützén, Kim

2005-12-01

363

Perception and coping with stigma of mental illness: Arab families' perspectives.  

PubMed

Family stigma is well documented in the research literature; however, it has only been recently that efforts have been undertaken to discuss the perception of stigma as reported by Arab families of relatives with mental illness. This clinical paper aims to identify families' perception of stigma related to mental illness, and to compare Arab families' approaches with various aspects of caring from different countries. Further, this paper discusses, in-depth, specific areas related to families' perceptions of stigma: What impacts does stigma perception have on those families and on their relatives' care outcomes and what are coping strategies are used to handle stigma and its impacts in such countries? This paper emphasizes that chronic mental illness contributes the most to families' perception of stigma. In this study, Arab families perceived the experience of caring for a family member with a mental illness with fear, loss, embarrassment, and disgrace of family reputations. Further, secrecy, isolation, despair, and helplessness were reported the most among different family groups in Jordan and Morocco. This paper reminds us that cultural norms and beliefs shape family members' perception of coping and their ability to manage caring for relatives with mental illnesses. Thus, more studies are needed concerning coping and management strategies that are culturally relevant. This could eventually guide the establishment of stigma reduction initiatives and expand understanding of stigma from different cultural perspectives. PMID:22757601

Dalky, Heyam F

2012-07-01

364

Institutional abuse of children in the Austrian Catholic Church: types of abuse and impact on adult survivors' current mental health.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the nature and dimensions of institutional child abuse (IA) by the Austrian Catholic Church and to investigate the current mental health of adult survivors. Data were collected in two steps. First, documents of 448 adult survivors of IA (M=55.1 years, 75.7% men) who had disclosed their abuse history to a victim protection commission were collected. Different types of abuse, perpetrator characteristics, and family related risk factors were investigated. Second, a sample of 185 adult survivors completed the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-C) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Participants reported an enormous diversity of acts of violent physical, sexual, and emotional abuse that had occurred in their childhood. The majority of adult survivors (83.3%) experienced emotional abuse. Rates of sexual (68.8%) and physical abuse (68.3%) were almost equally high. The prevalence of PTSD was 48.6% and 84.9% showed clinically relevant symptoms in at least one 1 of 10 symptom dimensions (9 BSI subscales and PTSD). No specific pre-IA influence was found to influence the development of PTSD in later life (e.g. poverty, domestic violence). However, survivors with PTSD reported a significantly higher total number of family related risk factors (d=0.33). We conclude that childhood IA includes a wide spectrum of violent acts, and has a massive negative impact on the current mental health of adult survivors. We address the long-term effects of these traumatic experiences in addition to trauma re-activation in adulthood as both bear great challenges for professionals working with survivors. PMID:24018068

Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Kantor, Viktoria; Weindl, Dina; Knefel, Matthias; Moy, Yvonne; Butollo, Asisa; Jagsch, Reinhold; Glück, Tobias

2014-01-01

365

Evaluation of a Decision-Making Curriculum Designed to Empower Women with Mental Retardation to Resist Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of an abuse-prevention curriculum, designed to empower women with mental retardation to become effective decision-makers able to protect themselves against abuse was examined. Thirty-six women with mental retardation were randomly assigned to either an intervention or a control group. Results indicate that the performance of the…

Khemka, Ishita; Hickson, Linda; Reynolds, Gillian

2005-01-01

366

Sexual abuse and violence among adolescent girls in Botswana: a mental health perspective.  

PubMed

The presence of sexual abuse among societies in Botswana is a phenomenon whose occurrence is usually denied albeit the police report on it and legal frameworks have been established to combat it. Several factors influence the concealment of sexual abuse among adolescent girls, which includes cultural factors and social status of the perpetrators. This paper espouses the concept of sexual abuse among adolescent girls, the existence of the problem, its magnitude, the factors that increase vulnerability to violence and abuse, and how these factors intersect with HIV and AIDS. Two case studies using a discovery method were used to explore the phenomenon under the study. The findings of the study indicated that sexual abuse and violence have profound mental health consequences including guilt, anxiety, depression and anger. Future research is suggested to explore this problem on a wider scale and develop interventions that can assist victims and perpetrators to cope with the situation. PMID:19544130

Seloilwe, Esther Salang; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria

2009-07-01

367

Effects of diversion on adults with co-occurring mental illness and substance use: outcomes from a national multi-site study.  

PubMed

This quasi-experimental non-equivalent comparison group study examines outcomes for participants in eight programs conducting criminal justice diversion for people with co-occurring serious mental illness and substance use disorders compared with jail detainees eligible for diversion, but who were processed through standard criminal justice methods without diversion. Nearly 2000 participants were interviewed at baseline, and 1500 at 3 month and 1300 at 12 month follow-up to baseline. In these interviews, outcome measures of re-arrest, mental health functioning, substance abuse, quality of life, and service utilization were obtained. Those diverted were more likely to have received mental health counseling, mental health medication, and mental health hospitalization than those not enrolled in a diversion program, but were equally likely to have received substance abuse counseling. Overall, the differences in proportions receiving services between the two groups were small, even when these differences were statistically significant. The effect associated with diversion differed somewhat across the individual sites. However, overall cross-site pooled analyses revealed no outcome differences between groups on measures of mental health symptoms, substance use, criminal justice recidivism, or quality of life. Although the immediate benefit of diversion as an access mechanism to community treatment is indicated in pooled cross-site results, such access was driven by more coercive (pre-booking and court) models and results suggest that effecting substantially greater access to services or services use did not occur. The findings also suggest that mental health, substance abuse, and criminal justice outcomes remain dependent on the treatment intervention received, perhaps moderated by type of diversion intervention, rather than on a generic and initial diversion event. PMID:15282838

Broner, Nahama; Lattimore, Pamela K; Cowell, Alexander J; Schlenger, William E

2004-01-01

368

Competency to stand trial and defendants who lack insight into their mental illness.  

PubMed

Forensic evaluators often assess patients who lack insight into their mental illnesses. This lack of insight can have a significant impact on the defendant's ability to make legal strategy decisions that rely on their acceptance of their mental illness. In this article, the relationship between refusing an insanity plea and competency to stand trial will be explored in the context of defendants who lack insight into their mental illness. The authors argue that an adequate competency assessment should take into account the defendant's ability to consider his available pleas rationally. Such evaluations may have the effect of negating the necessity of a Frendak inquiry in those jurisdictions that can impose the insanity defense on defendants. PMID:23503181

Reisner, Andrew D; Piel, Jennifer; Makey, Miller

2013-01-01

369

Ripple effects of developmental disabilities and mental illness on nondisabled adult siblings.  

PubMed

Developmental disabilities and severe mental illness are costly to the affected individual and frequently to their family as well. Little studied are their nondisabled siblings. Here we examine major life course outcomes (education, employment, and marriage) of these siblings in adulthood using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Our sample comprises 113 individuals with developmental disabilities and 337 of their nondisabled siblings; 97 individuals with mental illness and 235 of their nondisabled siblings; and 17,126 unaffected comparison group members. We find that siblings of individuals with mental illness have less education and less employment than the unaffected comparison group, whereas those who have a sibling with developmental disabilities had normative patterns of education and employment, but less marriage and more divorce. Robustness tests incorporating genetic data do not change the conclusions based on the nongenetic analyses. PMID:24607704

Wolfe, Barbara; Song, Jieun; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

2014-05-01

370

Technology, society, and mental illness: challenges and opportunities for assessment and treatment.  

PubMed

Technology is rapidly changing society, and many activities now require the ability to use technology. This situation has the potential to lead to problems for several populations, including the elderly, the disadvantaged, and people with severe mental illness. In this column, we review the state of technology as it affects daily activities. We then review previous efforts to use technology positively for both the assessment and treatment of psychiatric conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder and severe mental illness. We conclude that technology-based interventions and assessment strategies have the potential to deliver benefit to a wide array of older people and those with severe mental illness, including reaching people who would not have had access otherwise. PMID:23346519

Harvey, Philip D; Se Keefe, Richard

2012-11-01

371

Landlords' experiences of housing tenants suffering from severe mental illness: a Swedish empirical study.  

PubMed

The aim of this Swedish study was to describe landlords' experiences of having tenants suffering from severe mental illness. Sixteen landlords working in private and public housing agencies participated in open in-depth interviews. Data were subjected to a thematic latent content analysis. The results showed that having tenants with severe mental illness entails being confronted with various difficult circumstances, ranging from mismanagement of apartments to sensitivity among neighbours as well as issues regarding provocative behaviour. It involved providing assistance that was far beyond their professional obligations and to be neglected by the community-based psychiatric service system when in need of help. In order to support landlords and to prevent evictions of individuals with severe mental illness, community-based psychiatric services need to be more pro-active in their attempts to achieve collaboration with the parties at hand. PMID:23361470

Bengtsson-Tops, A; Hansson, L

2014-01-01

372

Mental health treatment need among pregnant and postpartum women/girls entering substance abuse treatment.  

PubMed

Substance use during pregnancy is widely acknowledged as a major public health concern with detrimental effects on both mother and unborn child. Mental health issues often co-occur with substance use and may trigger continued use during pregnancy or relapse to use postpartum, though little is known about the extent of these issues in pregnant and postpartum women entering substance abuse treatment. The purpose of this study is: (a) to examine self-reported mental health in a population of women and girls who were pregnant in the past year and are entering substance abuse treatment, and (b) to determine whether disparity exists in mental health treatment received across groups by race and age if a treatment need is present. Secondary data analysis was conducted with Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) data from 502 female adolescents and adults who reported having been pregnant in the past year and who completed the GAIN upon entry into substance abuse treatment. Participants were compared on demographic, diagnostic, and problem severity variables by race and age. Results indicate that mental health treatment need is high among the whole pregnant and postpartum sample, but African American and Hispanic women and girls are receiving less mental health treatment than other groups despite having a need for it. No mental health treatment acquisition disparity was found by age. PMID:21895350

Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H

2012-06-01

373

Attitudes About Mental Illness and its Treatment: Validation of a Generic Scale for Public Health Surveillance of Mental Illness Associated Stigma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to test a brief instrument to monitor the U.S. public’s attitudes about mental illness. A SAMHSA\\u000a and CDC-led panel reached consensus through an iterative process to identify generic, multidimensional measures to test using\\u000a a representative sample of 5,251 adults. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two subscales (Negative Stereotypes [? = 0.66];\\u000a Recovery and Outcomes [? = 0.69]). Confirmatory factor

Rosemarie Kobau; Colleen DiIorio; Daniel Chapman; Paolo Delvecchio

2010-01-01

374

Hippocampal neurogenesis as a target for the treatment of mental illness: A critical evaluation  

PubMed Central

Summary Over one-quarter of adult Americans are diagnosed with a mental illness like Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia, and Alzheimer’s Disease. In addition to the exceptional personal burden these disorders exert on patients and their families, they also have enormous cost to society. Although existing pharmacological and psychosocial treatments alleviate symptoms in many patients, the comorbidity, severity, and intractable nature of mental disorders strongly underscore the need for novel strategies. As the hippocampus is a site of structural and functional pathology in most mental illnesses, a hippocampal-based treatment approach has been proposed to counteract the cognitive deficits and mood dysregulation that are hallmarks of psychiatric disorders. In particular, preclinical and clinical research suggests that hippocampal neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons in the adult dentate gyrus, may be harnessed to treat mental illness. There are obvious applications and allures of this approach; for example, perhaps stimulating hippocampal neurogenesis would reverse the overt and noncontroversial hippocampal atrophy and functional deficits observed in Alzheimer’s Disease and schizophrenia, or the more controversial hippocampal deficits seen in MDD and PTSD. However, critical examination suggests that neurogenesis may only correlate with mental illness and treatment, suggesting targeting neurogenesis alone is not a sufficient treatment strategy. Here we review the classic and causative links between adult hippocampal neurogenesis and mental disorders, and provide a critical evaluation of how (and if) our basic knowledge of new neurons in the adult hippocampus might eventually help combat or even prevent mental illness. PMID:20060007

DeCarolis, Nathan A.; Eisch, Amelia J.

2010-01-01

375

Thomas Szasz, crazy talk and the myth of mental illness.  

PubMed

In this article, Szasz's analysis of 'crazy talk' is considered in the context of his wider critique of psychiatric theory. We argue that Szasz has performed an important service by drawing attention to psychiatric prejudice regarding the causes of abnormal behaviour, and by pointing to the role of values in psychiatric decision making. However, Szasz may be criticized for his oversimple analysis of the concept of 'illness' and for his failure to recognize that values are central to all clinical decision making, including the diagnosis of physical illness. In the light of these criticisms we identify important weaknesses in his arguments about the incoherent speech of psychiatric patients. PMID:8485079

Bentall, R P; Pilgrim, D

1993-03-01

376

Socioeconomic status and mental illness: tests of the social causation and selection hypotheses.  

PubMed

This study tests several hypotheses about the underlying causal structure of the inverse correlation between socioeconomic status (SES) and mental illness. It does this through the analysis of a longitudinal statewide database on acute psychiatric hospitalization in Massachusetts for the fiscal years 1994-2000 as well as supplemental census data. The modeling strategy used techniques of structural equation modeling and found that SES impacted directly on rates of mental illness as well as indirectly through the impact of economic hardship on low and middle income groups. PMID:15709846

Hudson, Christopher G

2005-01-01

377

Mental illness: diagnostic title or derogatory term? (Attitudes towards mental illness) Developing a learning resource for use within a clinical call centre. A systematic literature review on attitudes towards mental illness.  

PubMed

With one in three people likely to experience mental health problems during their lifetime, it is paradoxical that stigma and negative attitudes towards mental illness are so prevalent in the UK today. This systematic literature review was completed to investigate what the most common negative attitudes towards mental illness are, and the most common recommendations made to address them. The findings were used to inform teaching resources used in an National Health Service Direct call centre. Guidelines for undertaking a systematic review, produced by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, were used. Terms were set and a search of electronic databases and peer-reviewed academic journals was completed, from which 16 primary research papers (from the UK) were obtained and used. These were assessed, using evidence-based critical appraisal tools, to obtain data pertinent to the original question. This paper describes the process, including a detailed account of the methodologies employed to gather and analyse relevant data. Put into context, alongside key drivers (e.g. government papers), the findings are presented and discussed, along with underlying theories, where appropriate. Recommendations for professional practice are then presented. PMID:18803744

Putman, S

2008-10-01

378

Review of Integrated Mental Health and Substance Abuse Treatment for Patients With Dual Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with severe mental disorders such as schizo- phrenia and co-occurring substance use disorders tra- ditionally received treatments for their two disorders from two different sets of clinicians in parallel treat- ment systems. Dissatisfaction with this clinical tradi- tion led to the development of integrated treatment models in which the same clinicians or teams of clini- cians provide substance abuse

Robert E. Drake; Carolyn Mercer-McFadden; Kim T. Mueser; Qregory J. McHugo; Qary R. Bond

379

American Indian Women: Mental Health Issues Which Relate to Drug Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the sparse literature concerning the mental health of American Indian and Alaska Native women. Suggests research into various sources of stress experienced by Native women and related to drug and alcohol abuse. Discusses coping mechanisms and the particular stress factors affecting professional Native women. (SV)

Medicine, Beatrice

1993-01-01

380

Quality Assurance for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Services: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a comprehensive bibliography for all those in the alcohol, drug abuse and mental health fields who are developing and implementing programs for assuring quality in the services they provide. A major problem is the newness of the language and the unfamilarity with procedures required by the government and others seeking accountability from…

Towery, O. B.; And Others

381

Scientific Research and Corporate Influence: Smoking, Mental Illness, and the Tobacco Industry  

PubMed Central

Mentally ill individuals have always smoked at high rates and continue to do so, despite public health efforts to encourage smoking cessation. In the last half century, the tobacco industry became interested in this connection, and conducted and supported psychiatric and basic science research on the mental health implications of smoking, long before most mental health professionals outside the industry investigated this issue. Initially, representatives of tobacco industry research organizations supported genetics and psychosomatic research to try to disprove findings that smoking causes lung cancer. Tobacco industry research leaders engaged with investigators because of shared priorities and interests in the brain effects of nicotine. By the 1980s, collaborative funding programs and individual company research and development teams engaged in intramural and extramural basic science studies on the neuropharmacology of nicotine. When mental health researchers outside the industry became interested in the issue of the mentally ill and smoking in the mid-1990s, they increasingly explained it in terms of a disease of nicotine addiction. Both the idea that smoking/nicotine does something positive for the mentally ill and the conclusion that it is the result of nicotine dependence have the potential to support corporate agendas (tobacco or pharmaceutical). PMID:21596723

Hirshbein, Laura

2012-01-01

382

Mental Illness Among the Chinese: Myth or Reality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of trends in mental hospital commitments among the Chinese in California over the past 100 years indicates a two-fold increase for the general population compared to a seven-fold increase among the Chinese; rates of increase within the Chinese population were not uniform; changes also occurred in patterns of diagnosis. (Author/JM)

Berk, Bernard B.; Hirata, Lucie Cheng

1973-01-01

383

A Journey through the Labyrinth of Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behind every student dealing with a mental health problem is a family trying to grasp what's happening to their child and struggling to do its best. This personal story shares the journey of a family as it confronts a child with Generalized Anxiety and Panic Disorder and describes the many starts and stops and confusion of diagnosing and…

Cowan, Katherine C.

2015-01-01

384

Factors Affecting Smoking Cessation Efforts of People with Severe Mental Illness: A Qualitative Study.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: People with severe mental illness are much more likely to smoke than are members of the general population. Smoking cessation interventions that combine counseling and medication have been shown to be moderately effective, but quit rates remain low and little is known about the experiences of people with severe mental illness in smoking cessation interventions. To address this gap in knowledge, we conducted a qualitative study to investigate factors that help or hinder the smoking cessation efforts of people with severe mental illness. Methods: We recruited 16 people with severe mental illness who had participated in a clinical trial of two different smoking cessation interventions, one involving nicotine replacement therapy only and the other nicotine replacement therapy combined with motivational interviewing and a peer support group. We conducted open-ended, semi-structured interviews with participants, who ranged in age from 20 to 56 years old, were equally distributed by gender (8 men and 8 women), and were predominantly Caucasian (n = 13, 81%). Primary mental illness diagnoses included schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (n = 6, 38%), depression (n = 5, 31%), bipolar disorder (n = 4, 25%), and anxiety disorder (n = 1, 6%). At entry into the clinical trial, participants smoked an average of 22.6 cigarettes per day (SD = 13.0). Results: Results indicated that people with mental illness have a diverse range of experiences in the same smoking cessation intervention. Smoking cessation experiences were influenced by factors related to the intervention itself (such as presence of smoking cessation aids, group supports, and emphasis on individual choice and needs), as well as individual factors (such as mental health, physical health, and substance use), and social-environmental factors (such as difficult life events and social relationships). Conclusions: An improved understanding of the smoking cessation experiences of people with severe mental illness can inform the delivery of future smoking cessation interventions for this population. The results of this study suggest the importance of smoking cessation interventions that offer a variety of treatment options, incorporating choice and flexibility, so as to be responsive to the evolving needs and preferences of individual clients. PMID:25491704

Rae, Jennifer; Pettey, Donna; Aubry, Tim; Stol, Jacqueline

2014-12-01

385

A comparison of the community adjustment of mentally ill offenders with those from the general prison population  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to understand the relationship between crime and mental illness, mentally ill offenders (MIOs) and those from the general prison population (non-MIOs) are compared on their postprison adjustment. MIOs are defined as those individuals who required psychiatric hospitalization during their incarceration. These 547 offenders (147 MIOs and 400 non-MIOs) were then followed for 18 months from date of

Lynette Feder

1991-01-01

386

Implementing Peer-Assisted Case Management to Help Homeless Veterans with Mental Illness Transition to Independent Housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formerly homeless mentally ill veterans are at an important crossroads when they move from living in an institutional setting such as a shelter or supportive residential facility to independent living. We hypothesized that peer advisors, veterans with severe mental illness who had been homeless previously, graduated from a Healthcare for Homeless Veterans program, and subsequently maintained independent, stable housing could

Ellen M. Weissman; Nancy H. Covell; Mara Kushner; Julie Irwin; Susan M. Essock

2005-01-01

387

Auditory and visual hallucinations in a sample of severely mentally ill Puerto Rican women: an examination of the cultural context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content, interpretation, and structure of hallucinations experienced by individuals with severe mental illness are influenced by the culture of the individuals who experience them. We analyzed the content of visual and auditory hallucinations of 53 Puerto Rican women in northeastern Ohio with a diagnosis of a severe mental illness (SMI) who were participating in a study of HIV risk

Sana Loue; Martha Sajatovic

2008-01-01

388

How are the Experiences and Needs of Families of Individuals with Mental Illness Reflected in Medical Education Guidelines?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This descriptive study explored the extent that medical education curriculum guidelines contained content about the experiences and needs of family members of people with serious mental illness. Methods: Key family-focused-literature themes about the experiences and needs of families of individuals with mental illness were drawn from a…

Riebschleger, Joanne; Scheid, Jeanette; Luz, Clare; Mickus, Maureen; Liszewski, Christine; Eaton, Monaca

2008-01-01

389

Young Jamaicans' Attitudes toward Mental Illness: Experimental and Demographic Factors Associated with Social Distance and Stigmatizing Opinions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two large-scale studies assessed the nature and correlates of young Jamaicans' attitudes toward mental illness. In study 1, students viewed a videotaped job interview for a teacher whose history was manipulated to include a history of mental illness, or not. Students desired significantly less social distance (i.e., more contact) with the "normal"…

Jackson, Dahra; Heatherington, Laurie

2006-01-01

390

A Comparative Study of Campus Experiences of College Students with Mental Illnesses versus a General College Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Examine campus experiences and relationships of college students with mental illnesses compared to general student norms using the College Student Experiences Questionnaire to understand potential sources of distress and retention issues. Participants: Responses were obtained from 449 former and current students with mental illnesses

Salzer, Mark S.

2012-01-01

391

Stigmatisation of Mental Illness and Its Impact on Recruitment of Medical Students to a Career in Psychiatry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The stigmatisation of mental illness in Australian and other Western societies is now well documented. This article presents a description of the "stigmatisation" problem associated with mental illness, and discusses the impact that this problem has had on the demand for Psychiatry as a career. The approach taken at UWA to address the "recruitment…

Lyons, Zaza; Hood, Sean

2011-01-01

392

A Survey of Sexual Side Effects Among Severely Mentally Ill Patients Taking Psychotropic Medications: Impact on Compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have addressed the effects that iatrogenic sexual side effects have on compliance in the severely mentally ill. The objective of this survey was to assess the levels of self-reported iatrogenic sexual dysfunction within a sample of 51 severely mentally ill outpatients taking a variety of psychiatric medications and to assess the impact of sexual side effects on medication

KENNETH PAUL ROSENBERG; KATHRYN L. BLEIBERG; JAMES KOSCIS; CHARLES GROSS

2003-01-01

393

Informed Consent to Human Subject Research: Improving the Process of Obtaining Informed Consent from Mentally Ill Persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Note demonstrates that the federal regulations regarding human subject research must provide more specific guidelines that emphasize the process of obtaining informed consent from persons with mental illnesses. Part I discusses schizophrenia as a case example of mental illness that requires more stringent informed consent standards in human subject research. Part II describes the legal foundations of informed consent

Dorothy Derrickson

1997-01-01

394

Crisis emergencies for individuals with severe, persistent mental illnesses: a situation-specific theory.  

PubMed

This article presents an extension of Ball's midrange theory of crisis for individuals with severe, persistent mental illnesses (SPMI) by placing Balls' model in the specific situation of the individual seeking help in an emergency setting, creating the situation-specific theory of crisis emergencies for individuals with SPMI. There is a large and growing presence of clients with SPMI in crisis engaging nurses in emergency departments. Through application of an integrative approach, a situation-specific theory for nurses in emergency departments to distinguish between a need for mental health crisis intervention and mental health emergency intervention has been developed, with implications for nursing practice, policy, and research. PMID:22835745

Brennaman, Laura

2012-08-01

395

Is it worth investing in mental health promotion and prevention of mental illness? A systematic review of the evidence from economic evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While evidence on the cost of mental illness is growing, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of programmes in the areas of mental health promotion (MHP) and mental disorder prevention (MDP). The paper aims at identifying and assessing economic evaluations in both these areas to support evidence based prioritisation of resource allocation. METHODS: A systematic review of health and

Ingrid Zechmeister; Reinhold Kilian; David McDaid

2008-01-01

396

Integrating into the Mental Health System from the Criminal Justice System: Jail Aftercare Services for Persons with a Severe Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a mental health evidence based practice, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). While ACT has scientific support, it has not been rigorously tested for persons with a severe mental illness and repeated forensic involvement. This article provides preliminary evidence that ACT is best suited for reentry into the mental health…

Davis, Kristin; Fallon, John; Vogel, Sue; Teachout, Alexandra

2008-01-01

397

Oral Health of Adults with Serious Mental Illnesses: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

(A) To assess the prevalence of suboptimal oral health in adults with SMI in studies published in 1971–2009; (B) To describe\\u000a approaches that promote oral health among adults with SMI. A total of 57 randomized, quasi-randomized, cross-section, and\\u000a cohort studies from samples of 38–4,769 mental health consumers are identified through database, journal, and Internet searches\\u000a (Cochrane, FASTSTATS, PUBMED, WHO.int). Selected

Naira Roland Matevosyan

2010-01-01

398

Oral health in adults with serious mental illness: needs for and perspectives on care.  

PubMed

This study used qualitative methods to investigate barriers to and facilitators of oral health care among 25 adult community mental health outpatients with serious mental illness (SMI). Participants completed 30- to 60-min, semi-structured interviews that were recorded and transcribed. Qualitative analysis was used to characterize common themes. Results showed that lack of awareness of dental problems, poverty, and dental care access were key barriers to oral health care. When oral health care was accessed, fear of stigma was associated with missed opportunities to educate about the intersection of mental and oral health. Community mental health providers were viewed as trusted and important sources of advocacy and support for obtaining oral health care when needed. Oral health may be improved for persons with SMI by implementing education in points of frequent service contact, such as community mental health. PMID:25091719

McKibbin, Christine L; Kitchen-Andren, Katherine A; Lee, Aaron A; Wykes, Thomas L; Bourassa, Katelynn A

2015-02-01

399

A Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Program for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Persons with Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clients with severe mental illnesses (SMI) such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have high rates of exposure to trauma over their lives, and are at sharply increased risk for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, at present there are no validated treatments of PTSD in the SMI population. In this article we describe a new cognitive-behavioral treatment program

Kim T. Mueser; Stanley D. Rosenberg; M. Kay Jankowski; Jessica L. Hamblen; Descamps Monica

2004-01-01

400

Attitudes about Mental Illness and Professional Danger among New Social Work Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the results of a study comparing attitudes toward mental illness and perceptions of professional danger among new social work students (n=64) and other university students (n=111). Such topics have implications for social work education and curriculum development but have not been studied adequately. Results from…

Theriot, Matthew T.; Lodato, Gayle A.

2012-01-01

401

Supportive housing for the chronically mentally ill. Matching clients with community environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for permanent housing for the chronically mentally ill has received a great deal of attention over the last several years. One response to the problem has been the development of supportive housing, that is, non-facility-based permanent homes with placement based on clients' functional capabilities and preferences. However, little research has focused on assessing the match between clients and

Jill M. Goldstein; Joseph F. Dziobek; Robin E. Clark; Ellen L. Bassuk

1990-01-01

402

Keeping pace with current issues in reporting suicide and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Response Ability Project, funded under the Mindframe National Media Initiative in Australia, seeks to influence tertiary curricula so that graduates in journalism will be aware of and able to respond appropriately to issues relating to suicide and mental illness. Whilst the initial multi-media resources developed to support journalism educators have been received well, engagement with media organisations and individual

Jaelea Skehan; Lynette Sheridan Burns; Trevor Hazell

2007-01-01

403

Outcomes After Initial Receipt of Social Security Benefits Among Homeless Veterans With Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined the relationship between receiving dis- ability payments and changes in health status, community adjustment, and subjective quality of life. Methods: The study evaluated outcomes among homeless mentally ill veterans who applied for Social Security Disability Insurance or Supplemental Security Income through a spe- cial outreach program. Veterans who were awarded benefits were com- pared with those

Robert A. Rosenheck; David J. Dausey; Linda Frisman

2000-01-01

404

Trauma, PTSD, and the course of severe mental illness: an interactive model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic life events, as defined by DSM-IV, are common among persons with severe mental illnesses (SMI) such as schizophrenia. Limited evidence suggests concomitantly high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in this population. However, conceptual models do not exist for understanding the interactions between trauma, PTSD, and SMI. We propose a model, which is an extension of the stress-vulnerability model,

Kim T. Mueser; Stanley D. Rosenberg; Lisa A. Goodman; Susan L. Trumbetta

2002-01-01

405

Validation of a Brief PTSD Scale for Clients with Severe Mental Illnesses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are more common in severe mental illnesses (SMI) clients than in the general population, yet brief screens for detecting probable PTSD in SMI clients are nonexistent. In a two-part study, the authors used correlation analysis and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis to develop and…

O'Hare, Thomas; Shen, Ce; Sherrer, Margaret

2012-01-01

406

The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Autism and Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence, and incidence, of mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities and autism were compared with the whole population with intellectual disabilities, and with controls, matched individually for age, gender, ability-level, and Down syndrome. Although the adults with autism had a higher point prevalence of problem…

Melville, Craig A.; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Morrison, Jill; Smiley, Elita; Allan, Linda; Jackson, Alison; Finlayson, Janet; Mantry, Dipali

2008-01-01

407

The mentally ill witch in textbooks of abnormal psychology: Current status and implications of a fallacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychopathological interpretation of demonology, witchcraft, and possession states that demonology replaced psychiatric knowledge and practice in the Middle Ages and that the mentally ill were subsequently misidentified as witches and demoniacs. This model has been discredited, but its persistence is demonstrated by an examination of 20 textbooks in abnormal psychology published between 1978 and 1981. Almost all authors endorsed

Thomas J. Schoeneman

1984-01-01

408

Omega3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and\\/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled

Brian M Ross; Jennifer Seguin; Lee E Sieswerda

2007-01-01

409

Care for patients with severe mental illness: the general practitioner's role perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe mental illness (SMI) experience distress and disabilities in several aspects of life, and they have a higher risk of somatic co-morbidity. Both patients and their family members need the support of an easily accessible primary care system. The willingness of general practitioners and the impeding factors for them to participate in providing care for patients with

Marian JT Oud; Jan Schuling; Cees J Slooff; Klaas H Groenier; Janny H Dekker; Betty Meyboom-de Jong

2009-01-01

410

Policy Implications of Medicare Part D for Adults With Mental Illness: A Qualitative Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Medicare prescription drug benefit, introduced in January 2006, has had a substantial impact on the lives of adults disabled by mental illness. However, few studies have undertaken an exploration of the difference that this benefit has made to beneficiaries' access to medication. This study uses a qualitative approach to examine beneficiaries' experiences with the Medicare Part D benefit, and

Melissa Anne Hensley

2012-01-01

411

Stigma of Mental Illnesses as Perceived by North Korean Defectors Living in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aims to provide the information of the stigmas of mental illness such as psychosis, alcoholism, attempt suicide, and depression among North Korean defectors. Methods We examined stigma for the mental illnesses of 639 North Korean defectors aged 19 to 65 years who live in the Settlement Support Center for North Korean Refugees. The stigmas of mental illnesses were assessed using the Perceived Devaluation-Discrimination Scale We directly compared the stigma level between North Korean defectors and the general population of South Korea. Results North Korean defectors had higher perceived stigmas of psychosis and alcoholism and lower perceived stigmas of depression than South Koreans. Perceived stigma associated with attempted suicide was similar for North Korean defectors and South Koreans. Only marital status in sociodemographic variables had associations with higher perceived stigma of psychosis, alcoholism, and depression in the North Korean defectors. North Korean defectors, who spent more than one year in transit country, had associations with lower perceived stigma of psychosis and alcoholism. North Korean defectors, who had the experience of compulsory repatriation to North Korea or North Korean family in South Korea, had an association with higher perceived stigma of depression. Conclusion North Korean defectors had higher perceived stigmas of psychosis and alcoholism and lower perceived stigmas of depression than South Koreans. Further studies are needed to document serial changes in stigmas for mental illnesses associated with the receipt of education at the Settlement Support Center for North Korean defectors.

Ahn, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Jin-Yong; Song, In-Gyu; Bae, Jae-Nam

2015-01-01

412

The Overweight: Obesity and Plasma Lipids in Adults with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous studies in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have reported a higher prevalence of obesity than in the general population, and a trend to an increase in the prevalence of excess weight. However, little information is available on body weight status and lipids levels of adults with ID and co-existing mental illness. The…

Gazizova, D.; Puri, B. K.; Singh, I.; Dhaliwal, R.

2012-01-01

413

Diversity of Outcomes Among Adolescent Children of Mothers With Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children of parents with mental illness are an at-risk population according to research on psychiatric outcomes using White, middle-class samples of depressed parents and infants and preschool children. The current study expands this evidence by exploring within-group heterogeneity across psychosocial outcomes, in a racially diverse, low-income…

Mowbray, Carol T.; Bybee, Deborah; Oyserman, Daphna; Allen -Meares, Paula; MacFarlane, Peter; Hart-Johnson, Tamera

2004-01-01

414

Siblings of Adults With Mild Intellectual Deficits or Mental Illness: Differential Life Course Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study contrasted the later life sibling relationships, patterns of family formation, and psychological distress and well-being of siblings of adults with disabilities to a nondisabled normative group. The authors identified 268 siblings of adults with mild intellectual deficits (ID) and 83 siblings of adults with mental illness (MI) from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (R. M. Hauser & W.

Julie Lounds Taylor; Jan S. Greenberg; Marsha Mailick Seltzer; Frank J. Floyd

2008-01-01

415

A community ability scale for chronically mentally Ill consumers: Part I. Reliability and validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe the development, reliability testing, and validation of a 17-item instrument that measures the level of functioning of chronically mentally ill persons living in the community. The Multnomah Community Ability Scale is designed to be completed by case managers. The instrument provides a measure of the consumer's severity of disability which can, in turn, be used to: (a)

Sela Barker; Nancy Barron; Bentson H. McFarland; Douglas A. Bigelow

1994-01-01

416

The Interrelationship of Self-Determination, Mental Illness, and Grades among University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to examine the relationships among self-determination, mental illness, and GPAs of university students. Participants were 375 undergraduate students at a large state university. Two instruments based on Self-determination theory were used in this study: the Basic Needs Scale (see Baard, Deci, & Ryan, 2004) and the…

Brockelman, Karin F.

2009-01-01

417

Racial and Ethnic Cultural Factors in the Process of Acceptance of Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acceptance of mental illness is essential to promoting recovery and is uniquely impacted by issues of culture, race, and ethnicity. Qualitative case narrative methodology was used to identify themes related to the cultural facilitators and barriers in the acceptance process. Five participant narratives are presented to assist practitioners in…

Mizock, Lauren; Russinova, Zlatka

2013-01-01

418

Models of Community Care for Severe Mental Illness: A Review of Research on Case Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe different models of community care for persons with severe mental illness and review the research literature on case management, including the results of 75 studies. Most research has been conducted on the assertive community treatment (ACT) or intensive case management (ICM) models. Controlled research on ACT and ICM indicates that these models reduce time in the hospital and

Kim T. Mueser; Gary R. Bond; Robert E. Drake; Sandra G. Resnick

1998-01-01

419

Coping with the Stigma of Mental Illness: Empirically-Grounded Hypotheses from Computer Simulations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research demonstrates how affect control theory and its computer program, "Interact", can be used to develop empirically-grounded hypotheses regarding the connection between cultural labels and behaviors. Our demonstration focuses on propositions in the modified labeling theory of mental illness. According to the MLT, negative societal…

Kroska, Amy; Har, Sarah K.

2011-01-01

420

y Models of Community Care for Severe Mental Illness: A Review of Research on Case Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe different models of community care for persons with severe mental illness and review the research literature on case management, including the results of 75 studies. Most research has been con- ducted on the assertive community treatment (ACT) or intensive case management (ICM) models. Controlled research on ACT and ICM indicates that these models reduce time in the hospital

Kim T. Mueser; Qary R. Bond; Robert E. Drake; Sandra Q. Resnick

421

Recovery-Promoting Care as Experienced by Persons with Severe Mental Illness and Substance Misuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores recovery-promoting care as experienced by persons with concomitant severe mental illness and substance misuse. Sixteen in-depth interviews, based on an interview guide concerning their experiences of health, life situation and care, were held with eight participants in an outpatient treatment programme. The analysis aimed to…

Cruce, Gunilla; Ojehagen, Agneta; Nordstrom, Monica

2012-01-01

422

Implementing Evidence-Based Practices for People with Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons with severe mental illnesses (SMI) often lack access to effective treatments. The authors describe the Implementing Evidence-Based Practices (EBPs) Project, designed to increase access for people with SMI to empirically supported interventions. The EBP Project aims to improve access through development of standardized implementation packages, created in collaboration with different stakeholders, including clinicians, consumers, family members, clinical supervisors, program

Kim T. Mueser; William C. Torrey; David Lynde; Patricia Singer; Robert E. Drake

2003-01-01

423

Vocational Rehabilitation of People with Mental Illness: The Need for a Broader Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the role of several factors in shaping the employment outcomes of people with mental illness. While several aspects of work history and work competence were important for gaining employment, equally critical was the role of the social network, particularly family members and employers, in influencing employment outcomes. (Contains 31…

Shankar, Janki; Collyer, Fran

2003-01-01

424

The impact on taxpayer costs of a jail diversion program for people with serious mental illness.  

PubMed

Mental illness is prevalent among those incarcerated. Jail diversion is one means by which people with mental illness are treated in the community - often with some criminal justice system oversight - instead of being incarcerated. Jail diversion may lead to immediate reductions in taxpayer costs because the person is no longer significantly engaged with the criminal justice system. It may also lead to longer term reductions in costs because effective treatment may ameliorate symptoms, reduce the number of future offenses, and thus subsequent arrests and incarceration. This study estimates the impact on taxpayer costs of a model jail diversion program for people with serious mental illness. Administrative data on criminal justice and treatment events were combined with primary and secondary data on the costs of each event. Propensity score methods and a quasi-experimental design were used to compare treatment and criminal justice costs for a group of people who were diverted to a group of people who were not diverted. Diversion was associated with approximately $2800 lower taxpayer costs per person 2 years after the point of diversion (p<.05). Reductions in criminal justice costs drove this result. Jail diversion for people with mental illness may thus be justified fiscally. PMID:23912042

Cowell, Alexander J; Hinde, Jesse M; Broner, Nahama; Aldridge, Arnie P

2013-12-01

425

PARENTAL DEATH IN THE LIVES OF PEOPLE WITH SERIOUS MENTAL ILLNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly a fourth (22%) of the participants within a research sample of 148 individuals with serious mental illness reported the death of a loved one as a significant loss, and two thirds of these deaths involved the loss of one or both parents. The key determinant of the severity and duration of grief in response to the death of a

DANSON JONES; JOHN HARVEY; DEBRA GIZA; CHARLES RODICAN; PAUL J. BARREIRA; CATHALEENE MACIAS

2003-01-01

426

AIDS and family planning counseling of psychiatrically ill women in community mental health clinics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-two of 83 mental health professionals, including psychiatrists, were surveyed to determine their attitudes and behaviors toward AIDS prevention and family planning counseling with psychiatrically ill female outpatients. Nearly all reported that information should be provided on AIDS and family planning. However, they reported that they had raised topics of AIDS with only 19% of patients and family planning with

John H. Coverdale; John F. Aruffo

1992-01-01

427

Initial Evaluation of Active Minds: A Student Organization Dedicated to Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether a new student organization, Active Minds, aimed at increasing awareness of "mental illness" and reducing stigma had an impact on students' stigma and willingness to seek psychological help. Three classes were recruited to become involved in the organization. In a pretest/posttest design, stigma and willingness to seek…

McKinney, Kathleen G.

2009-01-01

428

Strategies and Issues in Supporting Children Whose Parents Have a Mental Illness within the School System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been estimated that over 20 percent of children live in families where one parent has, or has had, a mental illness. Given the role of schools in children's academic as well as psychosocial development, it was considered important to identify effective strategies that school personnel have used in supporting such children. Parents and…

Reupert, Andrea; Maybery, Darryl

2007-01-01

429

Dealing with individuals who have mental illness: the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) in law enforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The current paper seeks to outline the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) and review extant research regarding its efficacy in reducing criminalization of people with mental illness, as well as improving interactions between this population and law enforcement officers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The CIT model and theoretical underpinnings are discussed and an evaluative review of the current literature is presented.

Samuel L. Browning; Vincent B. Van Hasselt; Abigail S. Tucker; Gregory M. Vecchi

2011-01-01

430

Caregivers as Money Managers for Adults with Severe Mental Illness: How Treatment Providers Can Help  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To review the prevalence, benefits, and problems associated with families who, either informally or formally as representative payees, manage money for adults with severe mental illness. Methods: Based on empirical research and clinical cases, suggestions are offered for minimizing downsides and capitalizing upon benefits of family…

Elbogen, Eric B.; Wilder, Christine; Swartz, Marvin S.; Swanson, Jeffrey W.

2008-01-01

431

Test - retest reliability of two instruments for measuring public attitudes towards persons with mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Research has identified stigmatization as a major threat to successful treatment of individuals with mental illness. As a consequence several anti-stigma campaigns have been carried out. The results have been discouraging and the field suffers from lack of evidence about interventions that work. There are few reports on psychometric data for instruments used to assess stigma, which thus complicates

Bengt Svensson; Urban Markström; Ulrika Bejerholm; Tommy Björkman; David Brunt; Mona Eklund; Lars Hansson; Christel Leufstadius; Amanda Lundvik Gyllensten; Mikael Sandlund; Margareta Östman

2011-01-01

432

Full Service Community Schools: Prevention of Delinquency in Students with Mental Illness and/or Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is about children who are living dangerously close to the edge, the edge of delinquency, mental illness, and poverty. Beginning with a discussion of the role of Joy Dryfoos in the development of comprehensive schools, this work is based on the Full Service Schools program which began in 1998 in three elementary inner-city schools in…

Kronick, Robert F.

2005-01-01

433

Psychotropic Medication Adherence among Community-Based Individuals with Developmental Disabilities and Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychotropic medications are a common treatment for mental illness in people with developmental disabilities. Medication adherence is a critical determinant of the effectiveness of psychotropic drugs, but psychotropic medication adherence research specific to this population remains limited. This retrospective study analyzed Marketscan®…

Tan, Xi; Marshall, Vincent D.; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Patel, Isha; Chang, Jongwha; Erickson, Steven R.

2015-01-01

434

Individuals with Mental Illness Can Control Their Aggressive Behavior through Mindfulness Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Verbal and physical aggression are risk factors for community placement of individuals with serious and persistent mental illness. Depending on the motivations involved, treatment typically consists of psychotropic medications and psychosocial interventions, including contingency management procedures and anger management training. Effects of a…

Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Adkins, Angela D.; Wahler, Robert G.; Sabaawi, Mohamed; Singh, Judy

2007-01-01

435

Validating a Lifestyle Physical Activity Measure for People with Serious Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To evaluate the measurement structure of the "Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities" (PASIPD) as an assessment tool of lifestyle physical activities for people with severe mental illness. Method: A quantitative descriptive research design using factor analysis was employed. A sample of 72 individuals…

Bezyak, Jill L.; Chan, Fong; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kaya, Cahit; Huck, Garrett

2014-01-01

436

Unfinished Business: Student Perspectives on Disclosure of Mental Illness and Success in VET--Support Document  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers from La Trobe University are investigating the factors affecting successful course completion for Vocational Education and Training (VET) students with a mental illness. The research aims to: (1) Increase individuals' understanding of the factors contributing to successful course completions by students with disclosed or non-disclosed…

Venville, Annie; Street, Annette

2012-01-01

437

Do guidelines for severe mental illness promote physical health and well-being?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effective management of individuals with severe mental illnesses (SMIs) requires an holistic approach that offers reliable symptom control, but also addresses other clinical, emotional and social needs. The physical health of individuals with an SMI is often poor, with many being overweight or obese, having hypertension, diabetes or dyslipidaemia, and at significant risk of developing cardiovascular disease or other

Leslie Citrome; David Yeomans

2005-01-01

438

Predicting Staying in or Leaving Permanent Supportive Housing That Serves Homeless People with Serious Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Permanent Housing component of the Supportive Housing Program, the Department’s principal program to meet the needs of homeless people with disabilities, was established to offer homeless people with disabilities, including mental illness, an assurance of permanent housing and appropriate supportive services. The program is designed to provide a structure that counteracts the disruptions of both homelessness and disability. However,

CMHPSR Yin-Ling Irene Wong; CMHPSR Trevor R. Hadley; CMHPSR Dennis P. Culhane; CMHPSR Steve R. Poulin; MDAC Morris R. Davis; MDAC Brian A. Cirksey; MDAC James L. Brown

2006-01-01

439

Physical Child Abuse and Teacher Harassment and Their Effects on Mental Health Problems Amongst Adolescent Bully-Victims in Taiwan.  

PubMed

This study compared physical child abuse and teacher harassment of bully-victims with other groups and examined their associations with mental health problems in bully-victims. For 6,160 adolescents, experiences of physical child abuse, teacher harassment, peer bullying, and six mental health problem indicators were assessed. Adolescents that had experienced physical child abuse and teacher harassment were more likely to be bully-victims but not neutral or pure victims. Adolescents who reported physical child abuse were more likely to be bully-victims but not pure bullies. Bully-victims that had experienced teacher harassment exhibited more severe depression and insomnia than did those without teacher harassment. Gender had moderating effects on the difference in physical child abuse between bully-victims and neutrals and on the association between physical child abuse and suicidality in bully-victims. Physical child abuse and teacher harassment should be considered when preventive and intervention programs are developed for adolescents. PMID:25300192

Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan

2014-10-10

440

Attitudes of the German public to restrictions on persons with mental illness in 1993 and 2011.  

PubMed

Aims. In recent years, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the Mental Health Declaration for Europe and other initiatives laid the ground for improving the rights of persons with mental illness. This study aims to explore to what extent these achievements are reflected in changes of public attitudes towards restrictions on mentally ill people. Methods. Data from two population surveys that have been conducted in the 'new' States of Germany in 1993 and 2011 are compared with each other. Results. The proportion of respondents accepting compulsory admission of mentally ill persons to a psychiatric hospital remained unchanged in general, but the proportion opposing compulsory admission on grounds not sanctioned by law declined. In contrast, more respondents were opposed to permanently revoking the driver's license and fewer supported abortion and (voluntary) sterilisation in 2011. Concerning the right to vote and compulsory sterilisation, the proportion of those who did not give their views increased most. Conclusions. Two divergent trends in public attitudes towards restrictions on people with mental disorders emerge: While, in general, people's views on patients' rights have become more liberal, the public is also more inclined to restricting patients' freedom in case of deviant behaviour. PMID:24703571

Angermeyer, M C; Matschinger, H; Schomerus, G

2014-09-01

441

Mental Health Issues: Child Physical Abuse and Neglect  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nationally, child maltreatment is at epidemic proportions. In 2006, the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS)\\u000a noted approximately 6.0 million children were referred for alleged maltreatment to child protective services (US Department\\u000a of Health and Human Services, 2008). Of the 3.3 million that were assessed, 30% of the investigations concluded that at least\\u000a one child had been victimized

Toi Blakley Harris; Albert J. Sargent

442

Effect of sex offenders treatment program on cognitive and emotional characteristics of mentally ill sex offenders.  

PubMed

This study assessed the effect of a 10-week cognitive behavior treatment program in 30 mentally ill sex offenders. The effect of the program was evaluated using the Interpersonal Responsiveness Index (IRI), UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLALS), Coping Using Sex Inventory (CUSI), and Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (RMAS). Data were analyzed using the paired t-test. The ability of sex offenders to cope with sexual acts when they faced stressful situations and to accept the rape myth was significantly improved on CUSI (t = 2.09, p = 0.04) and RMAS (t = 5.45, p < 0.001). Feelings of isolation and the ability to empathize based on IRI (t = 0.62, p = 0.54) and UCLALS (t = 0.88, p = 0.38) were not significantly improved. To prevent recidivism, treatment for mentally ill sex offenders should focus on changes in their cognitive and emotional characteristics in addition to their main psychiatric illness. PMID:22804231

Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Choi, Sang Sub; Rhee, Moon Sung; Kim, Sun Bum; Joung, Ji Sook; Kim, Eun Hye

2012-11-01

443

Factors Associated with Substance Use Problem among Maryland Medicaid Enrollees Affected by Serious Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to identify long term factors associated with substance use problem among individuals affected by severe mental illness. Prospective data come from the 1994, 1998, and 2000 waves of the Maryland Mental Health Outcomes Survey conducted among a sub-cohort of adult Medicaid recipients affected by serious mental illness. We estimated factors associated with alcohol and drug problem, as well as a hierarchy of substance use problem severity constructed from the alcohol and drug problem outcomes. Drug problem was the strongest factor associated with alcohol problem, and vice versa. Conceptualizing alcohol and drug problem separately, and as a hierarchy of severity, revealed distinct profiles of significant factors. Further research is warranted to explore the utility of modeling substance use problem in terms of a hierarchy of severity. PMID:19487082

Schladweiler, Krista; Alexandre, Pierre K.; Steinwachs, Donald M.

2009-01-01

444

Social Security And Mental Illness: Reducing Disability With Supported Employment  

PubMed Central

Social Security Administration disability programs are expensive, growing, and headed toward bankruptcy. People with psychiatric disabilities now constitute the largest and most rapidly expanding subgroup of program beneficiaries. Evidence-based supported employment is a well-defined, rigorously tested service model that helps people with psychiatric disabilities obtain and succeed in competitive employment. Providing evidence-based supported employment and mental health services to this population could reduce the growing rates of disability and enable those already disabled to contribute positively to the workforce and to their own welfare, at little or no cost (and, depending on assumptions, a possible savings) to the government. PMID:19414885

Drake, Robert E.; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Bond, Gary R.; Goldman, Howard H.

2010-01-01

445

Understanding and addressing religion among people with mental illness  

PubMed Central

This article reviews recent advances in the domain of psychiatry and religion that highlight the double-edged capacity of religion to enhance or damage health and well-being, particularly among psychiatric patients. A large body of research challenges stereotyped views of religion as merely a defense or passive way of coping, and indicates that many people look to religion as a vital resource which serves a variety of adaptive functions, such as self-regulation, attachment, emotional comfort, meaning, and spirituality. There is, however, a darker side to religious life. Researchers and theorists have identified and begun to study problematic aspects of religiousness, including religiously-based violence and religious struggles within oneself, with others, and with the divine. Religious problems can be understood as a by-product of psychiatric illness (secondary), a source of psychiatric illness (primary), or both (complex). This growing body of knowledge underscores the need to attend more fully to the potentially constructive and destructive roles of religion in psychiatric diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. In fact, initial evaluative studies of the impact of spiritually integrated treatments among a range of psychiatric populations have shown promising results. The article concludes with a set of recommendations to advance future research and practice, including the need for additional psychiatric studies of people from diverse cultures and religious traditions. PMID:23471791

Pargament, Kenneth I; Lomax, James W

2013-01-01

446

Looking at the world through a frosted window: experiences of loneliness among persons with mental ill-health.  

PubMed

Mental ill-health is reported to be of major concern in public health. Persons suffering from mental ill-health are a vulnerable group, and loneliness influences the perception of physical, social, and emotional well-being. However, there are few studies exploring lived experiences of loneliness among people with mental ill-health. This qualitative study aimed to illuminate experiences of loneliness among people with mental ill-health. Five individual, informal conversational interviews were performed and subjected to qualitative content analysis. The main findings showed that experiences of loneliness could be metaphorically described as looking at the world through a frosted window. The experiences of loneliness were multifaceted and altering as well as emotionally and socially excluding. The findings are discussed in relation to Tillich dimensions of loneliness: loneliness as a painful dimension of being alone, and solitude as the enriching dimension of being alone. People suffering from mental ill-health carry a twofolded stigma. They feel socially undesirable because of their mental ill-health, and the social perceptions of lonely people are generally unfavourable. We believe that mental health nurses can support the developing and creative dimension of loneliness through a confirming approach, where people with mental ill-health feel seen, heard, and respected as human beings. PMID:23530616

Lindgren, B-M; Sundbaum, J; Eriksson, M; Graneheim, U H

2014-03-01

447

Social network activation: The role of health discussion partners in recovery from mental illness.  

PubMed

In response to health problems, individuals may strategically activate their social network ties to help manage crisis and uncertainty. While it is well-established that social relationships provide a crucial safety net, little is known about who is chosen to help during an episode of illness. Guided by the Network Episode Model, two aspects of consulting others in the face of mental illness are considered. First, we ask who activates ties, and what kinds of ties and networks they attempt to leverage for discussing health matters. Second, we ask about the utility of activating health-focused network ties. Specifically, we examine the consequences of network activation at time of entry into treatment for individuals' quality of life, social satisfaction, ability to perform social roles, and mental health functioning nearly one year later. Using interview data from the longitudinal Indianapolis Network Mental Health Study (INMHS, N = 171), we focus on a sample of new patients with serious mental illness and a group with less severe disorders who are experiencing their first contact with the mental health treatment system. Three findings stand out. First, our results reveal the nature of agency in illness response. Whether under a rational choice or habitus logic, individuals appear to evaluate support needs, identifying the best possible matches among a larger group of potential health discussants. These include members of the core network and those with prior mental health experiences. Second, selective activation processes have implications for recovery. Those who secure adequate network resources report better outcomes than those who injudiciously activate network ties. Individuals who activate weaker relationships and those who are unsupportive of medical care experience poorer functioning, limited success in fulfilling social roles, and lower social satisfaction and quality of life later on. Third, the evidence suggests that social networks matter above and beyond the influence of any particular individual or relationship. People whose networks can be characterized as having a pro-medical culture report better recovery outcomes. PMID:24525260

Perry, Brea L; Pescosolido, Bernice A

2015-01-01

448

TREC-SAVE: a randomised trial comparing mechanical restraints with use of seclusion for aggressive or violent seriously mentally ill people: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Thousands of people whose aggression is thought due to serious mental illness are secluded or restrained every day. Without fair testing these techniques will continue to be used outside of a rigorous evidence base. With such coercive treatment this leaves all concerned vulnerable to abuse and criticism. This paper presents the protocol for a randomised trial comparing seclusion with restraints for people with serious mental illnesses. Methods/Design Setting-General psychiatric wards of a large psychiatric hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Participants-Anyone aggressive or violent suspected or known to have serious mental illness for whom restriction is felt to be indicated by nursing and medical staff, but also for whom they are unsure whether seclusion or restraint would be indicated. Interventions-The standard care of either strong cotton banding to edge of bed with medications as indicated and close observation or the other standard care of use of a minimally furnished seclusion room but with open but barred windows onto the nursing station. Outcomes-time to restrictions lifted, early change of treatment, additional episodes, adverse effects/events, satisfaction with care during episode. Duration-2 weeks. Identifier: ISRCTN 49454276 http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN49454276 PMID:21774823

2011-01-01

449

Risk profile and treatment needs of women in jail with co-occurring serious mental illness and substance use disorders.  

PubMed

Recent research has documented the unusually high rates of incarcerated women's serious mental illness (SMI) and substance use disorders (SUD). Complicating these high rates is the high comorbidity of SMI with SUD and trauma histories. Yet, incarcerated women have significantly less access to treatment and health services while incarcerated than men. We used data from a multi-site, multi-method project funded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance (2011-2012) to determine the risk profile of women in jail (n = 491) with a current co-occurring SMI (i.e., major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia spectrum disorder) and SUD (i.e., abuse, dependence). The study spanned multiple geographic regions, and structured diagnostic interviews were used to understand better the women that comprised this vulnerable population. One-in-five of the women had a current co-occurring disorder (CCOD). The findings revealed that significantly more women with a CCOD had been exposed to violence and were exposed to drugs at a younger age. Further, about one-third of women with a CCOD had received no treatment from a health care professional in the past year, demonstrating a substantial unmet need. We conclude that investing in mental and behavioral health care in jails is critical to the health and safety of women as well as the communities to which they return. PMID:25204664

Nowotny, Kathryn M; Belknap, Joanne; Lynch, Shannon; DeHart, Dana

2014-01-01

450

Is there a protective effect of normal to high intellectual function on mental health in children with chronic illness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: High intellectual function is considered as a protective factor for children's mental health. Few studies have investigated the effect of intellectual function on mental health in children with chronic illness (CI). The aim of the present study was twofold: First, we asked if normal to high intellectual function (IQ) has a protective effect on mental health in children with

Hilde K Ryland; Astri J Lundervold; Irene Elgen; Mari Hysing

2010-01-01

451

It has long been recognized that mental ill-nesses such as schizophrenia and autism tend  

E-print Network

or imbalance of an offspring's brain. If this proves true, it would greatly clarify the diagnosis of mental disor- ders. It might even make it possible to reset the mind's balance with targeted drugs. The story, but imprinted genes such as IGF2 commonly have far-reaching effects on growth and development. Imprinting has

Graur, Dan

452

Assertive community treatment for patients with co-occurring severe mental illness and substance use disorder: a clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated mental health and substance abuse treatment within an assertive community treatment (ACT) approach was compared to that within a standard case management approach for 223 patients with dual disorders over three years. ACT patients showed greater improvements on some measures of substance abuse and quality of life, but the groups were equivalent on most measures, including stable community days,

Robert E. Drake; Gregory J. McHugo; Robin E. Clark; Gregory B. Teague; Haiyi Xie; Keith Miles; Theimann H. Ackerson

1998-01-01

453

Exploring mental health consequences of childhood abuse and the relevance of religiosity.  

PubMed

Although childhood abuse is an established risk factor for mental health problems in adulthood, there is relatively little empirical evidence concerning intervening factors that may mitigate the risk. One potentially protective factor is religiosity. A unique opportunity to explore religiosity's relevance exists with a community-based sample of adult Jewish women that includes sizable subsamples of both rigorously devout ultra-Orthodox (Haredi) and nonreligious Secular Jews. A global measure of any childhood abuse (ACA) includes sexual, physical, and/or emotional abuse. Mental health is assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI distress) and a single item reflecting unresolved anger about the past. Predictors of distress severity are examined with separate hierarchical regressions for each religious observance (RO) group. Despite being located at opposite ends of the religiosity spectrum, several surprising similarities emerge including no significant RO group differences in distress among abuse survivors. Moreover, ACA emerges as the strongest predictor of BSI distress within both groups and regressions explain similar amounts of variance. In contrast, two important differences emerge regarding unresolved anger and any recent abuse (ARA). Anger makes a strong contribution to explaining Haredi distress severity, less so for Secular respondents (6.1% vs. 2.9% respectively) while ARA is significant only for Haredi respondents. These initial findings suggest that abusive traumas in childhood may seriously compromise religiosity's potentially protective role. Broadening the research agenda to focus on resilient survivors would expand our understanding of healing resources-both within and outside of a religious framework. Moreover, a better understanding of unresolved anger would likely enhance interventions with greater potential for mitigating the suffering of those abused in childhood. PMID:25015236

Feinson, Marjorie C; Meir, Adi

2015-02-01

454

[Ignatius of Loyola--gifted or mentally ill?].  

PubMed

Subsequent to a severe injury and under the influence of religious reading, Loyola experienced a dramatic mental change in his spiritual values in the sense of a sublimation to an alternative knighthood. His behaviour patterns observed thereafter were determined by a totality of his attachment to God. Based on this certainty in his faith, which was free from any doubts, and on God, and with the background of fasting and praying, he had visionary and pseudo-hallucinatory experiences. As the founder of an order and head of the community of Jesuits, Ignatius of Loyola proved to be diplomatically highly talented. There is no evidence of any psychotic disease. Also, there is no probability of a personality disorder in the sense of a neurosis. The numerous unusual behaviour patterns of Ignatius cannot be interpreted as psychopathological symptoms. It is justified to call him a genius. PMID:7635382

Heinrich, K; Walter, C

1995-06-01

455

Congregate living for the mentally ill: patients as tenants.  

PubMed

The authors describe an apartment-living project for chronic mental patients released from the Hillside Division of the Long Island Jewish-Hillside Medical Center. The apartments, which are rented by the hospital and sublet to the patients, are located in modern, well-maintained high-rise buildings within commuting distance from the hospital. To avoid creating a psychiatric ghetto, the project rents no more than two apartments in buildings of a hundred or more units. The hospital was able to rent the apartments by assuring the landlords that the hospital would be a financially responsible tenant and that staff would be in continuing contact with the patients, would be available to the landlords if problems arose, and would remove troublesome tenants. Some of the problems encountered by the patients in the program are described, as are guidelines for selecting those who have a reasonable chance of benefiting from such a program. PMID:208956

Burger, A S; Kimelman, L; Lurie, A; Rabiner, C J

1978-09-01

456

Facades of suffering: clients' photo stories about mental illness.  

PubMed

In this article, photo stories are examined that were the result of working with photography as a therapeutic instrument dealing with suffering in mental health care settings. The purpose is to describe the role of facades in the process of suffering and acceptance. Clients took photographs, talked about them in group meetings, and exhibited them to a broader audience. Their photo stories were analyzed using a mixed-methods model. Data from two narrative approaches (semiotics and hermeneutics) were compared with information from other informants and official records to find discrepancies between the photo story and the real life context. Although facades are usually perceived as an obstacle for personal growth, the visual narratives revealed that facades can function as an alternative to common acceptance strategies, such as facing one's losses and reconciliation. Facades can create a distance between the person and the suffering. We conclude that visual narratives can reveal and foster agency in clients. PMID:20851326

Sitvast, Jan E; Abma, Tineke A; Widdershoven, Guy A M

2010-10-01

457

Mental illness that is difficult to classify: a case study  

PubMed Central

A case is presented of a man who has been detained in secure psychiatric hospitals for the majority of his life. Although his index offence was minor he has a long history of violence. The patient has collected a vast number of diagnoses over the years. His treatment demonstrates a role for clozapine in ameliorating violent behaviour and aggression. We conceptualise this as being linked to the properties of this drug. From the patient’s history we believe that reserpine may have had a similar effect to clozapine regarding mental state and reduction of violent behaviour. This case illustrates the consequences of inaccurate diagnosis and therefore the provision of adequate treatment. It highlights that the continuity of care and the communication of information is essential for the patient’s quality of life. It also illustrates how the use of certain antipsychotics may prove essential in the control of violence so that institutionalisation can be prevented. PMID:22171235

Igoumenou, Artemis; Turri, Maria G; Din, Raana; Gordon, Harvey

2009-01-01

458

The changing role of mother of the mentally ill: from schizophrenogenic mother to multigenerational caregiver.  

PubMed

Psychiatry's understanding of the contribution of mothers to mental illness has markedly changed over the last 60 years, evolving from a view that mothers were to blame for everything, passing through a subsequent period when mothers were seen less as instigators of illness and more as provocateurs, inducing relapse through the expression of criticism and hostility. Currently, mothers are mainly viewed as "burdened caregivers." Because psychiatric patients no longer live in asylums and no longer are prescribed first generation antipsychotics that used to render them effectively sterile, more and more women with schizophrenia are bearing children-children that their mothers, more often than not, raise. This paper is about caregiving by grandmothers, especially as this pertains to daughters with schizophrenia and especially as it impacts on the grandmother's health and well-being. The role of the grandmother is characterized by divided loyalties, by the toll of caregiving, but also, unquestionably, by the rewards that come with raising children. The experience of grandmothers makes them potent allies in the battle against mental illness in their children and the children of their children. Expanding on their existing role as caregivers, mothers of the mentally ill are evolving into auxiliary therapists. PMID:19821650

Seeman, Mary V

2009-01-01

459

Patients’ Perspectives on Stigma of Mental Illness (an Egyptian Study in a Private Hospital)  

PubMed Central

The present study is concerned with the stigma of mental illness. It examines the subjective element of the experience of stigma among a sample of in-patients with different mental disorders. The sample was taken from consecutive admissions of in-patients meeting International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) criteria for mental disorders who had capacity to decide on participation in the study and were willing to respond to the structured interview. The study was undertaken in an Egyptian private psychiatric hospital. The structured clinical interview included aspects of the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive effects of having a psychiatric diagnosis on in-patients with various diagnostic labels in an Egyptian psychiatric hospital. It also studied whether this effect changes with specific disorders, total duration of illness, or sociodemographic variables as gender, age, or educational level. The study illustrated the core items of stigmatization attached to the diagnosis of mental illness (1), which more than half of the participants responded affirmatively. The study aimed to explore the most prevailing aspects of stigma or social disadvantage; hoping that this may offer a preliminary guide for clinicians to address these issues in their practice. PMID:25505426

Sidhom, Emad; Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Carter, Julie M.; El-Dosoky, Ahmed; El-Islam, Mohamed Fakhr

2014-01-01

460

Online support for children of parents suffering from mental illness: a case study.  

PubMed

From epidemiologic research, we know that children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) have an elevated risk of developing a serious mental disorder. Aside from studies based on risk and resilience, there has been little research on the children's own perceptions. The aim of this study was to expand our understanding of key variables influencing COPMI's seeking support and to explore whether a website targeted at COPMI could help them improve their ability to cope with their circumstances and to find professional help. This case study illustrates one visitor's use of a website that was specifically designed to help COPMI. The visitor was a young adult female whose two parents both suffered from mental illness. She participated for 3 years in an intervention delivered through the website. Several things helped to inform us about her perspective on living with parents suffering from mental illness, her use of the website and the benefits she derived from using the website. These included (a) her story as she told it in the exit interview, (b) her messages to her peers and counsellors, (c) her user data and (d) the content of her chat conversations with her peers. PMID:23904177

Drost, Louisa M; Schippers, Gerard M

2015-01-01

461

Patients' Perspectives on Stigma of Mental Illness (an Egyptian Study in a Private Hospital).  

PubMed

The present study is concerned with the stigma of mental illness. It examines the subjective element of the experience of stigma among a sample of in-patients with different mental disorders. The sample was taken from consecutive admissions of in-patients meeting International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) criteria for mental disorders who had capacity to decide on participation in the study and were willing to respond to the structured interview. The study was undertaken in an Egyptian private psychiatric hospital. The structured clinical interview included aspects of the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive effects of having a psychiatric diagnosis on in-patients with various diagnostic labels in an Egyptian psychiatric hospital. It also studied whether this effect changes with specific disorders, total duration of illness, or sociodemographic variables as gender, age, or educational level. The study illustrated the core items of stigmatization attached to the diagnosis of mental illness (1), which more than half of the participants responded affirmatively. The study aimed to explore the most prevailing aspects of stigma or social disadvantage; hoping that this may offer a preliminary guide for clinicians to address these issues in their practice. PMID:25505426

Sidhom, Emad; Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Carter, Julie M; El-Dosoky, Ahmed; El-Islam, Mohamed Fakhr

2014-01-01

462

Commentary: caring for the indigent mentally ill--new strategies and old problems.  

PubMed Central

Christianson and his colleagues examine how Medicaid beneficiaries receive mental health services in HMOs by analyzing two important aspects of service delivery: the use of community-based treatment programs by Medicaid beneficiaries enrolled in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and the reimbursement levels paid to these programs by HMOs. The hypotheses studied are complex issues that concern mental-health advocates and providers. Traditional community-based mental health services have always struggled to maintain their presence in the health care field, having to contend with changing funding priorities and more serious and multiple problems presented by their patients. For prepaid plans to work effectively for the indigent mentally ill, the complex issues have to be made clear and acknowledged as meaningful variables. PMID:1585958

Ferran, E

1992-01-01

463

Recovery in Serious Mental Illnesses: Trajectories, Characteristics and the Role of Mental Health Care in the STARS Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective was to identify trajectories of recovery from serious mental illnesses. Methods 177 members (92 women, 85 men) of a not-for-profit integrated health plan participated in a 2-year mixed methods study of recovery. Diagnoses included: schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, or affective psychosis. Data sources included: self-reported standardized measures, interviewer-ratings, qualitative interviews, and health plan data. Recovery was conceptualized as a latent construct, factor analyses computed and factor scores saved to calculate trajectories. Cluster analyses were used to identify individuals with similar trajectories. Results Four trajectories were identified—two stable (high and low) and two fluctuating (higher and lower). Few demographic or diagnostic factors differentiated clusters at baseline. Discriminant analyses for trajectories found differences in mental health symptoms, physical health, satisfaction with mental heath clinicians, resources and strains, satisfaction with medications, and service use. Those with higher scores on recovery factors had fewer mental heath symptoms, better physical health, greater satisfaction with mental health clinicians, fewer strains/greater resources, less service use, better quality care, and greater medication satisfaction. Consistent predictors of trajectories included: mental health symptoms, physical health, resources and strains, and use of psychiatric medications. Conclusions Having access to good quality mental health care—defined as including satisfying relationships with clinicians, responsiveness to needs, satisfaction with psychiatric medications, services at levels that are needed, support that can help manage deficits in resources and strains, and care for medical conditions—may facilitate recovery. Providing such care may alter recovery trajectories. PMID:23999823

Green, Carla A.; Perrin, Nancy A.; Leo, Michael C.; Janoff, Shannon L.; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H.; Paulson, Robert I.

2015-01-01

464

Knowledge on Sexual Abuse and Self-Protection Skills: A Study on Female Chinese Adolescents with Mild Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the level of sexual-abuse knowledge and self-protection skills in 77 female Chinese adolescents with mild mental retardation. Participants were more able to recognize inappropriate than appropriate touches and sexual requests. Also, they were inadequate in protecting themselves and had difficulty in reporting sexual abuse.…

Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Lee, Yvonne Kit-Shan

1999-01-01

465

Ethics and human rights issues experienced by psychiatric-mental health and substance abuse registered nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The ethics and human rights issues experienced by psychiatric-mental health and substance-abuse registered nurses (P-MH and SA RNs) and how disturbed they are by the issues are not known. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency of ethics and human rights issues experienced by P-MH and SA RNs and how disturbing the issues are to

Pamela J. Grace; Sara T. Fry; Gary S. Schultz

2003-01-01

466

"Indiana Society for Mental Hygiene Bulletin No. 7" (July 1920), statistics on mental illness and feeblemindedness in institutions around the U.S.( page 4 )  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Source Archive: University of Albany, SUNY Theme(s):   Physical and Intellectual Measurement   Hereditary Disorders   Mental Illness   Poverty and Degeneracy

2007-10-25

467

"Indiana Society for Mental Hygiene Bulletin No. 7" (July 1920), statistics on mental illness and feeblemindedness in institutions around the U.S.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Source Archive: University of Albany, SUNY Theme(s):   Physical and Intellectual Measurement   Hereditary Disorders   Mental Illness   Poverty and Degeneracy

2007-03-16

468

"Indiana Society for Mental Hygiene Bulletin No. 7" (July 1920), statistics on mental illness and feeblemindedness in institutions around the U.S.( page 3 )  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Source Archive: University of Albany, SUNY Theme(s):   Physical and Intellectual Measurement   Hereditary Disorders   Mental Illness   Poverty and Degeneracy

2007-03-16

469

"Indiana Society for Mental Hygiene Bulletin No. 7" (July 1920), statistics on mental illness and feeblemindedness in institutions around the U.S.( page 2 )  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Source Archive: University of Albany, SUNY Theme(s):   Physical and Intellectual Measurement   Hereditary Disorders   Mental Illness   Poverty and Degeneracy

2007-03-16

470

"Folk" criteria for the diagnosis of mental illness in rural Laos: on being insane in sane places.  

PubMed

"Folk" criteria for identifying the mentally ill, as distinguished from folk theories about the causes of mental illness, have been comparatively neglected in cultural psychiatry. The authors describe the criteria by which villagers in Laos labeled 35 subjects as baa (insane). Unprovoked assaultive or destructive behavior, social isolation, self-endangerment due to neglect of personal needs, nonviolent but socially disruptive or inappropriate behavior, and inability to do productive work were found to be important folk criteria. The authors emphasize that folk criteria for mental illness are determined primarily by the persistence of socially dysfunctional behavior rather than by disturbances in thought and affect. PMID:443458

Westermeyer, J; Wintrob, R

1979-06-01

471

Opening doors to recovery: a novel community navigation service for people with serious mental illnesses.  

PubMed

This column describes Opening Doors to Recovery in Southeast Georgia, a partnership between public agencies, a private corporation, a not-for-profit organization, and an academic institution. Teams of community navigation specialists that include a licensed mental health professional, a family member of an individual with a serious mental illness, and a peer with lived experience in recovery seek to enhance participants' community integration, support them in developing a meaningful day, ensure access to adequate treatment, and facilitate stable housing, improved relationships, and desired vocational, volunteer, or educational activities. PMID:22211204

Compton, Michael T; Hankerson-Dyson, Dana; Broussard, Beth; Druss, Benjamin G; Haynes, Nora; Strode, Pat; Grimes, Catharine; Li, Charles; DiPolito, June A; Thomas, Glyn V

2011-11-01

472

Pathophysiology of mental illness: a view from the fourth ventricle.  

PubMed

The concept of mental disorders as diseases of the brain is as old as the ancient Greek philosopher-physicians. However, for thousands of years, the majority of doctors, as well as laypersons, held strongly to the belief that epilepsy and "madness" (i.e., schizophrenia)--the major disorders discussed in this paper--were caused by demonic "possession." As always, the theory of causation led to apposite therapies: Cast out the devil by whatever means necessary. Later, more enlightened views of etiology led to less punitive "cures," which, to modern sensibilities, still seem barbaric. The 20th century saw the introduction of medications that provide symptomatic relief, if not cures, for seizure disorders and schizophrenia. In this paper, we consider the etiology of absence (petit mal) epilepsy and schizophrenia based on the pathophysiology underlying the shared symptom of impaired sustained attention. We emphasize the role of abnormal functioning of brainstem structures in the region of the fourth ventricle, whether caused by genetic or environmental factors or a combination thereof. Our theorizing relies on the findings of Lindsley, Magoun, and Moruzzi, who delineated the role of the brainstem reticular activating system in sleep, wakefulness, and consciousness. It also relies on the work of Penfield, Jasper, and Gloor, who sought to illuminate the role of brainstem-thalamus-cortical dysfunction in idiopathic generalized epilepsies. We consider evidence from recent studies that emphasize the phasic attentional functions supported by brainstem structures in the region of the fourth ventricle, and possible genetic links among disorders in which impaired attention is a prominent symptom. PMID:16213042

Mirsky, Allan F; Duncan, Connie C

2005-01-01

473

Mobile Interventions for Severe Mental Illness: Design and Preliminary Data from Three Approaches  

PubMed Central

Mobile devices can be used to deliver psychosocial interventions, yet there is little prior application in severe mental illness. We provide the rationale, design, and preliminary data from three ongoing clinical trials of mobile interventions developed for bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Project 1 used a personal digital assistant to prompt engagement in personalized self-management behaviors based on real-time data. Project 2 employed experience sampling via text messages to facilitate case management. Project 3 built on group functional skills training for schizophrenia by incorporating between-session mobile phone contacts with therapists. Preliminary findings were of minimal participant attrition, and no broken devices; yet, several operational and technical barriers needed to be addressed. Adherence was similar to that reported in non-psychiatric populations, with high participant satisfaction. Thus, mobile devices appear feasible and acceptable in augmenting psychosocial interventions for severe mental illness, with future research in establishing efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and ethical and safety protocols. PMID:20921861

Depp, Colin A.; Mausbach, Brent; Granholm, Eric; Cardenas, Veronica; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lebowitz, Barry D; Jeste, Dilip V.

2011-01-01

474

On the Self-Stigma of Mental Illness: Stages, Disclosure, and Strategies for Change  

PubMed Central

People with mental illness have long experienced prejudice and discrimination. Researchers have been able to study this phenomenon as stigma and have begun to examine ways of reducing this stigma. Public stigma is the most prominent form observed and studied, as it represents the prejudice and discrimination directed at a group by the larger population. Self-stigma occurs when people internalize these public attitudes and suffer numerous negative consequences as a result. In this article, we more fully define the concept of self-stigma and describe the negative consequences of self-stigma for people with mental illness. We also examine the advantages and disadvantages of disclosure in reducing the impact of stigma. In addition, we argue that a key to challenging self-stigma is to promote personal empowerment. Lastly, we discuss individual and societal level methods for reducing self-stigma, programs led by peers as well as those led by social service providers. PMID:22854028

Corrigan, Patrick W.; Rao, Deepa

2012-01-01