Science.gov

Sample records for abuse mental illness

  1. Facts on Mentally Ill Chemical Abusers. Clearinghouse Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorentino, Nancy; Reilly, Phyllis

    Individuals are considered mentally ill chemical abusers (MICAs) when they exhibit psychotic behaviors and are actively abusing alcohol and/or drugs; are actively psychotic with a history of alcohol or drug abuse; and/or are actively abusing alcohol or other drugs and have a history of severe psychiatric diagnoses. Although some practitioners use…

  2. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Mental Health Conditions Related Conditions Dual Diagnosis Dual Diagnosis Dual diagnosis is a term for when someone ... chemistry and behavior. How Common is a Dual Diagnosis? About a third of all people experiencing mental ...

  3. Mental Illness, Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, Multiple Disabilities...Whose Patient, Whose Treatment Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciacca, Kathleen

    This paper reviews issues in the provision of services to individuals who are mentally ill chemical abusers and addicted (MICAA). Introductory material defines this population and notes that these people are frequently ineligible for services aimed at either mental illness or chemical abuse alone. Service provisions within the psychiatric/mental

  4. Children of Mothers with Histories of Substance Abuse, Mental Illness, and Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDeMark, Nancy R.; Russell, Lisa A.; O'Keefe, Maura; Finkelstein, Norma; Noether, Chanson D.; Gampel, Joanne C.

    2005-01-01

    Children exposed to parental substance abuse, mental illness, and violence face profound challenges, including increased risk for emotional and behavioral problems, substance abuse, and victimization. In this article, we describe the characteristics of a sample of children of women entering treatment. These children had been exposed to domestic…

  5. When Parents Have Problems: A Book for Teens and Older Children with an Abusive, Alcoholic, or Mentally Ill Parent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan B.

    This book was written for teenagers and older children who have abusive, alcoholic, or mentally ill parents. Emphasis is placed on young people in such situations using their intelligence, understanding that parents are fallible, viewing the future with optimism, facing reality, and seeing the good in other people rather than assuming everyone…

  6. Mental Illness Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Education Mental Health Information Publications Educational Resources Clinical Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental ... Statistics Understanding the scope of mental illnesses and their treatment is central ...

  7. Cultural considerations in the treatment of mental illness among sexually abused children and adolescents: the case of Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus J; Suryani, Luh Ketut; Tiliopoulos, Niko

    2015-01-01

    Childhood and adolescence sexual abuse can have long-lasting and devastating effects on personal and interpersonal growth and development. Sexually abused children tend to exhibit higher rates of poor school performance, aggressive behavior, PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder), or depressive symptomatology, as well as social and relational deficits (e.g., age-inappropriate sexual behaviors). The trauma following such abuse can further affect neurodevelopment and physiology, aggravating mental or physical problems in adulthood. Early symptom recognition and appropriate interventional applications are important factors in successfully treating or even preventing the development of mental disorders in such cohorts. A central element of effective treatment is the selection of treatment targets. Cultural considerations are rarely or peripherally considered in sexual abuse treatment strategies. Western-trained psychiatrists and clinical psychologists tend to overlook or underestimate such factors in cross-cultural settings, resulting in interventional efforts that may interfere with traditional approaches to healing, and potentially contributing to a transgenerational cycle of trauma. By using Bali (Indonesia) as a focal culture, in this article we discuss the effects of cultural elements and showcase their potential contribution and systematic implementation into a holistic and sensitive interventional model for the treatment of mental illness in childhood and adolescence sexual traumatization. PMID:25732022

  8. Substance Abuse Recovery after Experiencing Homelessness and Mental Illness: Case Studies of Change Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Deborah K.; Smith, Bikki Tran; Tiderington, Emmy

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper addresses how consumers with dual diagnosis, who were formerly homeless but are now living in supportive housing, understand their recovery from substance abuse (i.e., substance abuse or dependence). Specifically, this study examined: What can be learned about substance abuse recovery from consumers considered to be doing well; how past substance abuse fits into their present-day narratives; and how (if at all) policies of harm reduction versus abstinence are regarded as affecting recovery efforts. Methods As part of a federally-funded qualitative study, 38 individuals who met criteria for having achieved a measure of success in mental health recovery were purposively sampled from two supportive housing agencies – one using a harm reduction and the other an abstinence model. Researchers conducted in-depth interviews and used case study analysis, the latter including the development of case summaries and data matrices, to focus on substance abuse recovery in the larger context of participants’ lives. Results Recovery from substance abuse was depicted as occurring either through discrete decisions or gradual processes; achieving recovery was distinct from maintaining recovery. Emergent themes related to achievement included: (a) pivotal events and people (b) maturation, and (c) institutionalization. Central themes to maintaining recovery were: (a) housing, (b) self-help, and (c) the influence of significant others. Conclusions These findings capture a complex picture of overcoming substance abuse that largely took place outside of formal treatment and was heavily dependent on broader contexts. Equally important is that consumers themselves did not necessarily view substance abuse recovery as a defining feature of their life story. Indeed, recovery from substance abuse was seen as overcoming one adversity among many others during their troubled life courses. PMID:22962547

  9. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information on Depression and Other Medical Illnesses Chronic Illness & Mental Health Order a free hardcopy Depression is ... is clear. Depression is treatable even when other illness is present. Do not dismiss depression as a ...

  10. The Influence of Treatment Attendance on Subsequent Aggression among Severely Mentally Ill Substance Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Yue; Bradizza, Clara M.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    The interrelationships between severe mental illness, substance use, and aggression are of longstanding importance with implications for community treatment programs, treatment research and public policy. Through the analysis of longitudinal data collected from 278 patients over a 6-month period following admission to an outpatient dual diagnosis treatment program, this study examined the association between dual diagnosis treatment attendance and subsequent aggression among individuals diagnosed with both a severe mental illness and a substance use disorder. We also tested substance use and psychiatric symptoms as mediators of this treatment-aggression relationship. The results of structural equation modeling analyses indicated that dual diagnosis treatment was associated with lower levels of subsequent aggression. Mediational analyses indicated that greater treatment involvement was associated with reduced substance use, which was associated with lower levels of aggression; thus, substance use was found to mediate the relationship between dual diagnosis treatment and aggression. Surprisingly, severity of psychiatric symptoms did not predict later aggression. These findings suggest that targeting substance use reduction in treatment may have the additional benefit of reducing the risk of later aggression among dual diagnosis patients. PMID:25124261

  11. Burden of Mental Illness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Burden of Mental Illness Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Depression: According ... management could decrease the financial impact of this illness. 9 Schizophrenia: Worldwide prevalence estimates range between 0. ...

  12. The effects of childhood abuse on self-reported psychotic symptoms in severe mental illness: Mediating effects of posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Young; Choi, Young Min; Kim, Bongseog; Lee, Dong Woo; Gim, Min Sook; Park, Soo Hyun

    2015-09-30

    The present study examined the role of posttraumatic stress symptoms in the relationship between childhood abuse and self-reported psychotic symptoms in severe mental illness. A total of 126 patients diagnosed with major psychiatric conditions with comorbid symptoms of psychosis participated in the present study. The representative psychiatric diagnoses included schizophrenia, bipolar disorder with psychotic features, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, and delusional disorder. The Korean Child Trauma Questionnaire measured the type and degree of childhood abuse including emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. Korean version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised assessed posttraumatic stress symptoms, and PSYC subscale of the PSY-5 Factor Scale of the MMPI-2 was used as a measure of self-reported psychotic symptoms. There was a significant relationship between childhood physical, emotional, sexual abuse and psychotic symptoms. Posttraumatic stress symptoms partially mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and psychotic symptoms. This implies that childhood abuse is significantly associated with the experience of chronic posttraumatic stress symptoms, and that such symptoms in turn increases the likelihood of experiencing psychotic symptoms. The results highlight the need for appropriate assessment and intervention concerning childhood abuse and posttraumatic stress symptoms in severe mental illness. PMID:26144585

  13. Disparities in Access to Substance Abuse Treatment among People with Intellectual Disabilities and Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slayter, Elspeth M.

    2010-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have experienced increasing levels of community participation since deinstitutionalization. This freedom has facilitated community inclusion, access to alcohol and drugs, and the potential for developing substance abuse (SA) disorders. People with ID, who are known to have high rates of co-occurring…

  14. Mentally Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Estimates suggest that about 15% of all children have some form of mental disturbance. Potential causes can be of a physical, psychological, or environmental origin. Symptoms which indicate that a child needs professional help usually involve emotional overreaction to changes. Diagnosis of a child evidencing symptoms of mental illness should take…

  15. Development of the NIDA-Funded Center on Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Mark I.; Kola, Lenore A.; Biegel, David E.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes one school's effort to establish a social work research development center in the area of coexisting drug and mental disorders (dual disorders), within the context of the social work profession's efforts to compete more effectively for federal research grants. This center was funded as part of a successful application in…

  16. Prevalence of Mental Illness and Substance Abuse Disorders among Incarcerated Juvenile Offenders in Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Angela A.; Dill, Patricia L.; Husain, Jonelle; Undesser, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among incarcerated juveniles in Mississippi was examined. A total of 482 adolescents completed a diagnostic questionnaire and a subset (N = 317) was assessed with face-to-face semistructured interview. Most of the study participants met criteria for one mental disorder, 71?85% depending on assessment method,…

  17. An Integrated, Multidimensional Treatment Model for Individuals Living with HIV, Mental Illness, and Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouis, Stephanie; Reif, Susan; Whetten, Kathryn; Scovil, Janet; Murray, Andrea; Swartz, Marvin

    2007-01-01

    The challenge of providing effective treatment services for the growing population of HIV-positive individuals who are also dually diagnosed with substance use and mental disorders has only recently been recognized as an important public health concern affecting both HIV treatment and prevention. This article describes a treatment model that was…

  18. Co-Occurring Severe Mental Illnesses and Substance Abuse Disorders as Predictors of State Prison Inmate Assaults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Steven R.; Buttaro, Anthony, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Using hierarchical logistic regression with a nationally representative sample of state prisoners ("n" = 12,504), we found inmates with dual severe psychiatric and substance abuse disorders to be at higher risk of being assaulted and to assault others in prison than nonmentally ill inmates. Dually disordered inmates may be "importing"…

  19. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262

  20. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262

  1. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  2. Housing First Services for People Who Are Homeless with Co-Occurring Serious Mental Illness and Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Deborah K.; Gulcur, Leyla; Tsemberis, Sam

    2006-01-01

    The literature on homeless adults with severe mental illness is generally silent on a critical issue surrounding service delivery--the contrast between housing first and treatment first program philosophies. This study draws on data from a longitudinal experiment contrasting a housing first program (which offers immediate permanent housing without…

  3. Violence and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Rueve, Marie E.; Welton, Randon S.

    2008-01-01

    Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, including etiology, comorbidity, risk factor management, and treatment. A psychiatrist who is well versed in the recognition and management of violence can contribute to the appropriate management of dangerous behaviors and minimize risk to patients, their families, mental health workers, and the community as a whole. PMID:19727251

  4. The Neuropsychology of Mental Illness

    E-print Network

    Kuperberg, Gina

    The Neuropsychology of Mental Illness Edited by Stephen J. Wood Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre The neuropsychology of mental illness / edited by Stephen J. Wood, Nicholas B. Allen, Christos Pantelis. p. ; cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-521-86289-9 (hardback) 1. Mental illness

  5. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    2001-01-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183

  6. Mental illness and sexual offending.

    PubMed

    Booth, Brad D; Gulati, Sanjiv

    2014-06-01

    Transinstitutionalization (ie, the criminalization of those with mental illness) is relevant to individuals committing sexual offenses. Mental illness can affect the treatment and risk management of individuals committing sexual offenses. In this article the current literature on mentally disordered sexual offenders is described, including how psychosis, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and dementing disorders may affect treatment and management. PMID:24877705

  7. Mental illness and Egyptian families.

    PubMed

    Endrawes, Gihane; O'Brien, Louise; Wilkes, Lesley

    2007-06-01

    People from Egypt have cultural belief systems about mental illness and its causes that are at variance from Anglo-Saxon-derived understandings that predominate in Australian psychiatry. These differences in understanding can affect how mental health services are experienced and accepted by this cultural group. This paper is a review of the literature on Egyptians' beliefs about mental illness and how families in Egypt cope with a relative with mental illness. Because of limited literature on Egyptians' experience with mental illness in Australia, this paper will be used to shed some light on the way in which people experience mental illness and communicate this suffering in the Australian context, based on what has been known to occur in Egypt. The Zar cult and related practices focusing on belief in the evil eye, magic, and evil possession will be explored. Historical and contemporary mental health care systems in Egypt, and the influence of education and religion are discussed. In order to provide culturally sensitive care, nurses need to be aware of possible influences on belief systems about mental illness. This paper has the potential of helping nurses to gain a deeper understanding of cultures that differ from theirs and to provide care to clients and their families based on respect for the others' beliefs, values, and practices. PMID:17535163

  8. Screening for and Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis C among an Outpatient Urban Sample of People with Serious Mental Illness and Co-Occurring Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelhoch, Seth; Goldberg, Richard; Calmes, Christine; Medoff, Deborah; Slade, Eric; Dixon, Lisa; Gallucci, Gerard; Rosenberg, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Background: To assess rates of screening and testing of HIV and HCV among those with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders. Methods: One hundred fifty-three people with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders completed measures and were screened for HIV and HCV. Results: Six percent were HIV…

  9. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  10. Warning Signs of Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in personal care Mood changes — Rapid or dramatic shifts in feelings One or two of these symptoms ... clear signs of a diagnosable mental illness, these “red flag” early warning symptoms can be frightening and ...

  11. Cultural Considerations in the Treatment of Mental Illness among Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: The Case of Bali, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus J.; Suryani, Luh Ketut; Tiliopoulos, Niko

    2015-01-01

    Childhood and adolescence sexual abuse can have long-lasting and devastating effects on personal and interpersonal growth and development. Sexually abused children tend to exhibit higher rates of poor school performance, aggressive behavior, PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder), or depressive symptomatology, as well as social and relational…

  12. Caring for mentally ill people.

    PubMed Central

    van Os, J.; Neeleman, J.

    1994-01-01

    Despite legislation to harmonise mental health practice throughout Europe and convergence in systems of training there remains an extraordinary diversity in psychiatric practice in Europe. Approaches to tackling substance misuse vary among nations; statistics on psychiatric morbidity are affected by different approaches to diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders; attitudes towards mental illness show definite international differences. Everywhere, though, mental health care for patients with psychotic illnesses is a "cinderella service," and there is a general move towards care falling increasingly on the family and the community. PMID:7987157

  13. Rehabilitation of mentally ill women

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Rajni; Hashim, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Women, the fair sex, are principal providers of care and support to families. But, they are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. The provision of Rehabilitation for mentally ill women has been, and still is, one of the major challenges for mental health systems reform in the last decades, for various reasons. The present paper discusses the global and Indian scenario of rehabilitation of mentally ill women and goes on to detail the contribution of the state and voluntary agencies in this regard. It explores the need of recovery, multilayered strategy of Rehabilitation services and the availability of present services. The stigma attached and legal defects which interfere in good quality of life for the mentally ill women are reviewed. Strategies for changes in future are recommended. PMID:26330653

  14. Rehabilitation of mentally ill women.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Rajni; Hashim, Uzma

    2015-07-01

    Women, the fair sex, are principal providers of care and support to families. But, they are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. The provision of Rehabilitation for mentally ill women has been, and still is, one of the major challenges for mental health systems reform in the last decades, for various reasons. The present paper discusses the global and Indian scenario of rehabilitation of mentally ill women and goes on to detail the contribution of the state and voluntary agencies in this regard. It explores the need of recovery, multilayered strategy of Rehabilitation services and the availability of present services. The stigma attached and legal defects which interfere in good quality of life for the mentally ill women are reviewed. Strategies for changes in future are recommended. PMID:26330653

  15. Technology, Society, and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    SE Keefe, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Technology is rapidly changing society, and many activities now require the ability to use technology. This situation has the potential to lead to problems for several populations, including the elderly, the disadvantaged, and people with severe mental illness. In this column, we review the state of technology as it affects daily activities. We then review previous efforts to use technology positively for both the assessment and treatment of psychiatric conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder and severe mental illness. We conclude that technology-based interventions and assessment strategies have the potential to deliver benefit to a wide array of older people and those with severe mental illness, including reaching people who would not have had access otherwise. PMID:23346519

  16. Mental health literacy among caregivers of persons with mental illness: A descriptive survey

    PubMed Central

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; BIrudu, Raju; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite of growing evidence of mental disorders in developing countries, research on mental health literacy is limited from India. Aim: To examine mental health literacy among caregivers of persons with mental illness Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out among 161 randomly selected caregivers of persons with mental illness at outpatient department of a tertiary care centre. Data was collected through face to face interview using a structured questionnaire. Results: Regarding the causes of mental illness, a majority agreed that genetic inheritance (69%), substance abuse (64%) and brain disease (59.6%) are main factors for developing mental illness. Although more than two-thirds agreed that anyone could suffer from mental illness, 61.5% also agreed that people with mental health problems are largely to blame for their condition. The majority of the participants also agreed that mentally ill are not able to maintain friendships (45.9%), are dangerous (54%), and not capable to work (59.1%). Just over half (55.9%) of the participants would not want people to know if they had a mental illness and nearly half of them also expressed that they would feel ashamed if a family member had a mental illness. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study researchers suggest that there is an urgent need to educate and change the attitudes of caregivers through mental health literacy programs specifically designed for them. PMID:26167019

  17. Metabolic syndrome and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, John W

    2007-11-01

    Patients with mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components, risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Although the prevalence of obesity and other risk factors such as hyperglycemia are increasing in the general population, patients with major mental illnesses have an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and smoking, and substantially greater mortality, compared with the general population. Persons with major mental disorders lose 25 to 30 years of potential life in comparison with the general population, primarily due to premature cardiovascular mortality. The causes of increased cardiometabolic risk in this population can include nondisease-related factors such as poverty and reduced access to medical care, as well as adverse metabolic side effects associated with psychotropic medications, such as antipsychotic drugs. Individual antipsychotic medications are associated with well-defined risks of weight gain and related risks for adverse changes in glucose and lipid metabolism. Based on the medical risk profile of persons with major mental illnesses, and the evidence that certain medications can contribute to increased risk, screening and regular monitoring of metabolic parameters such as weight (body mass index), waist circumference, plasma glucose and lipids, and blood pressure are recommended to manage risk in this population. Treatment decisions should incorporate information about medical risk factors in general and cardiometabolic risk in particular. In addition to the implications for individual clinicians, the problem of disparity in meeting healthcare needs for persons with mental illness in comparison with the general population has become an important public policy concern, with recent recommendations from the National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors and the Institute of Medicine. This article provides an overview of cardiometabolic risk in patients with major mental illness and describes steps for risk reduction. PMID:18041878

  18. Marriage, mental illness and law.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indira; Reddy, Karri Rama; Kamath, Rabindra Mukund

    2015-07-01

    The Special Marriage Act (SMA), 1954 and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955 have put restrictions on the marriage of persons with mental illness, which are proving to be detrimental to patients and their families. There is an urgent need to address this problem. The deficiencies in the existing legislation have been projected and constructive suggestions have been put forward. PMID:26330652

  19. Marriage, mental illness and law

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Reddy, Karri Rama; Kamath, Rabindra Mukund

    2015-01-01

    The Special Marriage Act (SMA), 1954 and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955 have put restrictions on the marriage of persons with mental illness, which are proving to be detrimental to patients and their families. There is an urgent need to address this problem. The deficiencies in the existing legislation have been projected and constructive suggestions have been put forward. PMID:26330652

  20. Adult Neurogenesis and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407

  1. Factors influencing mental health nurses' attitudes towards people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Lu, Huei-Lan; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing mental health nurses' attitudes towards people with mental illness. A descriptive correlation design was used. A sample of 180 Taiwanese mental health nurses was recruited from mental health-care settings. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation, Student's t-test, one-way anova, and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Negative attitudes were found among mental health nurses, especially with respect to individuals with substance abuse compared with those with schizophrenia and major depression. Mental health nurses who were older, had more clinical experiences in mental health care, and demonstrated greater empathy expressed more positive attitudes towards people with mental illness. Mental health nurses working at acute psychiatric units demonstrated more negative attitudes towards mental illness compared with those working in psychiatric rehabilitation units and outpatient clinics or community psychiatric rehabilitation centres. Particularly, length of mental health nursing practice and empathy significantly accounted for mental health nurses' attitudes towards mental illness. Understanding nurses' attitudes and their correlates towards people with mental illness is critical to deliver effective mental health nursing care. PMID:25963120

  2. Exoneration of the mentally ill.

    PubMed Central

    Fields, L

    1987-01-01

    Mental illness may be manifested in the impairment of understanding or of volitional control. Impairment of understanding may be manifested in delusions. Impairment of volitional control is shown when a person is unable to act in accordance with good reasons that he himself accepts. In order for an impairment of understanding or of self-control to exculpate, the offence must be causally connected with the impairment in question. The rationale of exculpation in general, which applies also to the case of mental illness, is that the offence does not indicate a morally bad attitude in the offender. A consequence of this rationale is that Kenny is wrong to hold that no injustice would result from the elimination of the legal defence of diminished responsibility. PMID:3694641

  3. Blasphemy laws and mental illness in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that individuals who are mentally ill are overrepresented in the group of defendants prosecuted under the blasphemy laws of Pakistan. This article discusses the background of blasphemy legislation in Pakistan, and proposes causal interactions between underlying mental illness in the defendant and prosecution for blasphemy. It sketches possible legal safeguards for such blasphemy defendants with mental illness in mental health legislation. PMID:25237489

  4. Gaols or De Facto Mental Institutions? Why Individuals with a Mental Illness Are Over-Represented in the Criminal Justice System in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Corinne

    2007-01-01

    The over-representation of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system highlights the need for legislative reform and the implementation of programs breaking the cycle of mental illness, poverty, unemployment and substance abuse across Australia. Whilst there is no inherent association between mental illness and crime, there is a…

  5. Mature Mentally Ill Offenders in California Jails.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Patricia A.

    1989-01-01

    Obtained data from study conducted in five California jails to examine mental health needs of jail inmates (N=940). Of the 64 inmates over age 50, 14 were determined to be mature mentally ill offenders. Data suggest that mature mentally ill offenders are predominantly White, unmarried, alcohol dependent, have less than 12 years of formal…

  6. Child abuse and mental disorders in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Tracie O.; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Boyle, Michael; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nationally representative Canadian data on the prevalence of child abuse and its relation with mental disorders are lacking. We used contemporary, nationally representative data to examine the prevalence of 3 types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse and exposure to intimate partner violence) and their association with 14 mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Methods: We obtained data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health, collected from the 10 provinces. Respondents aged 18 years and older were asked about child abuse and were selected for the study sample (n = 23 395). The survey had a multistage stratified cluster design (household response rate 79.8%). Results: The prevalence of any child abuse was 32% (individual types ranged from 8% to 26%). All types of child abuse were associated with all mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.4 to 7.9). We found a dose–response relation, with increasing number of abuse types experienced corresponding with greater odds of mental conditions. Associations between child abuse and attention deficit disorder, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts showed stronger effects for women than men. Interpretation: We found robust associations between child abuse and mental conditions. Health care providers, especially those assessing patients with mental health problems, need to be aware of the relation between specific types of child abuse and certain mental conditions. Success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:24756625

  7. Archiving Social Policy: The Florida Commission on Mental Health and Substance Abuse Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, B. W.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of archiving state commission papers, documenting the formation of public policy, and allowing the public access to an organized collection of the data gathered by the Florida Commission on Mental Health and Substance Abuse. Florida's citizens with mental illnesses or substance abuse disorders face a myriad of…

  8. When a Student Is Mentally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hover, Margot

    1995-01-01

    Highlights issues facing teachers who have mentally ill students in their classes and ways for teachers to address the issues. Discusses in-school interventions, out-of-school treatment, and the role of the teacher as mediator in helping students relate to other mentally ill students and in offering support to parents. (MAB)

  9. Administrative Segregation for Mentally Ill Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Maureen L.

    2007-01-01

    Largely the result of prison officials needing to safely and efficiently manage a volatile inmate population, administrative segregation or supermax facilities are criticized as violating basic human needs, particularly for mentally ill inmates. The present study compared Colorado offenders with mental illness (OMIs) to nonOMIs in segregated and…

  10. Health Outcomes of HIV-Infected People with Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Baligh R; Stephens-Shield, Alisa J; Momplaisir, Florence; Taylor, Lynne; Gross, Robert; Dubé, Benoit; Glanz, Karen; Brady, Kathleen A

    2015-08-01

    Improving outcomes for people with HIV and mental illness will be critical to meeting the goals of the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy. In a retrospective analysis of the 2008-2010 cycles of the locally representative Philadelphia Medical Monitoring Project, we compared the proportions of HIV-infected adults with and without mental illness: (1) retained in care (?2 primary HIV visits separated by ?90 days in a 12-month period); (2) prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART) at any point in a 12-month period; and (3) virally suppressed (HIV-1 RNA ?200 copies/mL at the last measure in the 12-month period). Multivariable regression assessed associations between mental illness and the outcomes, adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance, alcohol abuse, injection drug use, CD4 count, and calendar year. Of 730 HIV-infected persons, representative of 9409 persons in care for HIV in Philadelphia, 49.0 % had mental illness. In adjusted analyses, there were no significant differences in retention (91.3 vs. 90.3 %; AOR 1.30, 95 % CI 0.63-2.56) and prescription of ART (83.2 vs. 88.7 %; AOR 0.79, 95 % CI 0.49-1.25) between those with and without mental illness. However, mentally ill patients were less likely to achieve viral suppression than those without mental illness (65.9 vs. 74.4 %; AOR 0.64, 95 % CI 0.46-0.90). These findings argue for the need to optimize ART adherence in this population. PMID:25931243

  11. Mental Illness and Stigma: Has Psychiatry Done more Harm than Good?

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Ashima

    2015-01-01

    Stigma against people with mental illness is a very complex public health problem. There could be diverse reasons for this ranging from: Lack of awareness;Fear of a dimly-comprehended and much-misunderstood illness;Illogical generalizations; andDisrespect for the heterogeneity of life. The result-for the mentally ill-could well be diminished access to social determinants of healthcare, employment, and housing. In addition, people with mental illnesses are exposed to numerous health risks such as malnutrition, drug abuse, violence and homelessness. Maybe this explains nondisclosure of illness in an increasingly degenerate civil society. PMID:25969604

  12. Media and mental illness: relevance to India.

    PubMed

    Padhy, S K; Khatana, S; Sarkar, S

    2014-01-01

    Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored. PMID:24823515

  13. California Firearms Law and Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Barnhorst, Amy

    2015-06-01

    California provides numerous pathways by which people with mental illness can qualify for a state-level firearm prohibition. The state's involuntary detention for psychiatric treatment, or "5150" (CA W&I Code 5150) process, is often cited as one potential mechanism for reducing violence by dangerous people, though its use is limited to people whose dangerousness is due to a mental illness. Additionally, California has taken legislative steps to prohibit firearm ownership among other people who have an increased risk of violence, regardless of whether or not mental illness is a factor. This article compares the California firearm ownership disqualification system for mental illness with the federal system and those of other states, examines the strengths and weaknesses of this system, and reviews alternatives. PMID:25899250

  14. MENTAL ILLNESS in the CLASSROOM

    E-print Network

    Health: http://bit.ly/187rK7m · Children's Mental Health Ontario: http://bit.ly/futUt5 · Teen Mental a general population sample: http://1.usa.gov/17d9ZDE 4 Teen Mental Health ­ Educators training programs: http://bit.ly/1b9gJF3 5 Teen Mental Health ­ For educators: http://bit.ly/1cRRg4i 6 Cross

  15. Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

  16. Resisting the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoits, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…

  17. Mentally Ill Inmates Prone to Violence After Release: Study

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the study. The study doesn't prove that mental illness leads to violence once these convicts get out ... with mental health services. Meanwhile, the claim that mental illness is a direct cause of violence will make ...

  18. Sterilization of the Mentally Ill and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a survey on the sterilization of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded. Thirty-three states responded to the survey. It was found that 17 states have a sterilization statute, but the existence of the statute was explained not to mean that the procedure was used. Sixteen states responded that they did not have a…

  19. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  20. Mental Illness among Us: A New Curriculum to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma among Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…

  1. ANALYZING EXCESS MORTALITY FROM CANCER AMONG INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS

    PubMed Central

    Musuuza, Jackson S.; Sherman, Marion E.; Knudsen, Kraig J.; Sweeney, Helen Anne; Tyler, Carl V; Koroukian, Siran M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare patterns of site-specific cancer mortality in a population of individuals with and without mental illness. Methods This was a cross-sectional, population-based study using a linked dataset comprised of death certificate data for the state of Ohio for the years 2004–2007 and data from the publicly funded mental health system in Ohio. Decedents with mental illness were those identified concomitantly in both data sets. We used age-adjusted standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) in race- and sex-specific person-year strata to estimate excess deaths for each of the anatomic cancer sites. Results Overall, there was excess mortality from cancer associated with having mental illness in all of the race/sex strata: SMR: 2.16, (95% Confidence Interval: 1.85–2.50) for Black men; 2.63 (2.31–2.98) for Black women; 3.89 (3.61–4.19) for non-Black men, and 3.34 (3.13–3.57) for non-Black women. In all of the race/sex strata except for Black women, the highest SMR was observed for laryngeal cancer 3.94 (1.45–8.75) in Black men; 6.51 (3.86–10.35) and 6.87 (3.01–13.60) in non-Black men and women, respectively). The next highest SMRs were noted for hepatobiliary cancer and that of the urinary tract in all race/sex strata, except for Black men. Conclusions Compared to the general population in Ohio, individuals with mental illness experienced excess mortality from most cancers, possibly explained by a higher prevalence of smoking, substance abuse, and chronic hepatitis B or C infections in individuals with mental illness. Excess mortality could also reflect late-stage diagnosis and receipt of inadequate treatment. PMID:23585241

  2. Mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Galea, Sandro; Jones, Russell T.; Parker, Holly A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of Hurricane Katrina on mental illness and suicidality by comparing results of a post-Katrina survey with those of an earlier survey. METHODS: The National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, conducted between February 2001 and February 2003, interviewed 826 adults in the Census Divisions later affected by Hurricane Katrina. The post-Katrina survey interviewed a new sample of 1043 adults who lived in the same area before the hurricane. Identical questions were asked about mental illness and suicidality. The post-Katrina survey also assessed several dimensions of personal growth that resulted from the trauma (for example, increased closeness to a loved one, increased religiosity). Outcome measures used were the K6 screening scale of serious mental illness and mild-moderate mental illness and questions about suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. FINDINGS: Respondents to the post-Katrina survey had a significantly higher estimated prevalence of serious mental illness than respondents to the earlier survey (11.3% after Katrina versus 6.1% before; chi(2)1= 10.9; P < 0.001) and mild-moderate mental illness (19.9% after Katrina versus 9.7% before; chi(2)1 = 22.5; P < 0.001). Among respondents estimated to have mental illness, though, the prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans was significantly lower in the post-Katrina survey (suicidal ideation 0.7% after Katrina versus 8.4% before; chi(2)1 = 13.1; P < 0.001; plans for suicide 0.4% after Katrina versus 3.6% before; chi(2)1 = 6.0; P = 0.014). This lower conditional prevalence of suicidality was strongly related to two dimensions of personal growth after the trauma (faith in one's own ability to rebuild one's life, and realization of inner strength), without which between-survey differences in suicidality were insignificant. CONCLUSION: Despite the estimated prevalence of mental illness doubling after Hurricane Katrina, the prevalence of suicidality was unexpectedly low. The role of post-traumatic personal growth in ameliorating the effects of trauma-related mental illness on suicidality warrants further investigation. PMID:17242828

  3. Validating the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test with Persons Who Have a Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Thomas; Sherrer, Margaret V.; LaButti, Annamaria; Emrick, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Objective/Method: The use of brief, reliable, valid, and practical measures of substance use is critical for conducting individual assessments and program evaluation for integrated mental health-substance abuse services for persons with serious mental illness. This investigation examines the internal consistency reliability, concurrent validity,…

  4. Physical Health, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems of Shelter Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Shirley N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined physical health of 72 users of homeless shelters, comparing shelter users with mental illness or substance abuse problems with those without these problems. Found that alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to have low blood pressure, symptoms of liver disease, and tuberculosis treatment history. Found no health differences for…

  5. 28 CFR 115.283 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers... Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers...shall offer medical and mental health evaluation and, as...

  6. 28 CFR 115.83 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers... Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers...shall offer medical and mental health evaluation and, as...

  7. 28 CFR 115.283 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers... Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers...shall offer medical and mental health evaluation and, as...

  8. 28 CFR 115.283 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers... Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers...shall offer medical and mental health evaluation and, as...

  9. 28 CFR 115.383 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers... Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers...shall offer medical and mental health evaluation and, as...

  10. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang-pei; Ying-Chi Lai, Grace; Yang, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person’s participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese-immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) has specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese-immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from two Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semi-structured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants’ consideration of three critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship-building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network involuntary disclosure could happen without participants’ permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations where they experienced little discriminatory treatment and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed. PMID:23647389

  11. Dating violence: mental health consequences based on type of abuse.

    PubMed

    Eshelman, Lee; Levendosky, Alytia A

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to determine the relationship between psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, and mental health symptoms. Female college students (N = 499) completed anonymous online surveys to report experiences of abuse, as well as symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and physical injuries. Five groups of participants were found: no abuse; psychological abuse; physical abuse; psychological and physical abuse; and psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. The multiple abuse groups showed the highest rate of mental health symptoms. In addition, increased frequency of abuse was related to more mental health symptoms and more physical injuries. PMID:22594217

  12. 28 CFR 541.6 - Mentally ill inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mentally ill inmates. 541.6 Section 541.6... AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Inmate Discipline Program § 541.6 Mentally ill inmates. If it appears you are mentally ill at any stage of the discipline process, you will be examined by mental health...

  13. "Alternative to Prison" Programs for the Mentally Ill Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Nicole J.; Stefancic, Ana

    2003-01-01

    Mentally ill offenders represent a substantial proportion of jail and prison inmates. Despite the fact that confining mentally ill offenders can and often will exacerbate their mental illness, the quality of mental health services available to them remains poor and insufficient. Up to date, only a few cities and counties have considered a more…

  14. Attitudes of college students toward mental illness stigma and the misuse of psychiatric medications

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Amanda M.; Merlo, Lisa J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Mental illness stigma remains a significant barrier to treatment. However, the recent increase in the medical and non-medical use of prescription psychiatric medications among college students seems to contradict this phenomenon. This study explored students’ attitudes and experiences related to psychiatric medications, as well as correlates of psychiatric medication misuse (i.e., attitudes towards mental illness and beliefs about the efficacy of psychiatric medications). METHOD Data were collected anonymously via self-report questionnaires from April 2008 to February 2009. Measures included the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, Drug Abuse Screening Test, Day’s Mental Illness Stigma Scale, Attitudes Toward Psychiatric Medication Scale, and the Psychiatric Medication Attitudes Scale. Participants included 383 university students (59.2% female), recruited on campus or through online classes. RESULTS Results showed high rates of psychiatric medication misuse when compared to rates of medical use. Participants reported believing that the majority of students who use prescription psychotropics do so non-medically. In addition, less-stigmatized attitudes toward mental illness were correlated with both increased beliefs about the treatability of mental illness and increased misuse of psychiatric medications. Conversely, more stigmatized beliefs were associated with negative views toward psychiatric medication, as well as decreased likelihood of abuse. CONCLUSION Results suggest the need for improved education regarding the nature of mental illness, the appropriate use of psychiatric medications, and the potential consequences associated with abuse of these potent drugs. PMID:21208582

  15. Siblings and Mental Illness: Heredity vs. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, David C.; Elam, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Siblings are far more likely to be different than alike in personality and psychopathology. Different genes and different environmental experiences can account for why one sibling becomes mentally ill and another is not affected. Environmental experiences play a much greater role in sibling differentiation than has been previously recognized.…

  16. Patient Education for the Mentally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Louise Harding

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the philosophy of the rehabilitation services department at McLean Hospital on patient education for the mentally ill, noting patient library collection and recommended resources on marital problems, sex education, drug manuals, and diagnostic and research findings. A list of magazines subscribed to, color code classification, and 23…

  17. The Stigma of Families with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…

  18. Comorbidity Profile and Health Care Utilization in Elderly Patients with Serious Mental Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Hendrie, Hugh C.; Hay, Don; Lane, Kathleen A.; Gao, Sujuan; Purnell, Christianna; Munger, Stephanie; Smith, Faye; Dickens, Jeanne; Boustani, Malaz A.; Callahan, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Patients with serious mental illness are living longer. Yet there remain few studies that focus on health care utilization and its relationship to comorbidities in these elderly mentally ill patients. Design Comparative study. Information on demographics, comorbidities and health care utilization were taken from an electronic medical record system. Setting Wishard Health Services senior care and community mental health clinics. Participants Patients age 65 years and over-255 patients with serious mental illness (schizophrenia, major recurrent depression and bipolar illness) attending a mental health clinic and a representative sample of 533 non-demented patients without serious mental illness attending primary care clinics. Results Patients having serious mental illness had significantly higher rates of medical emergency room visits (p=0.0027) and significantly longer lengths of medical hospitalizations (p<0.0001) than did the primary care control group. The frequency of medical comorbidities such as diabetes, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, thyroid disease, and cancer were not significantly different between the groups. Hypertension was lower in the mentally ill group (p<0.0001). Reported falls (p<0.0001), diagnoses of substance abuse (p=0.02), and alcoholism (p=0.0016) were higher in the seriously mentally ill. The differences in health care utilization between the groups remained significant after adjusting for comorbidity levels, lifestyle factors, and attending primary care. Conclusions Our findings of higher rates of emergency care, longer hospitalizations, and increased frequency of falls, substance abuse, and alcoholism suggest the elderly seriously mentally ill remain a vulnerable population requiring an integrated model of health care. PMID:24206938

  19. Victimization of the Mentally Ill: An Unintended Consequence of Deinstitutionalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the history of the problem of deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill to community settings, outlines characteristics of the homeless mentally ill, and discusses steps to create a more responsive clinical network to cope with the problem. (Author/KS)

  20. 28 CFR 541.6 - Mentally ill inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mentally ill inmates. 541.6 Section 541.6 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Inmate Discipline Program § 541.6 Mentally ill inmates. If it appears you are mentally ill at any stage of...

  1. 28 CFR 541.6 - Mentally ill inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mentally ill inmates. 541.6 Section 541.6 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Inmate Discipline Program § 541.6 Mentally ill inmates. If it appears you are mentally ill at any stage of...

  2. 28 CFR 541.6 - Mentally ill inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mentally ill inmates. 541.6 Section 541.6 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Inmate Discipline Program § 541.6 Mentally ill inmates. If it appears you are mentally ill at any stage of...

  3. The Mentally Ill Offender: Punishment or Treatment? Human Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Rebecca T.; Kissell, Michelle

    1986-01-01

    The problem of mentally ill offenders is discussed in this report. Mentally ill offenders are described as generally not violent, with their behavior resulting in charges such as shoplifting, vagrancy, and trespassing. Factors increasing the number of mentally ill offenders are discussed, including the inability of families and communities to…

  4. The Mentally Ill Offender: Punishment or Treatment. Human Services Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Rebecca T.; Kissell, Michelle

    1988-01-01

    The vast majority of mentally ill offenders are not violent, although their illness necessarily manifests itself in ways that society often finds unacceptable. The number of mentally ill offenders is growing because needed mental health care is not available to those who are no longer hospitalized due to the deinstitutionalization movement and the…

  5. PSYCHIATRIC SERVICES IN ADVANCE 11 ersons with serious mental ill-

    E-print Network

    Maryland, Baltimore County, University of

    PSYCHIATRIC SERVICES IN ADVANCE 11 P ersons with serious mental ill- ness suffer from increased- er factors substantially influence the health of persons with mental illness. Poor general medical care is an im- portant correlate of morbidity among populations with mental illness (3). Among Medicare

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Adult Smoking among People with Mental Illness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is much more common in adults with mental illness than other adults Smoking and mental illness Nicotine has mood-altering effects that put people ... to reduce tobacco use among people with mental illness. This includes: Helping states develop action plans to ...

  7. Defining Mental Illness: The Relationship between College Students' Beliefs about the Definition of Mental Illness and Tolerance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granello, Darcy Haag; Granello, Paul F.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between college undergraduate students' (N=102) beliefs about the definition of mental illness and their tolerance toward individuals with mental illnesses. Results show that students with broad and inclusive definitions of mental illness had more benevolent, less authoritarian, and less socially restrictive attitudes…

  8. Medication adherence for patients with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Upkar; Vetter, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Medication adherence has been studied for some time; however most research has focused on able-bodied patients or the elderly living independently. What has not been studied nearly as much is medication adherence for people with psychiatric or mental illnesses. In this paper, we present a framework that includes the specific challenges in medication adherence for patients with mental illness, algorithms and protocols for evaluating adherence, and some on-going work in developing effective solutions. The architectural framework and associated algorithms leverage the context-aware computing capabilities available on many mobile devices. The system is designed to be able to collect and offer situation-aware information on medication use and adherence for healthcare professionals and other designated persons. PMID:23366355

  9. [Violence by and against people with mental illnesses].

    PubMed

    Steinert, Tilman; Traub, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    There is robust evidence for an increased risk of violence through people with psychotic disorders. Until recently this was frequently denied to prevent stigmatization. Alcohol and drug abuse equally increases the risk, while appropriate treatment reduces it drastically. Staff in psychiatric hospitals is exposed to an elevated risk of aggressive assaults. A limited number of severely ill and socially disintegrated patients accounts for these incidents, which are often recurrent. Besides patient characteristics, factors such as ward climate, staffing levels, education and attitudes of staff, and physical environment play a major role in aggressive escalations. On the other hand, mentally ill people, particularly women, are themselves at a higher risk of becoming victims of violent and non-violent crime. This also applies after correction for variables such as social status and living environment. Additionally mentally ill people are confronted with violence in the form of coercive interventions legitimised by the state (involuntary admission, involuntary treatment, freedom-restrictive measures such as seclusion or manual/physical restraint). In contrast to other countries in Central and Western Europe, involuntary outpatient treatment has never been legalized in Germany. Efforts to reduce violence and coercion in psychiatric facilities by evidence-based interventions are widespread nowadays, treatment guidelines are available. PMID:26515051

  10. Mental Illness and Mental Health Defenses: Perceptions of the Criminal Bar.

    PubMed

    Frierson, Richard L; Boyd, Mary S; Harper, Angela

    2015-12-01

    As the number of state mental hospital beds declines, persons with persistent mental illness are increasingly encountered by those working in the legal system. Attorneys may have little experience in working with this population. This research involved a 32-item written survey of the 492 members of the criminal bar in South Carolina. Demographic variables were surveyed, and attorneys were asked to define two common terms describing mental illnesses (delusion and psychosis) and the legal criteria for verdicts of not guilty by reason of insanity and guilty but mentally ill. They were also asked to identify the most severe mental illness (schizophrenia). Attitudes about these verdicts and about working with defendants who are mentally ill were also surveyed. Results indicate that attorneys are fairly knowledgeable about mental illness, but not verdicts involving mental illness, particularly the verdict of guilty but mentally ill. Most attorneys prefer to work with clients who do not have mental illness. However, as they become more experienced interacting with defendants who are affected by mental illness, they become more knowledgeable and are more willing to defend them. A large majority believe that their law school education about mental illness was inadequate. When comparing attorney occupations, public defenders were the most knowledgeable about mental illness and mental health defenses, followed by prosecutors and private defense attorneys. Judges were the least knowledgeable group. PMID:26668226

  11. Life skills programmes for chronic mental illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Tungpunkom, Patraporn; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Background Most people with schizophrenia have a cyclical pattern of illness characterised by remission and relapses. The illness can reduce the ability of self-care and functioning and can lead to the illness becoming disabling. Life skills programmes, emphasising the needs associated with independent functioning, are often a part of the rehabilitation process. These programmes have been developed to enhance independent living and quality of life for people with schizophrenia. Objectives To review the effects of life skills programmes compared with standard care or other comparable therapies for people with chronic mental health problems. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (June 2010). We supplemented this process with handsearching and scrutiny of references. We inspected references of all included studies for further trials. Selection criteria We included all relevant randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials for life skills programmes versus other comparable therapies or standard care involving people with serious mental illnesses. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a random-effects model. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), again based on a random-effects model. Main results We included seven randomised controlled trials with a total of 483 participants. These evaluated life skills programmes versus standard care, or support group. We found no significant difference in life skills performance between people given life skills training and standard care (1 RCT, n = 32, MD ?1.10; 95% CI ?7.82 to 5.62). Life skills training did not improve or worsen study retention (5 RCTs, n = 345, RR 1.16; 95% CI 0.40 to 3.36). We found no significant difference in PANSS positive, negative or total scores between life skills intervention and standard care. We found quality of life scores to be equivocal between participants given life skills training (1 RCT, n = 32, MD ?0.02; 95% CI ?0.07 to 0.03) and standard care. Life skills compared with support groups also did not reveal any significant differences in PANSS scores, quality of life, or social performance skills (1 RCT, n = 158, MD ?0.90; 95% CI ?3.39 to 1.59). Authors’ conclusions Currently there is no good evidence to suggest life skills programmes are effective for people with chronic mental illnesses. More robust data are needed from studies that are adequately powered to determine whether life skills training is beneficial for people with chronic mental health problems. PMID:22258941

  12. Influence of southern spiritual beliefs on perceptions of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Morrison, E F; Thornton, K A

    1999-01-01

    Cultural religious beliefs influence perceptions of mental illness, and any clinician interested in treating mentally ill people and their families must consider these beliefs so that he or she can develop culturally specific interventions. This article reports on the results of interviews with African American experts, mentally ill persons, and nurses caring for the mentally ill. A case study is used to illustrate the influence of southern religious beliefs on perceptions of mental illness and the behaviors of people who are mentally ill. Although many issues are considered in this analysis (i.e., ethnicity, geographic location, and religion), it is the influence of three religious traditions in the South--voodoo, slave religion, and evangelical Protestantism--that takes precedence in the analysis. Mental health professionals, especially psychiatric nurses, will find this information helpful when assisting hospitalized patients. PMID:10808829

  13. Common Representations of the Mentally Ill among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bovina, I. B.; Panov, M. S.

    2006-01-01

    The study of mental diseases and the mentally ill is, no doubt, the job of psychiatry and clinical psychology. However, social psychology has also made a substantial contribution to research in this field in the past few decades. In this study, the authors describe and analyze the content and structure of representations of the mentally ill among…

  14. Rights Versus Needs of Homeless Mentally Ill Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, John R.

    1988-01-01

    Studied homeless mentally ill patients who had been released into the community. Discusses mentally ill clients' rights to self-determination versus immediate survival needs and the potential mental restoration that could be provided through commitment to a psychiatric hospital. Presents two case studies. (Author/ABL)

  15. How Clinical Diagnosis Might Exacerbate the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    Stigma can greatly exacerbate the experience of mental illness. Diagnostic classification frequently used by clinical social workers may intensify this stigma by enhancing the public's sense of "groupness" and "differentness" when perceiving people with mental illness. The homogeneity assumed by stereotypes may lead mental health professionals and…

  16. Mental Illness in Offender Populations: Prevalence, Duty and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderstrom, Irina R.

    2007-01-01

    Prisons are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness. This paper examines the prevalence of mental illness in American jails and prisons, the duty government and society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment, and the implications for inmate safety, costs, recidivism, and community reintegration if…

  17. Offenders with Mental Illness in the Correctional System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Maureen L.; Schnell, Marissa J.

    2007-01-01

    The escalating mentally ill population in prisons has created unique challenges for correctional systems, Colorado being no exception with 25% of its incarcerated population having mental health needs. This study examined correctional offenders with mental illness (OMIs) and found a growing number of OMIs in Colorado's prison system. Not only is…

  18. Self-Stigma of Mental Illness in High School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Leah I.; Michel, Natalie M.; Winter, Ariella; Young, Rebecca E.; Flett, Gordon L.; Goldberg, Joel O.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of mental health problems, society continues to stigmatize and discriminate against people with mental illness and in particular, schizophrenia. Among the negative consequences of stigma, is that some individuals with mental illness internalize negative stereotypes about themselves, referred to as self-stigma, which is…

  19. [Suicidality in mental illness – prevention and therapy].

    PubMed

    Röcker, Sabine; Bachmann, Silke

    2015-10-01

    The great majority of suicides and suicide attempts are related to mental illness. Special risk has been attributed to depression, psychosis, substance use, personality, and trauma-related disorders. Many affected persons seek medical attention prior to taking action. Primary care therefor plays an outstanding role in suicide prevention. Doctors should pay attention to potential risk constellations and actively address the issue. This paper presents possibly helpful models and instruments for everyday use. Most importantly, however, professionals’ empathy and time are required as well as appropriate decisions concerning a referral to a psychiatrist or psychiatric inpatient treatment. PMID:26423879

  20. Responding to the needs of the homeless mentally ill.

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, S H

    1985-01-01

    The homeless mentally ill represent a pivotal and urgent challenge to the mental health field in the 1980s. Those homeless who have extended histories of psychiatric hospitalization stand as harsh reminders of the failures of deinstitutionalization, while young mentally ill homeless adults who never have been treated as inpatients testify to the gaps and unrealized promises of community-based care under deinstitutionalization. Homelessness and mental illness are social and clinical problems, respectively, distinct in some ways but intertwined in others. Some of the factors that contribute to homelessness--such as economic deprivations, a dearth of low-cost housing, discontinuities in social service systems, and radical changes in the composition of American families--are felt particularly keenly by many persons who are mentally ill. And symptoms of mental disorders, in turn, frequently impede an individual's capacities to cope with those, as well as other, stressors. Developing appropriate and effective responses to the needs of homeless people who are mentally ill requires precise definition and identification of the target population, innovations in the mental health service system, encouragement of those who staff it to work with homeless mentally ill patients, and public education. Ultimately, however, fundamental answers will be found in an improved understanding of severe mental illness, enhanced treatment capacities, and greater attention to the rehabilitative needs of mentally ill persons. PMID:3931159

  1. Adult neurogenesis, mental health, and mental illness: hope or hype?

    PubMed

    Eisch, Amelia J; Cameron, Heather A; Encinas, Juan M; Meltzer, Leslie A; Ming, Guo-Li; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda S

    2008-11-12

    Psychiatric and neurologic disorders take an enormous toll on society. Alleviating the devastating symptoms and consequences of neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction, depression, epilepsy, and schizophrenia is a main force driving clinical and basic researchers alike. By elucidating these disease neuromechanisms, researchers hope to better define treatments and preventive therapies. Research suggests that regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis represents a promising approach to treating and perhaps preventing mental illness. Here we appraise the role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in major psychiatric and neurologic disorders within the essential framework of recent progress made in understanding "normal" adult neurogenesis. Topics addressed include the following: the life cycle of an adult hippocampal stem cell and the implications for aging; links between learning and hippocampal neurogenesis; the reciprocal relationship between cocaine self-administration and adult hippocampal neurogenesis; the role of adult neurogenesis in an animal model of depression and response to antidepressant exposure; the impact of neonatal seizures on dentate gyrus neurogenesis; and the contribution of a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene to adult hippocampal neurogenesis. These topics are discussed in light of the regulation of adult neurogenesis, the relationship to normal neurogenesis in adulthood and aging, and, importantly, the manipulation of neurogenesis to promote mental health and treat mental illness. PMID:19005040

  2. Media portrayal of mental illness and its treatments: what effect does it have on people with mental illness?

    PubMed

    Stuart, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews dominant media portrayals of mental illness, the mentally ill and mental health interventions, and examines what social, emotional and treatment-related effects these may have. Studies consistently show that both entertainment and news media provide overwhelmingly dramatic and distorted images of mental illness that emphasise dangerousness, criminality and unpredictability. They also model negative reactions to the mentally ill, including fear, rejection, derision and ridicule. The consequences of negative media images for people who have a mental illness are profound. They impair self-esteem, help-seeking behaviours, medication adherence and overall recovery. Mental health advocates blame the media for promoting stigma and discrimination toward people with a mental illness. However, the media may also be an important ally in challenging public prejudices, initiating public debate, and projecting positive, human interest stories about people who live with mental illness. Media lobbying and press liaison should take on a central role for mental health professionals, not only as a way of speaking out for patients who may not be able to speak out for themselves, but as a means of improving public education and awareness. Also, given the consistency of research findings in this field, it may now be time to shift attention away from further cataloguing of media representations of mental illness to the more challenging prospect of how to use the media to improve the life chances and recovery possibilities for the one in four people living with mental disorders. PMID:16478286

  3. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale: a multinational review.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Adler, Emerald P; Otilingam, Poorni G; Peters, Townley

    2014-01-01

    The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale is a 29-item questionnaire measuring self-stigma among persons with psychiatric disorders. It was developed with substantial consumer input and has been widely used, but its psychometric qualities have not been comprehensively evaluated across multiple versions. Here we review the 55 known versions, and provide the 47 available versions, including: Arabic, Armenian, Bengali, Bulgarian, Chinese (Mainland, Taiwan, Hong Kong), Croatian, Dutch, English (USA, South Africa), Estonian, Farsi, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Japanese, Khmer, Korean, Lithuanian, Lugandan, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese (Portugal, Brazil), Romanian, Russian, Samoan, Slovenian, Spanish (Spain), Swahili, Swedish, Tongan, Turkish, Urdu, and Yoruba, and qualitative English and Swahili versions, as well as versions for depression, schizophrenia, substance abuse, eating disorders, epilepsy, inflammatory bowel disease, leprosy, smoking, parents and caregivers of people with mental illness, and ethnicity. The various versions show reliability and validity across a wide range of languages, cultures, and writing systems. The most commonly reported findings of studies using the ISMI are that internalized stigma correlates with higher depression, lower self esteem, and higher symptom severity. Initial studies of ways to reduce internalized stigma are promising and warrant further investigation. PMID:24060237

  4. Evaluating Explicit and Implicit Stigma of Mental Illness in Mental Health Professionals and Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Kopera, Maciej; Suszek, Hubert; Bonar, Erin; Myszka, Maciej; Gmaj, Bart?omiej; Ilgen, Mark; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-07-01

    The study investigated explicit and implicit attitudes towards people with mental illness among medical students (non-professionals) with no previous contact with mentally ill patients and psychiatrists and psychotherapists (professionals) who had at least 2 years of professional contact with mentally ill patients. Explicit attitudes where assessed by self-report. Implicit attitudes were measured with the Go/No-Go Association Task, a variant of the Implicit Association Test that does not require the use of a comparison category. Compared to non-professionals, mental health professionals reported significantly higher approach emotions than non-professionals towards people with mental illness, showed a lesser tendency to discriminate against them, and held less restrictive attitudes. Both groups reported negative implicit attitudes towards mentally ill. Results suggest that both non-professionals and professionals display ambivalent attitudes towards people with mental illness and that professional, long-term contact with people with mental illness does not necessarily modify negative implicit attitudes. PMID:25535045

  5. Transitions between the public mental health system and jail for persons with severe mental illness: a Markov analysis.

    PubMed

    Norton, Edward C; Yoon, Jangho; Domino, Marisa Elena; Morrissey, Joseph P

    2006-07-01

    Proposed changes to the mental health care system are usually debated in terms of either health benefits or costs savings. However, because of the extensive intersection between the mental health system and the criminal justice system, changes in the organization and financing of mental health services may change the jail detention rate. We analyze jail incarcerations for felonies and non-felonies following the start of a public managed mental health care program in King County, Washington (including Seattle). We analyze unique data that tracks individuals in and out of the public mental health, Medicaid, and criminal justice systems for 1993-1998. In this manuscript we examine individuals with severe mental illness who were enrolled in the Washington state Medicaid program. The final sample size has monthly observations on 6766 unique individuals aged 18-64. We estimate Markov models of the monthly transition probabilities among living in the community with no public mental health treatment, receiving inpatient or outpatient mental health or substance abuse services, or being in jail for either a felony or non-felony charge. The transition probabilities are adjusted for demographics and policy changes that occurred during our study period. There is little evidence of any change in the jail detention rate for severely mentally ill users of the county mental health system in contrast with other SMI individuals following the public managed care program. PMID:16541394

  6. SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND MENTAL HEALTH DATA ARCHIVE (SAMHDA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Data Archive (SAMHDA) is an initiative of the Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The goal of the archive is to provide re...

  7. Perinatal mental illness: definition, description and aetiology.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Michael W; Wisner, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal mental illness is a significant complication of pregnancy and the postpartum period. These disorders include depression, anxiety disorders, and postpartum psychosis, which usually manifests as bipolar disorder. Perinatal depression and anxiety are common, with prevalence rates for major and minor depression up to almost 20% during pregnancy and the first 3 months postpartum. Postpartum blues are a common but lesser manifestation of postpartum affective disturbance. Perinatal psychiatric disorders impair a woman's function and are associated with suboptimal development of her offspring. Risk factors include past history of depression, anxiety, or bipolar disorder, as well psychosocial factors, such as ongoing conflict with the partner, poor social support, and ongoing stressful life events. Early symptoms of depression, anxiety, and mania can be detected through screening in pregnancy and the postpartum period. Early detection and effective management of perinatal psychiatric disorders are critical for the welfare of women and their offspring. PMID:24140480

  8. Resilience Factors in Families Living with People with Mental Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonker, Liezl; Greeff, Abraham P.

    2009-01-01

    In South Africa, a substantial burden is placed on families living with people with mental illnesses. The aim of this study was to identify resilience factors in families living in an underprivileged area, caring for people with mental illnesses. Data was obtained from family representatives (N=34) using semistructured interviews and a set of…

  9. Integrating Mental Illness Prevention into Community-Based Undergraduate Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seed, Mary St. John; Higgins, Sally

    2003-01-01

    Recent research on temperament and attachment theory highlights the importance of early intervention to helping children develop secure attachments and prevent mental illnesses. A mental illness curriculum for nursing students should integrate concepts from psychiatry and public health to prepare community-based for participation in intervention.…

  10. AIDS and the Chronic Mentally Ill: Legal and Ethical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satriano, James; Karp, Mitchell

    The chronic mentally ill experience substantially higher rates of HIV infection than the general population. This paper examines the problems which confront the chronic mentally ill and society at large. Discussed are the questions of whether or not psychiatric patients should be excepted, due to their cognitive and behavioral impairments, from…

  11. Keeping the Peace: Police Discretion and Mentally Ill Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teplin, Linda A.

    2000-01-01

    In many urban centers, responding to mentally ill people has become a large part of the police peacekeeping function. This article highlights the police role in handling mentally ill persons. Law enforcement options are discussed, including both formal and informal options. It is noted that officers decisions to hospitalize, arrest, or deal with a…

  12. A Unique Population: Women Who Are Homeless and Mentally Ill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markos, Patricia A.; Baron, Heather Lyn; Allen, Daniel N.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a unique population within the homeless community--women who are homeless and mentally ill. Homelessness prevalence and etiology data are presented, followed by a general discussion of how mental illness affects people who are homeless. The article provides an overview of women who are homeless, focusing on those who are…

  13. Families and the Chronically Mentally Ill in Rural Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Charles P.; Stafford, Diana

    1989-01-01

    Examines important considerations for family therapists working with rural families of mentally ill persons. Reviews current issues in family therapy. Describes recent research and practical matters associated with service delivery to rural families. Case study identifies service provided to chronically mentally ill client and her rural family.…

  14. New Strategies for Representing Mental Illness on Canadian Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Kirsty

    2009-01-01

    Workman Arts, a Toronto-based theatre and visual arts company with a 20-year history, provides a rich site for re-imagining stigmatised representations of mental illness. Writing and performing against a long tradition of representing people with mental illnesses as incoherent speakers and visually different, company members seek to re-imagine…

  15. Art Education and Disability Studies Perspectives on Mental Illness Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, John K.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation critically examines mental illness discourses through the intersecting disciplinary lenses of art education and disability studies. Research from multiple disciplines is compared and theorized to uncover the ways in which discourses, or language systems, have oppressively constructed and represented "mental illness." To establish…

  16. Mental Illness as a Barrier to Marriage among Unmarried Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores how mental illness shapes transitions to marriage among unwed mothers using augmented data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (N = 2,351). We estimate proportional hazard models to assess the effects of mental illness on the likelihood of marriage over a 5-year period following a nonmarital birth. Diagnosed…

  17. An Examination of Stress and Coping among Adults Diagnosed with Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Robilotta, Stephanie; Cueto, Ecena; Yanos, Philip T.

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the types of major life and chronic stressors that people with severe mental illness experience, and the coping strategies that are used in response to them. Twenty-eight adults with severe mental illness completed qualitative interviews focused on stress and coping in the prior six months. Participants reported experiencing disruptive major life events including the sudden death of a loved one, loss of housing, and criminal victimization, as well as chronic stressors such as psychiatric symptoms and substance abuse issues, substandard living conditions, legal problems, and health concerns. Results suggested that persons with severe mental illness frequently use problem-centered coping strategies in response to most types of stressors, including major life events, although this occurred after the initial application of avoidant coping strategies. Future research should explore whether or not the identified stressors and the coping strategies used in response to them are unique to this population. PMID:21149987

  18. When and why should mentally ill prisoners be transferred to secure hospitals: a proposed algorithm.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Tobias; Lanquillon, Stefan; Graf, Marc

    2013-01-01

    For reasons well known and researched in detail, worldwide prevalence rates for mental disorders are much higher in prison populations than in general, not only for sentenced prisoners but also for prisoners on remand, asylum seekers on warrant for deportation and others. Moreover, the proportion of imprisoned individuals is rising in most countries. Therefore forensic psychiatry must deal not only with the typically young criminal population, vulnerable to mental illness due to social stress and at an age when rates of schizophrenia, suicide, drug abuse and most personality disorders are highest, but also with an increasingly older population with age-related diseases such as dementia. While treatment standards for these mental disorders are largely published and accepted, and scientific evidence as to screening prisoners for mental illness is growing, where to treat them is dependent on considerations for public safety and local conditions such as national legislation, special regulations and the availability of treatment facilities (e.g., in prisons, in special medical wards within prisons or in secure hospitals). While from a medical point of view a mentally ill prisoner should be treated in a hospital, the ultimate decision must consider these different issues. In this article the authors propose an algorithm comprising screening procedures for mental health and a treatment chain for mentally ill prisoners based on treatment facilities in prison, medical safety, human rights, ethics, and the availability of services at this interface between prison and medicine. PMID:23706656

  19. Children's Conceptions of Mental Illness: A Naive Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Claudine; Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports two studies that investigated children's conceptions of mental illness using a naive theory approach, drawing upon a conceptual framework for analysing illness representations which distinguishes between the identity, causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of an illness. The studies utilized semi-structured interviewing…

  20. Treatment of Children with Mental Illness: Frequently Asked Questions about the Treatment of Mental Illness in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Research shows that half of all lifetime cases of mental illness begin by age 14. Scientists are discovering that changes in the body leading to mental illness may start much earlier, before any symptoms appear. Through greater understanding of when and how fast specific areas of children's brains develop, we are learning more about the early…

  1. Actitudes Haci la Enfermedad Mental: Revision Bibliografica (Attitudes toward Mental Illness: Revised Bibliography). Publication No. 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefani, Dorina

    In this work, some of the most important instruments used to measure attitudes toward mental illness were analysed. A revision of different experimental investigations which studied attitudes toward mental illness among general public, mental health professionals and patients and their relatives was made. Some of the strategies applied to change…

  2. Racial Disparities in Mental Health Outcomes after Psychiatric Hospital Discharge among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after…

  3. 38 CFR 17.109 - Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis. 17...Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis. (a...the Persian Gulf War. (b) Mental illness (other than psychosis)....

  4. 38 CFR 17.109 - Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis. 17...Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis. (a...the Persian Gulf War. (b) Mental illness (other than psychosis)....

  5. Physical Health Risk Behaviours in Young People with Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim; Marabong, Nikka; Miu, David; Fethney, Judith

    2015-10-01

    Comorbid physical health conditions, commonly associated with mental illness, contribute to increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy. The trajectory to poorer health begins with the onset of mental illness. For young people with mental illness, health risk behaviours and poor physical health can progress to adulthood with long-term detrimental impacts. Using a cross-sectional survey design, self-reported health risk behaviours were gathered from 56 young (16-25 years) Australians who had been hospitalised for mental illness and taking psychotropic medication. Smoking, alcohol use, minimal physical activity, and lack of primary health care were evident. While these behaviours are typical of many young people, those with mental illness have substantially increased vulnerability to poor health and reduced life expectancy. Priority needs to be given to targeted health promotion strategies for young people with mental illness to modify their risky long-term health behaviours and improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. Nurses in mental health settings play a vital role in promoting young peoples' well-being and preventing poorer physical health outcomes. Implementation of a cardiometabolic health nurse role in inpatient settings for young people with mental illness could facilitate prevention and early intervention for health risk behaviours. PMID:26514256

  6. Mental Health Promotion and Illness Prevention: A Challenge for Psychiatrists

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jung-Ah; Lee, Chang-Uk

    2013-01-01

    Mental health is essential for individual and public health. To improve mental health, promotion, prevention, and the treatment of disease are required. These three kinds of interventions are interrelated but independent from one another. Although separate efforts for mental health promotion and prevention are needed as well as the public need of mental health promotion and well-being, psychiatrists usually are not accustomed to mental health promotion and prevention. This review introduces an overview of the concept, subjects according to target populations, and various intervention strategies for mental health promotion and prevention of mental illnesses. Based on literatures to date, understanding of developmental psychology, lifestyle medicine, and biopsychosocial contributors of mental health with a macroscopic perspective might help to practice mental health promotion and illness prevention. PMID:24474978

  7. Changing the tide: stigma, school youth, and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Marsha

    2015-03-01

    Schools are in a key position not only to identify mental health concerns early but to address issues of stigma that prevent both children and their parents from seeking help with mental illness. Stigma associated with mental illness perpetuates isolative behavior and poor engagement within the academic community. Programs within schools that address mental health issues and support open communication with families can reduce the pain and isolation that is often the experience of youth with undiagnosed and untreated mental and emotional disorders. PMID:25816446

  8. The criminal justice outcomes of jail diversion programs for persons with mental illness: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Sirotich, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Diversion programs are initiatives in which persons with serious mental illness who are involved with the criminal justice system are redirected from traditional criminal justice pathways to the mental health and substance abuse treatment systems. This article is a review of the research literature conducted to determine whether the current evidence supports the use of diversion initiatives to reduce recidivism and to reduce incarceration among adults with serious mental illness with justice involvement. A structured literature search identified 21 publications or research papers for review that examined the criminal justice outcomes of various diversion models. The review revealed little evidence of the effectiveness of jail diversion in reducing recidivism among persons with serious mental illness. However, evidence was found that jail diversion initiatives can reduce the amount of jail time that persons with mental illness serve. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:20018995

  9. The Effect of Economic, Physical, and Psychological Abuse on Mental Health: A Population-Based Study of Women in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Antai, Diddy; Oke, Ayo; Braithwaite, Patrick; Lopez, Gerald Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Background. The comparative effect of economic abuse and other forms of abuse in predicting depression and other mental health disorders has not been previously investigated despite its relevance for mental illness prevention. Objective. To determine the differential association of economic abuse on psychological distress and suicide attempts. Study Design. We used cross-sectional data from women aged 15–49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) (N = 9,316). Results. Adjusting for sociodemographic confounders revealed positive associations between economic, physical, or psychological abuse and suicide attempts and psychological distress. Psychological and economic abuse were the strongest predictors of suicide attempts and psychological distress, respectively. Economic abuse was also negatively associated with psychological distress. Comorbidity with one mental health disorder greatly increased the odds of reporting the other mental health disorder. Conclusion. Overall, the results elucidate the differential effects of these forms of abuse on women's mental health. PMID:25525517

  10. Serving Mentally Ill Offenders through Community Corrections: Joining Two Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, K. Michael; Dziegielewski, Sophia F.; Sharp, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the policy of deinstitutionalization has resulted in the closing of many federal and state mental health facilities. This has caused many criminal justice professionals and social workers to question where the mentally ill are placed when they are no longer in a treatment facility. With the abundance of offenders with mental health…

  11. Viewing Popular Films about Mental Illness through a Sociological Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses an exercise she uses requiring students to view a popular film that portrays a particular mental disorder or a character with a mental disorder. Students analyze the film and write two papers, one about the sociological model of mental illness and a second about possible links between media images and the…

  12. The Link between Childhood Trauma and Mental Illness: Effective Interventions for Mental Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Barbara; Gallop, Ruth

    Many people seeking help from the mental health system have histories of childhood trauma from sexual and physical abuse. Little literature is available for counselors, mental health workers, and other professionals on the topic of specialized therapy for abuse survivors. Counselors have a crucial role in helping these clients heal and recover.…

  13. Lessening Homelessness Among Persons with Mental Illness: A Comparison of Five Randomized Treatment Trials

    PubMed Central

    Hough, Richard L.; Goldfinger, Stephen M.; Lehman, Anthony F.; Shern, David L.; Valencia, Elie; Wood, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the influence of housing, services, and individual characteristics on housing loss among formerly homeless mentally ill persons who participated in a five-site (4-city) study in the U.S. Housing and service availability were manipulated within randomized experimental designs and substance abuse and other covariates were measured with a common protocol. Findings indicate that housing availability was the primary predictor of subsequent ability to avoid homelessness, while enhanced services reduced the risk of homelessness if housing was also available. Substance abuse increased the risk of housing loss in some conditions in some projects, but specific findings differed between projects and with respect to time spent in shelters and on the streets. We identify implications for research on homeless persons with mental illness that spans different national and local contexts and involves diverse ethnic groups. PMID:20161434

  14. Correctional officers and the incarcerated mentally ill: responses to psychiatric illness in prison.

    PubMed

    Galanek, Joseph D

    2015-03-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. men's prison, I investigate how this social and cultural context structures relations between correctional officers and inmates with severe mental illness. Utilizing interpretivist perspectives, I explore how these relations are structured by trust, respect, and meanings associated with mental illness. Officers' discretionary responses to mentally ill inmates included observations to ensure psychiatric stability and flexibility in rule enforcement and were embedded within their role to ensure staff and inmate safety. Officers identified housing, employment, and social support as important for inmates' psychiatric stability as medications. Inmates identified officers' observation and responsiveness to help seeking as assisting in institutional functioning. These findings demonstrate that this prison's structures and values enable officers' discretion with mentally ill inmates, rather than solely fostering custodial responses to these inmates' behaviors. These officers' responses to inmates with mental illness concurrently support custodial control and the prison's order. PMID:25219680

  15. Citizenship, mental illness, and the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Michael; Baranoski, Madelon

    2011-01-01

    The concept of citizenship in regard to persons with mental illness has gained increasing attention in recent years, but little empirical research has been conducted on this topic. In addition, little research or conceptual writing has been done on the topic of criminal justice in regard to citizenship for people with mental illness, in spite of the high incidence of criminal charges and incarceration among this group. We review our work on an applied theoretical framework of citizenship, including its origins in mental health outreach work to people who are homeless and in a jail diversion program. We then suggest the contribution the framework can make to the intersecting issues of mental illness, its criminalization in the U.S., and the goal of community integration for people with mental illness. PMID:21802145

  16. Intensive case management for severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Dieterich, Marina; Irving, Claire B; Park, Bert; Marshall, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background Intensive Case Management (ICM) is a community based package of care, aiming to provide long term care for severely mentally ill people who do not require immediate admission. ICM evolved from two original community models of care, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management (CM), where ICM emphasises the importance of small caseload (less than 20) and high intensity input. Objectives To assess the effects of Intensive Case Management (caseload <20) in comparison with non-Intensive Case Management (caseload > 20) and with standard community care in people with severe mental illness. To evaluate whether the effect of ICM on hospitalisation depends on its fidelity to the ACT model and on the setting. Search methods For the current update of this review we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (February 2009), which is compiled by systematic searches of major databases, hand searches and conference proceedings. Selection criteria All relevant randomised clinical trials focusing on people with severe mental illness, aged 18 to 65 years and treated in the community-care setting, where Intensive Case Management, non-Intensive Case Management or standard care were compared. Outcomes such as service use, adverse effects, global state, social functioning, mental state, behaviour, quality of life, satisfaction and costs were sought. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For binary outcomes we calculated relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data we estimated mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% confidence interval (CI). We employed a random-effects model for analyses. We performed a random-effects meta-regression analysis to examine the association of the intervention’s fidelity to the ACT model and the rate of hospital use in the setting where the trial was conducted with the treatment effect. Main results We included 38 trials (7328 participants) in this review. The trials provided data for two comparisons: 1. ICM versus standard care, 2. ICM versus non-ICM. 1. ICM versus standard care Twenty-four trials provided data on length of hospitalisation, and results favoured Intensive Case Management (n=3595, 24 RCTs, MD ?0.86 CI ?1.37 to ?0.34). There was a high level of heterogeneity, but this significance still remained when the outlier studies were excluded from the analysis (n=3143, 20 RCTs, MD ?0.62 CI ?1.00 to ?0.23). Nine studies found participants in the ICM group were less likely to be lost to psychiatric services (n=1633, 9 RCTs, RR 0.43 CI 0.30 to 0.61, I2=49%, p=0.05). One global state scale did show an Improvement in global state for those receiving ICM, the GAF scale (n=818, 5 RCTs, MD 3.41 CI 1.66 to 5.16). Results for mental state as measured through various rating scales, however, were equivocal, with no compelling evidence that ICM was really any better than standard care in improving mental state. No differences in mortality between ICM and standard care groups occurred, either due to ’all causes’ (n=1456, 9 RCTs, RR 0.84 CI 0.48 to 1.47) or to ’suicide’ (n=1456, 9 RCTs, RR 0.68 CI 0.31 to 1.51). Social functioning results varied, no differences were found in terms of contact with the legal system and with employment status, whereas significant improvement in accommodation status was found, as was the incidence of not living independently, which was lower in the ICM group (n=1185, 4 RCTs, RR 0.65 CI 0.49 to 0.88). Quality of life data found no significant difference between groups, but data were weak. CSQ scores showed a greater participant satisfaction in the ICM group (n=423, 2 RCTs, MD 3.23 CI 2.31 to 4.14). 2. ICM versus non-ICM The included studies failed to show a significant advantage of ICM in reducing the average length of hospitalisation (n=2220, 21 RCTs, MD ?0.08 CI ?0.37 to 0.21). They did find ICM to be more advantageous than non-ICM in reducing rate of lost to follo

  17. Reinforcing stigmatization: coverage of mental illness in Spanish newspapers.

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Enric; López-Muntaner, Judit; Ceruelo, Santiago; Basora, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Because the media influences society's perceptions of reality, the treatment of mental illness in the news can have an effect on the societal stigma related to it. This study aimed to analyze the content and form of news items related to mental illness in Spanish newspapers in order to understand their role in propagating or attenuating stereotypes, prejudices, and stigma. The authors conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study on the basis of a review of news items related to mental illness appearing in the Spanish print media. A sample was taken from articles published on the subject in the 20 Spanish newspapers with the widest circulations over the course of the year 2010. Formal elements and content were analyzed by means of a structured evaluation system. The authors analyzed 695 news items. The content of 47.9% (n = 333) of the articles was not strictly related to mental illness, but rather clinical or psychiatric terms were used metaphorically, and frequently in a pejorative sense. The remaining 52.1% (n = 362) consisted of news items related specifically to mental illness. Of these, news items linking mental illness to danger were the most common (178 texts, 49.2%), specifically those associating mental illness with violent crime (130 texts, 35.9%) or a danger to others (126 texts, 34.8%). The results confirm the hypothesis that the press treats mental illness in a manner that encourages stigmatization. The authors appeal to the press's responsibility to society and advocate an active role in reducing the stigma towards mental illness. PMID:24708534

  18. Mental Illness and Mental Health: The Two Continua Model Across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Corey L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Mental health has long been defined as the absence of psychopathologies, such as depression and anxiety. The absence of mental illness, however, is a minimal outcome from a psychological perspective on lifespan development. This article therefore focuses on mental illness as well as on three core components of positive mental health: feelings of happiness and satisfaction with life (emotional well-being), positive individual functioning in terms of self-realization (psychological well-being), and positive societal functioning in terms of being of social value (social well-being). The two continua model holds that mental illness and mental health are related but distinct dimensions. This model was studied on the basis of a cross-sectional representative internet survey of Dutch adults (N = 1,340; 18–87 years). Mental illness was measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory and mental health with the Mental Health Continuum Short Form. It was found that older adults, except for the oldest-old, scored lower on psychopathological symptoms and were less likely to be mentally ill than younger adults. Although there were fewer age differences for mental health, older adults experienced more emotional, similar social and slightly lower psychological well-being. In sum, today’s older adults have fewer mental illness problems, but they are not in a better positive mental health than today’s younger adults. These findings support the validity of the two continua model in adult development. PMID:20502508

  19. A qualitative exploration of the perspectives of mental health professionals on stigma and discrimination of mental illness in Malaysia

    E-print Network

    Hanafiah, Ainul Nadhirah; Van Bortel, Tine

    2015-03-10

    attitudes towards mental illness but little to none from the standpoint of mental health professionals. In Malaysia, this research on stigma is particularly limited. Therefore, the state of stigma and discrimination of people with mental illness...

  20. Census enumeration of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded in the nineteenth century

    PubMed Central

    Gorwitz, Kurt

    1974-01-01

    Enumerations of the mentally ill and mentally retarded were included in the six U.S. censuses conducted between 1840 and 1890. Inclusion of these categories reflected the new concern for the mentally ill and mentally retarded that was emerging at that time as part of a new social consciousness. Dr. Gorwitz analyzes these census results, considers the limitations of the data, and discusses the factors that led to discontinuation of the enumerations of the two groups after the 1890 census. PMID:4274650

  1. Social capital and mental illness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, M. J; McKenzie, K.; Harpham, T.; Huttly, S.

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: The concept of social capital has influenced mental health policies of nations and international organisations despite its limited evidence base. This papers aims to systematically review quantitative studies examining the association between social capital and mental illness. Design and setting: Twenty electronic databases and the reference sections of papers were searched to identify published studies. Authors of papers were contacted for unpublished work. Anonymised papers were reviewed by the authors of this paper. Papers with a validated mental illness outcome and an exposure variable agreed as measuring social capital were included. No limitations were put on date or language of publication. Main results: Twenty one studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. Fourteen measured social capital at the individual level and seven at an ecological level. The former offered evidence for an inverse relation between cognitive social capital and common mental disorders. There was moderate evidence for an inverse relation between cognitive social capital and child mental illness, and combined measures of social capital and common mental disorders. The seven ecological studies were diverse in methodology, populations investigated, and mental illness outcomes, making them difficult to summarise. Conclusions: Individual and ecological social capital may measure different aspects of the social environment. Current evidence is inadequate to inform the development of specific social capital interventions to combat mental illness. PMID:16020636

  2. Mentally ill offenders in prison: the Belgian case.

    PubMed

    Vandevelde, Stijn; Soyez, Veerle; Vander Beken, Tom; De Smet, Stefaan; Boers, Anja; Broekaert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    According to the EUPRIS-study on mental health in prisons (2007), available data on mental disorders in prison are scarce. Therefore, this study aims at summarizing and discussing the available knowledge on incarcerated mentally ill offenders concerning: (1) the screening and assessment for detecting mental health; (2) the psychiatric expertise in order to evaluate the mental status; and (3) the development and provision of forensic psychiatric treatment and care. These findings will be applied to the current situation in Belgium, which is a particularly interesting case. Belgium is currently facing difficulties concerning a large population of interned mentally ill offenders residing in correctional establishments. Implications with regard to the penal code, general or mental health legislation, screening, assessment, and treatment could deliver interesting viewpoints on how this problem could be tackled more effectively. Therefore, the findings will be discussed with reference to the international scientific and policy debate, focusing on ethical implications. PMID:21122917

  3. 28 CFR 115.81 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115...Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a...Medical and mental health practitioners shall...information about prior sexual victimization...

  4. 28 CFR 115.381 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115...Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a...Medical and mental health practitioners shall...information about prior sexual victimization...

  5. 28 CFR 115.381 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115...Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a...Medical and mental health practitioners shall...information about prior sexual victimization...

  6. 28 CFR 115.381 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115...Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a...Medical and mental health practitioners shall...information about prior sexual victimization...

  7. Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of American firearms.

    PubMed

    Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2015-02-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

  8. The socioeconomic costs of mental illness in Spain.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Moreno, Juan; López-Bastida, Julio; Montejo-González, Angel Luis; Osuna-Guerrero, Rubén; Duque-González, Beatriz

    2009-10-01

    Mental illness affects a large number of people in the world, seriously impairing their quality of life and resulting in high socioeconomic costs for health care systems and society. Our aim is to estimate the socioeconomic impact of mental illness in Spain for the year 2002, including health care resources, informal care and loss of labour productivity. A prevalence-based approach was used to estimate direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and loss of labour productivity. The total costs of mental illness have been estimated at 7,019 million euros. Direct medical costs represented 39.6% of the total costs and 7.3% of total public healthcare expenditure in Spain. Informal care costs represented 17.7% of the total costs. Loss of labour productivity accounted for 42.7% of total costs. In conclusion, the costs of mental illness in Spain make a considerable economic impact from a societal perspective. PMID:19031056

  9. Abandoned minds : the escalating crisis of geriatric mental illness

    E-print Network

    Sipics, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Older adults are susceptible to the same mental afflictions that affect other age groups; depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, and other illnesses affect all adult age groups to varying degrees. Yet despite recent ...

  10. Mental Illness, Mass Shootings, and the Politics of American Firearms

    PubMed Central

    MacLeish, Kenneth T.

    2015-01-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control “won’t prevent” another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when “mentally ill” ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

  11. Predicting Post-Treatment-Initiation Alcohol Use among Patients with Severe Mental Illness and Alcohol Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradizza, Clara M.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Vincent, Paula C.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Connors, Gerard J.; Mercer, Nicole D.

    2009-01-01

    Few investigators studying alcohol abuse among individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) have examined predictors of posttreatment alcohol outcomes. In the present study, a multivariate approach based on a theoretical model was used to study the relationship between psychosocial factors and post-treatment-initiation alcohol use. Predictors of…

  12. A Psychoeducational Support Group for Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefley, Harriet P.

    2009-01-01

    The formation, structure, and goals of an open-ended psychoeducational support group for people with serious and persistent mental illnesses are described, differentiating psychoeducation from psychotherapy, and professional from peer-led support groups. Major goals are to provide education for illness management and help members combat social…

  13. DIMACS Technical Report 2005-10 MENTAL ILLNESS AND LENGTH OF HOSPITAL STAY

    E-print Network

    . 1 DIMACS Technical Report 2005-10 March 2005 MENTAL ILLNESS AND LENGTH OF HOSPITAL STAY of inpatient stay (LOS) for HIV-infected Medicaid recipients with; Severe Mental Illness History (SMI-H), Other (Less Severe) Mental Illness History (OMI-H), and diagnosis with Acute Mental Illness (AMI) during

  14. Seeking Professional Help: Etiology Beliefs about Mental Illness across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Mak, Winnie W. S.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the authors examined the contributions of cultural beliefs about the etiology of mental illness to the seeking of help from mental health professionals among college students in 4 cultural groups, European Americans, Chinese Americans, Hong Kong Chinese, and Mainland Chinese. Group differences were found in help-seeking…

  15. Ending lethal discrimination against people with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Taggart, Holly; Bailey, Sue

    2015-12-01

    Each year in England 33 000 people diagnosed with a serious mental illness (SMI) die from causes that could have been avoided. Our mental-health-specific Atlas of Variation is the first to demonstrate the extent to which these inequalities and inequities affect mortality nationally. PMID:26628687

  16. [Employees with mental illness - possibilities and barriers in professional activity].

    PubMed

    Cybula-Fujiwara, Anna; Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Wiszniewska, Marta

    2015-01-01

    In Poland patients with psychiatric problems form a large group; in 2010 there were almost 1.5 million people for whom outpatient psychiatric care was provided, whereas approximately 200 thousand ill individuals were treated in 24-h psychiatric wards. Only 17% of the mentally disabled are professionally active. The results of many researches show that despite the detrimental influence of mental disorders on the employment (e.g., lower productivity, absenteeism, presenteism, increased risk of accidents at the workplace), professional activity can play a key role in the7stabilization of the mental state, it can also help in disease recovery. People with mental disorders are a social group that is at the higher risk of exclusion from the job market. The opinion prevailing among employers is that mentally ill individuals have decreased ability to conduct professional activity, and social attitudes towards them tend to be based on marking and stigmatizing. This review tackles the advantages of working during the illness, barriers which people with mental disorders face on the job market when they want to either start or continue work, and professional functioning of people with diagnosed depression (e.g., affective disorders) and schizophrenia (representing psychotic disorders). The analysis of existing data show that to improve the situation of mentally ill people present on the job market close cooperation between the representatives of various medical specializations is necessary, as well as their active participation in the process of social and professional rehabilitation of people affected by mental disorders. PMID:26016046

  17. Risky Business: Mental Illness, Disclosure and the TAFE Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Annie

    2010-01-01

    This paper meets at the crossroads of personal experience and public policy. The personal is the experience of learning as described by five TAFE students with a mental illness. The public policy context is the increased political pressure on Australia's major vocational training providers to increase workforce participation of people with mental

  18. Prevalence of Mental Illness among Homeless People in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wai Chi; Lam, Marco Ho-Bun; Lim, Vivian Wai-Man

    2015-01-01

    Metholodogy This study examined the prevalence and correlates of mental illness in homeless people in Hong Kong and explored the barriers preventing their access to health care. Ninety-seven Cantonese-speaking Chinese who were homeless during the study period were selected at random from the records of the three organisations serving the homeless population. The response rate was 69%. Seventeen subjects could not give valid consent due to their poor mental state, so their responses were excluded from the data analysis. A psychiatrist administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I) and the Mini -Mental State Examination. Consensus diagnoses for subjects who could not complete the SCID-I were established by three independent psychiatrists. Findings The point prevalence of mental illness was 56%. Seventy-one percent of the subjects had a lifetime history of mental illness, 30% had a mood disorder, 25% had an alcohol use disorder, 25% had a substance use disorder, 10% had a psychotic disorder, 10% had an anxiety disorder and 6% had dementia. Forty-one percent of the subjects with mental illness had undergone a previous psychiatric assessment. Only 13% of the subjects with mental illness were receiving psychiatric care at the time of interview. The prevalence of psychotic disorders, dementia and the rate of under treatment are hugely underestimated, as a significant proportion (18%) of the subjects initially selected were too ill to give consent to join the study. Conclusion The low treatment rate and the presence of this severely ill and unreached group of homeless people reflect the fact that the current mode of service delivery is failing to support the most severely ill homeless individuals. PMID:26484889

  19. Comorbidity: Addiction and Other Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... this Publication PDF (4MB) ePub (326KB) Kindle (709KB) Online Only Featured Publications Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The ...

  20. Assessing the knowledge of perinatal mental illness among student midwives.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Louise

    2015-11-01

    The experience of perinatal mental illness (mental illness occurring around the time of pregnancy) currently affect 1 in 10 women and can have adverse effects on the mother and her child (Massie and Szajnberg, 2002; O'Connor et al., 2002). The care and effective management of women experiencing perinatal mental illness is therefore an important issue for health care staff, managers, psychiatrists, commissioners and campaigners. Midwives play a significant part in caring for women throughout their pregnancies, during labour and up to the first month after birth. Midwives are in a unique position to assess a woman's well-being and to offer appropriate support. However, previous research has revealed that midwives often have poor understanding and knowledge of perinatal mental health issues and require improved training (Ross-Davie et al, 2006; McCann and Clark, 2010). This research project aims to systematically assess student midwives awareness of perinatal mental illness. The findings of this study will inform curriculum development for graduate and post-graduate midwifery students therefore improving the care and support women with mental illness receive from antenatal services. The findings from this study will also be used for the formation of an educational web-based programme for student and qualified midwives. PMID:25300675

  1. Mothers with mental illness experiencing homelessness: a critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Benbow, S; Forchuk, C; Ray, S L

    2011-10-01

    The experiences of homeless mothers with mental illness were examined from the critical perspective of feminist intersectionality. The purpose of this study was to unveil experiences of oppression and resistance in the lives of homeless mothers with mental illness, while learning from them what is conducive to their health. A qualitative secondary analysis was done using focus group transcripts from a study examining issues related to diversity and homelessness for psychiatric survivors and a study on mental health and housing. A purposive sample of 7 focus groups comprised of 67 participants was used for this study. Findings revealed three overarching themes: (1) discrimination based on intersecting social identities; (2) being stuck: the cycle of oppression; and (3) we're not giving up: resistance through perseverance. The contextual influences of mothering while homeless with a mental illness were emphasized in the results. The findings illuminate the need for increased on ongoing advocacy at individual and structural levels. PMID:21896111

  2. Exploring differences between community-based women and men with a history of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Forchuk, Cheryl; Jensen, Elsabeth; Csiernik, Rick; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Ray, Susan; Montgomery, Phyllis; Wan, Linda

    2009-08-01

    Relatively little is understood concerning the role of gender in persons with a history of mental illness residing in the community. This paper aims to explore gender's effect using data from the Community Research University Alliance project entitled, Mental Health and Housing. The primary five-year longitudinal study examined housing situations for psychiatric consumer/survivors in a mid-size, central Canadian region in an effort to improve the number and quality of appropriate housing situations. Data from 887 subjects in the original research underwent secondary analysis with particular relevance to differences between gender and indicators of health status including psychiatric history, levels of functioning, personal strengths and resources, and illness severity. Results of the secondary analysis found male and female differences that corroborated previous research. More women are housed than men, more women with mental illness were coupled than men, men have fewer social supports, and men have more substance abuse issues than women. These findings suggest health services within the community must consider these sex differences if they wish to properly assist Canadian individuals diagnosed with mental illnesses. PMID:19591023

  3. Beliefs towards mental illness in Turkish physiotherapy students.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Meric; Demirbuken, Ilksan; Balci, Birgul; Yurdalan, Ufuk

    2015-10-01

    Mental health is a new area of specialization for physiotherapists. However, they usually meet patients with psychiatric co-morbidities secondary to other chronic diseases. It is important to explore the beliefs of future physiotherapists regarding mental illness in order to implement effective strategies to avoid possible stigmatizing attitudes that may interfere with the rehabilitation process. Moreover, the psychiatric field should be introduced to physiotherapists as a clinical and research area. Therefore, we aimed to question the beliefs of physiotherapy students regarding mental illness using the Beliefs towards Mental Illness Scale in two different universities in Turkey. The total score of 524 students was 46.5 ± 14.5 out of 105 while the Dangerousness Subscale score was 21.2 ± 5.8/40; Incurability and Poor Social and Interpersonal Skills Subscale score was 24.2 ± 9.3/55 and Shame Subscale score was 1.1 ± 1.9/10. Students who had a relationship with an individual having a mental problem and students who had consulted a psychiatrist/psychologist for any mental problem showed more positive beliefs. Future physiotherapists should be informed and trained regarding people with mental illness both to avoid stigma and to be aware of this area in physiotherapy settings. Therefore, it is important to implement new curricula for schools providing physiotherapy education including courses, lectures and clinical practices in the psychiatry field. PMID:26200436

  4. Deinstitutionalization: Its Impact on Community Mental Health Centers and the Seriously Mentally Ill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Stephen P.; McNally Melissa; Trippany, Robyn L.

    2009-01-01

    Deinstitutionalization has had a significant impact on the mental health system, including the client, the agency, and the counselor. For clients with serious mental illness, learning to live in a community setting poses challenges that are often difficult to overcome. Community mental health agencies must respond to these specific needs, thus…

  5. Factors Promoting Mental Health of Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…

  6. 250 labels used to stigmatise people with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Diana; Thornicroft, Graham; Pinfold, Vanessa; Kassam, Aliya

    2007-01-01

    Background The stigma against people with mental illness is a major barrier to help-seeking in young people for mental health problems. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of stigma in relation to treatment avoidance in 14 year-old school students in England in relation to how they refer to people with mental illness. Methods This is a qualitative, cross-sectional study. The data were gathered as part of the baseline assessment for an intervention study intended to reduce stigma among 14 year old school students. The participating schools were two grammar (selective) schools and three comprehensive (non-selective) schools. At the start of the lesson, the students were asked 'What sorts of words or phrases might you use to describe someone who experiences mental health problems?' Words and terms used to refer to mental illness were enumerated. Using the grounded theory approach, words and terms were grouped in terms of their denotative and connotative meanings. Labels were then derived to capture the key themes attached by the students to the concepts of mental illness. The frequencies of occurrence for each word were also tabulated. Results 400 of the 472 participating students (85%) provided 250 words and terms to describe a person with mental illness. Five themes were identified from the data. The first theme called 'popular derogatory terms' (116 items) accounted for nearly half of the words examined. The second theme occurred less often and was described as 'negative emotional state' (61 items). The third theme demonstrated the confusion of young people between physical disabilities, learning difficulties and mental health problems (38 items). The use of psychiatric diagnoses (15 items) and terms related to violence (9 items) were unexpectedly uncommon. Conclusion Our findings suggest the hypothesis that help-seeking by mentally ill young people may be improved by interventions that address both their lack of factual information about mental illness, and those which reduce their strong negative emotional reactions towards people with mental illness. PMID:17598894

  7. Experiences of recovery in mental illness 

    E-print Network

    Bibby, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Introduction In recent years the concept of ‘recovery’ has become increasingly prevalent in both government and health service policy, and in the terminology used by mental health service users. The current study examines ...

  8. Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

  9. Mentalization in children exposed to parental methamphetamine abuse: relations to children's mental health and behavioral outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ostler, Teresa; Bahar, Ozge Sensoy; Jessee, Allison

    2010-05-01

    This study examined the mentalization capabilities of children exposed to parental methamphetamine abuse in relation to symptom underreporting, mental health, and behavioral outcomes. Twenty-six school-aged children in foster care participated in this study. Mentalization was assessed using the My Family Stories Interview (MFSI), a semi-structured interview in which children recalled family stories about a happy, sad or scary and fun time. An established scale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC), a self-report measure, provided information on children's symptom underreporting. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), completed by the children's foster caregivers, assessed children's mental health and behavioral outcomes. Children with higher mentalization were significantly less prone to underreport symptoms. These children had fewer mental health problems and were rated by their foster caregivers as more socially competent. The findings underscore that mentalization could be an important protective factor for children who have experienced parental substance abuse. PMID:20473793

  10. How to Improve Interactions between Police and the Mentally Ill

    PubMed Central

    Krameddine, Yasmeen I.; Silverstone, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    There have been repeated instances of police forces having violent, sometimes fatal, interactions with individuals with mental illness. Police forces are frequently first responders to those with mental illness. Despite this, training police in how to best interact with individuals who have a mental illness has been poorly studied. The present article reviews the literature examining mental illness training programs delivered to law-enforcement officers. Some of the key findings are the benefits of training utilizing realistic “hands-on” scenarios, which focus primarily on verbal and non-verbal communication, increasing empathy, and de-escalation strategies. Current issues in training police officers are firstly the tendency for organizations to provide training without proper outcome measures of effectiveness, secondly the focus of training is on changing attitudes although there is little evidence to demonstrate this relates to behavioral change, and thirdly the belief that a mental health training program given on a single occasion is sufficient to improve interactions over the longer-term. Future police training needs to address these issues. PMID:25642196

  11. Mentally ill individuals in limbo: obstacles and opportunities for providing psychiatric services to corrections inmates with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Olley, Maureen C; Nicholls, Tonia L; Brink, Johann

    2009-01-01

    For more than two millennia, prison reformers and inmate advocates have lamented the ethical and humanitarian injustices experienced by persons with mental illness in correctional settings; yet, we continue to see mentally ill individuals stuck in limbo between health care and custody. Using a case study that exemplifies the challenges that can prevent the provision of efficient mental health care in correctional settings, we identify the gaps and failures in service delivery, and provide specific strategies for streamlining inmates' access to psychiatric assessment and treatment. As a backdrop, we present a brief overview of the reasons why correctional centres experience difficulties in ensuring expedient care (e.g., competence, mental health legislation, waitlists) as well as reviewing the prevalence of mental health needs in correctional settings. Using the partnership and strategic alignment that have been developed for several years between our forensic psychiatric system and our provincial correctional system, we provide a roadmap to successfully reducing wait times and enhancing service delivery to mentally ill inmates. In our view, custody admissions provide a rare opportunity to provide mental health (and other services) to marginalized individuals who often slip through the cracks. imPROVE and related programs and strategies have been found to be effective means of preventing these opportunities from being lost. PMID:19784940

  12. The Depiction of Mental Illnesses in Children's Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto; Hanrahan, Erin; Karl, Kelly; Lasher, Erin; Swaye, Janel

    2007-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that negative attitudes toward people with mental illnesses begin to develop early in childhood. This study examines one of the possible sources of learning of such negative attitudes--children's television programs. Two hundred sixty-nine (269) hours of children's television programming were videotaped, viewed, and…

  13. Teaching Students with Emotional Disorders and/or Mental Illnesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    This resource manual is designed to assist Alberta teachers in the identification and education of students with emotional disorders and/or mental illnesses. It takes a comprehensive look at six emotional disorders. The first section focuses on eating disorders. It describes the characteristics and symptoms of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

  14. Ethical Considerations for People Who Are Homeless and Mentally Ill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Elizabeth A.; Howard, Richard; Markos, Patricia A.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an ethical analysis of the important issues surrounding the involuntary institutionalization of people who are homeless and mentally ill (HMI) in the United States. The legal, economic, and moral implications of state-sponsored involuntary institutionalization of people who are HMI are considered. An ethical decision-making…

  15. Service-Learning with the Mentally Ill: Softening the Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Steve T.; Corser, Grant C.; White, Lynn H.

    2010-01-01

    Stigmas toward those who have mental illnesses are wide-spread and detrimental to the health and well-being of those suffering from these debilitating conditions, and to society as a whole. Stigma-reducing programs are plentiful but many are only marginally effective. In this paper we describe and evaluate a course in Psychopathology that included…

  16. Smoking cessation and reduction in people with chronic mental illness.

    PubMed

    Tidey, Jennifer W; Miller, Mollie E

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of cigarette smoking and tobacco related morbidity and mortality in people with chronic mental illness is well documented. This review summarizes results from studies of smoking cessation treatments in people with schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. It also summarizes experimental studies aimed at identifying biopsychosocial mechanisms that underlie the high smoking rates seen in people with these disorders. Research indicates that smokers with chronic mental illness can quit with standard cessation approaches with minimal effects on psychiatric symptoms. Although some studies have noted high relapse rates, longer maintenance on pharmacotherapy reduces rates of relapse without untoward effects on psychiatric symptoms. Similar biopsychosocial mechanisms are thought to be involved in the initiation and persistence of smoking in patients with different disorders. An appreciation of these common factors may aid the development of novel tobacco treatments for people with chronic mental illness. Novel nicotine and tobacco products such as electronic cigarettes and very low nicotine content cigarettes may also be used to improve smoking cessation rates in people with chronic mental illness. PMID:26391240

  17. Cultivating Empathy for the Mentally Ill Using Simulated Auditory Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunn, William; Terpstra, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors address the issue of cultivating medical students' empathy for the mentally ill by examining medical student empathy pre- and postsimulated auditory hallucination experience. Methods: At the University of Utah, 150 medical students participated in this study during their 6-week psychiatry rotation. The Jefferson Scale of…

  18. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma among Youth in Psychiatric Outpatient Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to the…

  19. Stigma, Reflected Appraisals, and Recovery Outcomes in Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Fred E.; Angell, Beth; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on modified labeling theory and the reflected appraisals process and using longitudinal data from 129 mothers and their adult children with schizophrenia, we estimate models of the effects of mothers' stigmatized identity appraisals of their mentally ill children on reflected and self-appraisals, and how appraisals affect outcomes…

  20. Self-stigma in people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Watson, Amy C; Corrigan, Patrick; Larson, Jonathon E; Sells, Molly

    2007-11-01

    Persons with mental illnesses such as schizophrenia may internalize mental illness stigma and experience diminished self-esteem and self-efficacy. In this article, we describe a model of self-stigma and examine a hierarchy of mediational processes within the model. Seventy-one individuals with serious mental illness were recruited from a community support program at an outpatient psychiatry department of a community hospital. All participants completed the Self-Stigma of Mental Illness Scale along with measures of group identification (GI), perceived legitimacy (PL), self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Models examining the steps involved in self-stigma process were tested. Specifically, after conducting preliminary bivariate analyses, we examine stereotype agreement as a mediator of GI and PL on stigma self-concurrence (SSC); SSC as a mediator of GI and PL on self-efficacy; and SSC as a mediator of GI and PL on self-esteem. Findings provide partial support for the proposed mediational processes and point to GI, PL, and stereotype agreement as areas to be considered for intervention. PMID:17255118

  1. The Future of Psychotherapy for Mentally Ill Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Given striking advances in translational developmental neuroscience and its convergence with developmental psychopathology and developmental epidemiology, it is now clear that mental illnesses are best thought of as neurodevelopmental disorders. This simple fact has enormous implications for the nature and organization of psychotherapy…

  2. The Police Response to Mental Illness on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Gary J.; Shtull, Penny R.

    2012-01-01

    Campus police officers are often among the initial contacts for behavioral incidents involving people with mental illness. Their training and access to resources influence decisions to direct the individual to support services and/or through campus disciplinary processes and/or the criminal justice system. Over the past decade, there has been an…

  3. Medications Frequently Used To Treat Persons with Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danser, Helen Lisanby

    The manual is intended to assist the rehabilitation professional in planning services for persons with disabilities, such as long-term mental illness, which require treatment with medication, especially psychotropic medications. The compilation of data groups similar medications together and includes such information as purpose of medication, side…

  4. Mental illness stigma reduction interventions: review of intervention trials.

    PubMed

    Dalky, Heyam F

    2012-06-01

    This article reviews the literature evaluating the effectiveness of various stigma reduction interventions related to mental health illnesses. An integrated search of the English language literature from 1998 to May 2008 was done using CINAHL, Medline, PubMed, Scopus, and PsychINFO databases. The results of this review emphasize that experimental clinical trials hold promise for providing evidence-based data that can be used in mental health practice. Educational and contact-based strategies used in various stigma reduction programs resulted in the most durable gains in knowledge as well as positive attitudinal and behavioral changes needed to decrease the stigma associated with mental illness. Special stigma reduction programs are to be planned for adolescent and elderly targets. Future studies have yet to be designed to identify cost-effective stigma reduction programs. Moreover, interventional studies from different cultures are encouraged. Cross-cultural interventions need to be evaluated and modified to ensure providing culturally relevant interventions. PMID:21389251

  5. Postmortem Brain: An Underutilized Substrate for Studying Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    McCullumsmith, Robert E; Hammond, John H; Shan, Dan; Meador-Woodruff, James H

    2014-01-01

    We propose that postmortem tissue is an underutilized substrate that may be used to translate genetic and/or preclinical studies, particularly for neuropsychiatric illnesses with complex etiologies. Postmortem brain tissues from subjects with schizophrenia have been extensively studied, and thus serve as a useful vehicle for illustrating the challenges associated with this biological substrate. Schizophrenia is likely caused by a combination of genetic risk and environmental factors that combine to create a disease phenotype that is typically not apparent until late adolescence. The complexity of this illness creates challenges for hypothesis testing aimed at understanding the pathophysiology of the illness, as postmortem brain tissues collected from individuals with schizophrenia reflect neuroplastic changes from a lifetime of severe mental illness, as well as treatment with antipsychotic medications. While there are significant challenges with studying postmortem brain, such as the postmortem interval, it confers a translational element that is difficult to recapitulate in animal models. On the other hand, data derived from animal models typically provide specific mechanistic and behavioral measures that cannot be generated using human subjects. Convergence of these two approaches has led to important insights for understanding molecular deficits and their causes in this illness. In this review, we discuss the problem of schizophrenia, review the common challenges related to postmortem studies, discuss the application of biochemical approaches to this substrate, and present examples of postmortem schizophrenia studies that illustrate the role of the postmortem approach for generating important new leads for understanding the pathophysiology of severe mental illness. PMID:24091486

  6. How Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Co-Occur with Mental Illness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... who may also have a co occurring mental illness. A co-occurring disorder exists simultaneously with another ... Often, aperson with aco-occurring FASD and mental illness is not diagnosed with an FASD. This can ...

  7. Psychometric Evaluation of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale for Patients with Mental Illnesses: Measurement Invariance across Time

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Cheng; Wu, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Chih-Yin; Wang, Jung-Der; Lin, Chung-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Background The current investigation examined the psychometric properties of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale in a sample of patients with mental illness. In addition to the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity that previous studies have tested for the ISMI, we extended the evaluation to its construct validity and measurement invariance using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Methods Three hundred forty-seven participants completed two questionnaires (i.e., the ISMI and the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale [DSSS]), and 162 filled out the ISMI again after 50.23±31.18 days. Results The results of this study confirmed the frame structure of the ISMI; however, the Stigma Resistance subscale in the ISMI seemed weak. In addition, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity were all satisfactory for all subscales and the total score of the ISMI, except for Stigma Resistance (??=?0.66; ICC?=?0.52, and r?=?0.02 to 0.06 with DSSS). Therefore, we hypothesize that Stigma Resistance is a new concept rather than a concept in internalized stigma. The acceptable fit indices supported the measurement invariance of the ISMI across time, and suggested that people with mental illness interpret the ISMI items the same at different times. Conclusion The clinical implication of our finding is that clinicians, when they design interventions, may want to use the valid and reliable ISMI without the Stigma Resistance subscale to evaluate the internalized stigma of people with mental illness. PMID:24887440

  8. Does Mental Illness Stigma Contribute to Adolescent Standardized Patients' Discomfort With Simulations of Mental Illness and Adverse Psychosocial Experiences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…

  9. Talking about Mental Illness: A Guide for Developing an Awareness Program for Youth. Community Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This guide contains all of the information, support and tools that community members need to implement "Talking About Mental Illness" in their community--an awareness program proven to be effective in bringing about positive change in young people's knowledge about mental illness, and in reducing stigma that surrounds mental illness. The program…

  10. Breaking the Silence: Teaching the Next Generation about Mental Illness. For Upper Elementary Grades. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susin, Janet; Kaplan, Lorraine; Slater, Louise

    This guide provides curriculum lessons for the upper elementary school student that put a human face on mental illness and confront myths passed on from one generation to the next. One in five children will be affected by mental illness at some point in their lives. The goal of these lessons is help students understand that severe mental illnesses

  11. Relationship of the Media to Attitudes toward People with Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granello, Darcy Haag; Pauley, Pamela S.; Carmichael, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Reports on results of Community Attitudes Toward Mentally Ill questionnaire given to undergraduates. Significant differences emerged on subscales based ranking of primary source of information about mental illness. Results do not imply causality but rather that electronic media is powerful mechanism for spreading the stigma of mental illness.…

  12. The Homeless Mentally Ill: No Longer Out of Sight and Out of Mind. Human Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Andrea; Craig, Rebecca T.

    1985-01-01

    The increasing presence of the mentally ill among the nation's homeless is the topic of this report. The problems presented by deinstitutionalization are discussed, including: (1) the homeless mentally ill as a disruptive element of society; (2) mentally ill persons who shuttle between the hospital and the community; (3) young chronic patients who…

  13. Exploring the Role of Diagnosis in the Modified Labeling Theory of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K.

    2008-01-01

    According to the modified labeling theory of mental illness, when an individual is diagnosed with a mental illness, cultural ideas associated with the mentally ill become personally relevant and foster negative self-feelings. We explore the way that psychiatric diagnosis shapes this process. Specifically, we examine if and how psychiatric…

  14. For Immediate Release --Friday, April 11, 2014 Advocate for the mentally ill, Austin Mardon, to receive

    E-print Network

    Morris, Joy

    for the mentally ill, Austin Mardon, to receive University of Lethbridge honorary degree for the mentally ill, Austin Mardon. "We're very excited that Austin has accepted our he has done over the years to bring issues of mental illness

  15. Experts, actor clash on cause of mental ills By Tina Hesman

    E-print Network

    Experts, actor clash on cause of mental ills By Tina Hesman Of the Post-Dispatch 06 of mental illness, neuroscientists say. Advertisement "It's safe to say that we know that metabolic changes in the brain are present for all major mental illnesses," Conway said. The case for brain changes accompanying

  16. Portrayal of Depression and Other Mental Illnesses in Australian Nonfiction Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Catherine; Pirkis, Jane; Blood, R. Warwick; Dunt, David; Burgess, Philip; Morley, Belinda; Stewart, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This study describes Australian media portrayal of mental illnesses, focusing on depression. A random sample of 1,123 items was selected for analysis from a pool of 13,389 nonfictional media items about mental illness collected between March 2000 and February 2001. Depression was portrayed more frequently than other mental illnesses. Items about…

  17. 38 CFR 17.109 - Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis. 17.109 Section 17.109 Pensions, Bonuses, and... psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis. (a) Psychosis. Eligibility for benefits under this part... period beginning on the last day of the Persian Gulf War. (b) Mental illness (other than...

  18. The First Steps to Learning with a Child Who Has a Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    This article shares the author's experience in dealing with her child who has a mental illness. The author hopes that other teachers and school administrators would find her experience helpful when dealing with mentally ill children. The author describes the first steps to learning with a child with a mental illness.

  19. Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 1 The Blame Game

    E-print Network

    Scholl, Brian

    Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 1 The Blame Game: Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness Margaret A. Martinez Senior Thesis in Psychology Advisor: Susan Nolen-Hoeksema April 19, 2010 #12;Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 2 Abstract The present study

  20. 38 CFR 17.109 - Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis. 17.109 Section 17.109 Pensions, Bonuses, and... psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis. (a) Psychosis. Eligibility for benefits under this part... period beginning on the last day of the Persian Gulf War. (b) Mental illness (other than...

  1. The Cultural Construction of Mental Illness in Prison: A Perfect Storm of Pathology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of individuals in U.S. prisons meet DSM criteria for severe psychiatric disorder. These individuals also have co-occurring personality and substance abuse disorders, medical conditions, and histories of exposure to social pathologies. Based on nine months of ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. prison, focusing on staff narratives, I utilize interpretivist and constructivist perspectives to analyze how mental health clinicians construct psychiatric disorder among inmates. Discrete categorization of disorders may be confounded by the clinical co-morbidities of inmates and the prison context. Incarcerated individuals’ responses to the institutional context substantially inform mental health staffs’ illness construction and the prison itself is identified as an etiological agent for disordered behaviors. In addition, diagnostic processes are found to be indeterminate, contested, and shaped by interactions with staff. Analysis of illness construction reveals that what is at stake for clinicians is not only provision of appropriate treatment, but also mandates for the safety and security of the institution. Enmeshed in these mandates, prison mental health becomes a particular local form of psychiatric knowledge. This paper contributes to anthropological approaches to mental disorder by demonstrating how local contexts mediate psychiatric knowledge and contribute to the limited ethnographic record of prisons. PMID:23212545

  2. The census of India and the mentally ill

    PubMed Central

    Sarin, Alok; Jain, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    Context/Background: Epidemiological data have long been considered essential for documenting incidence of disability and planning services. India has been conducting census operations for a long time, and this information may be relevant in the current context. Aims: To document the prevalence of insanity, and discussions about treatment and disability arising out of mental illness in India (1850-1950). Settings and Design: The material used was located at the British Library and the Wellcome Library, London; the Teen Murti Library, Delhi, and web-based archives. Materials and Methods: We have retrieved and summarized the coverage of psychiatric illness in previous census reports from the 19th and 20th century. Statistical Analysis: None, this relies upon historical archives and documents. Results and Conclusions: Differences in incidence and prevalence of insanity, as well as biological and psycho-social factors in the causation, and outcomes, of mental illness are all discussed in these census reports. Comparisons are often drawn to other countries and cultures, and impressions drawn about these differences and similarities. Similar concerns persist to this day. Disabilities and mental illness were not enumerated since the census of 1941 and have been restored only recently, and this lacuna has hampered planning in the post-Independence era. As we debate policy and plan interventions using contemporary census data, it may be useful to remind ourselves of the issues, then and now. PMID:22556434

  3. Treating Offenders with Mental Illness: A Research Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Robert D.; Flora, David B.; Kroner, Daryl G.; Mills, Jeremy F.; Varghese, Femina; Steffan, Jarrod S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research synthesis was to examine treatment effects across studies of the service providers to offenders with mental illness. Meta-analytic techniques were applied to 26 empirical studies obtained from a review of 12,154 research documents. Outcomes of interest in this review included measures of both psychiatric and criminal functioning. Although meta-analytic results are based on a small sample of available studies, results suggest interventions with offenders with mental illness effectively reduced symptoms of distress, improving offender’s ability to cope with their problems, and resulted in improved behavioral markers including institutional adjustment and behavioral functioning. Furthermore, interventions specifically designed to meet the psychiatric and criminal justice needs of offenders with mental illness have shown to produce significant reductions in psychiatric and criminal recidivism. Finally, this review highlighted admission policies and treatment strategies (e.g., use of homework), which produced the most positive benefits. Results of this research synthesis are directly relevant for service providers in both criminal justice and mental health systems (e.g., psychiatric hospitals) as well as community settings by informing treatment strategies for the first time, which are based on empirical evidence. In addition, the implications of these results to policy makers tasked with the responsibility of designating services for this special needs population are highlighted. PMID:22471384

  4. Treating offenders with mental illness: a research synthesis.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Robert D; Flora, David B; Kroner, Daryl G; Mills, Jeremy F; Varghese, Femina; Steffan, Jarrod S

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this research synthesis was to examine treatment effects across studies of the service providers to offenders with mental illness. Meta-analytic techniques were applied to 26 empirical studies obtained from a review of 12,154 research documents. Outcomes of interest in this review included measures of both psychiatric and criminal functioning. Although meta-analytic results are based on a small sample of available studies, results suggest interventions with offenders with mental illness effectively reduced symptoms of distress, improving offender's ability to cope with their problems, and resulted in improved behavioral markers including institutional adjustment and behavioral functioning. Furthermore, interventions specifically designed to meet the psychiatric and criminal justice needs of offenders with mental illness have shown to produce significant reductions in psychiatric and criminal recidivism. Finally, this review highlighted admission policies and treatment strategies (e.g., use of homework), which produced the most positive benefits. Results of this research synthesis are directly relevant for service providers in both criminal justice and mental health systems (e.g., psychiatric hospitals) as well as community settings by informing treatment strategies for the first time, which are based on empirical evidence. In addition, the implications of these results to policy makers tasked with the responsibility of designating services for this special needs population are highlighted. PMID:22471384

  5. Building systems of care for youth with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    England, M J; Cole, R F

    1992-06-01

    In 1990 the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Mental Health Services Program for Youth awarded grants to eight state-community partnerships to develop systems of care for mentally ill children and adolescents. The authors describe approaches to system building in the program's first two years of implementation. The evolving systems consist of government agencies in child welfare, mental health, public health, education, and juvenile justice, as well as private-sector health and mental health care providers. Basic system features include interagency steering committees and long-term intensive case management. Fundamental principles guiding system development are individualization of care to meet the needs of the specific child, organization of care to empower families to manage care over the long term, flexible financing of care, and normalization of care in family and community settings. PMID:1601408

  6. 28 CFR 115.83 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ongoing medical and mental health care... Medical and Mental Care § 115.83 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and... victims with medical and mental health services consistent with the community level of care. (d)...

  7. 28 CFR 115.383 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ongoing medical and mental health care... Medical and Mental Care § 115.383 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and... victims with medical and mental health services consistent with the community level of care. (d)...

  8. 28 CFR 115.283 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ongoing medical and mental health care... Facilities Medical and Mental Care § 115.283 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims... victims with medical and mental health services consistent with the community level of care. (d)...

  9. 28 CFR 115.383 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ongoing medical and mental health care... Medical and Mental Care § 115.383 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and... victims with medical and mental health services consistent with the community level of care. (d)...

  10. 28 CFR 115.383 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ongoing medical and mental health care... Medical and Mental Care § 115.383 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and... victims with medical and mental health services consistent with the community level of care. (d)...

  11. 28 CFR 115.83 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ongoing medical and mental health care... Medical and Mental Care § 115.83 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and... victims with medical and mental health services consistent with the community level of care. (d)...

  12. 28 CFR 115.83 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ongoing medical and mental health care... Medical and Mental Care § 115.83 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and... victims with medical and mental health services consistent with the community level of care. (d)...

  13. 28 CFR 115.283 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ongoing medical and mental health care... Facilities Medical and Mental Care § 115.283 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims... victims with medical and mental health services consistent with the community level of care. (d)...

  14. 28 CFR 115.283 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ongoing medical and mental health care... Facilities Medical and Mental Care § 115.283 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims... victims with medical and mental health services consistent with the community level of care. (d)...

  15. The Legal Framework for Care and Treatment of the Mentally Ill. Staff Brief 86-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Pam

    This report was prepared for the Wisconsin State Legislative Council's Special Committee on Mental Health Issues. It summarizes legal issues and procedures relating to the admission, commitment, and treatment of the mentally ill in Wisconsin. Part I sets forth legal definitions of certain key mental health terms, including mental illness as it is…

  16. Factors associated with recidivism among offenders with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Eladio D; Alarid, Leanne Fiftal

    2011-02-01

    This study examined factors that explained or predicted recidivism of offenders who were mentally impaired and were under various correctional interventions. Offenders in a residential treatment program and specialized probation group, specialized probation alone, and mentally ill offenders who had served time in jail were examined. In comparison to the other two groups, the residential treatment offenders had a more extensive criminal history and were thus more likely to fail on supervision as well as to recidivate after supervision ended. Offenders with an alcohol problem were more likely to recidivate earlier and be rearrested for a violent offense than offenders without an alcohol problem. PMID:20181775

  17. The economic status of parents with serious mental illness in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Luciano, A; Nicholson, J; Meara, E

    2014-01-01

    Objective Parents with serious mental illness may be vulnerable to financial insecurity, making successful parenting especially difficult. We explored relationships among parenting, serious mental illness and economic status in a nationally representative sample. Methods The sample included all working-age participants from the 2009 and 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (n = 77,326). Two well-established scales of mental health distinguished participants with none, mild, moderate, and serious mental illness. We compared economic status by parenthood status and mental illness severity. Results Rates of employment were low for parents with serious mental illness (38% full-time and 17% part-time among mothers; 60% full-time and 9% part-time among fathers) compared to parents with no mental illness (50% full-time and 19% part-time among mothers; 85% full-time and 5% part-time among fathers). Mothers and fathers with serious mental illness were twice as likely to fall below the US Census poverty threshold than their peers without mental illness. Conclusion and Implications for Practice Parents with serious mental illness are less likely to be employed than those without mental illnesses and are highly likely to be living in poverty. Reducing poverty by helping parents with serious mental illness achieve better jobs and education is likely to translate into family stability and better outcomes. PMID:25000119

  18. The employment status of people with mental illness: National survey data from 2009 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Luciano, Alison; Meara, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe employment by mental illness severity in the U.S. during 2009-2010. Methods The sample included all working-age participants (age 18 to 64) from the 2009 and 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N = 77,326). Two well-established scales of mental health distinguished participants with none, mild, moderate, and serious mental illness. Analyses compared employment rate and income by mental illness severity and estimated logistic regression models of employment status controlling for demographic characteristics and substance use disorders. In secondary analyses, we assessed how the relationship between mental illness and employment varied by age and education status. Results Employment rates decreased with increasing mental illness severity (none = 75.9%, mild = 68.8%, moderate = 62.7%, serious = 54.5%, p<0.001). Over a third of people with serious mental illness, 39%, had incomes below $10,000 (compared to 23% among people without mental illness p<0.001). The gap in adjusted employment rates comparing serious to no mental illness was 1% among people 18-25 years old versus 21% among people 50-64 (p < .001). Conclusions More severe mental illness was associated with lower employment rates in 2009-2010. People with serious mental illness are less likely to be employed after age 49 than people with no, mild, or moderate mental illness. PMID:24933361

  19. Forecasting recidivism in mentally ill offenders released from prison.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Gregg J; Lovell, David; Peterson, Paul D; Jemelka, Ron

    2004-04-01

    Little research has focused on assessing the risk of mentally ill offenders (MIOs) released from state prisons. Here we report findings for 333 mentally ill offenders released from Washington State prisons. Logistic regression identified sets of variables that forecasted felony and violent reconviction as accurately as state-of-the-art risk assessment instruments. Sums of simple recoded versions of these variables predicted reoffense as well as complex logistic regression equations. Five of these 9 variables were found to be relative protective factors. Findings are discussed in terms of the value of stock correctional variables in forecasting risk, the need to base actuarial risk assessments on local data, the importance of protective factors in assessing MIO risk, and the need for dynamic, situational, and clinical variables that can further sharpen predictive accuracy of emergent risk in the community. PMID:15141775

  20. Creative writing in recovery from severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    King, Robert; Neilsen, Philip; White, Emma

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that creative writing forms an important part of the recovery experience of people affected by severe mental illness. In this paper, we consider theoretical models that explain how creative writing might contribute to recovery, and we discuss the potential for creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation. We argue that the rehabilitation benefits of creative writing might be optimized through focus on process and technique in writing, rather than content, and that consequently, the involvement of professional writers might be important. We describe a pilot workshop that deployed these principles and was well-received by participants. Finally, we make recommendations regarding the role of creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation for people recovering from severe mental illness and suggest that the development of an evidence base regarding the effectiveness of creative writing is a priority. PMID:23211053

  1. Neighborhood Effects, Mental Illness and Criminal Behavior: A Review.

    PubMed

    Freedman, David; Woods, George W

    2013-09-01

    This paper briefly reviews the social science on "neighborhood effects" as an independent force in shaping poor outcomes, specifically mental illness and criminal behavior, before discussing the implications of that research for understanding the relationship between neighborhoods, race and class. Neighborhood effects research has proliferated in recent years with extensive attention again being focused on the social context of family and individual development and life course. Moreover, recent work has suggested the need to consider the developmental effects of neighborhoods that persist across life-span. This paper will focus specifically on mental illness and criminal behavior as outcomes for understanding neighborhood effects, but will also consider what the structural causes of individual behavior and functioning mean for clinical assessment, especially forensic assessment. PMID:25250101

  2. Neighborhood Effects, Mental Illness and Criminal Behavior: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, David; Woods, George W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the social science on “neighborhood effects” as an independent force in shaping poor outcomes, specifically mental illness and criminal behavior, before discussing the implications of that research for understanding the relationship between neighborhoods, race and class. Neighborhood effects research has proliferated in recent years with extensive attention again being focused on the social context of family and individual development and life course. Moreover, recent work has suggested the need to consider the developmental effects of neighborhoods that persist across life-span. This paper will focus specifically on mental illness and criminal behavior as outcomes for understanding neighborhood effects, but will also consider what the structural causes of individual behavior and functioning mean for clinical assessment, especially forensic assessment. PMID:25250101

  3. Self-Stigma and Coming Out about One's Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Morris, Scott; Larson, Jon; Rafacz, Jennifer; Wassel, Abigail; Michaels, Patrick; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen; Rusch, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Self-stigma can undermine self-esteem and self-efficacy of people with serious mental illness. Coming out may be one way of handling self-stigma and it was expected that coming out would mediate the effects of self-stigma on quality of life. This study compares coming out to other approaches of controlling self-stigma. Eighty-five people with…

  4. Community Violence Perpetration and Victimization Among Adults With Mental Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Johnson, Kiersten L.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. In a large heterogeneous sample of adults with mental illnesses, we examined the 6-month prevalence and nature of community violence perpetration and victimization, as well as associations between these outcomes. Methods. Baseline data were pooled from 5 studies of adults with mental illnesses from across the United States (n?=?4480); the studies took place from 1992 to 2007. The MacArthur Community Violence Screening Instrument was administered to all participants. Results. Prevalence of perpetration ranged from 11.0% to 43.4% across studies, with approximately one quarter (23.9%) of participants reporting violence. Prevalence of victimization was higher overall (30.9%), ranging from 17.0% to 56.6% across studies. Most violence (63.5%) was perpetrated in residential settings. The prevalence of violence-related physical injury was approximately 1 in 10 overall and 1 in 3 for those involved in violent incidents. There were strong associations between perpetration and victimization. Conclusions. Results provided further evidence that adults with mental illnesses experienced violent outcomes at high rates, and that they were more likely to be victims than perpetrators of community violence. There is a critical need for public health interventions designed to reduce violence in this vulnerable population. PMID:24524530

  5. Department of Human Services Division of Substance Abuse and Mental Health (DSAMH)

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    by an increased number of senior clients. Many seniors abuse prescription medications. Also, people are living will likely need other medical services beyond just substance abuse and mental health issuesDepartment of Human Services Division of Substance Abuse and Mental Health (DSAMH) I. Internal Scan

  6. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. March/April 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Deborah, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "SAMHSA News" is the national newsletter of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Published six times a year (bimonthly) by SAMHSA's Office of Communications, SAMHSA News contains information about the latest substance abuse and mental health treatment and prevention practices, recent statistics on mental health and…

  7. Attitudes towards mental illness of nursing students in a Baccalaureate programme in Jamaica: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J; Stennett, R

    2015-10-01

    There is longstanding evidence of nurses demonstrating negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Student nurses' fear or discomfort with mentally ill patients results in poorer outcomes for patients and students' dissatisfaction with their experience of mental health nursing. There is evidence of negative attitudes towards mental illness in the Jamaican society; however, no studies have explored whether these attitudes are held by nursing students. The aim of the study was to examine the attitudes of nursing students towards mental illness. A questionnaire survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 143 third-year nursing students who were enrolled in a baccalaureate programme. Data were collected using the Attitudes Towards Acute Mental Health Scale (ATAMHS). A response rate of 71% was achieved for the survey. The findings indicated that the student nurses held an overall negative attitude towards mental illness, with a general perception that mentally ill people are dangerous. The student nurses were divided in their opinions in a number of areas, suggesting a possible conflict of opinions. Negative attitudes towards mental illness impact client outcomes and the career choices made by nurses. This study provides baseline data within the Jamaican context that adds to the evidence on nursing students' attitude to mental illness. Further research is needed to explore whether nursing education and clinical experience enables student nurses in Jamaica to develop a more positive attitude towards mental illness and mental health nursing and whether cultural factors contribute to negative attitudes. PMID:26036468

  8. Assertive community treatment for elderly people with severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Adults aged 65 and older with severe mental illnesses are a growing segment of the Dutch population. Some of them have a range of serious problems and are also difficult to engage. While assertive community treatment is a common model for treating difficult to engage severe mental illnesses patients, no special form of it is available for the elderly. A special assertive community treatment team for the elderly is developed in Rotterdam, the Netherlands and tested for its effectiveness. Methods We will use a randomized controlled trial design to compare the effects of assertive community treatment for the elderly with those of care as usual. Primary outcome measures will be the number of dropouts, the number of patients engaged in care and patient's psychiatric symptoms, somatic symptoms, and social functioning. Secondary outcome measures are the number of unmet needs, the subjective quality of life and patients' satisfaction. Other secondary outcomes include the number of crisis contacts, rates of voluntary and involuntary admission, and length of stay. Inclusion criteria are aged 65 plus, the presence of a mental disorder, a lack of motivation for treatment and at least four suspected problems with functioning (addiction, somatic problems, daily living activities, housing etc.). If patients meet the inclusion criteria, they will be randomly allocated to either assertive community treatment for the elderly or care as usual. Trained assessors will use mainly observational instruments at the following time points: at baseline, after 9 and 18 months. Discussion This study will help establish whether assertive community treatment for the elderly produces better results than care as usual in elderly people with severe mental illnesses who are difficult to engage. When assertive community treatment for the elderly proves valuable in these respects, it can be tested and implemented more widely, and mechanisms for its effects investigated. Trial Registration The Netherlands National Trial Register NTR1620 PMID:20958958

  9. Attitudes of Mental Health Professionals about Mental Illness: A Review of the Recent Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto; Aroesty-Cohen, Eli

    2010-01-01

    A large body of research has documented public attitudes toward people with mental illness. The current attitudes of the people who provide services to those with psychiatric disorders are important to understand, as well. The authors review what studies over the past 5 years reveal about the attitudes of psychiatric professionals. Empirical…

  10. Pre-arrest diversion of people with mental illness: Literature review and international survey.

    PubMed

    Hartford, Kathleen; Carey, Robert; Mendonca, James

    2006-01-01

    Mental health diversion is a process where alternatives to criminal sanctions are made available to persons with mental illness (PMI) who have come into contact with the law. One form of mental health diversion is pre-arrest, in which the police use their discretion in laying charges. Concomitant with the growth of pre-arrest diversion programs is a growing body of research devoted to the phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to review the existing literature of pre-arrest diversion, and to report the results of an international survey of pre-arrest diversion programs we conducted to identify evidence-based practices. On the basis of our review and survey, we note that successful pre-trial programs appear to integrate relevant mental health, substance abuse and criminal justice agencies by having regular meetings between key personnel from the various agencies. Often, a liaison person with a mandate to effect strong leadership plays a key role in the coordination of various agencies. Streamlining services through the creation of an emergency drop-off center with a no-refusal policy for police cases is seen as crucial. While there is some indication that mentally ill offenders benefit from their participation in this form of diversion, the evaluative literature has not yet achieved the "critical mass" necessary to create generalizable, evidence-based knowledge. The absence of generally agreed-upon outcomes could lead to the inequitable application of basic principles of diversion. We suggest that indicators, benchmarks, and outcomes must be agreed upon if a comprehensive understanding of pre-arrest programs is to emerge. PMID:17171772

  11. Frames of mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies: implications for orthodox mental health care.

    PubMed

    Atilola, Olayinka; Olayiwola, Funmilayo

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the modes of framing mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies. All Yoruba films on display in a convenient sample of movie rental shops in Ibadan (Nigeria) were sampled for content. Of the 103 films studied, 27 (26.2%) contained scenes depicting mental illness. Psychotic symptoms were the most commonly depicted, while effective treatments were mostly depicted as taking place in unorthodox settings. The most commonly depicted aetiology of mental illness was sorcery and enchantment by witches and wizards, as well as other supernatural forces. Scenes of mental illness are common in Nigerian movies and these depictions-though reflecting the popular explanatory models of Yoruba-speaking Nigerians about mental illness- may impede utilization of mental health care services and ongoing efforts to reduce psychiatry stigma in this region. Efforts to reduce stigma and improve service utilization should engage the film industry. PMID:23670966

  12. Recovery and Severe Mental Illness: Description and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Robert E; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    The notion of recovery has been embraced by key stakeholders across Canada and elsewhere. This has led to a proliferation of definitions, models, and research on recovery, making it vitally important to examine the data to disentangle the evidence from the rhetoric. In this paper, first we ask, what do people living with severe mental illness (SMI) say about recovery in autobiographical accounts? Second, what do they say about recovery in qualitative studies? Third, from what we have uncovered about recovery, can we learn anything from quantitative studies about proportions of people leading lives of recovery? Finally, can we identify interventions and approaches that may be consistent or inconsistent with the grounded notions of recovery unearthed in this paper? We found that people with mental illness frequently state that recovery is a journey, characterized by a growing sense of agency and autonomy, as well as greater participation in normative activities, such as employment, education, and community life. However, the evidence suggests that most people with SMI still live in a manner inconsistent with recovery; for example, their unemployment rate is over 80%, and they are disproportionately vulnerable to homelessness, stigma, and victimization. Research stemming from rehabilitation science suggests that recovery can be enhanced by various evidence-based services, such as supported employment, as well as by clinical approaches, such as shared decision making and peer support. But these are not routinely available. As such, significant systemic changes are necessary to truly create a recovery-oriented mental health system. PMID:25007276

  13. [Work Life Participation of Mentally Ill Individuals - Implications for Research and Best Practice].

    PubMed

    Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Gühne, Uta

    2015-09-01

    Participation in working life improves the health outcome of mentally ill individuals. The paper reviews the current situation of mentally ill individuals and barriers to enter the open labour market. Barriers are discussed and the contribution of mental health professionals is outlined. Implications for research and best practice are considered. PMID:26422311

  14. Mentally Ill Offenders in Community Based Programs: Attitudes of Service Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuehring, Elane M.; Raybin, Linda

    1986-01-01

    Examined the feasibility of community-based care for mentally ill offenders and defendants by surveying criminal justice professionals (n=36), mental health and forensic professionals (n=38), and social service representatives (n=21). Findings indicated that mentally ill offenders and defendants were seen as manageable in the community but needing…

  15. 77 FR 12522 - Tentative Eligibility Determinations; Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ...active psychosis within a time period specified in the...Gulf War who develop a mental illness other than psychosis...Medical research, Mental health programs, Nursing...Scholarships and fellowships, Travel and transportation expenses...care for psychosis or mental illness other than...

  16. Family Intervention and Services for Persons with Mental Illness in the People's Republic of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Kam-shing

    2005-01-01

    Family services and intervention for persons with mental illness is crucial in mental health services. In this paper, the writer attempts to describe family intervention and services for persons with mental illness in the People's Republic of China. Family intervention and services like home-based care, guardianship network, family counseling, and…

  17. Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

  18. The Silent Parent: Developing Knowledge about the Experiences of Parents with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boursnell, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the lived experiences of parents with mental illness in Australia. It draws on in-depth interviews with parents (n = 10) who have mental illness and provides an analysis of national mental health policies. The analysis of the parents' narratives is essential in building a picture for those involved in the issues associated with…

  19. Guns, schools, and mental illness: potential concerns for physicians and mental health professionals.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ryan Chaloner Winton; Friedman, Susan Hatters

    2013-11-01

    Since the recent shootings in Tucson, Arizona; Aurora, Colorado; and Newtown, Connecticut, there has been an ever-increasing state and national debate regarding gun control. All 3 shootings involved an alleged shooter who attended college, and in hindsight, evidence of a mental illness was potentially present in these individuals while in school. What appears to be different about the current round of debate is that both pro-gun control and anti-gun control advocates are focusing on mentally ill individuals, early detection of mental illness during school years, and the interactions of such individuals with physicians and the mental health system as a way to solve gun violence. This raises multiple questions for our profession about the apparent increase in these types of events, dangerousness in mentally ill individuals, when to intervene (voluntary vs involuntary), and what role physicians should play in the debate and ongoing prevention. As is evident from the historic Tarasoff court case, physicians and mental health professionals often have new regulations/duties, changes in the physician-patient relationship, and increased liability resulting from high-profile events such as these. Given that in many ways the prediction of who will actually commit a violent act is difficult to determine with accuracy, physicians need to be cautious with how the current gun debate evolves not only for ourselves (eg, increased liability, becoming de facto agents of the state) but for our patients as well (eg, increased stigma, erosion of civil liberties, and changes in the physician-patient relationship). We provide examples of potential troublesome legislation and suggestions on what can be done to improve safety for our patients and for the public. PMID:24138962

  20. Smoking Use and Cessation Among People with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Aniyizhai; Singh, Noreen; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2015-09-01

    Smoking rates in people with serious mental illness (SMI) are disproportionately high compared to the general population. It is a leading contributor to the early mortality in this population. Smoking cessation rates are low in this group, though patients are motivated to quit. Unfortunately, health care providers do not always prioritize smoking cessation for this population. This review provides an overview of prevalence rates, biological effects that maintain smoking, and evidence-based treatments for smoking cessation in SMI. In addition, objective and qualitative data from a chart review of 78 patients with SMI prescribed smoking cessation treatment at one community mental health center are described. Of these, 30 (38.5 percent) were found to either quit (16/78) or reduce (14/78) smoking. Varenicline appeared to be particularly effective. Review of the literature and results of this study suggest that smoking cessation pharmacotherapies are effective for SMI patients and should be offered to those who smoke. PMID:26339210

  1. Does Humor Influence the Stigma of Mental Illnesses?

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Powell, Karina J.; Fokuo, J. Konadu; Kosyluk, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Public stigma is a barrier for people with mental illness. Humor may have the potential to decrease stigmatizing attitudes in the context of disclosure. Participants completed measures on stigmatizing attitudes and humor style and were then randomized to one of three conditions (self-disclosure comedy sketch, the same comedy sketch with no disclosure, and a control comedy sketch). After reviewing the comedy sketch, participants repeated the attitude measures and provided perceptions of the comic. Humor styles and perceptions significantly interacted with condition to reduce stigma. Perceptions of the self-disclosed comic were associated with reduced stigma. People exhibiting affiliative humor style (i.e., they enjoy making others laugh) were shown to have significantly greater stigma changes in the disclosed condition compared to the non-disclosed and control conditions. Affiliative humor endorsers also interacted with the non-disclosed condition suggesting that mental health comedy might generally reduce stigma in people who use humor to improve relationships. PMID:24727719

  2. Smoking Use and Cessation Among People with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Aniyizhai; Singh, Noreen; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates in people with serious mental illness (SMI) are disproportionately high compared to the general population. It is a leading contributor to the early mortality in this population. Smoking cessation rates are low in this group, though patients are motivated to quit. Unfortunately, health care providers do not always prioritize smoking cessation for this population. This review provides an overview of prevalence rates, biological effects that maintain smoking, and evidence-based treatments for smoking cessation in SMI. In addition, objective and qualitative data from a chart review of 78 patients with SMI prescribed smoking cessation treatment at one community mental health center are described. Of these, 30 (38.5 percent) were found to either quit (16/78) or reduce (14/78) smoking. Varenicline appeared to be particularly effective. Review of the literature and results of this study suggest that smoking cessation pharmacotherapies are effective for SMI patients and should be offered to those who smoke. PMID:26339210

  3. Violence and mental illness: what Lewis Carroll had to say.

    PubMed

    Torrey, E Fuller; Miller, Judy

    2014-12-01

    In 1873 Skeffington Lutwidge, a Lunacy Commission inspector of asylums in England, was killed by an asylum patient. Lutwidge was the uncle and close friend of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, also known as Lewis Carroll. One year later, Carroll began writing The Hunting of the Snark, a poem whose meaning has mystified Carroll enthusiasts. In fact, the poem is a description of the Lunacy Commission inspection team and reflects Carroll's personal understanding of, and reaction to, the killing of his uncle by an individual with a severe mental illness. Carroll's close relationship with his uncle also explains the prominence of psychotic thinking in Carroll's work, including the Mad Hatter's tea party. PMID:25454800

  4. Experiencing Community: Perspectives of Individuals Diagnosed as Having Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Bromley, Elizabeth; Gabrielian, Sonya; Brekke, Benjamin; Pahwa, Rohini; Daly, Kathleen A.; Brekke, John S.; Braslow, Joel T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Community integration is recognized as a crucial component of recovery from serious mental illness. Although the construct of community integration can be measured with structured instruments, little is known about the subjective and experiential meaning of community and community involvement for persons with serious mental illness. Methods In 2010, 30 individuals with serious mental illness treated in two public mental health clinics completed semistructured interviews that elicited the places and people that they associate with the experience of community and the larger meaning of community in their lives. Results Participants described four experiences as integral to their concepts of community: receiving help, minimizing risk, avoiding stigma, and giving back. Participants looked for communities that provide reliable support, and they described the need to manage community contact in order to protect themselves and others from their symptoms and from discrimination. Most participants experienced communities centered on mental health treatment or mentally ill peers as providing opportunities for positive engagement. Conclusions The experience of having a serious mental illness shapes preferences for and perceptions of community in pervasive ways. Participants describe community involvement not as a means to move away from illness experiences and identities but as a process that is substantially influenced by them. Mental health communities may help individuals with serious mental illness to both manage their illness and recognize and enjoy a sense of community. The findings indicate the need for further research on the relationship between community integration and outcome in serious mental illness. PMID:23545784

  5. The genetics of mental illness: implications for practice.

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, S. E.

    2000-01-01

    Many of the comfortable and relatively simple models of the nature of mental disorders, their causes and their neural substrates now appear quite frayed. Gone is the idea that symptom clusters, course of illness, family history and treatment response would coalesce in a simple way to yield valid diagnoses. Also too simple was the concept, born of early pharmacological successes, that abnormal levels of one or more neurotransmitters would satisfactorily explain the pathogenesis of depression or schizophrenia. Gone is the notion that there is a single gene that causes any mental disorder or determines any behavioural variant. The concept of the causative gene has been replaced by that of genetic complexity, in which multiple genes act in concert with non-genetic factors to produce a risk of mental disorder. Discoveries in genetics and neuroscience can be expected to lead to better models that provide improved representation of the complexity of the brain and behaviour and the development of both. There are likely to be profound implications for clinical practice. The complex genetics of risk should reinvigorate research on the epidemiology and classification of mental disorders and explain the complex patterns of disease transmission within families. Knowledge of the timing of the expression of risk genes during brain development and of their function should not only contribute to an understanding of gene action and the pathophysiology of disease but should also help to direct the search for modifiable environmental risk factors that convert risk into illness. The function of risk genes can only become comprehensible in the context of advances at the molecular, cellular and systems levels in neuroscience and the behavioural sciences. Genetics should yield new therapies aimed not just at symptoms but also at pathogenic processes, thus permitting the targeting of specific therapies to individual patients. PMID:10885164

  6. Disseminating Evidence-Based Practices for Adults with PTSD and Severe Mental Illness in Public-Sector Mental Health Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frueh, B. Christopher; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Cusack, Karen J.; Elhai, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains largely untreated among adults with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The treatment of psychotic symptoms usually takes precedence in the care of adults with SMI. Such oversight is problematic in that PTSD in SMI populations is common (19%-43%), contributes a significant illness burden, and hinders mental

  7. Mentally ill Medicare patients less likely than others to receive certain types of surgery.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Cai, Xueya; Du, Hang; Glance, Laurent G; Lyness, Jeffrey M; Cram, Peter; Mukamel, Dana B

    2011-07-01

    Mentally ill people may face barriers to receiving elective surgical procedures as a result of societal stigma and the cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal deficits associated with mental illness. Using data from a cohort of elderly Medicare beneficiaries in 2007, we examined whether the mentally ill have less access than people without mental illness to several common procedures that are typically not for emergencies and are performed at the discretion of the provider and the patient. Results suggest that Medicare patients with mental illness are 30-70 percent less likely than others to receive these "referral-sensitive" surgical procedures. Those who did undergo an elective procedure generally experienced poorer outcomes both in the hospital and after discharge. Efforts to improve access to and outcomes of nonpsychiatric care for mentally ill patients are warranted. PMID:21734205

  8. History of arrest, incarceration and victimization in community-based severely mentally ill.

    PubMed

    White, Mary Castle; Chafetz, Linda; Collins-Bride, Gerri; Nickens, John

    2006-04-01

    This study examined history of arrest and victimization in an urban community sample of severely mentally ill adults. Adults (n = 308) were consented and interviewed in one of four short-term residential treatment facilities in San Francisco. Nearly three quarters (71.4%) had been arrested at some time in their lives, 28.2% of whom had been arrested in the past 6 months. Substance use and homelessness were associated with history of arrest, while gender and ethnicity were not, although African Americans were more likely to have spent longer time in jail or prison. One quarter (25.6%) reported victimization. Being female (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.2-3.5, p = 0.032) and homeless (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.8, p = 0.013) were associated with reporting victimization. Severe mental illness, in particular in combination with substance abuse and homelessness, is associated with higher prevalence of both arrest and victimization history. Healthcare providers should solicit histories to include these events in order to understand and provide optimal care and case management services. PMID:16737173

  9. Take Action against Hepatitis C (for People in Recovery from Mental Illness or Addiction)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hepatitis C For People in Recovery From Mental Illness or Addiction Attention treatment providers in behavioral health ... damaged. Untreated hepatitis C can result in severe illness or death. It’s a silent disease—many people ...

  10. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Ahmed; Zubair, Muhammad; Ghulam, Hamzah; Wajih Ullah, Muhammad; Zubair Tariq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI) Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences). Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents). Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8%) had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%). Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3%) considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4%) and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7%) to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1%) considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41%) respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05). Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can play a role in treatment. PMID:25548734

  11. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Muhammad; Ghulam, Hamzah; Wajih Ullah, Muhammad; Zubair Tariq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI) Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences). Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents). Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8%) had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%). Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3%) considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4%) and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7%) to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1%) considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41%) respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05). Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can play a role in treatment. PMID:25548734

  12. Khat use and mental illness: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Warfa, Nasir; Klein, Axel; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Leavey, Gerard; Craig, Tom; Alfred Stansfeld, Stephen

    2007-07-01

    Khat has been used as a stimulant plant in many parts of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula for centuries. Its current use among particular migrant communities in Europe and elsewhere has caused alarm among policy makers and health care professionals. In the United Kingdom, the debate over the psychiatric and social implications of khat use has led to a demand for stricter legal control of this stimulant plant. This paper (a) provides a historical overview of khat use, and (b) reviews the evidence for the existence of a causal link between khat use and mental illness. To do so, we undertook a detailed search of social and medical science databases for case reports, qualitative and quantitative articles on khat use and mental illness from 1945 to 2006. The validity and reliability of the studies that met our inclusion criteria were examined. Lastly, although highlighting health concerns about khat use we suggest that the debate about this popular drug in migrant populations carries elements of a 'moral panic'. There is a need for improved research on khat use and its possible association with psychiatric disorders. PMID:17544193

  13. A social/emotional theory of 'mental illness'.

    PubMed

    Scheff, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    One reason that theories of mental illness have made little progress may be their focus on individuals, omitting the social/relational and emotional world. Adding these components will be difficult, however: in modern societies they have become virtually invisible, particularly the emotion of shame. The theory outlined here is based on the work of Cooley, Elias, Lewis and Goffman: shame is both social and individual and, if anticipation is included, virtually omnipresent in modern societies. It is proposed that most symptoms of mental illness are products of shame and relational feedback loops: emotion and alienation can both spiral leading to further alienation and chaotic or hidden emotions. Almost everyone is especially ashamed of their shame. Being ashamed of one's shame and/or anger can spiral when not acknowledged. Under certain conditions, these spirals continue without limit, generating immense force for acting out symptoms or depression. To the extent that this theory is true, we would need to rename the field using non-medical terms, such as emotional/social dysfunction. PMID:22723517

  14. 28 CFR 115.383 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...victims and abusers. 115.383 Section 115.383 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Medical and Mental Care § 115.383 Ongoing...

  15. 28 CFR 115.383 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...victims and abusers. 115.383 Section 115.383 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Medical and Mental Care § 115.383 Ongoing...

  16. 28 CFR 115.83 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...victims and abusers. 115.83 Section 115.83 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Medical and Mental Care § 115.83...

  17. 28 CFR 115.83 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...victims and abusers. 115.83 Section 115.83 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Medical and Mental Care § 115.83...

  18. Parents of Children With Mental Illness: Exploring the Caregiver Experience and Caregiver-Focused Interventions

    E-print Network

    Mendenhall, Amy N.; Mount, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Serious mental illness in children can significantly impact the parents who care for these children in both positive and negative ways. Caregiver strain and enrichment manifests in all areas of parents’ lives, including work, mental and physical...

  19. Patient and prisoner experiences : major mental illness and masculinity in the context of violent offending behaviour 

    E-print Network

    Haddow, Christine

    2013-11-26

    Traditional understandings of violence by the mentally disordered largely look to mental illness to explain such behaviour. More recently, research has begun to examine the role of alternative factors in driving violent ...

  20. Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jeffrey W.; McGinty, E. Elizabeth; Fazel, Seena; Mays, Vickie M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders. Methods Research concerning public attitudes toward persons with mental illness is reviewed and juxtaposed with evidence from benchmark epidemiologic and clinical studies of violence and mental illness and of the accuracy of psychiatrists' risk assessments. Selected policies and laws designed to reduce gun violence in relation to mental illness are critically evaluated; evidence-based policy recommendations are presented. Results Media accounts of mass shootings by disturbed individuals galvanize public attention and reinforce popular belief that mental illness often results in violence. Epidemiologic studies show that the large majority of people with serious mental illnesses are never violent. However, mental illness is strongly associated with increased risk of suicide, which accounts for over half of US firearms–related fatalities. Conclusions Policymaking at the interface of gun violence prevention and mental illness should be based on epidemiologic data concerning risk to improve the effectiveness, feasibility, and fairness of policy initiatives. PMID:24861430

  1. 1/28/09 3:37 PMThe Persistence of Mental Illness | Psychology Today Blogs Page 1 of 3http://blogs.psychologytoday.com/blog/in-practice/200806/the-persistence-mental-illness

    E-print Network

    1/28/09 3:37 PMThe Persistence of Mental Illness | Psychology Today Blogs Page 1 of 3http://blogs.psychologytoday.com/blog/in-practice/200806/the-persistence-mental-illness Articles Blogs The Persistence of Mental Illness By Peter D. Kramer illness. The new research -- conducted by Maria Karayiorgou at Columbia University but carried out

  2. [Social representations and living conditions of the mentally ill and mentally retarded elderly in nursing homes.].

    PubMed

    Dorvil, H; Benoit, M

    1999-01-01

    The aging of the population in Québec as in the rest of the western world, brings to the fore people who until now were greatly marginalized. This is the case of mentally ill and mentally retarded elderly who until recently, lived their aging in the shadow of psychiatric institutions. Have these people now found with deinstitutionalization, the possibility of growing old within society ? This article analyses the conditions of integration and support networks, in sum a collective responsability of these aging people in nursing homes. PMID:18253570

  3. Conceptions of Mental Illness: Attitudes of Mental Health Professionals and the General Public

    PubMed Central

    Stuber, Jennifer P.; Rocha, Anita; Christian, Ann; Link, Bruce G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The authors compared attitudes of the U.S. general public and of mental health professionals about the competence and perceived dangerousness of people with mental health problems and the desire for social distance from them. Factors related to negative attitudes and the desire for social distance also were examined. Methods Vignettes describing individuals meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression and schizophrenia were included in the 2006 General Social Survey (GSS) and a 2009 study of mental health professionals, and responses were descriptively compared (GSS, N=397 responses to depression vignette, N=373 responses to schizophrenia vignette; 731 mental health professionals responded to both vignettes). Regression analyses examined whether demographic and provider characteristics were associated with perceptions of less competence and perceived dangerousness of the vignette character and with respondents’ desire for social distance. Results Compared with the American public, mental health professionals had significantly more positive attitudes toward people with mental health problems. However, some providers’ conceptions about the dangerousness of people with schizophrenia and provider desire for social distance from clients in work and personal situations were concerning. Younger age, self-identifying as non-Hispanic white, being female, having at least a four-year college degree, being familiar with mental illness, and certain job titles and more years of experience in the mental health field were predictive of more positive conceptions. Conclusions Although mental health professionals held more positive attitudes than the general public about people with mental health problems, strong stereotypes persisted in both groups, especially concerning schizophrenia. This study identified several demographic and provider characteristics that can inform intervention strategies in both groups. PMID:24430508

  4. Effects of Drug Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hurts Unborn Children Drug Abuse Hurts Your Health Drug Abuse Hurts Bodies Drug Abuse Hurts Brains Drug Abuse and Mental ... Hurts Unborn Children Drug Abuse Hurts Your Health Drug Abuse Hurts Bodies Drug Abuse Hurts Brains Drug Abuse and Mental ...

  5. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses (“abuses”) of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to “my” patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship. PMID:24497237

  6. Better but not best: recent trends in the well-being of the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Glied, Sherry A; Frank, Richard G

    2009-01-01

    Mental illness and its treatment are largely invisible. We use multiple publicly available data sources to evaluate changes in the well-being of Americans with mental illnesses over the past decade. We find that access to care, including specialty psychiatric and inpatient care, and financial protection have improved. However, not all people with mental health problems have shared in these improvements. Access to care among those with mental health impairments appears to have declined, and we estimate that because of continued increases in incarceration, at least 7 percent of the population with serious and persistent mental illnesses are incarcerated in jail or prison each year. PMID:19414869

  7. Trends in mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Galea, Sandro; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Ursano, Robert J.; Wessely, Simon

    2008-01-01

    A representative sample of 815 pre-hurricane residents of the areas affected by Hurricane Katrina was interviewed 5-8 months after the hurricane and again one year later as the Hurricane Katrina Community Advisory Group (CAG). The follow-up survey was carried out to study patterns-correlates of recovery from hurricane-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), broader anxiety-mood disorders, and suicidality. The TSQ screening scale of PTSD and the K6 screening scale of anxiety-mood disorders were used to generate DSM-IV prevalence estimates. Contrary to results in other disaster studies, where post-disaster mental disorder typically decreases with time, prevalence increased significantly in the CAG for PTSD (20.9% vs. 14.9% at baseline), serious mental illness (SMI; 14.0% vs. 10.9%), suicidal ideation (6.4% vs. 2.8%), and suicide plans (5% vs. 1.0%). The increases in PTSD-SMI were confined to respondents not from the New Orleans Metropolitan Area, while the increases in suicidal ideation-plans occurred both in the New Orleans sub-sample and in the remainder of the sample. Unresolved hurricane-related stresses accounted for large proportions of the inter-temporal increases in SMI (89.2%), PTSD (31.9%), and suicidality (61.6%). Differential hurricane-related stress did not explain the significantly higher increases among respondents from areas other than New Orleans, though, as this stress was both higher initially and decreased less among respondents from the New Orleans Metropolitan Area than from other areas affected by the hurricane. Outcomes were only weakly related to socio-demographic variables, meaning that high prevalence of hurricane-related mental illness remains widely distributed in the population nearly two years after the hurricane. PMID:18180768

  8. Trends in mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Kessler, R C; Galea, S; Gruber, M J; Sampson, N A; Ursano, R J; Wessely, S

    2008-04-01

    A representative sample of 815 pre-hurricane residents of the areas affected by Hurricane Katrina was interviewed 5-8 months after the hurricane and again 1 year later as the Hurricane Katrina Community Advisory Group (CAG). The follow-up survey was carried out to study patterns-correlates of recovery from hurricane-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), broader anxiety-mood disorders and suicidality. The Trauma Screening Questionnaire screening scale of PTSD and the K6 screening scale of anxiety-mood disorders were used to generate DSM-IV prevalence estimates. Contrary to results in other disaster studies, where post-disaster mental disorder typically decreases with time, prevalence increased significantly in the CAG for PTSD (20.9 vs 14.9% at baseline), serious mental illness (SMI; 14.0 vs 10.9%), suicidal ideation (6.4 vs 2.8%) and suicide plans (2.5 vs 1.0%). The increases in PTSD-SMI were confined to respondents not from the New Orleans Metropolitan Area, while the increases in suicidal ideation-plans occurred both in the New Orleans sub-sample and in the remainder of the sample. Unresolved hurricane-related stresses accounted for large proportions of the inter-temporal increases in SMI (89.2%), PTSD (31.9%) and suicidality (61.6%). Differential hurricane-related stress did not explain the significantly higher increases among respondents from areas other than New Orleans, though, as this stress was both higher initially and decreased less among respondents from the New Orleans Metropolitan Area than from other areas affected by the hurricane. Outcomes were only weakly related to socio-demographic variables, meaning that high prevalence of hurricane-related mental illness remains widely distributed in the population nearly 2 years after the hurricane. PMID:18180768

  9. Carers of Mentally Ill People in Queensland: Their Perceived Relationships with Professional Mental Health Service Providers: Report on a Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Orme; King, Robert; Leggatt, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Explores the relationships of caregivers of mentally ill people with professional mental health providers since the introduction of community-based services. Respondents perceived mental health workers to be professional, friendly, respectful and positive in outlook. However they indicated dissatisfaction with accessibility, communication about…

  10. Concept analysis of recovery in mental illness in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    McCauley, C O; McKenna, H P; Keeney, S; McLaughlin, D F

    2015-10-01

    Recovery, as a concept, emerged as a core philosophy of the service user movement that began in the late 1960s and 1970s. Previous reviews on recovery in mental health have presented definitions or a conceptual framework; however, over time it has been open to disparate interpretations. The aim of this paper was to conduct the first concept analysis of mental health recovery in young adulthood within various multidisciplinary contexts. Rodgers's (2000) six-stepped evolutionary method enabled the analysis of recovery's conceptual characteristics, the identification of an exemplar and the proposition of a hypothesis with implications for practice. This analysis has revealed the derivation of the term recovery does not convey its identified conceptual characteristics. Identified attributes include the reawakening of hope, reclaiming a positive self and meaning through personal growth. Antecedents include the disruption of illness, stigmatization, internal inventory and contemplative recovery. Identified consequences include the return to normality, reconstruction of self and active social connection. The new conceptual definition is the reawakening of hope and rediscovery of a positive sense of self through finding meaning and purpose within personal growth and connection using creative self-care coping strategies. This paper reveals an apparent disparity between professional and personal interpretations of recovery. Therefore, the implication for mental health nursing is the congruence of recovery-orientated practice with the process of recovery experienced by young adult service users. PMID:26148795

  11. Computational Psychiatry: towards a mathematically informed understanding of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rick A; Huys, Quentin J M; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Computational Psychiatry aims to describe the relationship between the brain's neurobiology, its environment and mental symptoms in computational terms. In so doing, it may improve psychiatric classification and the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. It can unite many levels of description in a mechanistic and rigorous fashion, while avoiding biological reductionism and artificial categorisation. We describe how computational models of cognition can infer the current state of the environment and weigh up future actions, and how these models provide new perspectives on two example disorders, depression and schizophrenia. Reinforcement learning describes how the brain can choose and value courses of actions according to their long-term future value. Some depressive symptoms may result from aberrant valuations, which could arise from prior beliefs about the loss of agency ('helplessness'), or from an inability to inhibit the mental exploration of aversive events. Predictive coding explains how the brain might perform Bayesian inference about the state of its environment by combining sensory data with prior beliefs, each weighted according to their certainty (or precision). Several cortical abnormalities in schizophrenia might reduce precision at higher levels of the inferential hierarchy, biasing inference towards sensory data and away from prior beliefs. We discuss whether striatal hyperdopaminergia might have an adaptive function in this context, and also how reinforcement learning and incentive salience models may shed light on the disorder. Finally, we review some of Computational Psychiatry's applications to neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, and some pitfalls to avoid when applying its methods. PMID:26157034

  12. Childhood Abuse and Mental Health Indicators among Ethnically Diverse Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Circo, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Prior research has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people experience higher rates of childhood abuse than heterosexuals. However, there has been little research on the mental health impact of these experiences or how race/ethnicity might influence prevalence and mental health impact of childhood abuse in this…

  13. 78 FR 53789 - Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment Conference & Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ...The Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA) in partnership with the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, and the National Institutes of Health's Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, will host a Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment Conference......

  14. 28 CFR 115.381 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 115.381 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the screening pursuant... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.381 Section 115.381 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  15. 28 CFR 115.381 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 115.381 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the screening pursuant... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.381 Section 115.381 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  16. 28 CFR 115.81 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Care § 115.81 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the screening... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.81 Section 115.81 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  17. 28 CFR 115.81 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Care § 115.81 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the screening... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.81 Section 115.81 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  18. A qualitative inquiry into consumer beliefs about the causes of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Baker, A E Z; Procter, N G

    2013-04-01

    This paper examines consumer or service user beliefs about the causes of mental illness. It presents a qualitative, participatory action research study involving semi-structured in-depth interviews with 16 people who had been diagnosed with a mental illness and attended a community mental health centre in metropolitan South Australia. Inductive thematic analysis was undertaken, with a range of beliefs about the possible cause of mental illness identified. Findings are organized within two key areas: social or environmental factors and physical or biological factors. The social or environmental category included varied situations, clustered under the subcategories of: stress during childhood, events in adulthood and religious beliefs. Physical or biological factors included beliefs that mental illness was inherited, caused by brain malfunction or chemical imbalance. Of note, one-third of consumer participants who discussed possible causes of mental illness identified multiple potential causes. Implications for service delivery, specifically related to therapeutic trust and engagement, are also considered. PMID:22812505

  19. Program development and integrated treatment across systems for dual diagnosis: mental illness, drug addiction, and alcoholism (MIDAA).

    PubMed

    Sciacca, K; Thompson, C M

    1996-01-01

    Numerous bureaus of mental health, drug addiction, and alcoholism are designated to provide service to persons who have discrete singular disorders of mental illness, drug addiction, or alcoholism. Mental health and substance abuse programs (nationally and internationally) have evolved with this singular limited-service capacity. Contrasting incompatible philosophies and treatment methods across the systems have resulted in minimal services for persons with dual diagnoses. The project the authors have outlined is an example of the development of a dual/multiple-disorder program that integrates these diverse systems and provides comprehensive services within each of the programs of each delivery system. These programs are cost-effective, use existing facilities, train and cross-train existing staff, correct the issues of incompatible treatment interventions, and end the dilemma of gaps in services systems and limited referral resources. As a result, the availability and quality of care for persons with dual diagnoses is greatly improved. PMID:10172686

  20. Guns, Mental Illness, and the Law: Introduction to This Issue.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Felthous, Alan R

    2015-06-01

    Firearm violence is a top-tier public health problem in the U.S., killing 33,563 and injuring an additional 81,396 people in 2012 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, ). Given constitutional protection and the cultural entrenchment of private gun ownership in the U.S., it is likely that guns will remain widely accessible--and largely unrestricted--for the foreseeable future. Therefore, most policies and laws intended to reduce firearm violence focus selectively on preventing "dangerous people" from having access to guns. That is a formidable challenge. How do we think productively about guns and mental illness in this context, and about the role of law in lessening the toll of gun violence? PMID:25874748

  1. Commercialisation of Biomarker Tests for Mental Illnesses: Advances and Obstacles.

    PubMed

    Chan, Man K; Cooper, Jason D; Bahn, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    Substantial strides have been made in the field of biomarker research for mental illnesses over the past few decades. However, no US FDA-cleared blood-based biomarker tests have been translated into routine clinical practice. Here, we review the challenges associated with commercialisation of research findings and discuss how these challenges can impede scientific impact and progress. Overall evidence indicates that a lack of research funding and poor reproducibility of findings were the most important obstacles to commercialization of biomarker tests. Fraud, pre-analytical and analytical limitations, and inappropriate statistical analysis are major contributors to poor reproducibility. Increasingly, these issues are acknowledged and actions are being taken to improve data validity, raising the hope that robust biomarker tests will become available in the foreseeable future. PMID:26549771

  2. Narrative processing of entertainment media and mental illness stigma.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Nicole Mossing; Rouner, Donna

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the narrative effects of familiarity, transportation, whether a story is factual or fiction, and perceived realism on the stigmatizing behavior of social distancing behavior. A sample of N?=?137 participants watched a commercial movie about mental illness. Genre was manipulated to determine whether fiction or nonfiction impacted social distancing behavior. Although there was no effect of the genre manipulation, transportation was found to have a relationship with social distancing, with the more relevant the participants found the story, the lower they demonstrated social distancing behavior. How much participants identified with the main character was found to have a partial mediating effect between perceived story relevance and social distancing behavior. PMID:21516556

  3. The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gelkopf, Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation. PMID:19687190

  4. Speech Deficits in Serious mental Illness: A Cognitive Resource Issue?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alex S.; McGovern, Jessica E.; Dinzeo, Thomas J.; Covington, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Speech deficits, notably those involved in psychomotor retardation, blunted affect, alogia and poverty of content of speech, are pronounced in a wide range of serious mental illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia, unipolar depression, bipolar disorders). The present project evaluated the degree to which these deficits manifest as a function of cognitive resource limitations. We examined natural speech from 52 patients meeting criteria for serious mental illnesses (i.e., severe functional deficits with a concomitant diagnosis of schizophrenia, unipolar and/or bipolar affective disorders) and 30 non-psychiatric controls using a range of objective, computer-based measures tapping speech production (“alogia”), variability (“blunted vocal affect”) and content (“poverty of content of speech”). Subjects produced natural speech during a baseline condition and while engaging in an experimentally-manipulated cognitively-effortful task. For correlational analysis, cognitive ability was measured using a standardized battery. Generally speaking, speech deficits did not differ as a function of SMI diagnosis. However, every speech production and content measure was significantly abnormal in SMI versus control groups. Speech variability measures generally did not differ between groups. For both patients and controls as a group, speech during the cognitively-effortful task was sparser and less rich in content. Relative to controls, patients were abnormal under cognitive load with respect only to average pause length. Correlations between the speech variables and cognitive ability were only significant for this same variable: average pause length. Results suggest that certain speech deficits, notably involving pause length, may manifest as a function of cognitive resource limitations. Implications for treatment, research and assessment are discussed. PMID:25464920

  5. Speech deficits in serious mental illness: a cognitive resource issue?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alex S; McGovern, Jessica E; Dinzeo, Thomas J; Covington, Michael A

    2014-12-01

    Speech deficits, notably those involved in psychomotor retardation, blunted affect, alogia and poverty of content of speech, are pronounced in a wide range of serious mental illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia, unipolar depression, bipolar disorders). The present project evaluated the degree to which these deficits manifest as a function of cognitive resource limitations. We examined natural speech from 52 patients meeting criteria for serious mental illnesses (i.e., severe functional deficits with a concomitant diagnosis of schizophrenia, unipolar and/or bipolar affective disorders) and 30 non-psychiatric controls using a range of objective, computer-based measures tapping speech production ("alogia"), variability ("blunted vocal affect") and content ("poverty of content of speech"). Subjects produced natural speech during a baseline condition and while engaging in an experimentally-manipulated cognitively-effortful task. For correlational analysis, cognitive ability was measured using a standardized battery. Generally speaking, speech deficits did not differ as a function of SMI diagnosis. However, every speech production and content measure was significantly abnormal in SMI versus control groups. Speech variability measures generally did not differ between groups. For both patients and controls as a group, speech during the cognitively-effortful task was sparser and less rich in content. Relative to controls, patients were abnormal under cognitive load with respect only to average pause length. Correlations between the speech variables and cognitive ability were only significant for this same variable: average pause length. Results suggest that certain speech deficits, notably involving pause length, may manifest as a function of cognitive resource limitations. Implications for treatment, research and assessment are discussed. PMID:25464920

  6. Surgical Correction of Childhood Intermittent Exotropia and the Risk of Developing Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Kilgore, Khin P.; Barraza, Román A.; Hodge, David O.; McKenzie, Jeff A.; Mohney, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess whether successful surgical intervention for intermittent exotropia, or the timing of intervention, has any effect on the development of mental illness. Design Retrospective observational case series Methods All patients (< 19 years) diagnosed with intermittent exotropia in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from January 1, 1975, through December 31, 1994, were retrospectively reviewed. Potential cases were identified using the resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, a medical records database designed to capture data on any patient-physician encounter in Olmsted County, Minnesota. The main outcome measures were the occurrence and severity of mental illness among those who underwent strabismus surgery compared to those who did not. Results Ninety-six (52%) of the 184 children identified were diagnosed with a mental illness at a mean age of 23.3 years (range 6 to 41 years). Thirty-five (36%) of the 96 children who developed mental illness underwent strabismus surgery. Success at surgery (< 10 prism diopters) was not associated with a decreased occurrence of mental illness (p=0.30). Of the 88 patients who did not develop mental illness, strabismus surgery was not more commonly performed (p=0.54) nor was it performed at a younger age (p=1.0), when compared to the 96 patients who later developed mental illness. Conclusions Strabismus surgery for children with intermittent exotropia, regardless of success or age at surgery, did not alter the development of mental illness by early adulthood. PMID:24954680

  7. Psychosocial Outcomes for Adult Children of Parents with Severe Mental Illnesses: Demographic and Clinical History Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol T.; Bybee, Deborah; Oyserman, Daphna; MacFarlane, Peter; Bowersox, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    Children of parents with mental illness are at risk of psychiatric and behavioral problems. Few studies have investigated the psychosocial outcomes of these children in adulthood or the parental psychiatric history variables that predict resilience. From a sample of 379 mothers with serious mental illnesses, 157 women who had at least one adult…

  8. An Anthropological View of the Change in Attitudes toward Mental Illnesses and Physical Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John Alan

    1983-01-01

    Anthropologists contend that throughout man's history mental illness has been part of all cultures, and, universally, peoples had taxonomies that classified such maladies. Primitive peoples were better able to treat culturally-defined mental illnesses and could, consequently, accommodate behaviors which in Western cultures would require…

  9. [Do municipalities offer help to children of parents with serious mental illness?].

    PubMed

    Ytterhus, B; Almvik, A

    1999-08-10

    Children of parents with serious mental illness are considered to be at risk of developing mental illness themselves. Reorganization of the mental health care system has resulted in increased numbers of persons with serious mental illness residing in their home communities, and children have become more directly involved with their parents' illness. A questionnaire was distributed to all of the municipalities in the Mid-Norway health region and to the six city districts in Trondheim in order to determine the number of children of parents with serious mental illness and the health services they routinely receive. 59 (64%) of the 92 questionnaires sent out were returned. 247 children were living with a serious mentally ill parent; six with a mentally ill single father, 102 with a mentally ill single mother. Of the 54 municipalities, six had standard routines for provision of care to the children. Municipalities with such routines attributed this to effective cooperation between professional groups or the special involvement of particular individuals. The study indicates that it is largely a matter of chance whether children do or do not receive help from the communities they live in. PMID:10479981

  10. Reflections of Adults on Their School Experiences Growing up with a Severely Mentally Ill Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Marie A.

    2013-01-01

    More than five million children in the United States have a parent suffering from a severe mental illness and these children have specific experiences and needs, particularly in school. Children of mentally ill parents are at greater risk of being neglected and of developing psychological, social, emotional, and behavioral problems. They often…

  11. Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This bulletin issue contains five papers on the theme of adults with mental illness who are parents of very young children. "Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children" (John N. Constantino) offers the experience of a trainee in a combined residency in pediatrics and psychiatry, focusing on identification,…

  12. Stigma Sentiments and Self-Meanings: Exploring the Modified Labeling Theory of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce "stigma sentiments" as a way to operationalize the cultural conceptions of the mentally ill. Stigma sentiments are the evaluation, potency, and activity (EPA) associated with the cultural category "a mentally ill person." We find consistent support for the validity of the evaluation and potency components as measures of these…

  13. Social and legal aspects of marriage in women with mental illness in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indira; Tripathi, C B; Pathak, Abhishek

    2015-07-01

    The institution of marriage in Hindus is regulated by the prevailing social norms and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955. Married women with mental illness are heavily discriminated. This paper examines the social and legal aspects of Hindu marriage in women with mental illness. The HMA, 1955 lays down the conditions for a Hindu marriage and also provides matrimonial reliefs: Nullity of marriage, restitution of conjugal rights, judicial separation and divorce. The application of the provisions of HMA in the setting mental illness is difficult and challenging. There is a wide gap between the legislative provisions of HMA, and societal value systems and attitudes towards marriage in Indian society. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legal provisions. The disparities are most glaring in the setting of mental illness in women. This is a reflection of social stigma for mental illness and patriarchal attitude towards women. Concerted efforts are needed to bridge the gap between the legislative provisions of HMA and societal value systems and attitudes toward marriage. Awareness programs regarding the nature and types of mental illness, advances in treatment and information about good outcome of severe mental illness will be helpful. Improvement in moral and religious values will overcome to some extent the negative attitudes and patriarchal mind set toward married women with mental illness. PMID:26330650

  14. A Research Agenda Concerning Depictions of Mental Illness in Children's Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coverdale, John H.; Nairn, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To review research on depictions of mental illness in mass media directed to children and to identify requirements for further research in this important field. Methods: The authors identified published research on depictions of mental illness in children's media and the important strengths and weaknesses of such research. Results: Only…

  15. Maternal Mental Illness and the Safety and Stability of Maltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, Patricia L.; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Children of mothers with mental illness are at risk for multiple untoward outcomes, including child maltreatment and foster care placement. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the association between maternal mental illness and children's long term safety and stability. Methods: A multi-sector administrative dataset from the…

  16. Understanding Parental Grief as a Response to Mental Illness: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…

  17. Treatment of Persons with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Anna L. S.

    2012-01-01

    The number of mentally ill inmates in the criminal justice system has increased dramatically. This article evaluates the prevalence and causes of mental illness in the criminal justice system and describes the inadequate care that is provided, the effects of imprisonment, and the problem of rehabilitation. (Contains 4 notes.)

  18. Unfinished Business: Student Perspectives on Disclosure of Mental Illness and Success in VET. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Annie; Street, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Of all the different types of disability, mental illness can be particularly disruptive to education and training outcomes. In this report, the authors explore the factors contributing to successful course completion for students with a mental illness. The authors especially focus on the role of disclosure and the reasons why students choose to…

  19. Teaching Abnormal Psychology to Improve Attitudes toward Mental Illness and Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes…

  20. Work Experiences of People with Mental Illness in Malaysia: A Preliminary Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…

  1. Impact of Parental Severe Mental Illness: Ethical and Clinical Issues for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegelhoff, Sarah F.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This article draws attention to the issue of parental severe mental illness and the ethical and clinical implications for counselors who work with this population. Parents with mental illness face a multitude of life challenges including, but not limited to, parenting difficulties, medication and hospitalization, custody and placement of their…

  2. Perceptions of Barriers to Employment, Coping Efficacy, and Career Search Efficacy in People with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbiere, Marc; Mercier, Celine; Lesage, Alain

    2004-01-01

    The Barriers to Employment and Coping Efficacy Scale (BECES) and the Career Search Efficacy Scale (CSES) were designed to assist people in their work integration process. The BECES was specifically developed for people with mental illness. Although the CSES was not specifically designed for people with mental illness, its items appear relevant for…

  3. Social and legal aspects of marriage in women with mental illness in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Tripathi, C. B.; Pathak, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    The institution of marriage in Hindus is regulated by the prevailing social norms and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955. Married women with mental illness are heavily discriminated. This paper examines the social and legal aspects of Hindu marriage in women with mental illness. The HMA, 1955 lays down the conditions for a Hindu marriage and also provides matrimonial reliefs: Nullity of marriage, restitution of conjugal rights, judicial separation and divorce. The application of the provisions of HMA in the setting mental illness is difficult and challenging. There is a wide gap between the legislative provisions of HMA, and societal value systems and attitudes towards marriage in Indian society. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legal provisions. The disparities are most glaring in the setting of mental illness in women. This is a reflection of social stigma for mental illness and patriarchal attitude towards women. Concerted efforts are needed to bridge the gap between the legislative provisions of HMA and societal value systems and attitudes toward marriage. Awareness programs regarding the nature and types of mental illness, advances in treatment and information about good outcome of severe mental illness will be helpful. Improvement in moral and religious values will overcome to some extent the negative attitudes and patriarchal mind set toward married women with mental illness. PMID:26330650

  4. Effects of Culturally Relevant Psychoeducation for Korean American Families of Persons with Chronic Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sun-Kyung

    2004-01-01

    This study is to identify culturally relevant treatment methods and to assess the effects of family psychoeducational intervention for Korean Americans who had a family member with mental illness. 48 Korean Americans with children with mental illness were randomly assigned to either an experimental group program that provided culturally sensitive…

  5. Wraparound Services: An Effective Intervention for Families Impacted by Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Michelle L.; Ackerson, Barry J.

    2004-01-01

    Children and families impacted by severe mental illness (SMI) have multiple strains that effect family functioning, child safety, and parental rights. Traditional services for children and families struggling with severe mental illness have not achieved success in improving family functioning and keeping families intact. Wraparound is a philosophy…

  6. Defendant mental illness and juror decision-making: A comparison of sample types.

    PubMed

    Mossière, Annik; Maeder, Evelyn M

    2015-01-01

    Two studies were conducted with separate student and community samples to explore the effect of sample types and the influence of defendant mental illness on juror decision-making. Following the completion of a pre-trial questionnaire in which jurors' attitudes towards mental illness were assessed, participants were provided with a robbery trial transcript, wherein the mental illness of the defendant was manipulated. Participants then answered a questionnaire to assess their knowledge of the scenario, their verdict, verdict confidence, and sentencing decision. Limited relationships were found between the variables in both Study 1 and Study 2. Neither attitude ratings nor mental illness type had a significant effect on juror decisions. Samples differed in terms of the paths through which juror decisions were achieved. Findings suggest that sample type may be particularly relevant for this topic of study, and that future research is required on legal proceedings for cases involving a defendant with a mental illness. PMID:26314888

  7. Walking the line: specialized and standard probation officer perspectives on supervising probationers with serious mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Epperson, Matthew W; Canada, Kelli; Thompson, Julian; Lurigio, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Specialized probation programs were developed to more effectively address the unique needs of probationers with serious mental illnesses. Probation officers are tasked with serving both law enforcement and rehabilitative functions, and officers play an important gatekeeper function in helping probationers with serious mental illnesses avoid long incarceration sentences. The purpose of this paper was to explore specialized and standard probation officers' work in supervising probationers with serious mental illnesses. Twenty-one probation officers (11 specialized and 10 standard) participated in semi-structured interviews. Qualitative analyses examined: 1 - beliefs on the relationship between mental illness and crime; 2 - purpose of specialized and standard probation units; and 3 - approaches to supervising probationers with serious mental illnesses. Implications for developing more effective probation supervision programs are discussed. PMID:24680641

  8. Gender-Specific Research on Mental Illness in the Emergency Department: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Ranney, Megan L.; Locci, Natalie; Adams, Erica J.; Betz, Marian; Burmeister, David B.; Corbin, Ted; Dalawari, Preeti; Jacoby, Jeanne L.; Linden, Judith; Purtle, Jonathan; North, Carol; Houry, Debra E.

    2014-01-01

    Mental illness is a growing, and largely unaddressed, problem for the population and for emergency department (ED) patients in particular. Extensive literature outlines sex and gender differences in mental illness’ epidemiology and risk and protective factors. Few studies, however, examined sex and gender differences in screening, diagnosis, and management of mental illness in the ED setting. Our consensus group used the nominal group technique to outline major gaps in knowledge and research priorities for these areas, including the influence of violence and other risk factors on the course of mental illness for ED patients. Our consensus group urges the pursuit of this research in general, and conscious use of a gender lens when conducting, analyzing, and authoring future ED-based investigations of mental illness. PMID:25413369

  9. Smoking, mental illness and socioeconomic disadvantage: analysis of the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High rates of smoking and lower rates of smoking cessation are known to be associated with common mental disorders such as anxiety and depression, and with individual and community measures of socioeconomic status. It is not known to what extent mental illness and socioeconomic status might be jointly associated with smoking behaviour. We set out to examine the relationship between mental illness, measures of socioeconomic disadvantage and both current smoking and smoking cessation rates. Methods We used data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing to examine the relationship between mental illness, socioeconomic status and both current smoking and smoking cessation. We used cross-classified tables and logistic regression to examine the relationship between psychosocial and sociodemographic predictors and current smoking. We also used proportional hazards regression to examine the relationship between the factors and smoking cessation. Results Both mental illness and socioeconomic status were independently associated with current smoking and with lower likelihood of smoking cessation, with gradients in smoking by mental health status being observed within levels of socioeconomic indicators and vice versa. Having a mental illness in the past 12 months was the most prevalent factor strongly associated with smoking, affecting 20.0% of the population, associated with increased current smoking (OR 2.43; 95% CI: 1.97-3.01) and reduced likelihood of smoking cessation (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.65-0.91). Conclusions The association between mental illness and smoking is not explained by the association between mental illness and socioeconomic status. There are strong socioeconomic and psychosocial gradients in both current smoking and smoking cessation. Incorporating knowledge of the other adverse factors in smokers’ lives may increase the penetration of tobacco control interventions in population groups that have historically benefitted less from these activities. PMID:23663362

  10. Community mental health teams (CMHTs) for people with severe mental illnesses and disordered personality

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Darren; Marriott, Sarah; Newton-Howes, Giles; Simmonds, Shaeda; Tyrer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Closure of asylums and institutions for the mentally ill, coupled with government policies focusing on reducing the number of hospital beds for people with severe mental illness in favour of providing care in a variety of non-hospital settings, underpins the rationale behind care in the community. A major thrust towards community care has been the development of community mental health teams (CMHT). Objectives To evaluate the effects of community mental health team (CMHT) treatment for anyone with serious mental illness compared with standard non-team management. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (March 2006). We manually searched the Journal of Personality Disorders, and contacted colleagues at ENMESH, ISSPD and in forensic psychiatry. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials of CMHT management versus non-team standard care. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a fixed effects model. We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) again based on a fixed effects model. Main results CMHT management did not reveal any statistically significant difference in death by suicide and in suspicious circumstances (n=587, 3 RCTs, RR 0.49 CI 0.1 to 2.2) although overall, fewer deaths occurred in the CMHT group. We found no significant differences in the number of people leaving the studies early (n=253, 2 RCTs, RR 1.10 CI 0.7 to 1.8). Significantly fewer people in the CMHT group were not satisfied with services compared with those receiving standard care (n=87, RR 0.37 CI 0.2 to 0.8, NNT 4 CI 3 to 11). Also, hospital admission rates were significantly lower in the CMHT group (n=587, 3 RCTs, RR 0.81 CI 0.7 to 1.0, NNT 17 CI 10 to 104) compared with standard care. Admittance to accident and emergency services, contact with primary care, and contact with social services did not reveal any statistical difference between comparison groups. Authors’ conclusions Community mental health team management is not inferior to non-team standard care in any important respects and is superior in promoting greater acceptance of treatment. It may also be superior in reducing hospital admission and avoiding death by suicide. The evidence for CMHT based care is insubstantial considering the massive impact the drive toward community care has on patients, carers, clinicians and the community at large. PMID:17636625

  11. Considerations for Functional Assessment of Problem Behavior Among Persons with Developmental Disabilities and Mental Illness

    E-print Network

    Baker, Daniel J.; Blumberg, E. Richard; Freeman, Rachel L.

    2002-01-01

    Support BOTTOM LINE TIPS Baker, D.J., Blumberg, R., & Freeman, R. (2002). Considerations for functional assessment of problem be- havior among persons with developmental disabilities and mental illness. In J. Jacobson, J. Mulick, and S. Holburn (Eds....), Programs and services for people with dual developmental and psychiatric disabilities (pp. 51-66). Kingston, NY: NADD. Problem behaviors are common among persons with the dual diagnosis of develop- mental disabilities and mental illness. Supporting...

  12. 28 CFR 115.81 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.81 Section 115.81 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Medical and Mental Care § 115.81 Medical and mental...

  13. 28 CFR 115.381 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.381 Section 115.381 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Medical and Mental Care § 115.381 Medical and mental...

  14. Addressing the challenge of community reentry among released inmates with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Baillargeon, Jacques; Hoge, Stephen K; Penn, Joseph V

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to discuss the formidable challenges to community reentry and reintegration faced by U.S. prison inmates with serious mental illness and to describe various strategies for improving transitional services for these individuals. We review epidemiologic data supporting the high prevalence of severe mental illness in U.S. prisons as well as the historical factors underlying the criminalization of the mentally ill. The importance and challenges of providing adequate psychiatric care for mentally ill prisoners during their incarceration are discussed. We also review the numerous psychosocial and economic challenges confronting these individuals upon their release from prison, such as unemployment and vulnerability to homelessness, as well as specific barriers they may encounter in attempting to access community-based mental health services. We follow with a discussion of some of the more promising strategies for improving the transition of the mentally ill from prison to the community. In the final sections, we review the evidence for a relationship between serious mental illness and recidivism and briefly discuss emerging alternatives to incarceration of the mentally ill. PMID:20865315

  15. Public Stigma of Mental Illness in the United States: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.

    2013-01-01

    Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public’s stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public’s stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental disorders and advance research in this area. Public stigma of mental illness in the U.S. was widespread. Findings can inform interventions to reduce the public’s stigma of mental illness. PMID:22833051

  16. Preexisting mental illness and risk for developing a new disorder after hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Greer; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Han, Xiaotong; Tharp, Andra Teten; Davis, Teri; Deitch, Elizabeth A; Constans, Joseph I

    2013-02-01

    To investigate predisaster mental illness as a risk factor of poor postdisaster mental health outcomes, veterans with (n = 249) and without (n = 250) preexisting mental illness residing in the Gulf Coast during Hurricane Katrina were surveyed after Katrina and screened for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic. Logistic regression examined the association between preexisting mental disorders and positive screens after the hurricane, adjusting for demographics and exposure to hurricane-related stressors. The odds of screening positive for any new mental disorder were 6.8 times greater for those with preexisting mental illness compared with those without preexisting mental illness. Among those with preexisting PTSD, the odds of screening positive for any new mental illness were 11.9 times greater; among those with schizophrenia, 9.1 times greater; and among those with affective disorders, 4.4 times greater. Persons with preexisting mental illnesses, particularly PTSD, should be considered a high-risk group for poor outcomes after a disaster. PMID:23364127

  17. Characteristics and Attitudes of Pre-Service Teachers toward Individuals with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey; Maag, John W.; Katsiyannis, Antonis

    2015-01-01

    Mental health in children and adults has always been a controversial topic, however, recent mass shootings in schools have heightened the concern of many and raise questions for how to interact with the mentally ill. Schools, have the capacity to be one of the key stakeholders in delivering services to students with mental health concerns,…

  18. Current and lifetime psychiatric illness among inmates not identified as acutely mentally ill at intake in Connecticut's jails.

    PubMed

    Trestman, Robert L; Ford, Julian; Zhang, Wanli; Wiesbrock, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    This study presents estimates of current and lifetime psychiatric illness among inmates not identified as acutely mentally ill at intake into all five of Connecticut's adult jails (four male facilities and one female facility). Diagnoses were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and are reported by gender and race/ethnicity. The results showed that more than two of three inmates met the criteria for at least one lifetime psychiatric disorder, almost half for an anxiety disorder, and more than one-third for an affective disorder. Overall, estimates of psychiatric morbidity in the women were higher than those in the men, with the exception of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Of particular note, borderline personality disorder was diagnosed in 23.2 percent of women and 12.9 percent of men. An allegation of a violent offense was not associated with the presence of mental illness or with a specific diagnosis. Lifetime history of any mental illness was associated with significantly reduced scores (range, 12-15 points reduction) on the Global Assessment of Functioning. The study showed that current and lifetime psychiatric morbidity are elevated among newly incarcerated adults who do not exhibit obvious signs of severe mental illness and are associated with functional impairment. While such disorders do not necessarily require treatment, unrecognized mental illness may place offenders at greater risk while incarcerated than offenders without mental illness. This study reinforces the need for appropriate screening and referral for treatment at intake into jail. PMID:18086741

  19. Service utilization, incidents, and hospitalizations among people with mental illnesses and incarceration histories in a supportive housing program.

    PubMed

    Casper, Edward S; Clark, Doris

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the service utilization, incidents, and hospitalizations of forensic clients and non-forensic clients in a supportive housing program for the mentally ill. 28 forensic consumers were compared to 28 non-forensic consumers matched on age, sex, ethnicity, diagnosis, and hospitalization history across four quarters of services data via ANOVA with repeated measures and substance abuse history as a covariate. Multiple and logistic regression evaluated the contributions of age, sex, length of stay, type of case management, substance abuse history, and incarceration history to the variance of 123 clients for incidents and hospitalizations. Forensic clients modestly utilized more services during their first year in the residence. Incarceration history was the dominant predictor of incidents, but not hospitalizations. These findings may help in determining if a jail diversion program should include a specialized community-housing component. PMID:15605755

  20. Strategies to Support Tobacco Cessation and Tobacco-Free Environments in Mental Health and Substance Abuse Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper, Nicole M.; Lavinghouze, S. Rene

    2015-01-01

    We identified and described strategies for promoting smoking cessation and smoke-free environments that were implemented in Oregon and Utah in treatment centers for mental illness and substance abuse. We reviewed final evaluation reports submitted by state tobacco control programs (TCPs) to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and transcripts from a call study evaluation. The TCPs described factors that assisted in implementing strategies: being ready for opportunity, having a sound infrastructure, and having a branded initiative. These strategies could be used by other programs serving high-need populations for whom evidence-based interventions are still being developed. PMID:26425871

  1. Selection Criteria for a Career Development Program for the Mentally Ill: Evaluation of the Self-Directed Search (SDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughead, Teri A.; Black, David R.

    1990-01-01

    Developed criteria for selection of career development program appropriate for mentally ill. Mentally ill persons who participated in Self-Directed Search (SDS) showed significant change on My Vocational Situation Identity Scale. Findings support selection of SDS as program and feasibility of offering career development services to mentally ill.…

  2. Attitudes of Jordanian Nursing Students towards Mental Illness: The Effect of Teaching and Contact on Attitudes Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamaideh, Shaher H.; Mudallal, Rola

    2009-01-01

    Purposes: Attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental illness influence the treatment they receive and decisions of policy makers. The purposes of this study were to assess Jordanian nursing students' attitudes towards mental illness, and to assess the effectiveness of teaching and contact on changing nursing students' attitudes about…

  3. Mental Health and Substance Abuse Insurance Parity for Federal Employees: How Did Health Plans Respond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Colleen L.; Ridgely, M. Susan

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental concern with competitive health insurance markets is that they will not supply efficient levels of coverage for treatment of costly, chronic, and predictable illnesses, such as mental illness. Since the inception of employer-based health insurance, coverage for mental health services has been offered on a more limited basis than…

  4. Identification and Analysis of Learning Preferences of Mentally Ill Adults in Rehabilitative Psychosocial Therapy at the Anderson Mental Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michael K.

    A study identified and analyzed the learning preferences of 17 seriously and chronically mentally ill adults participating in the rehabilitative psychosocial therapy program at the Toxaway Church Site of the Anderson Mental Health Center. Staff perceived as boring and unfocused the traditional treatment approach that relied mainly upon…

  5. Beliefs and attitudes towards mental illness: an examination of the sex differences in mental health literacy in a community sample

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Raymond J.; Loi, Natasha M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The current study investigated mental health literacy in an Australian sample to examine sex differences in the identification of and attitudes towards various aspects of mental illness. Method. An online questionnaire was completed by 373 participants (M = 34.87 years). Participants were randomly assigned either a male or female version of a vignette depicting an individual exhibiting the symptoms of one of three types of mental illness (depression, anxiety, or psychosis) and asked to answer questions relating to aspects of mental health literacy. Results. Males exhibited poorer mental health literacy skills compared to females. Males were less likely to correctly identify the type of mental illness, more likely to rate symptoms as less serious, to perceive the individual as having greater personal control over such symptoms, and less likely to endorse the need for treatment for anxiety or psychosis. Conclusion. Generally, the sample was relatively proficient at correctly identifying mental illness but overall males displayed poorer mental health literacy skills than females. PMID:26413429

  6. A New Outlook on Mental Illnesses: Glial Involvement Beyond the Glue

    PubMed Central

    Elsayed, Maha; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    Mental illnesses have long been perceived as the exclusive consequence of abnormalities in neuronal functioning. Until recently, the role of glial cells in the pathophysiology of mental diseases has largely been overlooked. However recently, multiple lines of evidence suggest more diverse and significant functions of glia with behavior-altering effects. The newly ascribed roles of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia have led to their examination in brain pathology and mental illnesses. Indeed, abnormalities in glial function, structure and density have been observed in postmortem brain studies of subjects diagnosed with mental illnesses. In this review, we discuss the newly identified functions of glia and highlight the findings of glial abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. We discuss these preclinical and clinical findings implicating the involvement of glial cells in mental illnesses with the perspective that these cells may represent a new target for treatment.

  7. Marketing to the marginalised: tobacco industry targeting of the homeless and mentally ill

    PubMed Central

    Apollonio, D; Malone, R

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the tobacco industry's relationships with and influence on homeless and mentally ill smokers and organisations providing services to them. Methods: Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents and journal articles. Results: The tobacco industry has marketed cigarettes to the homeless and seriously mentally ill, part of its "downscale" market, and has developed relationships with homeless shelters and advocacy groups, gaining positive media coverage and political support. Discussion: Tobacco control advocates and public health organisations should consider how to target programmes to homeless and seriously mentally ill individuals. Education of service providers about tobacco industry efforts to cultivate this market may help in reducing smoking in these populations. PMID:16319365

  8. Pharmacotherapy of mental illness--a historical analysis.

    PubMed

    Ban, T A

    2001-05-01

    The history of pharmacotherapy of mental illness can be divided into three periods. Introduction of morphine, potassium bromide, chloral hydrate, hyoscine, paraldehyde, etc., during the second half of the 19th century (first period), led to the replacement of physical restraint by pharmacological means in behavior control. Introduction of nicotinic acid, penicillin, thiamine, etc., during the first half of the 20th century (second period), led to significant changes in the diagnostic distribution of psychiatric patients; psychoses due to cerebral pellagra, and dementia due to syphilitic general paralysis virtually disappeared from psychiatric hospitals, and the prevalence of dysmnesias markedly decreased. Treatment with therapeutically effective drugs of mania, schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, Alzheimer's disease, etc., during the second half of the 20th century (third period), brought to attention the heterogeneity of the populations within the diagnostic categories of schizophrenia and depression. Introduction of the first set of psychotropics and the spectrophotofluorimeter during the 1950s triggered the development of neuropsychopharmacology. Introduction of genetic technology for the separation of receptor subtypes in the 1980s opened the path for the "tailoring" of psychotropic drugs by the dawn of the 21st century, to receptor affinities. PMID:11383974

  9. Serious Mental Illness and Nursing Home Quality of Care

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Momotazur; Grabowski, David C; Intrator, Orna; Cai, Shubing; Mor, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of a nursing home's share of residents with a serious mental illness (SMI) on the quality of care. Data Sources Secondary nursing home level data over the period 2000 through 2008 obtained from the Minimum Data Set, OSCAR, and Medicare claims. Study Design We employ an instrumental variables approach to address the potential endogeneity of the share of SMI residents in nursing homes in a model including nursing home and year fixed effects. Principal Findings An increase in the share of SMI nursing home residents positively affected the hospitalization rate among non-SMI residents and negatively affected staffing skill mix and level. We did not observe a statistically significant effect on inspection-based health deficiencies or the hospitalization rate for SMI residents. Conclusions Across the majority of indicators, a greater SMI share resulted in lower nursing home quality. Given the increased prevalence of nursing home residents with SMI, policy makers and providers will need to adjust practices in the context of this new patient population. Reforms may include more stringent preadmission screening, new regulations, reimbursement changes, and increased reporting and oversight. PMID:23278400

  10. 28 CFR 115.81 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...history of sexual abuse. 115.81 Section 115.81 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Medical and Mental Care § 115.81...

  11. 28 CFR 115.81 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...history of sexual abuse. 115.81 Section 115.81 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Medical and Mental Care § 115.81...

  12. Intimate partner abuse before and during pregnancy as risk factors for postpartum mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although research has established the profound effects that intimate partner abuse can have on postpartum mental health, little is known regarding how this association may change as a function of the timing and type of abuse. This study examined associations of psychological, physical and sexual abuse experienced as adults before and during pregnancy with symptoms of postpartum mental health problems in a non-clinical sample of women. Methods English-speaking mothers aged 18 years and older in the metropolitan area of a large, Western Canadian city were recruited to participate in a study of women’s health after pregnancy. The study was advertised in hospitals, local newspapers, community venues, and relevant websites. One-hundred women completed standardized, self-report questionnaires during semi-structured interviews conducted by female research assistants at approximately 2 months postpartum. In addition to questions about their general health and well-being, participants answered questions about their experiences of intimate partner abuse and about their mental health during the postpartum period. Results Almost two-thirds (61.0%) of women reported postpartum mental health symptoms above normal levels, with 47.0% reporting symptoms at moderate or higher levels. The majority reported some form of intimate partner abuse before pregnancy (84.0%) and more than two-thirds (70.0%), during pregnancy; however, the abuse was typically minor in nature. Multivariate models revealed that women who experienced intimate partner abuse—whether before or during pregnancy—reported higher levels of postpartum mental health problems; however, associations differed as a function of the timing and type of abuse, as well as specific mental health symptoms. Multivariate models also showed that as the number of types of intimate partner abuse experienced increased, so did the negative effects on postpartum mental health. Conclusions Results of this study provide further evidence that intimate partner abuse is a risk factor for postpartum mental health problems. They also underscore the complex risks and needs associated with intimate partner abuse among postpartum women and support the use of integrated approaches to treating postpartum mental health problems. Future efforts should focus on the extent to which strategies designed to reduce intimate partner abuse also improve postpartum mental health and vice versus. PMID:24708777

  13. Extermination of the Jewish mentally-ill during the Nazi era--the "doubly cursed".

    PubMed

    Strous, Rael

    2008-01-01

    In Nazi Germany, physicians initiated a program of sterilization and euthanasia directed at the mentally-ill and physically disabled. Relatively little is known regarding the fate of the Jewish mentally-ill. Jewish mentally-ill were definitely included and targeted and were among the first who fell victim. They were systematically murdered following transfer as a specialized group, as well as killed in the general euthanasia program along with non-Jewish mentally ill. Their murder constituted an important link between euthanasia and the Final Solution. The targeting of the Jewish mentally-ill was comprised of four processes including public assistance withdrawal, hospital treatment limitations, sterilization and murder. Jewish "patients" became indiscriminate victims not only on the basis of psychiatric diagnosis, but also on the basis of race. The killing was efficiently coordinated with assembly in collection centers prior to being transferred to their deaths. The process included deceiving Jewish patients' family members and caregivers in order to extract financial support long after patients had been killed. Jewish patients were targeted since they were helpless and considered the embodiment of evil. Since nobody stood up for the Jews, the Nazis could treat the Jewish patients as they saw fit. Several differences existed between euthanasia of Jews and non-Jews, among which the Jewish mentally-ill were killed regardless of work ability, hospitalization length or illness severity. Furthermore, there was discrimination in the process leading up to killing (overcrowding, less food). For the Nazis, Jewish mentally-ill patients were unique among victims in that they embodied both "hazardous genes" and "racial toxins." For many years there has been silence relating to the fate of the Jewish mentally-ill. This deserves to be corrected. PMID:19439830

  14. Violent victimization of adult patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched using several terms related to severe mental illness in successive combinations with terms describing victimization. The searches identified 34 studies. Nine epidemiological studies indicate that patients with severe mental illness are more likely to be violently victimized than other community members. Young age, comorbid substance use, and homelessness are risk factors for victimization. Victimized patients are more likely to engage in violent behavior than other members of the community. Violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences for the course of their illness, and further impairs the quality of lives of patients and their families. Victimization of persons with severe mental illness is a serious medical and social problem. Prevention and management of victimization should become a part of routine clinical care for patients with severe mental illness. PMID:25336958

  15. Mobile technologies among people with serious mental illness: opportunities for future services.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zeev, Dror; Davis, Kristin E; Kaiser, Susan; Krzsos, Izabela; Drake, Robert E

    2013-07-01

    Several national bodies have proposed using mobile technology to improve mental health services. But rates of current use and interest in using technology to enhance services among individuals with serious mental illness are uncertain. The authors surveyed 1,592 individuals with serious mental illness regarding their use of mobile devices and interest in using mobile technologies to enhance mental health services. Seventy-two percent of survey respondents reported currently owning a mobile device, a rate approximately 12 % lower than the general adult population. The most common uses were for talking, followed by texting, and internet activities. Both mobile device users and nonusers expressed interest in future mobile services. PMID:22648635

  16. Ethical Dilemmas of Child Abuse Reporting: Implications for Mental Health Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNair, Rebecca R.

    1992-01-01

    Explores effect of child abuse reporting on counselor-client relationship, mental health profession, and child protective services system. Uses ecological systems approach in exploration of interventions needed to help resolve child abuse reporting dilemma. Within ecosystems framework, discusses ethical guidelines and policymaking for reporting…

  17. Case Series: Mental Health Needs and Perspectives of Rural Children Reared by Parents Who Abuse Methamphetamine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Teresa; Haight, Wendy; Black, James; Choi, Ga-Young; Kingery, Linda; Sheridan, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This case-based, mixed-methods study was undertaken to understand the perspectives and mental health needs of rural children exposed to parental methamphetamine abuse. Method: Participants were 23 children involved with a state child protective agency because of parental methamphetamine abuse. A semistructured interview provided…

  18. Dysthymia among Substance Abusers: An Exploratory Study of Individual and Mental Health Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Naelys; Horton, Eloise G.; McIlveen, John; Weiner, Michael; Nelson, Jenniffer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the individual characteristics and mental health factors of dysthymic and nondysthymic substance abusers. Out of a total of 1,209 medical records reviewed to select cases of dysthymic and nondysthymic substance abusers attending a community drug treatment program, 183 medical records were selected, 48% of…

  19. Health Risks and Changes in Self-Efficacy Following Community Health Screening of Adults with Serious Mental Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Judith A.; Razzano, Lisa A.; Swarbrick, Margaret A.; Jonikas, Jessica A.; Yost, Chantelle; Burke, Larisa; Steigman, Pamela J.; Santos, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Physical health screenings were conducted by researchers and peer wellness specialists for adults attending publicly-funded community mental health programs. A total of 457 adults with serious mental illnesses attended health fairs in 4 U.S. states and were screened for 8 common medical co-morbidities and health risk factors. Also assessed were self-reported health competencies, medical conditions, and health service utilization. Compared to non-institutionalized U.S. adults, markedly higher proportions screened positive for obesity (60%), hypertension (32%), diabetes (14%), smoking (44%), nicotine dependence (62%), alcohol abuse (17%), drug abuse (11%), and coronary heart disease (10%). A lower proportion screened positive for hyperlipidemia (7%). Multivariable random regression analysis found significant pre- to post-screening increases in participants’ self-rated abilities for health practices, competence for health maintenance, and health locus of control. Screening identified 82 instances of undiagnosed diabetes, hypertension or hyperlipidemia, and 76 instances where these disorders were treated but uncontrolled. These results are discussed in the context of how this global public health approach holds promise for furthering the goal of integrating health and mental health care. PMID:25875181

  20. Tobacco-related mortality among persons with mental health and substance abuse problems.

    PubMed

    Bandiera, Frank C; Anteneh, Berhanu; Le, Thao; Delucchi, Kevin; Guydish, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The rate of cigarette smoking is greater among persons with mental health and/or substance abuse problems. There are few population-based datasets with which to study tobacco mortality in these vulnerable groups. The Oregon Health Authority identified persons who received publicly-funded mental health or substance abuse services from January 1996 through December 2005. These cases were then matched to Oregon Vital Statistics records for all deaths (N= 148,761) in the period 1999-2005. The rate of tobacco-related death rates was higher among persons with substance abuse problems only (53.6%) and those with both substance abuse and mental health problems (46.8%), as compared to the general population (30.7%). The rate of tobacco-related deaths among persons with mental health problems (30%) was similar to that in the general population. Persons receiving substance abuse treatment alone, or receiving both substance abuse and mental health treatment, were more likely to die and more likely to die prematurely of tobacco-related causes as compared to the general population. Persons receiving mental health services alone were not more likely to die of tobacco-related causes, but tobacco-related deaths occurred earlier in this population. PMID:25807109

  1. Changes in Psychological Health and Subjective Well-Being Among Incarcerated Individuals With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Leidenfrost, Corey M; Calabrese, William; Schoelerman, Ronald M; Coggins, Evelyn; Ranney, Michael; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Antonius, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    While improving the psychological health and well-being of individuals with serious mental illness can help reduce emotional distress and increase resilience, not enough is known about the well-being of incarcerated individuals with mental illness. Using the Schwartz Outcome Scale-10, the authors examined changes in subjective well-being and its association with other clinical symptoms and personality features in 43 mentally ill inmates in a large jail. All participants demonstrated significant improvement in general psychopathology and negative emotions. For well-being, however, different trajectories were associated with high versus low baseline ratings. Furthermore, those in the high well-being group were more likely to show features of aggression, dominance, hostility, mania, and more positive affect. These findings suggest that the level of well-being among inmates with serious mental illness may be an early indicator of personality features, clinical changes, and resilience, which is essential knowledge required when completing effective treatment planning. PMID:26672115

  2. Addressing Public Stigma and Disparities Among Persons With Mental Illness: The Role of Federal Policy

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Stephen M.; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2013-01-01

    Stigma against mental illness is a complex construct with affective, cognitive, and behavioral components. Beyond its symbolic value, federal law can only directly address one component of stigma: discrimination. This article reviews three landmark antidiscrimination laws that expanded protections over time for individuals with mental illness. Despite these legislative advances, protections are still not uniform for all subpopulations with mental illness. Furthermore, multiple components of stigma (e.g., prejudice) are beyond the reach of legislation, as demonstrated by the phenomenon of label avoidance; individuals may not seek protection from discrimination because of fear of the stigma that may ensue after disclosing their mental illness. To yield the greatest improvements, antidiscrimination laws must be coupled with antistigma programs that directly address other components of stigma. PMID:23488484

  3. Genome wide gene expression analysis of two ENU mouse models of major mental illness 

    E-print Network

    Brown, Sarah Mills

    2011-01-01

    Major mental illness is now recognised as one of the leading causes of adult morbidity. Of the adult onset psychiatric disorders, the functional psychoses (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and recurrent major depression) ...

  4. Exploring Food Insecurity among Individuals with Serious Mental Illness: A Qualitative Study

    E-print Network

    Goetz, Jeannine Renee

    2008-05-05

    Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) are likely highly vulnerable to food insecurity, yet this issue remains unexplored within this population. METHODS: A mixed method approach to assess the prevalence and underlying factors was conducted...

  5. Assessing administrative costs of mental health and substance abuse services.

    PubMed

    Broyles, Robert W; Narine, Lutchmie; Robertson, Madeline J

    2004-05-01

    Increasing competition in the market for mental health and substance abuse MHSA services and the potential to realize significant administrative savings have created an imperative to monitor, evaluate, and control spending on administrative functions. This paper develops a generic model that evaluates spending on administrative personnel by a group of providers. The precision of the model is demonstrated by examining a set of data assembled from five MHSA service providers. The model examines a differential cost construction derived from inter-facility comparisons of administrative expenses. After controlling for the scale of operations, the results enable MHSA programs to control the efficiency of administrative personnel and related rates of compensation. The results indicate that the efficiency of using the administrative complement and the scale of operations represent the lion's share of the total differential cost. The analysis also indicates that a modest improvement in the use of administrative personnel results in substantial cost savings, an increase in the net cash flow derived from operations, an improvement in the fiscal performance of the provider, and a decline in opportunity costs that assume the form of foregone direct patient care. PMID:15379386

  6. Zuclopenthixol acetate for acute schizophrenia and similar serious mental illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Jayakody, Kaushadh; Gibson, Roger Carl; Kumar, Ajit; Gunadasa, Shalmini

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication used for acute aggression in psychiatry must have rapid onset of effect, low frequency of administration and low levels of adverse effects. Zuclopenthixol acetate is said to have these properties. Objectives To estimate the clinical effects of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of acute aggression or violence thought to be due to serious mental illnesses, in comparison to other drugs used to treat similar conditions. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia’s Group Trials Register (July 2011). We supplemented this by citation searching and personal contact with authors and relevant pharmaceutical companies. Selection criteria All randomised clinical trials involving people thought to have serious mental illnesses comparing zuclopenthixol acetate with other drugs. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted and cross-checked data independently. We calculated fixed-effect relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data. We analysed by intention-to-treat. We used mean differences (MD) for continuous variables. Main results We found no data for the primary outcome, tranquillisation. Compared with haloperidol, zuclopenthixol acetate was no more sedating at two hours (n = 40, 1 RCT, RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.34). People given zuclopenthixol acetate were not at reduced risk of being given supplementary antipsychotics (n = 134, 3 RCTs, RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.30) although additional use of benzodiazepines was less (n = 50, 1 RCT, RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.47). People given zuclopenthixol acetate had fewer injections over seven days compared with those allocated to haloperidol IM (n = 70, 1 RCT, RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.84, NNT 4, CI 3 to 14). We found no data on more episodes of aggression or harm to self or others. One trial (n = 148) reported no significant difference in adverse effects for people receiving zuclopenthixol acetate compared with those allocated haloperidol at one, three and six days (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.27). Compared with haloperidol or clotiapine, people allocated zuclopenthixol did not seem to be at more risk of a range of movement disorders (< 20%). Three studies found no difference in the proportion of people getting blurred vision/dry mouth (n = 192, 2 RCTs, RR at 24 hours 0.90, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.70). Similarly, dizziness was equally infrequent for those allocated zuclopenthixol acetate compared with haloperidol (n = 192, 2 RCTs, RR at 24 hours 1.15, 95% CI 0.46 to 2.88). There was no difference between treatments for leaving the study before completion (n = 522, RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.31 to 2.31). One study reported no difference in adverse effects and outcome scores, when high dose (50-100 mg/injection) zuclopenthixol acetate was compared with low dose (25-50 mg/injection) zuclopenthixol acetate. Authors’ conclusions Recommendations on the use of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of psychiatric emergencies in preference to ‘standard’ treatment have to be viewed with caution. Most of the small trials present important methodological flaws and findings are poorly reported. This review did not find any suggestion that zuclopenthixol acetate is more or less effective in controlling aggressive acute psychosis, or in preventing adverse effects than intramuscular haloperidol, and neither seemed to have a rapid onset of action. Use of zuclopenthixol acetate may result in less numerous coercive injections and low doses of the drug may be as effective as higher doses. Well-conducted pragmatic randomised controlled trials are needed. PMID:22513898

  7. Reducing the stigma of mental illness in undergraduate medical education: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The stigma of mental illness among medical students is a prevalent concern that has far reaching negative consequences. Attempts to combat this stigma through educational initiatives have had mixed results. This study examined the impact of a one-time contact-based educational intervention on the stigma of mental illness among medical students and compared this with a multimodal undergraduate psychiatry course at the University of Calgary, Canada that integrates contact-based educational strategies. Attitudes towards mental illness were compared with those towards type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Method A cluster-randomized trial design was used to evaluate the impact of contact-based educational interventions delivered at two points in time. The impact was assessed by collecting data at 4 time points using the Opening Minds Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC) to assess changes in stigma. Results Baseline surveys were completed by 62% (n=111) of students before the start of the course and post-intervention ratings were available from 90 of these. Stigma scores for both groups were significantly reduced upon course completion (p < 0.0001), but were not significantly changed following the one-time contact based educational intervention in the primary analysis. Student confidence in working with people with a mental illness and interest in a psychiatric career was increased at the end of the course. Stigma towards mental illness remained greater than for T2DM at all time points. Conclusions Psychiatric education can decrease the stigma of mental illness and increase student confidence. However, one-time, contact-based educational interventions require further evaluation in this context. The key components are postulated to be contact, knowledge and attention to process, where attending to the student’s internal experience of working with people with mental illness is an integral factor in modulating perceptions of mental illness and a psychiatric career. PMID:24156397

  8. Perceptions about mental illness among pre-clinical medical students in Trinidad & Tobago.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, G; Neehall, J E; Simeon, D T; Littlewood, R

    1999-06-01

    Perceptions about mental illness among medical practitioners are likely to determine their capacity to recognise, treat appropriately and refer patients who have mental health problems. It is therefore important that training of medical students in psychiatry is undertaken with knowledge of their attitudes to mental health disorders. We determined the perceptions of 108 pre-clinical medical students (69 males, 39 females; mean age 22 years) toward mental illness in Trinidad & Tobago by analysing their responses to a questionnaire based on a case vignette of a young man with a paranoid psychotic illness. 88% felt that medical treatment in hospital was the best means of treating the illness and 86% suggested that discharge should be conditional on regular visits to a doctor. 89% however opposed the patient's marrying into their families and 85% to his teaching their children. This was associated significantly with having a personal relationship with someone having a mental illness (p < 0.03). Surprisingly, 25% believed that mental illness could be caused by supernatural forces, particularly females who were almost twice as likely as males to express this belief. PMID:10492607

  9. A Psychosynthesis Approach to the Use of Mental Imagery with Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    States that the techniques of mental imagery can help adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse access the inner wisdom necessary to identify, understand, and creatively address issues from the past and develop new and healthier patterns of thinking and behaving. Documents the innovative ways psychosynthesis uses mental imagery with this client…

  10. [Representations of mental illness in the Greek Press: 2001 vs 2011].

    PubMed

    Economou, M; Louki, E; Charitsi, M; Alexiou, T; Patelakis, A; Christakaki, A; Papadimitriou, G N

    2015-01-01

    The media seem to have played a prominent role in shaping the contemporary social image of people with mental illness, by perpetuating the stigma attached to it. Worldwide, a vast amount of research findings converge to the stigmatizing representation of people with mental illness by the media, with reference to the dominant stereotype of violence. The present study aims to explore the representations of mental illness in the Greek Press using a quantitative and qualitative approach. Potential changes in the media portrayal of mental illness during the last decade are also being examined: findings are compared to those of a previous research that took place in 2001, following the same methodology. The sample consisted of press articles referring to mental illness, that were indexed daily from the Greek newspapers during the period July-November 2011. The items were categorized into thematic categories and further analyzed taking in account the use of stigmatizing vocabulary, the reproduction of common myths concerning mental illness, the overall valence of each article (stigmatizing, neutral or anti-stigmatizing) towards people with mental illness, as well as the contextual implications conveyed in the use of psychiatric terms as a metaphor. The largest thematic category that emerged from the sample was that referring to the repercussions of the economic crisis to mental health, followed by the category of articles where psychiatric terms are used as a metaphor. The comparisons made between 2001 and 2011 revealed an improved representation of mental illness in terms of stigma, especially regarding schizophrenia. The public expression of stigma has decreased, with fewer stigmatizing articles and notably more neutral in valence articles. The findings of this study suggest a decline of the media propensity for emotionally charged descriptions and a shift towards objective journalism regarding mental illness. This is most likely to be attributed to the anti-stigma campaigns, targeting media workers, that have been implemented during the last decade in Greece. Nevertheless, the public expression of stigma remains present by taking more subtle forms. Such examples are demonstrated by the semantic context of articles in which psychiatric terms are used as a metaphor, or by the recurrent reference of (unspecified) mental illness on the occasion of violent crime. PMID:26197099

  11. Community Attitudes towards Culture-Influenced Mental Illness: Scrupulosity vs. Nonreligious OCD among Orthodox Jews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirutinsky, Steven; Rosmarin, David H.; Pargament, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Culture may particularly influence community attitudes towards mental illness, when the illness itself is shaped by a cultural context. To explore the influence of culture-specific, religious symptoms on Orthodox Jewish community attitudes, the authors compared the attitudes of 169 Orthodox Jews, who randomly viewed one of two vignettes describing…

  12. Development of a Web-Based Officer's Field Guide to Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Georgiana M.

    2012-01-01

    Probation and parole officers supervise a disproportionate amount of offenders with mental illness. Many causes contribute to this over-representation ranging from deinstitutionalization, to co-occurring disorders, to homelessness. It appears there may be a lack of training specifically for probation and parole officers on the topic of mental

  13. Mental Illness in the Family. Families Today: A Research Sampler on Families and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corfman, Eunice, Ed.

    Science Monographs, published by the National Institute of Mental Health, are book-length, integrative state-of-the-art reviews, critical evaluations of findings, or program assessments of current research on topics related to the NIMH mandate. This set of articles concentrate on mental illness in the family. "Depression and Low-Income,…

  14. Teaching Children about Mental Health and Illness: A School Nurse Health Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSocio, Janiece; Stember, Lisa; Schrinsky, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    A mental health education program designed by school nurses for children ages 10-12 was developed in 2000-2001 and expanded with broader distribution in 2004-2005. Six classroom sessions, each 45 minutes in length, provided information and activities to increase children's awareness of mental health and illness. Education program content included…

  15. Influences of Maternal Mental Illness on Psychological Outcomes for Adolescent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyserman, Daphna; Bybee, Deborah; Mowbray, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Explores the effects of maternal psychiatric symptoms and community functioning on child outcomes in a diverse sample of seriously mentally ill women caring for their teenaged children. In hierarchical multiple regression, for youth depression, we find effects for parenting style and maternal mental health; for youth anxiety and efficacy, effects…

  16. 78 FR 28140 - Tentative Eligibility Determinations; Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...psychosis within specified time periods and for Persian...veterans who developed a mental illness other than psychosis...would give the veteran time to come forward with their mental health issues after they...which is more likely the time they would report...

  17. Social Tie Characteristics and Psychiatric Rehabilitation Outcomes among Adults with Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chronister, Julie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social support has achieved national attention as a key component of the mental health recovery paradigm for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of variance accounted for by four social tie characteristics (social network orientation, emotional support, tangible support, and negative…

  18. Law Students' Attitudes toward and Preparedness for Mentally Ill Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Lisa-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Currently in the United States, there are far more mentally ill individuals in jails and prisons than in mental hospitals or other treatment facilities. Stigma toward this population presents as a major barrier to eradicating this indictment, yet research has shown that education can help to reduce stigma and, in turn, possibly decreasing the…

  19. Perceptions of Mental Illness Stigma: Comparisons of Athletes to Nonathlete Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaier, Emily; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Johnson, Mitchell D.; Strunk, Kathleen; Davis, Joanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Stigma related to mental health and its treatment can thwart help-seeking. The current study assessed college athletes' personal and perceived public mental illness stigma and compared this to nonathlete students. Athletes (N = 304) were National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletes representing 16 teams. Results indicated…

  20. Physical Activity in Individuals with Severe Mental Illness: Client versus Case Manager Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezyak, Jill L.; Chan, Fong; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Catalano, Denise; Chiu, Chung-Yi

    2012-01-01

    The "Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities" was examined as a physical activity measure for people with severe mental illness. Case manager ratings were more closely related to body mass index than clients' ratings, challenging the accuracy of self-report physical activity measures for individuals with severe mental

  1. New Research into General Psychiatric Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There are a variety of models for the mental health care of adults with comorbid intellectual disability (ID) and mental illness. There has been a long-running debate as to whether this should be provided by general psychiatric or specialised ID services. A previous review concluded that there was no clear evidence to support either…

  2. National Instant Criminal Background Check Improvement Act: implications for persons with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Price, Marilyn; Norris, Donna M

    2008-01-01

    The National Instant Criminal Background Check Improvement Act has serious implications for persons with mental illness with regard to the ability to purchase firearms. Federally prohibited persons include those who have been adjudicated as mentally defective, or have been committed to a mental institution, or are unlawful users of or are addicted to a controlled substance. The legislation was intended to expand the reporting practices of states by providing significant financial incentives and disincentives for releasing all relevant records, including those contained within mental health databases, to the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS). As of April 2007, only 22 states were voluntarily submitting records from mental health databases to the NICS. The legislation was introduced following the Virginia Tech tragedy, when public opinion favored tightening control over access to firearms of persons with mental illness. PMID:18354133

  3. "The incarceration revolution": the abandonment of the seriously mentally ill to our jails and prisons.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Joseph D

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that today jails and prisons house many seriously mentally ill citizens who in prior decades have been treated in mental hospitals and community mental health programs. This paper begins with a brief review of the history of support for mental health programs at the federal level and then, using the State of Oregon as an example, describes the new state era of mental health services which is characterized by the increasing use of the criminal justice system as a cornerstone of the treatment of many seriously and chronically mentally ill individuals. Are there any solutions to our current dilemma? The paper ends with this question, and the reader must determine if any of the suggestions posed in this discussion are realistic and/or feasible given the current fiscal and political climate. PMID:21105936

  4. Sport psychiatry: a systematic review of diagnosis and medical treatment of mental illness in athletes.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Claudia L; Factor, Robert M

    2010-11-01

    Sport psychiatry focuses on diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric illness in athletes in addition to utilization of psychological approaches to enhance performance. As this field and its research base are relatively new, clinicians often deliver psychiatric care to athletes without a full understanding of the diagnostic and therapeutic issues unique to this population. In this systematic review, we discuss published findings relating to psychiatric diagnosis and medical treatment of mental illness in athletes. There have been several studies looking at the prevalence of some psychiatric disorders in various athlete populations. Eating disorders and substance abuse are the most studied of these disorders and appear to be common problems in athletes. However, to provide informed understanding and treatment, we especially need more research on overtraining syndrome, bipolar disorder, suicidality, anxiety disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and psychosis in athletes. Research is needed in the areas of prevalence, risk factors, prognosis and the unique experiences facing athletes with any of these disorders. Additionally, there have not been any large, systematic studies on the use of psychotropic medications in athletes. Small studies suggest that some medications may either be performance enhancing or detrimental to performance, but we need larger studies with rigorous methodology. Higher level athletes suffering from psychiatric symptoms often have reservations about taking medications with unknown performance and safety effects, and methodological issues with the current literature database preclude any definitive conclusions on performance effects of psychiatric medications. We need many more, higher quality studies on the use by athletes of antidepressants, mood stabilizers, anxiolytics, stimulants and other ADHD medications, sedative-hypnotics and antipsychotics. Such studies should utilize sensitive performance measures and involve longer term use of psychotropic medications. Furthermore, study subjects should include athletes who actually have the psychiatric disorder for which the medication is proposed, and should include more women. PMID:20942511

  5. California’s Historic Effort to Reduce the Stigma of Mental Illness: The Mental Health Services Act

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Wayne; Berry, Sandra H.; Collentine, Ann M.; Collins, Rebecca; Lebron, Dorthy; Shearer, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    In a historic effort to reduce the stigma of mental illness, California voters approved the Mental Health Services Act in 2004. The law funds a comprehensive statewide prevention initiative that places stigma and discrimination reduction at its center, with 25 projects providing interventions at the institutional, societal, and individual levels. Stakeholders selected specific strategies from the research-based California Strategic Plan on Reducing Stigma and Discrimination. Strategies range from social marketing to increase public knowledge to capacity building at the local level, including training that emphasizes participation by consumers of mental health services and cultural competence. Collectively, these strategies aim to foster permanent change in the public perception of mental illness and in the individual experience of stigma. We examined the context, planning, programming, and evaluation of this effort. PMID:23488486

  6. Sociocultural Factors Associated With Abuse of Mentally Impaired Persons in Imo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chukwu, Ngozi E; Onyeneho, Nkechi G

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sociocultural factors associated with abuse of mentally impaired persons (MIP) in Imo state, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of 1,147 persons aged 10 years and above who had at least one MIP in their household was conducted. Six in-depth interviews and 21 focus group discussion (FGD) sessions with 160 study participants comprising adult male and female members of the communities, respectively, were conducted. The study established that a multitude of cultural and social factors shape the attitude of individuals toward mental impairment and MIPs. It was found that cultural perceptions of the cause of mental impairment as supernatural and evil forces were widespread within the study communities. Among those surveyed, 74.6% were aware that MIPs are victims of abuse. Perpetrators identified were mostly relatives and persons close to MIPs. The findings provide useful insights into gaps in conventional understanding of mental impairment and abuse of MIPs in Imo State. PMID:26470398

  7. Addressing homelessness among people with mental illnesses: a model of long-term philanthropic effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Brousseau, Ruth Tebbets

    2009-01-01

    Foundations are often criticized for their short attention spans and inability to continue funding the toughest social problems. Homelessness among people with mental illnesses is considered among the most intractable of social issues. This paper explores the role of permanent supportive housing in reducing homelessness among the mentally ill; the role of the Corporation for Supportive Housing in developing, authenticating, and disseminating its model; and its long-term funding relationship with the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, which has facilitated this trajectory. The paper tells the story of how long-term funding, strategically used, is making inroads into this serious mental health problem. PMID:19414904

  8. Using research evidence to reframe the policy debate around mental illness and guns: process and recommendations.

    PubMed

    McGinty, Emma E; Frattaroli, Shannon; Appelbaum, Paul S; Bonnie, Richard J; Grilley, Anna; Horwitz, Joshua; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Webster, Daniel W

    2014-11-01

    Recent mass shootings have prompted a national dialogue around mental illness and gun policy. To advance an evidence-informed policy agenda on this controversial issue, we formed a consortium of national gun violence prevention and mental health experts. The consortium agreed on a guiding principle for future policy recommendations: restricting firearm access on the basis of certain dangerous behaviors is supported by the evidence; restricting access on the basis of mental illness diagnoses is not. We describe the group's process and recommendations. PMID:25211757

  9. Treatment of tobacco use disorders in smokers with serious mental illness: toward clinical best practices.

    PubMed

    Evins, A Eden; Cather, Corinne; Laffer, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Addiction to tobacco-derived nicotine remains highly prevalent in the United States, with 18% using daily, and 53% of those with serious mental illness using daily. While smokers with serious mental illness have been excluded from most large nicotine-dependence treatment studies, a growing evidence base is available to guide clinicians in assisting their patients with psychiatric illness to quit smoking. The aim of this review is to present the evidence on safety and efficacy of smoking cessation interventions for those with serious mental illness. Smokers with schizophrenia spectrum disorders should receive varenicline or bupropion with or without nicotine replacement therapy in combination with behavioral treatment. Although more research is needed, preliminary evidence suggests that varenicline in combination with behavioral support is efficacious and well tolerated for smoking cessation for those with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. Controlled trials have found no evidence that in patients with serious mental illness, the use of pharmacotherapeutic cessation aids worsens psychiatric symptoms or increases the rate of psychiatric adverse events. Converging evidence indicates that a majority of smokers with serious mental illness want to quit smoking and that available pharmacotherapeutic cessation aids combined with behavioral support are both effective for, and well tolerated by, these smokers. PMID:25747922

  10. Physical activity attitudes and preferences among inpatient adults with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Sarah J; Chapman, Justin J; Brown, Wendy J; Whiteford, Harvey A; Burton, Nicola W

    2015-10-01

    The life expectancy of adults with mental illness is worse than that of the general population and is largely due to poor physical health status. Physical activity has been consistently recommended for the prevention and management of many chronic physical health conditions and can also have benefits for mental health. This cross sectional study assessed the attitudes towards and preferences for physical activity among inpatient adults with mental illness, and differences by distress and gender. Self-report questionnaires were completed by 101 patients. Findings indicated that inpatient adults with mental illness are interested in doing physical activity while in hospital, primarily to maintain good physical health and improve emotional wellbeing. Fewer than half of participants agreed that physical activity has benefits for serious mental illness. Participants indicated a preference for walking and physical activity that can be done alone, at a fixed time and with a set routine and format. Major barriers were fatigue and lack of motivation. Females were more likely than males to prefer activities done with others of the same gender (P?=?0.001) and at the same level of ability (P?mental illness. PMID:26332079

  11. Police perspectives on responding to mentally ill people in crisis: perceptions of program effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Borum, R; Deane, M W; Steadman, H J; Morrissey, J

    1998-01-01

    In this study, we sampled sworn police officers from three law enforcement agencies (n = 452), each of which had different system responses to mentally ill people in crisis. One department relies on field assistance from a mobile mental health crisis team, a second has a team of officers specially trained in crisis intervention and management of mentally ill people in crisis, and a third has a team of in-house social workers to assist in responding to calls. Calls involving mentally ill people in crisis appear to be frequent and are perceived by most of the officers to pose a significant problem for the department; however, most officers reported feeling well prepared to handle these calls. Generally, officers from the jurisdiction with a specialized team of officers rated their program as being highly effective in meeting the needs of mentally ill people in crisis, keeping mentally ill people out of jail, minimizing the amount of time officers spend on these calls, and maintaining community safety. Officers from departments relying on a mobile crisis unit (MCU) and on police-based social workers both rated their programs as being moderately effective on each of these dimensions except for minimizing officer time on these calls where the MCU had significantly lower ratings. PMID:9924765

  12. Sudden losses and negative appraisal in people with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Thomas; Sherrer, Margaret V; Shen, Ce

    2014-11-01

    Research on the impact of sudden or unexpected losses in people with severe mental illness is scarce. The purpose of our study was to examine the relationship between subjective distress from sudden losses in people with severe mental illness and posttraumatic stress symptoms while controlling for gender, psychiatric symptoms, and negative appraisals. As part of routine care, treatment personnel collected data from 371 community mental health clients diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Hierarchical linear regression revealed that negative appraisals of the self and the world correlated significantly with posttraumatic stress symptoms, and distress from losses accounted for the greatest amount of variance in posttraumatic stress symptoms of the 6 traumas tested. When examined by diagnostic group, only those with schizophrenia spectrum disorder showed a significant association between distress from sudden losses and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Relative to other factors including symptoms of severe mental illness, distress from sudden losses in people with severe mental illness appears to be strongly associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms. PMID:25110974

  13. Narratives About Mental Illnesses in China: The Voices of Generation Y.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lu; Bie, Bijie

    2016-02-01

    This study explores the cultured understanding of mental health and mental illnesses among members of Generation Y in China through a narrative approach. Five prominent narratives are identified through the analysis of stories about mental illnesses collected through semistructured interviews with college students. These five narratives feature the tragic genius, the psychotic criminal, the fragile victim, the antisocial recluse, and the homosexual. These narratives are gendered, in that women are the primary protagonists in the narrative about the fragile victim, while men are featured prominently in the narratives about the tragic genius, the psychotic criminal, and the antisocial recluse. Our study demonstrates that these narratives are based on, and will further reinforce, highly cultural-specific stereotypes and biases about mental illnesses in China. Theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed. PMID:26086419

  14. "Satan has afflicted me!" Jinn-possession and mental illness in the Qur'an.

    PubMed

    Islam, F; Campbell, R A

    2014-02-01

    Mental health stigma in Muslim communities may be partly due to a commonly held belief among some Muslims about the supernatural causes of mental illness (i.e. jinn-possession brought on by one's sinful life). A thematic analysis was carried out on four English translations and the Arabic text of the Qur'an to explore whether the connection between jinn-possession and insanity exists within the Muslim holy book. No connection between spirit-possession and madness or mental illness was found. Pagans taunted and labelled people as jinn-possessed only to ostracize and scapegoat. Linking the labelling of people as jinn-possession to a pagan practice may be used to educate Muslims, so they can reassess their community's stigma towards the mentally ill. PMID:22688386

  15. African American Women's Beliefs About Mental Illness, Stigma, and Preferred Coping Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Heidrich, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, including family-related stress and social stress due to racism, is cyclical, and has serious consequences but can be controlled by treatment. Participants endorsed low perceptions of stigma. Major preferred coping strategies included praying and seeking medical and mental health care. Age differences were found in all variables except stigma. PMID:19650070

  16. 'Old' and 'new' institutions for persons with mental illness: treatment, punishment or preventive confinement?

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O

    2008-09-01

    Despite countless promises for a better life by national commissions, governments and the international community, there has evolved a vicious cycle of neglect, abandonment, indignity, cruel and inhuman treatment, and punishment of persons with mental illness. This shameful history of benign, and sometimes malignant, neglect of persons with mental illness is well understood, with the deep stigma and unredressed discrimination, the deplorable living conditions, and the physical and social barriers preventing their integration and full participation in society. The maltreatment of this vulnerable population has been reinforced by the hurtful stereotypes of incompetency and dangerousness. The belief that persons with mental illness are uniformly dangerous is an equally harmful myth. It provides policy makers with an ostensible justification to exercise control over persons with mental illness, even if they have not committed a violent offence. However, research demonstrates that the class of persons with most mental illnesses is no more dangerous than other populations, and that the vast majority of violence is committed by persons without mental illness. This article will show how this vulnerable population has been unconscionably treated. First, the gross violations of human rights that have occurred, and continue to occur, in 'old' psychiatric institutions will be examined. The deinstitutionalization movement, however, resulted in new places of confinement for this population, such as jails, prisons and homeless shelters. The second part of this paper will explore the new realities of criminal confinement of persons with mental illness. As we will see, incarceration of this vulnerable population in the criminal justice system has caused enormous suffering. If Dostoyevsky was correct that the 'degree of civilization... can be judged by entering its prisons', then by that measure, we are a deeply uncivilized society. PMID:18555496

  17. Self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness: toward caregivers’ empowerment

    PubMed Central

    Girma, Eshetu; Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Dehning, Sandra; Mueller, Norbert; Tesfaye, Markos; Froeschl, Guenter

    2014-01-01

    Background In addition to economic and material burdens, caregivers of people with mental illness are exposed to psychosocial challenges. Self-stigma is among the psychological challenges that can be exacerbated by intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors. Caregivers’ self-stigma can negatively influence the patients’ treatment and rehabilitation process. The objective of this study was to measure the level and correlates of self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness. Methods An interviewer-administered cross-sectional study was conducted in the Jimma University Specialized Hospital Psychiatry Clinic in Ethiopia on a sample of 422 caregivers. Data were collected by trained nurses working in the clinic using a pretested questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression was performed to identify the correlates of self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness. Results The majority (70.38%) of the caregivers were male. On a scale of 0 to 15, with 0 being low and 15 being high, the average self-stigmatizing attitude score was 4.68 (±4.11). A statistically significant difference in mean self-stigma score was found between urban and rural respondents (t=3.95, P<0.05). Self-stigma of caregivers showed significant positive correlation with perceived signs of mental illness (r=0.18, P<0.001), perceived supernatural explanations of mental illness (r=0.26, P<0.001), and perceived psychosocial and biological explanations of mental illness (r=0.12, P<0.01). The only independent predictor of caregivers’ self-stigma was perceived supernatural explanation of mental illness (standardized ?=0.22, P<0.001). Conclusion The tendency of caregivers to avoid being identified with the patients was observed. Low exposure to mental health information was also reported. Caregivers’ self-stigma in this study was significantly correlated with perceived supernatural explanation of mental illness. Since caregivers’ self-stigma may negatively influence patients’ treatment-seeking, adherence, and rehabilitation processes, programs that enhance coping strategies by strengthening self-esteem and empowerment by health care providers and establish family support groups may be helpful to tackle self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness. PMID:24470760

  18. 3 CFR 8645 - Proclamation 8645 of March 31, 2011. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...CAPTA (Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment) Reauthorization Act of 2010...mistreatment like substance abuse, mental illness, and domestic violence. We are...childhood services in order to improve outcomes for young children. As a...

  19. The Mental Health Recovery Movement and Family Therapy, Part I: Consumer-Led Reform of Services to Persons Diagnosed with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehart, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued a consensus statement on mental health recovery based on the New Freedom Commission's recommendation that public mental health organizations adopt a "recovery" approach to severe and persistent mental illness, including services to those dually diagnosed with mental health and…

  20. The development of the serious mental illness physical Health Improvement Profile.

    PubMed

    White, J; Gray, R; Jones, M

    2009-06-01

    WHITE J., GRAY R. & JONES M. (2009) Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing16, 493-498 The development of the serious mental illness physical Health Improvement ProfilePeople with serious mental illness (SMI), such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, are more likely to suffer from a range of long-term physical conditions including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Consequently they will die 10-15 years earlier than the general population. Health services have failed to address this major health inequality because of a lack of consensus about the type and frequency of monitoring people with SMI require and a lack of knowledge and skills in the mental health workforce. We developed the SMI physical Health Improvement Profile to help mental health nurses profile the physical health of the SMI patients they work with and direct them towards the evidence base interventions available to address identified health problems. PMID:19538607

  1. Undergraduate Nursing Students’ Attitudes towards Mental Illness: Implications for Specific Academic Education

    PubMed Central

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Pashupu, Dharma Reddy; Ramachandra; Badamath, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health care professions are not immune to social prejudices and surprisingly share the general public's attitude attributed to people with mental illness. Nursing students are future health manpower research related to nursing students attitudes toward mental illness is limited. Aim: The aim of this following study is to examine the undergraduate nursing students’ attitudes toward people with mental illness. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive design was adopted for the present study. A total of 148 undergraduate nursing students were purposively selected to complete self-reported questionnaires. Results: The nursing students have significant positive attitudes towards mental illness in three of the six attitudes factors: Restrictiveness (8.59), benevolence (29.8) and stigmatization (9.18). However, these students have negative attitudes in separatism (27.1), stereotype (11.5) and pessimistic predictions (11.7) domains as they rated high. Conclusion: Academic education in this area must be planned so as to favor the change of the attitudes that include greater use of teaching strategies that challenge beliefs and assumptions and promote a commitment to provide holistic care to people with mental illness. PMID:25336767

  2. [Care for the mentally ill in the Norwegian counties Troms and Finnmark 1891-1940].

    PubMed

    Fause, Ashild

    2008-12-18

    The article discusses care for the mentally ill, as it emerged and developed in Troms and Finnmark counties in 1891 - 1940. The main objective was to document how publicly supported private care functioned with respect to the well-being of the mentally ill and their situation. How mental illness was defined and perceived by close relatives, care providers, medical practitioners and public authorities was also assessed. Medical records written by district physicians have been central sources; other sources were records from the county council proceedings and public statistics on poverty and health. The private care arrangement was the dominant type of care for the mentally ill in the region throughout the period. This arrangement was subject to public supervision, but its functioning depended on periodic support from somatic institutions and even prisons. The study shows that private care was a well-functioning arrangement in many cases. The mentally ill were often included in the household work and daily-life practices on the farm. The private care system however displayed wide variations, as its quality depended on the care providers, district physicians and last but not least economic support from the local community. PMID:19092966

  3. The Prevalence of Mental Illnesses in U.S. State Prisons: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Seth J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective People with mental illnesses are understood to be overrepresented in the U.S. criminal justice system, and estimates of the prevalence of mental illnesses in corrections settings are crucial for planning and implementing preventive and diversionary policies and programs. Despite consistent scholarly attention, two federal self-report surveys are typically cited, and these may not represent the extent of relevant data. This systematic review identifies studies that assess the prevalence of mental illnesses in U.S. state prisons, in order to develop a broader picture of prison prevalence and identify methodological challenges to obtaining accurate and consistent estimates. Methods Medline, PsycInfo, the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, Social Services Abstracts, Social Work Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts were searched. Studies were included if they were published between 1989 and 2013; focused on U.S. state prisons; reported prevalence of diagnoses/symptoms of DSM Axis I disorders; and identified screening/assessment strategies. Results Twenty-eight articles met inclusion criteria. Estimates of current and lifetime prevalence of mental illnesses varied widely; however, the range of prevalence estimates for particular disorders was much greater—and tended to be higher—in prisons than community samples. Conclusions Operationalizations of mental illnesses, sampling strategies, and case ascertainment strategies likely contributed to inconsistency in findings. Other reasons for study heterogeneity are discussed, and implications for public health are explored. PMID:24686574

  4. Schizophrenia is a major mental illness that has a great impact on patients and their environment. One of the

    E-print Network

    Deco, Gustavo

    Schizophrenia is a major mental illness that has a great impact on patients and their environment of the illness. There are three main types of symptoms: cognitive, negative and positive. The cognitive symptoms

  5. 'Robert Schumann's mental illnesses. (Genius and madness)', by Mlle Dr Pascal (1908a): Introduction and translation by Felicia Gordon.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Felicia

    2015-09-01

    Dr Constance Pascal's study of Robert Schumann's mental illnesses, dating from the early years of the twentieth century, reflects contemporary theories on the relations between gifted individuals and mental illness: the genius vs. madness debate. Pascal's reading of Schumann's musical career, in conjunction with his mental profile, offers a sympathetic and nuanced overview of the composer and a critical perspective on extant theories of his illness. PMID:26254133

  6. Illness management and recovery (IMR) in Danish community mental health centres

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are severe mental illnesses that can have a significant disabling impact on the lives of people. Psychosocial interventions that stress hope and recovery as a part of a multi-dimensional approach are possibly indicated to support people with severe mental illness in facilitating recovery. Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) is a curriculum-based psychosocial intervention designed as structured program with a recovery-oriented approach. The aim of IMR is to rehabilitate people with severe mental illnesses by helping them acquire knowledge and skills in managing their illness and achieve personal recovery goals. Previous randomised clinical trials indicate that IMR can be implemented with a good effect and a high fidelity though further trials are crucial to demonstrate the potential effectiveness of IMR. Methods/Design The trial design is a randomised, assessor-blinded, multi-centre, clinical trial of the IMR program compared with treatment as usual for 200 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder under the care of two community mental health centres in the Capital Region of Denmark. The primary outcome is level of functioning at the end of treatment. The secondary outcomes are disease symptoms; use of alcohol/drugs; individual meaning of recovery; hope; hospital admissions and out-patient psychiatric treatment at the end of treatment and the abovementioned and level of functioning at follow-up 21 months after baseline. Discussion If the results of this trial show IMR to be effective these positive results will strengthen the evidence of IMR as an effective comprehensive psychosocial intervention with a recovery-oriented approach for people with severe mental illness. This will have significant implications for the treatment and recovery of people with severe mental illness. Trial registration Registration number NCT01361698. PMID:21849024

  7. Human rights violations among economically disadvantaged women with mental illness: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Globally women confront manifold violations of human rights and women with poverty and mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. Aim: The aim was to examine the influence of poverty in meeting human rights needs among recovered women with mental illness at family and community level. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study carried out among randomly selected (n = 100) recovered women with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data were collected through face-to-face interview using structured needs assessment questionnaire. Results: Our findings revealed that below poverty line (BPL) participants were not satisfied in meeting their physical needs such as “access to safe drinking water” (?2 = 8.994, P < 0.02), “served in the same utensils” (?2 = 13.648, P < 0.00), had adequate food (?2 = 11.025, P < 0.02), and allowed to use toilet facilities (?2 = 13.565, P < 0.00). The human rights needs in emotional dimension, that is, afraid of family members (?2 = 8.233, P < 0.04) and hurt by bad words (?2 = 9.014, P < 0.02) were rated higher in above poverty line (APL) participants. Similarly, 88.9% of women from APL group expressed that they were discriminated and exploited by the community members (?2 = 17.490, P < 0.00). More than three-fourths of BPL participants (76.1%) believed that there were wondering homeless mentally ill in their community (?2 = 11.848, P < 0.01). Conclusion: There is an urgent need to implement social welfare programs to provide employment opportunities, disability allowance, housing and other social security for women with mental illness. Further, mental health professionals play an essential role in educating the family and public regarding human rights of people with mental illness. PMID:26124524

  8. Health in women on long-term sick leave because of pain or mental illness.

    PubMed

    Lytsy, Per; Larsson, Kjerstin; Anderzén, Ingrid

    2015-03-01

    Mental illness and pain are common causes of long-term sick absence and major difficulties in vocational rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to investigate health in a group of women with pain or mental illness who had exhausted their days of sickness benefit. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 355 women on long-term sick leave participating in controlled intervention studies aiming at returning to work. The study population filled in a written questionnaire with questions of self-rated health and sleep quality and validated indexes of mental health, satisfaction with life and general self-efficacy. Clinical psychiatric screening was performed on 230 individuals. The study population had a mean age of 48.8 years (SD 8.4), with an average time on sick leave of 7.8 years (SD 3.2). Self-rated health and sleep quality was poor compared with other populations. In all, 80.1% had at least one psychiatric diagnosis according to the psychiatric screening, and the average numbers of psychiatric diagnoses were 2.2 (SD 1.9). Foreign-born women showed significantly higher levels of mental illness, poorer self-rated health and sleep quality and lower self-efficacy and life satisfaction than native Swedish women. Women with long sick leave because of mental illness and/or pain have poor self-rated health and sleep quality, high prevalence of mental illness and low self-efficacy and life satisfaction. Psychiatric screening suggests more extensive mental illness than what was stated on the sick leave certificates. The health of foreign-born women seems to be worse than that of native Swedish women. PMID:25203749

  9. Wellness and recovery programs: a model of self-advocacy for people living with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Anand; Jän Myrick, Keris

    2013-05-01

    People living with mental illnesses, their family members, and advocacy groups have long encouraged the mental health system to adopt a greater focus on wellness and recovery. A superficial interpretation of wellness and recovery may cause some clinicians to devalue the possibility and importance of wellness and recovery for the people they serve, and this may inhibit or disrupt the development of a working therapeutic relationship. This column reviews definitions of wellness and recovery and their applicability to serious mental illnesses and provides an overview of several programs that promote wellness and recovery. In addition to peer-led courses, ongoing peer support and a range of applications for mobile devices can help consumers lead a self-directed and affirming life that facilitates symptom management and reduction and maximizes wellness. By understanding wellness and recovery and how people living with mental illnesses achieve these goals, psychiatrists may build rapport with their patients and improve outcomes. By familiarizing oneself with new resources available to people with serious mental illness, mental health clinicians may be able to suggest supports that extend far beyond the time constraints of our current treatment model. PMID:23653082

  10. Treatment of Mentally Ill Offenders in Nine Developing Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Almanzar, Santiago; Katz, Craig L; Harry, Bruce

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric conditions among prisoners in Latin America is greatly underestimated, and because of the lack of awareness about mental illness among service providers in Latin American prisons, oftentimes these conditions go unrecognized or are not treated properly. In the worst-case scenarios, human rights violations occur. Despite the high levels of need, many prisoners have not received adequate or timely treatment. The sparse existing literature documents prison conditions throughout Latin American countries, ranging from poor to extremely harsh, overcrowded, and life threatening. Most prison systems do not meet international prison standards. The information on forensic mental health services and the treatment of offenders with mental illness have been less extensively studied and compared with forensic practices in developed American nations. This study analyzes the existing literature on forensic psychiatry, focusing on nine socioeconomically developing nations in Latin America, to improve understanding of treatment approaches for offenders with mental illness and identify emerging themes. A review was conducted and data were included in regression analyses to investigate information relative to the treatment of offenders with mental illness and its interaction with the mental health system. PMID:26438812

  11. Institutional abuse of children in the Austrian Catholic Church: types of abuse and impact on adult survivors' current mental health.

    PubMed

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Kantor, Viktoria; Weindl, Dina; Knefel, Matthias; Moy, Yvonne; Butollo, Asisa; Jagsch, Reinhold; Glück, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the nature and dimensions of institutional child abuse (IA) by the Austrian Catholic Church and to investigate the current mental health of adult survivors. Data were collected in two steps. First, documents of 448 adult survivors of IA (M=55.1 years, 75.7% men) who had disclosed their abuse history to a victim protection commission were collected. Different types of abuse, perpetrator characteristics, and family related risk factors were investigated. Second, a sample of 185 adult survivors completed the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-C) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Participants reported an enormous diversity of acts of violent physical, sexual, and emotional abuse that had occurred in their childhood. The majority of adult survivors (83.3%) experienced emotional abuse. Rates of sexual (68.8%) and physical abuse (68.3%) were almost equally high. The prevalence of PTSD was 48.6% and 84.9% showed clinically relevant symptoms in at least one 1 of 10 symptom dimensions (9 BSI subscales and PTSD). No specific pre-IA influence was found to influence the development of PTSD in later life (e.g. poverty, domestic violence). However, survivors with PTSD reported a significantly higher total number of family related risk factors (d=0.33). We conclude that childhood IA includes a wide spectrum of violent acts, and has a massive negative impact on the current mental health of adult survivors. We address the long-term effects of these traumatic experiences in addition to trauma re-activation in adulthood as both bear great challenges for professionals working with survivors. PMID:24018068

  12. Landlords' experiences of housing tenants suffering from severe mental illness: a Swedish empirical study.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson-Tops, A; Hansson, L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this Swedish study was to describe landlords' experiences of having tenants suffering from severe mental illness. Sixteen landlords working in private and public housing agencies participated in open in-depth interviews. Data were subjected to a thematic latent content analysis. The results showed that having tenants with severe mental illness entails being confronted with various difficult circumstances, ranging from mismanagement of apartments to sensitivity among neighbours as well as issues regarding provocative behaviour. It involved providing assistance that was far beyond their professional obligations and to be neglected by the community-based psychiatric service system when in need of help. In order to support landlords and to prevent evictions of individuals with severe mental illness, community-based psychiatric services need to be more pro-active in their attempts to achieve collaboration with the parties at hand. PMID:23361470

  13. The mental illness microaggressions scale-perpetrator version (MIMS-P): Reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Lauren; Davidoff, Kristin C; DeLuca, Joseph S; Yanos, Philip T

    2015-09-30

    The study objective was to develop a new measure for use in the empirical measurement of microaggression behaviors perpetrated towards persons with mental illness and examine its psychometric properties. Following development of an initial item pool, 505 participants (students at a large college in New York City and community members recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk program) completed an online survey including a 20-item measure of microaggression behaviors. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three subscales: Assumption of Inferiority (?=0.81), Patronization (?=0.78), and Fear of Mental Illness (?=0.63). Additional analyses supported convergent validity of the measure with two widely used measures of mental illness stigma. The MIMS-P is the first instrument to measure microaggressions endorsed by perpetrators against a socially marginalized group and demonstrates strong psychometric properties. Inclusion of this scale in future research can help facilitate understanding of perpetrator perspectives and assist with intervention development. PMID:26233830

  14. Commentary: bridging the gaps for former inmates with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Tamburello, Anthony C; Selhi, Zoë

    2013-01-01

    Serious mental illness is a prominent and vexing problem within the correctional systems of North America. Simpson and colleagues draw attention to the epidemiology, special characteristics, and management problems relevant to Canadian inmates with serious mental illness. Of great interest to those in the forensic psychiatric field is the matter of continuation of care for mentally ill prisoners, in that untreated or undertreated psychiatric problems are strongly associated with poor social functioning and criminal recidivism. In this commentary, we expand on the discussion in Simpson et al. of the effectiveness of assertive community treatment teams for those former inmates at greatest risk for future involvement with the criminal justice system. We also propose outpatient civil commitment as one strategy to facilitate the successful return of select inmate patients to the community. PMID:24335322

  15. Ripple effects of developmental disabilities and mental illness on nondisabled adult siblings.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Barbara; Song, Jieun; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2014-05-01

    Developmental disabilities and severe mental illness are costly to the affected individual and frequently to their family as well. Little studied are their nondisabled siblings. Here we examine major life course outcomes (education, employment, and marriage) of these siblings in adulthood using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Our sample comprises 113 individuals with developmental disabilities and 337 of their nondisabled siblings; 97 individuals with mental illness and 235 of their nondisabled siblings; and 17,126 unaffected comparison group members. We find that siblings of individuals with mental illness have less education and less employment than the unaffected comparison group, whereas those who have a sibling with developmental disabilities had normative patterns of education and employment, but less marriage and more divorce. Robustness tests incorporating genetic data do not change the conclusions based on the nongenetic analyses. PMID:24607704

  16. Ripple effects of developmental disabilities and mental illness on nondisabled adult siblings

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Barbara; Song, Jieun; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental disabilities and severe mental illness are costly to the affected individual and frequently to their family as well. Little studied are their nondisabled siblings. Here we examine major life course outcomes (education, employment, and marriage) of these siblings in adulthood using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Our sample comprises 113 individuals with developmental disabilities and 337 of their nondisabled siblings; 97 individuals with mental illness and 235 of their nondisabled siblings; and 17,126 unaffected comparison group members. We find that siblings of individuals with mental illness have less education and less employment than the unaffected comparison group, whereas those who have a sibling with developmental disabilities had normative patterns of education and employment, but less marriage and more divorce. Robustness tests incorporating genetic data do not change the conclusions based on the nongenetic analyses. PMID:24607704

  17. Care Giving of People with Severe Mental Illness: An Indian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Janardhana, Navaneetham; Raghunandan, Shravya; Naidu, Dodala Muniratnam; Saraswathi, L.; Seshan, Valli

    2015-01-01

    Background: Caring is a fundamental issue in the rehabilitation of a person with mental illness and more so for people with severe mental illness. The lack of adequate manpower resources in the country is adding and enlisting the responsibility of providing care on the families to provide physical, medical, social and psychological care for their severely unwell mentally ill people. Aim of the Study: To examine the load of caregiving with reference to the types of care during the symptomatic and remission phases of severe mental illness and the various ways in which caregivers adapt their lives to meet the needs of people with severe mental illness. Materials and Methods: The present research draws its data from the 200 families with mental illness in Andra Pradesh and Karnataka in India. The data presented in the study was collected from interviews using an interview schedule with open-ended questions. Results: The study diffuses the notion of ‘care’ as ‘physical’, ‘medical, ‘psychological’ and ‘social’ care. The present article focuses on the caregiving roles of the caregivers of people with schizophrenia, affective disorders and psychosis not otherwise specified (NOS) and found that the caregiving does not differ much between the different diagnosis, but caregiving roles changes from active involvement in physical and medical care to more of social and psychological care during the remission. Conclusion: The study records the incredulous gratitude of caregivers at being acknowledged for the work they do. In that regard, the study itself provides a boost to the morale of tired, unacknowledged caregivers. PMID:25969605

  18. A Systematic Review of Self-Management Health Care Models for Individuals With Serious Mental Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Erin L.; Fenwick, Karissa M.; Barr, Nicholas; Cohen, Heather; Brekke, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The general medical health of individuals with serious mental illnesses is compromised relative to those without serious mental illnesses. To address this health disparity, numerous integrated care strategies are being employed from the system level to the level of individual patients. However, self-management of health care, a strategy considered an integral aspect of typical care, has been infrequently included in interventions for this population. Despite reservations about the capacity of those with serious mental illnesses to self-manage health care, a subset of new interventions focused on general medical health in this population has tested whether models including self-management strategies have empirical support. To understand whether these models are supported, the authors reviewed the evidence for self-management models. Methods This systematic review examined collaborative and integrated care models that include self-management components for individuals with serious mental illnesses. Results Across the 14 studies identified in this review, promising evidence was found that individuals with serious mental health issues can collaborate with health professionals or be trained to self-manage their health and health care. The evidence supports the use of mental health peers or professional staff to implement health care interventions. However, the substantial heterogeneity in study design, types of training, and examined outcomes limited conclusions about the comparative effectiveness of existing studies. Conclusions This review found preliminary support that self-management interventions targeting the general medical health of those with serious mental illnesses are efficacious, but future work is needed to determine what elements of training or skills lead to the most salient changes. PMID:25023057

  19. Hippocampal neurogenesis as a target for the treatment of mental illness: A critical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    DeCarolis, Nathan A.; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Over one-quarter of adult Americans are diagnosed with a mental illness like Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia, and Alzheimer’s Disease. In addition to the exceptional personal burden these disorders exert on patients and their families, they also have enormous cost to society. Although existing pharmacological and psychosocial treatments alleviate symptoms in many patients, the comorbidity, severity, and intractable nature of mental disorders strongly underscore the need for novel strategies. As the hippocampus is a site of structural and functional pathology in most mental illnesses, a hippocampal-based treatment approach has been proposed to counteract the cognitive deficits and mood dysregulation that are hallmarks of psychiatric disorders. In particular, preclinical and clinical research suggests that hippocampal neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons in the adult dentate gyrus, may be harnessed to treat mental illness. There are obvious applications and allures of this approach; for example, perhaps stimulating hippocampal neurogenesis would reverse the overt and noncontroversial hippocampal atrophy and functional deficits observed in Alzheimer’s Disease and schizophrenia, or the more controversial hippocampal deficits seen in MDD and PTSD. However, critical examination suggests that neurogenesis may only correlate with mental illness and treatment, suggesting targeting neurogenesis alone is not a sufficient treatment strategy. Here we review the classic and causative links between adult hippocampal neurogenesis and mental disorders, and provide a critical evaluation of how (and if) our basic knowledge of new neurons in the adult hippocampus might eventually help combat or even prevent mental illness. PMID:20060007

  20. A collaborative approach to reduce hospitalization of developmentally disabled clients with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Patterson, T; Higgins, M; Dyck, D G

    1995-03-01

    Developmentally disabled clients with a concomitant mental illness are often underserved or inappropriately treated because of interorganizational barriers, leading to unnecessary hospitalization and lengthy delays in community placement. To overcome these barriers, agencies responsible for developmental disabilities and mental health services in Spokane County in Washington State developed a collaborative system of care in 1989. An interagency consortium was established to promote coordination of services between the community mental health center, the state hospital, the county human services agency, the state's regional developmental disability service agency, the state institution for the developmentally disabled, and several community agencies serving developmentally disabled persons. Between 1990 and 1992, admissions of developmentally disabled persons to the state hospital were more likely to be appropriate admissions of persons suffering from a mental illness, developmentally disabled clients were discharged more efficiently, and crisis respite services were used in place of hospitalization. In addition, anecdotal reports indicated a reduction of interagency tensions. PMID:7796210

  1. 'You just lose the people you know': relationship loss and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Baker, Amy E Z; Procter, Nicholas G

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the nature, scope and consequences of losses resulting from mental illness. This paper presents findings from a key theme of this study-the loss of relationships. Thematic analysis revealed two categories: loss of intimate relationships, which included subcategories of (i) spouses/partners, (ii) children/parenthood, (iii) family, and (iv) friends; and (2) people within the community, such as people at church and support groups. Relationships are seen as one of the most crucial yet challenging elements to recovery and wellbeing for people affected by mental illness. PMID:25858201

  2. Primary Health Care Experiences of Hispanics with Serious Mental Illness: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Gomes, Arminda P.; Meyreles, Quisqueya; Capitelli, Lucia; Younge, Richard; Dragatsi, Dianna; Alvarez, Juana; Nicasio, Andel; Druss, Benjamin; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examines the primary health care experiences of Hispanic patients with serious mental illness. Forty patients were recruited from an outpatient mental health clinic. Participants reported a combination of perceived discrimination and stigmatization when receiving medical care. They rated the quality of chronic illness care as poor and reported low levels of self-efficacy and patient activation. These indicators were positively associated with how patients viewed their relationships with primary care providers. A grounded model was developed to describe the structural, social, and interpersonal processes that shaped participants’ primary care experiences. PMID:24162079

  3. Coordinating end of life care for individuals with a mental illness--A nurse practitioner collaboration.

    PubMed

    Picot, Sharon Anne; Glaetzer, Karen Michelle; Myhill, Karin Jasmine

    2015-01-01

    People with a severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) who develop a life limiting illness are one of the most vulnerable and marginalised groups of people in society today (Woods, Willison, Kington, & Gavin, 2008). In addition to the effects of mental illness, individuals who also have comorbid life limiting illness frequently suffer the compounding issues of social isolation, declining physical abilities and physical pain. The Integrated Mental Health and Palliative Care Task (IMhPaCT) was an eighteen-month project funded through an Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing Grant. The project included a range of service improvement initiatives to enhance the quality of care for individuals with SPMI who also had a life limiting illness. This paper will report on the collaboration between two nurse practitioners, from the specialities of Mental Health and Palliative Care and their impact on optimising end of life care for this client group. Both specialities are underpinned by similar values including addressing the needs of the whole person and the importance of developing a therapeutic relationship (McGrath & Holewa, 2004). This paper will demonstrate how similarities in philosophy, as well as differences in focus of care, enhanced joint clinical practice at an advanced and extended level. PMID:26285419

  4. Measuring the internalized stigma of parents of persons with a serious mental illness: the factor structure of the parents' internalized stigma of mental illness scale.

    PubMed

    Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Levy-Frank, Itamar; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Kravetz, Shlomo; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Roe, David

    2013-03-01

    Research has revealed that approximately one third of persons with a serious mental illness (SMI) experience elevated internalized stigma, which is associated with a large number of negative outcomes. Family members of persons with SMI are also often subject to stigma, but the degree to which these experiences are internalized and lead to self-stigma has rarely been studied. The present study investigated the factor structure of a modification of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale by Ritsher, Otilingam, and Grajales (Psychiatry Res 121:31-49, 2003). A central assumption of this investigation was that the factor structure of the Parents' Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (PISMI) scale would be similar to the factor structure of the ISMI scale. A total of 194 parents of persons with SMI completed the PISMI scale. The results revealed that the PISMI scale has high internal consistency and that it is made up of three distinctive factors: discrimination experience, social withdrawal and alienation, and stereotype endorsement. These factors are similar, but not identical, to the factors that underlie the ISMI scale. This study's findings also indicate that parents' prominent reaction to self-stigma is stereotype endorsement. PMID:23443038

  5. An Elective Psychiatric Course to Reduce Pharmacy Students’ Social Distance Toward People With Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jingjing; Mehdizadegan, Niki; Simoni-Wastila, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether an elective course on mental health could reduce pharmacy students’ social distance toward people with severe mental illness. Design Course activities included assigned readings, class discussions, student presentations, review of video and other media for examples of social distance, presentations by patients with mental illness, and visits to hospitalized patients in a variety of psychiatric settings. Assessment The Social Distance Scale (SDS) was administered at the beginning and end of the semester to students enrolled in the elective and to a comparator group of students not enrolled in the course. Pharmacy students who did not complete the elective had significantly higher SDS scores than students who completed the elective (18.7 vs. 15.6, p < 0.001). Students enrolled in the course had lower precourse SDS scores, were more likely than their peers to have a personal association with mental illness, and had a decrease in precourse to postcourse scores. Conclusion A course designed to reduce stigma towards the mentally ill can reduce pharmacy students' social distance. PMID:21769148

  6. The Family Challenge of Caring for the Chronically Mentally Ill: A Phenomenological Study

    PubMed Central

    Shamsaei, Farshid; Cheraghi, Fatemeh; Esmaeilli, Ravanbakhsh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Family caregiving for patients with chronic mental illness is influenced by various factors such as political, socioeconomic, and cultural contexts as well as related policies and health services. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the challenges with which the family caregivers of patients with chronic mental illness have to contend. Materials and Methods: The research design was qualitative with a phenomenological approach. The research population consisted of 16 long-term carers expressing interest in participating in the project. The carers were the family members of mentally ill relatives who collected their monthly medications at Farshchian Psychiatry Hospital in Hamadan in 2012. Purposive sampling was used to draw the sample. Data were collected by individual in-depth semi-structured interviews, which were tape-recorded and analyzed via Colaizzi’s phenomenological method. Rigor was assessed regarding credibility, dependability, conformability, and transferability. Results: Our findings highlighted 4 main themes, namely stress and emotional distress, need for education and information, socioeconomic effects and support, and physical strain. Conclusions: Families experience frustrations when providing support and care to their mentally ill relatives. They, therefore, need appropriate support and intervention by mental health services. PMID:26576169

  7. Missed opportunities: childhood learning disabilities as early indicators of risk among homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Michelle Louise; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Frankish, Charles James; Somers, Julian M

    2012-01-01

    Objectives It is well documented that early-learning problems and poor academic achievement adversely impact child development and a wide range of adult outcomes; however, these indicators have received scant attention among homeless adults. This study examines self-reported learning disabilities (LD) in childhood as predictors of duration of homelessness, mental and substance use disorders, physical health, and service utilisation in a sample of homeless adults with current mental illness. Design This study was conducted using the baseline sample from a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Setting Participants were sampled from the community in Vancouver, British Columbia. Participants The total sample included 497 adult participants who met criteria for absolute homelessness or precarious housing and a current mental disorder based on a structured diagnostic interview. Learning disabilities in childhood were assessed by asking adult participants whether they thought they had an LD in childhood and if anyone had told them they had an LD. Only participants who responded positively to both questions (n=133) were included in the analyses. Outcome measures Primary outcomes include current mental disorders, substance use disorders, physical health, service utilisation and duration of homelessness. Results In multivariable regression models, self-reported LD during childhood independently predicted self-reported educational attainment and lifetime duration of homelessness as well as a range of mental health, physical health and substance use problems, but did not predict reported health or justice service utilisation. Conclusions Childhood learning problems are overrepresented among homeless adults with complex comorbidities and long histories of homelessness. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of literature indicating that adverse childhood events are potent risk factors for a number of adult health and psychiatric problems, including substance abuse. Trials registration number This trial has been registered with the International Standard Randomised Control Trial Number Register and assigned ISRCTN42520374. PMID:23175737

  8. Mental illness: diagnostic title or derogatory term? (Attitudes towards mental illness) Developing a learning resource for use within a clinical call centre. A systematic literature review on attitudes towards mental illness.

    PubMed

    Putman, S

    2008-10-01

    With one in three people likely to experience mental health problems during their lifetime, it is paradoxical that stigma and negative attitudes towards mental illness are so prevalent in the UK today. This systematic literature review was completed to investigate what the most common negative attitudes towards mental illness are, and the most common recommendations made to address them. The findings were used to inform teaching resources used in an National Health Service Direct call centre. Guidelines for undertaking a systematic review, produced by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, were used. Terms were set and a search of electronic databases and peer-reviewed academic journals was completed, from which 16 primary research papers (from the UK) were obtained and used. These were assessed, using evidence-based critical appraisal tools, to obtain data pertinent to the original question. This paper describes the process, including a detailed account of the methodologies employed to gather and analyse relevant data. Put into context, alongside key drivers (e.g. government papers), the findings are presented and discussed, along with underlying theories, where appropriate. Recommendations for professional practice are then presented. PMID:18803744

  9. Scientific Research and Corporate Influence: Smoking, Mental Illness, and the Tobacco Industry

    PubMed Central

    Hirshbein, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Mentally ill individuals have always smoked at high rates and continue to do so, despite public health efforts to encourage smoking cessation. In the last half century, the tobacco industry became interested in this connection, and conducted and supported psychiatric and basic science research on the mental health implications of smoking, long before most mental health professionals outside the industry investigated this issue. Initially, representatives of tobacco industry research organizations supported genetics and psychosomatic research to try to disprove findings that smoking causes lung cancer. Tobacco industry research leaders engaged with investigators because of shared priorities and interests in the brain effects of nicotine. By the 1980s, collaborative funding programs and individual company research and development teams engaged in intramural and extramural basic science studies on the neuropharmacology of nicotine. When mental health researchers outside the industry became interested in the issue of the mentally ill and smoking in the mid-1990s, they increasingly explained it in terms of a disease of nicotine addiction. Both the idea that smoking/nicotine does something positive for the mentally ill and the conclusion that it is the result of nicotine dependence have the potential to support corporate agendas (tobacco or pharmaceutical). PMID:21596723

  10. [Stigmatisation and mental illness: medical workers, politics and journalists].

    PubMed

    Touzet, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Stigmatisation of mental health patients results from our social representations. The destigmatisation for which medical workers aim towards falls within the political sphere of psychiatry. The other actors, journalists and politicians, also have an important role to play. They can strengthen stigmatisation when their personal interests go before their professional missions. PMID:21793371

  11. A Journey through the Labyrinth of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Katherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Behind every student dealing with a mental health problem is a family trying to grasp what's happening to their child and struggling to do its best. This personal story shares the journey of a family as it confronts a child with Generalized Anxiety and Panic Disorder and describes the many starts and stops and confusion of diagnosing and…

  12. Responding to the mental health and substance abuse needs of youth in the juvenile justice system: Ohio's Behavioral Health/Juvenile Justice Initiative.

    PubMed

    Kretschmar, Jeff M; Butcher, Fredrick; Kanary, Patrick J; Devens, Rebecca

    2015-11-01

    Discusses how Ohio's responded to the mental health and substance abuse needs of youth in the juvenile justice system by establishing the Ohio's Behavioral Health/Juvenile Justice Initiative. The consequences of a willful neglect of some of our most vulnerable citizens were significant and severe. Many individuals ended up on the streets, and many more found themselves in local jails. Over time, jails became de facto mental health facilities. Unfortunately, jails were, and often continue to be, ill-prepared to effectively screen, assess, and treat individuals with mental health concerns. The majority of juvenile justice involved (JJI) youth has a history of behavioral health (mental health or substance use) problems. Multiple studies estimate that between 65% to 75% of JJI youth have at least one behavioral health disorder, and 20% to 30% report suffering from a serious behavioral disorder. Although the majority of JJI youth has a history of behavioral health issues and trauma, many have not received any treatment when they enter the system. Further, local jurisdictions are often ill-equipped to accurately assess youth for behavioral health problems and provide appropriate treatment. Thus, those issues persist and complicate efforts to reduce future delinquency. Further, substance use issues are considered a direct risk factor for criminal behavior, but mental health issues are typically not. Mental health issues, however, can certainly affect responsivity to programming designed to reduce future delinquency. Americans support juvenile justice reform that focuses on rehabilitation in place of incarceration. The Ohio's Behavioral Health Juvenile Justice (BHJJ) Initiative was established to address the juvenile mental health and substance abuse issues. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26594920

  13. Mental illness and well-being: the central importance of positive psychology and recovery approaches

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A new evidence base is emerging, which focuses on well-being. This makes it possible for health services to orientate around promoting well-being as well as treating illness, and so to make a reality of the long-standing rhetoric that health is more than the absence of illness. The aim of this paper is to support the re-orientation of health services around promoting well-being. Mental health services are used as an example to illustrate the new knowledge skills which will be needed by health professionals. Discussion New forms of evidence give a triangulated understanding about the promotion of well-being in mental health services. The academic discipline of positive psychology is developing evidence-based interventions to improve well-being. This complements the results emerging from synthesising narratives about recovery from mental illness, which provide ecologically valid insights into the processes by which people experiencing mental illness can develop a purposeful and meaningful life. The implications for health professionals are explored. In relation to working with individuals, more emphasis on the person's own goals and strengths will be needed, with integration of interventions which promote well-being into routine clinical practice. In addition, a more societally-focussed role for professionals is envisaged, in which a central part of the job is to influence local and national policies and practices that impact on well-being. Summary If health services are to give primacy to increasing well-being, rather than to treating illness, then health workers need new approaches to working with individuals. For mental health services, this will involve the incorporation of emerging knowledge from recovery and from positive psychology into education and training for all mental health professionals, and changes to some long-established working practices. PMID:20102609

  14. A Comparative Study of Campus Experiences of College Students with Mental Illnesses versus a General College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzer, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine campus experiences and relationships of college students with mental illnesses compared to general student norms using the College Student Experiences Questionnaire to understand potential sources of distress and retention issues. Participants: Responses were obtained from 449 former and current students with mental illnesses

  15. Fear of People with Mental Illnesses: The Role of Personal and Impersonal Contact and Exposure to Threat or Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Jo C.; Link, Bruce G.

    2004-01-01

    Vignette and laboratory experiments suggest that negative reactions to people with mental illness are a direct consequence of their symptomatic behavior, but because of their poor external validity, these studies cannot tell us whether widespread negative public reactions to people with mental illness actually result from observation of…

  16. Young Jamaicans' Attitudes toward Mental Illness: Experimental and Demographic Factors Associated with Social Distance and Stigmatizing Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Dahra; Heatherington, Laurie

    2006-01-01

    Two large-scale studies assessed the nature and correlates of young Jamaicans' attitudes toward mental illness. In study 1, students viewed a videotaped job interview for a teacher whose history was manipulated to include a history of mental illness, or not. Students desired significantly less social distance (i.e., more contact) with the "normal"…

  17. Stigmatisation of Mental Illness and Its Impact on Recruitment of Medical Students to a Career in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Zaza; Hood, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The stigmatisation of mental illness in Australian and other Western societies is now well documented. This article presents a description of the "stigmatisation" problem associated with mental illness, and discusses the impact that this problem has had on the demand for Psychiatry as a career. The approach taken at UWA to address the "recruitment…

  18. Gasoline Abuse in a 10-Year-Old Child with Mental Retardation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mohit; Vankar, GK

    2015-01-01

    Inahalant abuse is of increasing interest in India. The age of onset is typically during adolescence. Gasoline inhalant use is rarely reported in adolescents with intellectual deficit. We report a case of petrol dependence in a 10-year-old child with mental retardation. Possible effect of petrol huffing on behavior and cognition is discussed. PMID:25733844

  19. American Indian Women: Mental Health Issues Which Relate to Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medicine, Beatrice

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the sparse literature concerning the mental health of American Indian and Alaska Native women. Suggests research into various sources of stress experienced by Native women and related to drug and alcohol abuse. Discusses coping mechanisms and the particular stress factors affecting professional Native women. (SV)

  20. New York State Health Foundation: integrating mental health and substance abuse care.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Stephen; Jellinek, Paul; Martinez Garcel, Jacqueline; Hunt, Kelly A; Bunch, Will

    2013-10-01

    Roughly half of all people with severe mental disorders also have substance abuse problems. Yet their care is fragmented: They are treated by either the mental health system or the substance abuse system. In New York State only 10 percent of them receive evidence-based treatment for both conditions. Beginning in 2007 the New York State Health Foundation and two state agencies--the Office of Mental Health and the Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services--began collaborating on ways to integrate the treatment of people with co-occurring disorders. The state agencies removed financial and regulatory barriers to integrated treatment. The foundation provided funding to establish the Center for Excellence in Integrated Care. The center's goal: provide hands-on assistance in implementing best practices to at least half of the state's 1,200 mental health and substance abuse treatment clinics. An evaluation found that the percentage of clinics using best practices doubled after the regulatory and financial changes and the center's intervention. This illustrates the potential that foundations, governments, and nonprofits, working collaboratively, have to improve the care of a neglected and difficult-to-serve population. PMID:24101075

  1. National and Regional Resources Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

    E-print Network

    Huang, Wei

    individuals improve their health and wellness, live a self-directed life, and strive to reach their full endeavors, etc., and the resources to participate in society Community: Relationships and social networksRecovery National and Regional Resources Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

  2. Evolution of Women's Trauma-Integrated Services at the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salasin, Susan E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article a historical overview of the evolution of the Women's Trauma Integrated Services model at the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is presented. Milestones in women's services policy development at SAMHSA (1992-1998) and in trauma treatment development for four different trauma populations (1960-1998)…

  3. Improving Session Attendance in Mental Health and Substance Abuse Settings: A Review of Controlled Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefforge, Noelle L.; Donohue, Brad; Strada, Marilyn J.

    2007-01-01

    Patient nonattendance to scheduled sessions results in excessive costs to mental health and substance abuse providers and compromises the care of clients. This paper presents a comprehensive review of interventions that have been shown to increase session attendance rates in these settings. Unique to other review papers, reliability estimates were…

  4. Children of mentally ill parents—a pilot study of a group intervention program

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Hanna; Anding, Jana; Schrott, Bastian; Röhrle, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The transgenerational transmission of mental disorders is one of the most prominent risk factors for the development of psychological disorders. Children of mentally ill parents are a vulnerable high risk group with overall impaired development and high rates of psychological disorders. To date there are only a few evidence based intervention programs for this group overall and hardly any in Germany. We translated the evidence based Family Talk Intervention by Beardslee (2009) and adapted it for groups. First results of this pilot study are presented. Method: This investigation evaluates a preventive group intervention for children of mentally ill parents. In a quasi-experimental design three groups are compared: an intervention group (Family Talk Intervention group: n = 28), a Wait Control group (n = 9), and a control group of healthy children (n = 40). Mean age of children was 10.41 years and parental disorders were mostly depressive/affective disorders (n = 30), but a small number also presented with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (n = 7). Results: Children of mentally ill parents showed higher rates of internalizing/externalizing disorders before and after the intervention compared to children of parents with no disorders. Post intervention children's knowledge on mental disorders was significantly enhanced in the Family Talk Intervention group compared to the Wait Control group and the healthy control group. Parental ratings of externalizing symptoms in the children were reduced to normal levels after the intervention in the Family Talk Intervention group, but not in the Wait Control group. Discussion: This pilot study of a group intervention for children of mentally ill parents highlights the importance of psycho-education on parental mental disorders for children. Long-term effects of children's enhanced knowledge about parental psychopathology need to be explored in future studies. PMID:26539129

  5. Lowering Cardiovascular Disease Risk for People with Severe Mental Illnesses in Primary Care: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Michie, Susan; Gray, Ben; Stevenson, Fiona; Gilbert, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    Background People with severe mental illnesses die early from cardiovascular disease. Evidence is lacking regarding effective primary care based interventions to tackle this problem. Aim To identify current procedures for, barriers to, and facilitators of the delivery of primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk for people with severe mental illnesses. Method 75 GPs, practice nurses, service users, community mental health staff and carers in UK GP practice or community mental health settings were interviewed in 14 focus groups which were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using Framework Analysis. Results Five barriers to delivering primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses were identified by the groups: negative perceptions of people with severe mental illnesses amongst some health professionals, difficulties accessing GP and community-based services, difficulties in managing a healthy lifestyle, not attending appointments, and a lack of awareness of increased cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses by some health professionals. Identified facilitators included involving supportive others, improving patient engagement with services, continuity of care, providing positive feedback in consultations and goal setting. Conclusion We identified a range of factors which can be incorporated in to the design, delivery and evaluation of services to reduce cardiovascular risk for people with severe mental illnesses in primary care. The next step is determining the clinical and cost effectiveness of primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses, and evaluating the most important components of such interventions. PMID:26317516

  6. Effect of Preventive Interventions in Mentally Ill Parents on the Mental Health of the Offspring: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegenthaler, Eliane; Munder, Thomas; Egger, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Mental illness in parents affects the mental health of their children. A systematic review and a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of interventions to prevent mental disorders or psychological symptoms in the offspring were performed. Method: The Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched for randomized controlled…

  7. Integrating into the Mental Health System from the Criminal Justice System: Jail Aftercare Services for Persons with a Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kristin; Fallon, John; Vogel, Sue; Teachout, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a mental health evidence based practice, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). While ACT has scientific support, it has not been rigorously tested for persons with a severe mental illness and repeated forensic involvement. This article provides preliminary evidence that ACT is best suited for reentry into the mental health…

  8. Validation of a Brief PTSD Scale for Clients with Severe Mental Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Thomas; Shen, Ce; Sherrer, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are more common in severe mental illnesses (SMI) clients than in the general population, yet brief screens for detecting probable PTSD in SMI clients are nonexistent. In a two-part study, the authors used correlation analysis and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis to develop and…

  9. Maternal Custody Status and Living Arrangements of Children of Women with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Roberta G.; Koppelman, Nancy; Solomon, Phyllis

    2004-01-01

    The authors report results of a pilot study on the custody status of 20 women with severe mental illnesses who were parents of a total of 76 children. The mothers had some of their children living with them and others dispersed among kinship and nonkinship arrangements. Qualitative findings illustrate how bewildered these women were about the…

  10. Validating the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale with Persons Who Have Severe Mental Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Thomas; Shen, Ce; Sherrer, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Interview data collected from 275 clients with severe mental illnesses are used to test the construct and criterion validity of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale (PSS). Method: First, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses are used to test whether the scale reflects the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom…

  11. Development and Evaluation of a Pilot Filmmaking Project for Rural Youth with a Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Candice

    2010-01-01

    Six young people from the Grampians region of Victoria who had serious mental illnesses took part in a creative arts project that taught them filmmaking skills and techniques over a five-week period. The project was evaluated using a mixed-method approach. Statistically significant improvements were found in quality of life and social…

  12. Dental Hygiene Students' Preparation for Treatment of Patients with Mental Illnesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Sherry; Reveal, Marge

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 138 dental hygiene programs gathered information on didactic and clinical experiences for preparing students to treat patients with mental illnesses. Although most curricula addressed the issue, inadequate time was allotted. Over half did not provide oral care to these patients; few felt the community's need was met. (MSE)

  13. Diversity of Outcomes Among Adolescent Children of Mothers With Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol T.; Bybee, Deborah; Oyserman, Daphna; Allen -Meares, Paula; MacFarlane, Peter; Hart-Johnson, Tamera

    2004-01-01

    Children of parents with mental illness are an at-risk population according to research on psychiatric outcomes using White, middle-class samples of depressed parents and infants and preschool children. The current study expands this evidence by exploring within-group heterogeneity across psychosocial outcomes, in a racially diverse, low-income…

  14. Using Common Themes: Cost-Effectiveness of Permanent Supported Housing for People with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Thomas Chalmers

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the cost-effectiveness of providing permanent supported housing to homeless people with mental illness. Through the use of billing records and frequency of use charts, researchers were able to map the service usage of a cohort of 268 homeless individuals from both urban and rural communities. The results suggest that…

  15. Supporting Tertiary Students with a Disability or Mental Illness. Good Practice Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2015

    2015-01-01

    Having a disability or ongoing ill health (including mental health conditions) can significantly disrupt an individual's educational attainment and employment prospects, potentially creating lifelong social and economic disadvantage. These students may need additional support to help them successfully complete their studies. In addition, education…

  16. Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease Among Inpatients Who Have Mild Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, S.; Haw, C.; Kirk, J.; Stubbs, J.

    2005-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the UK. The aim of this study was to screen inpatients with mild or borderline intellectual disability, many of whom also have mental illness, for risk factors for CHD. Participants were interviewed, measured and had blood samples taken. Of the 53 participants, 20 (37.7%)…

  17. Do Smoking Cessation Websites Meet the Needs of Smokers with Severe Mental Illnesses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunette, Mary F.; Ferron, Joelle C.; Devitt, Timothy; Geiger, Pamela; Martin, Wendy M.; Pratt, Sarah; Santos, Meghan; McHugo, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Many people learn about smoking cessation through information on the Internet. Whether people with severe mental illnesses, who have very high rates of smoking, are able to use currently available websites about smoking cessation is unknown. The study reported here assessed whether four smoking cessation websites met usability guidelines and…

  18. Firearms regulation, violence and the mentally ill: a contemporary Antipodean appraisal.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    As recent cases of mass murder at Utoya Island in Norway, and in the United States (US) at Virginia Tech, Virginia; Tucson, Arizona; Aurora, Colorado; and Newtown, Connecticut all illustrate, acts of extreme violence involving high powered weapons and committed by persons with a presumed or confirmed mental illness tend to arouse intense public and political debates about the efficacy of firearm regulation and control. Following these tragedies, in the US at least, various law reform measures have been proposed and in some cases implemented designed principally to make it more difficult for mentally ill persons to gain access to firearms. In this article it is contended that measures like these are at best tinkering with the margins of gun control and also have the tendency to reinforce the stigma and discrimination experienced by persons with a mental illness, while perpetuating stereotypes of them as dangerous to themselves and others. Despite these limitations, and while firearm regulation policies and practices vary widely across the globe, most nations still seek in some way to limit access to guns by persons with a mental illness. This article explores in more detail how such policies and practices have been applied in the Australian State of New South Wales and the lessons to be learned elsewhere from this experience. PMID:24768212

  19. Housing Stability among Homeless Individuals with Serious Mental Illness Participating in Housing First Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Carol; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Locke, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from an exploratory study of three programs using the Housing First approach to provide permanent supportive housing for single, homeless adults with serious mental illness and often co-occurring substance-related disorders. This approach provides direct, or nearly direct, access to housing that is intended to be…

  20. Stigma, Discrimination, Treatment Effectiveness and Policy Support: Comparing Public Views about Drug Addiction with Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Colleen L; McGinty, Emma Elizabeth; Pescosolido, Bernice; Goldman, Howard H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study compares current public attitudes about drug addiction with attitudes about mental illness. Methods A web-based national public opinion survey (N=709) was conducted to compare attitudes about stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy support. Results Respondents hold significantly more negative views toward persons with drug addiction compared to those with mental illness. More respondents were unwilling to have a person with drug addiction marry into their family or work closely with them on a job. Respondents were more willing to accept discriminatory practices, more skeptical about the effectiveness of available treatments, and more likely to oppose public policies aimed at helping persons with drug addiction. Conclusions Drug addiction is often treated as a sub-category of mental illness, and health insurance benefits group these conditions together under the rubric of behavioral health. Given starkly different public views about drug addiction and mental illness, advocates may need to adopt differing approaches for advancing stigma reduction and public policy. PMID:25270497

  1. Stigma of Mental Illnesses as Perceived by North Korean Defectors Living in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Jin-Yong; Song, In-Gyu; Bae, Jae-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to provide the information of the stigmas of mental illness such as psychosis, alcoholism, attempt suicide, and depression among North Korean defectors. Methods We examined stigma for the mental illnesses of 639 North Korean defectors aged 19 to 65 years who live in the Settlement Support Center for North Korean Refugees. The stigmas of mental illnesses were assessed using the Perceived Devaluation-Discrimination Scale We directly compared the stigma level between North Korean defectors and the general population of South Korea. Results North Korean defectors had higher perceived stigmas of psychosis and alcoholism and lower perceived stigmas of depression than South Koreans. Perceived stigma associated with attempted suicide was similar for North Korean defectors and South Koreans. Only marital status in sociodemographic variables had associations with higher perceived stigma of psychosis, alcoholism, and depression in the North Korean defectors. North Korean defectors, who spent more than one year in transit country, had associations with lower perceived stigma of psychosis and alcoholism. North Korean defectors, who had the experience of compulsory repatriation to North Korea or North Korean family in South Korea, had an association with higher perceived stigma of depression. Conclusion North Korean defectors had higher perceived stigmas of psychosis and alcoholism and lower perceived stigmas of depression than South Koreans. Further studies are needed to document serial changes in stigmas for mental illnesses associated with the receipt of education at the Settlement Support Center for North Korean defectors. PMID:25670940

  2. Individuals with Mental Illness Can Control Their Aggressive Behavior through Mindfulness Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Adkins, Angela D.; Wahler, Robert G.; Sabaawi, Mohamed; Singh, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Verbal and physical aggression are risk factors for community placement of individuals with serious and persistent mental illness. Depending on the motivations involved, treatment typically consists of psychotropic medications and psychosocial interventions, including contingency management procedures and anger management training. Effects of a…

  3. Anxious Provision and Discourses of Certainty: The Sutured Subject of Mentally Ill Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagan, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a five-year study which explored the engagement of a group of long-term mentally ill adults in community provision in which they learned basic, expressive literacy. The research mapped points in the learning, writing and auto/biographic engagement where set identities were being troubled, and frisson created in the challenge…

  4. Seriously Mentally Ill Women's Safer Sex Behaviors and the Theory of Reasoned Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Mary E.; Pinkerton, Steven D.; Somlai, Anton M.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Gibson, Richard H.; Hackl, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Seriously mentally ill women at risk for HIV infection (n = 96) participated in structured interviews assessing sexual and substance-use behavior over a 3-month period. The majority of the women (63.5%) did not use condoms. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, attitudes toward condom use and perceived social norms about safer sex were…

  5. Recidivism of Offenders with Mental Illness Released from Prison to an Intensive Community Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theurer, Gregory; Lovell, David

    2008-01-01

    An intensive case management treatment program for mentally ill offenders (MIOs) is outlined, and subsequent recidivism of participants is evaluated. Features of the program and its development are discussed. Sixty-four (64) participants released from state prison between 1998 and 2003 were matched with a group of MIOs released earlier on eight…

  6. Vulnerable Children of Mentally Ill Parents: Towards Evidence-Based Support for Improving Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretis, Manfred; Dimova, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of mental illness among parents always represents a stressor affecting the biopsychosocial development of a child. However, due to varying inherent resilience factors, not all children are affected to the same extent. The presence of evidence-based resilience factors is able to minimise or prevent the adverse effects…

  7. Serious Mental Illness and Arrest: The Generalized Mediating Effect of Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, James A.; Lurigio, Arthur J.

    2007-01-01

    Past studies of the mediating effects of substance use on the criminal justice involvement of the mentally ill have tended to focus on a single disorder, schizophrenia, and on violent crimes. This study examined the generality of the relationships among psychiatric disorders, substance use, and arrests for violent, nonviolent, and drug-related…

  8. Parents with Serious and Persistent Mental Illness: Issues in Assessment and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerson, Barry J.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the literature on mentally ill parents and addresses conceptual issues in assessment and services. Critiques methods of assessment and recommends more appropriate and comprehensive assessment protocols. Model programs are discussed with a focus on the development of competent parenting skills combined with social supports for parents who…

  9. Identifying Severely Mentally Ill Inmates: Can Small Jails Comply with Detection Standards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLearen, Alix M.

    Compares detection rates of the Referral Decision Scale (RDS) with a short, officer-administered booking questionnaire at a low capacity jail. Although RDS produced a higher number of false positives, it correctly identified more mentally ill inmates than did the booking procedure. Results suggest that combining both instruments may provide the…

  10. The Homeless Mentally Ill: No Longer Out of Sight and Out of Mind. Human Services Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Rebecca T.; Paterson, Andrea

    1988-01-01

    The homeless mentally ill, numbering approximately 300,000 persons, are a group neglected and forgotten by society. While deinstitutionalization promised a bright future, the necessary, long-term support to implement deinstitutionalization never materialized. Government policies have helped produce problems that encourage recidivism and…

  11. The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantry, D.; Cooper, S. -A.; Smiley, E.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Williamson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Jackson, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: While there is considerable literature on adults with Down syndrome who have dementia, there is little published on the epidemiology of other types of mental ill-health in this population. Method: Longitudinal cohort study of adults with Down syndrome who received detailed psychiatric assessment (n = 186 at the first time point; n =…

  12. "Look, Think and Act": Facilitating Learning with People Who Have Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kralik, Debbie; Koch, Tina

    2005-01-01

    This project responded to the concerns of experienced community health workers who worked with people who had mental illness and resided in Supported Residential Facilities (SRFs) in South Australia. They had identified that urinary and faecal incontinence was common for this group of people and yet it was an issue that had not previously been…

  13. Factors Influencing Self-Esteem among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness: Implications for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahng, Sang Kyoung; Mowbray, Carol

    2004-01-01

    This study analyzed factors affecting self-esteem among individuals with severe mental illness to identify effective targets for social work interventions. Data were obtained from 290 individuals with psychiatric disability recruited from community-based psychosocial rehabilitation agencies. Analyses using structural equation modeling revealed…

  14. Does Television Influence Adolescents' Perceptions of and Attitudes toward People with Mental Illness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnebo, Jurgen; Van Acker, An

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates whether and how (1) cumulative overall exposure to television and (2) cumulative selective exposure to specific television content are related to both estimates of and opinions about people who have mental illnesses. Two hundred fifty-two Belgian high school students completed self-report questionnaires. Measures included…

  15. Caregivers as Money Managers for Adults with Severe Mental Illness: How Treatment Providers Can Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbogen, Eric B.; Wilder, Christine; Swartz, Marvin S.; Swanson, Jeffrey W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To review the prevalence, benefits, and problems associated with families who, either informally or formally as representative payees, manage money for adults with severe mental illness. Methods: Based on empirical research and clinical cases, suggestions are offered for minimizing downsides and capitalizing upon benefits of family…

  16. Conceptualizing Social Integration among Formerly Homeless Adults with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The multiple dimensions of social integration among formerly homeless adults with severe mental illness have not been well-studied. Previous studies have focused on clinical measures or narrow components of social integration. We used a multisite study of chronically homeless adults who were provided housing to (a) identify the main factors…

  17. Effects of Severe Mental Illness Education on MSW Student Attitudes about Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.; Watson, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    Social work students (N=60) in a master's-level course on severe mental illness participated in a quasi-experimental study examining the degree to which increased knowledge about and contact with individuals with schizophrenia during the course would impact their attitudes toward people with the disorder. Results revealed significant improvement…

  18. Psychotropic Medication Adherence among Community-Based Individuals with Developmental Disabilities and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Xi; Marshall, Vincent D.; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Patel, Isha; Chang, Jongwha; Erickson, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Psychotropic medications are a common treatment for mental illness in people with developmental disabilities. Medication adherence is a critical determinant of the effectiveness of psychotropic drugs, but psychotropic medication adherence research specific to this population remains limited. This retrospective study analyzed Marketscan®…

  19. Recovery-Promoting Care as Experienced by Persons with Severe Mental Illness and Substance Misuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruce, Gunilla; Ojehagen, Agneta; Nordstrom, Monica

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores recovery-promoting care as experienced by persons with concomitant severe mental illness and substance misuse. Sixteen in-depth interviews, based on an interview guide concerning their experiences of health, life situation and care, were held with eight participants in an outpatient treatment programme. The analysis aimed to…

  20. Listening to Older Adult Parents of Adult Children with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses qualitative research and narrative analysis to examine the experience of women age 55 and older who are parents caring for adult children with mental illness. Knowledge about the conflicts of older parents with dependent children is underdeveloped. In this study, analysis of women's stories about parenting in later life reveal…

  1. Initial Evaluation of Active Minds: A Student Organization Dedicated to Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Kathleen G.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether a new student organization, Active Minds, aimed at increasing awareness of "mental illness" and reducing stigma had an impact on students' stigma and willingness to seek psychological help. Three classes were recruited to become involved in the organization. In a pretest/posttest design, stigma and willingness to seek…

  2. Coping with the Stigma of Mental Illness: Empirically-Grounded Hypotheses from Computer Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroska, Amy; Har, Sarah K.

    2011-01-01

    This research demonstrates how affect control theory and its computer program, "Interact", can be used to develop empirically-grounded hypotheses regarding the connection between cultural labels and behaviors. Our demonstration focuses on propositions in the modified labeling theory of mental illness. According to the MLT, negative societal…

  3. 77 FR 12522 - Tentative Eligibility Determinations; Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... within specified time periods and for Persian Gulf War veterans who developed a mental illness other than... determination because of the brief time period between discharge and application. In many of these cases, it is.... We also propose a new Sec. 17.109 that would codify in regulation for the first time two...

  4. Acceptance and Avoidance Processes at Different Levels of Psychological Recovery from Enduring Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Vinicius R.; Oades, Lindsay G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the use of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance, two key concepts of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), in the psychological recovery process of people with enduring mental illness. Method. Sixty-seven participants were recruited from the metropolitan, regional, and rural areas of New South Wales, Australia. They all presented some form of chronic mental illness (at least 12 months) as reflected in DSM-IV Axis I diagnostic criteria. The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-19) was used to measure the presence of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance; the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) was used to examine the levels of psychological recovery; and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being was used to observe if there are benefits in utilizing psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance in the recovery process. Results. An analysis of objectively quantifiable measures found no clear correlation between the use of psychological acceptance and recovery in mental illness as measured by the RAS. The data, however, showed a relationship between psychological acceptance and some components of recovery, thereby demonstrating its possible value in the recovery process. Conclusion. The major contribution of this research was the emerging correlation that was observed between psychological acceptance and positive levels of psychological well-being among individuals with mental illness. PMID:26576412

  5. Parents' Grief in the Context of Adult Child Mental Illness: A Qualitative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Meg; Cobham, Vanessa; Murray, Judith; McDermott, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that parents and other family members often grieve their child or relative's mental illness. This grief appears resultant from a profound sense of loss, which has been described as complicated and nonfinite (e.g., Atkinson in "Am J Psychiatry" 151(8):1137-1139, 1994; Davis and Schultz in "Soc Sci Med" 46(3):369-379, 1998; Jones…

  6. Unfinished Business: Student Perspectives on Disclosure of Mental Illness and Success in VET--Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Annie; Street, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Researchers from La Trobe University are investigating the factors affecting successful course completion for Vocational Education and Training (VET) students with a mental illness. The research aims to: (1) Increase individuals' understanding of the factors contributing to successful course completions by students with disclosed or non-disclosed…

  7. The Interrelationship of Self-Determination, Mental Illness, and Grades among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockelman, Karin F.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationships among self-determination, mental illness, and GPAs of university students. Participants were 375 undergraduate students at a large state university. Two instruments based on Self-determination theory were used in this study: the Basic Needs Scale (see Baard, Deci, & Ryan, 2004) and the…

  8. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness among Schizophrenic Patients and Their Families (Comparative Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmoud, Sahar; Zaki, Rania A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was a comparative study aiming to assess the extent of internalized stigma of mental illness among patients with schizophrenia & identify stigma as perceived by family members caring schizophrenic patients. The study was conducted in two settings 1st clinic was outpatient clinic for psychiatric patient affiliated to Abbasia…

  9. Validating a Lifestyle Physical Activity Measure for People with Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezyak, Jill L.; Chan, Fong; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kaya, Cahit; Huck, Garrett

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the measurement structure of the "Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities" (PASIPD) as an assessment tool of lifestyle physical activities for people with severe mental illness. Method: A quantitative descriptive research design using factor analysis was employed. A sample of 72 individuals…

  10. Attitudes about Mental Illness and Professional Danger among New Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theriot, Matthew T.; Lodato, Gayle A.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study comparing attitudes toward mental illness and perceptions of professional danger among new social work students (n=64) and other university students (n=111). Such topics have implications for social work education and curriculum development but have not been studied adequately. Results from…

  11. Racial and Ethnic Cultural Factors in the Process of Acceptance of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizock, Lauren; Russinova, Zlatka

    2013-01-01

    Acceptance of mental illness is essential to promoting recovery and is uniquely impacted by issues of culture, race, and ethnicity. Qualitative case narrative methodology was used to identify themes related to the cultural facilitators and barriers in the acceptance process. Five participant narratives are presented to assist practitioners in…

  12. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Adapted for the Vocational Rehabilitation of Significantly Disabled Mentally Ill Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koons, Cedar R.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Betts, Bette B.; O'Rourke, Beth; Morse, Nesha; Robins, Clive J.

    2006-01-01

    Twelve vocational rehabilitation clients with severe mental illness received a comprehensive adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) delivered in a group format. Treatment consisted of 2 hours of standard DBT skills training per week and 90 minutes of diary card review, chain analysis, and behavioral rehearsal. Participants were selected…

  13. Randomized Trial of Social Rehabilitation and Integrated Health Care for Older People with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueser, Kim T.; Pratt, Sarah I.; Bartels, Stephen J.; Swain, Karin; Forester, Brent; Cather, Corinne; Feldman, James

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Helping Older People Experience Success (HOPES) program was developed to improve psychosocial functioning and reduce long-term medical burden in older people with severe mental illness (SMI) living in the community. HOPES includes 1 year of intensive skills training and health management, followed by a 1-year maintenance phase.…

  14. Preparing Communities for Re-Entry of Offenders with Mental Illness: The ACTION Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Wendy M.; Noether, Chan D.; Steadman, Henry J.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 900,000 people with active symptoms of serious mental illness are booked annually into U.S. jails. Of these, about three quarters have a co-occurring substance use disorder. When these people return to the community they have multiple, complex and interrelated treatment needs, which are often exacerbated by release into the…

  15. The Overweight: Obesity and Plasma Lipids in Adults with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazizova, D.; Puri, B. K.; Singh, I.; Dhaliwal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have reported a higher prevalence of obesity than in the general population, and a trend to an increase in the prevalence of excess weight. However, little information is available on body weight status and lipids levels of adults with ID and co-existing mental illness. The…

  16. Prevalence of Mental Illness, Cognitive Disability, and Their Overlap among the Homeless in Nagoya, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Horita, Ryo; Sado, Tadahiro; Ueki, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Uehara, Ryosuke; Shioiri, Toshiki

    2015-01-01

    Background While the prevalence of mental illness or cognitive disability is higher among homeless people than the general population in Western countries, few studies have investigated its prevalence in Japan or other Asian countries. The present study conducted a survey to comprehensively assess prevalence of mental illness, cognitive disability, and their overlap among homeless individuals living in Nagoya, Japan. Methods Participants were 114 homeless individuals. Mental illness was diagnosed based on semi-structured interviews conducted by psychiatrists. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III, simplified version) was used to diagnose intellectual/ cognitive disability. Results Among all participants, 42.1% (95% CI 33.4–51.3%) were diagnosed with a mental illness: 4.4% (95% CI 1.9–9.9%) with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder, 17.5% (95% CI 11.6–25.6%) with a mood disorder, 2.6% (95% CI 0.9–7.5%) with an anxiety disorder, 14.0% (95% CI 8.8–21.6%) with a substance-related disorder, and 3.5% (95% CI 1.4–8.8%) with a personality disorder. Additionally, 34.2% (95% CI 26.1–43.3%) demonstrated cognitive disability: 20.2% (95% CI 13.8–28.5%) had mild and 14.0% (95% CI 8.8–21.6%) had moderate or severe disability. The percent overlap between mental illness and cognitive disability was 15.8% (95% CI 10.2–23.6%). Only 39.5% (95% CI 26.1–43.3%) of the participants were considered to have no psychological or cognitive dysfunction. Participants were divided into four groups based on the presence or absence of mental illness and/or cognitive disability. Only individuals with a cognitive disability reported a significant tendency toward not wanting to leave their homeless life. Conclusion This is the first report showing that the prevalence of mental illness and/or cognitive disability among homeless individuals is much higher than in the general Japanese population. Appropriate support strategies should be devised and executed based on the specificities of an individual’s psychological and cognitive condition. PMID:26378447

  17. Experiences of motherhood when suffering from mental illness: a hermeneutic study.

    PubMed

    Blegen, Nina Elisabeth; Hummelvoll, Jan Kåre; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2012-10-01

    Being a mother is inseparable from women's existential life. Mothers with mental illness struggle with conflicting and distressing feelings related to motherhood. They seldom obtain the necessary support to increase their control over the determinants of their role as a mother, thus their opportunity of improving their own and their children's mental health is weakened. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of being a mother with mental illness. The research question was: How can mothers' experiences of motherhood when suffering from mental illness be understood? The understanding emerged through a hermeneutical interpretation of the empirical material on four different levels of abstraction. The inductive-deductive approach, inspired by the philosophy of Gadamer, was used. The mothers' experiences were understood in their way of struggling to become good enough mothers, managing to become the mother they longed to be, being present in the caring relationship with their child, as well as being recognized as a mother and living openly and honestly in relationships with others. Addressing the existential needs of motherhood is important for their improvement and recovery, as well as for promoting their children's mental health and well-being. PMID:22583673

  18. Weight Reduction Among People with Severe and Persistent Mental Illness After Health Behavior Counseling and Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Katekaru, Matthew; Minn, Carol E

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of obesity and associated chronic conditions in persons with severe and persistent mental illness has contributed to a mortality rate that is nearly two times higher than the overall population. In 2008, the Central O‘ahu Community Mental Health Center of the Hawai‘i State Department of Health, Adult Mental Health Division began an unfunded, health counseling intervention pilot project to address such concerns for the health of persons with severe and persistent mental illness. This article reviews the results of this intervention. Forty-seven persons with schizophrenia or related disorders were included in the intervention which involved health counseling and monitoring of weight as a risk factor for chronic disease. After five years of counseling and monitoring, medical chart reviews were conducted for each person for data on weight change. Analysis showed weight loss and improvements in body mass index. The results of this project show potential for long-term counseling and monitoring as an intervention for obesity in persons with severe and persistent mental illness. PMID:25954602

  19. How often and how consistently do symptoms directly precede criminal behavior among offenders with mental illness?

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jillian K; Skeem, Jennifer; Kennealy, Patrick; Bray, Beth; Zvonkovic, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    Although offenders with mental illness are overrepresented in the criminal justice system, psychiatric symptoms relate weakly to criminal behavior at the group level. In this study of 143 offenders with mental illness, we use data from intensive interviews and record reviews to examine how often and how consistently symptoms lead directly to criminal behavior. First, crimes rarely were directly motivated by symptoms, particularly when the definition of symptoms excluded externalizing features that are not unique to Axis I illness. Specifically, of the 429 crimes coded, 4% related directly to psychosis, 3% related directly to depression, and 10% related directly to bipolar disorder (including impulsivity). Second, within offenders, crimes varied in the degree to which they were directly motivated by symptoms. These findings suggest that programs will be most effective in reducing recidivism if they expand beyond psychiatric symptoms to address strong variable risk factors for crime like antisocial traits. PMID:24730388

  20. Critical time intervention for reentry from prison for persons with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Draine, Jeffrey; Herman, Daniel B

    2007-12-01

    Critical time intervention (CTI) is a nine-month, three-stage intervention that strategically develops individualized linkages in the community and seeks to enhance engagement with treatment and community supports through building problem-solving skills, motivational coaching, and advocacy with community agencies. It is an empirically supported practice shown to enhance continuity of care for people with mental illness after discharge from homeless shelters and psychiatric hospitals. This article describes CTI as a promising model to provide support for reentry from prison for people with mental illness. A conceptual model is presented for evaluating the impact of CTI on the transition from correctional settings to the community. The model is potentially useful for further development of mental health service-driven models of reentry process and outcome. Although CTI is a potentially useful model for reentry services for this population, challenges remain in adapting it to specific correctional facilities, justice systems, and community contexts. PMID:18048559

  1. Relationship between individual characteristics, neighbourhood contexts and help-seeking intentions for mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Suka, Machi; Yamauchi, Takashi; Sugimori, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    Objective Encouraging help-seeking for mental illness is essential for prevention of suicide. This study examined the relationship between individual characteristics, neighbourhood contexts and help-seeking intentions for mental illness for the purpose of elucidating the role of neighbourhood in the help-seeking process. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted among Japanese adults aged 20–59?years in June 2014. Eligible respondents who did not have a serious health condition were included in this study (n=3308). Main outcome measures Participants were asked how likely they would be to seek help from someone close to them (informal help) and medical professionals (formal help), respectively, if they were suffering from serious mental illness. Path analysis with structural equation modelling was performed to represent plausible connections between individual characteristics, neighbourhood contexts, and informal and formal help-seeking intentions. Results The acceptable fitting model indicated that those who had a tendency to consult about everyday affairs were significantly more likely to express an informal help-seeking intention that was directly associated with a formal help-seeking intention. Those living in a communicative neighbourhood, where neighbours say hello whenever they pass each other, were significantly more likely to express informal and formal help-seeking intentions. Those living in a supportive neighbourhood, where neighbours work together to solve neighbourhood problems, were significantly more likely to express an informal help-seeking intention. Adequate health literacy was directly associated with informal and formal help-seeking intentions, along with having an indirect effect on the formal help-seeking intention through developed positive perception of professional help. Conclusions The results of this study bear out the hypothesis that neighbourhood context contributes to help-seeking intentions for mental illness. Living in a neighbourhood with a communicative atmosphere and having adequate health literacy were acknowledged as possible facilitating factors for informal and formal help-seeking for mental illness. PMID:26264273

  2. 42 CFR 483.134 - Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services (PASARR/MI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... illness requires specialized services (PASARR/MI). 483.134 Section 483.134 Public Health CENTERS FOR... illness requires specialized services (PASARR/MI). (a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to identify... this part, needs a specialized services program for mental illness as defined in § 483.120. (b)...

  3. 42 CFR 483.134 - Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services (PASARR/MI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... illness requires specialized services (PASARR/MI). 483.134 Section 483.134 Public Health CENTERS FOR... illness requires specialized services (PASARR/MI). (a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to identify... this part, needs a specialized services program for mental illness as defined in § 483.120. (b)...

  4. 42 CFR 483.134 - Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services (PASARR/MI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... illness requires specialized services (PASARR/MI). 483.134 Section 483.134 Public Health CENTERS FOR... illness requires specialized services (PASARR/MI). (a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to identify... this part, needs a specialized services program for mental illness as defined in § 483.120. (b)...

  5. 42 CFR 483.134 - Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services (PASARR/MI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... illness requires specialized services (PASARR/MI). 483.134 Section 483.134 Public Health CENTERS FOR... illness requires specialized services (PASARR/MI). (a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to identify... this part, needs a specialized services program for mental illness as defined in § 483.120. (b)...

  6. 42 CFR 483.134 - Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services (PASARR/MI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... illness requires specialized services (PASARR/MI). 483.134 Section 483.134 Public Health CENTERS FOR... illness requires specialized services (PASARR/MI). (a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to identify... this part, needs a specialized services program for mental illness as defined in § 483.120. (b)...

  7. Understanding and addressing religion among people with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Pargament, Kenneth I; Lomax, James W

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in the domain of psychiatry and religion that highlight the double-edged capacity of religion to enhance or damage health and well-being, particularly among psychiatric patients. A large body of research challenges stereotyped views of religion as merely a defense or passive way of coping, and indicates that many people look to religion as a vital resource which serves a variety of adaptive functions, such as self-regulation, attachment, emotional comfort, meaning, and spirituality. There is, however, a darker side to religious life. Researchers and theorists have identified and begun to study problematic aspects of religiousness, including religiously-based violence and religious struggles within oneself, with others, and with the divine. Religious problems can be understood as a by-product of psychiatric illness (secondary), a source of psychiatric illness (primary), or both (complex). This growing body of knowledge underscores the need to attend more fully to the potentially constructive and destructive roles of religion in psychiatric diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. In fact, initial evaluative studies of the impact of spiritually integrated treatments among a range of psychiatric populations have shown promising results. The article concludes with a set of recommendations to advance future research and practice, including the need for additional psychiatric studies of people from diverse cultures and religious traditions. PMID:23471791

  8. [The Discursive Analysis of Mental Health Promotion Efforts Targeting Community-Dwelling Young Adults at High Risk of Mental Illness].

    PubMed

    Hsiung, Der-Yun; Yang, Tzu-Ching; Ma, Wei-Fen

    2015-08-01

    The mental health of adolescents and young adults is an issue of concern worldwide due to the increase in violent incidents that have been perpetrated by members of this age group. Young people at high-risk of mental disability are easily ignored. Therefore, social tensions in society have increased due to safety issues arising from the problems that are associated with mental disabilities in this population. This paper discusses the importance of early identification and early prevention of mental disabilities in high-risk young people, defines high-risk mental illness, and identifies the various subcategories of mental diseases. Based on our review of the literature, the present paper suggests targeting young people in high-risk categories with health promotion that addresses the following six health-promotion lifestyle habits: engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, managing stress, engaging in social relationships, taking responsibility for personal health, and fulfilling self-actualization. This discursive analysis discusses these strategies as safe and sustained interventions for adolescents and young adults that may improve self-awareness and thus maintain health and enhance opportunities to promote an ideal health status. PMID:26242431

  9. Suicide risk assessment and intervention in people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Bolton, James M; Gunnell, David; Turecki, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is the 15th most common cause of death worldwide. Although relatively uncommon in the general population, suicide rates are much higher in people with mental health problems. Clinicians often have to assess and manage suicide risk. Risk assessment is challenging for several reasons, not least because conventional approaches to risk assessment rely on patient self reporting and suicidal patients may wish to conceal their plans. Accurate methods of predicting suicide therefore remain elusive and are actively being studied. Novel approaches to risk assessment have shown promise, including empirically derived tools and implicit association tests. Service provision for suicidal patients is often substandard, particularly at times of highest need, such as after discharge from hospital or the emergency department. Although several drug based and psychotherapy based treatments exist, the best approaches to reducing the risk of suicide are still unclear. Some of the most compelling evidence supports long established treatments such as lithium and cognitive behavioral therapy. Emerging options include ketamine and internet based psychotherapies. This review summarizes the current science in suicide risk assessment and provides an overview of the interventions shown to reduce the risk of suicide, with a focus on the clinical management of people with mental disorders. PMID:26552947

  10. Physical Child Abuse and Teacher Harassment and Their Effects on Mental Health Problems Amongst Adolescent Bully-Victims in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2015-10-01

    This study compared physical child abuse and teacher harassment of bully-victims with other groups and examined their associations with mental health problems in bully-victims. For 6,160 adolescents, experiences of physical child abuse, teacher harassment, peer bullying, and six mental health problem indicators were assessed. Adolescents that had experienced physical child abuse and teacher harassment were more likely to be bully-victims but not neutral or pure victims. Adolescents who reported physical child abuse were more likely to be bully-victims but not pure bullies. Bully-victims that had experienced teacher harassment exhibited more severe depression and insomnia than did those without teacher harassment. Gender had moderating effects on the difference in physical child abuse between bully-victims and neutrals and on the association between physical child abuse and suicidality in bully-victims. Physical child abuse and teacher harassment should be considered when preventive and intervention programs are developed for adolescents. PMID:25300192

  11. The PATS Peer Support Program: Prevention/Early Intervention for Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, John; Bond, Lyndal; O'Brien, Matt; Forer, Danielle; Davies, Liz

    2008-01-01

    PATS (Paying Attention to Self) is a peer support program for adolescent children of parents with a diagnosed mental illness. The program aims to promote positive mental health, reduce the likelihood of mental health difficulties, increase young people's coping skills and empower them to meet their own and their families' needs. PATS combines peer…

  12. [Illness, hospitalization and anxiety: an approach to mental health].

    PubMed

    Gomes, L C; Fraga, M N

    1997-01-01

    With the purpose of completely approaching the patient in the hospital, this research had the goal to identify the generating factors of the of anxiety patient and how they express their uneasiness towards the illness and the hospitalization the data were collected from april/may/96 with adults in a school-hospital and was based on a guide for observation of the anxieting situations and in an interview guide. We found out that the patients' major concerns were: Knowing if their illness has aure, how long they will be there, their and the support of the family. They get sadder at night and in the afternoon, when the staff is reduced, there is more silence and they feel lonely. Only a small percentage of them have the consistent information about the disease and treatment, however, the hospital is mainly identified as a good place for the possibility of cure, good assistance and food. Witnessing the suffering and the dying risk of the neighbour, be discharged, exams and treatment procedures suspended on cancelled, bling communicated of the necessity of bling operated on that the disease doesn't have a cure, were the anxieting factors that were remanked not only in the immediate sections, but also in the late ones of the anxieting situations, prevail passive attitudes such as sadness, crying, depression and negativism. We concluded that the psychic and emotional conditions of the patients in the hospital have to be taken on consideration on hospitals emphasizing a comsiete approach, with special care of the speed of the actions and the consistence of the information given to the patient about their health and treatment. PMID:9775949

  13. [Ignatius of Loyola--gifted or mentally ill?].

    PubMed

    Heinrich, K; Walter, C

    1995-06-01

    Subsequent to a severe injury and under the influence of religious reading, Loyola experienced a dramatic mental change in his spiritual values in the sense of a sublimation to an alternative knighthood. His behaviour patterns observed thereafter were determined by a totality of his attachment to God. Based on this certainty in his faith, which was free from any doubts, and on God, and with the background of fasting and praying, he had visionary and pseudo-hallucinatory experiences. As the founder of an order and head of the community of Jesuits, Ignatius of Loyola proved to be diplomatically highly talented. There is no evidence of any psychotic disease. Also, there is no probability of a personality disorder in the sense of a neurosis. The numerous unusual behaviour patterns of Ignatius cannot be interpreted as psychopathological symptoms. It is justified to call him a genius. PMID:7635382

  14. Novel device helps monitor mental illness http://www.news-medical.net/?id=25286 1 of 3 5/24/2007 3:47 PM

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    Novel device helps monitor mental illness http://www.news-medical.net/?id=25286 1 of 3 5/24/2007 3 > Miscellaneous > Pharmaceutical > Studies/Trials > Women's Health > Novel device helps monitor mental illness to diagnose #12;Novel device helps monitor mental illness http://www.news-medical.net/?id=25286 2 of 3 5

  15. Online support for children of parents suffering from mental illness: a case study.

    PubMed

    Drost, Louisa M; Schippers, Gerard M

    2015-01-01

    From epidemiologic research, we know that children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) have an elevated risk of developing a serious mental disorder. Aside from studies based on risk and resilience, there has been little research on the children's own perceptions. The aim of this study was to expand our understanding of key variables influencing COPMI's seeking support and to explore whether a website targeted at COPMI could help them improve their ability to cope with their circumstances and to find professional help. This case study illustrates one visitor's use of a website that was specifically designed to help COPMI. The visitor was a young adult female whose two parents both suffered from mental illness. She participated for 3 years in an intervention delivered through the website. Several things helped to inform us about her perspective on living with parents suffering from mental illness, her use of the website and the benefits she derived from using the website. These included (a) her story as she told it in the exit interview, (b) her messages to her peers and counsellors, (c) her user data and (d) the content of her chat conversations with her peers. PMID:23904177

  16. Substance abuse and mental health issues within Native American grandparenting families.

    PubMed

    Mignon, Sylvia I; Holmes, William M

    2013-01-01

    Substance abuse and mental health problems among Native Americans are associated with a variety of general health, social, and economic problems. This current study examined Native American grandparents who are raising their grandchildren and found that a child, parent, or grandparent had an alcohol or drug problem in 36% of families. Substance abuse on the part of a parent was correlated with the reasons grandparents were raising their grandchildren. Native American grandparents raising grandchildren cope with a variety of challenges and receive little state-funded assistance or help from others. PMID:23967883

  17. Sociocultural stress and the American native in Alaska: an analysis of changing patterns of psychiatric illness and alcohol abuse among Alaska natives.

    PubMed

    Kraus, R F; Buffler, P A

    1979-06-01

    This paper presents selected morbidity and mortality statistics to outline developing trends and the current status of psychiatric illness and alcohol abuse among the Aleut, Athabascan, Yupik, Inupiat, Tlingit, Haida and Tsimpshian people of Alaska. Analysis of the records of the Indian Health Service, the Community Mental Health Centers and the Alaska Psychiatric Institute, the providers of care for Alaska Natives, shows that the number of individuals treated as inpatients and outpatients for psychiatric illness and alcohol abuse has been rising steadily. Accidental injury and suicidal behavior are common. The treated prevalence rates for these diagnoses exceed recorded rates for other American Native and non-Native groups. For each category of violent death, suicide, homicide, accidents and alcohol, rates for Alaska Natives are higher than rates for Alaska non-Natives, American Indians and the U.S. (all races) and are rising. The data suggest a public health problem in which the primary elements are behavioral disturbance and violent death. PMID:498805

  18. “MOVE!”: Outcomes of a Weight Loss Program Modified for Veterans With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Richard W.; Reeves, Gloria; Tapscott, Stephanie; Medoff, Deborah; Dickerson, Faith; Goldberg, Andrew P.; Ryan, Alice S.; Fang, Li Juan; Dixon, Lisa B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Veterans with serious mental illness are at increased risk of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and a host of related chronic diseases. Although evidence suggests that lifestyle interventions can help mental health consumers achieve modest weight loss, several studies have failed to show a benefit and most have concluded that significant challenges remain in delivering effective interventions. In 2006, the Veterans Health Administration introduced MOVE!, a weight management program that includes behaviorally based dietary and physical activity self-management support. This article describes modifications used to manualize MOVE! for veterans with serious mental illness and reports findings from a randomized controlled trial of the new intervention. Methods Between January 2007 and June 2009, overweight or obese veterans with serious mental illness were randomly assigned to a six-month trial of MOVE! (N=53), which includes both individual and group sessions, or to a control condition that offered basic information about diet and exercise every month (N=56). Weight and metabolic, attitudinal, behavioral, and functional variables were measured at baseline and six months, and weight was also measured monthly. Results Thirty participants in MOVE! and 41 participants in the control group completed the six-month assessment, and only seven lost 5% of their baseline weight; there was no effect of group assignment on weight loss. There were no significant group × time differences in any metabolic, dietary, physical activity, attitudinal, or functional measure. Conclusions Despite the negative findings of this study, research is crucial to identify lifestyle interventions and related supports and services to help veterans with mental illness reduce overweight and obesity. PMID:23584716

  19. Telomeres, early-life stress and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Ridout, Samuel J; Ridout, Kathryn K; Kao, Hung-Teh; Carpenter, Linda L; Philip, Noah S; Tyrka, Audrey R; Price, Lawrence H

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are structures of tandem TTAGGG repeats that are found at the ends of chromosomes and preserve genomic DNA by serving as a disposable buffer to protect DNA termini during chromosome replication. In this process, the telomere itself shortens with each cell division and can consequently be thought of as a cellular 'clock', reflecting the age of a cell and the time until senescence. Telomere shortening and changes in the levels of telomerase, the enzyme that maintains telomeres, occur in the context of certain somatic diseases and in response to selected physical stressors. Emerging evidence indicates that telomeres shorten with exposure to psychosocial stress (including early-life stress) and perhaps in association with some psychiatric disorders. These discoveries suggest that telomere shortening might be a useful biomarker for the overall stress response of an organism to various pathogenic conditions. In this regard, telomeres and their response to both somatic and psychiatric illness could serve as a unifying stress-response biomarker that crosses the brain/body distinction that is often made in medicine. Prospective studies will help to clarify whether this biomarker has broad utility in psychiatry and medicine for the evaluation of responses to psychosocial stressors. The possibility that telomere shortening can be slowed or reversed by psychiatric and psychosocial interventions could represent an opportunity for developing novel preventative and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25832516

  20. Exploring mental health consequences of childhood abuse and the relevance of religiosity.

    PubMed

    Feinson, Marjorie C; Meir, Adi

    2015-02-01

    Although childhood abuse is an established risk factor for mental health problems in adulthood, there is relatively little empirical evidence concerning intervening factors that may mitigate the risk. One potentially protective factor is religiosity. A unique opportunity to explore religiosity's relevance exists with a community-based sample of adult Jewish women that includes sizable subsamples of both rigorously devout ultra-Orthodox (Haredi) and nonreligious Secular Jews. A global measure of any childhood abuse (ACA) includes sexual, physical, and/or emotional abuse. Mental health is assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI distress) and a single item reflecting unresolved anger about the past. Predictors of distress severity are examined with separate hierarchical regressions for each religious observance (RO) group. Despite being located at opposite ends of the religiosity spectrum, several surprising similarities emerge including no significant RO group differences in distress among abuse survivors. Moreover, ACA emerges as the strongest predictor of BSI distress within both groups and regressions explain similar amounts of variance. In contrast, two important differences emerge regarding unresolved anger and any recent abuse (ARA). Anger makes a strong contribution to explaining Haredi distress severity, less so for Secular respondents (6.1% vs. 2.9% respectively) while ARA is significant only for Haredi respondents. These initial findings suggest that abusive traumas in childhood may seriously compromise religiosity's potentially protective role. Broadening the research agenda to focus on resilient survivors would expand our understanding of healing resources-both within and outside of a religious framework. Moreover, a better understanding of unresolved anger would likely enhance interventions with greater potential for mitigating the suffering of those abused in childhood. PMID:25015236