Sample records for abuse mental illness

  1. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diagnosis fact sheet.] Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness Dual diagnosis is a term used to describe ... What is the relationship between substance use and mental illness? The relationship between mental illness and substance abuse ...

  2. Treatment of substance abuse in severely mentally ill patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Drake; Stephen J. Bartels; Gregory B. Teague; Douglas L. Noordsy; Robin E. Clark

    1993-01-01

    Substance abuse is the most common comorbid complication of severe mental illness. Current clinical research converges on several emerging principles of treatment that address the scope, pace, intensity, and structure of dual-diagnosis programs. They include a) assertive outreach to facilitate engagement and participation in substance abuse treatment, b) close monitoring to provide structure and social reinforcement, c) integrating substance abuse

  3. A study of alcoholism, drug abuse, and mental illness as risk factors among adults whose parents were substance abusers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yma E Kabia-Williams

    2009-01-01

    This current study describes alcoholism, drug abuse, and mental illness as risk factors among adults whose parents were substance abusers. The intention of this study is to depict a relationship between Parental Substance Abuse and the onset of alcoholism, drug abuse, and mental illness amongst the children of substance abusers as they develop into adulthood. The study suggests having a

  4. Triple Stigma: Persons with Mental Illness and Substance Abuse Problems in the Criminal Justice System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Hartwell

    2004-01-01

    This article offers a review of the literature that exists on individuals with dual diagnosis and discusses policies creating the trajectories for mentally ill individuals with substance abuse problems and their community reentry after involvement with the criminal justice system. For this analysis, basic comparisons are made across mentally ill individuals involved with the criminal justice system and the dually

  5. Children of Mothers with Histories of Substance Abuse, Mental Illness, and Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDeMark, Nancy R.; Russell, Lisa A.; O'Keefe, Maura; Finkelstein, Norma; Noether, Chanson D.; Gampel, Joanne C.

    2005-01-01

    Children exposed to parental substance abuse, mental illness, and violence face profound challenges, including increased risk for emotional and behavioral problems, substance abuse, and victimization. In this article, we describe the characteristics of a sample of children of women entering treatment. These children had been exposed to domestic…

  6. Level of Burden Among Women Diagnosed with Severe Mental Illness and Substance Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivian B. Brown; Lisa A. Melchior; G. J. Huba

    1999-01-01

    Women diagnosed with severe mental illness and substance abuse may face a variety of associated difficulties that require intervention, including other health-related problems, housing instability or homelessness. and a history of or current physical or sexual abuse. This article expands upon the concept of “level of burden” by specifically examining issues for women with multiple vulnerabilities in a sample of

  7. Staff experience and understanding of working with abused women suffering from mental illness.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson-Tops, A; Saveman, B-I; Tops, D

    2009-09-01

    The phenomenon of abused women with mental illness is often unrecognised by staff working within welfare services. This may be explained by staff members' attitudes, insecurity or lack of awareness. Today, there are shortcomings in the knowledge of staff members' experiences and interpretations of abuse against women suffering from mental illness. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe how staff members experience and understand their work with abused women suffering from mental illness. Thematic interviews were conducted with 13 staff members from various welfare services. Data were subject to content analysis. The findings showed that working with abused women was experienced as ambiguous and painful and made the staff act pragmatically. Feelings of ambiguity were mainly related to the lack of theoretical frameworks for interpreting why women with mental illness are exposed to abuse. Painful experiences involved intertwined feelings of distress, frustration, worthlessness, ambivalence and powerlessness. These were all feelings that emerged in the direct encounters with the abused women. In response to the abused women's comprehensive needs, staff members acted pragmatically, implying networking without any sanction from the leaders of the organisation, compliance with routines and taking action in here-and-now situations. By acting pragmatically, staff members could achieve concrete results through their interventions. It is concluded that staff members, working with abused women with mental illness, are in a vulnerable situation and in need of formally accepted and implemented support and legitimacy as well as theoretical knowledge regarding causes and consequences of abuse in this particular group of women. PMID:19245422

  8. What Is Mental Illness: Mental Illness Facts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 950-NAMI; info@nami.org ©2015 What is Mental Illness: Mental Illness Facts Mental illnesses are medical conditions that disrupt ... illness recovery. Here are some important facts about mental illness and recovery: Mental illnesses are serious medical illnesses. ...

  9. Treatment Needs and Services for Mothers with a Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Sylvia K.; Schinke, Steven P.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews treatment needs of dual diagnosed, substance abusing and mentally ill mothers. Suggests treatment strategies and programmatic options for serving and meeting needs of these mothers and their children. Devotes particular attention to residential and continuing care services and skills-based interventions for target clients. Concludes with…

  10. PTSD'S mediation of the relationships between trauma, depression, substance abuse, mental health, and physical health in individuals with severe mental illness: Evaluating a comprehensive model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew M. Subica; Keith H. Claypoole; A. Michael Wylie

    ObjectiveFollowing trauma exposure and PTSD, individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) frequently suffer a complex course of recovery complicated by reduced mental and physical health and increased substance abuse. The authors evaluated a theoretical PTSD-SMI model which theorizes that trauma, PTSD, depression, substance abuse, mental health, and physical health are interrelated and that PTSD mediates these relationships.

  11. Neonatal Outcomes and Mental Illness, Substance Abuse, and Intentional Injury During Pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Wiencrot; Angela Nannini; Susan E. Manning; Joan Kennelly

    Mental illness (MI), substance abuse (SA), and intentional injury (II) are known individual risk factors for adverse pregnancy\\u000a outcomes. Their combined association with preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) remains relatively unexplored. We\\u000a examined hospital utilization for the co-occurrence of II and MI or SA in pregnant women in Massachusetts and assessed their\\u000a interactive association with PTB and

  12. Detection of co-occurring mental illness among adult patients in the New Jersey substance abuse treatment system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsou Mei Hu; Anna Kline; Frederick Y. Huang; Douglas M. Ziedonis

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed the detection of mental illness in an adult population of substance abuse patients and the rate of referral for mental health treatment.\\u000aMETHODS: We obtained combined administrative records from 1994 to 1997 provided by the New Jersey substance abuse and mental health systems and estimated detection and referral rates of patients with co-occurring disorders (n = 47,379).

  13. Predictors of Stimulant Abuse Treatment Outcomes in Severely Mentally Ill Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Angelo, Frank N.; McDonell, Michael G.; Lewin, Michael R.; Srebnik, Debra; Lowe, Jessica; Roll, John; Ries, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Background Severe mental illness is often exclusionary criteria for studies examining factors that influence addiction treatment outcome. Therefore, little is known about predictors of treatment response of individuals receiving psychosocial treatments for addictions who suffer from co-occurring severe mental illness. Methods The impact of demographic, substance abuse severity, psychiatric severity, and service utilization variables on in-treatment performance (i.e., longest duration of abstinence) in a 12-week contingency management (CM) intervention for stimulant abuse in 96 severely mentally ill adults was investigated. A 4-step linear regression was used to identify independent predictors of in-treatment abstinence. Results This model accounted for 37.4% of variance in the longest duration of abstinence outcome. Lower levels of stimulant use (i.e., stimulant-negative urine test) and psychiatric severity (i.e., lower levels of psychiatric distress), as well as higher rates of outpatient treatment utilization at study entry were independently associated with longer duration of drug abstinence. Conclusion These data suggest that individuals with low levels of stimulant use and psychiatric severity, as well as those actively engaged in services are most likely to succeed in a typical CM intervention. For others, modifications to CM interventions, such as increasing the value of reinforcement or adding CM to evidence based psychiatric interventions may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23273776

  14. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to reduce the impact of substance abuse and mental illness on America's communities. Revised Guidelines Updated guidelines for ... to reduce the impact of substance abuse and mental illness on America's communities. 1 Choke Cherry Road ? Rockville, ...

  15. Reliability and validity of a measure of sexual and physical abuse histories among women with serious mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elmer Struening

    1996-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this paper is to describe a standardized questionnaire of histories of abuse among women with serious and persistent mental illness, and to assess its test-retest reliability and its validity.Methods: Seventy women enrolled in an outpatient clinic were asked about childhood histories of physical and sexual abuse in a structured clinical interviews at two times.Results: Test-retest reliability

  16. Principles and practice for the screening, diagnosis, and assessment of persons with co-occurring mental illness and substance abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald W. Kanwischer

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of dual diagnosis in individuals who have severe mental illnesses has been demonstrated to be very high, and among individuals identified with substance abuse, the lifetime rate of co-occurring psychiatric disorders are as high as eighty percent. Effective treatment of individuals with dual problems depends on accurate screening, diagnosis, and comprehensive assessment. A series of principles of evaluation

  17. Smoking and Mental Illness

    MedlinePLUS

    Smoking and Mental Illness February 5, 2013 The mental illness estimates presented in this publication may differ from estimates in other publications due to revisions to the mental illness estimation methods in 2013. For more information, see “ ...

  18. Research Related to the Prevention of Mental Illness, Mental Retardation and Substance Abuse: Stimulating Collaboration between University-Based Researchers and Service Providers. Proceedings of the Virginia Symposium on Research Related to the Prevention of Mental Illness, Mental Retardation, and Substance Abuse (Gloucester, Virginia, May 8-10, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBlasio, Frederick A.

    This document contains a summary of the 3-day Conference on Research Related to the Prevention of Mental Illness, Mental Retardation, and Substance Abuse. Part I, Introduction, discusses the need to stimulate collaboration between service providers and university-based researchers as the primary goal of the conference and lists specific objectives…

  19. Preliminary Outcomes from a Community Linkage Intervention for Individuals with Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Serious Mental Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Smelson; Miklos F. Losonczy; Kathy Castles-Fonseca; Bradley D. Sussner; Stephanie Rodrigues; Maureen Kaune; Douglas Ziedonis

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Few interventions assist individuals with a mental illness and a co-occurring substance abuse disorder in the transition from hospitalization to outpatient treatment. This change in care is often abrupt, resulting in fragmented treatment that jeopardizes recovery. This article reports on the preliminary outcomes from a new eight-week linkage intervention entitled “Time-Limited Case Management (TLC)” that integrates intensive outreach, Dual

  20. Motivation and the stages of change among individuals with severe mental illness and substance abuse disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo C. DiClemente; Melissa Nidecker; Alan S. Bellack

    2008-01-01

    A complicating factor affecting the treatment of individuals with coexisting substance use problems and serious mental illness is their motivation for change and how these interacting, chronic conditions affect the entire process of intentional behavior change. This selective review explores conceptual and assessment issues related to readiness to modify substance use and readiness to initiate behaviors helpful for managing mental

  1. Substance Abuse Recovery after Experiencing Homelessness and Mental Illness: Case Studies of Change Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Deborah K.; Smith, Bikki Tran; Tiderington, Emmy

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper addresses how consumers with dual diagnosis, who were formerly homeless but are now living in supportive housing, understand their recovery from substance abuse (i.e., substance abuse or dependence). Specifically, this study examined: What can be learned about substance abuse recovery from consumers considered to be doing well; how past substance abuse fits into their present-day narratives; and how (if at all) policies of harm reduction versus abstinence are regarded as affecting recovery efforts. Methods As part of a federally-funded qualitative study, 38 individuals who met criteria for having achieved a measure of success in mental health recovery were purposively sampled from two supportive housing agencies – one using a harm reduction and the other an abstinence model. Researchers conducted in-depth interviews and used case study analysis, the latter including the development of case summaries and data matrices, to focus on substance abuse recovery in the larger context of participants’ lives. Results Recovery from substance abuse was depicted as occurring either through discrete decisions or gradual processes; achieving recovery was distinct from maintaining recovery. Emergent themes related to achievement included: (a) pivotal events and people (b) maturation, and (c) institutionalization. Central themes to maintaining recovery were: (a) housing, (b) self-help, and (c) the influence of significant others. Conclusions These findings capture a complex picture of overcoming substance abuse that largely took place outside of formal treatment and was heavily dependent on broader contexts. Equally important is that consumers themselves did not necessarily view substance abuse recovery as a defining feature of their life story. Indeed, recovery from substance abuse was seen as overcoming one adversity among many others during their troubled life courses. PMID:22962547

  2. An Ethnographic Study of the Longitudinal Course of Substance Abuse Among People with Severe Mental Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoyt Alverson; Marianne Alverson; Robert E. Drake

    2000-01-01

    A two-year ethnography conducted among 16 dually diagnosed clients yielded two longitudinal findings. First, four “positive quality of life” factors were strongly correlated with clients' efforts to cease using addictive substances: (1) regular engagement in an enjoyable activity; (2) decent, stable housing; (3) a loving relationship with someone sober who accepts the person's mental illness; and (4) a positive, valued

  3. Is the Addiction Severity Index a Reliable and Valid Assessment Instrument Among Clients with Severe and Persistent Mental Illness and Substance Abuse Disorders?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Zanis; A. Thomas McLellan; Sara Corse

    1997-01-01

    Objective: This study examined aspects of reliability, validity and utility of Addiction Severity Index (ASI) data as administered to clients with severe and persistent mental illness (SMI) and concurrent substance abuse disorders enrolled in a publicly-funded community mental health center. Methods: A total of 62 clients with SMI volunteered to participate in an interobserver and test-retest reliability study of the

  4. Modifications in service delivery and clinical treatment for women diagnosed with severe mental illness who are also the survivors of sexual abuse trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maxine Harris

    1994-01-01

    Sexual abuse trauma and chronic revictimization are central to the experience of many women diagnosed with severe mental illness.\\u000a The high reported prevalence rates of sexual abuse trauma among these women necessitate that program planners and clinicians\\u000a be prepared to adapt their treatment interventions for use with trauma survivors. This article describes how current treatment\\u000a approaches for women diagnosed with

  5. The Cost-Effectiveness of Criminal Justice Diversion Programs for People with Serious Mental Illness Co-Occurring with Substance AbuseFour Case Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander J. Cowell; Nahama Broner; Randolph Dupont

    2004-01-01

    Many cities, counties, and states have criminal justice diversion or jail diversion programs, in which those committing low-level offenses and who have mental illness or substance abuse are diverted from the criminal justice system into treatment. However, there is little existing evidence on the cost and cost-effectiveness of such programs. This article presents the first such estimates for four sites.

  6. Disparities in Access to Substance Abuse Treatment among People with Intellectual Disabilities and Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slayter, Elspeth M.

    2010-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have experienced increasing levels of community participation since deinstitutionalization. This freedom has facilitated community inclusion, access to alcohol and drugs, and the potential for developing substance abuse (SA) disorders. People with ID, who are known to have high rates of co-occurring…

  7. Development of the NIDA-Funded Center on Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Mark I.; Kola, Lenore A.; Biegel, David E.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes one school's effort to establish a social work research development center in the area of coexisting drug and mental disorders (dual disorders), within the context of the social work profession's efforts to compete more effectively for federal research grants. This center was funded as part of a successful application in…

  8. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262

  9. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262

  10. Co-Occurring Severe Mental Illnesses and Substance Abuse Disorders as Predictors of State Prison Inmate Assaults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Steven R.; Buttaro, Anthony, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Using hierarchical logistic regression with a nationally representative sample of state prisoners ("n" = 12,504), we found inmates with dual severe psychiatric and substance abuse disorders to be at higher risk of being assaulted and to assault others in prison than nonmentally ill inmates. Dually disordered inmates may be "importing"…

  11. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  12. Premorbid risk factors for violence in adult mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl E. Fulwiler; Robin Ruthazer

    1999-01-01

    The role of premorbid factors in the violence associated with adult mental illness has received little attention. We previously found that the premorbid onset of substance abuse in early adolescence or childhood was a more powerful predictor of violence in adult patients with chronic mental illness than comorbid substance abuse. In the present study, we retrospectively assessed patients with chronic

  13. Housing First Services for People Who Are Homeless With Co-Occurring Serious Mental Illness and Substance Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah K. Padgett; Leyla Gulcur; Sam Tsemberis

    2006-01-01

    The literature on homeless adults with severe mental illness is generally silent on a critical issue surrounding service delivery—the contrast between housing first and treatment first program philosophies. This study draws on data from a longitudinal experiment contrasting a housing first program (which offers immediate permanent housing without requiring treatment compliance or abstinence) and treatment first (standard care) programs for

  14. Warning Signs of Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be possible to delay or prevent a major mental illness altogether. What are the Signs and Symptoms to ... two of these symptoms can’t predict a mental illness. But a person experiencing several together that are ...

  15. Costs of care for people living with combined HIV\\/AIDS, chronic mental illness, and substance abuse disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Conover; Marcia Weaver; Alfonso Ang; Peter Arno; Patrick M. Flynn; Susan L. Ettner

    2009-01-01

    To determine healthcare access and costs for triply diagnosed adults, we examined baseline data from the HIV\\/AIDS Treatment Adherence, Health Outcomes and Cost Study, a multi-site cohort study of HIV+ adults with co-occurring mental and substance abuse disorders conducted between 2000 and 2004. Baseline interviews were conducted with 1138 triply diagnosed adults in eight predominantly urban sites nationwide. A modified

  16. Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D J MacIntyre; D H R Blackwood; D J Porteous; B S Pickard; W J Muir

    2003-01-01

    Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness

  17. MENTAL ILLNESS in the CLASSROOM

    E-print Network

    MENTAL ILLNESS in the CLASSROOM: How Educators Can Help Students Succeed Ingle International cares about you and your students www.studyinsured.com #12;www.studyinsured.comMental Illness in the Classroom: How Educators Can Help Students Succeed Mental Illness in the Classroom: How Educators Can Help

  18. The Neuropsychology of Mental Illness

    E-print Network

    Kuperberg, Gina

    The Neuropsychology of Mental Illness Edited by Stephen J. Wood Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre The neuropsychology of mental illness / edited by Stephen J. Wood, Nicholas B. Allen, Christos Pantelis. p. ; cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-521-86289-9 (hardback) 1. Mental illness

  19. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    2001-01-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183

  20. Predictors of Initiation and Engagement in Substance Abuse Treatment among Individuals with Co-occurring Serious Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Clayton H.; Bennett, Melanie E.; Li, Lan; Bellack, Alan S.

    2011-01-01

    Research has documented the significant challenges of engaging individuals with comorbid serious mental illness (SMI) and substance use disorders (SUDs) in substance abuse treatment. To date it is unclear which factors predict treatment initiation and engagement in this group of individuals with SUDs. In this study we conducted two analyses using data from a randomized trial of substance abuse treatment in outpatients with SMI: the first examining predictors (collected during screening) of completing an initial intake assessment and the second examining predictors (collected during the intake assessment) of becoming engaged in treatment. Results indicated that males and those with schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses were less likely to complete the intake assessment. Participants who reported more positive feelings about their family were more likely to engage in substance abuse treatment. Participants who were recently arrested were less likely to engage in treatment. Those who met criteria for current drug dependence were less likely to engage in treatment. Overall, these findings are a useful step in determining factors that predict substance abuse treatment initiation and engagement in individuals with SMI and SUDs. PMID:21196081

  1. Detection of substance use disorders in severely mentally ill patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Drake; Arthur I. Alterman; Stanley R. Rosenberg

    1993-01-01

    Severe mental illness is frequently complicated by substance use disorder. Approximately half of the severely mentally ill patients treated in acute care psychiatric settings have abused one or more of these substances. Despite the high rate of comorbidity, substance use disorders are generally not detected in acute care psychiatric settings, leading to incorrect diagnoses and ineffective treatments. The reasons for

  2. Few ACOs pursue innovative models that integrate care for mental illness and substance abuse with primary care.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Valerie A; Colla, Carrie H; Tierney, Katherine; Van Citters, Arica D; Fisher, Elliott S; Meara, Ellen

    2014-10-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs) may be well positioned to increase the focus on managing behavioral health conditions (mental health and substance abuse) through the integration of behavioral health treatment and primary care. We used a mixed-methods research design to examine the extent to which ACOs are clinically, organizationally, and financially integrating behavioral health care and primary care. We used data from 257 respondents to the National Survey of Accountable Care Organizations, a nationally representative survey of ACOs. The data were supplemented with semistructured, in-depth interviews with clinical leaders at sixteen ACOs purposively sampled to represent the spectrum of behavioral health integration. We found that most ACOs hold responsibility for some behavioral health care costs, and 42 percent include behavioral health specialists among their providers. However, integration of behavioral health care and primary care remains low, with most ACOs pursuing traditional fragmented approaches to physical and behavioral health care and only a minority implementing innovative models. Contract design and contextual factors appear to influence the extent to which ACOs integrate behavioral health care. Nevertheless, the ACO model has the potential to create opportunities for improving behavioral health care and integrating it with primary care. PMID:25288427

  3. Mental Illness Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... population. Research on mental health epidemiology shows that mental disorders are common throughout the United States, affecting tens ... available on the prevalence, treatment, and costs of mental disorders for the population of the United States, in ...

  4. Screening for and Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis C among an Outpatient Urban Sample of People with Serious Mental Illness and Co-Occurring Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelhoch, Seth; Goldberg, Richard; Calmes, Christine; Medoff, Deborah; Slade, Eric; Dixon, Lisa; Gallucci, Gerard; Rosenberg, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Background: To assess rates of screening and testing of HIV and HCV among those with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders. Methods: One hundred fifty-three people with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders completed measures and were screened for HIV and HCV. Results: Six percent were HIV…

  5. Pathways to homelessness among the mentally ill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Sullivan; A. Burnam; P. Koegel

    2000-01-01

    Background: Persons with mental illness are over-represented among the homeless relative to the general population, and mental illness\\u000a is most likely one of many vulnerabilities that confer risk for homelessness. Method: This paper elucidates the pathways to homelessness for persons with mental illness by comparing and contrasting groups of\\u000a mentally ill homeless persons, non-mentally ill homeless persons, and housed mentally

  6. The stigma of mental illness on television

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Signorielli

    1989-01-01

    Examination of 17 annual week?long samples of primetime network dramatic programming reveals a negative and generally stigmatized image of mental illness and the mentally ill. Mental illness has consistently appeared in one fifth of all primetime programs, affecting 3% of the major characters. Although relatively small in numbers, the mentally ill were most likely to commit violence and to be

  7. Cultural Considerations in the Treatment of Mental Illness among Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: The Case of Bali, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus J.; Suryani, Luh Ketut; Tiliopoulos, Niko

    2015-01-01

    Childhood and adolescence sexual abuse can have long-lasting and devastating effects on personal and interpersonal growth and development. Sexually abused children tend to exhibit higher rates of poor school performance, aggressive behavior, PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder), or depressive symptomatology, as well as social and relational…

  8. Juvenile offenders and mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Grisso

    1999-01-01

    The author reviews the significance of the presence of mental illnesses to the juvenile justice system. He acknowledges the absence of a satisfactory system for classifying mental disorders among children and adolescents and sketches what so far is known about certain childhood disorders which appear to have a special significance for delinquent behaviour. He reviews studies on the overlap between

  9. Gaols or de facto mental institutions? Why individuals with a mental illness are over- represented in the Criminal Justice System in New South Wales, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinne Henderson

    The over-representation of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system highlights the need for legislative reform and the implementation of programs breaking the cycle of mental illness, poverty, unemployment and substance abuse across Australia. Whilst there is no inherent association between mental illness and crime, there is a strong causal link between mental illness and incarceration. The fragmentation

  10. Children of Parents with Mental Illness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... environment also contributes to psychiatric illness in children. Mental illness of a parent can put stress on the ... ways to lessen the effects of the parent's mental illness on the child. Unfortunately, families, professionals, and society ...

  11. Implementing dual diagnosis services for clients with severe mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Drake; Susan M. Essock; Andrew Shaner; Kate B. Carey; Kenneth Minkoff; Lenore Kola; David Lynde; Fred C. Osher; Robin E. Clark; Lawrence Rickards

    2001-01-01

    After 20 years of development and research, dual diagnosis services for clients with severe mental illness are emerging as an evidence-based practice. Effective dual diagnosis programs combine mental health and substance abuse interventions that are tailored for the complex needs of clients with comorbid disorders. The authors describe the critical components of effective programs, which include a comprehensive, long-term, staged

  12. Burden of Mental Illness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... decrease the financial impact of this illness. 9 Schizophrenia: Worldwide prevalence estimates range between 0.5% and ... age) than women (27 years). Of persons with schizophrenia, by age 30, 9 out of 10 men, ...

  13. Antisocial behavior as a predictor of risk behavior for HIV transmission in HIV-positive mentally ill substance abusers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana M Dimitri

    2005-01-01

    Objective. Prior research has found that individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) engage in high rates of sexual and injection drug risk behaviors. The goal of the present study was to elucidate the relationship between antisocial behavior and sexual and injection drug risk behavior among HIV-positive individuals with a history of substance abuse and major

  14. Stereotactic lesioning for mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-C. Kim; Tae-Kyu Lee

    \\u000a \\u000a Objective  The authors report stereotactically created lesioning by radio-frequency or Cyberknife radiosurgery for patients with mental\\u000a illness. Materials and methods. Since 1993, thirty-eight patients have undergone stereotactic psychosurgery for medically\\u000a intractable mental illnesses. Two patients had aggressive behavior. Twenty-five patients suffered from Obsessive-Compulsive\\u000a Disorder (OCD) and ten patients had depression. Another patient suffered from atypical psychosis. Bilateral amygdalotomy and\\u000a subcaudate tractotomy

  15. Recovery From Serious Mental Illness: Trajectories, Characteristics,

    E-print Network

    Squire, Larry R.

    Recovery From Serious Mental Illness: Trajectories, Characteristics, and the Role of Mental Health trajectories of recovery from serious mental illnesses. Methods: A total of 177 members (92 women; 85 men with mental health clinicians, resources and strains, satisfaction with medications, and mental health service

  16. Stigma of Mental Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y M Lai; C P H Hong; C Y I Chee

    2001-01-01

    Background: Psychiatric patients carry the additional burden of stigma. Methods: The views of 300 psychiatric out-patients and day-patients and 100 mental health workers concerning stigma were sought. The control group comprised 50 cardiac out-patients. Results: A fair proportion of patients with schizophrenia or depression perceived that stigma had a negative effect on their self-esteem, relationships and job opportunities. The majority

  17. Mental Health Continuum Healthy Reacting Injured Illness

    E-print Network

    Brownstone, Rob

    Mental Health Continuum Healthy Reacting Injured Illness Calm, steady Normal mood fluctuations Fit, fed, rested In control (physically, mentally, emotionally) Performing well Behaving ethically or withdrawing Neglecting hygiene Healthy Reacting Injured Illness Get to know your staff Foster healthy work

  18. Treatment of Children with Mental Illness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... shows that half of all lifetime cases of mental illness begin by age 14. 1 Scientists are discovering that changes in the body leading to mental illness may start much earlier, before any symptoms appear. ...

  19. Services for Perinatal Women with Substance Abuse and Mental Health Disorders: The Unmet Need

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine E. Grella

    1997-01-01

    Dual diagnosis refers to the co-occurrence of substance abuse and mental illness, which may take many forms. Women who abuse alcohol or drugs are more likely than men to be diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder, particularly depression or personality disorder. The interaction of pregnancy, addiction, and mental illness creates complex needs that often go unrecognized by treatment providers. Oinical issues

  20. Rethinking Mental Illness: The View from 2022

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Rethinking Mental Illness: The View from 2022 Thomas R. Insel, M.D. Director, NIMH #12;Rethinking Mental Illness: The View from 2012 Thomas R. Insel, MD Disclosures: None Federal employee: Public filing Longevity, 1960-2000 Source: Cutler, Rosen, Vijan, NEJM, 2006 #12;Impact of Research on Mental Illness

  1. Older Mentally Ill Inmates: A Descriptive Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Caverley

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the mentally ill inmate population aged 50 years and older at the Utah State Prison and addresses related financial and policy issues. Prevalence of serious mental illness was 13.6% versus 15.5% among younger inmates. Of the older mentally ill inmates, 57% had a primary diagnosis of depression, 25% schizophrenia, and 18% bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders were

  2. Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kaylene; Bradley, Loretta J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year, an estimated 50 million Americans will experience a mental disorder while only one fourth of them will seek mental health services. Contends that this disparity results from the stigma attached to mental illness. Proposes that counselors must educate the general public about the misconceptions of mental illness and advocate for parity…

  3. Combating the Stigma of Mental Illness. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    Many former mental patients see their biggest problem in resuming community life to be their inability to be accepted by other people. The National Institute of Mental Health has worked to remove the stigma associated with mental illness and research has unraveled many of the mysteries about the origins of mental illness. Deinstitutionalization,…

  4. Blasphemy laws and mental illness in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that individuals who are mentally ill are overrepresented in the group of defendants prosecuted under the blasphemy laws of Pakistan. This article discusses the background of blasphemy legislation in Pakistan, and proposes causal interactions between underlying mental illness in the defendant and prosecution for blasphemy. It sketches possible legal safeguards for such blasphemy defendants with mental illness in mental health legislation. PMID:25237489

  5. Gaols or De Facto Mental Institutions? Why Individuals with a Mental Illness Are Over-Represented in the Criminal Justice System in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Corinne

    2007-01-01

    The over-representation of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system highlights the need for legislative reform and the implementation of programs breaking the cycle of mental illness, poverty, unemployment and substance abuse across Australia. Whilst there is no inherent association between mental illness and crime, there is a…

  6. Homelessness, the chronic mentally ill and community mental health centers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Anthony Arce; Michael J. Vergare

    1987-01-01

    Current efforts in the development of improved systems of care for the chronically mentally ill represent yet another phase in the evolution of mental health policy in this country. As described in the literature (Goldman and Morrissey 1985), the history of public policy on behalf of the mentally ill reflects a cyclical pattern of institutional reforms. Each cycle is marked

  7. The course, treatment, and outcome of substance disorder in persons with severe mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Drake; Kim T. Mueser; Robin E. Clark; Michael E. Wallach

    1996-01-01

    Individuals with co-occurring substance abuse and severe mental illness are particularly vulnerable to negative outcomes. This paper reviews findings on the longitudinal course of dual disorders in traditional treatment systems, which provide separate mental health and substance-abuse programs; describes the movement toward programs that integrate both types of treatment at the clinical level; reviews evidence related to outcomes in integrated

  8. Ethics and mental illness research.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2002-09-01

    There are many tasks ahead in the area of ethics and mental illness research. We face unknown challenges in psychiatric genetics projects, studies of psychopharmacological interventions in children, controversial scientific designs (e.g., symptom challenge, medication-free interval), and cross-disciplinary research incorporating goals and methods of health services, epidemiology, and social and behavioral science endeavors. Boundaries between innovative clinical practices and research-related experimentation will become increasingly difficult to distinguish, as will the roles between clinicians, clinical researchers, and basic scientists. Moreover, the institutions and systems in which research occurs are being rapidly and radically revised, raising new questions about oversight responsibilities and standards. Our ability to identify and respond to the ethical questions arising in this uncharted territory will depend on our willingness to self-reflect, to integrate the observations and insights of the past century, to think with great clarity, and to anticipate novel ethical problems that keep company with scientific advancements. It will also depend on data. Empirical study of ethical dimensions of human research is essential to anchor and attune the intuitions and theoretical constructs that we develop. Science and ethics have changed over the past 100 years, as they will over the next century. It is ironic that the ethical acceptability of psychiatric research is so much in question at this time, when it holds so much promise for advancing our understanding of mental illness and its treatment. The tension between the duty to protect vulnerable individuals and the duty to perform human science will continue to grow, as long as ethics and science are seen as separable, opposing forces with different aims championed by different heroes. The profession of psychiatry is poised to move toward a new, more coherent research ethics paradigm in which scientific and ethical issues are recognized as inextricably linked: science as a human activity carries complex ethical meanings and responsibilities, and ethics itself is subject to scrutiny and amenable to scientific inquiry. Building a broader, more versatile, and more effective repertoire of safeguards will be increasingly important, and safeguards, in this view, represent a modest price for the privilege of studying serious illnesses--diseases that cause grave suffering and yet are a source of both vulnerability and strength. In this paradigm, attention to ethics safeguards is no longer understood as a barrier to scientific advancement, but rather as the means by which psychiatric research may be conducted with broad societal support, honorably and, ultimately, with the expectation of bringing benefit to millions of people with mental illness. PMID:12232968

  9. Mental Illness and the Demand for Alcohol, Cocaine and Cigarettes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Saffer; Dhaval Dave

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the effect that mental illness has on the demand for addictive goods. Mental illness could affect the level of consumption of addictive goods and could affect the price elasticities of addictive goods. Demand theory suggests that mental illness would affect consumption if mental illness affected marginal utility. In addition, mental illness would

  10. Archiving Social Policy: The Florida Commission on Mental Health and Substance Abuse Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, B. W.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of archiving state commission papers, documenting the formation of public policy, and allowing the public access to an organized collection of the data gathered by the Florida Commission on Mental Health and Substance Abuse. Florida's citizens with mental illnesses or substance abuse disorders face a myriad of…

  11. Mental Illness in Persons with Mental Retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Reiss; Ruth Ryan

    What is mental health? Mental health is a goal for all people, including those with mental retardation, not just those having difficulties. Mental health is an essential ingredient in the quality of life. The two main aspects of mental health are emotional well-being and rewarding social and interpersonal relationships. Emotional well-being is an important part of the gift of human

  12. The Notion of ‘Were’ in Yoruba Conception of Mental Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayodele Samuel Jegede

    ABSTRACT The conception of mental illness has a narrower focus than the western view. While the notion of ‘were’ merely refers to the manifestation of mental disorder, mental illness in the west involves minor stages of mental,problems. This paper attempts to examine,the Yoruba concept of mental illness. It is assumed ,that the Yoruba view of mental ,illness is narrower. ‘Were’

  13. When a Student Is Mentally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hover, Margot

    1995-01-01

    Highlights issues facing teachers who have mentally ill students in their classes and ways for teachers to address the issues. Discusses in-school interventions, out-of-school treatment, and the role of the teacher as mediator in helping students relate to other mentally ill students and in offering support to parents. (MAB)

  14. Administrative Segregation for Mentally Ill Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Maureen L.

    2007-01-01

    Largely the result of prison officials needing to safely and efficiently manage a volatile inmate population, administrative segregation or supermax facilities are criticized as violating basic human needs, particularly for mentally ill inmates. The present study compared Colorado offenders with mental illness (OMIs) to nonOMIs in segregated and…

  15. CDC Vital Signs: Adult Smoking among People with Mental Illness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Share Compartir Adult Smoking Focusing on People with Mental Illness February 2013 1 in 3 More than 1 ... Smoking is much more common in adults with mental illness than other adults Smoking and mental illness Nicotine ...

  16. Health care reform and rural mental health: Severe mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine F. Kane; Jacqueline M. Ennis

    1996-01-01

    Service needs of rural severely mentally ill and strengths of rural communities are addressed. Health care reform policy development at present appears to neglect the seriously mentally ill in general and rural services specifically. Examples of strategies to meet the needs for health care, psychiatric treatment, psychosocial rehabilitation and appropriate housing are described. The advantages and drawbacks of such efforts

  17. Mothers with mental illness: I. The competing demands of parenting and living with mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanne Nicholson; Elaine M. Sweeney; Jeffrey L. Geller

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to understand the parenting experiences of women with mental illness from the perspectives of mothers and case managers employed by the state department of mental health. METHODS: Six focus groups of mothers and five focus groups of case managers met to discuss the problems facing mothers with mental illness and to recommend solutions.

  18. National and Regional Resources Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    of prevention, treatment, and recovery for substance use and mental disorders, celebrates people in recovery illnesses including persons with co-occurring mental and substance use disorders. Resource CenterRecovery National and Regional Resources Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

  19. Criminal thinking styles among people with serious mental illness in jail.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Amy Blank; Farkas, Kathleen; Ishler, Karen J; Gearhart, Michael; Morgan, Robert; Ashe, Melinda

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the investigation of criminal thinking of persons with mental illness beyond prison and community settings to a jail setting. Participants consisted of 122 individuals incarcerated in a county jail who were diagnosed with a severe mental illness, including schizophrenia spectrum and major mood disorders. Results indicated that people with mental illness in this sample of jail inmates presented with thinking styles that support a criminal lifestyle, and have criminal thinking styles that follow a pattern that is very similar to a sample of prison inmates with serious mental illness. These findings support the need for therapeutic programs for justice-involved persons with serious mental illness to develop a multipronged treatment approach that integrates interventions for individuals' criminal thinking and antisocial attitudes with treatment for their mental illness and substance abuse issues. PMID:24707911

  20. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Publications

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration was established in 1992 and "leads Federal efforts to treat mental illnesses by promoting mental health and by preventing the development or worsening of mental illness when possible". To that end, the agency has created this website to provide information about its ongoing programs, along with offering information for the public who may be curious or concerned about these issues. Practitioners and the public will appreciate the well-organized Publications area which is organized thematically and includes topics such as preventions, disaster, and the elderly. The site also has a complete listing of related activities, such as the youth violence prevention initiative and the Center of Women, Violence and Trauma.

  1. Stigma of Mental Illness-1: Clinical reflections.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Johnston, Megan; Bureau, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Although the quality and effectiveness of mental health treatments and services have improved greatly over the past 50 years, therapeutic revolutions in psychiatry have not yet been able to reduce stigma. Stigma is a risk factor leading to negative mental health outcomes. It is responsible for treatment seeking delays and reduces the likelihood that a mentally ill patient will receive adequate care. It is evident that delay due to stigma can have devastating consequences. This review will discuss the causes and consequences of stigma related to mental illness. PMID:22654383

  2. Media and mental illness: relevance to India.

    PubMed

    Padhy, S K; Khatana, S; Sarkar, S

    2014-01-01

    Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored. PMID:24823515

  3. Talking to Kids about Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... greater understanding and compassion, as well as decreased stigma. For additional information see Facts for Families : #39 Children of Parents with Mental Illness #62 Talking to Kids About Sex Other sources ...

  4. Mental Illness: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are medical conditions that can disrupt a person’s thinking, feeling, mood, ability to relate to others and ... Mental Illness experience as part of their ordinary thinking processes and not be aware of its impact ...

  5. Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

  6. Editors' Introduction: Building Mental Illness Stigma Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emeline Otey; Wayne S. Fenton

    2004-01-01

    deter persons with symptoms of mental illness from acknowledging that something is wrong, seeking help, and sticking with treatments long enough for them to be effective. When symptoms of treatable illnesses are not recognized, accurate diagnosis and treatment are delayed, and access to lifesaving care is denied, personal tragedy, needless suffering, and wasted human and economic potential are the result.

  7. Explicit and implicit stigma against individuals with mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Stier; Stephen P. Hinshaw

    2007-01-01

    ,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,, Abstract Stigma against mental illness has devastating consequences for individuals with mental illness and their families. Empirical findings and qualitative evidence indicate that stigma against mental illness remains rampant in many nations and cultures, constituting a significant barrier to successful treatment, reducing key life opportunities, and predicting poor outcomes over and above the effects of mental illness per

  8. Biogenetic models of psychopathology, implicit guilt, and mental illness stigma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Rüsch; Andrew R. Todd; Galen V. Bodenhausen; Patrick W. Corrigan

    2010-01-01

    Whereas some research suggests that acknowledgment of the role of biogenetic factors in mental illness could reduce mental illness stigma by diminishing perceived responsibility, other research has cautioned that emphasizing biogenetic aspects of mental illness could produce the impression that mental illness is a stable, intrinsic aspect of a person (“genetic essentialism”), increasing the desire for social distance. We assessed

  9. On the stigma of mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Cumming; Elaine Cumming

    1965-01-01

    The stigma of mental illness is conceived in this study as the loss of a valued attribute. The loss, however, is not irreversible. It is proposed that the undoing-of-the-loss is most successfully accomplished in a family in which there is a full role complement and a clear division of labor. The two pilot studies of patients recently released from mental

  10. The Prevalence of Mental Illness in Prison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela M. Diamond; Eugene W. Wang; Charles E. Holzer; Christopher Thomas; des Anges Cruser

    2001-01-01

    Over the last decade state prisons have experienced unprecedented growth and many demographic changes. At the same time, courts are requiring states to provide mental health screening and treatment to prisoners. Findings from recent studies indicate that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in prisons than in the community, and comorbidity is common. Our ability to generalize from these

  11. Resisting the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoits, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…

  12. Mental Illness among Us: A New Curriculum to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma among Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…

  13. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  14. Validating the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test with Persons Who Have a Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Thomas; Sherrer, Margaret V.; LaButti, Annamaria; Emrick, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Objective/Method: The use of brief, reliable, valid, and practical measures of substance use is critical for conducting individual assessments and program evaluation for integrated mental health-substance abuse services for persons with serious mental illness. This investigation examines the internal consistency reliability, concurrent validity,…

  15. Physical Health, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems of Shelter Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Shirley N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined physical health of 72 users of homeless shelters, comparing shelter users with mental illness or substance abuse problems with those without these problems. Found that alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to have low blood pressure, symptoms of liver disease, and tuberculosis treatment history. Found no health differences for…

  16. Dating violence: mental health consequences based on type of abuse.

    PubMed

    Eshelman, Lee; Levendosky, Alytia A

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to determine the relationship between psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, and mental health symptoms. Female college students (N = 499) completed anonymous online surveys to report experiences of abuse, as well as symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and physical injuries. Five groups of participants were found: no abuse; psychological abuse; physical abuse; psychological and physical abuse; and psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. The multiple abuse groups showed the highest rate of mental health symptoms. In addition, increased frequency of abuse was related to more mental health symptoms and more physical injuries. PMID:22594217

  17. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang-Pei; Lai, Grace Ying-Chi; Yang, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person's participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) have specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from 2 Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semistructured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants' consideration of 3 critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network, involuntary disclosure could happen without participants' permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations in which they experienced little discriminatory treatment, and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed. PMID:23647389

  18. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang-pei; Ying-Chi Lai, Grace; Yang, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person’s participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese-immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) has specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese-immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from two Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semi-structured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants’ consideration of three critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship-building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network involuntary disclosure could happen without participants’ permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations where they experienced little discriminatory treatment and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed. PMID:23647389

  19. Stigmatizing Attitudes towards Mental Illness among Racial/Ethnic Older Adults in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Daniel E.; Bartels, Stephen J.; Cardenas, Veronica; Alegría, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Objective The current study applies the perceived stigma framework to identify differences in attitudes toward mental health and mental health treatment among various racial/ethnic minority older adults with common mental health problems including depression, anxiety disorders, or at-risk alcohol use. Specifically, this study examines to what extent race/ethnicity is associated with differences in: (1) perceived stigma of mental illness; and (2) perceived stigma for different mental health treatment options. Methods Analyses were conducted using baseline data collected from participants who completed the SAMHSA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment, developed for the PRISM-E (Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for the Elderly) study, a multi-site randomized trial for older adults (65+) with depression, anxiety, or at-risk alcohol consumption. The final sample consisted of 1247 non-Latino Whites, 536 African-Americans, 112 Asian-Americans, and 303 Latinos. Results African-Americans and Latinos expressed greater comfort in speaking to primary care physicians or mental health professionals concerning mental illness compared to non-Latino Whites. Asian-Americans and Latinos expressed greater shame and embarrassment about having a mental illness than non-Latino Whites. Asian-Americans expressed greater difficulty in seeking or engaging in mental health treatment. Conclusions Racial/ethnic differences exist among older adults with mental illness with respect to stigmatizing attitudes towards mental illness and mental health treatment. Results of this study could help researchers and clinicians educate racial/ethnic minority older adults about mental illness and engage them in much needed mental health services. PMID:23361866

  20. Abuse of Mentally Retarded Persons: Characteristics of the Abused, the Abuser, and the Informer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetti, Allen

    The possible casues of abuse of mentally retarded persons in residential facilities are examined and a study of all reported abuse cases occurring in Alabama's residential facilities from January, 1984, to September, 1986 is reviewed. Fifty-seven confirmed cases of abuse were identified for further examination using facility records and system…

  1. "Alternative to Prison" Programs for the Mentally Ill Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Nicole J.; Stefancic, Ana

    2003-01-01

    Mentally ill offenders represent a substantial proportion of jail and prison inmates. Despite the fact that confining mentally ill offenders can and often will exacerbate their mental illness, the quality of mental health services available to them remains poor and insufficient. Up to date, only a few cities and counties have considered a more…

  2. Labor market conditions and employment of the mentally ill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Catalano; Robert E. Drake; Deborah R. Becker; Robin E. Clark

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mental health services literature includes assertions that workers with mental illness are at earlier risk of unemployment than other workers when the economy contracts. This possibility is important for several reasons. One is that such a phenomenon would support the argument that the lives of mentally ill persons are made unnecessarily stressful by the stigma of mental illness.

  3. Labor market conditions and employment of the mentally ill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Catalano; Robert E. Drake; Deborah R. Becker; Robin E. Clark

    1999-01-01

    Background: The mental health services literature includes assertions that workers with mental illness are at earlier risk of unemployment than other workers when the economy contracts. This possibility is important for several reasons. One is that such a phenomenon would support the argument that the lives of mentally ill persons are made unnecessarily stressful by the stigma of mental illness.

  4. Mentally Ill Persons in the Criminal Justice System: Some Perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Richard Lamb; Linda E. Weinberger; Bruce H. Gross

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing number of severely mentally ill persons in the criminal justice system. This article first discusses the criminalization of persons with severe mental illness and its causes, the role of the police and mental health, and the treatment of mentally ill offenders and its difficulties. The authors then offer recommendations to reduce criminalization by increased coordination between

  5. National Alliance for the Mentally Ill

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI) sponsors a broad range of public outreach projects and research studies dedicated to providing a more nuanced and multi-faceted understanding of the immense complexity of the many mental health issues that affect millions of persons each day. Within the Find Support section of the site, individuals can learn about local branches of NAMI, learn about support networks for young people dealing with mental health issues, and the presence of NAMI on college campuses. The public policy section of the site is quite strong, as visitors to this area can learn about policy news and alerts about mental health issues, download resource materials about assisting those grappling with mental health afflictions, and read Issue Spotlights that deal with a host of subjects such as managed care, Medicaid, parity, and confidentiality.

  6. Criminal responsibility and the mentally ill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Menkiti

    1980-01-01

    In this paper I wish to point out two highly significant types of error which stand in the way of our fully understanding the nature of the responsibility of the mentally ill offender. The first type of error arises from a general tendency to view responsibility as an undivided term, with just one univocal sense. But, responsibility, as I shall

  7. Siblings and Mental Illness: Heredity vs. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, David C.; Elam, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Siblings are far more likely to be different than alike in personality and psychopathology. Different genes and different environmental experiences can account for why one sibling becomes mentally ill and another is not affected. Environmental experiences play a much greater role in sibling differentiation than has been previously recognized.…

  8. Neuropsychiatric rehabilitation for persistent mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Jaeger; Estelle Douglas

    1992-01-01

    The benefits of new knowledge on the psychobiology and neuropsychology of serious mental illnesses have been slow to impact on psychiatric rehabilitation technology. A literature review reveals that, at least in the case of schizophrenia, enough is known about neurobiological deficits and their impact on neurocognitive functioning to justify a more informed approach to psychiatric rehabilitation. Essential elements for a

  9. The Stigma of Families with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…

  10. Working with the Rehabilitated Mentally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Jeffrey R.

    1986-01-01

    Supervisory skills for dealing with rehabilitated mentally ill employees are suggested, including (1) criticize the performance, not the person; (2) couch corrective criticism in nonjudgmental terms; (3) discuss grievances immediately; (4) be consistent; (5) be relaxed; and (6) be an example for staff. (CT)

  11. The Relationship Between Military Service Eras and Psychosocial Treatment Needs Among Homeless Veterans With a Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Mental Health Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Kline; Lanora Callahan; Mark Butler; Lauren St. Hill; Miklos F. Losonczy; David A. Smelson

    2009-01-01

    This article will examine baseline assessment data from consecutive admissions to the MISSION Program, a transitional case management program for homeless veterans, to better understand the differences across military service eras that impact the psychosocial treatment needs of homeless, mentally ill, substance-abusing veterans. In all, 373 homeless veterans with a co-occurring mental illness and substance abuse disorder received the Structured

  12. Stigma Keeps Employees from Admitting to a Mental Illness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript. Stigma Keeps Employees From Admitting to a Mental Illness: Study But half of those surveyed said they' ... found that 38 percent would not disclose a mental illness to a manager. Their reasons for keeping quiet ...

  13. Mental Illness, Homelessness Linked to Heart Disease in Study

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mental Illness, Homelessness Linked to Heart Disease in Study High ... Feb. 24, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Homeless people with mental illness are at high risk for heart disease, a ...

  14. Mental illness stigma: Concepts, consequences, and initiatives to reduce stigma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Rüsch; Matthias C. Angermeyer; Patrick W. Corrigan

    2005-01-01

    Persons with mental illness frequently encounter public stigma and may suffer from self-stigma. This review aims to clarify the concept of mental illness stigma and discuss consequences for individuals with mental illness. After a conceptual overview of stigma we discuss two leading concepts of mental illness stigma and consequences of stigma, focussing on self-stigma\\/empowerment and fear of stigma as a

  15. Stop the Stigma: Call Mental Illness a Brain Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick W. Corrigan; Amy C. Watson

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public that mental illness is a brain disease is a popular strategy for combating mental illness stigma. Evidence suggests that while such an approach reduces blame for mental illness, it may unintentionally exacerbate other components of stigma, particularly the benevolence and dangerousness stigmas. Conversely, psychosocial explanations have proven promising, yet they ignore the growing evidence regarding genetic and

  16. Structural Levels of Mental Illness Stigma and Discrimination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick W. Corrigan; Fred E. Markowitz; Amy C. Watson

    2004-01-01

    Most of the models that currently describe processes related to mental illness stigma are based on individual- level psychological paradigms. In this article, using a the opportunities of people with mental illness, and (2) poli- cies of institutions that yield unintended consequences that hinder the options of people with mental illness. The article begins with a review of institutional and

  17. Adding state counts of the severely and persistently mentally ill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Schinnar; A. B. Rothbard; R. Kanter

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an empirical analysis of definitions of severe and persistent mental illness in three states: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. The objective is to determine whether the counts of the severely and persistently mentally ill produced by individual states are additive and meaningful in the aggregate. The definition of severe and persistent mental illness is applied

  18. Mental Illness and the Demand for Alcohol, Cocaine, and Cigarettes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Saffer; Dhaval Dave

    2005-01-01

    This article estimates the effect of mental illness on demand for addictive substances, allowing for structural endogeneity and simultaneity between mental illness and addictive consumption. Results show that individuals with a history of mental illness are 26% more likely to consume alcohol, 66% more likely to consume cocaine, and 89% more likely to consume cigarettes. This high-participation group is also

  19. ATTITUDES TOWARD MENTAL ILLNESS AND HELP-SEEKING

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    ATTITUDES TOWARD MENTAL ILLNESS AND HELP-SEEKING BEHAVIORS IN COLLEGE STUDENTS Author: Kelly suffering from mental illness. Feeling the societal stigma and recognizing it as a barrier to treatment. #12;FOCUS OF THE STUDY To explore the level of stigma towards people with mental illness. To explore

  20. Predictors of Accessing Substance Abuse Services Among Individuals With Mental Disorders Released From Correctional Custody

    PubMed Central

    Hartwell, Stephanie; Deng, Xiaogang; Fisher, William; Siegfriedt, Julianne; Roy-Bujnowski, Kristen; Johnson, Craig; Fulwiler, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Objective In the context of an increasing correctional population and corresponding rates of mental illness and substance abuse among this population, this study focuses on describing the predictors of substance abuse service utilization for ex-inmates with dual disorders. Our aim is to assess the likelihood and characteristics of ex-inmates with mental disorders who access substance abuse treatment services within two years of correctional release. Methods Using merged administrative data on all ex-inmates with open mental health cases released from Massachusetts Department of Corrections and two County Houses of Corrections from 2007 to 2009 (N=2,280) and substance abuse treatment outcome data through 2011, we analyze the influence of demographics, behavioral and mental disorders, and criminal justice variables on entry into substance abuse treatment within 24 months post release. We also describe primary drug use and services utilized for all the ex-inmates who accessed substance abuse services (N=1,383). Regression techniques were used to analyze the probability of utilizing substance abuse treatment services by various demographic, behavioral, and criminal involvement characteristics. Results The prevalence of a history of substance use disorders is high in this population (69%; n = 1,285). Subsequently, at 24 months post release 61% (n = 1,383) of ex-inmates with open mental health cases utilized substance abuse treatment services. This group was disproportionately female, with a preincarceration history of substance abuse, an increased number of previous incarcerations, and more likely released under correctional supervision. Conclusions Substance abuse is a chronic relapsing disorder and dual diagnosis is common among individuals with mental disorders involved with the criminal justice system. Their service needs and contacts across substance abuse, mental health, and criminal justice systems highlight individuals caught up in the institutional circuit. Study results point to the need for expanded and targeted dual diagnosis treatment approaches and relapse prevention for ex-inmates with mental disorders post correctional release. PMID:23543790

  1. Positive Family Social Support: Counteracting Negative Effects of Mental Illness and Substance Abuse to Reduce Jail Ex-inmate Recidivism Rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Solveig Spjeldnes; Hyunzee Jung; Lambert Maguire; Hide Yamatani

    2012-01-01

    The incarceration and recidivism rates in United States jails are marked by high mental health and substance use problems and racial disparity. Nearly 9 million people cycle through approximately 3,500 jails. For this longitudinal study to identify factors predicting recidivism, data came from a study of Allegheny County Jail inmates (N = 301) that concluded in 2008. Eligible participants were

  2. Arranged matches and mental illness: therapists' dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, David; Buchbinder, Jacob Tuvia; Witztum, Eliezer

    2012-01-01

    Traditional societies place especial value on marriage and having children, and marriages are often arranged. A series of situations and dilemmas associated with arranged matches and their consequences are described in the course of mental health work with ultra-orthodox Jewish people with severe mental illness. Issues of confidentiality may arise with parents and matchmakers; on the other hand, respectful cooperation with religious authorities, counselors in the community, and family members is important. Information on genetic counseling, contraception, medication during pregnancy, and breastfeeding are considered and interact with communal structures and practices. There is a need for close support and evaluation during the process of marriage, childbearing, and parenthood. PMID:23244012

  3. Treatment Research in Mental Illness: Improving the Nation's Public Mental Health Care

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    Treatment Research in Mental Illness: Improving the Nation's Public Mental Health Care through NIMH) is to reduce the burden of mental illness and behavioral disorders on the people of the United States through of treatments for mental illnesses in the U.S. The NIMH, through the Division of Services and Intervention

  4. Tobacco use in youth with mental illnesses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamara DeHay; Chad Morris; Mandy Graves May; Karen Devine; Jeanette Waxmonsky

    Despite an abundance of literature documenting the prevalence and dangers of youth tobacco use, there is a relative dearth\\u000a of literature in the area of effective cessation treatments for youth (Fiore et al. in Clinical tobacco guideline: treating\\u000a tobacco use and dependence, 2008). Additionally, although it has been widely accepted that mental illness is highly correlated with tobacco use and

  5. Mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald C. Kessler; Russell T. Jones; Holly A. Parker

    2006-01-01

    Objective To estimate the impact of Hurricane Katrina on mental illness and suicidality by comparing results of a post-Katrina survey with those of an earlier survey. Methods The National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, conducted between February 2001 and February 2003, interviewed 826 adults in the Census Divisions later affected by Hurricane Katrina. The post-Katrina survey interviewed a new sample of 1043 adults

  6. The Picture of Mental Health/Illness in the Printed Media in Three Central European Countries

    PubMed Central

    NAWKOVÁ, LUCIE; NAWKA, ALEXANDER; ADÁMKOVÁ, TEREZA; RUKAVINA, TEA VUKUŠI?; HOLCNEROVÁ, PETRA; KUZMAN, MARTINA ROJNI?; JOVANOVI?, NIKOLINA; BRBOROVI?, OGNJEN; BEDNÁROVÁ, BIBIÁNA; ŽUCHOVÁ, SVETLANA; MIOVSKÝ, MICHAL; RABOCH, JI?Í

    2012-01-01

    Even in the era of the internet, printed media are still among the most frequently identified sources of mental health information. Many studies have shown that this information is frequently negative and contributes to stigmatization of people with mental illness. This international comparative study describes the content of media messages about mental health/illness in terms of stigma in three central European countries. The study sample comprised all articles pertaining to the topic of mental health/illness (N=450) identified during five week-long periods in 2007 chosen from the six most widely read newspapers and magazines in each country. Content analysis methods were used to achieve quantitative as well as qualitative objectives. More than half of all articles contained negative statements reflecting stigma towards persons with mental illness. Substance abuse disorders are the most frequent mental conditions covered in all three countries (22%) and psychotic disorders are the most stigmatized. Countries significantly differ in length of articles, the association of aggressive behavior with persons with mental illness, and in the use of a sensationalized style of writing. Coverage of mental health/illness issues differs to some extent across countries, but is generally of poor quality. Based on our findings, practical recommendations for journalists can be tailored specifically for each country. PMID:21707410

  7. Impact of conducted electrical weapons in a mentally ill population: a brief report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey D. Ho; Donald M. Dawes; Mark A. Johnson; Erik J. Lundin; James R. Miner

    2007-01-01

    IntroductionConducted electrical weapons (CEWs) are used by some law enforcement agencies to subdue mentally ill subjects who are combative, violent, or suicidal. The use of CEWs in this population is controversial. Proponents advocate CEW use to avoid other forms of escalated force. Opponents advocate against CEW use because of the potential for abuse. What is lacking in the medical literature

  8. Opinions about mental illness: A review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith G. Rabkin

    1972-01-01

    Describes the major measures and studies of attitudes about mental illness, mental hospitals, and mental patients. Historical trends in such attitudes are delineated, and studies of attitudes of different groups are summarized, including those of the general public, mental health professionals, college students, and mental patients. Analysis of the susceptibility of such attitudes to modification through academic or practical experience

  9. Mental illness in homeless women: an epidemiological study in Munich, Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Greifenhagen; Manfred Fichter

    1997-01-01

    In an epidemiological survey of the prevalence of mental illness in homeless individuals in Munich, Germany, a probability\\u000a sample of 32 homeless women were interviewed using a standardized diagnostic instrument (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for\\u000a DSM-III diagnoses). Results point to very high prevalence rates of mental disorders among homeless women. The most frequent\\u000a diagnostic groups were alcohol and drug abuse (lifetime

  10. Life skills programmes for chronic mental illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Tungpunkom, Patraporn; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Background Most people with schizophrenia have a cyclical pattern of illness characterised by remission and relapses. The illness can reduce the ability of self-care and functioning and can lead to the illness becoming disabling. Life skills programmes, emphasising the needs associated with independent functioning, are often a part of the rehabilitation process. These programmes have been developed to enhance independent living and quality of life for people with schizophrenia. Objectives To review the effects of life skills programmes compared with standard care or other comparable therapies for people with chronic mental health problems. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (June 2010). We supplemented this process with handsearching and scrutiny of references. We inspected references of all included studies for further trials. Selection criteria We included all relevant randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials for life skills programmes versus other comparable therapies or standard care involving people with serious mental illnesses. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a random-effects model. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), again based on a random-effects model. Main results We included seven randomised controlled trials with a total of 483 participants. These evaluated life skills programmes versus standard care, or support group. We found no significant difference in life skills performance between people given life skills training and standard care (1 RCT, n = 32, MD ?1.10; 95% CI ?7.82 to 5.62). Life skills training did not improve or worsen study retention (5 RCTs, n = 345, RR 1.16; 95% CI 0.40 to 3.36). We found no significant difference in PANSS positive, negative or total scores between life skills intervention and standard care. We found quality of life scores to be equivocal between participants given life skills training (1 RCT, n = 32, MD ?0.02; 95% CI ?0.07 to 0.03) and standard care. Life skills compared with support groups also did not reveal any significant differences in PANSS scores, quality of life, or social performance skills (1 RCT, n = 158, MD ?0.90; 95% CI ?3.39 to 1.59). Authors’ conclusions Currently there is no good evidence to suggest life skills programmes are effective for people with chronic mental illnesses. More robust data are needed from studies that are adequately powered to determine whether life skills training is beneficial for people with chronic mental health problems. PMID:22258941

  11. Biogenetic models of psychopathology, implicit guilt, and mental illness stigma

    PubMed Central

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Todd, Andrew R.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.; Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2009-01-01

    Whereas some research suggests that acknowledgment of the role of biogenetic factors in mental illness could reduce mental illness stigma by diminishing perceived responsibility, other research has cautioned that emphasizing biogenetic aspects of mental illness could produce the impression that mental illness is a stable, intrinsic aspect of a person (“genetic essentialism”), increasing the desire for social distance. We assessed genetic and neurobiological causal attributions about mental illness among 85 people with serious mental illness and 50 members of the public. The perceived responsibility of persons with mental illness for their condition, as well as fear and social distance, were assessed by self-report. Automatic associations between Mental Illness and Guilt and between Self and Guilt were measured by the Brief Implicit Association Test. Among the general public, endorsement of biogenetic models was associated with less perceived responsibility, but also greater social distance. Among people with mental illness, endorsement of genetic models had only negative correlates: greater explicit fear and stronger implicit self-guilt associations. Genetic models may have unexpected negative consequences for implicit self-concept and explicit attitudes of people with serious mental illness. An exclusive focus on genetic models may therefore be problematic for clinical practice and anti-stigma initiatives. PMID:20493559

  12. Understanding causal paths between mental illness and violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Arboleda-Flórez; H. Holley; A. Crisanti

    1998-01-01

    The stigma associated with mental illness is a major concern for patients, families, and providers of health services. One reason for the stigmatization of the mentally ill is the public perception that they are violent and dangerous. Although, traditionally, mental health advocates have argued against this public belief, a recent body of research evidence suggests that patients who suffer from

  13. 250 labels used to stigmatise people with mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Rose; Graham Thornicroft; Vanessa Pinfold; Aliya Kassam

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The stigma against people with mental illness is a major barrier to help-seeking in young people for mental health problems. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of stigma in relation to treatment avoidance in 14 year-old school students in England in relation to how they refer to people with mental illness. METHODS: This is a

  14. The Camberwell Elderly Mentally Ill and Their Needs for Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Abdul-Hamid; S. Johnson; G. Thornicroft; F. Holloway; S. Stansfeld

    2009-01-01

    Background: Previous studies on the elderly mentally ill (graduates) have been undertaken in mental hospital settings and on populations being resettled from hospitals. This paper aims to assess the characteristics and service needs of an epidemiological sample of elderly mentally ill.Aims: The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics, problems, service utilization and needs of a sample of

  15. Sex and mental illness: The generosity of females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amerigo Farina; Henry D. Hagelauer

    1975-01-01

    Female department store clerks met a male confederate who was presented as normal or mentally ill and acted calm or nervous and agitated. Results show that (a) the presence of tension led to rejection, while a history of mental illness had no effect; and (b) in contrast to previous studies which found no sex differences in attitudes toward the mentally

  16. Offenders with Mental Illness in the Correctional System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Maureen L.; Schnell, Marissa J.

    2007-01-01

    The escalating mentally ill population in prisons has created unique challenges for correctional systems, Colorado being no exception with 25% of its incarcerated population having mental health needs. This study examined correctional offenders with mental illness (OMIs) and found a growing number of OMIs in Colorado's prison system. Not only is…

  17. How Clinical Diagnosis Might Exacerbate the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    Stigma can greatly exacerbate the experience of mental illness. Diagnostic classification frequently used by clinical social workers may intensify this stigma by enhancing the public's sense of "groupness" and "differentness" when perceiving people with mental illness. The homogeneity assumed by stereotypes may lead mental health professionals and…

  18. Mental Illness in Offender Populations: Prevalence, Duty and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderstrom, Irina R.

    2007-01-01

    Prisons are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness. This paper examines the prevalence of mental illness in American jails and prisons, the duty government and society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment, and the implications for inmate safety, costs, recidivism, and community reintegration if…

  19. Self-Stigma of Mental Illness in High School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Leah I.; Michel, Natalie M.; Winter, Ariella; Young, Rebecca E.; Flett, Gordon L.; Goldberg, Joel O.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of mental health problems, society continues to stigmatize and discriminate against people with mental illness and in particular, schizophrenia. Among the negative consequences of stigma, is that some individuals with mental illness internalize negative stereotypes about themselves, referred to as self-stigma, which is…

  20. Physical health burdens of women with trauma histories and co-occurring substance abuse and mental disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Jo Larson; Lisa Miller; Marion Becker; Erin Richardson; Nina Kammerer; Jennifer Thom; Joanne Gampel; Andrea Savage

    2005-01-01

    This article documents the physical health burdens of participants in a large, federally funded cross-site study of specialized services for women with histories of trauma (physical or sexual abuse) and co-occurring substance abuse and mental health disorders. Nearly half of the 2729 women in the study (48%) reported serious physical illnesses that frequently limited their daily life activities or required

  1. Are jails replacing the mental health system for the homeless mentally ill?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Belcher

    1988-01-01

    The author explores the process of how homeless mentally ill persons become involved with the criminal justice system. The unique demands of homelessness and chronic mental illness were specifically examined in this naturalistically based study. The author concludes that a combination of severe mental illness, a tendency to decompensate in a nonstructured environment, and an inability or unwillingness to follow

  2. Adult neurogenesis, mental health, and mental illness: hope or hype?

    PubMed

    Eisch, Amelia J; Cameron, Heather A; Encinas, Juan M; Meltzer, Leslie A; Ming, Guo-Li; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda S

    2008-11-12

    Psychiatric and neurologic disorders take an enormous toll on society. Alleviating the devastating symptoms and consequences of neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction, depression, epilepsy, and schizophrenia is a main force driving clinical and basic researchers alike. By elucidating these disease neuromechanisms, researchers hope to better define treatments and preventive therapies. Research suggests that regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis represents a promising approach to treating and perhaps preventing mental illness. Here we appraise the role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in major psychiatric and neurologic disorders within the essential framework of recent progress made in understanding "normal" adult neurogenesis. Topics addressed include the following: the life cycle of an adult hippocampal stem cell and the implications for aging; links between learning and hippocampal neurogenesis; the reciprocal relationship between cocaine self-administration and adult hippocampal neurogenesis; the role of adult neurogenesis in an animal model of depression and response to antidepressant exposure; the impact of neonatal seizures on dentate gyrus neurogenesis; and the contribution of a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene to adult hippocampal neurogenesis. These topics are discussed in light of the regulation of adult neurogenesis, the relationship to normal neurogenesis in adulthood and aging, and, importantly, the manipulation of neurogenesis to promote mental health and treat mental illness. PMID:19005040

  3. Adult Neurogenesis, Mental Health, and Mental Illness: Hope or Hype?

    PubMed Central

    Eisch, Amelia J.; Cameron, Heather A.; Encinas, Juan M.; Meltzer, Leslie A.; Ming, Guo-Li; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda S.

    2009-01-01

    Psychiatric and neurologic disorders take an enormous toll on society. Alleviating the devastating symptoms and consequences of neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction, depression, epilepsy and schizophrenia is a main force driving clinical and basic researchers alike. By elucidating these disease neuromechanisms, researchers hope to better define treatments and preventive therapies. Research suggests that regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis represents a promising approach to treating and perhaps preventing mental illness. Here we appraise the role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in major psychiatric and neurologic disorders within the essential framework of recent progress made in understanding “normal” adult neurogenesis. Topics addressed include the life cycle of an adult hippocampal stem cell and the implications for aging; links between learning and hippocampal neurogenesis; the reciprocal relationship between cocaine self-administration and adult hippocampal neurogenesis; the role of adult neurogenesis in an animal model of depression and response to antidepressant exposure; the impact of neonatal seizures on dentate gyrus neurogenesis; and the contribution of a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene to adult hippocampal neurogenesis. These topics are discussed in light of the regulation of adult neurogenesis, the relationship to “normal” neurogenesis in adulthood and aging, and, importantly, the manipulation of neurogenesis to promote mental health and treat mental illness. PMID:19005040

  4. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Congress established the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in 1992 to "target effectively substance abuse and mental health services to the people most in need." SAMHSA also administers a number of block grant programs and data collection activities. On their homepage, visitors can get started by clicking on the "Data" link at the top of the page and reading through the "What We Are Doing" section. Here interested parties will find highlights of recent reports, state-level data on these topics, and a series of mental health statistics reports. The top of their homepage contains additional sections of interest, including "Grants", "Publications", "Data", and "Newsroom". Visitors should also take a look at the "Featured Resource", which is also on the homepage. In addition, many of the site's materials are available in Spanish. Visitors can follow SAMHSA on various social networks including Facebook YouTube, and Twitter, and they can also sign up for their mailing list if they wish to keep up with this valuable organization.

  5. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale: a multinational review.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Adler, Emerald P; Otilingam, Poorni G; Peters, Townley

    2014-01-01

    The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale is a 29-item questionnaire measuring self-stigma among persons with psychiatric disorders. It was developed with substantial consumer input and has been widely used, but its psychometric qualities have not been comprehensively evaluated across multiple versions. Here we review the 55 known versions, and provide the 47 available versions, including: Arabic, Armenian, Bengali, Bulgarian, Chinese (Mainland, Taiwan, Hong Kong), Croatian, Dutch, English (USA, South Africa), Estonian, Farsi, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Japanese, Khmer, Korean, Lithuanian, Lugandan, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese (Portugal, Brazil), Romanian, Russian, Samoan, Slovenian, Spanish (Spain), Swahili, Swedish, Tongan, Turkish, Urdu, and Yoruba, and qualitative English and Swahili versions, as well as versions for depression, schizophrenia, substance abuse, eating disorders, epilepsy, inflammatory bowel disease, leprosy, smoking, parents and caregivers of people with mental illness, and ethnicity. The various versions show reliability and validity across a wide range of languages, cultures, and writing systems. The most commonly reported findings of studies using the ISMI are that internalized stigma correlates with higher depression, lower self esteem, and higher symptom severity. Initial studies of ways to reduce internalized stigma are promising and warrant further investigation. PMID:24060237

  6. New strategies for representing mental illness on Canadian stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsty Johnston

    2009-01-01

    Workman Arts, a Toronto?based theatre and visual arts company with a 20?year history, provides a rich site for re?imagining stigmatised representations of mental illness. Writing and performing against a long tradition of representing people with mental illnesses as incoherent speakers and visually different, company members seek to re?imagine mental illness on stage in the light of lived experience. Offering high?calibre

  7. Eugenics, genetics, and mental illness stigma in Chinese Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahtoy J. WonPat-BorjaLawrence; Lawrence H. Yang; Bruce G. Link; Jo C. Phelan

    Background  The increasing interest in the genetic causes of mental disorders may exacerbate existing stigma if negative beliefs about\\u000a a genetic illness are generally accepted. China’s history of policy-level eugenics and genetic discrimination in the workplace\\u000a suggests that Chinese communities will view genetic mental illness less favorably than mental illness with non-genetic causes.\\u000a The aim of this study is to identify

  8. HIV testing among adults with mental illness in the United States.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Baligh R; Cui, Wanjun; Thompson, William W; Zack, Matthew M; McKnight-Eily, Lela; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Rose, Charles E; Blank, Michael B

    2014-12-01

    Nationally representative data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to compare HIV testing prevalence among US adults with mental illness (schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, and/or anxiety) to those without, providing an update of prior work using 1999 and 2002 NHIS data. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the probability of ever being tested for HIV by mental illness status, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, substance abuse, excessive alcohol or tobacco use, and HIV risk factors. Based on data from 21,785 respondents, 15% of adults had a psychiatric disorder and 37% ever had an HIV test. Persons with schizophrenia (64%), bipolar disorder (63%), and depression and/or anxiety (47%) were more likely to report ever being tested for HIV than those without mental illness (35%). In multivariable models, individuals reporting schizophrenia (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.68, 95% confidence interval=1.33-2.13), bipolar disease (1.58, 1.39-1.81), and depression and/or anxiety (1.31, 1.25-1.38) were more likely to be tested for HIV than persons without these diagnoses. Similar to previous analyses, persons with mental illness were more likely to have been tested than those without mental illness. However, the elevated prevalence of HIV in populations with mental illness suggests that high levels of testing along with other prevention efforts are needed. PMID:25459230

  9. The Impact of Illness Identity on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip T. Yanos; David Roe; Paul H. Lysaker

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically

  10. Mental health/psychiatric issues in elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill

    2014-11-01

    Elder abuse may be defined as a violation of a vulnerable older person's human and civil rights. Psychiatric illness is an important cause of vulnerability to abuse, especially when it is comorbid with other risk factors, such as physical frailty, sensory impairment, social isolation, and physical dependency. Health care providers are likely to encounter elder abuse regularly, and therefore have an important role in its detection and management, and in the treatment of subsequent psychiatric illness. This article reviews the relationships between psychiatric illnesses and elder abuse and neglect, examines the psychiatric consequences, and discusses how these may be treated. PMID:25439645

  11. 28 CFR 115.83 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...115.83 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...facility shall offer medical and mental health evaluation and, as...

  12. 28 CFR 115.283 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...115.283 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...facility shall offer medical and mental health evaluation and, as...

  13. 28 CFR 115.283 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...115.283 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...facility shall offer medical and mental health evaluation and, as...

  14. 28 CFR 115.383 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...115.383 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...facility shall offer medical and mental health evaluation and, as...

  15. 28 CFR 115.383 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...115.383 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...facility shall offer medical and mental health evaluation and, as...

  16. 28 CFR 115.283 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...115.283 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...facility shall offer medical and mental health evaluation and, as...

  17. 28 CFR 115.83 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...115.83 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...facility shall offer medical and mental health evaluation and, as...

  18. 28 CFR 115.83 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...115.83 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...facility shall offer medical and mental health evaluation and, as...

  19. 28 CFR 115.383 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...115.383 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims...facility shall offer medical and mental health evaluation and, as...

  20. "Head take you": causal attributions of mental illness in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Carlotta M; Whitley, Rob

    2015-02-01

    Causal attributions are a key factor in explanatory models of illness; however, little research on causal attributions of mental illness has been conducted in developing nations in the Caribbean, including Jamaica. Explanatory models of mental illness may be important in understanding illness experience and be a crucial factor in mental health service seeking and utilization. We explored causal attributions of mental illness in Jamaica by conducting 20 focus groups, including 16 community samples, 2 patient samples, and 2 samples of caregivers of patients, with a total of 159 participants. The 5 most commonly endorsed causal attributions of mental illness are discussed: (a) drug-related causes, including ganja (marijuana); (b) biological causes, such as chemical imbalance, familial transmission, and "blood"; (c) psychological causes, including stress and thinking too much; (d) social causes, such as relationship problems and job loss; and (e) spiritual or religious causes, including Obeah. PMID:25406259

  1. Sexual Abuse in Childhood and the Mentally Disordered Female Offender

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Silberman

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the role that a history of child sexual abuse played in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders in a sample of 321 female offenders incarcerated in a maximum-security prison for women. The results show that a history of child sexual abuse increases the likelihood that an inmate would receive mental health treatment. Psychotropic medication is frequently

  2. Posttraumatic Stress and Mental Health Functioning of Sexually Abused Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Avery; Carol Rippey Massat; Marta Lundy

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between levels of posttraumatic stress and overall mental health functioning of fifty-three sexually abused children. This study analyzes the relationships between the mental health functioning of sexual abuse victims and PTSD, using data collected from the Non-Offending Parents Project. Unlike numerous earlier studies, standardized instruments (the Child Assessment Schedule and the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction

  3. SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND MENTAL HEALTH DATA ARCHIVE (SAMHDA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Data Archive (SAMHDA) is an initiative of the Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The goal of the archive is to provide re...

  4. The Impact of Illness Identity on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Yanos, Philip T.; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically driven model of the impact of illness identity on the course and recovery from severe mental illness and reviews relevant research. We propose that accepting a definition of oneself as mentally ill and assuming that mental illness means incompetence and inadequacy impact hope and self-esteem, which further impact suicide risk, coping, social interaction, vocational functioning, and symptom severity. Evidence supports most of the predictions made by the model. Implications for psychiatric rehabilitation services are discussed. PMID:20802840

  5. Mental Illness, Your Client and the Criminal Law: A Handbook for Attorneys Who Represent Persons with Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This handbook for attorneys represents part of an effort to improve legal representation for criminal defendants with mental illness. The handbook was developed and reviewed by both mental health professionals and attorneys experienced in criminal and mental health law. However, it is not a comprehensive guide on mental health law or on how to…

  6. Prevalence and impact of childhood abuse in people with a psychotic illness. Data from the second Australian National Survey of Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sonal; Mackinnon, Andrew; Galletly, Cherrie; Carr, Vaughan; McGrath, John J; Stain, Helen J; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Sweeney, Shaun; Morgan, Vera A

    2014-10-01

    Child abuse has been associated with risk of mental illness, including schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders and, among those with mental illness, with a more severe clinical profile. Using an extensively characterised and epidemiologically representative sample of 1825 Australians with a psychotic illness aged 18-64 years and in contact with mental health services, we estimated the proportion of individuals with psychotic disorders who self-reported child abuse and examined its relationship with clinical and other characteristics. The prevalence of child abuse in this nationally representative sample of people with psychotic illness was 30.6%. Women were almost three times more likely to report child abuse compared to males (OR, 2.8, 95% CI 2.3-3.4). When adjusted for age at interview and socio-economic status, there was no significant relationship between self-reported child abuse and type of psychosis or course of illness. Participants with child abuse were significantly more likely to have subjective thought disorder, lifetime suicide attempt and premorbid personality disorder (females only) and anxiety (males only). Our findings demonstrate that child abuse is relatively common across the range of psychotic disorders, with an elevated risk for women in particular, compounding the already high burden associated with psychotic illness. Clinicians need to inquire routinely about child abuse in order to develop appropriate treatment plans tailored to individual needs. PMID:25107848

  7. Lifetime Abuse, Mental Health, and African American Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blanca M. Ramos; Bonnie E. Carlson; Louise-Anne McNutt

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between lifetime abuse and mental health among 126 African American women and 365 White women from a primary health care setting who participated in a telephone interview as part of a larger study. Seven types of childhood and adult intimate partner abuse were measured. Consistent with hypotheses, (1) lifetime abuse was associated with elevated levels

  8. Telling the whole story: a conceptual model for analysing the mental illness memoir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maureen Donohue-Smith

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to describe the advantages and limitations of using the mental illness memoir to teach future health care providers about mental illness. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A review of the challenges to reconstructing the mental illness experience is followed by “caveats and considerations” in employing the mental illness memoir to teach prospective health care providers about mental illness.

  9. Constructing Mental Illness as Dangerous: A Pilot Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Wilson; Raymond Nairn; John Coverdale; Aroha Panapa

    1999-01-01

    Objective: There is a dearth of studies examining how dangerousness is constructed in media depictions of mentally ill individuals who are frequently portrayed as acting violently. The aim of the present study was to identify the contribution of diverse technical, semiotic and discursive resources utilised in portraying a character with a mental illness in a prime-time drama as dangerous.Method: Discourse

  10. Family Burden and Family Stigma in Major Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefley, Harriet P.

    1989-01-01

    Mental illness has a catastrophic impact on the family, subjecting its members to severe burden and life stress. In addition, families are often implicated in the origins of the illness by themselves, society, and mental health professionals. New alliances with clinicians are helping to support and destigmatize these families. (AF)

  11. Longitudinal Study of Student Attitudes Toward People with Mental Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil H. Penny

    2002-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of students (n = 36) in an undergraduate occupational therapy program toward people with mental illness and physical disabilities, and the effect of educational experiences on attitudes.Method. Two attitude scales, the Attitude Toward Disabled Persons (ATDP-A) and Opinions About Mental Illness (OMI), were administered to participants over a three

  12. COMMUNITY LIVING: METAPHORICAL INSTITUTIONALISATION FOR PEOPLE WITH A MENTAL ILLNESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorna Moxham

    Contemporary positions argue that the best place for people with a mental illness to be treated is in the community and this is where 98% of people with a mental illness currently reside. This relocation from institution to community happened as a result of the deinstitutionalisation process that occurred in Australia largely in the 1980s and during the 1990s in

  13. Perception of and Attitude towards Mental Illness in Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samir Al-Adawi; Atsu S. S. Dorvlo; Suad S. Al-Ismaily; Dalal A. Al-Ghafry; Balquis Z. Al-Noobi; Ahmed Al-Salmi; David T. Burke; Mrugeshkumar K. Shah; Harith Ghassany; Suma P. Chand

    2002-01-01

    Background: As conceptions of mental illness are often dictated by prevailing socio-cultural factors and the philosophy of the time, there is little research to substantiate how mental illness is perceived in the Arab world in the light of both traditional and more recent modernization and acculturation processes.Aims: To examine whether social factors exert an influence on a person's attitude towards

  14. The mentally ill in nursing and old people's homes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Lehmkuhl; G. Bosch; I. Steinhart

    1987-01-01

    Having taken into account the advantages and disadvantages of all the investigations hitherto carried out in the German Federal Republic into the prevalence of the mentally ill and handicapped in geriatric nursing and old people's homes, we conducted our own research project using our own investigatory method. This involved the detailed recording of the mentally ill in such homes and

  15. Underdiagnosis using scidr in the homeless mentally ill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph J. Parks; Geri Kmetz; James Randolph Hillard

    1995-01-01

    There are a growing number of studies attempting to diagnose the degree and extent of mental illness among the homeless. Increasingly, these studies are relying on structured diagnostic interviews such as the structured clinical interview for DSM III R diagnosis (SCIDR). This study examines the sensitivity of the SCID in diagnosing major mental illness among the homeless. Comparing SCID interviews

  16. Update in Smoking and Mental Illness: A Primary Care Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen E. Lasser

    2009-01-01

    This article will review population-based nationally representative data on rates of smoking and tobacco cessation in adults with and without mental illness. We begin with a review of the methods and findings from the 1991–1992 National Comorbidity Survey. This study found that 41% of persons who had a mental illness in the past month were current smokers, that persons with

  17. Integrating Mental Illness Prevention into Community-Based Undergraduate Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seed, Mary St. John; Higgins, Sally

    2003-01-01

    Recent research on temperament and attachment theory highlights the importance of early intervention to helping children develop secure attachments and prevent mental illnesses. A mental illness curriculum for nursing students should integrate concepts from psychiatry and public health to prepare community-based for participation in intervention.…

  18. Making Meaning of Citizenship: Mental Illness, Forensic Involvement, and Homelessness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison N. Ponce; Ashley Clayton; Jenny Noia; Michael Rowe; Maria J. OConnell

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with mental illness, substance use disorders, and criminal justice involvement who experience homelessness are often marginalized and have difficulty achieving community inclusion. A framework of citizenship provides a basis for understanding the components of integration necessary to achieve status as a member of one's community. A citizenship “map” was presented to focus groups of persons with mental illness and

  19. Improving Employment Outcomes for Persons With Severe Mental Illnesses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony F. Lehman; Richard Goldberg; Lisa B. Dixon; Scot McNary; Leticia Postrado; Ann Hackman; Karen McDonnell

    2002-01-01

    Background: Unemployment remains a major conse- quence of schizophrenia and other severe mental ill- nesses. This study assesses the effectiveness of the Indi- vidual Placement and Support model of supportive employment relative to usual psychosocial rehabilita- tion services for improving employment among inner- city patients with these disorders. Methods: Two hundred nineteen outpatients with se- vere mental illnesses, 75% with

  20. Mental Illness as a Barrier to Marriage among Unmarried Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores how mental illness shapes transitions to marriage among unwed mothers using augmented data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (N = 2,351). We estimate proportional hazard models to assess the effects of mental illness on the likelihood of marriage over a 5-year period following a nonmarital birth. Diagnosed…

  1. Art Education and Disability Studies Perspectives on Mental Illness Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, John K.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation critically examines mental illness discourses through the intersecting disciplinary lenses of art education and disability studies. Research from multiple disciplines is compared and theorized to uncover the ways in which discourses, or language systems, have oppressively constructed and represented "mental illness." To establish…

  2. New Strategies for Representing Mental Illness on Canadian Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Kirsty

    2009-01-01

    Workman Arts, a Toronto-based theatre and visual arts company with a 20-year history, provides a rich site for re-imagining stigmatised representations of mental illness. Writing and performing against a long tradition of representing people with mental illnesses as incoherent speakers and visually different, company members seek to re-imagine…

  3. A Unique Population: Women Who Are Homeless and Mentally Ill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markos, Patricia A.; Baron, Heather Lyn; Allen, Daniel N.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a unique population within the homeless community--women who are homeless and mentally ill. Homelessness prevalence and etiology data are presented, followed by a general discussion of how mental illness affects people who are homeless. The article provides an overview of women who are homeless, focusing on those who are…

  4. The Relationship between Cyber Crime and Mental Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shabana Kabeer; Maqbool Uddin Shaikh

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an attempt is made to describe the relationship between cyber crime and mental illness. It will create awareness among people about cyber crimes and criminality due to mental illness. Computers and the internet make many actions easier for us. They also make many unlawful activities easier for criminals such as the sharing of, copy right infringement, stock

  5. When and why should mentally ill prisoners be transferred to secure hospitals: a proposed algorithm.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Tobias; Lanquillon, Stefan; Graf, Marc

    2013-01-01

    For reasons well known and researched in detail, worldwide prevalence rates for mental disorders are much higher in prison populations than in general, not only for sentenced prisoners but also for prisoners on remand, asylum seekers on warrant for deportation and others. Moreover, the proportion of imprisoned individuals is rising in most countries. Therefore forensic psychiatry must deal not only with the typically young criminal population, vulnerable to mental illness due to social stress and at an age when rates of schizophrenia, suicide, drug abuse and most personality disorders are highest, but also with an increasingly older population with age-related diseases such as dementia. While treatment standards for these mental disorders are largely published and accepted, and scientific evidence as to screening prisoners for mental illness is growing, where to treat them is dependent on considerations for public safety and local conditions such as national legislation, special regulations and the availability of treatment facilities (e.g., in prisons, in special medical wards within prisons or in secure hospitals). While from a medical point of view a mentally ill prisoner should be treated in a hospital, the ultimate decision must consider these different issues. In this article the authors propose an algorithm comprising screening procedures for mental health and a treatment chain for mentally ill prisoners based on treatment facilities in prison, medical safety, human rights, ethics, and the availability of services at this interface between prison and medicine. PMID:23706656

  6. Mental illness among Bhutanese shamans in Nepal.

    PubMed

    van Ommeren, Mark; Komproe, Ivan; Cardeña, Etzel; Thapa, Suraj B; Prasain, Dinesh; de Jong, Joop T V M; Sharma, Bhogendra

    2004-04-01

    Despite efforts to promote traditional medicine, allopathic practitioners often look with distrust at traditional practices. Shamans in particular are often regarded with ambivalence and have been considered mentally ill people. We tested the hypothesis that shamanism is an expression of psychopathology. In the Bhutanese refugee community in Nepal, a community with a high number of shamans, we surveyed a representative community sample of 810 adults and assessed ICD-10 mental disorders through structured diagnostic interviews. Approximately 7% of male refugees and 0.5% of female refugees reported being shamans. After controlling for demographic differences, the shamans did not differ from the comparison group in terms of 12-month and lifetime ICD-10 severe depressive episode, specific phobia, persistent somatoform pain, posttraumatic stress, generalized anxiety, or dissociative disorders. This first-ever, community-based, psychiatric epidemiological survey among shamans indicated no evidence that shamanism is an expression of psychopathology. The study's finding may assist in rectifying shamans' reputation, which has been tainted by past speculation of psychopathology. PMID:15060406

  7. Perceived mental illness stigma, intimate relationships and sexual risk behavior in youth with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths’ experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth’s sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:25477706

  8. The Effect of Economic, Physical, and Psychological Abuse on Mental Health: A Population-Based Study of Women in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Antai, Diddy; Oke, Ayo; Braithwaite, Patrick; Lopez, Gerald Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Background. The comparative effect of economic abuse and other forms of abuse in predicting depression and other mental health disorders has not been previously investigated despite its relevance for mental illness prevention. Objective. To determine the differential association of economic abuse on psychological distress and suicide attempts. Study Design. We used cross-sectional data from women aged 15–49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) (N = 9,316). Results. Adjusting for sociodemographic confounders revealed positive associations between economic, physical, or psychological abuse and suicide attempts and psychological distress. Psychological and economic abuse were the strongest predictors of suicide attempts and psychological distress, respectively. Economic abuse was also negatively associated with psychological distress. Comorbidity with one mental health disorder greatly increased the odds of reporting the other mental health disorder. Conclusion. Overall, the results elucidate the differential effects of these forms of abuse on women's mental health. PMID:25525517

  9. 77 FR 12522 - Tentative Eligibility Determinations; Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ...Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness AGENCY: Department of Veterans...Gulf War veterans who developed a mental illness other than psychosis within two...eligibility for psychosis and other mental illness.'' Copies of comments...

  10. 38 CFR 17.109 - Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis. 17...Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis. (a...the Persian Gulf War. (b) Mental illness (other than psychosis)....

  11. 78 FR 28140 - Tentative Eligibility Determinations; Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness AGENCY: Department of Veterans...Gulf War veterans who developed a mental illness other than psychosis within 2...include veterans with psychosis or mental illness other than psychosis. We...

  12. 38 CFR 17.109 - Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis. 17...Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis. (a...the Persian Gulf War. (b) Mental illness (other than psychosis)....

  13. Treatment of Children with Mental Illness: Frequently Asked Questions about the Treatment of Mental Illness in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Research shows that half of all lifetime cases of mental illness begin by age 14. Scientists are discovering that changes in the body leading to mental illness may start much earlier, before any symptoms appear. Through greater understanding of when and how fast specific areas of children's brains develop, we are learning more about the early…

  14. Children's Conceptions of Mental Illness: A Naive Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Claudine; Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports two studies that investigated children's conceptions of mental illness using a naive theory approach, drawing upon a conceptual framework for analysing illness representations which distinguishes between the identity, causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of an illness. The studies utilized semi-structured interviewing…

  15. Actitudes Haci la Enfermedad Mental: Revision Bibliografica (Attitudes toward Mental Illness: Revised Bibliography). Publication No. 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefani, Dorina

    In this work, some of the most important instruments used to measure attitudes toward mental illness were analysed. A revision of different experimental investigations which studied attitudes toward mental illness among general public, mental health professionals and patients and their relatives was made. Some of the strategies applied to change…

  16. Racial Disparities in Mental Health Outcomes after Psychiatric Hospital Discharge among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after…

  17. Mentally Ill Offenders and Community Transitions: Resource Acquisition and Recidivism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Trupin; Peter N. Wood; Victoria L. Harris

    1999-01-01

    National (U.S.) estimates suggest that over 210,000 adult felons are released each year with mental illness severe enough to warrant significant attention from prison mental health staff. Previous studies concerning mentally ill offenders have focused on criminological variables such as age and past criminal history to explain recidivism rates of 65-80 percent. This retrospective study examined the influence on recidivism

  18. Sandtray-Worldplay for People Who Experience Chronic Mental Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gene Schadler; Gisela Schubach De Domenico

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of how Sandtray-Worldplay (ST-WP) can augment the treatment of people with severe mental illness. Optimal treatments for clients with mental illness strike a balance between medical and psychological therapies. These treatments take into consideration the environmental, psychobiological, and psychological processes connected with mental health problems. The ST-WP paradigm provides a multidimensional treatment model that is

  19. Mental Health Promotion and Illness Prevention: A Challenge for Psychiatrists

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jung-Ah; Lee, Chang-Uk

    2013-01-01

    Mental health is essential for individual and public health. To improve mental health, promotion, prevention, and the treatment of disease are required. These three kinds of interventions are interrelated but independent from one another. Although separate efforts for mental health promotion and prevention are needed as well as the public need of mental health promotion and well-being, psychiatrists usually are not accustomed to mental health promotion and prevention. This review introduces an overview of the concept, subjects according to target populations, and various intervention strategies for mental health promotion and prevention of mental illnesses. Based on literatures to date, understanding of developmental psychology, lifestyle medicine, and biopsychosocial contributors of mental health with a macroscopic perspective might help to practice mental health promotion and illness prevention. PMID:24474978

  20. Public stigma towards mental illness in the Greek culture.

    PubMed

    Tzouvara, V; Papadopoulos, C

    2014-12-01

    Mental illness stigma negatively affects the lives of individuals with mental health disorders. Studies have indicated that the type and degree of stigma significantly varies across cultures. This study aimed to add to this body of knowledge by examining the prevalence and the type of mental illness stigma among individuals who identified themselves as Greek. It also examined the influence of a range of potential within-culture stigma moderating factors, including levels of previous experience with mental illness and mental illness knowledge. A cross-sectional quantitative design was employed, and 111 participants living in England and Greece were sampled through the snowball sampling technique. Stigma prevalence was measured using the 'Community Attitudes to Mental Illness' questionnaire. The findings revealed that participants showed a high degree of sympathy for people with mental illness but also considered them to be inferior and of a lower social class, and needing strict societal control. Higher stigma was significantly associated with being educated in England (instead of Greece), higher religiosity, lower knowledge levels and lower levels personal experience of mental illness. Targeted antistigma campaigns specifically tailored for the Greek culture are required in order to help reduce stigmatizing attitudes. PMID:24646410

  1. Changing the tide: stigma, school youth, and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Marsha

    2015-03-01

    Schools are in a key position not only to identify mental health concerns early but to address issues of stigma that prevent both children and their parents from seeking help with mental illness. Stigma associated with mental illness perpetuates isolative behavior and poor engagement within the academic community. Programs within schools that address mental health issues and support open communication with families can reduce the pain and isolation that is often the experience of youth with undiagnosed and untreated mental and emotional disorders. PMID:25816446

  2. The Link between Childhood Trauma and Mental Illness: Effective Interventions for Mental Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Barbara; Gallop, Ruth

    Many people seeking help from the mental health system have histories of childhood trauma from sexual and physical abuse. Little literature is available for counselors, mental health workers, and other professionals on the topic of specialized therapy for abuse survivors. Counselors have a crucial role in helping these clients heal and recover.…

  3. Viewing Popular Films about Mental Illness through a Sociological Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses an exercise she uses requiring students to view a popular film that portrays a particular mental disorder or a character with a mental disorder. Students analyze the film and write two papers, one about the sociological model of mental illness and a second about possible links between media images and the…

  4. Employing Persons With Serious Mental Illness Workers with mental illness, even serious disorders, have occupational profiles similar to those of persons without mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Mechanic; Scott Bilder; Donna D. McAlpine

    Data from various national surveys find that approximately half the population with mental disorders is gainfully employed across the entire range of occupations; such persons have an employment rate of about two-thirds that of the general population. More than a third of persons with serious mental illness also work, and many hold high-status po- sitions. Among those with schizophrenia, a

  5. Local suffering and the global discourse of mental health and human rights: An ethnographic study of responses to mental illness in rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Read, Ursula M; Adiibokah, Edward; Nyame, Solomon

    2009-01-01

    Background The Global Movement for Mental Health has brought renewed attention to the neglect of people with mental illness within health policy worldwide. The maltreatment of the mentally ill in many low-income countries is widely reported within psychiatric hospitals, informal healing centres, and family homes. International agencies have called for the development of legislation and policy to address these abuses. However such initiatives exemplify a top-down approach to promoting human rights which historically has had limited impact at the level of those living with mental illness and their families. Methods This research forms part of a longitudinal anthropological study of people with severe mental illness in rural Ghana. Visits were made to over 40 households with a family member with mental illness, as well as churches, shrines, hospitals and clinics. Ethnographic methods included observation, conversation, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with people with mental illness, carers, healers, health workers and community members. Results Chaining and beating of the mentally ill was found to be commonplace in homes and treatment centres in the communities studied, as well as with-holding of food ('fasting'). However responses to mental illness were embedded within spiritual and moral perspectives and such treatment provoked little sanction at the local level. Families struggled to provide care for severely mentally ill relatives with very little support from formal health services. Psychiatric services were difficult to access, particularly in rural communities, and also seen to have limitations in their effectiveness. Traditional and faith healers remained highly popular despite the routine maltreatment of the mentally ill in their facilities. Conclusion Efforts to promote the human rights of those with mental illness must engage with the experiences of mental illness within communities affected in order to grasp how these may underpin the use of practices such as mechanical restraint. Interventions which operate at the local level with those living with mental illness within rural communities, as well as family members and healers, may have greater potential to effect change in the treatment of the mentally ill than legislation or investment in services alone. PMID:19825191

  6. Treatment Considerations for HIV-Infected Individuals with Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Himelhoch, Seth; Walkup, James; Eisenberg, Marlene M.

    2013-01-01

    There has been a general recognition of a syndemic that includes HIV/AIDS and serve mental illnesses including schizophrenia, major depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and others. The pathophysiology and direction of effects between severe mental illness and HIV infection is less clear however, and relatively little work has been done on prevention and treatment for people with these complex, co-occurring conditions. Here we present the most recent work that has been published on HIV and mental illness. Further, we describe the need for better treatments for “triply diagnosed persons”; those with HIV, mental illness, and substance abuse and dependence. Finally, we describe the potential drug-drug interactions between psychotropic medications and anti-retrovirals, and the need for better treatment guidelines in this area. We describe one example of an individually tailored intervention for persons with serious mental illness and HIV (PATH+) that shows that integrated community-based treatments using advanced practice nurses (APNs) as health navigators can be successful in improving health-related quality of life and reducing the burden of disease in these persons. PMID:24158425

  7. Treatment considerations for HIV-infected individuals with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Blank, Michael B; Himelhoch, Seth; Walkup, James; Eisenberg, Marlene M

    2013-12-01

    There has been a general recognition of a syndemic that includes HIV/AIDS and serve mental illnesses including schizophrenia, major depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and others. The pathophysiology and direction of effects between severe mental illness and HIV infection is less clear however, and relatively little work has been done on prevention and treatment for people with these complex, co-occurring conditions. Here we present the most recent work that has been published on HIV and mental illness. Further, we describe the need for better treatments for "triply diagnosed persons"; those with HIV, mental illness, and substance abuse and dependence. Finally, we describe the potential drug-drug interactions between psychotropic medications and anti-retrovirals, and the need for better treatment guidelines in this area. We describe one example of an individually tailored intervention for persons with serious mental illness and HIV (PATH+) that shows that integrated community-based treatments using advanced practice nurses (APNs) as health navigators can be successful in improving health-related quality of life and reducing the burden of disease in these persons. PMID:24158425

  8. Insight into mental illness, self-stigma, and the family burden of parents of persons with a severe mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon; Itamar Levy; Shlomo Kravetz; Adi Vollanski-Narkis; David Roe

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundParents of persons with severe mental illness (SMI) often experience burden due to the illness of their daughter or son. In the present study, the possibility that parents' self-stigma moderates the relationship between the parents' insight into a daughter's or son's illness and the parents' sense of burden was investigated.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of Supported Housing for Homeless Persons With Mental Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Rosenheck; Wesley Kasprow; Linda Frisman; Wen Liu-Mares

    2003-01-01

    Background: Supported housing, integrating clinical and housing services, is a widely advocated intervention for homeless people with mental illness. In 1992, the US De- partment of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) established the HUD-VA Supported Housing (HUD-VASH) program. Methods: Homeless veterans with psychiatric and\\/or sub- stance abuse disorders or both (N=460) were

  10. Attitudes towards mental illness in Malawi: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness are strongly linked to suffering, disability and poverty. In order to protect the rights of those with mental disorders and to sensitively develop services, it is vital to gain a more accurate understanding of the frequency and nature of stigma against people with mental illness. Little research about this issue has been conducted in Sub- Saharan Africa. Our study aimed to describe levels of stigma in Malawi. Methods A cross-sectional survey of patients and carers attending mental health and non-mental health related clinics in a general hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Participants were interviewed using an adapted version of the questionnaire developed for the “World Psychiatric Association Program to Reduce Stigma and Discrimination Because of Schizophrenia”. Results 210 participants participated in our study. Most attributed mental disorder to alcohol and illicit drug abuse (95.7%). This was closely followed by brain disease (92.8%), spirit possession (82.8%) and psychological trauma (76.1%). There were some associations found between demographic variables and single question responses, however no consistent trends were observed in stigmatising beliefs. These results should be interpreted with caution and in the context of existing research. Contrary to the international literature, having direct personal experience of mental illness seemed to have no positive effect on stigmatising beliefs in our sample. Conclusions Our study contributes to an emerging picture that individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa most commonly attribute mental illness to alcohol/ illicit drug use and spirit possession. Our work adds weight to the argument that stigma towards mental illness is an important global health and human rights issue. PMID:22823941

  11. A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism.

    PubMed

    Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature. PMID:25133916

  12. Health professionals' familiarity and attributions to mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Chikaodiri, Aghukwa Nkereuwem

    2010-01-01

    A few months from the time of this survey, the nearly completed inpatient psychiatric facility within the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital's complex would be ready for admissions. Understanding the health workers' level of experience of mental illness and their likely behavioural responses towards people with psychiatric illness, therefore, should be a good baseline to understanding their likely reactions towards admitting such patients within a general hospital setting. The study, which used a pre-tested and adapted attribution questionnaire, was prospective and cross-sectional. Randomly selected health workers in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital had their level of familiarity and attributions towards psychiatric patients assessed. The respondents showed a high level of experience with mental illness, with more than 3 in 5 of them having watched movies on mental illness before. More than half of them held positive (favorable) attributions towards persons with mental illness on nine of the ten assessed attribution factors. Almost all held negative (unfavourable) opinion towards intimate relationships with such persons. Attribution factors, “Responsibility, “Anger”, “Dangerousness”, “Fear” and “Segregation” were significantly related to the respondents' level of education (P<0.05). Marital status of the respondents related significantly to “Pity” and “Avoidance” factors (P<0.05). Having watched movies on mental illness significantly related to “Responsibility” and “Fear” factors (P<0.05). Programs designed to improve the health workers mental health literacy, and increased positive professional contacts with mentally ill persons on treatment, would further enhance their perceived positive attributions towards them. PMID:25478083

  13. Correctional officers and the incarcerated mentally ill: responses to psychiatric illness in prison.

    PubMed

    Galanek, Joseph D

    2015-03-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. men's prison, I investigate how this social and cultural context structures relations between correctional officers and inmates with severe mental illness. Utilizing interpretivist perspectives, I explore how these relations are structured by trust, respect, and meanings associated with mental illness. Officers' discretionary responses to mentally ill inmates included observations to ensure psychiatric stability and flexibility in rule enforcement and were embedded within their role to ensure staff and inmate safety. Officers identified housing, employment, and social support as important for inmates' psychiatric stability as medications. Inmates identified officers' observation and responsiveness to help seeking as assisting in institutional functioning. These findings demonstrate that this prison's structures and values enable officers' discretion with mentally ill inmates, rather than solely fostering custodial responses to these inmates' behaviors. These officers' responses to inmates with mental illness concurrently support custodial control and the prison's order. PMID:25219680

  14. Reinforcing stigmatization: coverage of mental illness in Spanish newspapers.

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Enric; López-Muntaner, Judit; Ceruelo, Santiago; Basora, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Because the media influences society's perceptions of reality, the treatment of mental illness in the news can have an effect on the societal stigma related to it. This study aimed to analyze the content and form of news items related to mental illness in Spanish newspapers in order to understand their role in propagating or attenuating stereotypes, prejudices, and stigma. The authors conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study on the basis of a review of news items related to mental illness appearing in the Spanish print media. A sample was taken from articles published on the subject in the 20 Spanish newspapers with the widest circulations over the course of the year 2010. Formal elements and content were analyzed by means of a structured evaluation system. The authors analyzed 695 news items. The content of 47.9% (n = 333) of the articles was not strictly related to mental illness, but rather clinical or psychiatric terms were used metaphorically, and frequently in a pejorative sense. The remaining 52.1% (n = 362) consisted of news items related specifically to mental illness. Of these, news items linking mental illness to danger were the most common (178 texts, 49.2%), specifically those associating mental illness with violent crime (130 texts, 35.9%) or a danger to others (126 texts, 34.8%). The results confirm the hypothesis that the press treats mental illness in a manner that encourages stigmatization. The authors appeal to the press's responsibility to society and advocate an active role in reducing the stigma towards mental illness. PMID:24708534

  15. Intensive case management for severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Dieterich, Marina; Irving, Claire B; Park, Bert; Marshall, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background Intensive Case Management (ICM) is a community based package of care, aiming to provide long term care for severely mentally ill people who do not require immediate admission. ICM evolved from two original community models of care, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management (CM), where ICM emphasises the importance of small caseload (less than 20) and high intensity input. Objectives To assess the effects of Intensive Case Management (caseload <20) in comparison with non-Intensive Case Management (caseload > 20) and with standard community care in people with severe mental illness. To evaluate whether the effect of ICM on hospitalisation depends on its fidelity to the ACT model and on the setting. Search methods For the current update of this review we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (February 2009), which is compiled by systematic searches of major databases, hand searches and conference proceedings. Selection criteria All relevant randomised clinical trials focusing on people with severe mental illness, aged 18 to 65 years and treated in the community-care setting, where Intensive Case Management, non-Intensive Case Management or standard care were compared. Outcomes such as service use, adverse effects, global state, social functioning, mental state, behaviour, quality of life, satisfaction and costs were sought. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For binary outcomes we calculated relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data we estimated mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% confidence interval (CI). We employed a random-effects model for analyses. We performed a random-effects meta-regression analysis to examine the association of the intervention’s fidelity to the ACT model and the rate of hospital use in the setting where the trial was conducted with the treatment effect. Main results We included 38 trials (7328 participants) in this review. The trials provided data for two comparisons: 1. ICM versus standard care, 2. ICM versus non-ICM. 1. ICM versus standard care Twenty-four trials provided data on length of hospitalisation, and results favoured Intensive Case Management (n=3595, 24 RCTs, MD ?0.86 CI ?1.37 to ?0.34). There was a high level of heterogeneity, but this significance still remained when the outlier studies were excluded from the analysis (n=3143, 20 RCTs, MD ?0.62 CI ?1.00 to ?0.23). Nine studies found participants in the ICM group were less likely to be lost to psychiatric services (n=1633, 9 RCTs, RR 0.43 CI 0.30 to 0.61, I2=49%, p=0.05). One global state scale did show an Improvement in global state for those receiving ICM, the GAF scale (n=818, 5 RCTs, MD 3.41 CI 1.66 to 5.16). Results for mental state as measured through various rating scales, however, were equivocal, with no compelling evidence that ICM was really any better than standard care in improving mental state. No differences in mortality between ICM and standard care groups occurred, either due to ’all causes’ (n=1456, 9 RCTs, RR 0.84 CI 0.48 to 1.47) or to ’suicide’ (n=1456, 9 RCTs, RR 0.68 CI 0.31 to 1.51). Social functioning results varied, no differences were found in terms of contact with the legal system and with employment status, whereas significant improvement in accommodation status was found, as was the incidence of not living independently, which was lower in the ICM group (n=1185, 4 RCTs, RR 0.65 CI 0.49 to 0.88). Quality of life data found no significant difference between groups, but data were weak. CSQ scores showed a greater participant satisfaction in the ICM group (n=423, 2 RCTs, MD 3.23 CI 2.31 to 4.14). 2. ICM versus non-ICM The included studies failed to show a significant advantage of ICM in reducing the average length of hospitalisation (n=2220, 21 RCTs, MD ?0.08 CI ?0.37 to 0.21). They did find ICM to be more advantageous than non-ICM in reducing rate of lost to follo

  16. Census enumeration of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded in the nineteenth century

    PubMed Central

    Gorwitz, Kurt

    1974-01-01

    Enumerations of the mentally ill and mentally retarded were included in the six U.S. censuses conducted between 1840 and 1890. Inclusion of these categories reflected the new concern for the mentally ill and mentally retarded that was emerging at that time as part of a new social consciousness. Dr. Gorwitz analyzes these census results, considers the limitations of the data, and discusses the factors that led to discontinuation of the enumerations of the two groups after the 1890 census. PMID:4274650

  17. Grant Title: POSTDOCTORAL FELLOWSHIP IN MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE SERVICES Funding Opportunity Number: NA

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Grant Title: POSTDOCTORAL FELLOWSHIP IN MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE SERVICES (MHSAS) Funding Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Area of Research: Provide postdoctoral training for mental Opportunity Number: NA Agency/Department: American Psychological Association (APA), Substance Abuse and Mental

  18. Social capital and mental illness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, M. J; McKenzie, K.; Harpham, T.; Huttly, S.

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: The concept of social capital has influenced mental health policies of nations and international organisations despite its limited evidence base. This papers aims to systematically review quantitative studies examining the association between social capital and mental illness. Design and setting: Twenty electronic databases and the reference sections of papers were searched to identify published studies. Authors of papers were contacted for unpublished work. Anonymised papers were reviewed by the authors of this paper. Papers with a validated mental illness outcome and an exposure variable agreed as measuring social capital were included. No limitations were put on date or language of publication. Main results: Twenty one studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. Fourteen measured social capital at the individual level and seven at an ecological level. The former offered evidence for an inverse relation between cognitive social capital and common mental disorders. There was moderate evidence for an inverse relation between cognitive social capital and child mental illness, and combined measures of social capital and common mental disorders. The seven ecological studies were diverse in methodology, populations investigated, and mental illness outcomes, making them difficult to summarise. Conclusions: Individual and ecological social capital may measure different aspects of the social environment. Current evidence is inadequate to inform the development of specific social capital interventions to combat mental illness. PMID:16020636

  19. Mentally ill offenders in prison: the Belgian case.

    PubMed

    Vandevelde, Stijn; Soyez, Veerle; Vander Beken, Tom; De Smet, Stefaan; Boers, Anja; Broekaert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    According to the EUPRIS-study on mental health in prisons (2007), available data on mental disorders in prison are scarce. Therefore, this study aims at summarizing and discussing the available knowledge on incarcerated mentally ill offenders concerning: (1) the screening and assessment for detecting mental health; (2) the psychiatric expertise in order to evaluate the mental status; and (3) the development and provision of forensic psychiatric treatment and care. These findings will be applied to the current situation in Belgium, which is a particularly interesting case. Belgium is currently facing difficulties concerning a large population of interned mentally ill offenders residing in correctional establishments. Implications with regard to the penal code, general or mental health legislation, screening, assessment, and treatment could deliver interesting viewpoints on how this problem could be tackled more effectively. Therefore, the findings will be discussed with reference to the international scientific and policy debate, focusing on ethical implications. PMID:21122917

  20. Characteristics of persons with severe mental illness who have been incarcerated for murder.

    PubMed

    Matejkowski, Jason C; Cullen, Sara W; Solomon, Phyllis L

    2008-01-01

    In this descriptive study, we analyzed data collected from multiple state agencies on 95 persons with severe mental illness who were convicted of murder in Indiana between 1990 and 2002. Subjects were predominantly suffering from a mood disorder, were white and male with a high school education or equivalent, were living in stabilized housing, and, to a lesser degree, were involved in significant intimate and familial relationships. Rage or anger, overwhelmingly directed toward intimate or familial relations by the use of a firearm or sharp object, was the most frequently mentioned motive for murder. Most of those studied had been raised in households with significant family dysfunction, had extensive histories of substance abuse and criminality, and had received little treatment for their mental and substance use disorders. Findings are contextualized and compared with similarly descriptive studies of nonlethal violence and persons with a mental illness; hospitalized, schizophrenic and psychotic murderers; and homicide offenders outside the United States. PMID:18354127

  1. Prevalence of Internalized Stigma among Persons with Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    West, Michelle L.; Yanos, Philip T.; Smith, Stephen M.; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose There is evidence that internalized stigma significantly impacts the lives of people with severe mental illness. Nevertheless, there is little data on the prevalence of clinically significant internalized stigma. This study investigated the current prevalence and demographic correlates of significantly elevated levels of internalized stigma in two samples of people with severe mental illness living in the community. Method A total of 144 people (79.9% males, 20.1% females) participated, completing a demographic form and the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale. Results Overall, 36% of the sample had elevated internalized stigma scores using a cutoff criterion. Participants in the middle of the age distribution had the highest scores, and there was a site difference. No other demographic variables studied were related to overall internalized stigma. Conclusions We conclude that internalized stigma affects a relatively high percentage of people with severe mental illness. PMID:21804951

  2. Mental Illness, Mass Shootings, and the Politics of American Firearms

    PubMed Central

    MacLeish, Kenneth T.

    2015-01-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control “won’t prevent” another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when “mentally ill” ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

  3. Abandoned minds : the escalating crisis of geriatric mental illness

    E-print Network

    Sipics, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Older adults are susceptible to the same mental afflictions that affect other age groups; depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, and other illnesses affect all adult age groups to varying degrees. Yet despite recent ...

  4. Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of american firearms.

    PubMed

    Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2015-02-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

  5. The Stigma of Mental Illness in Germany: A Trend Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias C. Angermeyer; Herbert Matschinger

    2005-01-01

    Background: While there are some indications that the mental health literacy of the public has improved within recent years, the findings concerning its attitudes towards the mentally ill are quite inconsistent.Aims: The aim of this study is to examine whether any changes have taken place inGermany over the last decade regarding the stigmatisation ofmentally ill people.Method: In 2001, a representative

  6. Changing Middle Schoolers' Attitudes About Mental Illness Through Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy C. Watson; Emeline Otey; Anne L. Westbrook; April L. Gardner; Theodore A. Lamb; Patrick W. Corrigan; Wayne S. Fenton

    2004-01-01

    The field test of The Science of Mental Illness curriculum supplement for middle school (grades 6–8) children provided an opportunity to assess knowledge and attitudes about mental illness in more than 1,500 middle school students throughout the United States and to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention on stigma-related attitudes. Two primary questions were examined: (1) what are the

  7. Changing Middle Schoolers' Attitudes About Mental Illness Through Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy C. Watson; Emeline Otey; April L. Qardner; Theodore A. Lamb; Patrick W. Corrigan; Wayne S. Fenton

    The field test of The Science of Mental Illness cur- riculum supplement for middle school (grades 6-8) children provided an opportunity to assess knowledge and attitudes about mental illness in more than 1,500 middle school students throughout the United States and to evaluate the impact of an educational interven- tion on stigma-relate d attitudes. Two primary ques- tions were examined:

  8. [Descriptions of mental illness in Alf Prøysen's first book].

    PubMed

    Kanter, Harald

    2005-12-15

    One of Norway's most famous artists after the Second World War was Alf Prøysen (1914-70). He made his debut with a collection of short stories in 1945 entitled "Dørstokken heme" (The doorsill at home). Three of the short stories deal with women who develop mental illness. This article is about how Prøysen describes the mental illnesses and what might have provoked them. PMID:16357892

  9. Mentally ill prisoners in Australia have poor physical health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Butler; Stephen Allnutt; Baohui Yang

    2007-01-01

    Our objective was to compare the physical health status of adult prisoners with and without a mental illness. Mental illness was diagnosed in a sample of 557 Australian prisoners using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Physical health measures included self-reported chronic health conditions, recent health complaints and symptoms, self-assessed health using the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and markers

  10. Determinants of mental illness in a rural Ethiopian adult population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Solomon Tafari; Frances E. Aboud; Charles P. Larson

    1991-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 2000 adult Ethiopians living in rural communities to determine firstly the prevalence of mental illness and secondly its association with stress and demographic variables. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire developed by WHO experts was used as the measure of mental illness. A modified version of the Holmes-Rahe Social Readjustment Scale was the measure of stress. Respondents

  11. District General Hospital experience of managing perinatal mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RM Hodnett; A Wijesiriwardana

    2010-01-01

    CEMACH identified mental illness as the leading indirect cause of maternal mortality (44\\/100 000 maternities).1 NICE Guideline CG452 is essential in the management of such patients.BackgroundPatients with risk factors for perinatal mental illness are seen in an an obstetrician-led ante-natal clinic. 144 pregnant women with known psychiatric history were identified by clinical coding between June and December 2009. Patients were

  12. Stigmatisation of People with Mental Illness and of Psychiatric Institutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nisha Mehta; Graham Thornicroft

    \\u000a The effects of stigmatisation upon people with mental illness are common and profoundly socially excluding, and so constitute\\u000a unethical barriers to full social participation. This chapter will therefore discuss the ethical dimension of stigma by defining\\u000a terms, discussing the existing literature on stigma related to mental illness, considering global patterns of stigma, and\\u000a examining stigma and human rights within psychiatric

  13. Mental health nursing staff's attitudes towards mental illness: an analysis of related factors

    PubMed Central

    Mårtensson, G; Jacobsson, J W; Engström, M

    2014-01-01

    Accessible summary Employer/workplaces have an impact on mental health nursing staff's general attitudes towards persons with mental illness. Staff have more positive attitudes if their knowledge about mental illness is less stigmatized and currently have or have once had a close friend with mental problem. More favourable attitudes among staff towards persons with mental illness could be developed and transmitted in the subculture at work places. Abstract There is growing awareness that mental illness is surrounded by negative attitudes and stigmas. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with mental health nursing staff's attitudes towards persons with mental illness. Data were collected from 256 mental health nursing staff employed by one county council and 10 municipalities. The findings show that staff have more positive attitudes towards persons with mental illness if their knowledge about mental illness is less stigmatized, their work places are in the county council, and they currently have or have once had a close friend with mental health problems. The multiple regression model explained 16% of the variance; stigma-related knowledge and employer had significant Beta-coefficients. To account for unknown correlations in data, a linear generalized estimating equation was performed. In this model, stigma-related knowledge and employer remained significant, but a new significant factor also emerged: personal contact, i.e. currently having or having once had a close friend with mental health problems. This indicates correlations at unit level in the county council and in the municipalities. The conclusion is that more favourable attitudes among staff towards persons with mental illness could be developed and transmitted in the subculture at work places. PMID:24654776

  14. Reliability of Reports of Violent Victimization and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Men and Women With Serious Mental Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa A. Goodman; Kim M. Thompson; Kevin Weinfurt; Susan Corl; Pat Acker; Kim T. Mueser; Stanley D. Rosenberg

    1999-01-01

    Although violent victimization is highly prevalent among men and women with serious mental illness (SMI; e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder), future research in this area may be impeded by controversy concerning the ability of individuals with SMI to report traumatic events reliably. This article presents the results of a study exploring the temporal consistency of reports of childhood sexual abuse, adult

  15. Physical and Sexual Assault History in Women With Serious Mental Illness: Prevalence, Correlates, Treatment, and Future Research Directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa A. Goodman; Stanley D. Rosenberg; Kim T. Mueser; Robert E. Drake

    1997-01-01

    An emerging body of research on the physical and sexual abuse of seriously mentally ill (SMI) women documents a high incidence and prevalence of victimization within this population. While causal links are not well understood, there is convergent evidence that victimization of SMI women is associated with increased symptom levels, HIV-related risk behaviors, and such comorbid conditions as homelessness and

  16. When Parents with Severe Mental Illness Lose Contact with Their Children: Are Psychiatric Symptoms or Substance Use to Blame?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Danson; Macias, Rosemarie Lillianne; Gold, Paul B.; Barreira, Paul; Fisher, William

    2008-01-01

    This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month…

  17. Predicting Post-Treatment-Initiation Alcohol Use among Patients with Severe Mental Illness and Alcohol Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradizza, Clara M.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Vincent, Paula C.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Connors, Gerard J.; Mercer, Nicole D.

    2009-01-01

    Few investigators studying alcohol abuse among individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) have examined predictors of posttreatment alcohol outcomes. In the present study, a multivariate approach based on a theoretical model was used to study the relationship between psychosocial factors and post-treatment-initiation alcohol use. Predictors of…

  18. Comorbidity: Addiction and Other Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... other mental disorders, such as depression, anxiety, or schizophrenia. It is therefore not surprising that population surveys ... other than substance use disorders, such as depression, schizophrenia, anxiety, and mania. The terms “dual diagnosis,” “mentally ...

  19. Explanatory models of mental illness in sub-Saharan Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vikram Patel

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of explanatory models of illness can be used to conduct cross-cultural epidemiological studies which, while being culturally sensitive, are also comparable with other studies. This paper reviews studies from sub-Saharan Africa which examine beliefs relating to mental illness. There is a rich diversity of beliefs, but within this diversity are a number of shared concepts. Thus, many African cultures

  20. A Psychoeducational Support Group for Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefley, Harriet P.

    2009-01-01

    The formation, structure, and goals of an open-ended psychoeducational support group for people with serious and persistent mental illnesses are described, differentiating psychoeducation from psychotherapy, and professional from peer-led support groups. Major goals are to provide education for illness management and help members combat social…

  1. DIMACS Technical Report 2005-10 MENTAL ILLNESS AND LENGTH OF HOSPITAL STAY

    E-print Network

    . 1 DIMACS Technical Report 2005-10 March 2005 MENTAL ILLNESS AND LENGTH OF HOSPITAL STAY of inpatient stay (LOS) for HIV-infected Medicaid recipients with; Severe Mental Illness History (SMI-H), Other (Less Severe) Mental Illness History (OMI-H), and diagnosis with Acute Mental Illness (AMI) during

  2. Sources of Stereotyped Images of the Mentally Ill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart Fischoff

    Previous research has shown that the general public's images of the mentally ill derive from sources radically different from images held by mental health professionals. Wahl (1993), for example, has noted that novels about serial killers are a prime information source for many people. The novelists, Wahl argues, inaccurately suggest that serial killers tend to be psychotic and they present

  3. Gateways to Mental Illness Discourse: Tools for Talking with Teenagers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma Lindley

    2009-01-01

    The existence of mental health discrimination is well-documented, and research suggests that negative attitudes to mental illness are particularly prevalent among adolescents. While recent years have seen much activity aiming to reduce this discrimination, little of it has been targeted at young people or based in schools. The first stage of targeted anti-discrimination enterprise must be to understand the current

  4. Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual People with Severe Mental Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary E. Barber

    2009-01-01

    Very little has been written about lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people (LGBs) with severe mental illness (SMI). In general, LGBs with SMI have the same mental health needs as their heterosexual counterparts. However, there is a need for some basic understanding and confronting potential bias among health practitioners. Although specialized services for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people

  5. The Process of Group Treatment with the Chronically Mentally Ill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karla W. Weaver

    1988-01-01

    Group treatment has been used with inpatient psychiatric clients for numerous years. Only since the advent of deinstitutionalization have outpatient services begun to utilize this format. Over the ears, mental health professionals have realized that traditional talk therapy approaches do not adequately address the multiple, pressing needs resented by the person with chronic mental illness. A multi-modalry approach that utilizes

  6. Serious Mental Illness in Florida Nursing Homes: Need for Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, Victor A.; Merritt, Stacy S.; Mills, Whitney L.; Chiriboga, David A.; Conboy, Ann; Hyer, Kathryn; Becker, Marion A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how the mental health needs of nursing home (NH) residents with serious mental illness (SMI) are addressed. Data were collected from three sources: interviews with 84 SMI stakeholders; surveys of 206 NH staff members; and focus groups at two psychiatry specialty NHs. Four common themes emerged: placement of older adults with…

  7. Practice with People with Severe Mental Illness: Rewards, Challenges, Burdens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhill, Christina E.; Korr, Wynne S.

    2004-01-01

    The authors surveyed a random sample of 1,200 NASW members in post-master's practice in mental health to identify their attitudes toward practice with people with severe mental illness. Contrary to the literature that claims social workers have abandoned vulnerable populations or have negative attitudes toward this population, the authors found…

  8. Seeking Professional Help: Etiology Beliefs about Mental Illness across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Mak, Winnie W. S.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the authors examined the contributions of cultural beliefs about the etiology of mental illness to the seeking of help from mental health professionals among college students in 4 cultural groups, European Americans, Chinese Americans, Hong Kong Chinese, and Mainland Chinese. Group differences were found in help-seeking…

  9. Risky Business: Mental Illness, Disclosure and the TAFE Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Annie

    2010-01-01

    This paper meets at the crossroads of personal experience and public policy. The personal is the experience of learning as described by five TAFE students with a mental illness. The public policy context is the increased political pressure on Australia's major vocational training providers to increase workforce participation of people with mental

  10. Surgeon General Releases Comprehensive Report on Mental Illness

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Charbonneau, David D.

    Yesterday, the Surgeon General's office issued a comprehensive new report on Mental Illness in America, the first report of its kind in terms of scope and source. According to the report's findings, one in five Americans experiences a mental illness in any given year and half experience a mental disorder at some time in their lives. But the report's most compelling language was reserved for the obstacles to effective treatment of the mentally ill. Citing stigmas, ignorance of the efficacy of treatment, and a health insurance system that does not accord the same coverage (or respect) to mental illnesses as it does to physical ones, the report calls for an expansion in the supply of mental health services and, specifically, an increase in the number of mental health professionals caring for children and adolescents. Michael M. Faenza, president of the National Mental Health Association, said the report could be a turning point, if it improves access to services, or "it could be meaningless, if Congress and state legislators do not have the backbone and the political will to act on it."

  11. Workplace effectiveness and psychotherapy for mental, substance abuse, and subsyndromal conditions.

    PubMed

    Sledge, William H; Lazar, Susan G

    2014-09-01

    While it is known that psychiatric illness and subclinical psychiatric illness can be very disabling, their impact on workers' productivity has been little appreciated or appropriately addressed. Complex variables are involved in fashioning an appropriate policy to ameliorate the impact of mental illness on productivity including the identification of effective treatments and potential negative effects of controlling patients' access to them. The cost-effectiveness of such treatments is considered from the differing perspectives and goals of the various stakeholders involved, including employers, insurers, and workers with psychiatric illness. Depression in workers leads to significant absenteeism, "presenteeism" (diminished capacity due to illness while still present at work), and significantly increased medical expenses in addition to the costs of psychiatric care. In addition to the specific usefulness of psychotropic medication, there are a variety of studies on the cost-effectiveness of different psychotherapeutic treatments that improve health and productivity in psychiatrically ill workers. Research indicates the usefulness of approaches including employee assistance programs, specialized cognitive-behavioral treatments, and brief and longer term psychodynamic interventions. It is clear that substance abuse disorders and especially depression and subsyndromal depression have a profound negative effect on work productivity and increases in medical visits and expenses. The current system of mental health care suffers from ignorance of the negative effects of psychiatric illness in workers, from a lack of subtle awareness of which treatments are most appropriate for which diagnoses and from the reluctance by payers to invest in them. Access to evidence-based appropriate treatment can improve the negative impact on productivity as well as workers' health. This article considers these issues and argues for a role of psychotherapy in the treatment of mental illness and substance abuse from the perspective of worker productivity. PMID:25211435

  12. Does Mental Illness Stigma Contribute to Adolescent Standardized Patients' Discomfort With Simulations of Mental Illness and Adverse Psychosocial Experiences?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Hanson; Samantha Johnson; Anne Niec; Anna Marie Pietrantonio; B. High; H. MacMillan; K. W. Eva

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions\\/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may pro- vide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investi- gation of this hypothetical association between simulation dis- comfort and mental illness stigma. Methods: ASPs were randomly assigned to one of two simu- lation

  13. Effects of a Unit in Mental Health on Rural Adolescents' Attitudes about Seeking Help and Concepts of Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esters, Irvin G.; And Others

    One factor thought to contribute to the underutilization of mental health services, especially among rural Americans, is the stigma attached to mental illness and the associated help seeking process. This study investigated the effects of an instructional unit on mental illness and related issues on rural adolescents' concept of mental illness and…

  14. "Folk" explanations of mental illness in rural laos.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, J; Wintrob, R

    1979-07-01

    To obtain "folk" explanations of specific cases of mental illness the authors interviewed 35 baa(insane) Laotian individuals and their relatives and neighbors. They obtained 54 explanations; 15 focused on supernatural causes, 15 on physical causes, 14 on social problems, and 10 on psychological states. Although 31 theories (57%) focused on etiologic factors familiar to clinical psychiatrists, many self-evident factors (such as familial prevalence) were not mentioned. Except for 3 cases, responsibility for the illness was attributed to factors outside the subject's control. This view of mental illness absolves the baa person from blame and ensures support from the social group. PMID:453350

  15. Associations of mental, and medical illnesses with against medical advice discharges: the National Hospital Discharge Survey, 1988-2006.

    PubMed

    Tawk, Rima; Freels, Sally; Mullner, Ross

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the association of mental and medical illnesses with the odds for leaving against medical advice (AMA) in a national sample of adult patients who left general hospitals between 1988 and 2006. Leaving AMA was first examined as a function of year and mental illness. Multiple logistic regression analysis was then used to adjust for patient and hospital characteristics when associating mental and major medical diagnoses with AMA discharges. The results indicated that leaving AMA was most strongly associated with mental health problems. However, the impact of mental illness was attenuated after adjusting for medical illnesses, patient and hospital characteristics. The strongest predictors of AMA discharge included being self-pay, having Medicaid insurance, being young and male, and the regional location of the hospital (Northeast). When substance abuse conditions were excluded from the mental illness discharge diagnoses, mental illness had lower odds for leaving AMA. The results may be of value to clinicians, and hospital administrators in helping to profile and target patients at risk for treatment-compliance problems. Prospective primary data collection that would include patient, physician, and hospital variables is recommended. PMID:22057857

  16. Public Mental Health Clients with Severe Mental Illness and Probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Trauma Exposure and Correlates of Symptom Severity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Weili; Yanos, Philip T.; Silverstein, Steven M.; Mueser, Kim T.; Rosenberg, Stanley D.; Gottlieb, Jennifer D.; Duva, Stephanie Marcello; Kularatne, Thanuja; Dove-Williams, Stephanie; Paterno, Danielle; Hawthorne, Danielle; Giacobbe, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) are at greatly increased risk for trauma exposure and for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study reports findings from a large, comprehensive screening of trauma and PTSD symptoms among public mental health clients in a statewide community mental health system. In 851 individuals with SMI and probable PTSD, childhood sexual abuse was the most commonly endorsed “index” trauma, followed closely by the sudden death of a loved one. Participants had typically experienced an average of 7 types of traumatic events in their lifetime. The number of types of traumatic events experienced and Hispanic ethnicity were significantly associated with PTSD symptom severity. Clients reported experiencing PTSD in relation to events which occurred on average 20 years earlier, suggesting the clinical need to address trauma and loss throughout the lifespan, including their prolonged after-effects. PMID:23508645

  17. Workplace accommodations for people with mental illness: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Caitlin; Fossey, Ellie

    2015-03-01

    Purpose Disability discrimination legislation means that employees with a disability or mental illness are legally entitled to reasonable workplace accommodations that enable them to work effectively and safely. This scoping review aims to investigate the types of workplace accommodations provided for people with mental illness, and their costs and benefits. Methods A literature search was conducted using five electronic databases. Peer reviewed research articles published between 1993 and June 2013 were included in this scoping review and their quality was assessed. Opinion papers, reports, and case descriptions were excluded. Results Nine studies explored workplace accommodations for people with mental illness. The most commonly reported work-related accommodations were flexible scheduling/reduced hours, modified training and supervision, and modified job duties/descriptions. The least common type of accommodation was physical modification to the workplace. For employees with persistent mental illness who were accessing a supported employment agency, the majority of accommodations related to support from the job coach or employment specialist, such as facilitating communication with the employer during hiring or on the job. The quality of the studies varied considerably and the benefits of the accommodations are not yet well documented. There is limited evidence that a larger number of workplace accommodations are associated with longer job tenure. Conclusions Workplace accommodations appear to be important to support employees with mental illness, but more accessible information about how disability discrimination legislation applies to this population is needed. Future research should address the implementation and effectiveness of mental health-related workplace accommodations. PMID:24841728

  18. Primary care issues in patients with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Kiraly, Bernadette; Gunning, Karen; Leiser, Jennifer

    2008-08-01

    Family physicians commonly care for patients with serious mental illness. Patients with psychotic and bipolar disorders have more comorbid medical conditions and higher mortality rates than patients without serious mental illness. Many medications prescribed for serious mental illness have significant metabolic and cardiovascular adverse effects. Patients treated with second-generation antipsychotics should receive preventive counseling and treatment for obesity, hyperglycemia, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. First- and second-generation antipsychotics have been associated with QT prolongation. Many common medications can interact with antipsychotics, increasing the risk of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. Drug interactions can also lead to increased adverse effects, increased or decreased drug levels, toxicity, or treatment failure. Physicians should carefully consider the risks and benefits of second-generation antipsychotic medications, and patient care should be coordinated between primary care physicians and mental health professionals to prevent serious adverse effects. PMID:18711951

  19. Beliefs About the Biological (vs. Nonbiological) Origins of Mental Illness and the Stigmatization of People with Mental Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick M. Sears; Andrew M. Pomerantz; Daniel J. Segrist; Paul Rose

    2011-01-01

    The present study focuses on the relationship between an individual's attributions of cause regarding mental illness (i.e., the degree by which psychopathology is perceived as biologically or nonbiologically caused) and resulting stigmatization (particularly social distancing, a form of social rejection). To date, much of the research concerning attributional beliefs and stigma use general terms such as “mental patient” and “psychiatric

  20. Deinstitutionalization: Its Impact on Community Mental Health Centers and the Seriously Mentally Ill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Stephen P.; McNally Melissa; Trippany, Robyn L.

    2009-01-01

    Deinstitutionalization has had a significant impact on the mental health system, including the client, the agency, and the counselor. For clients with serious mental illness, learning to live in a community setting poses challenges that are often difficult to overcome. Community mental health agencies must respond to these specific needs, thus…

  1. Microaggressions Experienced by Persons With Mental Illnesses: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Lauren; Davidoff, Kristin C; Nadal, Kevin L; Yanos, Philip T

    2014-11-17

    Objective: Microaggressions are subtle verbal or behavioral communications of disparaging messages to people based upon membership in a socially marginalized group. Their negative impact has been demonstrated for racial/ethnic groups, gender, sexual orientation, and physical disability, but currently no research exists on microaggressions as experienced by persons with mental illnesses. Method: Qualitative data were gathered from 4 focus groups with 2 samples: adult mental health consumers in an assertive community treatment program and college students with mental illness diagnoses. Focus group transcripts were then analyzed using an open coding approach (Strauss & Corbin, 1990) to identify hierarchical themes and categories. Results: Five major themes were identified, including invalidation, assumption of inferiority, fear of mental illness, shaming of mental illness, and second class citizen. Perpetrators of microaggressions were most commonly identified as being close friends, family members, and authority figures. Importantly, participants reported experiencing more overt discrimination experiences than subtle microaggression experiences. Reported negative outcomes related to microaggression experiences included isolation, negative emotions, and treatment nonadherence. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: Reported consequences of microaggressions have important implications for mental health treatment, especially as perpetrators were reported to include treatment providers and were usually unaware of such negative social exchanges. Loss of social support reported by participants and the frequent occurrence of microaggressions within close relationships implies these experiences could contribute to internalization of stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness. Directions for future research include an investigation of motivation and reasoning behind perpetration of microaggressions against persons with mental illnesses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25402611

  2. Disparities in appendicitis rupture rate among mentally ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Tsay, Jen-Huoy; Lee, Cheng-Hua; Hsu, Yea-Jen; Wang, Pen-Jen; Bai, Ya-Mei; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Huang, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Background Many studies have been carried out that focus on mental patients' access to care for their mental illness, but very few pay attention on these same patients' access to care for their physical diseases. Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency. Our population-based study was to test for any possible association between mental illness and perforated appendicitis. We hypothesized that there are significant disparities in access to timely surgical care between appendicitis patients with and without mental illness, and more specifically, between patients with schizophrenia and those with another major mental illness. Methods Using the National Health Insurance (NHI) hospital-discharge data, we compared the likelihood of perforated appendix among 97,589 adults aged 15 and over who were hospitalized for acute appendicitis in Taiwan between the years 1997 to 2001. Among all the patients admitted for appendicitis, the outcome measure was the odds of appendiceal rupture vs. appendicitis that did not result in a ruptured appendix. Results After adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES) and hospital characteristics, the presence of schizophrenia was associated with a 2.83 times higher risk of having a ruptured appendix (odds ratio [OR], 2.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.20–3.64). However, the presence of affective psychoses (OR, 1.15; 95% CI: 0.77–1.73) or other mental disorders (OR, 1.58; 95% CI: 0.89–2.81) was not a significant predictor for a ruptured appendix. Conclusion These findings suggest that given the fact that the NHI program reduces financial barriers to care for mentally ill patients, they are still at a disadvantage for obtaining timely treatment for their physical diseases. Of patients with a major mental illness, schizophrenic patients may be the most vulnerable ones for obtaining timely surgical care. PMID:18005406

  3. Greek adolescents' views of people with mental illness through drawings: mental health education's impact.

    PubMed

    Sakellari, Evanthia; Lehtonen, Kimmo; Sourander, Andre; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, Athena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-09-01

    People with mental illness are among the most stigmatized and discriminated against as a result of lack of knowledge among the public. Our study explored adolescents' perceptions of people with mental illness through drawings, described these perceptions, and tested the possible changes in perceptions after an educational mental health intervention. Drawings were collected before and after an educational mental health intervention from 59 Greek secondary school students. One group of participants served as the experimental group and received the educational mental health intervention. Content analysis of the drawings was used to analyze data. The drawings provided a clear understanding of adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. After the educational mental health intervention the negative elements presenting the people with mental illness were less among the experimental group, while the drawings among the comparison group did not change. The findings support that educational mental health intervention can have a positive impact on adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. Health professionals can use the findings of our study in order to develop and implement similar interventions. PMID:24382318

  4. Gender Differences in Substance Use, Consequences, Motivation to Change, and Treatment Seeking in People With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Drapalski, Amy; Bennett, Melanie; Bellack, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Gender differences in patterns and consequences of substance use, treatment-seeking, and motivation to change were examined in two samples of people with serious mental illness (SMI) and comorbid substance use disorders (SUDs): a community sample not currently seeking substance abuse treatment (N = 175) and a treatment-seeking sample (N = 137). In both groups, women and men demonstrated more similarities in the pattern and severity of their substance use than differences. However, treatment-seeking women showed greater readiness to change their substance use. Mental health problems and traumatic experiences may prompt people with SMI and SUD to enter substance abuse treatment, regardless of gender. PMID:21174496

  5. Gender differences in substance use, consequences, motivation to change, and treatment seeking in people with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Drapalski, Amy; Bennett, Melanie; Bellack, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in patterns and consequences of substance use, treatment-seeking, and motivation to change were examined in two samples of people with serious mental illness (SMI) and comorbid substance use disorders (SUDs): a community sample not currently seeking substance abuse treatment (N = 175) and a treatment-seeking sample (N = 137). In both groups, women and men demonstrated more similarities in the pattern and severity of their substance use than differences. However, treatment-seeking women showed greater readiness to change their substance use. Mental health problems and traumatic experiences may prompt people with SMI and SUD to enter substance abuse treatment, regardless of gender. PMID:21174496

  6. Current Legislation on Admission of Mentally Ill Patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yang; Xie, Bin; Good, Mary-Jo DelVecchio; Good, Byron J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To date, there is no systematic analysis of mental health laws and their implementation across the People’s Republic of China. This article aims to describe and analyze current legal frameworks for voluntary and involuntary admissions of mentally ill patients in the five cities of China that currently have municipal mental health regulations. Methods Information on the legislation and practice of involuntary admission in the five cities was gathered and assessed using the “WHO Checklist on Mental Health Legislation.” The checklist was completed for each city by a group of psychiatrists trained in mental health legislation. Results Although the mental health regulations in these five cities cover the basic principles needed to meet international standards of mental health legislation, some defects in the legislation remain. In particular, these regulations lack detail in specifying procedures for dealing with admission and treatment and lack oversight and review mechanisms and procedures for appeal of involuntary admission and treatment. Conclusions A more comprehensive and enforceable national mental health act is needed in order to ensure the rights of persons suffering mental illness in terms of admission and treatment procedures. In addition, more research is needed to understand how the current municipal regulations of mental health services in these cities are implemented in routine practice. PMID:19913300

  7. It has long been recognized that mental ill-nesses such as schizophrenia and autism tend

    E-print Network

    Graur, Dan

    It has long been recognized that mental ill- nesses such as schizophrenia and autism tend to run in families. But neither disorder obeys classical Mendelian laws of inheritance, mak- ing it difficult or imbalance of an offspring's brain. If this proves true, it would greatly clarify the diagnosis of mental

  8. Eugenics, genetics, and mental illness stigma in Chinese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lawrence H.; Link, Bruce G.; Phelan, Jo C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The increasing interest in the genetic causes of mental disorders may exacerbate existing stigma if negative beliefs about a genetic illness are generally accepted. China’s history of policy-level eugenics and genetic discrimination in the workplace suggests that Chinese communities will view genetic mental illness less favorably than mental illness with non-genetic causes. The aim of this study is to identify differences between Chinese Americans and European Americans in eugenic beliefs and stigma toward people with genetic mental illness. Methods We utilized data from a 2003 national telephone survey designed to measure how public perceptions of mental illness differ if the illness is described as genetic. The Chinese American (n = 42) and European American (n = 428) subsamples were analyzed to compare their support of eugenic belief items and measures of stigma. Results Chinese Americans endorsed all four eugenic statements more strongly than European Americans. Ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between genetic attribution and three out of five stigma outcomes; however, genetic attribution actually appeared to be de-stigmatizing for Chinese Americans while it increased stigma or made no difference for European Americans. Conclusions Our findings show that while Chinese Americans hold more eugenic beliefs than European Americans, these attributions do not have the same effect on stigma as they do in Western cultures. These results suggest that future anti-stigma efforts must focus on eugenic attitudes as well as cultural beliefs for Chinese Americans, and that the effects of genetic attributions for mental illness should be examined relative to other social, moral, and religious attributions common in Chinese culture. PMID:21079911

  9. Experiences of recovery in mental illness 

    E-print Network

    Bibby, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Introduction In recent years the concept of ‘recovery’ has become increasingly prevalent in both government and health service policy, and in the terminology used by mental health service users. The current study examines ...

  10. Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

  11. Therapeutic factors in a group for parents with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Shor, Ron; Kalivatz, Zvi; Amir, Yael; Aldor, Roy; Lipot, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Parents with mental illness face many parenting related challenges that are exacerbated by the lack of services focusing on these needs. A study was conducted with 35 persons who participated in a group for parents with mental illness in Israel in order to examine the parenting related concerns the participants might bring up in a group modality, and the therapeutic factors in the group process. The findings illuminate the centrality of the parenting role in the participants lives and the value of the group modality as a tool enabling the participants to reveal their vulnerabilities. The therapeutic factors at work in the group, such as, imparting information, interpersonal learning, socialization techniques helped them deal with the difficulties of fulfilling their parenting roles at the same time they cope with their own mental illness. PMID:24962269

  12. Contact and stigma toward mental illness: Measuring the effectiveness of two video interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashley Hill Hackler

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have demonstrated that mental illness stigma is both prevalent in our society and has serious negative consequences for mentally ill persons and their friends and family (Corrigan, 2004a). One of the ways researchers have found to reduce mental health stigma is through contact with persons with mental illness (Corrigan et al., 2002; Desforges et al., 1991; Schulze, Richter-Werling, &

  13. Mental Illness, Violence, and Risk Assessment: An Evidence-Based Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur J. Lurigio; Andrew J. Harris

    2009-01-01

    The presumed link between violence and mental illness has long been an ongoing subject of investigation. Are the mentally ill more likely than those without mental illness to commit violent crimes? Can mental health and criminal justice professionals accurately assess the likelihood of violence? In the current review, we describe scientific evidence to explore these questions. This article is divided

  14. The criminalization of the mentally ill: Speculation in search of data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda A. Teplin

    1983-01-01

    Examines the evidence for the speculation that mentally ill persons who would previously have been treated within mental hospitals are now processed through the criminal justice system and constitute an ever-increasing proportion of the jail population. Three factors underlie this speculation: the increase in mentally ill persons residing in the community, police handling of the mentally ill, and evidence that

  15. Attitudes of Hispanic, Black, and Caucasion University Students Toward Mental Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosario Silva de Crane; Charles D. Spielberger

    1981-01-01

    The attitudes of 309 Anglo, Spanish American, and Black American subjects toward mental illness were investigated. Both the Black and Hispanic college students had significantly higher Authoritarianism scores and Blacks had higher Social Restrictiveness scores on the Opinions about Mental Illness Scale, indicating more negative attitudes toward mental patients. Benevolence scores, indicating a paternalistic attitude toward the mentally ill, were

  16. National Resource Center on Homelessness and Mental Illness

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Operated by a private research firm under contract to the Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the National Resource Center on Homelessness and Mental Illness serves as a clearinghouse for technical assistance and research information. Included here are comprehensive, well-annotated national listings of organizations concerned with mental health, housing and homelessness, as well as housing-related technical assistance resources. The site also provides an "extensive bibliographic database on homelessness and mental illness" broken down by subject; a listing of research monographs and papers commissioned by the center, some of which may be accessed online; an annotated directory of online resources; information about technical assistance given by the Center to professionals in the field; and selected posted articles from issues of Access, a periodic information letter to the field.

  17. The use of CS spray in the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Trigwell, P J

    1997-03-01

    CS sprays are now being widely used by police in the UK. Concerns are being expressed regarding the toxicity of this substance and some of the situations in which it is being used. This is the first reported case in the UK of CS spray being used to restrain a mentally ill person in police custody. It raises important issues regarding the welfare of mentally ill people who happen to find themselves in contact with the police. There is a need for open debate, specific guidelines and a system of monitoring the use of CS in such situations. PMID:15335596

  18. Family Influence in Recovery from Severe Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Aldersey, Heather Michelle; Whitley, Rob

    2014-12-10

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived influence of family on recovery from severe mental illness. 54 semi-structured interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of people with severe mental illness living in Montreal. Results indicated that family both facilitated and impeded recovery processes. Specifically, family facilitated recovery through providing (a) moral support, (b) practical support and (c) motivation to recover. However family impeded recovery through (a) acting as a stressor, (b) displaying stigma and lack of understanding, and (c) forcing hospitalization. The study indicates the importance of family psychoeducation in promoting recovery. PMID:25492380

  19. [Arts therapies in severe mental illness: are they effective?].

    PubMed

    Gühne, U; Weinmann, S; Arnold, K; Ay, E-S; Becker, T; Riedel-Heller, S

    2012-07-01

    Arts therapies are widely used treatment strategies for people with severe mental illness. Generally, only a few randomized trials are available, however, the studies show that additional use of arts therapies reduces the appearance of negative symptoms among people with schizophrenia. The most significant evidence can be seen with music therapy. The treatment of severe depression has shown that additional music therapy improves depression. The S3 guidelines on psychosocial therapies in severe mental illness of the Germany Society for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology (DGPPN) recommended arts therapies are with recommendation level B. PMID:22733379

  20. Sex as a factor in attitudes toward the mentally ill

    E-print Network

    Wilkerson, Hal Dennis

    1976-01-01

    SEX AS A FACTOR IN ATTITUDES TOWARD THE MENTALLY ILL A Thesis by HAL DENNIS WILKERSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1976 Major... Subject: Psychology SEX AS A FACTOR IN ATTITUDES TOWARD THE MENTALLy ILL A Thesis by Hal Dennis Wilkerson Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) Hem'b e r ) May 1976 ABSTHACT Sex As A Factor...

  1. How to Improve Interactions between Police and the Mentally Ill

    PubMed Central

    Krameddine, Yasmeen I.; Silverstone, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    There have been repeated instances of police forces having violent, sometimes fatal, interactions with individuals with mental illness. Police forces are frequently first responders to those with mental illness. Despite this, training police in how to best interact with individuals who have a mental illness has been poorly studied. The present article reviews the literature examining mental illness training programs delivered to law-enforcement officers. Some of the key findings are the benefits of training utilizing realistic “hands-on” scenarios, which focus primarily on verbal and non-verbal communication, increasing empathy, and de-escalation strategies. Current issues in training police officers are firstly the tendency for organizations to provide training without proper outcome measures of effectiveness, secondly the focus of training is on changing attitudes although there is little evidence to demonstrate this relates to behavioral change, and thirdly the belief that a mental health training program given on a single occasion is sufficient to improve interactions over the longer-term. Future police training needs to address these issues. PMID:25642196

  2. Cardiovascular Risk Factors for People with Mental Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Davidson; Fiona Judd; Damien Jolley; Barbara Hocking; Sandra Thompson; Brendan Hyland

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to document the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease among people with chronic mental illness.Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 234 outpatients attending a community mental health clinic in the North-western Health Care Network in Melbourne, Australia. Prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, hypertension, salt intake, exercise and history

  3. Folk belief, illness behavior and mental health in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wen, J K

    1998-03-01

    In this paper, an overview of the literature relevant to the issues of illness behavior and help-seeking behavior in relation to mental health and illness, focusing on the Taiwan area is presented. Arguments for the prioritization and appreciation of the folk perspective of mental illness and health are addressed. The traditional medical beliefs in the Chinese culture that emphasize integration and continuity, instead of differentiation, of/between body and mind, person and nature, nature and super-nature, the visible (with form) and the invisible (without form), and yang and yin, have laid the basis for the theoretical framework of somatization as normative illness behavior rather than psychologization, and also dissociation as normative illness behavior rather than repression. A case report on folk psychotherapy is given here to illustrate the argument. The continuum models illustrated in this paper, either the shen-kuei syndrome in its broad sense extending from koro to neurasthenia, frigophobia or the spirit possession syndrome in its broad sense extending from the pathological and peripheral (Hsieh-ping) to the normative and ritual (shamanism), could well remind us of the powerful influence of the folk and popular contexts of culture that underlie illness behavior in relation to mental health in Taiwan. PMID:9607258

  4. Does marital maladjustment lead to mental illness?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Birtchnell; John Kennard

    1983-01-01

    The study showed the incidence of marital maladjustment to be significantly higher in Chichester female psychiatric patients, aged 40–49, than in matched local controls. This finding applied only to women whose husbands were social class III–V. Significantly more patients received less affection than they gave and had dominant husbands. Within the control series, the mental health of women with marital

  5. Making Sense Of Mental Illness As A Full Human Experience: Perspective of illness and recovery held by people with a mental illness living in the community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karleen Gwinner; Marie Knox; Mark Brough

    2012-01-01

    There is substantial current interest in building evidence about recovery from mental illness in order to inform comprehensive practice in health and social paradigms. This paper presents accounts related to recovery and illness expressed by eight people through a Participatory Action Research project. The research facilitated entry to their subjective experiences of living in the community as an artist with

  6. Stigma, agency and recovery amongst people with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob; Campbell, Rosalyn Denise

    2014-04-01

    Evidence suggests that people with a severe mental illness still suffer high levels of stigma and discrimination. However little is known about how people with a severe mental illness manage such stigma. As such, the overall aim of this study is to document and analyze behavioral and psychological strategies of stigma management and control in a sample of people in recovery from a severe mental illness. To meet this aim, we conducted a five-year (2008-2012) qualitative longitudinal study in Washington D.C. Participants were recruited from small-scale congregate housing units ('recovery communities') for people in recovery, provided by a public mental health agency. We conducted regular focus groups at these communities, augmented by in-depth participant observation. Analysis was propelled by the grounded theory approach. A key finding of this study is that stigma and discrimination were not perceived as commonly experienced problems by participants. Instead, stigma and discrimination were perceived as omnipresent potential problems to which participants remained eternally vigilant, taking various preventive measures. Most notable among these measures was a concerted and self-conscious effort to behave and look 'normal'; through dress, appearance, conduct and demeanor. In this endeavor, participants possessed and deployed a considered degree of agency to prevent, avoid or preempt stigma and discrimination. These efforts appeared to have a strong semiotic dimension, as participants reported their developing 'normality' (and increased agentic power) was tangible proof of their ongoing recovery. Participants also routinely discussed severe mental illness in normative terms, noting its similarity to physical illnesses such as diabetes, or to generic mental health problems experienced by all. These behavioral and psychological strategies of normalization appeared to be consolidated within the recovery communities, which provided physical shelter and highly-valued peer support. This fostered participants' ability to face and embrace the outside world with confidence, pride and dignity. PMID:24602965

  7. Development of the PICMIN (picture of mental illness in newspapers): instrument to assess mental illness stigma in print media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tea Vukuši? Rukavina; Alexander Nawka; Ognjen Brborovi?; Nikolina Jovanovi?; Martina Rojni? Kuzman; Lucie Nawková; Bibiána Bednárová; Svetlana Žuchová; Marie Hrodková; Zuzana Lattová

    Purpose  The aim of this paper is to report on the development and applicability of a standardised and objective measure of stigma\\u000a of mental illness in print media. Picture of mental illness in newspapers (PICMIN) instrument consists of eleven descriptive\\u000a and five analytical categories. It is intended to allow comparison among countries and different studies over time.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The research team conducted

  8. Discontinuation of Neuroleptics in Community-Dwelling Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-eight community-dwelling individuals with mental retardation and mental illness were discontinued from neuroleptics. Those with a psychotic disorder were significantly more likely to be restarted on neuroleptics at 3 months and 12 months. Not having a history of delusions was significantly associated with remaining neuroleptic-free at 3…

  9. Medication compliance among the seriously mentally ill in a public mental health system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Nageotte; G. Sullivan; N. Duan; P. L. Camp

    1997-01-01

    Medication non-compliance, a pervasive problem among persons with serious, chronic mental illness, has been linked to increased inpatient resources use in public mental health systems. The objective of this analysis was to determine which factors are associated with medication compliance in this population so that more appropriate screening and intervention programs can be designed. Using knowledge gained from clinical research

  10. Mental Health Stigma about Serious Mental Illness among MSW Students: Social Contact and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covarrubias, Irene; Han, Meekyung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the attitudes toward and beliefs about serious mental illness (SMI) held by a group of graduate social work students in the northwestern United States were examined. Mental health stigma was examined with relation to the following factors: participants' level of social contact with SMI populations, adherence to stereotypes about SMI…

  11. Public policy and mental illnesses: Jimmy Carter's Presidential Commission on Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Grob, Gerald N

    2005-01-01

    President Jimmy Carter's Presidential Commission on Mental Health was intended to recommend policies to overcome obvious deficiencies in the mental health system. Bureaucratic rivalries within and between governments; tensions and rivalries within the mental health professions; identity and interest group politics; the difficulties of distinguishing the respective etiological roles of such elements as poverty, racism, stigmatization, and unemployment; and an illusory faith in prevention all influenced the commission's deliberations and subsequent enactment of the short-lived Mental Health Systems Act. The commission's work led to the formulation of the influential National Plan for the Chronically Mentally Ill, but a system of care and treatment for persons with serious mental illnesses was never created. PMID:16201999

  12. Prejudice, Social Distance, and Familiarity with Mental Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick W. Corrigan; Annette Backs Edwards; Amy Green; Sarah Lickey Diwan; David L. Penn

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the paths between two prejudicial attitudes (authoritarianism and benevolence) and a proxy measure of behavioral discrimination (social distance) were examined in a sample drawn from the general public. Moreover, the effects of two person variables (familiarity with mental illness and ethnicity) on prejudice were examined in the path analysis. One hundred fifty-one research participants completed measures of

  13. Child Custody Loss among Women with Persistent Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty

    2004-01-01

    The author analyzed quantitative data from an NIMH-funded longitudinal study of 322 women with persistent severe mental illness (SMI) and qualitative data from semistructured interviews with 82 of the women who ever lost custody of a child. The purpose was to test the hypothesis, derived from human ecology theory, that individual and environmental…

  14. Cultivating Empathy for the Mentally Ill Using Simulated Auditory Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunn, William; Terpstra, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors address the issue of cultivating medical students' empathy for the mentally ill by examining medical student empathy pre- and postsimulated auditory hallucination experience. Methods: At the University of Utah, 150 medical students participated in this study during their 6-week psychiatry rotation. The Jefferson Scale of…

  15. Medications Frequently Used To Treat Persons with Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danser, Helen Lisanby

    The manual is intended to assist the rehabilitation professional in planning services for persons with disabilities, such as long-term mental illness, which require treatment with medication, especially psychotropic medications. The compilation of data groups similar medications together and includes such information as purpose of medication, side…

  16. The Charcot Effect: The Invention of Mental Illnesses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marino Pérez-Álvarez; José M. García-Montes

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes the Charcot effect, in which clinicians describe what they themselves prescribe. It is argued that the Charcot effect can be a critical instrument for exposing how mental illnesses are invented in the process of developing diagnostic systems and conducting psychopharmacological research. We argue that the Charcot effect helps explain the expansion of depression to epidemic proportions, the

  17. Ethical Considerations for People Who Are Homeless and Mentally Ill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Elizabeth A.; Howard, Richard; Markos, Patricia A.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an ethical analysis of the important issues surrounding the involuntary institutionalization of people who are homeless and mentally ill (HMI) in the United States. The legal, economic, and moral implications of state-sponsored involuntary institutionalization of people who are HMI are considered. An ethical decision-making…

  18. Service-Learning with the Mentally Ill: Softening the Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Steve T.; Corser, Grant C.; White, Lynn H.

    2010-01-01

    Stigmas toward those who have mental illnesses are wide-spread and detrimental to the health and well-being of those suffering from these debilitating conditions, and to society as a whole. Stigma-reducing programs are plentiful but many are only marginally effective. In this paper we describe and evaluate a course in Psychopathology that included…

  19. Teaching Students with Emotional Disorders and/or Mental Illnesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    This resource manual is designed to assist Alberta teachers in the identification and education of students with emotional disorders and/or mental illnesses. It takes a comprehensive look at six emotional disorders. The first section focuses on eating disorders. It describes the characteristics and symptoms of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

  20. The Police Response to Mental Illness on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Gary J.; Shtull, Penny R.

    2012-01-01

    Campus police officers are often among the initial contacts for behavioral incidents involving people with mental illness. Their training and access to resources influence decisions to direct the individual to support services and/or through campus disciplinary processes and/or the criminal justice system. Over the past decade, there has been an…

  1. Stigma, Reflected Appraisals, and Recovery Outcomes in Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Fred E.; Angell, Beth; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on modified labeling theory and the reflected appraisals process and using longitudinal data from 129 mothers and their adult children with schizophrenia, we estimate models of the effects of mothers' stigmatized identity appraisals of their mentally ill children on reflected and self-appraisals, and how appraisals affect outcomes…

  2. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma among Youth in Psychiatric Outpatient Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to the…

  3. Deinstitutionalisation for Long-Term Mental Illness: An Ethnographic Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Newton; A. Rosen; C. Tennant; C. Hobbs; H. M. Lapsley; K. Tribe

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Deinstitutionalisation of seriously mentally ill people in the developed world, including Australia, has occurred since the middle of this century. Evaluation of the effects of this change on the lives of individuals is of paramount importance to ensure that policies are acceptable and effective. Increasingly, multifaceted studies are considered essential for comprehensive health research. The qualitative aspect of this

  4. The Future of Psychotherapy for Mentally Ill Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Given striking advances in translational developmental neuroscience and its convergence with developmental psychopathology and developmental epidemiology, it is now clear that mental illnesses are best thought of as neurodevelopmental disorders. This simple fact has enormous implications for the nature and organization of psychotherapy…

  5. Sexual Abuse, Incest, and Sexual Exploitation: Mental Health Practitioners' Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freet, Mary A.; Scalise, Joseph J.; Ginter, Earl J.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a 33-item questionnaire based on Alexander G. Zaphiris's conceptualization of the terminology of sexual mistreatment. Results indicate that mental health counselors (N=300) who encountered sexual abuse, incest, and sexual exploitation agreed with Zaphiris's conceptualization but did not use this system of classification in actual…

  6. State substance abuse and mental health managed care evaluation program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis McCarty; Joan Dilonardo; Milton Argeriou

    2003-01-01

    The articles in this special section of the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research (30:1) present results from evaluations of publicly funded managed care initiatives for substance abuse and mental health treatment in Arizona, Iowa, Maryland, and Nebraska. This overview outlines the four managed care programs and summarizes the results from the studies. The evaluations used administrative data and

  7. Integrating Assertive Community Treatment and Illness Management and Recovery for Consumers with Severe Mental Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle P. SalyersAlan; Alan B. McGuire; Angela L. Rollins; Gary R. Bond; Kim T. Mueser; Veronica R. Macy

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the integration of two evidence-based practices for adults with severe mental illness: Assertive community\\u000a treatment (ACT) and illness management and recovery (IMR) with peer specialists as IMR practitioners. Two of four ACT teams\\u000a were randomly assigned to implement IMR. Over 2 years, the ACT–IMR teams achieved moderate fidelity to the IMR model, but\\u000a low penetration rates: 47 (25.7%)

  8. The Effect of Severe Child Sexual Abuse and Disclosure on Mental Health during Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Patrick; Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among severe child sexual abuse, disclosure, and mental health symptoms during adulthood. The sample consisted of 172 adults who were sexually abused in childhood. The multivariate model showed that respondents in their 30s and 40s who were abused by more than one abuser, who were injured by their abusers, who…

  9. 42 CFR 483.134 - Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services (PASARR/MI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services...Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services...specialized services program for mental illness as defined in § 483.120....

  10. 42 CFR 483.134 - Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services (PASARR/MI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services...Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services...specialized services program for mental illness as defined in § 483.120....

  11. 42 CFR 483.134 - Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services (PASARR/MI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services...Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services...specialized services program for mental illness as defined in § 483.120....

  12. 42 CFR 483.134 - Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services (PASARR/MI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services...Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services...specialized services program for mental illness as defined in § 483.120....

  13. 42 CFR 483.134 - Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services (PASARR/MI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services...Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services...specialized services program for mental illness as defined in § 483.120....

  14. Coping Tips for Siblings and Adult Children of Persons with Mental Illness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Siblings and Adult Children of Persons with Mental Illness If you find it difficult to come to ... the challenges presented by your sibling's or parent's mental illness, you are not alone: there are many others ...

  15. Persons with Mental Illness Who Are Homeless or Missing: A Guide for Families

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 950-NAMI; info@nami.org ©2015 Persons with Mental Illness Who Are Homeless or Missing: A Guide for Families People with mental illness cannot always communicate their thoughts clearly or understand ...

  16. Mental Illness and the Family: Recognizing the Warning Signs & How to Cope

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Family: Recognizing Warning Signs and How to Cope Mental Illness and the Family: Recognizing Warning Signs and How to Cope Most ... cope with learning their loved one has a mental illness. It can be physically and emotionally trying, and ...

  17. Psychometric Evaluation of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale for Patients with Mental Illnesses: Measurement Invariance across Time

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Cheng; Wu, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Chih-Yin; Wang, Jung-Der; Lin, Chung-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Background The current investigation examined the psychometric properties of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale in a sample of patients with mental illness. In addition to the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity that previous studies have tested for the ISMI, we extended the evaluation to its construct validity and measurement invariance using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Methods Three hundred forty-seven participants completed two questionnaires (i.e., the ISMI and the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale [DSSS]), and 162 filled out the ISMI again after 50.23±31.18 days. Results The results of this study confirmed the frame structure of the ISMI; however, the Stigma Resistance subscale in the ISMI seemed weak. In addition, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity were all satisfactory for all subscales and the total score of the ISMI, except for Stigma Resistance (??=?0.66; ICC?=?0.52, and r?=?0.02 to 0.06 with DSSS). Therefore, we hypothesize that Stigma Resistance is a new concept rather than a concept in internalized stigma. The acceptable fit indices supported the measurement invariance of the ISMI across time, and suggested that people with mental illness interpret the ISMI items the same at different times. Conclusion The clinical implication of our finding is that clinicians, when they design interventions, may want to use the valid and reliable ISMI without the Stigma Resistance subscale to evaluate the internalized stigma of people with mental illness. PMID:24887440

  18. Does Mental Illness Stigma Contribute to Adolescent Standardized Patients' Discomfort With Simulations of Mental Illness and Adverse Psychosocial Experiences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…

  19. Parents with serious mental illness: Differences in internalised and externalised mental illness stigma and gender stigma between mothers and fathers.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Melanie; Paolini, Stefania; Hanlon, Mary-Claire; Melville, Jessica; Galletly, Cherrie; Campbell, Linda E

    2015-02-28

    Research demonstrates that people living with serious mental illness (SMI) contend with widespread public stigma; however, little is known about the specific experiences of stigma that mothers, and in particular fathers, with SMI encounter as parents. This study aimed to explore and compare the experiences of stigma for mothers and fathers with SMI inferred not only by living with a mental illness but also potential compounding gender effects, and the associated impact of stigma on parenting. Telephone surveys were conducted with 93 participants with SMI who previously identified as parents in the Second Australian National Survey of Psychosis. Results indicated that mothers were more likely than fathers to perceive and internalise stigma associated with their mental illness. Conversely, fathers were more inclined to perceive stigma relating to their gender and to hold stigmatising attitudes towards others. Mental illness and gender stigma predicted poorer self-reported parenting experiences for both mothers and fathers. These findings may assist in tailoring interventions for mothers and fathers with SMI. PMID:25524813

  20. Child Physical Abuse and Adult Mental Health: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S.; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000–2001 and 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16–2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. PMID:22806701

  1. Stigma of mental illness, religious change, and explanatory models of mental illness among Jewish patients at a mental-health clinic in North Jerusalem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel D. Rosen; David Greenberg; James Schmeidler; Gaby Shefler

    2008-01-01

    During 3 months in 2004, 38 recent referrals to a Community Mental Health Clinic in North Jerusalem, a substantially Ultra-Orthodox Jewish neighborhood, were evaluated by the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue. This questionnaire, which includes a 13-item scale measuring stigma towards mental illness, was adapted and translated into Hebrew. Patients with a more religious upbringing expressed a greater sense of stigma

  2. The Cultural Construction of Mental Illness in Prison: A Perfect Storm of Pathology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of individuals in U.S. prisons meet DSM criteria for severe psychiatric disorder. These individuals also have co-occurring personality and substance abuse disorders, medical conditions, and histories of exposure to social pathologies. Based on nine months of ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. prison, focusing on staff narratives, I utilize interpretivist and constructivist perspectives to analyze how mental health clinicians construct psychiatric disorder among inmates. Discrete categorization of disorders may be confounded by the clinical co-morbidities of inmates and the prison context. Incarcerated individuals’ responses to the institutional context substantially inform mental health staffs’ illness construction and the prison itself is identified as an etiological agent for disordered behaviors. In addition, diagnostic processes are found to be indeterminate, contested, and shaped by interactions with staff. Analysis of illness construction reveals that what is at stake for clinicians is not only provision of appropriate treatment, but also mandates for the safety and security of the institution. Enmeshed in these mandates, prison mental health becomes a particular local form of psychiatric knowledge. This paper contributes to anthropological approaches to mental disorder by demonstrating how local contexts mediate psychiatric knowledge and contribute to the limited ethnographic record of prisons. PMID:23212545

  3. Interpersonal contact and the stigma of mental illness: A review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHANNON M. COUTURE; DAVID L. PENN

    2003-01-01

    Title: Interpersonal contact and the stigma of mental illness: A review of the literature Background. Stigmatization of mental illness is widespread in Western societies (Crisp et al., 2001) and other cultures (Chung et al., 2001). Furthermore, researchers have found that stigma is detrimental to the well being of persons with a mental illness (Wahl, 1999), potentially resulting in decreased life

  4. Exploring the Role of Diagnosis in the Modified Labeling Theory of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K.

    2008-01-01

    According to the modified labeling theory of mental illness, when an individual is diagnosed with a mental illness, cultural ideas associated with the mentally ill become personally relevant and foster negative self-feelings. We explore the way that psychiatric diagnosis shapes this process. Specifically, we examine if and how psychiatric…

  5. Relationship of the Media to Attitudes toward People with Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granello, Darcy Haag; Pauley, Pamela S.; Carmichael, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Reports on results of Community Attitudes Toward Mentally Ill questionnaire given to undergraduates. Significant differences emerged on subscales based ranking of primary source of information about mental illness. Results do not imply causality but rather that electronic media is powerful mechanism for spreading the stigma of mental illness.…

  6. Images of Mental Illness in the Media: Identifying Gaps in the Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia A. Stout; Jorge Villegas; Nancy A. Jennings

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes research published over the past decade and identifies areas where future research is needed to increase our knowledge of the media's role in fostering or reducing mental illness stigma. The fol- lowing questions are addressed: (1) How is mental ill- ness portrayed by the media? (2) How do media images of mental illness impact individuals' knowl- edge,

  7. Talking about Mental Illness: A Guide for Developing an Awareness Program for Youth. Community Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This guide contains all of the information, support and tools that community members need to implement "Talking About Mental Illness" in their community--an awareness program proven to be effective in bringing about positive change in young people's knowledge about mental illness, and in reducing stigma that surrounds mental illness. The program…

  8. Persons with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System: Police Interventions to Prevent Violence and Criminalization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oren M. Gur

    2010-01-01

    Studies of contacts between persons with mental illness and police officers generally focus on outcomes for officers, with limited research on the experiences of persons with mental illness. Direct and indirect violence against persons with mental illness, which is perpetrated by the police, adversely affects the criminal justice system and society. Understanding the ramifications of interactions between police and persons

  9. The Homeless Mentally Ill: No Longer Out of Sight and Out of Mind. Human Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Andrea; Craig, Rebecca T.

    1985-01-01

    The increasing presence of the mentally ill among the nation's homeless is the topic of this report. The problems presented by deinstitutionalization are discussed, including: (1) the homeless mentally ill as a disruptive element of society; (2) mentally ill persons who shuttle between the hospital and the community; (3) young chronic patients who…

  10. Experts, actor clash on cause of mental ills By Tina Hesman

    E-print Network

    Experts, actor clash on cause of mental ills By Tina Hesman Of the Post-Dispatch 06 of mental illness, neuroscientists say. Advertisement "It's safe to say that we know that metabolic changes in the brain are present for all major mental illnesses," Conway said. The case for brain changes accompanying

  11. For Immediate Release --Friday, April 11, 2014 Advocate for the mentally ill, Austin Mardon, to receive

    E-print Network

    Seldin, Jonathan P.

    for the mentally ill, Austin Mardon, to receive University of Lethbridge honorary degree for the mentally ill, Austin Mardon. "We're very excited that Austin has accepted our he has done over the years to bring issues of mental illness

  12. Daily Gazette, The (Schenectady, NY) RealJobs NY program helps the mentally ill find employment

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Terry

    Daily Gazette, The (Schenectady, NY) RealJobs NY program helps the mentally ill find employment with mental illnesses find work. After seven months of searching, he finally found a job as an assistant chef;To be eligible for RealJobs NY, people must have a diagnosed mental illness. They check in a couple

  13. The First Steps to Learning with a Child Who Has a Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    This article shares the author's experience in dealing with her child who has a mental illness. The author hopes that other teachers and school administrators would find her experience helpful when dealing with mentally ill children. The author describes the first steps to learning with a child with a mental illness.

  14. VOLUME 7: NO. 1 JANUARY 2010 Evolving Definitions of Mental Illness

    E-print Network

    Mladenoff, David

    VOLUME 7: NO. 1 JANUARY 2010 Evolving Definitions of Mental Illness and Wellness SPECIAL TOPIC, Strine TW. Evolving definitions of mental illness and well- ness. Prev Chronic Dis 2010;7(1). http-focused to a person-focused defini- tion of mental illnesses, and from an "absence of disease" model to one

  15. Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 1 The Blame Game

    E-print Network

    Scholl, Brian

    Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 1 The Blame Game: Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness Margaret A. Martinez Senior Thesis in Psychology Advisor: Susan Nolen-Hoeksema April 19, 2010 #12;Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 2 Abstract The present study

  16. September 2000 The Deinstitutionalization of the Mentally Ill and Growth in the

    E-print Network

    Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

    September 2000 The Deinstitutionalization of the Mentally Ill and Growth in the U.S. Prison 28 to 86 percent of prison inmates suffering from mental illness. #12;1 Over five percent of the mentally ill adult population is incarcerated, a figure roughly six times the incarceration rate

  17. Envisioning a world in which mental illnesses are prevented and cured

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    illnesses are prevented and cured #12;national institute of mental health strategic plan NIMH StrategIc Pla Mental Illness trajectories to Determine When, Where, and How to Intervene We will chart the course Interventions that Incorporate the Diverse Needs and circumstances of People with Mental Illnesses We

  18. The role of genetic variation in the causation of mental illness: an evolution-informed framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Uher

    2009-01-01

    The apparently large genetic contribution to the aetiology of mental illness presents a formidable puzzle. Unlike common physical disorders, mental illness usually has an onset early in the reproductive age and is associated with substantial reproductive disadvantage. Therefore, genetic variants associated with vulnerability to mental illness should be under strong negative selection pressure and be eliminated from the genetic pool

  19. Portrayal of Depression and Other Mental Illnesses in Australian Nonfiction Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Catherine; Pirkis, Jane; Blood, R. Warwick; Dunt, David; Burgess, Philip; Morley, Belinda; Stewart, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This study describes Australian media portrayal of mental illnesses, focusing on depression. A random sample of 1,123 items was selected for analysis from a pool of 13,389 nonfictional media items about mental illness collected between March 2000 and February 2001. Depression was portrayed more frequently than other mental illnesses. Items about…

  20. 76 FR 19261 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ...sign into law the CAPTA (Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment) Reauthorization...tools to identify and address abuse and neglect. This Act will also...for mistreatment like substance abuse, mental illness, and domestic violence. We are also...

  1. Treating Offenders with Mental Illness: A Research Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Robert D.; Flora, David B.; Kroner, Daryl G.; Mills, Jeremy F.; Varghese, Femina; Steffan, Jarrod S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research synthesis was to examine treatment effects across studies of the service providers to offenders with mental illness. Meta-analytic techniques were applied to 26 empirical studies obtained from a review of 12,154 research documents. Outcomes of interest in this review included measures of both psychiatric and criminal functioning. Although meta-analytic results are based on a small sample of available studies, results suggest interventions with offenders with mental illness effectively reduced symptoms of distress, improving offender’s ability to cope with their problems, and resulted in improved behavioral markers including institutional adjustment and behavioral functioning. Furthermore, interventions specifically designed to meet the psychiatric and criminal justice needs of offenders with mental illness have shown to produce significant reductions in psychiatric and criminal recidivism. Finally, this review highlighted admission policies and treatment strategies (e.g., use of homework), which produced the most positive benefits. Results of this research synthesis are directly relevant for service providers in both criminal justice and mental health systems (e.g., psychiatric hospitals) as well as community settings by informing treatment strategies for the first time, which are based on empirical evidence. In addition, the implications of these results to policy makers tasked with the responsibility of designating services for this special needs population are highlighted. PMID:22471384

  2. Predicting Post-Treatment-Initiation Alcohol Use Among Patients With Severe Mental Illness and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clara M. Bradizza; Stephen A. Maisto; Paula C. Vincent; Paul R. Stasiewicz; Gerard J. Connors; Nicole D. Mercer

    2009-01-01

    Few investigators studying alcohol abuse among individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) have examined predictors of posttreatment alcohol outcomes. In the present study, a multivariate approach based on a theoretical model was used to study the relationship between psychosocial factors and post-treatment-initiation alcohol use. Predictors of alcohol use outcomes were examined in 278 individuals diagnosed with a current schizophrenia-spectrum

  3. A qualitative exploration of the perspectives of mental health professionals on stigma and discrimination of mental illness in Malaysia

    E-print Network

    Hanafiah, Ainul Nadhirah; Van Bortel, Tine

    2015-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination is not limited to mental illness. Physical medical conditions such as HIV/AIDS [8] and obesity [8-10] often face similar challenges [11]. However, in comparison, people with mental health problems suffer higher stigmatisation... on personal suspicion and not a matter that was officially filed to any authority. 2. Types of mental illness carrying stigma As the participating mental health professionals elaborated on their patients’ plight of being stigmatised, types of mental...

  4. Comorbidity: Addiction and Other Mental Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the course of both. Is Drug Addiction a Mental Illness? Yes. Addiction changes the brain in fundamental ways, ... Drug abuse may bring about symptoms of another mental illness . Increased risk of psychosis in vulnerable marijuana users ...

  5. The Stigmatization of Mental Illness in Children and Parents. Data Trends #124

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" reviews theory and research on stigma and mental health with a focus on the stigmatization of mental illness in the family when either a child or a parent has a mental illness.…

  6. A Qualitative Study of Attitudes toward Mental Illness: Implications for Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissland, James H.; Munger, Richard

    Efforts to foster mental health care in society have always been hampered by the stigma attached to mental illness. To identify differential patterns of attitude hierarchies among people who live in or provide mental health services in a typical urban area, 54 adults participated in a Q methodology study of their attitudes toward mental illness.…

  7. Perceptions of mental illness and related stigma among Vietnamese populations: findings from a mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Do, Mai; Pham, Nhu Ngoc K; Wallick, Stacy; Nastasi, Bonnie Kaul

    2014-12-01

    Mental-illness-related (MIR) stigma is recognized as a major barrier to health care. Yet very little is known about mental illness and stigma among Vietnamese populations, or how emigration and acculturation processes might affect traditional views. Focus group discussions were conducted with Vietnamese Americans in New Orleans (Louisiana) and Vietnamese nationals in Bui Chu (Vietnam), who shared historical and cultural backgrounds, in 2010 to assess differences in their perceptions of mental illness and stigma. Results show several significant differences in mental illness perceptions between Vietnamese Americans and Vietnamese nationals, while MIR stigma seemed prevalent and understanding of mental illness was low among both groups. PMID:24719272

  8. Neighborhood Effects, Mental Illness and Criminal Behavior: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, David; Woods, George W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the social science on “neighborhood effects” as an independent force in shaping poor outcomes, specifically mental illness and criminal behavior, before discussing the implications of that research for understanding the relationship between neighborhoods, race and class. Neighborhood effects research has proliferated in recent years with extensive attention again being focused on the social context of family and individual development and life course. Moreover, recent work has suggested the need to consider the developmental effects of neighborhoods that persist across life-span. This paper will focus specifically on mental illness and criminal behavior as outcomes for understanding neighborhood effects, but will also consider what the structural causes of individual behavior and functioning mean for clinical assessment, especially forensic assessment. PMID:25250101

  9. Abstinence self-efficacy in people with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Thomas; Shen, Ce

    2013-07-01

    To validate the Brief Situational Confidence Questionniare (BSCQ) with people diagnosed with severe mental illness (N=129), we examined the associations between abstinence self-efficacy (BSCQ) and alcohol consumption level (within the previous 6months), drug use, and problems related to substance use while controlling for key symptoms of major mental illness and motives for alcohol use (Drinking Motives Questionnaire). Regression models revealed that abstinence self-efficacy was a significant predictor of all three substance use measures suggesting that, even when controlling for psychiatric symptoms and substance use motives, abstinence self-efficacy accounts for unique variance in alcohol use, drug use, and related problems. This study is limited by the cross sectional design and lack of structured diagnostic interviewing. PMID:23357468

  10. Neighborhood Effects, Mental Illness and Criminal Behavior: A Review.

    PubMed

    Freedman, David; Woods, George W

    2013-09-01

    This paper briefly reviews the social science on "neighborhood effects" as an independent force in shaping poor outcomes, specifically mental illness and criminal behavior, before discussing the implications of that research for understanding the relationship between neighborhoods, race and class. Neighborhood effects research has proliferated in recent years with extensive attention again being focused on the social context of family and individual development and life course. Moreover, recent work has suggested the need to consider the developmental effects of neighborhoods that persist across life-span. This paper will focus specifically on mental illness and criminal behavior as outcomes for understanding neighborhood effects, but will also consider what the structural causes of individual behavior and functioning mean for clinical assessment, especially forensic assessment. PMID:25250101

  11. Self-Stigma and Coming Out about One's Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Morris, Scott; Larson, Jon; Rafacz, Jennifer; Wassel, Abigail; Michaels, Patrick; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen; Rusch, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Self-stigma can undermine self-esteem and self-efficacy of people with serious mental illness. Coming out may be one way of handling self-stigma and it was expected that coming out would mediate the effects of self-stigma on quality of life. This study compares coming out to other approaches of controlling self-stigma. Eighty-five people with…

  12. Law & psychiatry: Responsibility for torts: should the courts continue to ignore mental illness?

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2012-04-01

    Although courts routinely consider whether a criminal defendant's mental illness makes punishment unfair, the rules are very different for civil liability. When people with mental illness harm others, courts refuse to consider their mental states in determining civil liability. The justifications offered for this rule range from the difficulty of assessing the impact of mental illness on behavior to the desire to place the burden of loss on the person who caused the injury. Undeniably, though, mental disabilities are treated differently from physical impairments, and the law's resistance to change seems largely based on misunderstanding and prejudice against mental illness. PMID:22476297

  13. California's historic effort to reduce the stigma of mental illness: the Mental Health Services Act.

    PubMed

    Clark, Wayne; Welch, Stephanie N; Berry, Sandra H; Collentine, Ann M; Collins, Rebecca; Lebron, Dorthy; Shearer, Amy L

    2013-05-01

    In a historic effort to reduce the stigma of mental illness, California voters approved the Mental Health Services Act in 2004. The law funds a comprehensive statewide prevention initiative that places stigma and discrimination reduction at its center, with 25 projects providing interventions at the institutional, societal, and individual levels. Stakeholders selected specific strategies from the research-based California Strategic Plan on Reducing Stigma and Discrimination. Strategies range from social marketing to increase public knowledge to capacity building at the local level, including training that emphasizes participation by consumers of mental health services and cultural competence. Collectively, these strategies aim to foster permanent change in the public perception of mental illness and in the individual experience of stigma. We examined the context, planning, programming, and evaluation of this effort. PMID:23488486

  14. Mental Illness Training for Long Term Care Staff

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, A. Blair; Billow, Molly B.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Seeley, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Mental illness is prevalent among nursing home residents, but staff are not well trained to deal with it. This research evaluated an Internet mental illness training program designed for certified direct care workers i.e., Nurse Aides (NAs). Pilot research was also conducted to explore effects and acceptance of the same program with a sample of Licensed Health Professionals (LHPs). Design Trial 1: Pre-post randomized treatment and control design for NAs; Trial 2: Quasi-experimental pre-post within-subjects design for LHPs. Setting Both studies were conducted on the Internet. Participants Trial 1: N=62 NAs; Trial 2: N=16 LHPs Intervention Internet-based behavioral skills training and knowledge building, using video modeling with mastery learning instructional design. Measurements Video situations testing and assessment of psycho-social constructs associated with behavior change; follow-up interviews with a sample of treatment NAs. Results Trial 1: MANCOVA analysis showed positive results (p=.003) for knowledge, attitudes, self efficacy, and behavioral intention, with medium-large effect sizes. The training was well received by the users. Trial 2: Paired t-tests showed significant effects on five of six outcome measures, with medium-large effect sizes, and it was well received by the LHP sample. Conclusions Internet training can be an effective approach to help staff work with residents with mental illness. In this research, it showed significant positive effects and was well received by NAs and by LHPs. PMID:21450251

  15. [The mentally ill artist--a historical retrospect].

    PubMed

    Bergdolt, K

    1995-07-01

    The painting of the mentally ill has fascinated artists and their public throughout the 20th century. Yet the psychologically as well as art-historically interesting topic can be traced back over a long period in the history of Western culture. Aristotle emphasizes that all men who create great works, such as artists, philosophers, poets and politicians, are prone to melancholy, that excess of black gall which is characteristic of artists and depressive. Although Plato distinguished between creative and clinical mania, the topos of "genius and madness" prevails up to our century. The cult of melancholy is taken up bei Marsilio Ficino and becomes fashionable among the artists of the 16th and 17th centuries. During the Romantic period of the early 19th century the psychologically unstable or even sick intellectual and artist becomes the focus of attention. Artistic madness is glorified in an almost mystical fashion. However, disillusionment was soon to follow. Schopenhauer, Lombroso and many physicians stress the close relationship between genius and madness. However, they judge madness to be merely morbid and negative. During the 20th century the artists of the avantgarde show much interest in psychoanalysis and in the art of the mentally ill. The rise of National Socialism brought about a drastic break in the appraisal of the art of the mentally ill, which today is an acknowledged factor in contemporary art. PMID:7672748

  16. Sick in the head? Pathogen concerns bias implicit perceptions of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Lund, Erik M; Boggero, Ian A

    2014-01-01

    Biases against the mentally ill are historically and cross-culturally pervasive, suggesting they may have an evolutionary basis. The prevailing view is that people seek to distance themselves from the mentally ill because they are perceived as dangerous, violent, and incompetent. However, because of similarities between sickness behaviors and symptoms of some mental disorders, it was hypothesized that mental illness stigma could be partially explained as a function of behavioral immune system biases designed to avoid potential sources of contagion. In two experiments, it was found that mental illness was implicitly associated more with disease than danger. In Experiment 1, this implicit association was exacerbated among people who have had their biological immune system activated by a recent illness. In Experiment 2, experimentally priming disease salience increased implicit association between mental illness and disease. Implications for the evolutionary origins of prejudice and the prevention of mental illness stigma are discussed. PMID:25300049

  17. Effects of illness attribution and depression on the quality of life among persons with serious mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Mechanic; Donna McAlpine; Sarah Rosenfield; Diane Davis

    1994-01-01

    Attributing one's problems to a mental illness is associated with reduced subjective quality of life (QOL) among persons with schizophrenia, controlling for a broad range of socio-demographic, social, clinical, and psychosocial variables. Persons who attributed their problems to a 'physical, medical, or biological' problem in contrast to a 'mental illness' reported more positive social relations and higher overall quality of

  18. The psychiatric rehabilitation of African Americans with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob; Lawson, William B

    2010-05-01

    African Americans make up approximately 12% of the U.S. population, a total of around 36 million people. Evidence suggests that African Americans suffer from significant and persistent disparities within the mental health system. African Americans with severe mental illness are less likely than Euro-Americans to access mental health services, more likely to drop out of treatment, more likely to receive poor-quality care, and more likely to be dissatisfied with care. Dominant patterns of treatment for African Americans with psychiatric disabilities are often least suited to long-term rehabilitation. To be successful, interventions must simultaneously target three levels: macro, provider, and patient. Five domains are posited that cut across these levels. These are cross-cultural communication, discrimination, explanatory models, stigma, and family involvement. These need appropriate research and action to enhance the psychiatric rehabilitation of African Americans. Potential solutions to overcome barriers raised within these domains are suggested. PMID:20439373

  19. 1/28/09 3:37 PMThe Persistence of Mental Illness | Psychology Today Blogs Page 1 of 3http://blogs.psychologytoday.com/blog/in-practice/200806/the-persistence-mental-illness

    E-print Network

    1/28/09 3:37 PMThe Persistence of Mental Illness | Psychology Today Blogs Page 1 of 3http://blogs.psychologytoday.com/blog/in-practice/200806/the-persistence-mental-illness Articles Blogs The Persistence of Mental Illness By Peter D. Kramer" in the patient with schizophrenia. In other words, any liability to mental illness was not inherited but had

  20. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. March/April 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Deborah, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "SAMHSA News" is the national newsletter of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Published six times a year (bimonthly) by SAMHSA's Office of Communications, SAMHSA News contains information about the latest substance abuse and mental health treatment and prevention practices, recent statistics on mental health and…

  1. Department of Human Services Division of Substance Abuse and Mental Health (DSAMH)

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    Department of Human Services Division of Substance Abuse and Mental Health (DSAMH) I. Internal Scan will likely need other medical services beyond just substance abuse and mental health issues complex mental health issues, and some service expectations may be shifted to DSAMH. Baby boomers are also

  2. Exploring the relationship between social class, mental illness stigma and mental health literacy using British national survey data

    E-print Network

    Holman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between social class and mental illness stigma has received little attention in recent years. At the same time, the concept of mental health literacy (MHL) has become an increasingly popular way to frame knowledge and understanding...

  3. The mental health recovery movement and family therapy, part I: consumer-led reform of services to persons diagnosed with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Gehart, Diane R

    2012-07-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued a consensus statement on mental health recovery based on the New Freedom Commission's recommendation that public mental health organizations adopt a "recovery" approach to severe and persistent mental illness, including services to those dually diagnosed with mental health and substance abuse issues. By formally adopting and promoting a recovery orientation to severe mental illness, the United States followed suit with other first-world nations that have also adopted this approach based on two decades of research by the World Health Organization. This movement represents a significant paradigm shift in the treatment of severe mental health, a shift that is more closely aligned with the nonpathologizing and strength-based traditions in marriage and family therapy. Furthermore, the recovery movement is the first consumer-led movement to have a transformational effect on professional practice, thus a watershed moment for the field. Part I of this article introduces family therapists to the concept of mental health recovery, providing an overview of its history, key concepts, and practice implications. Part II of this article outlines a collaborative, appreciative approach for working in recovery-oriented contexts. PMID:22804463

  4. 62 FR 53548 - Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; Requirements Applicable to Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-10-15

    ...with Mental Illness'' be included...regarding jails, prisons and detention facilities...the general prison or jail population...the mental health units of such...the general prison or jail population...receive mental health services from...with Mental Illness.'' The...jails and prisons. In......

  5. Rates of Co-Occurring Mental and Substance Use Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Human Services SAMHSA's mission is to reduce the impact of substance abuse and mental illness on America's communities. Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration • 1 Choke Cherry Road • Rockville, MD 20857 • 1-877-SAMHSA-7

  6. The History of Community Mental Health Treatment and Rehabilitation for Persons with Severe Mental Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Drake; Alan I. Green; Kim T. Mueser; Howard H. Goldman

    2003-01-01

    The authors review the evolution of the treatments for persons with severe mental illnesses over the past 40 years in three areas: pharmacological and other somatic treatments, psychosomatic treatments, and rehabilitation. Current treatments are based on a much stronger evidence base, are more patient-centered, and are more likely to target autonomy and recovery.

  7. Attitudes of Mental Health Professionals about Mental Illness: A Review of the Recent Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto; Aroesty-Cohen, Eli

    2010-01-01

    A large body of research has documented public attitudes toward people with mental illness. The current attitudes of the people who provide services to those with psychiatric disorders are important to understand, as well. The authors review what studies over the past 5 years reveal about the attitudes of psychiatric professionals. Empirical…

  8. Recovery and Severe Mental Illness: Description and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Robert E; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    The notion of recovery has been embraced by key stakeholders across Canada and elsewhere. This has led to a proliferation of definitions, models, and research on recovery, making it vitally important to examine the data to disentangle the evidence from the rhetoric. In this paper, first we ask, what do people living with severe mental illness (SMI) say about recovery in autobiographical accounts? Second, what do they say about recovery in qualitative studies? Third, from what we have uncovered about recovery, can we learn anything from quantitative studies about proportions of people leading lives of recovery? Finally, can we identify interventions and approaches that may be consistent or inconsistent with the grounded notions of recovery unearthed in this paper? We found that people with mental illness frequently state that recovery is a journey, characterized by a growing sense of agency and autonomy, as well as greater participation in normative activities, such as employment, education, and community life. However, the evidence suggests that most people with SMI still live in a manner inconsistent with recovery; for example, their unemployment rate is over 80%, and they are disproportionately vulnerable to homelessness, stigma, and victimization. Research stemming from rehabilitation science suggests that recovery can be enhanced by various evidence-based services, such as supported employment, as well as by clinical approaches, such as shared decision making and peer support. But these are not routinely available. As such, significant systemic changes are necessary to truly create a recovery-oriented mental health system. PMID:25007276

  9. Internalized stigma of mental illness: psychometric properties of a new measure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Boyd Ritsher; Poorni G Otilingam; Monica Grajales

    2003-01-01

    The study evaluated the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale, designed to measure the subjective experience of stigma, with subscales measuring Alienation, Stereotype Endorsement, Perceived Discrimination, Social Withdrawal and Stigma Resistance. The ISMI was developed in collaboration with people with mental illnesses and contains 29 Likert items. The validation sample included 127 mental health outpatients. Results showed that the

  10. The stigma of mental illness: Explanatory models and methods for change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick W. Corrigan; Amy Kerr; Lissa Knudsen

    2005-01-01

    For people with mental illness, diminished quality of life and loss of personal goals does not result solely from the symptoms, distress, and disabilities caused by their psychiatric disorder. Quality of life and personal goals are also hindered by people who embrace the stigma that accompanies mental illness and mental health care. This paper reviews evidence of the impact of

  11. Implicit stigma of mental illness: Attitudes in an evidence-based practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Grace Stull

    2011-01-01

    Stigma is a barrier to recovery for people with mental illness. Problematically, stigma also has been documented among mental health practitioners. To date, however, most research has focused on explicit attitudes regarding mental illness. Little research has examined implicit attitudes, which has the potential to reveal evaluations residing outside of conscious control or awareness. Moreover, research has tended to use

  12. Breaking Down the Stigma of Mental Illness through an Adventure Camp: A Collaborative Education Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuhlmiller, Cynthia M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an outdoor adventure camp to help mental health consumers and nursing students explore the issues of mental health and illness through experiential and perceived risk challenges. Evaluation data reveals a breakdown in the stigma of mental illness as consumers and students came to know, trust, and count on each other in order to succeed…

  13. Smoking and mental illness: results from population surveys in Australia and the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Lawrence; Francis Mitrou; Stephen R Zubrick

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking has been associated with a range of mental disorders including schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and depression. People with mental illness have high rates of morbidity and mortality from smoking related illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases and cancer. As many people who meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders do not seek treatment for these conditions, we sought to

  14. Mental illness and violence: A brief review of research and assessment strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Harris; Arthur J. Lurigio

    2007-01-01

    Examinations of the relationship between mental disorders and violent behavior can be found throughout history and across cultures. Many examples of the cultural and social construction of dangerousness and mental illness also have appeared during the modern era. This article examines the evolution of thought and research regarding the relationship between mental illness and violence, from studies in the early

  15. From conduct disorder to severe mental illness: associations with aggressive behaviour, crime and victimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hodgins; A. Cree; J. Alderton; T. Mak

    2008-01-01

    Background. Conduct disorder (CD) prior to age 15 has been associated with an increased risk of aggressive behaviour and crime among men with schizophrenia. The present study aimed to replicate and extend this finding in a clinical sample of severely mentally ill men and women. Method. We examined a cohort of in-patients with severe mental illness in one mental health

  16. The Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System: An Overview of Historical Causes and Suggested Remedies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur J. Lurigio; Andrew Harris

    This article examines the historical and contextual factors that are related to the growing numbers of persons with mental illness who are processed through the criminal justice system. The paper discuss five major mental health and criminal justice policies that frame the challenges associated with the mentally ill in the criminal justice system: deinstitutionalization (a shift in the locus of

  17. Advocating for Persons Who Are Mentally Ill: A History of Mutual Empowerment of Patients and Profession

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward F. Foulks

    2000-01-01

    The author reviews the history of advocacy for mentally ill individuals. Through organizations such as the National Mental Health Association and the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill, collaboration among professionals, consumers, and concerned citizens is enhanced. The common causes and differences among organizations are discussed within the context of how psychiatrists can realize leadership strategies to further advance advocacy

  18. The Picture of Mental Health\\/Illness in the Printed Media in Three Central European Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucie Nawková; Alexander Nawka; Tereza Adámková; Tea Vukuši? Rukavina; Petra Holcnerová; Martina Rojni? Kuzman; Nikolina Jovanovi?; Ognjen Brborovi?; Bibiána Bednárová; Svetlana Žuchová; Michal Miovský; Ji?í Raboch

    2011-01-01

    Even in the era of the Internet, printed media are still among the most frequently identified sources of mental health information. Many studies have shown that this information is frequently negative and contributes to stigmatization of people with mental illness. This international comparative study describes the content of media messages about mental health\\/illness in terms of stigma in three Central

  19. The Picture of Mental Health\\/Illness in the Printed Media in Three Central European Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucie Nawková; Alexander Nawka; Tereza Adámková; Tea Vukuši? Rukavina; Petra Holcnerová; Martina Rojni? Kuzman; Nikolina Jovanovi?; Ognjen Brborovi?; Bibiána Bednárová; Svetlana Žuchová; Michal Miovský; Ji?í Raboch

    2012-01-01

    Even in the era of the Internet, printed media are still among the most frequently identified sources of mental health information. Many studies have shown that this information is frequently negative and contributes to stigmatization of people with mental illness. This international comparative study describes the content of media messages about mental health\\/illness in terms of stigma in three Central

  20. CONCEPTUAL AND METHODOLOGICAL CHALLENGES IN EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MENTAL ILLNESS AND VIOLENT BEHAVIOUR AND CRIME

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Hugh Richardson

    There is a longstanding view within the general population and the criminal justice system that the mentally ill are more prone than the mentally healthy to violence and. This view, however, is not fully supported by empirical research, in particular due to conceptual and methodological challenges that arise when the relationship between mental illness and crime is examined. This paper

  1. Promoting Recovery in Mental Illness: A Shared Decision Making Program Michelle Salyers

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Promoting Recovery in Mental Illness: A Shared Decision Making Program Michelle Salyers School provide services to adults with severe mental illness that are based on the best research evidence and that promote recovery. One way to promote recovery is to help consumers of mental health services work more

  2. The Silent Parent: Developing Knowledge about the Experiences of Parents with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boursnell, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the lived experiences of parents with mental illness in Australia. It draws on in-depth interviews with parents (n = 10) who have mental illness and provides an analysis of national mental health policies. The analysis of the parents' narratives is essential in building a picture for those involved in the issues associated with…

  3. Family Intervention and Services for Persons with Mental Illness in the People's Republic of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Kam-shing

    2005-01-01

    Family services and intervention for persons with mental illness is crucial in mental health services. In this paper, the writer attempts to describe family intervention and services for persons with mental illness in the People's Republic of China. Family intervention and services like home-based care, guardianship network, family counseling, and…

  4. Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

  5. Practice Wisdom on Custodial Parenting with Mental Illness: A Strengths View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeman, Laura Dreuth; Buila, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Social work principles of strengths, empowerment, and consumer-centered care for persons with mental illness are currently being adapted to broader contexts. This article presents study findings on practice wisdom about custodial parents with mental illness, a potentially increasing group of consumers in light of mental health reform. The research…

  6. Racial Disparities in Prescription Drug Use for Mental Illness among Population in US

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Euna Han; Gordon G. Liu

    2005-01-01

    Background: Racial minorities are a rapidly growing portion of the US population. Research suggests that racial minorities are more vulnerable to mental illness due to risk factors, such as higher rates of poverty. Given that the burden of mental illnesses is significant, equal likelihood of mental health services utilization is important to reduce such burden. Racial minorities have been known

  7. Does mental illness have a place alongside social and recovery models of mental health in service users' lived experiences? Issues and implications for mental health education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Barnes

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Influential social and recovery models, de-emphasising mental illness understandings, form key mandates for mental health education today. This paper, however, aims to question how responsive these perspectives may be to service users, and seeks to review the value of mental illness concepts to social model approaches. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In the context of recovery model concerns with the associations

  8. Guns, schools, and mental illness: potential concerns for physicians and mental health professionals.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ryan Chaloner Winton; Friedman, Susan Hatters

    2013-11-01

    Since the recent shootings in Tucson, Arizona; Aurora, Colorado; and Newtown, Connecticut, there has been an ever-increasing state and national debate regarding gun control. All 3 shootings involved an alleged shooter who attended college, and in hindsight, evidence of a mental illness was potentially present in these individuals while in school. What appears to be different about the current round of debate is that both pro-gun control and anti-gun control advocates are focusing on mentally ill individuals, early detection of mental illness during school years, and the interactions of such individuals with physicians and the mental health system as a way to solve gun violence. This raises multiple questions for our profession about the apparent increase in these types of events, dangerousness in mentally ill individuals, when to intervene (voluntary vs involuntary), and what role physicians should play in the debate and ongoing prevention. As is evident from the historic Tarasoff court case, physicians and mental health professionals often have new regulations/duties, changes in the physician-patient relationship, and increased liability resulting from high-profile events such as these. Given that in many ways the prediction of who will actually commit a violent act is difficult to determine with accuracy, physicians need to be cautious with how the current gun debate evolves not only for ourselves (eg, increased liability, becoming de facto agents of the state) but for our patients as well (eg, increased stigma, erosion of civil liberties, and changes in the physician-patient relationship). We provide examples of potential troublesome legislation and suggestions on what can be done to improve safety for our patients and for the public. PMID:24138962

  9. Mothers with Serious Mental Illness: Their Experience of “Hitting Bottom”

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Phyllis; Mossey, Sharolyn; Bailey, Patricia; Forchuk, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to understand the experience of “hitting bottom” from the perspective of 32 mothers with serious mental illness. Secondary narrative analysis of 173 stories about experiences related to hitting bottom were identified. Enactment of their perceived mothering roles and responsibilities was compromised when confronted by the worst of illness. Subsequent to women's descent to bottom was their need for a timely and safe exit from bottom. An intense experience in bottom further jeopardized their parenting and treatment self-determination and, for some, their potential for survival. The results suggest that prevention of bottom is feasible with early assessment of the diverse issues contributing to mothers' vulnerabilities. Interventions to lessen their pain may circumvent bottom experiences. Healing necessitates purposeful approaches to minimize the private and public trauma of bottom experiences, nurture growth towards a future, and establish resources to actualize such a life. PMID:22007325

  10. Does humor influence the stigma of mental illnesses?

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Fokuo, J Konadu; Kosyluk, Kristin A

    2014-05-01

    Public stigma is a barrier for people with mental illness. Humor may have the potential to decrease stigmatizing attitudes in the context of disclosure. Participants completed measures on stigmatizing attitudes and humor style and were then randomized to one of three conditions (self-disclosure comedy sketch, the same comedy sketch with no disclosure, and a control comedy sketch). After reviewing the comedy sketch, the participants repeated the attitude measures and provided perceptions of the comic. Humor styles and perceptions significantly interacted with condition to reduce stigma. Perceptions of the self-disclosed comic were associated with reduced stigma. People exhibiting affiliative humor style (i.e., they enjoy making others laugh) were shown to have significantly greater stigma changes in the disclosed condition compared with the nondisclosed and control conditions. Affiliative humor endorsers also interacted with the nondisclosed condition, suggesting that mental health comedy might generally reduce stigma in people who use humor to improve relationships. PMID:24727719

  11. Mental illness beliefs in Malaysia: ethnic and intergenerational comparisons.

    PubMed

    Edman, J L; Koon, T Y

    2000-01-01

    Two groups of college students in Malaysia, ethnic Malay and ethnic Chinese, completed a mental illness attribution and help seeking questionnaire, and these responses were also compared with the responses of their mothers. As expected, ethnic Malays rated religious items, such as God and prayer, higher than the Chinese. However, both groups rated the social and psychological causes higher than religious, supernatural or physical causes. Contrary to our predictions, there were no intergenerational differences among either ethnic group. Medical pluralism was demonstrated, as a variety of apparently contradictory help seeking behaviors received quite high ratings including doctor/pharmacy, prayer, herbal medicine and traditional healers. PMID:10950358

  12. Experiencing Community: Perspectives of Individuals Diagnosed as Having Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Bromley, Elizabeth; Gabrielian, Sonya; Brekke, Benjamin; Pahwa, Rohini; Daly, Kathleen A.; Brekke, John S.; Braslow, Joel T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Community integration is recognized as a crucial component of recovery from serious mental illness. Although the construct of community integration can be measured with structured instruments, little is known about the subjective and experiential meaning of community and community involvement for persons with serious mental illness. Methods In 2010, 30 individuals with serious mental illness treated in two public mental health clinics completed semistructured interviews that elicited the places and people that they associate with the experience of community and the larger meaning of community in their lives. Results Participants described four experiences as integral to their concepts of community: receiving help, minimizing risk, avoiding stigma, and giving back. Participants looked for communities that provide reliable support, and they described the need to manage community contact in order to protect themselves and others from their symptoms and from discrimination. Most participants experienced communities centered on mental health treatment or mentally ill peers as providing opportunities for positive engagement. Conclusions The experience of having a serious mental illness shapes preferences for and perceptions of community in pervasive ways. Participants describe community involvement not as a means to move away from illness experiences and identities but as a process that is substantially influenced by them. Mental health communities may help individuals with serious mental illness to both manage their illness and recognize and enjoy a sense of community. The findings indicate the need for further research on the relationship between community integration and outcome in serious mental illness. PMID:23545784

  13. Parenting of Mothers with a Serious Mental Illness: Differential Effects of Diagnosis, Clinical History, and Other Mental Health Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol; Oyserman, Daphna; Bybee, Deborah; MacFarlane, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Examines the effects of mental illness on parenting in a sample of women with serious mental illness. Diagnosis had a small but significant effect on parenting attitudes and behaviors. However, current symptoms mediated the effects of diagnosis and chronicity on parenting stress, and current symptomatology and community functioning partially…

  14. Disseminating Evidence-Based Practices for Adults with PTSD and Severe Mental Illness in Public-Sector Mental Health Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frueh, B. Christopher; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Cusack, Karen J.; Elhai, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains largely untreated among adults with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The treatment of psychotic symptoms usually takes precedence in the care of adults with SMI. Such oversight is problematic in that PTSD in SMI populations is common (19%-43%), contributes a significant illness burden, and hinders mental

  15. The genetics of mental illness: implications for practice.

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, S. E.

    2000-01-01

    Many of the comfortable and relatively simple models of the nature of mental disorders, their causes and their neural substrates now appear quite frayed. Gone is the idea that symptom clusters, course of illness, family history and treatment response would coalesce in a simple way to yield valid diagnoses. Also too simple was the concept, born of early pharmacological successes, that abnormal levels of one or more neurotransmitters would satisfactorily explain the pathogenesis of depression or schizophrenia. Gone is the notion that there is a single gene that causes any mental disorder or determines any behavioural variant. The concept of the causative gene has been replaced by that of genetic complexity, in which multiple genes act in concert with non-genetic factors to produce a risk of mental disorder. Discoveries in genetics and neuroscience can be expected to lead to better models that provide improved representation of the complexity of the brain and behaviour and the development of both. There are likely to be profound implications for clinical practice. The complex genetics of risk should reinvigorate research on the epidemiology and classification of mental disorders and explain the complex patterns of disease transmission within families. Knowledge of the timing of the expression of risk genes during brain development and of their function should not only contribute to an understanding of gene action and the pathophysiology of disease but should also help to direct the search for modifiable environmental risk factors that convert risk into illness. The function of risk genes can only become comprehensible in the context of advances at the molecular, cellular and systems levels in neuroscience and the behavioural sciences. Genetics should yield new therapies aimed not just at symptoms but also at pathogenic processes, thus permitting the targeting of specific therapies to individual patients. PMID:10885164

  16. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Ahmed; Zubair, Muhammad; Ghulam, Hamzah; Wajih Ullah, Muhammad; Zubair Tariq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI) Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences). Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents). Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8%) had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%). Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3%) considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4%) and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7%) to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1%) considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41%) respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05). Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can play a role in treatment. PMID:25548734

  17. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Muhammad; Ghulam, Hamzah; Wajih Ullah, Muhammad; Zubair Tariq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI) Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences). Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents). Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8%) had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%). Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3%) considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4%) and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7%) to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1%) considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41%) respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05). Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can play a role in treatment. PMID:25548734

  18. The stigma of mental illness in Southern Ghana: attitudes of the urban population and patients’ views

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonia Barke; Seth Nyarko; Dorothee Klecha

    Purpose  Stigma is a frequent accompaniment of mental illness leading to a number of detrimental consequences. Most research into the\\u000a stigma connected to mental illness was conducted in the developed world. So far, few data exist on countries in sub-Saharan\\u000a Africa and no data have been published on population attitudes towards mental illness in Ghana. Even less is known about the

  19. The HIV epidemic among individuals with mental illness in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheri D. Weiser; William R. Wolfe; David R. Bangsberg

    2004-01-01

    People with depression and other mental illness comprise a growing proportion of individuals living with HIV in the United\\u000a States; at the same time, the prevalence of HIV among mentally ill individuals is at least seven times higher than in the\\u000a general population. Individuals with mental illness are particularly vulnerable to infection with HIV because of several factors,\\u000a including the

  20. South African Muslim Faith Healers Perceptions of Mental Illness: Understanding, Aetiology and Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaseen Ally; Sumaya Laher

    2008-01-01

    The important role that religious beliefs may have on perceptions of mental illness cannot be ignored. Many religions including\\u000a Islam advocate witchcraft and spirit possession—all of which are thought to influence the behaviour of a person so as to resemble\\u000a that of a mentally ill individual. Thus this research explored Muslim Faith Healers perceptions of mental and spiritual illness\\u000a in

  1. Social firms as a means of vocational recovery for people with mental illness: a UK survey

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, Eleanor; Marwaha, Steven; Milton, Alyssa; Johnson, Sonia; Morant, Nicola; Parsons, Nicholas; Fisher, Adrian; Singh, Swaran; Cunliffe, Di

    2013-07-11

    Abstract Background Employment is associated with better quality of life and wellbeing in people with mental illness. Unemployment is associated with greater levels of psychological illness and is viewed as a core part of the social exclusion faced...

  2. Parents of Children With Mental Illness: Exploring the Caregiver Experience and Caregiver-Focused Interventions

    E-print Network

    Mendenhall, Amy N.; Mount, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Serious mental illness in children can significantly impact the parents who care for these children in both positive and negative ways. Caregiver strain and enrichment manifests in all areas of parents’ lives, including work, mental and physical...

  3. Patient and prisoner experiences : major mental illness and masculinity in the context of violent offending behaviour 

    E-print Network

    Haddow, Christine

    2013-11-26

    Traditional understandings of violence by the mentally disordered largely look to mental illness to explain such behaviour. More recently, research has begun to examine the role of alternative factors in driving violent ...

  4. Cytokines and the neurodevelopmental basis of mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Ratnayake, Udani; Quinn, Tracey; Walker, David W.; Dickinson, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that prenatal exposure to different types of viral or bacterial infections may be associated with similar outcomes; i.e., an increased risk of mental illness disorders in the offspring. Infections arising from various causes have similar debilitating effects in later life, suggesting that the exact pathogen may not be the critical factor in determining the neurological and cognitive outcome in the offspring. Instead, it is thought that response of the innate immune system, specifically the increased production of inflammatory cytokines, may be the critical mediator in altering fetal brain development pre-disposing the offspring to mental illness disorders later in life. Inflammatory cytokines are essential for normal brain development. Factors such as the site of cytokine production, a change in balance between anti- and pro- inflammatory cytokines, placental transfer of cytokines, the effects of cytokines on glial cells, and the effects of glucocorticoids are important when evaluating the impact of maternal infection on fetal brain development. Although it is clear that cytokines are altered in the fetal brain following maternal infection, further evidence is required to determine if cytokines are the critical factor that alters the trajectory of brain development, subsequently leading to postnatal behavioral and neurological abnormalities. PMID:24146637

  5. E-Cigarette Use among Smokers with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Grana, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined electronic cigarette (EC) use, correlates of use, and associated changes in smoking behavior among smokers with serious mental illness in a clinical trial. Methods Adult smokers were recruited during acute psychiatric hospitalization (N?=?956, 73% enrollment among approached smokers) in the San Francisco Bay Area between 2009–2013. At baseline, participants averaged 17 (SD?=?10) cigarettes per day for 19 (SD?=?14) years; 24% intended to quit smoking in the next month. Analyses examined frequency and correlates of EC use reported over the 18-month trial and changes in smoking behavior by EC use status. Findings EC use was 11% overall, and by year of enrollment, increased from 0% in 2009 to 25% in 2013. In multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of EC use was significantly greater with each additional year of recruitment, for those aged 18–26, and for those in the preparation versus precontemplation stage of change, and unlikely among Hispanic participants. EC use was unrelated to gender, psychiatric diagnosis, and measures of tobacco dependence at baseline. Further, over the 18-month trial, EC use was not associated with changes in smoking status or, among continued smokers, with reductions in cigarettes per day. Interpretation Within a clinical trial with smokers with serious mental illness, EC use increased over time, particularly among younger adults and those intending to quit tobacco. EC use was unrelated to changes in smoking. The findings are of clinical interest and warrant further study. PMID:25419703

  6. Mental illness stigma and willingness to seek mental health care in the European Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramin Mojtabai

    2010-01-01

    Objective  It is often assumed that individual stigmatizing attitudes toward the mentally ill are linked to stigmatizing attitudes in\\u000a the social milieu and that both, individual and social stigmatizing attitudes are major barriers to mental health treatment\\u000a seeking. This study aims to examine these assumptions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Data from the 2005–2006 Eurobarometer general population survey (N = 29,248) are used to examine the association of

  7. Conceptions of Mental Illness: Attitudes of Mental Health Professionals and the General Public

    PubMed Central

    Stuber, Jennifer P.; Rocha, Anita; Christian, Ann; Link, Bruce G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The authors compared attitudes of the U.S. general public and of mental health professionals about the competence and perceived dangerousness of people with mental health problems and the desire for social distance from them. Factors related to negative attitudes and the desire for social distance also were examined. Methods Vignettes describing individuals meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression and schizophrenia were included in the 2006 General Social Survey (GSS) and a 2009 study of mental health professionals, and responses were descriptively compared (GSS, N=397 responses to depression vignette, N=373 responses to schizophrenia vignette; 731 mental health professionals responded to both vignettes). Regression analyses examined whether demographic and provider characteristics were associated with perceptions of less competence and perceived dangerousness of the vignette character and with respondents’ desire for social distance. Results Compared with the American public, mental health professionals had significantly more positive attitudes toward people with mental health problems. However, some providers’ conceptions about the dangerousness of people with schizophrenia and provider desire for social distance from clients in work and personal situations were concerning. Younger age, self-identifying as non-Hispanic white, being female, having at least a four-year college degree, being familiar with mental illness, and certain job titles and more years of experience in the mental health field were predictive of more positive conceptions. Conclusions Although mental health professionals held more positive attitudes than the general public about people with mental health problems, strong stereotypes persisted in both groups, especially concerning schizophrenia. This study identified several demographic and provider characteristics that can inform intervention strategies in both groups. PMID:24430508

  8. Fifteen Questions and Answers about Elder Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an elder’s pet • Calling elder names • Previous criminal history • Mental illness 3. What are the warning signs of elder ... abuser (emotionally or financially dependent on the victim; history of mental illness; hostility; alcohol or drug abuse). 6. What is ...

  9. Vocational rehabilitation for people with severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Ruth; Marshall, Max; Bond, Gary R; Huxley, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Unemployment rates are high amongst people with severe mental illness, yet surveys show that most want to work. Vocational rehabilitation services exist to help mentally ill people find work. Traditionally, these services have offered a period of preparation (Pre-vocational Training), before trying to place clients in competitive (i.e. open) employment. More recently, some services have begun placing clients in competitive employment immediately whilst providing on-the-job support (Supported Employment). It is unclear which approach is most effective. Objectives To assess the effects of Pre-vocational Training and Supported Employment (for people with severe mental illness) against each other and against standard care (in hospital or community). In addition, to assess the effects of: (a) special varieties of Pre-vocational Training (Clubhouse model) and Supported Employment (Individual Placement and Support model); and (b) techniques for enhancing either approach, for example payment or psychological intervention. Search methods Searches were undertaken of CINAHL (1982-1998), The Cochrane Library (Issue 2, 1999), EMBASE (1980-1998), MEDLINE (1966-1998) and PsycLIT (1887-1998). Reference lists of eligible studies and reviews were inspected and researchers in the field were approached to identify unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of approaches to vocational rehabilitation for people with severe mental illness. Data collection and analysis Included trials were reliably selected by a team of two raters. Data were extracted separately by two reviewers and cross-checked. Authors of trials were contacted for additional information. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of homogeneous dichotomous data were calculated. A random effects model was used for heterogeneous dichotomous data. Continuous data were presented in tables (there were insufficient continuous data for formal meta-analysis). A sensitivity analysis was performed, excluding poorer quality trials. Main results Eighteen randomised controlled trials of reasonable quality were identified. The main finding was that on the primary outcome (number in competitive employment) Supported Employment was significantly more effective than Pre-vocational Training; for example, at 18 months 34% of people in Supported Employment were employed versus 12% in Pre-vocational Training (RR random effects (unemployment) 0.76 95% CI 0.64 to 0.89, NNT 4.5). Clients in Supported Employment also earned more and worked more hours per month than those in Pre-vocational Training. There was no evidence that Pre-vocational Training was more effective in helping clients to obtain competitive employment than standard community care. Authors’ conclusions Supported employment is more effective than Pre-vocational Training in helping severely mentally ill people to obtain competitive employment. There is no clear evidence that Pre-vocational Training is effective. PMID:11406069

  10. Mental health care in the community: An analysis of contemporary public attitudes towards, and public representations of, mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Hannigan

    1999-01-01

    Public tolerance of, and non-discrimination towards, people with mental health problems are key factors on which success in achieving the goal of community-based mental health care depends. This paper revisits Thomas Scheff' s (1966) sociological theory of mental illness, and tests elements of this thorough critical review of recent UK literature relating to public attitudes towards, and media representations, of

  11. Patterns and predictors of mental health service use and serious mental illness among community-dwelling elderly

    E-print Network

    Karlin, Bradley Eric

    2006-10-30

    to the current or recent utilization of mental health treatment by the elderly, and almost nothing is known about the correlates of mental health need and service use among older adults. Accordingly, the present study examined patterns of serious mental illness...

  12. Diagnostic Inaccuracy and Substance Abusing Patients with Comorbid Mental Disorders: A Brief Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey S. Kline; Katherine A. Mehler

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined diagnostic errors with patients having comorbid substance abuse and mental disorders, while ruling out the influence of possible confounding subject variables such as chronicity and severity of mental disorder.Methods: Veteran inpatients with dual diagnoses were compared to a control group matched except for the presence of substance abuse. Subjects were diagnosed using a structured diagnostic interview

  13. 28 CFR 115.81 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.81 Section 115.81 Judicial...Care § 115.81 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the screening pursuant...

  14. 28 CFR 115.381 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.381 Section 115.381 Judicial...Care § 115.381 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the screening pursuant...

  15. 28 CFR 115.81 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.81 Section 115.81 Judicial...Care § 115.81 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the screening pursuant...

  16. 28 CFR 115.81 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.81 Section 115.81 Judicial...Care § 115.81 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the screening pursuant...

  17. 28 CFR 115.381 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.381 Section 115.381 Judicial...Care § 115.381 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the screening pursuant...

  18. 28 CFR 115.381 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.381 Section 115.381 Judicial...Care § 115.381 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the screening pursuant...

  19. 78 FR 53789 - Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment Conference & Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    The Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA) in partnership with the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, and the National Institutes of Health's Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, will host a Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment Conference......

  20. Mental health versus substance abuse treatment programs for dually diagnosed patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annelle B Primm; Marisela B Gomez; Ilina Tzolova-Iontchev; Walter Perry; Hong Thi Vu; Rosa M Crum

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the similarities and differences of patients with co-existing psychiatric and substance use disorders attending treatment in either a mental health setting or a substance abuse treatment setting. A total of 129 patients were assessed, including 65 individuals from the substance abuse treatment center and 64 individuals from the mental health program. Treatment

  1. In 2005 The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) convened a national summit on

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    RECOVERY Definition In 2005 The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA and community support Definition In 2005 The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA achieves abstinence and improved health, wellness and quality of life." Definition In 2005 The Substance

  2. Reporting Child Abuse & Neglect in Alaska. Information for Mental Health Professionals and Other Human Service Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Library, Juneau.

    All mental health professionals and other human service providers have a responsibility to report known and suspected cases of child abuse and neglect in Alaska, and many of them have a legal obligation to do so. Mental health professionals are often in a unique position to see and hear clues about child abuse and neglect. Often persons who need…

  3. Mental health, demographic, and risk behavior profiles of pregnant survivors of childhood and adult abuse

    PubMed Central

    Seng, Julia S.; Sperlich, Mickey; Low, Lisa Kane

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to address the gap in knowledge about the extent to which perinatal mental health and risk behaviors are associated with childhood and adult experiences of abuse that arises because of barriers to screening and disclosure about past and current abuse. Survey data from an ongoing study of the effects of posttraumatic stress on childbearing were used to describe four groups of nulliparous women: those with no abuse history, adult abuse only, childhood abuse only, and abuse that occurred during both periods. The rates of abuse history disclosure were higher in the research context than in the clinical settings. Mental health morbidity and risk behaviors occurred in a dose-response pattern with cumulative abuse exposure. Rates of current posttraumatic stress disorder ranged from 4.1% among those never abused to 11.4% (adult only), 16.0% (childhood only), and 39.2% (both periods). Women abused during both periods also were more likely to be using tobacco (21.5%) and drugs (16.5%) during pregnancy. We conclude that mental health and behavioral risk sequelae affect a significant portion of both childhood and adult abuse survivors in prenatal care. The integration into the maternity setting of existing evidence-based interventions for the mental health and behavioral sequelae of abuse is needed. PMID:18984507

  4. Impact of work experience placements on school students’ attitude towards mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Vanathi; Belgamwar, Ravindra B.

    2014-01-01

    Aims and method Research shows that 16- to 19-year-olds express the greatest level of negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of work experience placements in influencing secondary-school students’ attitudes towards mental illness and career choices. The Adolescent Attitude Towards Mental Illness questionnaire measured and assessed the adolescents’ attitude changes. Pre- and post-evaluation questionnaires assessed changes in their career choices. Results There was a statistically significant change in the adolescents’ attitudes, especially regarding categorical thinking and perceptions that people with mental illness are violent and out of control. There was also a positive shift in their career choices towards options in the field of mental health. Clinical implications Work experience placements can have a positive impact on secondary-school students’ attitudes towards mental illness and may improve the level of student recruitment into the field of psychiatry. PMID:25237537

  5. Sexual abuse and exploitation of children and adults with mental retardation and other handicaps.

    PubMed

    Tharinger, D; Horton, C B; Millea, S

    1990-01-01

    There is growing recognition that children, adolescents, and adults who are mentally retarded are particularly vulnerable to sexual abuse and exploitation and are in need of intervention services. These people are especially vulnerable due to ther often life-long dependence on caregivers, relatively powerless position in society, emotional and social insecurities, and lack of education regarding sexuality and sexual abuse. In addition the mental health functioning and emotional development of individuals who are mentally retarded are not well understood, and many professionals remain uneducated about their mental health needs. To work effectively with this population, mental health professionals and educators must be alert to what is known about the sexual abuse and exploitation of persons with mental retardation. Furthermore, they need to become educated about the rights of these persons to special legal protection from abuse and neglect and to appropriate and effective mental health interventions. The challenge for mental health professionals and educators is to protect persons who are mentally retarded from sexual abuse and exploitation, to provide appropriate psychotherapeutic interventions when abuse occurs, to respect their right to developmentally appropriate knowledge about sexuality and sexual abuse, and to allow for the fulfillment of their sexuality. PMID:2207799

  6. The effects of news stories on the stigma of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Michaels, Patrick J

    2013-03-01

    The media are often identified as partially responsible for increasing the stigma of mental illness through their negatively focused representations. For many years, training programs have educated journalists on how to report on mental illness to reduce stigma. This purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits of reading a positive, neutral or a negative journalism article that discusses mental illness. Consenting adult participants were randomly assigned to read one of three published articles about recovery from mental illness, a dysfunctional public mental health system, or dental hygiene. The participants completed measures immediately before and after the intervention; the measures administered evaluated stigmatizing and affirming attitudes toward people with mental illness. Public stigma was assessed using the nine-item Attribution Questionnaire and the Stigma Through Knowledge Test (STKT). The STKT is a measure of mental illness stigma less susceptible to the impact of social desirability. Affirming attitudes represent public perceptions about recovery, empowerment, and self-determination, indicated as important to accepting and including people with psychiatric disabilities into society. Significant differences were observed between the articles on recovery and dysfunctional public mental health system, as well as the control condition, on the measures of stigma and affirming attitudes. The recovery article reduced stigma and increased affirming attitudes, whereas the dysfunctional public mental health system article increased stigma and decreased affirming attitudes. Not all journalistic stories have positive effects on attitudes about mental illness. PMID:23407209

  7. Current and Lifetime Psychiatric Illness Among Inmates Not Identified as Acutely Mentally Ill at Intake in Connecticut's Jails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie Wiesbrock

    This study presents estimates of current and lifetime psychiatric illness among inmates not identified as acutely mentally ill at intake into all five of Connecticut's adult jails (four male facilities and one female facility). Diagnoses were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and are reported by gender

  8. Picturing Recovery: A Photovoice Exploration of Recovery Dimensions Among People With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Nicasio, Andel; Whitley, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Recovery from mental disorders encompasses multiple interrelated dimensions. This study used photovoice to explore how individuals with serious mental illness and a history of substance abuse and homelessness envisioned their recovery. A dimensional recovery model was applied to examine how the interrelationships between recovery dimensions supported consumers’ recovery journeys. Methods Photovoice is a participatory research method that empowers people by giving them cameras to document their experiences and inform social action. Sixteen consumers recruited from two supported housing agencies participated in six weekly sessions to which they brought photographs that they took of persons and events in their lives that reflected recovery and wellness and discussed the meaning of the photographs in individual interviews and group sessions. The authors used pile-sorting, grounded theory, and a deductive template-analytic technique to analyze narrative and visual data. Results Spirituality, life achievements, and receiving and providing support were the most salient themes that emerged from the analysis and illustrate beneficial interrelationships between recovery dimensions. Participants discussed how they relied on their spirituality to support their sobriety and cope with addictions—aspects of clinical recovery. Educational and vocational achievements represented gains in functioning that contributed to increasing self-esteem and self-agency and reducing self-stigma. Social dimensions of recovery, such as receiving and giving support to loved ones, rippled through consumers’ lives reducing isolation and enhancing their self-worth. Conclusions The findings illustrate the value of participatory methods to understand what recovery signified to people with serious mental illness and how understanding the interrelationships between recovery dimensions can inform recovery-oriented services. PMID:23728528

  9. Suicide prevention as a prerequisite for recovery from severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Foster, Tom J

    2013-01-01

    For a significant number of people suffering from severe mental illness (SMI) prevention of suicide is a prerequisite for their recovery. This review summarises and interprets risk/protective factors for suicide in the context of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, thereby enabling evidence-based suicide risk assessment and management. A history of self-harm greatly increases suicide risk among people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Suicide prevention for patients with SMI necessitates constant vigilance by (mental) health and social care professionals in contact with them, particularly those with a history of self-harm, males, young people, those near illness onset, people with a family history of suicidal behaviour (especially suicide), victims of childhood abuse, those challenged by recent adverse life events (notably interpersonal conflict), people with aggressive/impulsive personality features, and those who have expressed hopelessness. Research suggests that suicide risk associated with SMI should be reduced by early intervention, restricting access to lethal means, improvement of treatment adherence, treating more patients with clozapine and lithium, assertive outreach, treating psychiatric comorbidity (depression, alcohol/drug misuse, etc.), 24-hour crisis care, timely (compulsory) hospitalization (sufficient bed provision imperative), improving psychiatric inpatient ward safety, lowering the risk of absconding from wards, appropriate use of electroconvulsive therapy, intensive follow-up postdischarge, and improving access to psychological/psychosocial interventions, notably cognitive behavioural therapy. The clinical interview is the optimum method of suicide risk assessment and locally developed risk assessment tools should not be used. Evidence-based suicide risk assessment/management within primary care and secondary mental health services warrants recurrent, mandatory training. PMID:24547607

  10. Investigating the use of services for Vietnamese with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Phan, T

    2000-10-01

    An ethnographic-based interview was conducted with 324 Vietnamese-speaking adult caregivers living in the New South Wales state of Australia, focusing on types of services used for identifying and/or intervening for binh tam than (mental ill-health), difficulties encountered, and recommendations for enhancing services. Almost one in two interviewees (n= 158) had used such services during the previous twelve months, including those provided by local Vietnamese-speaking doctors (100%), Asian naturalists, spiritual healers, witchcraft doctors, herbalists, and folk healers (>50%), as well as mainstream psychiatric hospital facilities (50%) and community services (>30%). Descriptive data on the difficulties and recommendations were related to four major domains: accessibility, acceptability, accommodation, and affordability, explaining patterns of caregivers' help-seeking behaviors and their choices of services. PMID:10982014

  11. Narrative processing of entertainment media and mental illness stigma.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Nicole Mossing; Rouner, Donna

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the narrative effects of familiarity, transportation, whether a story is factual or fiction, and perceived realism on the stigmatizing behavior of social distancing behavior. A sample of N?=?137 participants watched a commercial movie about mental illness. Genre was manipulated to determine whether fiction or nonfiction impacted social distancing behavior. Although there was no effect of the genre manipulation, transportation was found to have a relationship with social distancing, with the more relevant the participants found the story, the lower they demonstrated social distancing behavior. How much participants identified with the main character was found to have a partial mediating effect between perceived story relevance and social distancing behavior. PMID:21516556

  12. The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gelkopf, Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation. PMID:19687190

  13. Reflections of Adults on Their School Experiences Growing up with a Severely Mentally Ill Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Marie A.

    2013-01-01

    More than five million children in the United States have a parent suffering from a severe mental illness and these children have specific experiences and needs, particularly in school. Children of mentally ill parents are at greater risk of being neglected and of developing psychological, social, emotional, and behavioral problems. They often…

  14. Talking about Mental Illness: A Guide for Developing an Awareness Program for Youth. Teacher's Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This guide contains all of the information, support and tools teachers will need to implement "Talking about Mental Illness" in their classroom--an awareness program that has been proven to bring about positive change in students' knowledge and attitudes about mental illness. The program supports teachers in four essential ways: it outlines the…

  15. Ethical use of long-acting medications in the treatment of severe and persistent mental illnesses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Weiss Roberts; Cynthia M. A Geppert

    2004-01-01

    Mental illnesses are prevalent, cause great suffering, and are burdensome to society. Traditional “depot” antipsychotic agents are used to treat the most severely and persistently mentally ill individuals. They will soon be joined by new atypical antipsychotic medications in long-acting formulations. These long-acting medications pose special ethical issues, but may greatly benefit some people who suffer from severe and persistent

  16. Stigma Sentiments and Self-Meanings: Exploring the Modified Labeling Theory of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce "stigma sentiments" as a way to operationalize the cultural conceptions of the mentally ill. Stigma sentiments are the evaluation, potency, and activity (EPA) associated with the cultural category "a mentally ill person." We find consistent support for the validity of the evaluation and potency components as measures of these…

  17. The impact of contact on stigmatizing attitudes toward people with mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAUREL A. ALEXANDER; BRUCE G. LINK

    2003-01-01

    Background: A growing body of research suggests that personal experience with people who have a mental illness can reduce stigmatizing attitudes towards mental illness. However, the generalizability of these findings has been restrained by their samples and operational definitions of contact and stigma. Aims: To test the contact-stigma link using a nationally representative sample and comprehensive measures of both contact

  18. Effects of Culturally Relevant Psychoeducation for Korean American Families of Persons with Chronic Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sun-Kyung

    2004-01-01

    This study is to identify culturally relevant treatment methods and to assess the effects of family psychoeducational intervention for Korean Americans who had a family member with mental illness. 48 Korean Americans with children with mental illness were randomly assigned to either an experimental group program that provided culturally sensitive…

  19. Perception of Mental Illness on the University of Massachusetts - Boston Campus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur Robert Stead

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is an accumulation of two and a half years of research. The premise was to see if the variables of level of education, level of contact with persons with mental illness, and type of majors (used as independent variables) were related to the concepts of individuals with mental illness being dangerous, having poor social skills, and being incurable

  20. An exploration of the experience of caring for the mentally ill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Belinda A Urquhart

    2011-01-01

    Family caregivers are confronted with the often arduous task of attending to the needs of their mentally ill relatives and have become increasingly prominent in society following the Australian deinstitutionalisation movement. The discourse pertaining to the experiences of mental illness caregivers is particularly negative and is largely generated from international research. While other aspects of the caregiving experience have been

  1. Self-Reported Mental Illness in a Dental School Clinic Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig D. Woods

    The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of mental illness in a university-based dental clinic population. Dentists routinely review the patient's medical history to identify any physical disease or condition that may impact dental treatment. Mental illness may also affect dental treatment and patient management. This study examined the degree to which patients seeking routine dental care

  2. Sexually transmitted disease prevention services for female chronically mentally ill patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Coverdale; Timothy L. Bayer; Laurence B. McCullough; Frank A. Chervenak

    1995-01-01

    Chronically and variably impaired autonomy makes women with chronic mental illness particularly vulnerable to contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including AIDS. A lack of female controlled protective devices also adds to the vulnerability of these patients. In this context, the authors make recommendations for the design of clinically comprehensive and ethically justified programs to minimize the risk of mentally ill

  3. Assessment of Alcohol and Other Drug Disorders in the Seriously Mentally Ill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristen L. Barry; Michael F. Fleming; James Greenley; Prudence Widlak; Svetlana Kropp; David McKee

    1995-01-01

    Brief assessment methods are needed to determine the presence of alcohol and drug problems in persons with severe mental illness. The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of alcohol and other drug problems in a rural population of 253 clients with severe mental illness and to determine the accuracy of case manager responses to specific alcohol and

  4. Coping with the Stigma of Mental Illness: Empirically-GroundedHypotheses from Computer Simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah K. Harkness; Amy Kroska

    2011-01-01

    This research demonstrates how affect control theory and its computer program, Interact, can be used to develop empirically-grounded hypotheses regarding the connection between cultural labels and behaviors. Our demonstration focuses on propositions in the modified labeling theory of mental illness. According to the MLT, negative societal conceptions of the mentally ill become personally relevant upon diagnosis and damage psychiatric patients'

  5. Coping with the Stigma of Mental Illness: Empirically-GroundedHypotheses from Computer Simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah K. Harkness; Amy Kroska

    2011-01-01

    :This research demonstrates how affect control theory and its computer program, Interact, can be used to develop empirically-grounded hypotheses regarding the connection between cultural labels and behaviors. Our demonstration focuses on propositions in the modified labeling theory of mental illness. According to the MLT, negative societal conceptions of the mentally ill become personally relevant upon diagnosis and damage psychiatric patients'

  6. An Anthropological View of the Change in Attitudes toward Mental Illnesses and Physical Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John Alan

    1983-01-01

    Anthropologists contend that throughout man's history mental illness has been part of all cultures, and, universally, peoples had taxonomies that classified such maladies. Primitive peoples were better able to treat culturally-defined mental illnesses and could, consequently, accommodate behaviors which in Western cultures would require…

  7. Mental illness stigma and ethnocultural beliefs, values, and norms: An integrative review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tahirah Abdullah; Tamara L. Brown

    2011-01-01

    The current literature on the problem of mental illness stigma in the United States must be expanded to better account for the role of culture. This article examines the relationship between mental illness stigma and culture for Americans of American Indian, Asian, African, Latino, Middle Eastern, and European descent. In this review, culture refers to the shared beliefs, values, and

  8. Psychosocial Outcomes for Adult Children of Parents with Severe Mental Illnesses: Demographic and Clinical History Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol T.; Bybee, Deborah; Oyserman, Daphna; MacFarlane, Peter; Bowersox, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    Children of parents with mental illness are at risk of psychiatric and behavioral problems. Few studies have investigated the psychosocial outcomes of these children in adulthood or the parental psychiatric history variables that predict resilience. From a sample of 379 mothers with serious mental illnesses, 157 women who had at least one adult…

  9. Turning of the tide: changing systems to address smoking for people with a mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Bonevski; J. Bowman; R. Richmond; J. Bryant; P. Wye; E. Stockings; K. Wilhelm; T. Butler; D. Indig; A. Wodak

    2011-01-01

    Smoking tobacco is common among people with a mental illness. A number of behavioural and environmental factors underlie the high smoking prevalence rates. Evidence suggests that smokers with mental illness require additional targeted support to help them stop smoking. By using a selective review of the international literature, this article will argue that a systems-level change approach is an appropriate

  10. Risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among persons with severe mental illnesses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seth C. Kalichman

    1997-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with a severe mental illness are at significantly enhanced risk for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To better understand elevated seroprevalence in this population, we review the research literature that has investigated HIV-related risk behavior among adults who have a severe and persistent mental illness. This review indicates that 54%–74% of adults report that they have

  11. Sexual offenders with serious mental illness: Prevention, risk, and clinical concerns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill D. Stinson; Judith V. Becker

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with serious and persistent mental illness who have also engaged in illegal sexual behavior present a unique challenge for our legal and clinical systems. Frequently, these individuals may engage in problematic sexual behaviors which result in hospitalization rather than incarceration, and an overburdened and resource-deficient public community mental health system is ill-equipped to address the seriousness of these sexual

  12. The economic benefits of supported employment for persons with mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin E. Clark; Bradley J. Dain; Haiyi Xie; Deborah R. Becker; Robert E. Drake

    1998-01-01

    Background: Policies and programs that emphasize employment for persons with mental illness are often promoted with the goals of improving economic self-sufficiency and reducing dependence on public welfare programs. At present, there is little empirical evidence about the actual effect of vocational interventions on economic self-sufficiency or on use of public benefits by persons with mental illness. Study Aims: This

  13. Media frames of mental illnesses: The potential impact of negative frames

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELAINE M. SIEFF

    2003-01-01

    Background: Mass media (e.g., television news and entertainment programming, films and newspapers) are a primary source for information about mental illnesses. Aims: The possible effects of media coverage and predominant frames in which mental illnesses are portrayed are discussed. Methods: Framing is defined as the means by which media information is organized, presented and interpreted. The literature focused on media

  14. Perceptions of Barriers to Employment, Coping Efficacy, and Career Search Efficacy in People with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbiere, Marc; Mercier, Celine; Lesage, Alain

    2004-01-01

    The Barriers to Employment and Coping Efficacy Scale (BECES) and the Career Search Efficacy Scale (CSES) were designed to assist people in their work integration process. The BECES was specifically developed for people with mental illness. Although the CSES was not specifically designed for people with mental illness, its items appear relevant for…

  15. Role of Social Disadvantage in Crime, Joblessness, and Homelessness Among Persons With Serious Mental Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Draine; Mark S. Salzer; Dennis P. Culhane; Trevor R. Hadley

    2002-01-01

    Research on mental illness in relation to social problems such as crime, unemployment, and homelessness often ignores the broader social context in which mental illness is embedded. Policy, research, and practice will be improved if greater attention is given to social context. The authors critically analyze the approach used in much of the psychiatric services literature to infer links between

  16. Current trends in policing and the mentally ill in Europe: a review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhonda Moore

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the current English?language literature on police and mentally ill offenders in Europe, including the UK. Opportunities are being lost at the first point of contact of people with mental illness (PMI) with the police, to divert them to treatment. Nevertheless a number of promising programs in the UK, notably those in London, Birmingham, and Belfast (Northern Ireland)

  17. Psychiatric residency directors' perceptions of firearm access by the mentally ill in the United States.

    PubMed

    Price, James H; Thompson, Amy J; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Wiblishauser, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Firearms injuries place a unique burden on America in terms of lives lost (31,000/year), disability (70,000 nonfatal injuries/year), and economic costs ($174 billion in 2010). The purpose of this study was to examine psychiatric residency directors' perceptions of firearm access issues of the mentally ill. In late Fall 2012 and early Spring of 2013, a three-wave mailing was used to survey the membership of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training (N = 129). Due to the homogenous small sample size descriptive statistics were calculated to describe the responses. A total of 72 (56 %) directors responded. Almost 1 in 4 (23.6 %) thought that access to firearms by the seriously mentally ill should not be prohibited. The majority (91.7 %) supported closing the background check loophole. The majority (54.2 %) also believed that singling out the mentally ill as a group of "banned purchasers" adds to the stigma of the mentally ill (54.2 %) but a plurality (44.4 %) did not believe reporting the mentally ill to authorities would result in the mentally ill avoiding treatment. The current method of reducing access by the mentally ill to firearms is perceived by psychiatric residency directors as ineffective and burdensome to the mentally ill. PMID:23996614

  18. Schizophrenia is among the most debilitating of mental illnesses (NARSAD 2003). Although relatively rare,

    E-print Network

    Horton, Nicholas

    CHANCE 11 Beginnings Schizophrenia is among the most debilitating of mental illnesses (NARSAD 2003, and personal effects. The National Institute of Mental Health estimates that schizophrenia is responsible for 2 offer relief of some symptoms, schizophrenia remains an incurable, lifelong illness and most patients

  19. Unfinished Business: Student Perspectives on Disclosure of Mental Illness and Success in VET. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Annie; Street, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Of all the different types of disability, mental illness can be particularly disruptive to education and training outcomes. In this report, the authors explore the factors contributing to successful course completion for students with a mental illness. The authors especially focus on the role of disclosure and the reasons why students choose to…

  20. Work Experiences of People with Mental Illness in Malaysia: A Preliminary Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…

  1. Understanding Parental Grief as a Response to Mental Illness: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…

  2. Impact of Parental Severe Mental Illness: Ethical and Clinical Issues for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegelhoff, Sarah F.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This article draws attention to the issue of parental severe mental illness and the ethical and clinical implications for counselors who work with this population. Parents with mental illness face a multitude of life challenges including, but not limited to, parenting difficulties, medication and hospitalization, custody and placement of their…

  3. Teaching Abnormal Psychology to Improve Attitudes toward Mental Illness and Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes…

  4. Maternal Mental Illness and the Safety and Stability of Maltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, Patricia L.; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Children of mothers with mental illness are at risk for multiple untoward outcomes, including child maltreatment and foster care placement. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the association between maternal mental illness and children's long term safety and stability. Methods: A multi-sector administrative dataset from the…

  5. Treatment of Persons with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Anna L. S.

    2012-01-01

    The number of mentally ill inmates in the criminal justice system has increased dramatically. This article evaluates the prevalence and causes of mental illness in the criminal justice system and describes the inadequate care that is provided, the effects of imprisonment, and the problem of rehabilitation. (Contains 4 notes.)

  6. A Research Agenda Concerning Depictions of Mental Illness in Children's Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coverdale, John H.; Nairn, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To review research on depictions of mental illness in mass media directed to children and to identify requirements for further research in this important field. Methods: The authors identified published research on depictions of mental illness in children's media and the important strengths and weaknesses of such research. Results: Only…

  7. Pathways for Homeless Mentally Ill People in Washington, D.C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockett, Kathleen H.

    The need for a more responsive service system for people who are both mentally ill and homeless is a salient concern in America today. Preliminary research was conducted to examine how homeless mentally ill persons are processed by the currently organized network of human services in the nation's capital. Data were gathered in the summer of 1985…

  8. Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This bulletin issue contains five papers on the theme of adults with mental illness who are parents of very young children. "Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children" (John N. Constantino) offers the experience of a trainee in a combined residency in pediatrics and psychiatry, focusing on identification,…

  9. Speech deficits in serious mental illness: a cognitive resource issue?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alex S; McGovern, Jessica E; Dinzeo, Thomas J; Covington, Michael A

    2014-12-01

    Speech deficits, notably those involved in psychomotor retardation, blunted affect, alogia and poverty of content of speech, are pronounced in a wide range of serious mental illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia, unipolar depression, bipolar disorders). The present project evaluated the degree to which these deficits manifest as a function of cognitive resource limitations. We examined natural speech from 52 patients meeting criteria for serious mental illnesses (i.e., severe functional deficits with a concomitant diagnosis of schizophrenia, unipolar and/or bipolar affective disorders) and 30 non-psychiatric controls using a range of objective, computer-based measures tapping speech production ("alogia"), variability ("blunted vocal affect") and content ("poverty of content of speech"). Subjects produced natural speech during a baseline condition and while engaging in an experimentally-manipulated cognitively-effortful task. For correlational analysis, cognitive ability was measured using a standardized battery. Generally speaking, speech deficits did not differ as a function of SMI diagnosis. However, every speech production and content measure was significantly abnormal in SMI versus control groups. Speech variability measures generally did not differ between groups. For both patients and controls as a group, speech during the cognitively-effortful task was sparser and less rich in content. Relative to controls, patients were abnormal under cognitive load with respect only to average pause length. Correlations between the speech variables and cognitive ability were only significant for this same variable: average pause length. Results suggest that certain speech deficits, notably involving pause length, may manifest as a function of cognitive resource limitations. Implications for treatment, research and assessment are discussed. PMID:25464920

  10. New roads paved on losses: photovoice perspectives about recovery from mental illness.

    PubMed

    Mizock, Lauren; Russinova, Zlatka; Shani, Roni

    2014-11-01

    People with serious mental illness face stigma that interferes with recovery. Photovoice is a method that integrates photography and writing, providing a valuable means for capturing the narratives of people with mental illness whose voices are often marginalized. The purpose of the present article is to explore the meaning of recovery for individuals with serious mental illness based on a qualitative analysis of a new photovoice-based intervention, Recovery Narrative Photovoice. This intervention focuses on promoting the process of recovery and sense of identity through the creation of empowering visual images and narratives of recovery for individuals with serious mental illness. In this article, we present iconographic and thematic analysis for the 23 photovoice works from two pilots of the Recovery Narrative Photovoice intervention. Results reveal several themes, including metaphors for mental illness, associated losses, recovery strategies, and recovery outcomes. A final theme pertains to recovery messages learned from the recovery process. PMID:25168704

  11. Walking the line: specialized and standard probation officer perspectives on supervising probationers with serious mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Epperson, Matthew W; Canada, Kelli; Thompson, Julian; Lurigio, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Specialized probation programs were developed to more effectively address the unique needs of probationers with serious mental illnesses. Probation officers are tasked with serving both law enforcement and rehabilitative functions, and officers play an important gatekeeper function in helping probationers with serious mental illnesses avoid long incarceration sentences. The purpose of this paper was to explore specialized and standard probation officers' work in supervising probationers with serious mental illnesses. Twenty-one probation officers (11 specialized and 10 standard) participated in semi-structured interviews. Qualitative analyses examined: 1 - beliefs on the relationship between mental illness and crime; 2 - purpose of specialized and standard probation units; and 3 - approaches to supervising probationers with serious mental illnesses. Implications for developing more effective probation supervision programs are discussed. PMID:24680641

  12. The long-term psychiatric and medical prognosis of perinatal mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Stuebe, Alison

    2013-01-01

    The perinatal period provides an important window into a woman’s long-term health. Perinatal mental illness is a common condition conferring potential serious long-term psychiatric and medical consequences for the mother and family. It is known that childbirth acts as a powerful trigger for depressive episodes in some women, and that women with histories of a mood disorder are particularly vulnerable. Some evidence links perinatal mental illness with obstetrical complications and reduced lactation initiation and duration. Therefore, perinatal mental illness may be a marker for long-term risk, and may contribute directly to subsequent cardiometabolic disease through both neuroendocrine mechanisms and the effects of mental illness on health behaviours. In clinical practice, these associations underscore the importance of screening and treating women with perinatal mental illness to ensure best possible long-term outcomes. Early screening and treatment may both mitigate the primary disease process and reduce the risk of comorbid medical conditions. PMID:24063973

  13. Complete mental health recovery: bridging mental illness with positive mental health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helene L. Provencher; Corey L. M. Keyes

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose that the study, and the promotion, of recovery can be augmented by adopting the model of mental health as a complete state. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A literature review of the last two decades was undertaken and pathways to complete mental health in recovery are proposed. Findings – More work is needed

  14. Smoking, mental illness and socioeconomic disadvantage: analysis of the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High rates of smoking and lower rates of smoking cessation are known to be associated with common mental disorders such as anxiety and depression, and with individual and community measures of socioeconomic status. It is not known to what extent mental illness and socioeconomic status might be jointly associated with smoking behaviour. We set out to examine the relationship between mental illness, measures of socioeconomic disadvantage and both current smoking and smoking cessation rates. Methods We used data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing to examine the relationship between mental illness, socioeconomic status and both current smoking and smoking cessation. We used cross-classified tables and logistic regression to examine the relationship between psychosocial and sociodemographic predictors and current smoking. We also used proportional hazards regression to examine the relationship between the factors and smoking cessation. Results Both mental illness and socioeconomic status were independently associated with current smoking and with lower likelihood of smoking cessation, with gradients in smoking by mental health status being observed within levels of socioeconomic indicators and vice versa. Having a mental illness in the past 12 months was the most prevalent factor strongly associated with smoking, affecting 20.0% of the population, associated with increased current smoking (OR 2.43; 95% CI: 1.97-3.01) and reduced likelihood of smoking cessation (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.65-0.91). Conclusions The association between mental illness and smoking is not explained by the association between mental illness and socioeconomic status. There are strong socioeconomic and psychosocial gradients in both current smoking and smoking cessation. Incorporating knowledge of the other adverse factors in smokers’ lives may increase the penetration of tobacco control interventions in population groups that have historically benefitted less from these activities. PMID:23663362

  15. Diabetes mellitus and severe mental illness: mechanisms and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Holt, Richard I G; Mitchell, Alex J

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is twofold to threefold higher in people with severe mental illness (SMI) than in the general population, with diabetes mellitus affecting ?12% of people receiving antipsychotics. The consequences of diabetes mellitus are more severe and frequent in people with SMI than in those without these conditions, with increased rates of microvascular and macrovascular complications, acute metabolic dysregulation and deaths related to diabetes mellitus. Multiple complex mechanisms underlie the association between diabetes mellitus and SMI; these mechanisms include genetic, environmental and disease-specific factors, and treatment-specific factors. Although antipsychotics are the mainstay of treatment in SMI, a causative link, albeit of uncertain magnitude, seems to exist between antipsychotics and diabetes mellitus. The principles of managing diabetes mellitus in people with SMI are similar to those for the general population and should follow currently established treatment algorithms. Lifestyle interventions are needed to reduce incident diabetes mellitus. In addition, improved uptake of opportunities to screen for this disease will reduce the high prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. Currently, people with SMI receive poorer treatment for diabetes mellitus than the general population. Thus, health-care professionals in primary care, diabetes mellitus services and mental health teams have a responsibility to ensure that patients with SMI are not disadvantaged. PMID:25445848

  16. [Assay of screening and prevention issues for high risk populations with prodromes of severe mental illness].

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei-Fen; Yang, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Yu-Hsia

    2013-06-01

    Before the appearance of specific psychotic symptoms, most individuals experience a period of prodromal symptoms associated with severe mental illness. Early intervention during this pre-psychotic phase may improve treatment outcomes, alter the natural course of disease, and prevent or delay mental disease onset. This paper aimed to synthesize four screening strategies (genetic high-risk populations selected by family history with mental illness, finding ultra-high-risk population, the close-in strategy, and the pre-psychotic phase by assessing basic symptoms); two intervention dimensions (psychosocial interventions and antipsychotic medicine); discussions of ethnic issues; and three Taiwanese nurses' roles (the role of assessment for screening, the role of development for screening tools, and the role of preventive intervention providers) to attain early diagnoses and prevention of mental illness. This article provides more information to advanced Taiwanese mental health nurses responsible to promote /s enhance the health of patients with prodromes of severe mental illness. PMID:23729347

  17. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to normal intelligence adolescents with behavioral disorders. Risk factors that increase the chances of developing either simple or more complicated types of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation have been found to be based on individual, family and social levels. On the other hand, the individual characteristics of adolescents (intellectual level, attention capacity, understandable linguistic expression, overall progress until adolescence), the existence of a supportive family environment and the presence of social support and awareness through the creation of special counseling, education and medical services, are the most important protective factors which contribute to the prevention of several forms of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation. For the writing of the literature review, the following electronic databases were used: PubMed, Scopus, Psycinfo, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The key words used were: Intellectual Disability, Behavioral disorders, Adolescents, Mental Retardation, Learning disabilities, Developmental Disabilities, Disruptive behaviour disorders, Conduct disorder, Substance Abuse, Substance Misuse, Oppositional defiant disorder, Alcohol and illicit drug use, Smoking Use, Young people, Teenagers, Youths. PMID:25035183

  18. Economic Expenditures Associated with Instrumental Caregiving Roles of Adult Siblings of Persons with Severe Mental Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven P. Lohrer; Ellen P. Lukens; Helle Thorning

    2007-01-01

    Siblings of persons with mental illness who assume primary caregiving roles experience substantial and tangible economic impacts\\u000a associated with this responsibility. This study investigated mailed survey responses collected from 156 adult siblings of\\u000a persons with mental illness from New York State to examine instrumental costs associated with providing support to siblings\\u000a with illness. Genders of both siblings, severity of the

  19. Matricide by Mentally Disordered Sons: Gaining a Criminological Understanding Beyond Mental Illness-A Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Catanesi, Roberto; Rocca, Gabriele; Candelli, Chiara; Carabellese, Felice

    2014-08-01

    Matricide is one of the rarest of reported murders and has always been considered one of the most abhorrent crimes. Psychiatric investigations as to why a son might murder his mother yield indications of a high rate of mental illness, primarily psychotic disorders, in perpetrators. In an attempt to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of the mother-son bond in the etiology of matricide by mentally disordered sons, this article presents a qualitative study of nine cases of matricide examined at two Italian Forensic Psychiatry Departments between 2005 and 2010 and retrospective analysis of forensic psychiatry reports on the offenders. Most matricides suffered from psychotic disorders, especially schizophrenia. Nevertheless, not all the perpetrators had psychotic symptoms at the time of the crime. A "pathologic" mother-son bond was found in all cases. However, mental illness is not the only variable related to matricide and, taken alone, is not enough to explain the crime. Several factors in the history of the mother and son need to be probed, especially how their relationship developed over the years. The peculiar dynamics of the mother-son relationship and the unique personalities and life experiences of both subjects are the real key to cases of matricide. PMID:25100768

  20. Grant Title: MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE SERVICES FELLOWSHIP Funding Opportunity Number: NA

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Grant Title: MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE SERVICES FELLOWSHIP Funding Opportunity Number: NA and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Area of Research: Fellowship aimed at those pursuing doctoral degrees in clinical, counseling, and school psychology, or other mental health services areas

  1. Outcomes of Police Contacts with Persons with Mental Illness: The impact of CIT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy C. Watson; Victor C. Ottati; Melissa Morabito; Jeffrey Draine; Amy N. Kerr; Beth Angell

    2010-01-01

    The Crisis intervention team model (CIT) is possibly the most well known and widely adopted model to improve police response\\u000a to persons with mental illness. A primary goal of CIT programs is to divert individuals with mental illness from the criminal\\u000a justice system to mental health services. In this paper we examine the effectiveness of fielding CIT trained and supported

  2. STIGMA OF MENTAL ILLNESS: COMPARISON OF PATIENTS’ AND STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES IN SLOVENIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mateja Strbad; Igor Švab; Bojan Zalar; Vesna Švab

    Abstract Background,It is known that the consequences of stigmatization towards people with severe mental illness reflect themselves in a lack of self-esteem and consequently,in low level of initiatives toimprove,one’s status in the community.,The burden,of stigma may,cause denial of partici- pation in the stigmatized group. So far, there were few studies to compare the mentally ill patients’ perception,of the »other« mentally

  3. Attitudes of Malaysian general hospital staff towards patients with mental illness and diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry Minas; Ruzanna Zamzam; Marhani Midin; Alex Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Background  The context of the study is the increased assessment and treatment of persons with mental illness in general hospital settings\\u000a by general health staff, as the move away from mental hospitals gathers pace in low and middle income countries. The purpose\\u000a of the study was to examine whether general attitudes of hospital staff towards persons with mental illness, and extent

  4. Measuring Self-Stigma of Mental Illness in China and Its Implications for Recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelvin M. T. Fung; Hector W. H. Tsang; Patrick W. Corrigan; Chow S. Lam; Wai-ming Cheng

    2007-01-01

    This study translated and validated the Chinese Version of the Self-stigma of Mental Illness Scale (CSSMIS), which may be used to measure self-stigma of mental health consumers in China. We also examined its correlation with self-esteem, self-efficacy and psychosocial treatment compliance. A cross-sectional observational study was implemented. Some 51 males and 57 females who suffered from severe mental illness were

  5. Advance treatment directives for people with severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Leslie Anne; Kisely, Steve R

    2014-01-01

    Background An advance directive is a document specifying a person’s preferences for treatment, should he or she lose capacity to make such decisions in the future. They have been used in end-of-life settings to direct care but should be well suited to the mental health setting. Objectives To examine the effects of advance treatment directives for people with severe mental illness. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s Register (February 2008), the Cochrane Library (Issue 1 2008), BIOSIS (1985 to February 2008), CINAHL (1982 to February 2008), EMBASE (1980 to February 2008), MEDLINE (1966 to February 2008), PsycINFO (1872 to February 2008), as well as SCISEARCH and Google - Internet search engine (February 2008). We inspected relevant references and contacted first authors of included studies. We updated this search on 17 May 2012 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs), involving adults with severe mental illness, comparing any form of advance directive with standard care for health service and clinical outcomes. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For homogenous dichotomous data we calculated fixed-effect relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) and their 95% confidence interval again using a fixed-effect model. Main results We were able to include two trials involving 321 people with severe mental illnesses. There was no significant difference in hospital admission (n=160, 1 RCT, RR 0.69 0.5 to 1.0), or number of psychiatric outpatient attendances between participants given advanced treatment directives or usual care. Similarly, no significant differences were found for compliance with treatment, self harm or number of arrests. Participants given advanced treatment directives needed less use of social workers time (n=160, 1 RCT, WMD ?106.00 CI ?156.2 to ?55.8) than the usual care group, and violent acts were also lower in the advanced directives group (n=160, 1 RCT, RR 0.27 CI 0.1 to 0.9, NNT 8 CI 6 to 92). The number of people leaving the study early were not different between groups (n=321, 2 RCTs, RR 0.92 CI 0.6 to 1.6). The addition of 11 studies to awaiting classification section of the review may alter the conclusions of the review once assessed. Authors’ conclusions There are too few data available to make definitive recommendations. More intensive forms of advance directive appear to show promise, but currently practice must be guided by evidence other than that derived from randomised trials. More trials are indicated to determine whether higher intensity interventions, such as joint crisis planning, have an effect on outcomes of clinical relevance. PMID:19160260

  6. Public Stigma of Mental Illness in the United States: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.

    2013-01-01

    Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public’s stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public’s stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental disorders and advance research in this area. Public stigma of mental illness in the U.S. was widespread. Findings can inform interventions to reduce the public’s stigma of mental illness. PMID:22833051

  7. Attitudes about the VA health-care setting, mental illness, and mental health treatment and their relationship with VA mental health service use among female and male OEF/OIF veterans.

    PubMed

    Fox, Annie B; Meyer, Eric C; Vogt, Dawne

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, the authors explored gender differences in attitudinal barriers to and facilitators of care for Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans and examined the relationship of those factors with VA mental health service use among female and male veterans with probable mental health conditions. Data were collected as part of a national cross-sectional survey of OEF/OIF veterans; the current sample was limited to participants with a probable diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, or alcohol abuse (N = 278). Although negligible gender differences were observed in attitudes about VA care and perceived fit in the VA setting, men reported slightly more negative beliefs about mental illness and mental health treatment than women. In addition, logistic regressions revealed different associations with VA mental health service use for women and men. For women only, positive perceptions of VA care were associated with increased likelihood of seeking mental health treatment. For men only, perceived similarity to other VA care users and negative beliefs about mental health treatment were associated with increased likelihood of service use, whereas negative beliefs about mental illness were associated with lower likelihood of service use. For both women and men, perceived entitlement to VA care was associated with increased likelihood of service use and negative beliefs about treatment-seeking were associated with a reduced likelihood of seeking mental health care in the past 6 months. Results support the need for tailored outreach to address unique barriers to mental health treatment for female and male OEF/OIF veterans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25365245

  8. Preexisting mental illness and risk for developing a new disorder after hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Greer; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Han, Xiaotong; Tharp, Andra Teten; Davis, Teri; Deitch, Elizabeth A; Constans, Joseph I

    2013-02-01

    To investigate predisaster mental illness as a risk factor of poor postdisaster mental health outcomes, veterans with (n = 249) and without (n = 250) preexisting mental illness residing in the Gulf Coast during Hurricane Katrina were surveyed after Katrina and screened for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic. Logistic regression examined the association between preexisting mental disorders and positive screens after the hurricane, adjusting for demographics and exposure to hurricane-related stressors. The odds of screening positive for any new mental disorder were 6.8 times greater for those with preexisting mental illness compared with those without preexisting mental illness. Among those with preexisting PTSD, the odds of screening positive for any new mental illness were 11.9 times greater; among those with schizophrenia, 9.1 times greater; and among those with affective disorders, 4.4 times greater. Persons with preexisting mental illnesses, particularly PTSD, should be considered a high-risk group for poor outcomes after a disaster. PMID:23364127

  9. "The Unhealthy American Dream? Correlates of Mental Illness among Asian Immigrant Youth"

    E-print Network

    Hochberg, Michael

    "The Unhealthy American Dream? Correlates of Mental Illness among Asian Immigrant Youth" Wednesday home and school as biculturals. Findings suggest that risk and protective factors for mental health is a cultural psychologist who studies immigrant mental health, biculturalism, multiple social identities

  10. The Impact of the Massachusetts Managed Mental Health\\/Substance Abuse Program on Outpatient Mental Health Clinics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard H. Beinecke; Sylvia B. Perlman

    1997-01-01

    Medicaid managed care initiatives pose special challenges to outpatient providers. During the first two full years of the Massachusetts Mental Health\\/Substance Abuse initiative, an analysis of cost and utilization data showed that outpatient mental health utilization and expenditures dropped slightly, although far less than did expenditures and utilization for inpatient facilities. In a telephone survey of a stratified random sample

  11. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Homelessness and Utilization of Mental Health Services Among 10,340 Patients With Serious Mental Illness in a Large Public Mental Health System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. Folsom; William Hawthorne; Anne Bailey; Richard Hough; Dilip V. Jeste

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the prevalence of and risk factors for homeless- ness among all patients treated for serious mental illnesses in a large public mental health system in a 1-year period. The use of public mental health services among homeless persons was also examined. Method: The study included 10,340 per- sons treated for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression

  12. Setting the stage for chronic health problems: cumulative childhood adversity among homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well documented that childhood abuse, neglect and household dysfunction are disproportionately present in the backgrounds of homeless adults, and that these experiences adversely impact child development and a wide range of adult outcomes. However, few studies have examined the cumulative impact of adverse childhood experiences on homeless adults with mental illness. This study examines adverse events in childhood as predictors of duration of homelessness, psychiatric and substance use disorders, and physical health in a sample of homeless adults with mental illness. Methods This study was conducted using baseline data from a randomized controlled trial in Vancouver, British Columbia for participants who completed the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale at 18 months follow-up (n?=?364). Primary outcomes included current mental disorders; substance use including type, frequency and severity; physical health; duration of homelessness; and vocational functioning. Results In multivariable regression models, ACE total score independently predicted a range of mental health, physical health, and substance use problems, and marginally predicted duration of homelessness. Conclusions Adverse childhood experiences are overrepresented among homeless adults with complex comorbidities and chronic homelessness. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of literature indicating that childhood traumas are potent risk factors for a number of adult health and psychiatric problems, particularly substance use problems. Results are discussed in the context of cumulative adversity and self-trauma theory. Trials registration This trial has been registered with the International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register and assigned ISRCTN42520374. PMID:24726046

  13. Recovery from Mental Illness: The Guiding Vision of the Mental Health Service System in the 1990s

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William A. Anthony

    he implementation of deinstitutional- ization in the 1960s and 1970s, and the increasing ascendance of the com- munity support system concept and the practice of psychiatric rehabilitation in the 1980s, have laid the foundation for a new 1990s vision of service delivery for people who have men- tal illness. Recovery from mental illness is the vision that will guide the

  14. An exploratory study of the relationship between mother–infant interaction and maternal cognitive function in mothers with mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Steadman; Susan Pawlby; Andrew Mayers; Romola S. Bucks; Alain Gregoire; Alexandra M. Hogan

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence for a deleterious effect of maternal mental illness on mother–infant interaction. Presence of mental illness and lowered maternal cognitive function independently predict quality of interaction, but their combined effect on interaction is unclear. A pilot study was conducted to explore the relationship between maternal serious mental illness (SMI), cognitive function, and mother–infant interaction. Six mothers with SMI

  15. Understanding the Root Cause of Anxiety and Depression Mental illnesses such as anxiety disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, and

    E-print Network

    Understanding the Root Cause of Anxiety and Depression Mental illnesses such as anxiety disorders impact physical health. Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illnesses and are frequently, the worst outcome of mental illness, suicide, is increasing and is among the leading causes of death

  16. Attitudes of Jordanian Nursing Students towards Mental Illness: The Effect of Teaching and Contact on Attitudes Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamaideh, Shaher H.; Mudallal, Rola

    2009-01-01

    Purposes: Attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental illness influence the treatment they receive and decisions of policy makers. The purposes of this study were to assess Jordanian nursing students' attitudes towards mental illness, and to assess the effectiveness of teaching and contact on changing nursing students' attitudes about…

  17. Mental Health and Substance Abuse Insurance Parity for Federal Employees: How Did Health Plans Respond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Colleen L.; Ridgely, M. Susan

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental concern with competitive health insurance markets is that they will not supply efficient levels of coverage for treatment of costly, chronic, and predictable illnesses, such as mental illness. Since the inception of employer-based health insurance, coverage for mental health services has been offered on a more limited basis than…

  18. Identification and Analysis of Learning Preferences of Mentally Ill Adults in Rehabilitative Psychosocial Therapy at the Anderson Mental Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michael K.

    A study identified and analyzed the learning preferences of 17 seriously and chronically mentally ill adults participating in the rehabilitative psychosocial therapy program at the Toxaway Church Site of the Anderson Mental Health Center. Staff perceived as boring and unfocused the traditional treatment approach that relied mainly upon…

  19. Antisocial personality disorder in people with co-occurring severe mental illness and substance use disorders: clinical, functional, and family relationship correlates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim T. Mueser; Jennifer D. Gottlieb; Corrine Cather; Shirley M. Glynn; Roberto Zarate; Melinda F. Smith; Robin E. Clark; Rosemarie Wolfe

    2011-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is an important correlate of substance abuse severity in the addiction population and in people with co-occurring serious mental illness and addiction. Because family members often provide vital supports to relatives with co-occurring disorders, this study explored the correlates of ASPD in 103 people with co-occurring disorders (79% schizophrenia-schizoaffective, 21% bipolar disorder) in high contact with

  20. Antisocial personality disorder in people with co-occurring severe mental illness and substance use disorders: clinical, functional, and family relationship correlates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim T. Mueser; Jennifer D. Gottlieb; Corrine Cather; Shirley M. Glynn; Roberto Zarate; Melinda F. Smith; Robin E. Clark; Rosemarie Wolfe

    2012-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is an important correlate of substance abuse severity in the addiction population and in people with co-occurring serious mental illness and addiction. Because family members often provide vital supports to relatives with co-occurring disorders, this study explored the correlates of ASPD in 103 people with co-occurring disorders (79% schizophrenia-schizoaffective, 21% bipolar disorder) in high contact with