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1

Mental Illness  

MedlinePLUS

... conditions, and insurance companies use it to reimburse for treatment. To be diagnosed with a particular mental illness, ... mentalhealthsurveillance/fact_sheet.html. Accessed July 23, 2012. Treatment approaches for drug addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse. http:// ...

2

Mental Illness, Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, Multiple Disabilities...Whose Patient, Whose Treatment Approach?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews issues in the provision of services to individuals who are mentally ill chemical abusers and addicted (MICAA). Introductory material defines this population and notes that these people are frequently ineligible for services aimed at either mental illness or chemical abuse alone. Service provisions within the psychiatric/mental

Sciacca, Kathleen

3

Substance Abuse in Children of Parents with Mental Illness: Risks, Resiliency, and Best Prevention Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews published research on the effects of parental mental illness diagnosis or symptoms on childhood substance abuse. Risk and protective factors for developing a substance use or related disorder in these children are summarized. Recommendations for substance abuse prevention in children of parents with mental illness are presented and used…

Mowbray, Carol T.; Oyserman, Daphna

2003-01-01

4

Children of Mothers with Histories of Substance Abuse, Mental Illness, and Trauma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children exposed to parental substance abuse, mental illness, and violence face profound challenges, including increased risk for emotional and behavioral problems, substance abuse, and victimization. In this article, we describe the characteristics of a sample of children of women entering treatment. These children had been exposed to domestic…

VanDeMark, Nancy R.; Russell, Lisa A.; O'Keefe, Maura; Finkelstein, Norma; Noether, Chanson D.; Gampel, Joanne C.

2005-01-01

5

Staff experience and understanding of working with abused women suffering from mental illness.  

PubMed

The phenomenon of abused women with mental illness is often unrecognised by staff working within welfare services. This may be explained by staff members' attitudes, insecurity or lack of awareness. Today, there are shortcomings in the knowledge of staff members' experiences and interpretations of abuse against women suffering from mental illness. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe how staff members experience and understand their work with abused women suffering from mental illness. Thematic interviews were conducted with 13 staff members from various welfare services. Data were subject to content analysis. The findings showed that working with abused women was experienced as ambiguous and painful and made the staff act pragmatically. Feelings of ambiguity were mainly related to the lack of theoretical frameworks for interpreting why women with mental illness are exposed to abuse. Painful experiences involved intertwined feelings of distress, frustration, worthlessness, ambivalence and powerlessness. These were all feelings that emerged in the direct encounters with the abused women. In response to the abused women's comprehensive needs, staff members acted pragmatically, implying networking without any sanction from the leaders of the organisation, compliance with routines and taking action in here-and-now situations. By acting pragmatically, staff members could achieve concrete results through their interventions. It is concluded that staff members, working with abused women with mental illness, are in a vulnerable situation and in need of formally accepted and implemented support and legitimacy as well as theoretical knowledge regarding causes and consequences of abuse in this particular group of women. PMID:19245422

Bengtsson-Tops, A; Saveman, B-I; Tops, D

2009-02-24

6

The role of mental illness in alcohol abuse and prescription drug misuse: gender-specific analysis of college students.  

PubMed

The present study examined whether and how collegians' misuse of prescription drugs and alcohol abuse are associated with mental illness and with a lack of mental health care. Nationally representative data were derived from 5,241 full-time American college students who completed the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. We observed the presence of alcohol abuse/dependence and the nonmedical use of prescription drugs to be associated with relatively serious mental illness and with lack of health care. In pursuing gender-specific results, we found that the association between alcohol abuse and mental illness was stronger among females than males. PMID:23662330

Lo, Celia C; Monge, Allison N; Howell, Rebecca J; Cheng, Tyrone C

7

Estimates of economic costs of alcohol and drug abuse and mental illness, 1985 and 1988.  

PubMed Central

The high prevalence of alcohol and drug abuse and mental illness imposes a substantial financial burden on those affected and on society. The authors present estimates of the economic costs from these causes for 1985 and 1988, based on current and reliable data available from national surveys and the use of new costing methodology. The total losses to the economy related to alcohol and drug abuse and mental illness for 1988 are estimated at $273.3 billion. The estimate includes $85.8 billion for alcohol abuse, $58.3 billion for drug abuse, and $129.3 billion for mental illness. The total estimated costs for 1985, $218.1 billion, include $51.4 billion for direct treatment and support costs; $80.8 billion for morbidity costs, the value of reduced or lost productivity; $35.8 billion for mortality costs, the value of foregone future productivity for the 140,593 premature deaths associated with these disorders, based on a 6 percent discount rate and including an imputed value for housekeeping services; and $47.5 billion in other related costs, including the costs of crime, motor vehicle crashes, fire destruction, and the value of productivity losses for victims of crime, incarceration, crime careers, and caregiver services. The cost of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated with drug abuse is estimated at $1 billion, and the cost of fetal alcohol syndrome is estimated at $1.6 billion. The estimates may be considered lower limits of the true costs to society of alcohol and drug abuse and mental illness in the United States.

Rice, D P; Kelman, S; Miller, L S

1991-01-01

8

Neonatal Outcomes and Mental Illness, Substance Abuse, and Intentional Injury During Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental illness (MI), substance abuse (SA), and intentional injury (II) are known individual risk factors for adverse pregnancy\\u000a outcomes. Their combined association with preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) remains relatively unexplored. We\\u000a examined hospital utilization for the co-occurrence of II and MI or SA in pregnant women in Massachusetts and assessed their\\u000a interactive association with PTB and

Anna Wiencrot; Angela Nannini; Susan E. Manning; Joan Kennelly

9

Clinical characteristics related to severity of sexual abuse: A study of seriously mentally ill youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In this study we examined demographic, social, and clinical variables related to sexual abuse histories in a sample of severely mentally ill youth.Method: Data were collected via a retrospective chart review of all patients treated over a 5-year period (1987–1992) at a tertiary care public sector psychiatric hospital. The sample was divided into four groups: no history of sexual

Chris McCurry; Mick Storck

1995-01-01

10

History of Traumatic Abuse and HIV Risk Behaviorsin Severely Mentally Ill Substance Abusing Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies in the United States estimate HIV seroprevalence rates ranging between 4% and 23% for serious mentally ill adults (SMIA; i.e., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other chronic disorders with psychotic features), with substantially greater estimates for risky sexual behaviors. Among the most consistent factors linked to HIV risk in non-SMIA populations is a history of emotional, physical, or sexual

Robert M. Malow; Jessy G. Dévieux; Ligia Martinez; Fred Peipman; Barbara A. Lucenko; Seth C. Kalichman

2006-01-01

11

Detection of co-occurring mental illness among adult patients in the New Jersey substance abuse treatment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: We assessed the detection of mental illness in an adult population of substance abuse patients and the rate of referral for mental health treatment.\\u000aMETHODS: We obtained combined administrative records from 1994 to 1997 provided by the New Jersey substance abuse and mental health systems and estimated detection and referral rates of patients with co-occurring disorders (n = 47,379).

Hsou Mei Hu; Anna Kline; Frederick Y. Huang; Douglas M. Ziedonis

2006-01-01

12

Long-Term Correlates of Childhood Abuse among Adults with Severe Mental Illness: Adult Victimization, Substance Abuse, and HIV Sexual Risk Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately\\u000a high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood\\u000a abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving\\u000a community mental health

Christina S. Meade; Trace S. Kershaw; Nathan B. Hansen; Kathleen J. Sikkema

2009-01-01

13

Confronting a neglected epidemic: tobacco cessation for persons with mental illnesses and substance abuse problems.  

PubMed

Tobacco use exerts a huge toll on persons with mental illnesses and substance abuse disorders, accounting for 200,000 of the annual 443,000 annual tobacco-related deaths in the United States. Persons with chronic mental illness die 25 years earlier than the general population does, and smoking is the major contributor to that premature mortality. This population consumes 44% of all cigarettes, reflecting very high prevalence rates plus heavy smoking by users. The pattern reflects a combination of biological, psychosocial, cultural, and tobacco industry-related factors. Although provider and patient perspectives are changing, smoking has been a historically accepted part of behavioral health settings. Additional harm results from the economic burden imposed by purchasing cigarettes and enduring the stigma attached to smoking. Tailored treatment for this population involves standard cessation treatments including counseling, medications, and telephone quitlines. Further progress depends on clinician and patient education, expanded access to treatment, and the resolution of existing knowledge gaps. PMID:20001818

Schroeder, Steven A; Morris, Chad D

2010-01-01

14

Reliability and validity of a measure of sexual and physical abuse histories among women with serious mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this paper is to describe a standardized questionnaire of histories of abuse among women with serious and persistent mental illness, and to assess its test-retest reliability and its validity.Methods: Seventy women enrolled in an outpatient clinic were asked about childhood histories of physical and sexual abuse in a structured clinical interviews at two times.Results: Test-retest reliability

Elmer Struening

1996-01-01

15

Preliminary Outcomes from a Community Linkage Intervention for Individuals with Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Serious Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Few interventions assist individuals with a mental illness and a co-occurring substance abuse disorder in the transition from hospitalization to outpatient treatment. This change in care is often abrupt, resulting in fragmented treatment that jeopardizes recovery. This article reports on the preliminary outcomes from a new eight-week linkage intervention entitled “Time-Limited Case Management (TLC)” that integrates intensive outreach, Dual

David A. Smelson; Miklos F. Losonczy; Kathy Castles-Fonseca; Bradley D. Sussner; Stephanie Rodrigues; Maureen Kaune; Douglas Ziedonis

2005-01-01

16

Insurance Coverage among People Living with Combined HIV\\/AIDS, Chronic Mental Illness, and Substance Abuse Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

: HIV triply-diagnosed adults (those with chronic mental illness and substance abuse disorders) must rely heavily on public insurance to cover high annual medical costs (~$50,000). This study examines the nature and determinants of insurance coverage (including managed care) for this population, along with annual transitions in coverage. Relative to people living with HIV\\/AIDS in general, fewer triply-diagnosed adults rely

Christopher J. Conover; Marcia Weaver; Peter Arno; Alfonso Ang; Susan L. Ettner

2010-01-01

17

Insurance Coverage among People Living with Combined HIV\\/AIDS, Chronic Mental Illness, and Substance Abuse Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV triply-diagnosed adults (those with chronic mental illness and substance abuse disorders) must rely heavily on public insurance to cover high annual medical costs (~$50,000). This study examines the nature and determinants of insurance coverage (including managed care) for this population, along with annual transitions in coverage. Relative to people living with HIV\\/AIDS in general, fewer triply-diagnosed adults rely on

CostStudy

2010-01-01

18

Motivation and the stages of change among individuals with severe mental illness and substance abuse disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complicating factor affecting the treatment of individuals with coexisting substance use problems and serious mental illness is their motivation for change and how these interacting, chronic conditions affect the entire process of intentional behavior change. This selective review explores conceptual and assessment issues related to readiness to modify substance use and readiness to initiate behaviors helpful for managing mental

Carlo C. DiClemente; Melissa Nidecker; Alan S. Bellack

2008-01-01

19

Substance Abuse Recovery after Experiencing Homelessness and Mental Illness: Case Studies of Change Over Time.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: This paper addresses how consumers with dual diagnosis, who were formerly homeless but are now living in supportive housing, understand their recovery from substance abuse (i.e., substance abuse or dependence). Specifically, this study examined: What can be learned about substance abuse recovery from consumers considered to be doing well; how past substance abuse fits into their present-day narratives; and how (if at all) policies of harm reduction versus abstinence are regarded as affecting recovery efforts. METHODS: As part of a federally-funded qualitative study, 38 individuals who met criteria for having achieved a measure of success in mental health recovery were purposively sampled from two supportive housing agencies - one using a harm reduction and the other an abstinence model. Researchers conducted in-depth interviews and used case study analysis, the latter including the development of case summaries and data matrices, to focus on substance abuse recovery in the larger context of participants' lives. RESULTS: Recovery from substance abuse was depicted as occurring either through discrete decisions or gradual processes; achieving recovery was distinct from maintaining recovery. Emergent themes related to achievement included: (a) pivotal events and people (b) maturation, and (c) institutionalization. Central themes to maintaining recovery were: (a) housing, (b) self-help, and (c) the influence of significant others. CONCLUSIONS: These findings capture a complex picture of overcoming substance abuse that largely took place outside of formal treatment and was heavily dependent on broader contexts. Equally important is that consumers themselves did not necessarily view substance abuse recovery as a defining feature of their life story. Indeed, recovery from substance abuse was seen as overcoming one adversity among many others during their troubled life courses. PMID:22962547

Henwood, Benjamin F; Padgett, Deborah K; Smith, Bikki Tran; Tiderington, Emmy

2012-08-01

20

An Ethnographic Study of the Longitudinal Course of Substance Abuse Among People with Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-year ethnography conducted among 16 dually diagnosed clients yielded two longitudinal findings. First, four “positive quality of life” factors were strongly correlated with clients' efforts to cease using addictive substances: (1) regular engagement in an enjoyable activity; (2) decent, stable housing; (3) a loving relationship with someone sober who accepts the person's mental illness; and (4) a positive, valued

Hoyt Alverson; Marianne Alverson; Robert E. Drake

2000-01-01

21

Race\\/ethnicity, substance abuse, and mental illness among suicide victims in 13 US states: 2004 data from the National Violent Death Reporting System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To calculate the prevalence of substance abuse and mental illness among suicide victims of different racial\\/ethnic groups and to identify race\\/ethnicity trends in mental health and substance abuse that may be used to improve suicide prevention. Methods: Data are from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), a state-based data integration system that, for 2004, includes data from 13

D L Karch; L Barker; T W Strine

2006-01-01

22

The Cost-Effectiveness of Criminal Justice Diversion Programs for People with Serious Mental Illness Co-Occurring with Substance AbuseFour Case Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many cities, counties, and states have criminal justice diversion or jail diversion programs, in which those committing low-level offenses and who have mental illness or substance abuse are diverted from the criminal justice system into treatment. However, there is little existing evidence on the cost and cost-effectiveness of such programs. This article presents the first such estimates for four sites.

Alexander J. Cowell; Nahama Broner; Randolph Dupont

2004-01-01

23

Assisted living in public housing: A case study of mixing frail elderly and younger persons with chronic mental illness and substance abuse histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the Fair Housing Act of 1988, younger chronically mentally ill and substance abuse residents have been admitted to subsidized senior housing. This policy's main purpose was to furnish housing for younger homeless individuals and to improve rental income streams for senior facilities. The policy was also meant to promote age integration, improve social engagement, and enhance informal support in

Leonard F. Heumann

1996-01-01

24

Culture and Mental Illness in Algeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this article is to review research and observations on the associa tion between cultural factors and the rates and symptoms of mental illness in Algeria. In addition to traditional concepts and practices, modern psychiatric services and the classification of mental illness are discussed. Research on depression, schizophrenia, drug-abuse and alcoholism are reported. Two major sociocultural fac

Ihsan Al-Issa

1990-01-01

25

Taking the wrong drugs: the role of substance abuse and medication noncompliance in violence among severely mentally ill individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing numbers of severely mentally ill individuals are being treated in nonhospital, community-based settings and public concern about potential violence by these individuals has increased, often as a result of tragic, albeit uncommon events. The present study examines potential predictors of serious violence among persons with severe mental illness (SMI), with a specific focus on the joint effect of substance

M. S. Swartz; J. W. Swanson; V. A. Hiday; R. Borum; R. Wagner; B. J. Burns

1998-01-01

26

[Mental illness and pregnancy].  

PubMed

Pregnancy was once thought a period of bliss devoid of mental illness. We now know this is not so. It is well documented that pregnancy and the peripartum are not only a time when preexisting mental illness will persist but that it is also a high-risk period for renewed episodes of mental illness, whether de novo or relapse. In this paper, we will describe the three main axis of management of maternal mental illness during the peripartum: maternal psychiatric illness, fetal, neonatal and infant development and future mother-infant relationship. We will give an overview of how to organize care for mothers with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Good practice management of psychotropic medication during this period will be described. Finally the importance of networking and multidisciplinary management of these situations will be underlined. PMID:23236865

Apter, Gisèle; Garez, Valérie; Medjkane, François

2012-09-01

27

[Mental illness and media].  

PubMed

Many knowledges on the mental disease that the community possesses are turning out of information disclosed from the media. It's common in the press to connect actions of violence and murders to the mental diseases. For this reason, the reader is induced to infer that murders and other violent actions are more frequent in people who have suffered from mentally ill, than in the general population. The mystifying impression provided by media accrues from the fact that these reports are rarely compensated from positive reports. Objective of the present study is to characterize the type of information concerning mental illness diffused from the local daily paper "Giornale di Brescia" in the year 2001. The results show that many articles connote negatively the mental disease. The journalistic sensationalism, denounced facing the speech of the prejudgment in the comparisons of the mentally ill people, seems to still remain, in the considered year of publication, one unchanging tendency. PMID:15248412

Magli, Erica; Buizza, Chiara; Pioli, Rosaria

2004-06-01

28

Qualitative Research for and in Practice: Findings from Studies with Homeless Adults Who Have Serious Mental Illness and Co-Occurring Substance Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article draws upon findings from the New York Services Study, a Federally-funded qualitative study conducted in practice\\u000a settings representing two fundamentally different approaches to serving homeless adults with serious mental illness and co-occurring\\u000a substance abuse. The findings yielded four themes—cumulative adversity, individual acts of kindness in a system designed to\\u000a control, discordant case managers’ perspectives, and the benefits of

Deborah K. PadgettBenjamin; Benjamin F. Henwood

29

Disparities in Access to Substance Abuse Treatment among People with Intellectual Disabilities and Serious Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have experienced increasing levels of community participation since deinstitutionalization. This freedom has facilitated community inclusion, access to alcohol and drugs, and the potential for developing substance abuse (SA) disorders. People with ID, who are known to have high rates of co-occurring…

Slayter, Elspeth M.

2010-01-01

30

Disparities in Access to Substance Abuse Treatment among People with Intellectual Disabilities and Serious Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have experienced increasing levels of community participation since deinstitutionalization. This freedom has facilitated community inclusion, access to alcohol and drugs, and the potential for developing substance abuse (SA) disorders. People with ID, who are known to have high rates of co-occurring…

Slayter, Elspeth M.

2010-01-01

31

Working effectively with patients with comorbid mental illness and substance abuse: a case study using a structured motivational behavioural approach  

PubMed Central

This case describes the use of innovative person-centred motivational behaviour change tools to enhance chronic condition self-management with a person with chronic paranoid schizophrenia, significant drug abuse and multiple psychosocial issues. In standard care, the complexity of this patient’s presentation, their cognitive impairment level and history of violence would likely exclude them from many therapies and treatment programs as unsuitable or in the “too hard” basket. In fact, using a motivational and highly person-centred approach proved to be extremely necessary and rewarding for the person and their mental health worker. This approach provided a clear structure, actual tools and a clear rationale for what many would argue, yet is often ill-defined, was “just good clinical practice”. However, it also facilitated the development of “something special” in the relationship between the person and their worker that is central to person-centred care. Through a semistructured, motivational, sequential process that encouraged gradual disclosure and greater self-awareness by the client and active listening by the worker, greater collaboration and shared responsibility was enhanced.

Lawn, Sharon; Pols, Rene G; Battersby, Malcolm W

2009-01-01

32

Factors Affecting Agreement Between Severely Mentally Ill Alcohol Abusers' and Collaterals' Reports of Alcohol and Other Substance Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined subject–collateral reports of alcohol use among a sample of 167 dually diagnosed individuals seeking outpatient treatment at a community mental health clinic. All subjects met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for a schizophrenia-spectrum or bipolar disorder and for alcohol abuse or dependence. Subjects were recruited within 2 weeks

Paul R. Stasiewicz; Paula C. Vincent; Clara M. Bradizza; Gerard J. Connors; Stephen A. Maisto; Nicole D. Mercer

2008-01-01

33

An Integrated, Multidimensional Treatment Model for Individuals Living with HIV, Mental Illness, and Substance Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The challenge of providing effective treatment services for the growing population of HIV-positive individuals who are also dually diagnosed with substance use and mental disorders has only recently been recognized as an important public health concern affecting both HIV treatment and prevention. This article describes a treatment model that was…

Bouis, Stephanie; Reif, Susan; Whetten, Kathryn; Scovil, Janet; Murray, Andrea; Swartz, Marvin

2007-01-01

34

Development of the NIDA-Funded Center on Substance Abuse and Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes one school's effort to establish a social work research development center in the area of coexisting drug and mental disorders (dual disorders), within the context of the social work profession's efforts to compete more effectively for federal research grants. This center was funded as part of a successful application in…

Singer, Mark I.; Kola, Lenore A.; Biegel, David E.

2008-01-01

35

The Stigma of Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

2008-01-01

36

Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness

D J MacIntyre; D H R Blackwood; D J Porteous; B S Pickard; W J Muir

2003-01-01

37

Is Dementia a Mental Illness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine whether dementia is a mental illness.Method: An analysis of decisions in the Supreme Court of New South Wales that dementia per se was not a mental illness in terms of the 1958 Mental Health Act. A brief review of the extrusion of other diseases from psychiatry.Results: Concepts in legislation are based on a dichotomy between mental infirmity

Stephen Ticehurst

2001-01-01

38

Defining mental health and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key featuresDiscussion of the terminological confusion that exists in relation to issues associated with mental health.  The scale of individual suffering from mental health problems and illness among young people.  The worldwide phenomenon of the stigmatization of mental illness, originating during childhood.

Sharon Leighton; Nisha Dogra

39

Drugs, Mental Illness, and Alienation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interrelationship of drug use, psychiatric illness, and alienation was examined in a cohort of high achieving university undergraduates. Thirteen per cent of the subjects had experienced mental illness at some time in their life, usually affective dis...

M. A. Schunckit G. Herrman S. Hineman J. J. Schuckit

1973-01-01

40

Defining 'Mental Illness' In Mental Health Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Mental health policy is shaped,fundamentally,by the definition of mental,ill- ness associated,with the policy. Changing policies reflect changing,definitions. At various times, the definition may be narrow or broad with respect to the scope of conditions cov- ered by a specific policy. The priority accorded,to impairment,severity is the most crucial and enduring policy issue related to the definition of mental illness

Howard H. Goldman; Gerald N. Grob

2006-01-01

41

Mental Illness in the Elderly Mentally Retarded  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life expectancy of mentally retarded citizens has increased significantly in recent decades. At the same time, we have learned that this special population is nearly twice as likely as the general population to develop severe mental illness. These facts, coupled with the psychological and physiological changes that accompany aging in general, are increasingly challenging the mental health professionals of

Frank J. Menolascino; Jane F. Potter

1989-01-01

42

Mental Illness in Nursing Homes Satellite Broadcast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this broadcast is to: increase surveyors' knowledge of mental illness: signs and symptoms of mental illness and best practices in treating residents with mental illness; educate surveyors about Preadmission Screening and Resident Review (PA...

2001-01-01

43

Mental illness and Egyptian families.  

PubMed

People from Egypt have cultural belief systems about mental illness and its causes that are at variance from Anglo-Saxon-derived understandings that predominate in Australian psychiatry. These differences in understanding can affect how mental health services are experienced and accepted by this cultural group. This paper is a review of the literature on Egyptians' beliefs about mental illness and how families in Egypt cope with a relative with mental illness. Because of limited literature on Egyptians' experience with mental illness in Australia, this paper will be used to shed some light on the way in which people experience mental illness and communicate this suffering in the Australian context, based on what has been known to occur in Egypt. The Zar cult and related practices focusing on belief in the evil eye, magic, and evil possession will be explored. Historical and contemporary mental health care systems in Egypt, and the influence of education and religion are discussed. In order to provide culturally sensitive care, nurses need to be aware of possible influences on belief systems about mental illness. This paper has the potential of helping nurses to gain a deeper understanding of cultures that differ from theirs and to provide care to clients and their families based on respect for the others' beliefs, values, and practices. PMID:17535163

Endrawes, Gihane; O'Brien, Louise; Wilkes, Lesley

2007-06-01

44

Screening for and Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis C among an Outpatient Urban Sample of People with Serious Mental Illness and Co-Occurring Substance Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: To assess rates of screening and testing of HIV and HCV among those with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders. Methods: One hundred fifty-three people with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders completed measures and were screened for HIV and HCV. Results: Six percent were HIV…

Himelhoch, Seth; Goldberg, Richard; Calmes, Christine; Medoff, Deborah; Slade, Eric; Dixon, Lisa; Gallucci, Gerard; Rosenberg, Stanley

2011-01-01

45

Students' perception about mental illness  

PubMed Central

Background: In developing countries like India, there are evidences that stigma associated with mental illness is increasing. As in parts of the developing world, with advancement of urbanization and rapid industrialization, people tend to react in a very peculiar and biased way when they confront a mentally ill person. Materials and Methods: The present study aimed to find out students’ opinion about mental illness. A total of 100 students (50 male and 50 female) from Ranchi University were purposively recruited for the study, and the 51-item Opinion about Mental Illness (OMI) Scale was administered. Results: Majority of the students were from Hindu families, of whom 42 (84%) were males and 38 (68%) were females. With regard to OMI scale, the item, viz., ‘The law should allow a woman to divorce her husband as soon as he has been confined in mental hospital with a severe mental illness’, both male (46%) and female (56%) students were neutral (significant at 0.014, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Overall no significant level of difference emerged between male and female students with regard to opinion about mental illness.

Mahto, R. K.; Verma, P. K.; Verma, A. N.; Singh, A. R.; Chaudhury, S.; Shantna, K.

2009-01-01

46

Military Status and Mental Illness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Generally, mental illness incidence rates varied considerably with military status. Overall, the incidence rate for petty officers was approximately twice that for officers, and the incidence rate for unrated enlisted men was more than twice that for pett...

E. K. E. Gunderson R. J. Arthur J. W. Richardson

1968-01-01

47

Emerging Issues with Mentally Ill Offenders: Causes and Social Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons with mental illness and co-occurring substance abuse disorders are incarcerated at disproportionately high rates in comparison to the general population. Reasons may include high standards for involuntary commitment, an overall increase in substance abuse and the policy of deinstitutionalization. However, one significant reason may be that psychiatric institutions serve a social control function, which has not been appreciated by

Marjorie Rock

2001-01-01

48

Juvenile offenders and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author reviews the significance of the presence of mental illnesses to the juvenile justice system. He acknowledges the absence of a satisfactory system for classifying mental disorders among children and adolescents and sketches what so far is known about certain childhood disorders which appear to have a special significance for delinquent behaviour. He reviews studies on the overlap between

Thomas Grisso

1999-01-01

49

Implementing dual diagnosis services for clients with severe mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 20 years of development and research, dual diagnosis services for clients with severe mental illness are emerging as an evidence-based practice. Effective dual diagnosis programs combine mental health and substance abuse interventions that are tailored for the complex needs of clients with comorbid disorders. The authors describe the critical components of effective programs, which include a comprehensive, long-term, staged

Robert E. Drake; Susan M. Essock; Andrew Shaner; Kate B. Carey; Kenneth Minkoff; Lenore Kola; David Lynde; Fred C. Osher; Robin E. Clark; Lawrence Rickards

2001-01-01

50

Substance abuse and the chronically mentally ill: A description of dual diagnosis treatment services in a psychiatric hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 20% and 70% of psychiatric patients have a co-occurring substance use disorder and rates of substance abuse among patients with psychotic disorders are especially high. Patients with co-existing psychosis and substance use disorders typically have poorer outcomes than patients diagnosed with either disorder alone. Frequently, treatment services for such dually diagnosed patients are not integrated and organizational barriers may

Shelly F. Greenfield; Roger D. Weiss; Maurico Tohen

1995-01-01

51

Spending for mental health and substance abuse treatment, 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the result of an ongoing effort to track spending on mental health and substance abuse (MH\\/SA) treatment nationwide. Spending for MH\\/SA treatment was $85.3 billion in 1997: $73.4 billion for mental illness and $11.9 billion for substance abuse. MH\\/SA spending growth averaged 6.8 percent a year between 1987 and 1997, while national health expenditures grew by 8.2

D. McKusick; T. L. Mark; E. King; R. Harwood; J. A. Buck; J. Dilonardo; J. S. Genuardi

1998-01-01

52

Targeting Criminal Recidivism in Mentally Ill Offenders: Structured Clinical Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decreasing criminal recidivism in justice-involved individuals with mental illness, is among the most consistently desired\\u000a outcomes by programs, policy makers and funding agencies. Evidencebased practices with track records of effectiveness in treating\\u000a mental illness and co-occurring substance abuse, while important clinically, do not necessarily address criminal recidivism.\\u000a Addressing recidivism, therefore, may require a more targeted criminal justice focus. In this

Merrill RotterW; W. Amory Carr

53

Technology, Society, and Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

Technology is rapidly changing society, and many activities now require the ability to use technology. This situation has the potential to lead to problems for several populations, including the elderly, the disadvantaged, and people with severe mental illness. In this column, we review the state of technology as it affects daily activities. We then review previous efforts to use technology positively for both the assessment and treatment of psychiatric conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder and severe mental illness. We conclude that technology-based interventions and assessment strategies have the potential to deliver benefit to a wide array of older people and those with severe mental illness, including reaching people who would not have had access otherwise.

SE Keefe, Richard

2012-01-01

54

Mentally Ill Elderly Jail Detainees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively little research has focused specifically on elderly offenders with severe mental illness. This study assessed psychosocial and legal issues in 83 male detainees, age 62 and above, who were hospitalized on a psychiatric forensic unit. This group included 38 Non-Hispanic whites, 31 blacks, 12 Hispanics, and 2 from other groups. Forty percent were diagnosed with a psychotic disorder. A

Cheryl Paradis; Nahama Broner; Lisa-Marie Maher; Thomas Orourke

2000-01-01

55

'Chronic' identities in mental illness.  

PubMed

The term 'chronicity' is still widely used in psychiatric discourse and practice. A category employed in political, administrative and therapeutic contexts, it guides practitioners' beliefs and actions. This paper attempts a review of the attitudes and procedures that result as a consequence of identifying 'chronically' disturbed identities in clinical practice. An essentially social, relational and materialist understanding of mental illness is used to highlight the kind of thinking underlying the notion of 'chronic' identities in day-to-day psychiatric routines. Problematising the notions of singularity and expressiveness, as well as mind/body- and self/other-distinctions, it claims the category itself is responsible for creating a 'chronic' kind of being. A spatial metaphor is presented in the conclusion, illustrating a mental strategy by which we can re-shape our thinking about 'chronic' identities. It attempts to describe how the shift from an epistemological to a praxeographic approach could build a more complete understanding of mental illness. PMID:23528064

von Peter, Sebastian

2013-03-25

56

Utilization of Public Mental Health Services by Adults with Serious Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public mental health (MH) services were examined for non-elderly adults with serious mental illness (SMI) using a database combining information from Medicaid, MH, and substance abuse agencies in three states. These data show that between 23% and 39% of those with SMI received MH services only through Medicaid. Relative use of community versus state hospitals for delivery of psychiatric inpatient

Jeffrey A. Buck; Judith L. Teich; Linda Graver; Don Schroeder; Dian Zheng

2004-01-01

57

Toward a Theology of Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers research describing religious attitudes toward mental illness, including assumptions that mental illness may be evidence of personal sin or demonic influence. These assumptions are critiqued based upon a review of relevant Scriptural passages. A reformulation of theological conceptions of mental illness is then proposed, focusing on the following themes: heroism in frailty, freedom in finitude, complexity in

Marcia Webb

2012-01-01

58

Mental Illness, Metaphysics, Facts and Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of prominent writers on the concept of mental illness\\/disease are committed to accounts which involve rejecting certain plausible widely held beliefs, namely: that it is part of the meaning of illness that it is bad for its possessor, so the concept of illness is essentially evaluative; that if a person has a mental illness, that is a fact

Chris Megone

2007-01-01

59

Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Each year, an estimated 50 million Americans will experience a mental disorder while only one fourth of them will seek mental health services. Contends that this disparity results from the stigma attached to mental illness. Proposes that counselors must educate the general public about the misconceptions of mental illness and advocate for parity…

Brown, Kaylene; Bradley, Loretta J.

2002-01-01

60

Exoneration of the mentally ill.  

PubMed Central

Mental illness may be manifested in the impairment of understanding or of volitional control. Impairment of understanding may be manifested in delusions. Impairment of volitional control is shown when a person is unable to act in accordance with good reasons that he himself accepts. In order for an impairment of understanding or of self-control to exculpate, the offence must be causally connected with the impairment in question. The rationale of exculpation in general, which applies also to the case of mental illness, is that the offence does not indicate a morally bad attitude in the offender. A consequence of this rationale is that Kenny is wrong to hold that no injustice would result from the elimination of the legal defence of diminished responsibility.

Fields, L

1987-01-01

61

Gaols or De Facto Mental Institutions? Why Individuals with a Mental Illness Are Over-Represented in the Criminal Justice System in New South Wales, Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The over-representation of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system highlights the need for legislative reform and the implementation of programs breaking the cycle of mental illness, poverty, unemployment and substance abuse across Australia. Whilst there is no inherent association between mental illness and crime, there is a…

Henderson, Corinne

2007-01-01

62

Talking to Kids about Mental Illnesses  

MedlinePLUS

... and misinformation about mental illnesses cause anxiety, create stereotypes, and promote stigma. During the past 50 years, great advances have been made in the areas of diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Parents can help children understand that these are real illnesses that can ...

63

Supporting the Families of the Mentally Ill  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reformed mental health system that does not support the family adequately only spreads the burden of suffering. The evolution of a more sophisticated and precise biological understanding of mental illness has enlarged the limits of what is possible for family members to undertake. When families are well supported, the mentally ill do better. The federal government can lead through

Craig Jones

2005-01-01

64

"Helpful People in Touch" Consumer Led Self Help Programs for People with Multiple Disorders, Mental Illness, Drug Addiction, and Alcoholism (MIDAA).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the consumer program, "Helpful People in Touch," a self-help treatment program for people with the multiple disorders of mental illness, drug addiction, and/or alcoholism. First, the terms, "Mentally Ill Chemical Abusers and Addicted" (MICAA) and "Chemical Abusing Mentally Ill" (CAMI) are defined and differentiated, with…

Sciacca, Kathleen

65

Community Corrections in America: New Directions and Sounder Investments for Persons with Mental Illness and Codisorders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph is the fourth in a series designed to further the goal of humane and effective mental health and substance abuse treatment for persons with mental illness in the criminal justice system. Since 1989, the National Coalition for Substance Abus...

1996-01-01

66

The course, treatment, and outcome of substance disorder in persons with severe mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with co-occurring substance abuse and severe mental illness are particularly vulnerable to negative outcomes. This paper reviews findings on the longitudinal course of dual disorders in traditional treatment systems, which provide separate mental health and substance-abuse programs; describes the movement toward programs that integrate both types of treatment at the clinical level; reviews evidence related to outcomes in integrated

Robert E. Drake; Kim T. Mueser; Robin E. Clark; Michael E. Wallach

1996-01-01

67

Stigma and the Politics of Biomedical Models of Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a critical analysis of the strategic use of biomedical models of mental illness as a means of challenging stigma. Likening mental illnesses to physical illnesses (1) reinforces notions that persons with mental illnesses are of a fundamentally \\

Angela K. Thachuk

2011-01-01

68

Mental Health Needs of the Chronically Mentally Ill Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment histories and current social, financial, and clinical status of 111 chronically mentally ill (CMI) persons over the age of 60 were examined. Information was obtained from Ss, family, mental health records, and mental health professionals familiar with Ss. Psychiatric symptoms were observed in 74% of Ss. Many Ss experienced long periods without acute episodes of illness. Recurring episodes

Suzanne Meeks; Laura L. Carstensen; Philip B. Stafford; Laura L. Brenner; Frank Weathers; Rhonda Welch; Thomas F. Oltmanns

1990-01-01

69

Homelessness, the chronic mentally ill and community mental health centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current efforts in the development of improved systems of care for the chronically mentally ill represent yet another phase in the evolution of mental health policy in this country. As described in the literature (Goldman and Morrissey 1985), the history of public policy on behalf of the mentally ill reflects a cyclical pattern of institutional reforms. Each cycle is marked

A. Anthony Arce; Michael J. Vergare

1987-01-01

70

Evolving Definitions of Mental Illness and Wellness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding of the definitions of wellness and illness has changed from the mid-20th century to modern times, moving from a diagnosis-focused to a person-focused defini- tion of mental illnesses, and from an \\

Ronald W. Manderscheid; Carol D. Ryff; Elsie J. Freeman; Lela R. McKnight-Eily; Satvinder Dhingra; Tara W. Strine

2010-01-01

71

Access to primary care for homeless veterans with serious mental illness or substance abuse: a follow-up evaluation of co-located primary care and homeless social services.  

PubMed

To examine the hypothesis that a demonstration clinic integrating homeless, primary care, and mental health services for homeless veterans with serious mental illness or substance abuse would improve medical health care access and physical health status. A quasi-experimental design comparing a 'usual VA care' group before the demonstration clinic opened (N = 130) and the 'integrated care' group (N = 130). Regression models indicated that the integrated care group was more rapidly enrolled in primary care, received more prevention services and primary care visits, and fewer emergency department visits, and was not different in inpatient utilization or in physical health status over 18 months. The demonstration clinic improved access to primary care services and reduced emergency services but did not improve perceived physical health status over 18 months. Further research is needed to determine generalizability and longer term effects. PMID:19280333

McGuire, James; Gelberg, Lillian; Blue-Howells, Jessica; Rosenheck, Robert A

2009-03-12

72

Archiving Social Policy: The Florida Commission on Mental Health and Substance Abuse Collection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the importance of archiving state commission papers, documenting the formation of public policy, and allowing the public access to an organized collection of the data gathered by the Florida Commission on Mental Health and Substance Abuse. Florida's citizens with mental illnesses or substance abuse disorders face a myriad of…

Bishop, B. W.

2007-01-01

73

Mental Health: Overcoming the Stigma of Mental Illness  

MedlinePLUS

... support (2) Intervention: Help a loved one overcome addiction Mental health: Overcoming the stigma of mental illness ... Section Focus Intervention: Help a loved one overcome addiction Multiple options exist for dealing with adversity Don' ...

74

A Conundrum for Corrections, A Tragedy for Prisoners: Prisons As Facilities for the Mentally Ill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any analysis of violence and abuse in American prisons must address the consequences of the high rates of incarceration of offenders with mental illness and the poor treatment they receive behind bars. This Essay does just that.

Jamie Fellner

2006-01-01

75

Mental Illness in Persons with Mental Retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is mental health? Mental health is a goal for all people, including those with mental retardation, not just those having difficulties. Mental health is an essential ingredient in the quality of life. The two main aspects of mental health are emotional well-being and rewarding social and interpersonal relationships. Emotional well-being is an important part of the gift of human

Steven Reiss; Ruth Ryan

76

A review of research on residential programs for people with severe mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance use disorder is the most common and clinically significant co-morbidity among clients with severe mental illnesses, associated with poor treatment response, homelessness and other adverse outcomes. Residential programs for clients with dual disorders integrate mental health treatment, substance abuse interventions, housing and other supports. Ten controlled studies suggest that greater levels of integration of substance abuse and mental health

MARY F. BRUNETTE; KIM T. MUESER; ROBERT E. DRAKE

2004-01-01

77

Arrested Adults Awaiting Arraignment: Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Criminal Justice Characteristics and Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Study is one of the first to look at the mentally ill during the pre-arraignment process. The pre-arraignment process is an excellent place to identify individuals with mental health and substance abuse problems, to examine those problems, to consider legal interventions, such as diversion or routing to specialized courts, for instance, drug and mental health courts, and to plan

Nahama Broner; Stacy S. Lamon; Damon W. Mayrl; Martin G. Karopkin

2003-01-01

78

Mental health and substance abuse indicators among homeless youth in Denver, Colorado.  

PubMed

We report the results of mental health evaluations from 182 homeless youth residing in a Denver, Colorado, shelter. The literature on homeless youth, although developing, is still somewhat limited as it relates to mental health, substance abuse, and trauma. This study was motivated by clinically observed high rates of mental illness, trauma, dangerousness issues, and drug and alcohol abuse. Using archival data from mental health evaluations conducted over two years, variables including gender, age, ethnicity, primary diagnosis, drug of choice, trauma history, suicidal ideation, homicidal ideation, and legal history were assessed. Results discovered significantly higher than expected diagnoses of mental illness and associations between drug of choice and diagnosis, trauma history and suicidal ideation, and trauma history and diagnosis. Results suggest a strong need for co-occurring treatment, trauma-focused therapy, and attention to both mental illness and substance abuse in homeless youth. PMID:19777794

Merscham, Carrie; Van Leeuwen, James M; McGuire, Megan

2009-01-01

79

Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in homeless mentally ill persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Background: Despite reports of high rates of suicidal behavior among mentally ill homeless persons, it remains unknown whether the well-established\\u000a suicide risks of increased age and comorbid psychiatric and substance abuse disorders (“dual diagnosis”) documented in the\\u000a general population are also markers for increased suicide risk among homeless persons. Methods: Data from a multi-site outreach program (ACCESS) (N =

Holly G. Prigerson; Rani A. Desai; Wen Liu-Mares; Robert A. Rosenheck

2003-01-01

80

Stigma of Mental Illness-1: Clinical reflections  

PubMed Central

Although the quality and effectiveness of mental health treatments and services have improved greatly over the past 50 years, therapeutic revolutions in psychiatry have not yet been able to reduce stigma. Stigma is a risk factor leading to negative mental health outcomes. It is responsible for treatment seeking delays and reduces the likelihood that a mentally ill patient will receive adequate care. It is evident that delay due to stigma can have devastating consequences. This review will discuss the causes and consequences of stigma related to mental illness.

Shrivastava, Amresh; Johnston, Megan; Bureau, Yves

2012-01-01

81

From Whence Comes Mental Illness Stigma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This paper seeks to answer two fundamental questions: What is the basis of the current form of mental illness stigma? and Why do western cultures stereotype people with mental illness as dangerous, incompetent and blameful, rather than something else?Material and discussion: We argue that a motivational model called system-justification offers several benefits for answering these questions. System-justification portrays stigma

Amy C. Watson; Victor Ottati; Patrick Corrigan

2003-01-01

82

Biogenetic models of psychopathology, implicit guilt, and mental illness stigma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas some research suggests that acknowledgment of the role of biogenetic factors in mental illness could reduce mental illness stigma by diminishing perceived responsibility, other research has cautioned that emphasizing biogenetic aspects of mental illness could produce the impression that mental illness is a stable, intrinsic aspect of a person (“genetic essentialism”), increasing the desire for social distance. We assessed

Nicolas Rüsch; Andrew R. Todd; Galen V. Bodenhausen; Patrick W. Corrigan

2010-01-01

83

Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

Ostler, Teresa

2009-01-01

84

Editors' Introduction: Building Mental Illness Stigma Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

deter persons with symptoms of mental illness from acknowledging that something is wrong, seeking help, and sticking with treatments long enough for them to be effective. When symptoms of treatable illnesses are not recognized, accurate diagnosis and treatment are delayed, and access to lifesaving care is denied, personal tragedy, needless suffering, and wasted human and economic potential are the result.

Emeline Otey; Wayne S. Fenton

2004-01-01

85

Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

Ostler, Teresa

2009-01-01

86

Resisting the Stigma of Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…

Thoits, Peggy A.

2011-01-01

87

Treatment among Adults with Serious Mental Illness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fewer than half of adults with a serious mental illness (SMI) received treatment or counseling for a mental health problem during the past year. Among adults with SMI, whites were more likely than blacks or Hispanics to have received treatment or counseli...

2003-01-01

88

The Prevalence of Mental Illness in Prison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade state prisons have experienced unprecedented growth and many demographic changes. At the same time, courts are requiring states to provide mental health screening and treatment to prisoners. Findings from recent studies indicate that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in prisons than in the community, and comorbidity is common. Our ability to generalize from these

Pamela M. Diamond; Eugene W. Wang; Charles E. Holzer; Christopher Thomas; des Anges Cruser

2001-01-01

89

Resisting the Stigma of Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus…

Thoits, Peggy A.

2011-01-01

90

Suicide and Mental Illness in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report deals with the relation of suicide to mental illness in the elderly. Our investigation of this relation proceeds from the following two points of view: First, we asked whether the fact that the elderly are most at risk of committing suicide is confounded with their increased psychiatric morbidity. Second, we asked to what extent suicides of older mentally

Rüdiger Vogel; Manfred Wolfersdorf

1989-01-01

91

Mental illness, nativity, gender and labor supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the impacts of nativity and mental health (MH) on work by gender for non-elderly adults using the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. We employed two indicators of MH - the K6 scale of Mental Illness (MI) and an indicator for symptoms of Mania or Delusions (M|D). Instrumental variable (IV) models used measures of social support

Victoria D. Ojeda; Richard G. Frank; Thomas G. McGuire; Todd P. Gilmer

2010-01-01

92

Dating violence: mental health consequences based on type of abuse.  

PubMed

This study aims to determine the relationship between psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, and mental health symptoms. Female college students (N = 499) completed anonymous online surveys to report experiences of abuse, as well as symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and physical injuries. Five groups of participants were found: no abuse; psychological abuse; physical abuse; psychological and physical abuse; and psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. The multiple abuse groups showed the highest rate of mental health symptoms. In addition, increased frequency of abuse was related to more mental health symptoms and more physical injuries. PMID:22594217

Eshelman, Lee; Levendosky, Alytia A

2012-01-01

93

Physical Health, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems of Shelter Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined physical health of 72 users of homeless shelters, comparing shelter users with mental illness or substance abuse problems with those without these problems. Found that alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to have low blood pressure, symptoms of liver disease, and tuberculosis treatment history. Found no health differences for…

Harris, Shirley N.; And Others

1994-01-01

94

Physical Health, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems of Shelter Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined physical health of 72 users of homeless shelters, comparing shelter users with mental illness or substance abuse problems with those without these problems. Found that alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to have low blood pressure, symptoms of liver disease, and tuberculosis treatment history. Found no health differences for…

Harris, Shirley N.; And Others

1994-01-01

95

Mental Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Abuse  

PubMed Central

Battered women are exposed to multiple forms of intimate partner abuse. This article explores the independent contributions of physical violence, sexual coercion, psychological abuse, and stalking on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among a sample of 413 severely battered, help-seeking women. The authors test the unique effects of psychological abuse and stalking on mental health outcomes, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Mean scores for the sample fall into the moderate to severe range for PTSD and within the moderate category for depression scores. Hierarchical regressions test the unique effects of stalking and psychological abuse, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Psychological abuse and stalking contribute uniquely to the prediction of PTSD and depression symptoms, even after controlling for the effects of physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Results highlight the importance of examining multiple dimensions of intimate partner abuse.

Mechanic, Mindy B.; Weaver, Terri L.; Resick, Patricia A.

2010-01-01

96

Sterilization of the Mentally Ill and the Mentally Retarded.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported were the results of a survey on the sterilization of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded. Thirty-three states responded to the survey. It was found that 17 states have a sterilization statute, but the existence of the statute was explained not to mean that the procedure was used. Sixteen states responded that they did not have a…

National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Washington, DC.

97

Mental health promotion and mental illness prevention: the economic case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental ill health is the largest single cause of disability in the UK, contributing almost 23% of the overall burden of disease compared to about 16% each for cancer and cardiovascular disease. The economic and social costs of mental health problems in England are estimated at around £105 billion each year.

Martin Knapp; David McDaid; Michael Parsonage

2011-01-01

98

Involuntary psychiatric hospitalization: A review of the statutes regulating the social control of the mentally ill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two decades ago the laws regulating involuntary mental hospitalization were very flexible and allowed for substantial abuse. Due to recent court rulings and changes in law, the legal context of involuntary hospitalization has been drastically changed. In the present paper we briefly review recent court rulings on rights of the mentally ill and then systematically review the laws regulating involuntary

Walter R. Gove; Maurizia Tovo; Michael Hughes

1985-01-01

99

Validating the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test with Persons Who Have a Serious Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective/Method: The use of brief, reliable, valid, and practical measures of substance use is critical for conducting individual assessments and program evaluation for integrated mental health-substance abuse services for persons with serious mental illness. This investigation examines the internal consistency reliability, concurrent validity,…

O'Hare, Thomas; Sherrer, Margaret V.; LaButti, Annamaria; Emrick, Kelly

2004-01-01

100

Mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of Hurricane Katrina on mental illness and suicidality by comparing results of a post-Katrina survey with those of an earlier survey. METHODS: The National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, conducted between February 2001 and February 2003, interviewed 826 adults in the Census Divisions later affected by Hurricane Katrina. The post-Katrina survey interviewed a new sample of 1043 adults who lived in the same area before the hurricane. Identical questions were asked about mental illness and suicidality. The post-Katrina survey also assessed several dimensions of personal growth that resulted from the trauma (for example, increased closeness to a loved one, increased religiosity). Outcome measures used were the K6 screening scale of serious mental illness and mild-moderate mental illness and questions about suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. FINDINGS: Respondents to the post-Katrina survey had a significantly higher estimated prevalence of serious mental illness than respondents to the earlier survey (11.3% after Katrina versus 6.1% before; chi(2)1= 10.9; P < 0.001) and mild-moderate mental illness (19.9% after Katrina versus 9.7% before; chi(2)1 = 22.5; P < 0.001). Among respondents estimated to have mental illness, though, the prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans was significantly lower in the post-Katrina survey (suicidal ideation 0.7% after Katrina versus 8.4% before; chi(2)1 = 13.1; P < 0.001; plans for suicide 0.4% after Katrina versus 3.6% before; chi(2)1 = 6.0; P = 0.014). This lower conditional prevalence of suicidality was strongly related to two dimensions of personal growth after the trauma (faith in one's own ability to rebuild one's life, and realization of inner strength), without which between-survey differences in suicidality were insignificant. CONCLUSION: Despite the estimated prevalence of mental illness doubling after Hurricane Katrina, the prevalence of suicidality was unexpectedly low. The role of post-traumatic personal growth in ameliorating the effects of trauma-related mental illness on suicidality warrants further investigation.

Kessler, Ronald C.; Galea, Sandro; Jones, Russell T.; Parker, Holly A.

2006-01-01

101

Mental illness in homicide-suicide: a review.  

PubMed

Homicide followed by suicide (H-S) is a lethal event in which an individual kills another individual and subsequently dies by suicide. This article presents a review of research carried out in Asia, Australia, Canada, Europe, and the United States of America over the past 60 years on the prevalence of mental illness among the perpetrators of H-S. Analysis of the available data indicated a great disparity in the results of the different studies. Overall, depression was the most frequent disorder reported (about 39% of the cases in the 20 studies that assessed depressive disorders), followed by substance abuse (about 20% in 10 studies) and psychosis (about 17% in 11 studies). This review, therefore, indicated that mental illness plays an important role in H-S. The prevention of these events depends on the identification and treatment of psychiatric disorder in potential perpetrators. PMID:23233465

Roma, Paolo; Pazzelli, Floriana; Pompili, Maurizio; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo; Ferracuti, Stefano

2012-01-01

102

Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities.  

PubMed

Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person's participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) have specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from 2 Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semistructured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants' consideration of 3 critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network, involuntary disclosure could happen without participants' permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations in which they experienced little discriminatory treatment, and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed. PMID:23647389

Chen, Fang-Pei; Lai, Grace Ying-Chi; Yang, Lawrence

2013-05-06

103

Spending on mental health and substance abuse treatment, 1987-1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the result of an ongoing effort to track spending on mental health and substance abuse (MH\\/SA) treatment nationwide. Spending for MH\\/SA treatment was $85.3 billion in 1997: $73.4 billion for mental illness and $11.9 billion for substance abuse. MH\\/SA spending growth averaged 6.8 percent a year between 1987 and 1997, while national health expenditures grew by 8.2

Tami L. Mark; Rosanna M. Coffey; E. King; H. Harwood; D. McKusick; J. Genuardi; J. Dilonardo; J. A. Buck

2000-01-01

104

Mentally ill and non-mentally-ill patients' abilities to understand informed consent disclosures for medication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perormance of two groups of hospitalized mentally ill patients (schizophrenia and major depression) and two groups of non-mentally-ill patients (patients hospitalized for ischemic heart disease and non-ill primary care patients) was compared on a standardized, objective instrument for assessing patients' understanding of information relevant for patient decision making (consent) about treatment with medication. Generally, hospitalized schizophrenic patients manifested significantly

Thomas Grisso; Paul S. Appelbaum

1991-01-01

105

Paying for mental health and substance abuse care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-four billion dollars was spent on alcohol\\/ drug abuse and mental health treatment in 1990. These expenditures were concentrated in the area of inpatient psychiatric care and on persons with severe mental health and substance abuse problems. The data on expenditure patterns for mental health and substance abuse care suggest that successful health care reform in this area must implement

Richard G. Frank; Thomas G. McGuire; Darrel A. Regier; Ronald Manderscheid; Albert Woodward

1994-01-01

106

Mental illness, stigma, and the media.  

PubMed

Society is ingrained with prejudice toward mental illness, and sufferers are often widely perceived to be dangerous or unpredictable. Reinforcement of these popular myths through the media can perpetuate the stigma surrounding mental illness, precipitating shame, self-blame, and secrecy, all of which discourage affected individuals from seeking treatment. Efforts aimed at countering stigma in mental illness are faced with the challenge of centuries of discrimination and must, therefore, replace existing stereotypes with coverage of positive outcomes, as a first step in achieving the daunting task of overcoming these negative stereotypes. Long-term anti-stigma campaigns that encompass human-rights-based, normalization, and educational approaches are needed. The involvement of the media is essential for success, but, in order for the media to be used effectively, its motivations and limitations must first be recognized and understood. PMID:17288505

Benbow, Alastair

2007-01-01

107

"Alternative to Prison" Programs for the Mentally Ill Offender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mentally ill offenders represent a substantial proportion of jail and prison inmates. Despite the fact that confining mentally ill offenders can and often will exacerbate their mental illness, the quality of mental health services available to them remains poor and insufficient. Up to date, only a few cities and counties have considered a more…

Schaefer, Nicole J.; Stefancic, Ana

2003-01-01

108

Attitudes of college students toward mental illness stigma and the misuse of psychiatric medications  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Mental illness stigma remains a significant barrier to treatment. However, the recent increase in the medical and non-medical use of prescription psychiatric medications among college students seems to contradict this phenomenon. This study explored students’ attitudes and experiences related to psychiatric medications, as well as correlates of psychiatric medication misuse (i.e., attitudes towards mental illness and beliefs about the efficacy of psychiatric medications). METHOD Data were collected anonymously via self-report questionnaires from April 2008 to February 2009. Measures included the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, Drug Abuse Screening Test, Day’s Mental Illness Stigma Scale, Attitudes Toward Psychiatric Medication Scale, and the Psychiatric Medication Attitudes Scale. Participants included 383 university students (59.2% female), recruited on campus or through online classes. RESULTS Results showed high rates of psychiatric medication misuse when compared to rates of medical use. Participants reported believing that the majority of students who use prescription psychotropics do so non-medically. In addition, less-stigmatized attitudes toward mental illness were correlated with both increased beliefs about the treatability of mental illness and increased misuse of psychiatric medications. Conversely, more stigmatized beliefs were associated with negative views toward psychiatric medication, as well as decreased likelihood of abuse. CONCLUSION Results suggest the need for improved education regarding the nature of mental illness, the appropriate use of psychiatric medications, and the potential consequences associated with abuse of these potent drugs.

Stone, Amanda M.; Merlo, Lisa J.

2010-01-01

109

[Stigmatizing of persons with a mental illness].  

PubMed

Persons with a mental illness and their relatives experience discrimination and expect to be discriminated. The public regards them as unpredictable and dangerous and do not wish to have any relation with them neither in private nor at work. This opinion is shared by people working in health care or social care. The myth of dangerousness is out of proportion and the media is to blame as they most often mention persons with mental illnesses as dangerous. Many countries make a great effort to reduce stigma and this is also under planning in Denmark. PMID:21501561

Vendsborg, Per; Nordentoft, Merete; Lindhardt, Anne

2011-04-18

110

The Sociological Study of Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociologists have made, and will continue to make, major contributions to the study of mental disorder. Some of these contributions\\u000a will complement the fingings of biological and psychological research, others will contradict these findings, and still others\\u000a afford a distinctively sociological perspective on mental illness. Note of the styles of explanation considered here is inherently\\u000a superior to the others, and,

Allan V. Horwitz

111

Neighborhood Characteristics and Mental Illness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzes the importance of incorporating both individual and neighborhood risk factors into predictive mental health needs assessment models. Data from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Survey and the 1980 Census suggest that, with the exception of neighborhood social rank, neighborhood social area dimensions rarely make substantive contributions…

Goldsmith, Harold F.; Manderscheid, Ronald W.; Holzer, Charles E., III

1998-01-01

112

Neighborhood characteristics and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of the importance of incorporating both individual and neighborhood risk factors into predictive mental health needs assessment models. The analyses are based on data from the metropolitan portion of Wave I of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Survey, a large community survey, and the 1980 decennial census. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate the odds

Harold F. Goldsmith; Charles E. Holzer; Ronald W. Manderscheid

1998-01-01

113

National Alliance for the Mentally Ill  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI) sponsors a broad range of public outreach projects and research studies dedicated to providing a more nuanced and multi-faceted understanding of the immense complexity of the many mental health issues that affect millions of persons each day. Within the Find Support section of the site, individuals can learn about local branches of NAMI, learn about support networks for young people dealing with mental health issues, and the presence of NAMI on college campuses. The public policy section of the site is quite strong, as visitors to this area can learn about policy news and alerts about mental health issues, download resource materials about assisting those grappling with mental health afflictions, and read Issue Spotlights that deal with a host of subjects such as managed care, Medicaid, parity, and confidentiality.

114

Siblings and Mental Illness: Heredity vs. Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Siblings are far more likely to be different than alike in personality and psychopathology. Different genes and different environmental experiences can account for why one sibling becomes mentally ill and another is not affected. Environmental experiences play a much greater role in sibling differentiation than has been previously recognized.…

Rowe, David C.; Elam, Patricia

1987-01-01

115

The Stigma of Families with Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…

Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick

2008-01-01

116

Patient Education for the Mentally Ill.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the philosophy of the rehabilitation services department at McLean Hospital on patient education for the mentally ill, noting patient library collection and recommended resources on marital problems, sex education, drug manuals, and diagnostic and research findings. A list of magazines subscribed to, color code classification, and 23…

Russell, Louise Harding

1982-01-01

117

Substance Use Motives and Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to validate the construct validity of the Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (DMQ-R), and to test the hypothesis that coping motives for using substances will vary directly with alcohol use, drug use and substance use problems when controlling for psychiatric symptoms of severe mental illness. Methods: Data from this survey of 120 people with severe

Thomas O’Hare; Ce Shen

2012-01-01

118

Clinical care update: The chronically mentally ill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The service systems which assist the long-term mentally ill to function in the community have been routinely described as fragmented and uncoordinated. The development and implementation of case management has been seen as one response to this dysfunctional system. This article examines case management from the perspective that case management is a needed function no matter how coordinated and integrated

William A. Anthony; Mikal Cohen; Marianne Farkas; Barry F. Cohen

1988-01-01

119

Neuropsychiatric rehabilitation for persistent mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits of new knowledge on the psychobiology and neuropsychology of serious mental illnesses have been slow to impact on psychiatric rehabilitation technology. A literature review reveals that, at least in the case of schizophrenia, enough is known about neurobiological deficits and their impact on neurocognitive functioning to justify a more informed approach to psychiatric rehabilitation. Essential elements for a

Judith Jaeger; Estelle Douglas

1992-01-01

120

The elderly mentally ill--whose responsibility?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elderly mentally ill make considerable demands on health and social services. To evaluate the need for these services a one-day census of all people aged 65 and over was carried out in an area containing 220 000 people (40 000 over 65). Data were obtained on the nursing needs and psychiatric state of the 2162 elderly people in hospital

P Pasker; J P Thomas; J S Ashley

1976-01-01

121

HIV Among People with Chronic Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of HIV infection, STDs, and sexual and drug-use risk behaviors are high among people with severe mental illness. Clinicians often are in the best position to connect psychiatric patients to the particular HIV-related services they need. These may include prevention interventions, risk assessment, antibody test counseling, and medical care. This review article describes the AIDS epidemic and its underpinnings

Karen McKinnon; Francine Cournos; Richard Herman

2002-01-01

122

Siblings and Mental Illness: Heredity vs. Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Siblings are far more likely to be different than alike in personality and psychopathology. Different genes and different environmental experiences can account for why one sibling becomes mentally ill and another is not affected. Environmental experiences play a much greater role in sibling differentiation than has been previously recognized.…

Rowe, David C.; Elam, Patricia

1987-01-01

123

Mental illness in the nursing workplace: a collective autoethnography.  

PubMed

Many nurses are burned out, exhausted and have a high intent to leave their jobs. These factors, when experienced over a period of time, are consistent with the development of mental illness. This study takes a collective autoethnographical approach to mental illness in the nursing workplace by focusing on the stories of nurses who have experienced mental illness in clinical practice. It highlights three ways in which nursing and mental illness are connected; the nurse who is vulnerable to mental illness prior to entering the profession, the nurse who develops mental illness that is independent of her work but is nevertheless impacted by it, and the nurse who develops mental illness as a result of her work and/or role. This paper explores the hyphenated lives and bullying these nurses experience, and recommends strategies that the profession, employing organisations, and individuals can adopt to reduce nurses' progression from stress to distress and mental illness. PMID:21254820

Kidd, Jacquie Dianne; Finlayson, Mary P

124

U.S. Adult Mental Illness Surveillance Report  

MedlinePLUS

... 2002. Mental illness is an important public health problem in itself—about 25% of U.S. adults have a mental illness—but also because it is associated with chronic medical diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, ...

125

Social Meanings Versus the Psychiatric Concept of Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

According to the societal reaction perspective, mental illness develops when symptoms are molded and imputed by societal reaction into a stable and organized social role. Individuals are thrust into the role by being labeled mentally ill. In contrast, the psychiatric concept assumes that mental illness is a disease. Its purpose is to order, predict, and control the symptoms of mental disease. This paper examines some social theories of mental disorder and compares the societal reaction perspective to the psychiatric concept.

Smith, Dorothy L.

1982-01-01

126

Baptist senior pastors’ knowledge and perceptions of mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Senior pastors at churches affiliated with the Baptist General Convention of Texas (BGCT) were anonymously surveyed using an online questionnaire to ascertain their knowledge and perceptions of the causes and potential treatments of mental illness. BGCT senior pastors reported a moderate level of contact with the mentally ill and populations known to have higher than average rates of mental illness

Matthew Stanford; David Philpott

2011-01-01

127

Genetic discrimination and mental illness: a case report  

PubMed Central

With advances in genetic technology, there are increasing concerns about the way in which genetic information may be abused, particularly in people at increased genetic risk of developing certain disorders. In a recent case in Hong Kong, the court ruled that it was unlawful for the civil service to discriminate in employment, for the sake of public safety, against people with a family history of mental illness. The plaintiffs showed no signs of any mental health problems and no genetic testing was performed. This was the first case concerning genetic discrimination in common law jurisdictions, therefore the court's judgment has implications for how genetic discrimination cases may be considered in the future. The court considered it inappropriate to apply population statistics or lifetime risks to individuals while examining fitness for work. It recommended an individualised assessment of specific risks within the job, relative to other risks posed by that workplace. Key Words: Schizophrenia • employment • prejudice • genetics

Wong, J.; Lieh-Mak, F.

2001-01-01

128

Arranged matches and mental illness: therapists' dilemmas.  

PubMed

Traditional societies place especial value on marriage and having children, and marriages are often arranged. A series of situations and dilemmas associated with arranged matches and their consequences are described in the course of mental health work with ultra-orthodox Jewish people with severe mental illness. Issues of confidentiality may arise with parents and matchmakers; on the other hand, respectful cooperation with religious authorities, counselors in the community, and family members is important. Information on genetic counseling, contraception, medication during pregnancy, and breastfeeding are considered and interact with communal structures and practices. There is a need for close support and evaluation during the process of marriage, childbearing, and parenthood. PMID:23244012

Greenberg, David; Buchbinder, Jacob Tuvia; Witztum, Eliezer

2012-01-01

129

Assessing spirituality in mentally ill African Americans.  

PubMed

The case scenario illustrates the advantage of using spirituality as a tool for recovery when working with mentally ill African American clients. Often spiritual and clinical perspectives are seen as contradictory. But for African Americans, these perspectives can be mutually reinforcing. Spirituality can serve as a resource of strength. It can provide emotional consolation, inspiration, guidance, and security. It can foster personal responsibility, identity, respect for ethical codes and community building. Mental Health professionals who use spirituality as a tool for recovery can expect to have better client outcomes when working with African Americans than those who do not. PMID:18402348

Perdue, Bobbie; Johnson, Deanna; Singley, Doretha; Jackson, Cheylon

2006-01-01

130

Ethical Decisions in the Classification of Mental Conditions as Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1990s, the philosophical debate over broad accounts of mental illness has stalled. Although there remains unresolved tension between mixed and medical models of mental illness, bioethics seems to be moving from a naturalistic account of mental illness to one in which illness is determined by applying an evaluative notion of function. Nonetheless, existing models often underestimate the

Craig Edwards

2009-01-01

131

HIV Testing Policy and Serious Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Using opinion data from experts, we examined the context of the argument for mandatory testing of psychiatric patients. Methods. Vignettes were distributed to experts on HIV and mental illness. Respondents were asked to provide appropriateness ratings for different hypothetical clinical decisions regarding HIV management. Results. Respondents were reluctant to impose testing without informed consent in most circumstances. The presence of risk factors or danger to another increased appropriateness ratings modestly. Conclusions. Despite experts’ tendency to emphasize individual rights, public reluctance to mandate testing is unlikely to extend to people with serious mental illness. No argument for mandatory testing can be persuasive if improved voluntary testing can achieve adequate detection rates. Voluntary testing protocols should be studied to determine which successfully identify infected individuals.

Walkup, James; Satriano, James; Barry, Danielle; Sadler, Pablo; Cournos, Francine

2002-01-01

132

Tobacco use in youth with mental illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite an abundance of literature documenting the prevalence and dangers of youth tobacco use, there is a relative dearth\\u000a of literature in the area of effective cessation treatments for youth (Fiore et al. in Clinical tobacco guideline: treating\\u000a tobacco use and dependence, 2008). Additionally, although it has been widely accepted that mental illness is highly correlated with tobacco use and

Tamara DeHay; Chad Morris; Mandy Graves May; Karen Devine; Jeanette Waxmonsky

133

Mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To estimate the impact of Hurricane Katrina on mental illness and suicidality by comparing results of a post-Katrina survey with those of an earlier survey. Methods The National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, conducted between February 2001 and February 2003, interviewed 826 adults in the Census Divisions later affected by Hurricane Katrina. The post-Katrina survey interviewed a new sample of 1043 adults

Ronald C. Kessler; Russell T. Jones; Holly A. Parker

2006-01-01

134

The Picture of Mental Health/Illness in the Printed Media in Three Central European Countries  

PubMed Central

Even in the era of the internet, printed media are still among the most frequently identified sources of mental health information. Many studies have shown that this information is frequently negative and contributes to stigmatization of people with mental illness. This international comparative study describes the content of media messages about mental health/illness in terms of stigma in three central European countries. The study sample comprised all articles pertaining to the topic of mental health/illness (N=450) identified during five week-long periods in 2007 chosen from the six most widely read newspapers and magazines in each country. Content analysis methods were used to achieve quantitative as well as qualitative objectives. More than half of all articles contained negative statements reflecting stigma towards persons with mental illness. Substance abuse disorders are the most frequent mental conditions covered in all three countries (22%) and psychotic disorders are the most stigmatized. Countries significantly differ in length of articles, the association of aggressive behavior with persons with mental illness, and in the use of a sensationalized style of writing. Coverage of mental health/illness issues differs to some extent across countries, but is generally of poor quality. Based on our findings, practical recommendations for journalists can be tailored specifically for each country.

NAWKOVA, LUCIE; NAWKA, ALEXANDER; ADAMKOVA, TEREZA; RUKAVINA, TEA VUKUSIC; HOLCNEROVA, PETRA; KUZMAN, MARTINA ROJNIC; JOVANOVIC, NIKOLINA; BRBOROVIC, OGNJEN; BEDNAROVA, BIBIANA; ZUCHOVA, SVETLANA; MIOVSKY, MICHAL; RABOCH, JIRI

2012-01-01

135

Stigma, Poverty, and Victimization: Roadblocks to Recovery for Individuals With Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roadblocks to recovery of individuals with severe mental illness include stigma, poverty, and victimization. Stigma cre- ates barriers to accessing safe housing, employment, and community integration. Poverty decreases ability to meet needs and increases risk for victimization. Victimization occurs as direct violence, exploitation, neglect, and abuse by care providers. It results in worsening of psychiatric disorders, increased need for care,

Eris F. Perese

2010-01-01

136

Opinions about mental illness: A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the major measures and studies of attitudes about mental illness, mental hospitals, and mental patients. Historical trends in such attitudes are delineated, and studies of attitudes of different groups are summarized, including those of the general public, mental health professionals, college students, and mental patients. Analysis of the susceptibility of such attitudes to modification through academic or practical experience

Judith G. Rabkin

1972-01-01

137

Physical health, mental health, and substance abuse problems of shelter users.  

PubMed

This article summarizes physical health, mental health, and substance abuse problems of users of four of Detroit's largest homeless shelters. Shelter users with mental illness or substance abuse problems were compared with those without these problems. Alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to have low blood pressure, symptoms of liver disease, and a tuberculosis treatment history. No health differences were found for those with or without a history of psychiatric hospitalization. Contrary to expectations, few gender differences were found. Aside from the obvious need for low-income housing, comprehensive and integrated treatment approaches from health care, mental health, and substance abuse agencies are needed to help homeless individuals. Social workers need to become more directly involved in service and policy issues for this vulnerable population. PMID:8168778

Harris, S N; Mowbray, C T; Solarz, A

1994-02-01

138

The Prevalence of Parenthood in Adults with Mental Illness: Implications for State and Federal Policymakers, Programs, and Providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citation: Nicholson, J., Biebel, K., Williams, V.F., & Katz-Leavy, J. (2004) Prevalence of Parenthood in Adults with Mental Illness: Implications for State and Federal Policy, Programs, and Providers. In Center for Mental Health Services. Mental Health, United States, 2002. Manderscheid, R.W., & Henderson, M.J., eds. DHHS Pub No. (SMA) 3938. Rockville, Maryland: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Chapter

Joanne Nicholson; Kathleen Biebel; Judith Katz-Leavy; Valerie F. Williams

2002-01-01

139

Statistical Analysis in Genetic Studies of Mental Illnesses  

PubMed Central

Identifying the risk factors for mental illnesses is of significant public health importance. Diagnosis, stigma associated with mental illnesses, comorbidity, and complex etiologies, among others, make it very challenging to study mental disorders. Genetic studies of mental illnesses date back at least a century ago, beginning with descriptive studies based on Mendelian laws of inheritance. A variety of study designs including twin studies, family studies, linkage analysis, and more recently, genomewide association studies have been employed to study the genetics of mental illnesses, or complex diseases in general. In this paper, I will present the challenges and methods from a statistical perspective and focus on genetic association studies.

Zhang, Heping

2011-01-01

140

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Congress established the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in 1992 to "target effectively substance abuse and mental health services to the people most in need." SAMHSA also administers a number of block grant programs and data collection activities. On their homepage, visitors can get started by clicking on the "Data" link at the top of the page and reading through the "What We Are Doing" section. Here interested parties will find highlights of recent reports, state-level data on these topics, and a series of mental health statistics reports. The top of their homepage contains additional sections of interest, including "Grants", "Publications", "Data", and "Newsroom". Visitors should also take a look at the "Featured Resource", which is also on the homepage. In addition, many of the site's materials are available in Spanish. Visitors can follow SAMHSA on various social networks including Facebook YouTube, and Twitter, and they can also sign up for their mailing list if they wish to keep up with this valuable organization.

141

Factors affecting mental fitness for work in a sample of mentally ill patients  

PubMed Central

Background Mental fitness for work is the ability of workers to perform their work without risks for themselves or others. Mental fitness was a neglected area of practice and research. Mental ill health at work seems to be rising as a cause of disablement. Psychiatrists who may have had no experience in relating mental health to working conditions are increasingly being asked to undertake these examinations. This research was done to explore the relationship of mental ill health and fitness to work and to recognize the differences between fit and unfit mentally ill patients. Methods This study was cross sectional one. All cases referred to Al-Amal complex for assessment of mental fitness during a period of 12 months were included. Data collected included demographic and clinical characteristics, characteristics of the work environment and data about performance at work. All data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results Total number of cases was 116, the mean age was 34.5 ± 1.4. Females were 35.3% of cases. The highly educated patients constitute 50.8% of cases. The decision of the committee was fit for regular work for 52.5%, unfit for 19.8% and modified work for 27.7%. The decision was appreciated only by 29.3% of cases. There were significant differences between fit, unfit and modified work groups. The fit group had higher level of education, less duration of illness, and better performance at work. Patients of the modified work group had more physical hazards in work environment and had more work shift and more frequent diagnosis of substance abuse. The unfit group had more duration of illness, more frequent hospitalizations, less productivity, and more diagnosis of schizophrenia. Conclusion There are many factors affecting the mental fitness the most important are the characteristics of work environment and the most serious is the overall safety of patient to self and others. A lot of ethical and legal issues should be kept in mind during such assessment as patient's rights, society's rights, and the laws applied to unfit people.

2009-01-01

142

Health maintenance organizations and persons with severe mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many if not most scenarios for reform of the U.S. health care system imply that health maintenance organizations (HMOs) will continue their rapid growth. Some advocates argue that a comprehensive health care system should offer services to the severely mentally ill on the same basis as the physically ill. Others note that severe mental illness has traditionally been addressed by

Bentson H. McFarland

1994-01-01

143

Changes in Attitudes Toward Religion Among Those with Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the increased attention given to the religious experiences of those with mental illness, the specific nature of the changes in religious attitudes that occur within this population remain yet unknown. In this study, 406 individuals with persistent mental illness who attended one of 13 Los Angeles County Mental Health facilities completed a demographic questionnaire, an adapted version of the

Steven A. Rogers; H. Newton Malony; Esther M. Coleman; Leslie Tepper

2002-01-01

144

How Clinical Diagnosis Might Exacerbate the Stigma of Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stigma can greatly exacerbate the experience of mental illness. Diagnostic classification frequently used by clinical social workers may intensify this stigma by enhancing the public's sense of "groupness" and "differentness" when perceiving people with mental illness. The homogeneity assumed by stereotypes may lead mental health professionals…

Corrigan, Patrick W.

2007-01-01

145

Self-Stigma of Mental Illness in High School Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite the prevalence of mental health problems, society continues to stigmatize and discriminate against people with mental illness and in particular, schizophrenia. Among the negative consequences of stigma, is that some individuals with mental illness internalize negative stereotypes about themselves, referred to as self-stigma, which is…

Hartman, Leah I.; Michel, Natalie M.; Winter, Ariella; Young, Rebecca E.; Flett, Gordon L.; Goldberg, Joel O.

2013-01-01

146

Mental Illness in Offender Populations: Prevalence, Duty and Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prisons are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness. This paper examines the prevalence of mental illness in American jails and prisons, the duty government and society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment, and the implications for inmate safety, costs, recidivism, and community reintegration if…

Soderstrom, Irina R.

2007-01-01

147

250 labels used to stigmatise people with mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The stigma against people with mental illness is a major barrier to help-seeking in young people for mental health problems. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of stigma in relation to treatment avoidance in 14 year-old school students in England in relation to how they refer to people with mental illness. METHODS: This is a

Diana Rose; Graham Thornicroft; Vanessa Pinfold; Aliya Kassam

2007-01-01

148

The Camberwell Elderly Mentally Ill and Their Needs for Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies on the elderly mentally ill (graduates) have been undertaken in mental hospital settings and on populations being resettled from hospitals. This paper aims to assess the characteristics and service needs of an epidemiological sample of elderly mentally ill.Aims: The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics, problems, service utilization and needs of a sample of

W. Abdul-Hamid; S. Johnson; G. Thornicroft; F. Holloway; S. Stansfeld

2009-01-01

149

Common Representations of the Mentally Ill among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of mental diseases and the mentally ill is, no doubt, the job of psychiatry and clinical psychology. However, social psychology has also made a substantial contribution to research in this field in the past few decades. In this study, the authors describe and analyze the content and structure of representations of the mentally ill among…

Bovina, I. B.; Panov, M. S.

2006-01-01

150

How Clinical Diagnosis Might Exacerbate the Stigma of Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stigma can greatly exacerbate the experience of mental illness. Diagnostic classification frequently used by clinical social workers may intensify this stigma by enhancing the public's sense of "groupness" and "differentness" when perceiving people with mental illness. The homogeneity assumed by stereotypes may lead mental health professionals and…

Corrigan, Patrick W.

2007-01-01

151

Contacts related to mental illness and substance abuse in primary health care: A cross-sectional study comparing patients' use of daytime versus out-of-hours primary care in Norway  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate prevalence, diagnostic patterns, and parallel use of daytime versus out-of-hours primary health care in a defined population (n = 23,607) in relation to mental illness including substance misuse. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting A Norwegian rural general practice cooperative providing out-of-hours care (i.e. casualty clinic) and regular general practitioners’ daytime practices (i.e. rGP surgeries) in the same catchment area. Subjects Patients seeking medical care during daytime and out-of-hours in 2006. Main outcome measures Patients’ diagnoses, age, gender, time of contact, and parallel use of the two services. Results Diagnoses related to mental illness were given in 2.2% (n = 265) of encounters at the casualty clinic and in 8.9% (n = 5799) of encounters at rGP surgeries. Proportions of diagnoses related to suicidal behaviour, substance misuse, or psychosis were twice as large at the casualty clinic than at rGP surgeries. More visits to the casualty clinic occurred in months with fewer visits to rGP surgeries. Most patients with a diagnosis related to mental illness at the casualty clinic had been in contact with their rGP during the study period. Conclusion Psychiatric illness and substance misuse have lower presentation rates at casualty clinics than at rGP surgeries. The distribution of psychiatric diagnoses differs between the services, and more serious mental illness is presented out-of-hours. The casualty clinic seems to be an important complement to other medical services for some patients with recognized mental problems.

Johansen, Ingrid H.; Morken, Tone; Hunskaar, Steinar

2010-01-01

152

Responding to the needs of the homeless mentally ill.  

PubMed Central

The homeless mentally ill represent a pivotal and urgent challenge to the mental health field in the 1980s. Those homeless who have extended histories of psychiatric hospitalization stand as harsh reminders of the failures of deinstitutionalization, while young mentally ill homeless adults who never have been treated as inpatients testify to the gaps and unrealized promises of community-based care under deinstitutionalization. Homelessness and mental illness are social and clinical problems, respectively, distinct in some ways but intertwined in others. Some of the factors that contribute to homelessness--such as economic deprivations, a dearth of low-cost housing, discontinuities in social service systems, and radical changes in the composition of American families--are felt particularly keenly by many persons who are mentally ill. And symptoms of mental disorders, in turn, frequently impede an individual's capacities to cope with those, as well as other, stressors. Developing appropriate and effective responses to the needs of homeless people who are mentally ill requires precise definition and identification of the target population, innovations in the mental health service system, encouragement of those who staff it to work with homeless mentally ill patients, and public education. Ultimately, however, fundamental answers will be found in an improved understanding of severe mental illness, enhanced treatment capacities, and greater attention to the rehabilitative needs of mentally ill persons.

Frazier, S H

1985-01-01

153

Media portrayal of mental illness and its treatments: what effect does it have on people with mental illness?  

PubMed

This article reviews dominant media portrayals of mental illness, the mentally ill and mental health interventions, and examines what social, emotional and treatment-related effects these may have. Studies consistently show that both entertainment and news media provide overwhelmingly dramatic and distorted images of mental illness that emphasise dangerousness, criminality and unpredictability. They also model negative reactions to the mentally ill, including fear, rejection, derision and ridicule. The consequences of negative media images for people who have a mental illness are profound. They impair self-esteem, help-seeking behaviours, medication adherence and overall recovery. Mental health advocates blame the media for promoting stigma and discrimination toward people with a mental illness. However, the media may also be an important ally in challenging public prejudices, initiating public debate, and projecting positive, human interest stories about people who live with mental illness. Media lobbying and press liaison should take on a central role for mental health professionals, not only as a way of speaking out for patients who may not be able to speak out for themselves, but as a means of improving public education and awareness. Also, given the consistency of research findings in this field, it may now be time to shift attention away from further cataloguing of media representations of mental illness to the more challenging prospect of how to use the media to improve the life chances and recovery possibilities for the one in four people living with mental disorders. PMID:16478286

Stuart, Heather

2006-01-01

154

Evaluation in the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation policy of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is described in this article. Three studies are presented that exemplify SAMHSA ' evaluations. These include evaluations of a program to prevent substance abuse among pregnant and postpartum women and their infants; a Job Corps treatment enrichment program; and the McKinney programfor homeless persons with severe mental

Anna Marsh; Mary Jansen; Charlene Lewis; Roger B. Straw

1996-01-01

155

SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND MENTAL HEALTH DATA ARCHIVE (SAMHDA)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Data Archive (SAMHDA) is an initiative of the Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The goal of the archive is to provide re...

156

A point prevalence study of alcoholism and mental illness among downtown migrants.  

PubMed

Since the 1960s the bulk of America's mentally ill have been deinstitutionalized to the community. A number of these people now live in the downtown areas of large cities in close association with the established vagrant culture which includes a significant portion of alcohol abusers. The bizarre and impoverished nature of the lives of these formerly institutionalized mentally ill citizens, coupled with their propinquity to government and business establishments, creates a social policy dilemma. A point prevalence study design was used to ascertain the demographic, physical, mental illness and alcohol abuse characteristics of a sample of a vagrant population which inhabits the downtown area of an American Northwest urban community. Analysis of the data of a sample of vagrants who frequent an emergency shelter and a single residence occupancy hotel demonstrated that the two groups were similar. Participants were predominantly male, white and in their mid thirties. Forty percent had never married and over 50% were high school educated and possess labor skills. Grouped data indicates that, in view of the dearth of literature describing the relationship of mentally illness and alcohol abuse, the psychiatric and alcohol use behavior of deinstitutionalized populations requires further study. PMID:3159095

Whitley, M P; Osborne, O H; Godfrey, M A; Johnston, K

1985-01-01

157

Role of social disadvantage in crime, joblessness, and homelessness among persons with serious mental illness.  

PubMed

Research on mental illness in relation to social problems such as crime, unemployment, and homelessness often ignores the broader social context in which mental illness is embedded. Policy, research, and practice will be improved if greater attention is given to social context. The authors critically analyze the approach used in much of the psychiatric services literature to infer links between mental illness and social problems. They compare these studies with studies that have been more validly conceptualized to account for social context. With this broader perspective, the impact of mental illness on crime, unemployment, and homelessness appears to be much smaller than that implied by much of the psychiatric services literature. Poverty moderates the relationship between serious mental illness and social problems. Factors related to poverty include lack of education, problems with employment, substance abuse, and a low likelihood of prosocial attachments. This relationship is often complicated and is not amenable to simple explanations. Research and policy that take this complexity into account may lead to greater effectiveness in interventions for persons with serious mental illness. PMID:11986504

Draine, Jeffrey; Salzer, Mark S; Culhane, Dennis P; Hadley, Trevor R

2002-05-01

158

Pharmacotherapy of aggressive behavior in individuals with mental retardation and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a descriptive series of four clinical cases of the treatment of aggressive, as well as other severe behavior disorders, of adults with mental retardation and mental illness. In all cases, the patients' aggressive behavior was diagnosed as being related primarily to their mental illness rather than solely to their mental retardation. Pharmacological management was successfully used to control

Larry Williams; Cynthia R. Ellis; Abel Ickowicz; Nirbhay N. Singh; Yadhu N. Singh

1993-01-01

159

Task Force Report on the Chronically Mentally Ill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The treatment system for the chronically mentally ill in New Jersey's Bergen and Passaic counties was studied. Questionnaires were completed by community mental health agencies and by social service directors at two psychiatric hospitals. Information was ...

1978-01-01

160

The Impact of Illness Identity on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically

Philip T. Yanos; David Roe; Paul H. Lysaker

2010-01-01

161

Training in Illness Self-Management for People with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite evidence supporting the utility of teaching people with severe mental illness how to manage their psychiatric disorders more effectively in collaboration with others, little is known about the use of such programs in criminal justice settings. This article provides an overview of the background, principles, and empirical basis for teaching illness self-management strategies to persons with severe mental illness,

SALLY JOY MACKAIN; KIM T. MUESER

2009-01-01

162

Characteristics of mentally ill offenders from 100 psychiatric court reports  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increasing probability that the psychiatrist will, willingly or not, come into contact with mentally ill offenders in the course of their practice. There are increasing rates of violence, substance abuse and other psychiatric disorders that are of legal importance. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the rates of different mental disorders in 100 court reports and to investigate the characteristics of mentally ill offenders. Methods All cases referred from different departments of the legal system to the forensic committee for assessment of legal accountability over 13-months duration were included. A specially designed form was prepared for data collection. Cases were classified into five groups: murder, robbery, financial offences, violent and simple offences and a group for other offences. Data were subjected to statistical analysis and comparisons between different groups of subjects were performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results Men constituted 93% of cases. In all, 73% of offenders were younger than 40 years old. Schizophrenia cases made up 13% of the total, substance related cases constituted 56% and amphetamine cases alone made up 21%; 10% of cases were antisocial personality disorders, and 51% of cases were classified as having a low education level. Unemployment was found in 34% of cases. The final decision of the forensic committee was full responsibility in 46% of cases and partial responsibility in 11% of cases, with 33% considered non-responsible. A total of 58% of cases had had contact with psychiatric healthcare prior to the offence and in 9% of cases contact had been in the previous 12 weeks. A history of similar offences was found in 32% of cases. In all, 14% of the offences were murders, 8% were sexual crimes, and 31% were violent/simple crimes. Conclusions The ability of the legal system to detect cases was good, while the ability of the healthcare system to predict crimes and offences was weak, as 58% of cases had had previous contact with the healthcare system previously. Substance abuse, especially amphetamine abuse, played an important role.

2010-01-01

163

Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness  

MedlinePLUS

... symptoms for the first time. For example, a twenty-year old college student who begins to hear threatening voices inside of his head and becomes paranoid that his chemistry professor is poisoning his food after smoking marijuana could represent a reaction to the ...

164

Crime, drug abuse, mental illness, and homelessness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this project, 345 homeless persons were interviewed during the period from May, 1985 to May, 1986 in Richmond, Virginia. Data reveal that current afflictions (e.g., hallucinations) are related to major life events in the past (i.e., psychiatric hospitalizations). Further, certain experiences prior to adulthood (e.g., drug use) predict these major life events (e.g., crime). Thus, the data support a

Brent B. Benda

1987-01-01

165

Sexual abuse in childhood and the mentally disordered female offender.  

PubMed

This study examines the role that a history of child sexual abuse played in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders in a sample of 321 female offenders incarcerated in a maximum-security prison for women. The results show that a history of child sexual abuse increases the likelihood that an inmate would receive mental health treatment. Psychotropic medication is frequently prescribed in response to adjustment problems associated with childhood sexual abuse. White women who exhibit adjustment problems associated with a history of child sexual abuse are especially likely to be diagnosed as mentally disordered at admission and to be sent to the mental health unit for treatment. In the absence of a diagnosed mental disorder at admission, women who receive psychotropic medication to help them adjust to prison life are likely to be diagnosed with a mental disorder later on. PMID:19556367

Silberman, Matthew

2009-06-25

166

The Impact of Illness Identity on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically driven model of the impact of illness identity on the course and recovery from severe mental illness and reviews relevant research. We propose that accepting a definition of oneself as mentally ill and assuming that mental illness means incompetence and inadequacy impact hope and self-esteem, which further impact suicide risk, coping, social interaction, vocational functioning, and symptom severity. Evidence supports most of the predictions made by the model. Implications for psychiatric rehabilitation services are discussed.

Yanos, Philip T.; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H.

2010-01-01

167

Telling the whole story: a conceptual model for analysing the mental illness memoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to describe the advantages and limitations of using the mental illness memoir to teach future health care providers about mental illness. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A review of the challenges to reconstructing the mental illness experience is followed by “caveats and considerations” in employing the mental illness memoir to teach prospective health care providers about mental illness.

Maureen Donohue-Smith

2011-01-01

168

An Examination of Stress and Coping among Adults Diagnosed with Severe Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

The present study explored the types of major life and chronic stressors that people with severe mental illness experience, and the coping strategies that are used in response to them. Twenty-eight adults with severe mental illness completed qualitative interviews focused on stress and coping in the prior six months. Participants reported experiencing disruptive major life events including the sudden death of a loved one, loss of housing, and criminal victimization, as well as chronic stressors such as psychiatric symptoms and substance abuse issues, substandard living conditions, legal problems, and health concerns. Results suggested that persons with severe mental illness frequently use problem-centered coping strategies in response to most types of stressors, including major life events, although this occurred after the initial application of avoidant coping strategies. Future research should explore whether or not the identified stressors and the coping strategies used in response to them are unique to this population.

Robilotta, Stephanie; Cueto, Ecena; Yanos, Philip T.

2011-01-01

169

HIV risk reduction interventions for persons with severe mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent seroprevalence studies have shown alarming rates of HIV infection among severely mentally ill men and women in large urban areas, and HIV behavioral epidemiology research indicates that a substantial proportion of seriously mentally ill adults engage in activities that increase their vulnerability to HIV\\/AIDS. In this paper, the research literature on HIV prevention interventions is reviewed including reports that

Jeffrey A. Kelly

1997-01-01

170

Making Meaning of Citizenship: Mental Illness, Forensic Involvement, and Homelessness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with mental illness, substance use disorders, and criminal justice involvement who experience homelessness are often marginalized and have difficulty achieving community inclusion. A framework of citizenship provides a basis for understanding the components of integration necessary to achieve status as a member of one's community. A citizenship “map” was presented to focus groups of persons with mental illness and

Allison N. Ponce; Ashley Clayton; Jenny Noia; Michael Rowe; Maria J. OConnell

2012-01-01

171

Art Education and Disability Studies Perspectives on Mental Illness Discourses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation critically examines mental illness discourses through the intersecting disciplinary lenses of art education and disability studies. Research from multiple disciplines is compared and theorized to uncover the ways in which discourses, or language systems, have oppressively constructed and represented "mental illness." To…

Derby, John K.

2009-01-01

172

New Strategies for Representing Mental Illness on Canadian Stages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Workman Arts, a Toronto-based theatre and visual arts company with a 20-year history, provides a rich site for re-imagining stigmatised representations of mental illness. Writing and performing against a long tradition of representing people with mental illnesses as incoherent speakers and visually different, company members seek to re-imagine…

Johnston, Kirsty

2009-01-01

173

Mental Illness as a Barrier to Marriage among Unmarried Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores how mental illness shapes transitions to marriage among unwed mothers using augmented data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (N = 2,351). We estimate proportional hazard models to assess the effects of mental illness on the likelihood of marriage over a 5-year period following a nonmarital birth. Diagnosed…

Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.

2008-01-01

174

Career Counseling with Clients Who Have a Severe Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Individuals who are diagnosed with a serious mental illness encounter a variety of barriers that can impede their career development. In this article, the career barriers of clients who have a severe mental illness are reviewed, and a developmental approach to career counseling with this population is described. A case example is provided to…

Caporoso, Robyn A.; Kiselica, Mark S.

2004-01-01

175

A Critical Assessment of Disposition Options for Mentally Ill Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate three disposition options for mentally ill offenders: abolishing the insanity defense, substituting a guilty but mentally ill verdict, or retaining the insanity defense with a conditional release. We review the foundations of each position and the research on implementation and policy outcomes. We also discuss the political support behind each position. We argue that retaining the insanity defense

Donald M. Linhorst

1999-01-01

176

The effects of mental illness on families within faith communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the experiences and values of families caring for a mentally ill loved one within the context of a Christian faith community. Participants (n?=?5899) in 24 churches representing four Protestant denominations completed a survey describing their family's stresses, strengths, faith practices, and desires for assistance from the congregation. Results showed mental illness in 27% of families, with

Edward B. Rogers; Matthew Stanford; Diana R. Garland

2012-01-01

177

The effects of mental illness on families within faith communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the experiences and values of families caring for a mentally ill loved one within the context of a Christian faith community. Participants (n?=?5899) in 24 churches representing four Protestant denominations completed a survey describing their family's stresses, strengths, faith practices, and desires for assistance from the congregation. Results showed mental illness in 27% of families, with

Edward B. Rogers; Matthew Stanford; Diana R. Garland

2011-01-01

178

Improving Employment Outcomes for Persons With Severe Mental Illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Unemployment remains a major conse- quence of schizophrenia and other severe mental ill- nesses. This study assesses the effectiveness of the Indi- vidual Placement and Support model of supportive employment relative to usual psychosocial rehabilita- tion services for improving employment among inner- city patients with these disorders. Methods: Two hundred nineteen outpatients with se- vere mental illnesses, 75% with

Anthony F. Lehman; Richard Goldberg; Lisa B. Dixon; Scot McNary; Leticia Postrado; Ann Hackman; Karen McDonnell

2002-01-01

179

Elders with Serious and Persistent Mental Illness (SPMI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing elderly population, service needs for elders with serious and persistent mental illness (SPMI) will also increase. The current study examines some of the unique challenges and needs faced by the SPMI elderly population. This study describes elders' perceptions of service access, utilization, and satisfaction as well as therapists' perceptions of chronic mental illness among the elderly and

Anissa Rogers; Cathie Delewski

2004-01-01

180

The Sympathetic Discriminator: Mental Illness and the ADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discrimination against people with mental illness occurs in part because of how those with mental illness can make other people feel. A psychotic person may make others feel agitated or afraid, for example, or a depressed person may make others feel sad or frustrated. Thus, a central basis for discrimination in this context is what I call hedonic costs. Hedonic

Elizabeth F. Emens

181

Police Encounters, Mental Illness, and Injury: An Exploratory Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Police encounters are believed to be particularly dangerous for people with mental illness and police officers. Despite widespread concern among advocates, researchers, and police professionals, little is known about the details of these interactions, including the occurrence of injuries. In the current study, we explore injuries to people with mental illness and officers to determine the extent to which situational

Amy N. Kerr; Melissa Morabito; Amy C. Watson

2010-01-01

182

Mental Illness and Menopause: A Patient and Family Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Menopause is a significant biological event in the life of every woman, including women with men- tal disorders. This brief report describes the results of a survey of 39 patients with mental illness and their family mem- bers regarding perceived effects of menopause on mental illness. METHODS: The survey was distributed to participants attending a National Alliance for the

Martha Sajatovic; Miriam B. Rosenthal; Miriam Solomon Plax; Mindy L. Meyer; C. Raymond Bingham

183

Perception of and Attitude towards Mental Illness in Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: As conceptions of mental illness are often dictated by prevailing socio-cultural factors and the philosophy of the time, there is little research to substantiate how mental illness is perceived in the Arab world in the light of both traditional and more recent modernization and acculturation processes.Aims: To examine whether social factors exert an influence on a person's attitude towards

Samir Al-Adawi; Atsu S. S. Dorvlo; Suad S. Al-Ismaily; Dalal A. Al-Ghafry; Balquis Z. Al-Noobi; Ahmed Al-Salmi; David T. Burke; Mrugeshkumar K. Shah; Harith Ghassany; Suma P. Chand

2002-01-01

184

The Relationship between Cyber Crime and Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an attempt is made to describe the relationship between cyber crime and mental illness. It will create awareness among people about cyber crimes and criminality due to mental illness. Computers and the internet make many actions easier for us. They also make many unlawful activities easier for criminals such as the sharing of, copy right infringement, stock

Shabana Kabeer; Maqbool Uddin Shaikh

2008-01-01

185

Mental illness and suicide in British South Asian adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

South Asians make up about 5% of the UK population. Their rates for mental illness and suicide have been shown by some researchers to be rather lower than that of the total UK population, using a variety of measures, and considering many psychiatric conditions. This paper reviews the literature on the extent of mental illness among British South Asian adults,

Bernard Ineichen

2012-01-01

186

COMMUNITY LIVING: METAPHORICAL INSTITUTIONALISATION FOR PEOPLE WITH A MENTAL ILLNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary positions argue that the best place for people with a mental illness to be treated is in the community and this is where 98% of people with a mental illness currently reside. This relocation from institution to community happened as a result of the deinstitutionalisation process that occurred in Australia largely in the 1980s and during the 1990s in

Lorna Moxham

187

INVOLUNTARY MEDICATION OF MENTALLY ILL PRISONERS AND PRETRIAL DETAINEES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992, the U. S. Supreme Court ruled that the State of Nevada had improperly forced a mentally ill pretrial detainee to take psychotropic drugs. One legal expert hailed the decision as a victory for mentally ill criminal defendants. However, the U. S. Supreme Court linked this decision involving the Nevada pretrial detainee to a 1990 Court decision which permitted

Rudolph Alexander Jr

1995-01-01

188

The Monster in the Closet: Misperception of Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental illness affects all major aspects of an individual?s life. From basic needs such as shelter and employment, to interactions with family, partners, and friends, the diagnosis represents likely difficulties due to stigma and negative attitudes. Efforts to bring forth the recognition and acceptance of mental illness in the United States, as well as around the world, start by confronting

Sarah Alexandra Bernstein

2010-01-01

189

Family Representative Payeeship and Violence Risk in Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although representative payeeship is prevalent among people with mental illness and shows promise to positively influence clinically relevant outcomes, research also suggests this legal mechanism could be implemented in ways that are problematic. The current study examined whether family representative payeeship was associated with elevated risk of family violence perpetrated by persons with severe mental illness (SMI). Data were collected

Eric B. Elbogen; Jeffrey W. Swanson; Marvin S. Swartz; Richard Van Dorn

2005-01-01

190

Racial Differences in Stigmatizing Attitudes Toward People With Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Stigma is a significant impediment to the successful treatment of individuals with mental illness, especially among racial minority groups. Although limited, the literature suggests that African Americans are more likely than Caucasians to believe that people with mental illnesses are dangerous. The authors reexamined this issue and assessed whether racial differences also extend to beliefs about how people with

Deidre M. Anglin; Bruce G. Link; Jo C. Phelan

2006-01-01

191

Epidemiological survey of knowledge, attitudes, and health literacy concerning mental illness in a national community sample: a global burden.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning mental illness among Qatari and other Arab expatriates. Method: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted from October 2008 to March 2009. A questionnaire was designed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding mental illness. Results: Of 2254 subjects surveyed, 49.6% were Qataris, 50.4% other Arab expatriates, 54.8% males, and 45.2% females. A majority of the respondents thought that substance abuse like alcohol or drugs could result in mental illness (84.7%). Fewer than half of the subjects believed that mentally ill people are mentally retarded (40.6%). 48.3% believed that mental illness could result from punishment from God. The most common information source on mental illness was media (64.2%). Recognition of common mental disorders in the studied population was poor (72.5%). Conclusion: Knowledge of mental illness among the Arabic-speaking population of Qatar was quite poor. PMID:23804372

Ghuloum, Suhaila; Bener, Abdulbari; Burgut, F Tuna

2010-07-01

192

Humor in therapy for the mentally ill.  

PubMed

There are many benefits of humor as a planned intervention for CMI patients. In addition to physiological, psychological, social, and communicative benefits for the patient are the benefits of humor for the nurse therapist. According to Keller (1984), another legitimate function of humor in therapy is as a source of rejuvenation for the therapist. Working with a population of clients whose progress is sometimes difficult to ascertain can sometimes be draining and may result in burnout if nurses are not periodically rejuvenated. Humor can act as an energizer for both clients and nurses, and can help nurses maintain their equilibrium. Areas for Further Research. Sullivan and Deane (1988) posed five potential areas for study in gerontological-oriented humor, but all of these areas are also applicable in the study of humor among the chronically mentally ill: Identification of any functional level changes and cognitive flexibility resulting from increased humor experiences. Development of humor assessment tools. Identification of environmental variables and barriers that affect the spontaneous occurrence of humor, especially in institutional settings. Exploration of differences in the effects of group and dyadic humor on mental health. Exploration of favorable and unfavorable environmental contexts and outcomes for using therapeutic humor. PMID:1774695

Buxman, K

1991-12-01

193

Mental illness among Bhutanese shamans in Nepal.  

PubMed

Despite efforts to promote traditional medicine, allopathic practitioners often look with distrust at traditional practices. Shamans in particular are often regarded with ambivalence and have been considered mentally ill people. We tested the hypothesis that shamanism is an expression of psychopathology. In the Bhutanese refugee community in Nepal, a community with a high number of shamans, we surveyed a representative community sample of 810 adults and assessed ICD-10 mental disorders through structured diagnostic interviews. Approximately 7% of male refugees and 0.5% of female refugees reported being shamans. After controlling for demographic differences, the shamans did not differ from the comparison group in terms of 12-month and lifetime ICD-10 severe depressive episode, specific phobia, persistent somatoform pain, posttraumatic stress, generalized anxiety, or dissociative disorders. This first-ever, community-based, psychiatric epidemiological survey among shamans indicated no evidence that shamanism is an expression of psychopathology. The study's finding may assist in rectifying shamans' reputation, which has been tainted by past speculation of psychopathology. PMID:15060406

van Ommeren, Mark; Komproe, Ivan; Cardeña, Etzel; Thapa, Suraj B; Prasain, Dinesh; de Jong, Joop T V M; Sharma, Bhogendra

2004-04-01

194

Mental illness and domestic homicide: a population-based descriptive study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE Approximately 10% of convicted homicide perpetrators in England and Wales have symptoms of mental illness at the time of homicide. The prevalence among perpetrators of adult domestic homicide is unclear. METHODS The study was a consecutive case series of all convicted adult domestic homicide perpetrators in England and Wales between 1997 and 2008. Sociodemographic, clinical, and offense characteristics were gathered from the United Kingdom Home Office, the Police National Computer, psychiatric court reports, and, for psychiatric patients, questionnaires completed by supervising clinicians. RESULTS A total of 1,180 perpetrators were convicted of intimate partner homicide, and 251 were convicted of homicide of an adult family member. Fourteen percent of perpetrators of intimate partner homicide and 23% of perpetrators of adult family homicide had been in contact with mental health services in the year before the offense; 20% of intimate partner homicide perpetrators and 34% of adult family homicide perpetrators had symptoms of mental illness at the time of offense. Perpetrators with symptoms of mental illness at the time of offense were less likely than perpetrators without symptoms to have previous violence convictions or history of alcohol abuse. CONCLUSIONS A significant minority of adult domestic homicide perpetrators had symptoms of mental illness at the time of the homicide. Most perpetrators, including those with mental illnesses, were not in contact with mental health services in the year before the offense. Risk reduction could be achieved through initiatives that encourage individuals with mental health problems to access mental health services and that develop closer interagency working, including between mental health services, police, social services, and domestic violence services. PMID:23820784

Oram, Siân; Flynn, Sandra Marie; Shaw, Jenny; Appleby, Louis; Howard, Louise Michele

2013-10-01

195

Racial Disparities in Mental Health Outcomes after Psychiatric Hospital Discharge among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after…

Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

2012-01-01

196

Actitudes Haci la Enfermedad Mental: Revision Bibliografica (Attitudes toward Mental Illness: Revised Bibliography). Publication No. 40.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this work, some of the most important instruments used to measure attitudes toward mental illness were analysed. A revision of different experimental investigations which studied attitudes toward mental illness among general public, mental health professionals and patients and their relatives was made. Some of the strategies applied to change…

Stefani, Dorina

197

Actitudes Haci la Enfermedad Mental: Revision Bibliografica (Attitudes toward Mental Illness: Revised Bibliography). Publication No. 40.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this work, some of the most important instruments used to measure attitudes toward mental illness were analysed. A revision of different experimental investigations which studied attitudes toward mental illness among general public, mental health professionals and patients and their relatives was made. Some of the strategies applied to change…

Stefani, Dorina

198

Treatment of Children with Mental Illness: Frequently Asked Questions about the Treatment of Mental Illness in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that half of all lifetime cases of mental illness begin by age 14. Scientists are discovering that changes in the body leading to mental illness may start much earlier, before any symptoms appear. Through greater understanding of when and how fast specific areas of children's brains develop, we are learning more about the early…

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 2009

2009-01-01

199

Children's Conceptions of Mental Illness: A Naive Theory Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports two studies that investigated children's conceptions of mental illness using a naive theory approach, drawing upon a conceptual framework for analysing illness representations which distinguishes between the identity, causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of an illness. The studies utilized semi-structured interviewing…

Fox, Claudine; Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn

2010-01-01

200

Children's Conceptions of Mental Illness: A Naive Theory Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports two studies that investigated children's conceptions of mental illness using a naive theory approach, drawing upon a conceptual framework for analysing illness representations which distinguishes between the identity, causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of an illness. The studies utilized semi-structured interviewing…

Fox, Claudine; Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn

2010-01-01

201

Cultural Lens on Mental Illness: Four Clients Share Their Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

People served by mental health providers represent diverse cultural groups. In-depth qualitative interviews were used to collect data to examine: “How do people, diagnosed with a mental illness, perceive their experience in a partial care mental health program from the perspective of their cultural context?” Four participants described cultural identities that included ethnic, health status, and sexual orientation identities. The

Laurie Knis-Matthews; Lynne Richard; Michele Moccia; Vishwa Patel; Stephanie Salomone; Leslie Stein

2012-01-01

202

Viewing Popular Films about Mental Illness through a Sociological Lens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, the author discusses an exercise she uses requiring students to view a popular film that portrays a particular mental disorder or a character with a mental disorder. Students analyze the film and write two papers, one about the sociological model of mental illness and a second about possible links between media images and the…

Livingston, Kathy

2004-01-01

203

Reporting suicide and mental illness for Indigenous Australians  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on a consultation conducted with Indigenous Australian communities in 2004 as part of the Media and Mental Health project, funded under the National Mindframe Initiative. Although there is a growing body of literature about the poten- tial impact of reporting suicide and mental illness, little is known about the specific impact of reporting suicide and mental

Jaelea Skehan; Gail Garvey; Paul Scott

204

Viewing Popular Films about Mental Illness through a Sociological Lens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the author discusses an exercise she uses requiring students to view a popular film that portrays a particular mental disorder or a character with a mental disorder. Students analyze the film and write two papers, one about the sociological model of mental illness and a second about possible links between media images and the…

Livingston, Kathy

2004-01-01

205

Housing policy for persons with mental illness in Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Ontario Ministry of Housing's effort to provide permanent, adequate, and affordable housing for persons with mental illness. The Ministry's approach is part of a continuum of housing options independent of program requirements. Integration of mental health consumers into housing communities is through the aid of the Ministry's senior advisor of mental health, who is responsible for

Sheri Weisberg

1994-01-01

206

Building Community Capacity to Help Persons with Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a time of crisis, persons with mental illness who encounter the police are often sent to jail or are involuntarily committed for psychiatric evaluation when mental health services are not readily available. To better serve these persons and the community, law enforcement and mental health professionals in one Iowa county joined together to ensure these individuals received the assessment

Jeanne A. Saunders; Billie M. A. Marchik

2008-01-01

207

Do-It-Yourself Testing for Mental Illness: Ethical Issues, Concerns, and Recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do-it-yourself (DIY) testing for various medical problems has existed for some time and is likely here to stay. However, only relatively recently have such tests been targeted toward mental illness. From the point of view of professional psychology, the development and use of DIY tests for psychological disorders raises numerous ethical issues, including lack of in-person counseling, potential for misuse-abuse,

Frederick J. Kier; Victor Molinari

2004-01-01

208

Successful Program Maintenance When Federal Demonstration Dollars Stop: The Access Program for Homeless Mentally Ill Persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major issue that has long dogged federal human services demonstration programs is the perception that when federal dollars end, the programs end—regardless of any proven successes. Access to Community Care and Effective Services and Supports (ACCESS) was a 5-year federal demonstration project to foster partnerships between service providers for homeless people with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance abuse

Henry J. Steadman; Joseph J. Cocozza; Deborah L. Dennis; Margaret G. Lassiter; Frances L. Randolph; Howard Goldman; Margaret Blasinsky

2002-01-01

209

Human rights of persons with mental illness in Indonesia: more than legislation is needed  

PubMed Central

Background Although attention to human rights in Indonesia has been improving over the past decade, the human rights situation of persons with mental disorders is still far from satisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to examine the legal framework for protection of human rights of persons with mental disorder and the extent to which Indonesia's international obligations concerning the right to health are being met. Methods We examined the Indonesian constitution, Indonesian laws relevant to the right to health, the structure and operation of the National Human Rights Commission, and what is known about violations of the human rights of persons with mental illness from research and the media. Results The focus of the Indonesian Constitution on rights pre-dated the Universal Declaration, Indonesia has ratified relevant international covenants and domestic law provides an adequate legal framework for human rights protections. However, human rights abuses persist, are widespread, and go essentially unremarked and unchallenged. The National Human Rights Commission has only recently become engaged in the issue of protection of the rights of persons with mental illness. Conclusion More than legislation is needed to protect the human rights of persons with mental illness. Improving the human rights situation for persons with mental illness in Indonesia will require action by governments at national, provincial and district levels, substantial increases in the level of investment in mental health services, coordinated action by mental health professionals and consumer and carer organisations, and a central role for the National Human Rights Commission in protecting the rights of persons with mental illness.

Irmansyah, I; Prasetyo, YA; Minas, H

2009-01-01

210

Assessing trauma, substance abuse, and mental health in a sample of homeless men.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of physical and sexual trauma on a sample of 239 homeless men. Study participants completed a self-administered survey that collected data on demographics, exposure to psychological trauma, physical health and mental health problems, and substance use or misuse. Binomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relative significance of demographic factors and the four types of trauma exposure associated with three outcomes: mental health, substance abuse, and physical health problems. The authors found that trauma history was significantly associated with more mental health problems but was not associated with substance abuse problems for homeless men. This study reinforces service providers' perceptions that because many homeless men experience the long-term, deleterious effects of not only current stressors, but also abuse and victimization that often begin in childhood, homeless men are a subpopulation in need of proactive prevention services that emphasize long-term continuity of care rather than sporadic crisis-based services. Study findings suggest that mentally ill, homeless men need proactive services that address the sequelae of abuse with care that is specialized and distinctly different from care for homeless adults with substance abuse or physical health care issues. PMID:20218452

Kim, Mimi M; Ford, Julian D; Howard, Daniel L; Bradford, Daniel W

2010-02-01

211

Components of Implicit Stigma against Mental Illness among Chinese Students  

PubMed Central

Although some research has examined negative automatic aspects of attitudes toward mental illness via relatively indirect measures among Western samples, it is unclear whether negative attitudes can be automatically activated in individuals from non-Western countries. This study attempted to validate results from Western samples with Chinese college students. We first examined the three-component model of implicit stigma (negative cognition, negative affect, and discriminatory tendencies) toward mental illness with the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT). We also explored the relationship between explicit and implicit stigma among 56 Chinese university college students. In the three separate SC-IATs and the combined SC-IAT, automatic associations between mental illness and negative descriptors were stronger relative to those with positive descriptors and the implicit effect of cognitive and affective SC-IATs were significant. Explicit and implicit measures of stigma toward mental illness were unrelated. In our sample, women's overall attitudes toward mental illness were more negative than men's were, but no gender differences were found for explicit measures. These findings suggested that implicit stigma toward mental illness exists in Chinese students, and provide some support for the three-component model of implicit stigma toward mental illness. Future studies that focus on automatic components of stigmatization and stigma-reduction in China are warranted.

Wang, Xiaogang; Huang, Xiting; Jackson, Todd; Chen, Ruijun

2012-01-01

212

Mental Illness and Mental Health: The Two Continua Model Across the Lifespan  

PubMed Central

Mental health has long been defined as the absence of psychopathologies, such as depression and anxiety. The absence of mental illness, however, is a minimal outcome from a psychological perspective on lifespan development. This article therefore focuses on mental illness as well as on three core components of positive mental health: feelings of happiness and satisfaction with life (emotional well-being), positive individual functioning in terms of self-realization (psychological well-being), and positive societal functioning in terms of being of social value (social well-being). The two continua model holds that mental illness and mental health are related but distinct dimensions. This model was studied on the basis of a cross-sectional representative internet survey of Dutch adults (N = 1,340; 18–87 years). Mental illness was measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory and mental health with the Mental Health Continuum Short Form. It was found that older adults, except for the oldest-old, scored lower on psychopathological symptoms and were less likely to be mentally ill than younger adults. Although there were fewer age differences for mental health, older adults experienced more emotional, similar social and slightly lower psychological well-being. In sum, today’s older adults have fewer mental illness problems, but they are not in a better positive mental health than today’s younger adults. These findings support the validity of the two continua model in adult development.

Keyes, Corey L. M.

2009-01-01

213

Factors affecting mental fitness for work in a sample of mentally ill patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mental fitness for work is the ability of workers to perform their work without risks for themselves or others. Mental fitness was a neglected area of practice and research. Mental ill health at work seems to be rising as a cause of disablement. Psychiatrists who may have had no experience in relating mental health to working conditions are increasingly

Yasser A Elsayed; Mohamed A Al-Zahrani; Mahmoud M Rashad

2009-01-01

214

Doctors’ attitude towards people with mental illness in Western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  It had been suggested that those more knowledgeable about mental illness are less likely to endorse negative or stigmatizing\\u000a attitudes. This study aimed to evaluate the attitude of doctors in Nigeria towards the mentally ill.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Medical doctors (n = 312) from eight selected health institutions in Nigeria completed various questionnaires on knowledge and attitude towards\\u000a people with mental illness.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Beliefs in supernatural

Abiodun O. Adewuya; Ayotunde A. Oguntade

2007-01-01

215

Police Encounters, Mental Illness and Injury: An Exploratory Investigation  

PubMed Central

Police encounters are believed to be particularly dangerous for people with mental illness and police officers. Despite widespread concern among advocates, researchers and police professionals, little is known about the details of these interactions including the occurrence of injuries. In the current study, we explore injuries to people with mental illness and officers to determine the extent to which situational and individual factors predict injuries. Findings suggest that injuries during police calls involving persons with mental illness are infrequent and rarely require medical attention. Predictors of injuries in these calls are similar to those in police encounters with the general population.

Kerr, Amy N.; Morabito, Melissa; Watson, Amy C.

2010-01-01

216

Census enumeration of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded in the nineteenth century  

PubMed Central

Enumerations of the mentally ill and mentally retarded were included in the six U.S. censuses conducted between 1840 and 1890. Inclusion of these categories reflected the new concern for the mentally ill and mentally retarded that was emerging at that time as part of a new social consciousness. Dr. Gorwitz analyzes these census results, considers the limitations of the data, and discusses the factors that led to discontinuation of the enumerations of the two groups after the 1890 census.

Gorwitz, Kurt

1974-01-01

217

Sources of burdens on families of individuals with mental illness.  

PubMed

Families of individuals with mental illness face a range of practical and emotional stresses. Studies that have addressed the sources of these burdens are limited. Literature suggests that burdens could come from the stigmatizing attitudes towards individuals with mental illness and inadequate public resources. Nevertheless, how public attitudes and availability of public resources have affected the burden on patients' families remains to be studied. This study set out to explore the relationship between stigma, accessibility of mental health facilities and family burden through individual interviews of patients' relatives in order to understand the burden on mentally ill patients' relatives from their perspectives. Ten interviewees from two out-patient psychiatric clinics were recruited and interviewed. Each interviewee had at least one family member receiving out-patient psychiatric services. Altogether 11 mentally ill patients were involved. Data analyses showed that much of the burden was related to stigma and to lack of mental health and rehabilitation services. Consequences included social isolation of the families, difficulties experienced by the mentally ill patients when trying to obtain competitive employment and financial difficulties. Subjective burden resulting from social stigma included frustration, anxiety, low self-esteem and helplessness. Implications of the findings to social policy and development of mental health services were discussed. PMID:12799606

Tsang, Hector W H; Tam, Phidias K C; Chan, Fong; Cheung, W M; Chang, W M

2003-06-01

218

Social capital and mental illness: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Study objective: The concept of social capital has influenced mental health policies of nations and international organisations despite its limited evidence base. This papers aims to systematically review quantitative studies examining the association between social capital and mental illness. Design and setting: Twenty electronic databases and the reference sections of papers were searched to identify published studies. Authors of papers were contacted for unpublished work. Anonymised papers were reviewed by the authors of this paper. Papers with a validated mental illness outcome and an exposure variable agreed as measuring social capital were included. No limitations were put on date or language of publication. Main results: Twenty one studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. Fourteen measured social capital at the individual level and seven at an ecological level. The former offered evidence for an inverse relation between cognitive social capital and common mental disorders. There was moderate evidence for an inverse relation between cognitive social capital and child mental illness, and combined measures of social capital and common mental disorders. The seven ecological studies were diverse in methodology, populations investigated, and mental illness outcomes, making them difficult to summarise. Conclusions: Individual and ecological social capital may measure different aspects of the social environment. Current evidence is inadequate to inform the development of specific social capital interventions to combat mental illness.

De Silva, M. J; McKenzie, K.; Harpham, T.; Huttly, S.

2005-01-01

219

Management of persons with co-occurring severe mental illness and substance use disorder: program implications  

PubMed Central

Adults with severe mental illness have extraordinarily high rates of co-occurring substance use disorders, typically around 50% or more, which adversely affect their current adjustment, course, and outcome. Separate and parallel mental health and substance abuse treatment systems do not offer interventions that are accessible, integrated, and tailored for the presence of co-occurrence. Recent integrated interventions for this population have the specific goal of ameliorating substance use disorder and the general goal of improving adjustment and quality of life. The authors overview the current research and offer guidelines related to mission and philosophy, leadership, comprehensive reorganization, training, specific programs, and quality improvement.

DRAKE, ROBERT E; MUESER, KIM T; BRUNETTE, MARY F

2007-01-01

220

Mental Health and Substance Abuse Treatment Stigma Among Soldiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have compared persons in treatment to those not in treatment with regard to perceived stigma. We surveyed soldiers to examine differences in stigma perceptions among those in treatment for substance abuse and\\/or mental health problems (n = 470) and those not in treatment (n = 966). Analyses revealed that soldiers in treatment perceived greater stigma regarding mental health

Kristine L. Rae Olmsted; Janice M. Brown; J. Russ Vandermaas-Peeler; Stephen J. Tueller; Ruby E. Johnson; Deborah A. Gibbs

2011-01-01

221

Marginal Arrangements: Homelessness, Mental Illness, and Social Relations. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A multi-method, ethnographically-centered approach was used to understand how homeless individuals whom service providers label mentally ill collude in their own management and surmount their marginality. Field observations from five nontraditional progra...

A. M. Lovell

1994-01-01

222

The socioeconomic costs of mental illness in Spain.  

PubMed

Mental illness affects a large number of people in the world, seriously impairing their quality of life and resulting in high socioeconomic costs for health care systems and society. Our aim is to estimate the socioeconomic impact of mental illness in Spain for the year 2002, including health care resources, informal care and loss of labour productivity. A prevalence-based approach was used to estimate direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and loss of labour productivity. The total costs of mental illness have been estimated at 7,019 million euros. Direct medical costs represented 39.6% of the total costs and 7.3% of total public healthcare expenditure in Spain. Informal care costs represented 17.7% of the total costs. Loss of labour productivity accounted for 42.7% of total costs. In conclusion, the costs of mental illness in Spain make a considerable economic impact from a societal perspective. PMID:19031056

Oliva-Moreno, Juan; López-Bastida, Julio; Montejo-González, Angel Luis; Osuna-Guerrero, Rubén; Duque-González, Beatriz

2008-11-25

223

When Parents with Severe Mental Illness Lose Contact with Their Children: Are Psychiatric Symptoms or Substance Use to Blame?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month…

Jones, Danson; Macias, Rosemarie Lillianne; Gold, Paul B.; Barreira, Paul; Fisher, William

2008-01-01

224

Physical and Sexual Assault History in Women With Serious Mental Illness: Prevalence, Correlates, Treatment, and Future Research Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emerging body of research on the physical and sexual abuse of seriously mentally ill (SMI) women documents a high incidence and prevalence of victimization within this population. While causal links are not well understood, there is convergent evidence that victimization of SMI women is associated with increased symptom levels, HIV-related risk behaviors, and such comorbid conditions as homelessness and

Lisa A. Goodman; Stanley D. Rosenberg; Kim T. Mueser; Robert E. Drake

1997-01-01

225

HIV Risk Reduction for Substance Using Seriously Mentally Ill Adults: Test of the Information-Motivation-Behavior Skills (IMB) Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model (Fisher & Fisher, 1992) was used as the theoretical framework for predicting unprotected sexual behavior among substance abusing men and women diagnosed with serious mental illnesses (n = 320; 150 men and 170 women, primarily of minority ethnicity). In a structural equation model, gender, HIV transmission knowledge, and motivational variables of pro-condom norms and attitudes,

Seth Kalichman; Robert Malow; Jessy Dévieux; Judith A. Stein; Fred Piedman

2005-01-01

226

California law enforcement agencies and the mentally ill offender.  

PubMed

This article reviews the results of a survey of California law enforcement agencies, designed to assess the experience of these agencies with mentally ill offenders (MIOs) and the training of their officers to interact with this population. The results suggest that most law enforcement officers are given insufficient training to identify, manage, and appropriately refer the MIOs they are increasingly likely to encounter. The data indicate that, in contrast to their training and expectations, peace officers are as likely to be called to a mental illness crisis as to a robbery. The MIO is likely to be arrested for nonviolent misdemeanors and to be screened by officers with little of the training or knowledge needed to divert them to appropriate mental health treatment. Respondents report that increased communication and cooperation between law enforcement and mental health professionals is the single greatest improvement needed for handling mental illness crises. PMID:8845523

Husted, J R; Charter, R A; Perrou, B

1995-01-01

227

Stigmatisation of People with Mental Illness and of Psychiatric Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The effects of stigmatisation upon people with mental illness are common and profoundly socially excluding, and so constitute\\u000a unethical barriers to full social participation. This chapter will therefore discuss the ethical dimension of stigma by defining\\u000a terms, discussing the existing literature on stigma related to mental illness, considering global patterns of stigma, and\\u000a examining stigma and human rights within psychiatric

Nisha Mehta; Graham Thornicroft

228

Mental Illness and Use of Screening Mammography Among Medicaid Beneficiaries  

PubMed Central

Background Disparities in receipt of preventive services by people with mental illness have been previously documented. However, whether these disparities extend to screening mammography among individuals experiencing comparable barriers to accessing care has not been fully examined. Purpose To determine whether disparities exist in receipt of screening mammography between women with and without mental illness enrolled in Medicaid, a program with documented potential to reduce healthcare disparities. Methods Receipt of screening mammography was examined among women aged 50–64 years enrolled in Ohio’s Medicaid program during the years 2002–2008 (n=130,088). Receipt of annual screening mammography was examined among those with at least one screening mammography during the study period. Mental illness was identified through diagnostic, service, and pharmacotherapy codes (n=61,661). Results Compared to women without mental illness, more women with mental illness received at least one screening mammography during the study period (38.1% vs 31.7%, p<0.001). However, after adjusting for potential confounders, including the presence of comorbid conditions and length of enrollment in Medicaid, women with mental illness were 32% less likely to undergo at least one screening mammography (AOR 0.68, 95% CI= 0.66, 0.70). Among those who received at least one screening mammography, fewer women with mental illness received screening mammography on an annual basis (5.9% vs 12.7%, p< 0.001; AOR 0.53 (95% CI= 0.49, 0.56)). For all beneficiaries, each year of enrollment in Medicaid increased the likelihood of screening mammography use by at least 50%. Conclusions Medicaid beneficiaries with mental illness constitute a particularly vulnerable population for suboptimal breast cancer screening.

Koroukian, Siran M.; Bakaki, Paul M.; Golchin, Negar; Tyler, Carl; Loue, Sana

2012-01-01

229

Supporting the Employment of People with Serious Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supported employment for persons with serious mental illness is a relatively new concept that encompasses a variety of models,\\u000a philosophies, and orientations. Increasingly, supported employment services for persons with serious mental illness have become\\u000a differentiated from programs serving other disability groups with greater emphasis on long-term support and less on job training.\\u000a Six models of supported employment continue to be

Robert Baer

230

ARREST TRAJECTORIES OF ADULT OFFENDERS WITH A SERIOUS MENTAL ILLNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined patterns and correlates of arrest\\/re-arrests among offenders with a serious mental illness over a 4-year period. County criminal justice records and health and social service datasets were used to identify and describe inmates jailed in Pinellas County, Florida, between 7\\/03 and 6\\/04. A total of 3,769 participants (10.1% of arrestees) had a serious mental illness. Participants averaged 4.6

Robert J. Constantine; John Petrila; Ross Andel; Eugena M. Givens; Marion Becker; John Robst; Richard Van Dorn; Tim Boaz; Greg Teague; Diane Haynes; Andrew Howe

2010-01-01

231

Mental Illness and Psychotropic Medication Use in the Nursing Home  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined mental illness and psychotropic medications use among nursing home residents. Data were drawn from the Texas Long-Term Care Reimbursement Project, a 1986 study of nearly 2,000 residents in 49 nursing homes. The study measured the use of antipsychotics and other psychotropic medications, physical health conditions, mental illness diagnoses, behavior, and nursing and other direct-care time for sampled

Greg Arling; Brenda J. Ryther; Theodore Collins; David Zimmerman

1991-01-01

232

Deliverance, demonic possession, and mental illness: some considerations for mental health professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines an unconventional treatment for mental illness, the exorcism or deliverance ritual used by Pentecostals and some other charismatic Christians. Deliverance beliefs and practices are based on the assumption that both mental and physical ills result from possession of the sufferer by demons, and are to be treated by the expulsion of those demons. Deliverance practitioners claim to

Jean Mercer

2012-01-01

233

A Strategic Approach to Police Interactions Involving Persons with Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing challenge for law enforcement is dealing appropriately and effectively with persons with mental illness. Individuals experiencing acute symptoms of mental illness may respond differently than what front-line officers expect. Thus, persons with mental illness raise risk issues regarding intervention, strategy, and program framing. As the population grows and ages, so does the number of persons with mental illnesses.

Glenn S. Lipson; James T. Turner; Randy Kasper

2010-01-01

234

Aging With a Severe Mental Illness: Challenges and Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe mental illness (SMI) impacts many different facets of individuals' lives. As they age, those with SMI experience increased physical illnesses, functional impairment, cognitive deficits, and social disability. To promote more effective social work practice with this population, this article highlights the major biopsychosocial and family issues of aging with a psychiatric diagnosis. In addition, intervention approaches that have demonstrated

Sherry M. Cummings; Nancy P. Kropf

2011-01-01

235

Social class and patients' perceptions of mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This investigation was specifically concerned with testing the hypothesis that social class differences exist among hospitalized mental patients in their perceptions of the etiology of their illness. Previous studies have reported that higher class patients usually visualize their illness int terms of subjective and interpersonal factors while patients in lower social classes primarily see objective and external causes. These

Raymond M. Weinstein; Norman Q. Brill

1971-01-01

236

Genetic bases of mental illness – a cure for stigma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increased emphasis on biological causes of mental illness has been viewed as having the potential to significantly reduce stigma. From this perspective, the current genetics revolution can be seen as a source of hope. However, some have argued that biological attributions could increase stigma, for example by making the ill person seem ‘defective’ or ‘physically distinct’ – ‘almost a

Jo C Phelan

2002-01-01

237

Perceptions of Serious Mental Illness in the Local Church  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to assess the perceptions encountered in the local church by individuals diagnosed with a mental disorder. Participants (n = 85) were self-identified, mentally ill Christians who responded to an anonymous online survey. Analysis of the data found that the church had dismissed the diagnoses of a significantly large number of the study participants (41.2%). Participants

Matthew S. Stanford; Kandace R. McAlister

2008-01-01

238

Serious Mental Illness in Florida Nursing Homes: Need for Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined how the mental health needs of nursing home (NH) residents with serious mental illness (SMI) are addressed. Data were collected from three sources: interviews with 84 SMI stakeholders; surveys of 206 NH staff members; and focus groups at two psychiatry specialty NHs. Four common themes emerged: placement of older adults with…

Molinari, Victor A.; Merritt, Stacy S.; Mills, Whitney L.; Chiriboga, David A.; Conboy, Ann; Hyer, Kathryn; Becker, Marion A.

2008-01-01

239

Multidisciplinary Team Perspectives on Older Adult Hoarding and Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study examined multidisciplinary team members' perspectives of their involvement in older adult hoarding cases. Fifteen informants, as representatives of four hoarding teams, described cases in which teams did or did not work well together. Specifically, informants described their (1) team characteristics, (2) awareness of hoarding as a mental health illness, (3) barriers to providing mental health services for

Terry L. Koenig; Matthew R. Leiste; Richard Spano; Rosemary K. Chapin

2012-01-01

240

Seeking Professional Help: Etiology Beliefs about Mental Illness across Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the present study, the authors examined the contributions of cultural beliefs about the etiology of mental illness to the seeking of help from mental health professionals among college students in 4 cultural groups, European Americans, Chinese Americans, Hong Kong Chinese, and Mainland Chinese. Group differences were found in help-seeking…

Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Mak, Winnie W. S.

2008-01-01

241

Risky Business: Mental Illness, Disclosure and the TAFE Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper meets at the crossroads of personal experience and public policy. The personal is the experience of learning as described by five TAFE students with a mental illness. The public policy context is the increased political pressure on Australia's major vocational training providers to increase workforce participation of people with mental

Venville, Annie

2010-01-01

242

Policing and the mentally ill in China: challenges and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public security officers are the first to be called upon to restore order where an incident has been precipitated by a person with mental illness. The paper introduces the steps followed by the officers in handling the case. Problems related to mental health legislation, guardianship, medical services, and policing practices are examined. Since there are not yet comprehensive policies and

T. Wing Lo; Xiaohai Wang

2010-01-01

243

Pica in the Geriatric Mentally Ill: Unrelenting and Potentially Fatal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pica has rarely been reported in patients with geriatric mental illness. The authors describe 3 male patients with pica in the geriatric unit of a state mental hospital. Two of these patients had a diagnosis of developmental delay with concomitant diagnoses of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, respectively. The third patient was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. In all 3 cases, pica

Noel I. Dumaguing; Indra Singh; Mohammad Sethi; D. P. Devanand

2003-01-01

244

Age Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examine newspaper coverage of mental illness in children and adults taken from 6 weeks during a 1-year period. Articles were coded for (1) type of article; (2) types of disorders named or described; (3) themes related to crime, attributions of the disorder, treatments, and critiques of the mental health system; and (4) “elements of responsible journalism,”

Natalie B. Slopen; Amy C. Watson; Gabriela Gracia; Patrick W. Corrigan

2007-01-01

245

Police Departments' Response in Dealing with Persons With Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many individuals with serious mental illnesses have limited resources and supports for living successfully in the community. This places many at risk for contact with law enforcement officers and has forced jails and prisons to become providers of psychiatric care. Police departments across the nation have implemented mental health intervention programs to train officers in handling calls involving individuals who

Louis E. Martínez

2010-01-01

246

Mental Illness and Nursing Facilities: Predictors of Health Services Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study considers the relationship between mental illness and nursing facility use as well as the use of mental health services within nursing facilities and in the community. Three data sets are used in this study: the 1985 National Nursing Home Surve...

D. G. Shea S. Arcona L. W. Chen A. S. Davey J. Grana S. Nag P. A. Russo M. A. Smyer J. J. Vasey F. Davis

1997-01-01

247

Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual People with Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very little has been written about lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people (LGBs) with severe mental illness (SMI). In general, LGBs with SMI have the same mental health needs as their heterosexual counterparts. However, there is a need for some basic understanding and confronting potential bias among health practitioners. Although specialized services for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people

Mary E. Barber

2009-01-01

248

Risky Business: Mental Illness, Disclosure and the TAFE Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper meets at the crossroads of personal experience and public policy. The personal is the experience of learning as described by five TAFE students with a mental illness. The public policy context is the increased political pressure on Australia's major vocational training providers to increase workforce participation of people with mental

Venville, Annie

2010-01-01

249

Racial Disparities in Mental Health Outcomes After Psychiatric Hospital Discharge Among Individuals With Severe Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in non-institutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness were followed for a year after hospital discharge to examine the presence of disparities in mental health outcomes between African American and White individuals diagnosed with a severe psychiatric condition. Results from a series of individual growth curve models indicated that African American individuals with severe mental illness experienced significantly less improvement in global functioning, activation and anergia symptoms, and were less likely to return to work in the year following hospitalization. Racial disparities persisted after adjustment for sociodemographic and diagnostic confounders, and were largely consistent across gender, socioeconomic status, and psychiatric diagnosis. Implications for social work research and practice with minorities with severe mental illness are discussed.

Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

2013-01-01

250

Supportive housing for homeless people with severe mental illness.  

PubMed

Research suggests that as many as 110,000 single adults with severe mental illness (SMI) are homeless on any given day in the United States. The combination of mental illness and homelessness make this population especially hard to reach through either housing or mental health programs alone. Supportive housing programs, which provide independent housing along with health and social services, hold great promise for this population, but are costly to launch and maintain. This Issue Brief highlights a landmark study that examines the extent to which supportive housing costs are offset by reductions in the use of public services for health, corrections, and shelter. PMID:12528737

Culhane, Dennis P; Metreaux, Stephen; Hadley, Trevor

2002-02-01

251

AIDS risk and prevention for the chronic mentally ill.  

PubMed

Some chronic mentally ill populations are at high risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus. The authors argue that stereotypes of the mentally ill as asexual or neutered have had dangerous consequences, namely the absence of sex education and AIDS prevention as an integral part of treatment. To counter this neglect, the authors developed an AIDS prevention program in a large inner-city mental health center that serves primarily black and Latino patients. Prevention efforts include individual risk assessments and an innovative drop-in group. Central to effective patient education are the distribution of condoms and concrete instruction in their use. PMID:2361669

Carmen, E; Brady, S M

1990-06-01

252

Assessment and Diagnosis of Mental Illness in Persons with Mental RetardationMethods and Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment and diagnosis of psychiatric disorders in individuals with mental retardation has been a neglected area of research. However, current research indicates that these individuals suffer from the same range of psychiatric disorders that is evident in those who are not mentally retarded. A model of assessment and diagnosis of mental illness in this population is presented that incorporates

Nirbhay N. Singh; Aradhana Sood; Neil Sonenklar; Cynthia R. Ellis

1991-01-01

253

Deinstitutionalization: Its Impact on Community Mental Health Centers and the Seriously Mentally Ill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deinstitutionalization has had a significant impact on the mental health system, including the client, the agency, and the counselor. For clients with serious mental illness, learning to live in a community setting poses challenges that are often difficult to overcome. Community mental health agencies must respond to these specific needs, thus…

Kliewer, Stephen P.; McNally Melissa; Trippany, Robyn L.

2009-01-01

254

The meaning of mental illness within the Victorian Mental Health Act: the problem of definition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study will critically examine the Mental Health Act 1986 (Vic), including the significant changes introduced through the Mental Health (Amendments) Act 1995 (Vic). It will be argued that the Victorian legislation presents some practical difficulties in application as it adopts too broad a definition of mental illness to be used reliably in assessing a person's need for treatment and\\/or

Paul D. ONeal

2003-01-01

255

Impact of psychiatric and social characteristics on HIV sexual risk behavior in Puerto Rican women with severe mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Latinos in the United States have been identified as a high-risk group for depression, anxiety, and substance abuse. HIV\\/AIDS\\u000a has disproportionately impacted Latinos. Review findings suggest that HIV-risk behaviors among persons with severe mental\\u000a illness (SMI) are influenced by a multitude of factors including psychiatric illness, cognitive-behavioral factors, substance\\u000a use, childhood abuse, and social relationships.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To examine the impact of

Emily Lenore Goldman Heaphy; Sana Loue; Martha Sajatovic; Daniel J. Tisch

2010-01-01

256

Disparities in appendicitis rupture rate among mentally ill patients  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies have been carried out that focus on mental patients' access to care for their mental illness, but very few pay attention on these same patients' access to care for their physical diseases. Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency. Our population-based study was to test for any possible association between mental illness and perforated appendicitis. We hypothesized that there are significant disparities in access to timely surgical care between appendicitis patients with and without mental illness, and more specifically, between patients with schizophrenia and those with another major mental illness. Methods Using the National Health Insurance (NHI) hospital-discharge data, we compared the likelihood of perforated appendix among 97,589 adults aged 15 and over who were hospitalized for acute appendicitis in Taiwan between the years 1997 to 2001. Among all the patients admitted for appendicitis, the outcome measure was the odds of appendiceal rupture vs. appendicitis that did not result in a ruptured appendix. Results After adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES) and hospital characteristics, the presence of schizophrenia was associated with a 2.83 times higher risk of having a ruptured appendix (odds ratio [OR], 2.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.20–3.64). However, the presence of affective psychoses (OR, 1.15; 95% CI: 0.77–1.73) or other mental disorders (OR, 1.58; 95% CI: 0.89–2.81) was not a significant predictor for a ruptured appendix. Conclusion These findings suggest that given the fact that the NHI program reduces financial barriers to care for mentally ill patients, they are still at a disadvantage for obtaining timely treatment for their physical diseases. Of patients with a major mental illness, schizophrenic patients may be the most vulnerable ones for obtaining timely surgical care.

Tsay, Jen-Huoy; Lee, Cheng-Hua; Hsu, Yea-Jen; Wang, Pen-Jen; Bai, Ya-Mei; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Huang, Nicole

2007-01-01

257

Current Legislation on Admission of Mentally Ill Patients in China  

PubMed Central

Objective To date, there is no systematic analysis of mental health laws and their implementation across the People’s Republic of China. This article aims to describe and analyze current legal frameworks for voluntary and involuntary admissions of mentally ill patients in the five cities of China that currently have municipal mental health regulations. Methods Information on the legislation and practice of involuntary admission in the five cities was gathered and assessed using the “WHO Checklist on Mental Health Legislation.” The checklist was completed for each city by a group of psychiatrists trained in mental health legislation. Results Although the mental health regulations in these five cities cover the basic principles needed to meet international standards of mental health legislation, some defects in the legislation remain. In particular, these regulations lack detail in specifying procedures for dealing with admission and treatment and lack oversight and review mechanisms and procedures for appeal of involuntary admission and treatment. Conclusions A more comprehensive and enforceable national mental health act is needed in order to ensure the rights of persons suffering mental illness in terms of admission and treatment procedures. In addition, more research is needed to understand how the current municipal regulations of mental health services in these cities are implemented in routine practice.

Shao, Yang; Xie, Bin; Good, Mary-Jo DelVecchio; Good, Byron J.

2009-01-01

258

Anger Management for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Clients: A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual was designed for use by qualified substance abuse and mental health clinicians who work with substance abuse and mental health clients with concurrent anger problems. The manual describes a 12-week cognitive behavioral anger management group t...

M. S. Shopshire P. M. Reilly

2002-01-01

259

Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration. The Forward Plan for FY 1978 - 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration's (ADAMHA) Forward Plan represents the administration's best professional judgment, within certain budget constraints, about what the needs for alcoholism, drug abuse, and mental health programs fu...

1976-01-01

260

Mentalization in children exposed to parental methamphetamine abuse: relations to children's mental health and behavioral outcomes.  

PubMed

This study examined the mentalization capabilities of children exposed to parental methamphetamine abuse in relation to symptom underreporting, mental health, and behavioral outcomes. Twenty-six school-aged children in foster care participated in this study. Mentalization was assessed using the My Family Stories Interview (MFSI), a semi-structured interview in which children recalled family stories about a happy, sad or scary and fun time. An established scale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC), a self-report measure, provided information on children's symptom underreporting. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), completed by the children's foster caregivers, assessed children's mental health and behavioral outcomes. Children with higher mentalization were significantly less prone to underreport symptoms. These children had fewer mental health problems and were rated by their foster caregivers as more socially competent. The findings underscore that mentalization could be an important protective factor for children who have experienced parental substance abuse. PMID:20473793

Ostler, Teresa; Bahar, Ozge Sensoy; Jessee, Allison

2010-05-01

261

Multidisciplinary team perspectives on older adult hoarding and mental illness.  

PubMed

This qualitative study examined multidisciplinary team members' perspectives of their involvement in older adult hoarding cases. Fifteen informants, as representatives of four hoarding teams, described cases in which teams did or did not work well together. Specifically, informants described their (a) team characteristics, (b) awareness of hoarding as a mental health illness, (c) barriers to providing mental health services for older adults who hoard, and (d) components of successful teamwork within the team and with the older adult as hoarder. Implications include research to better guide interventions, team training to develop common perspectives, and policy development that supports mental health representation on teams and in-home mental health treatment. PMID:23289417

Koenig, Terry L; Leiste, Matthew R; Spano, Richard; Chapin, Rosemary K

2013-01-01

262

A Preliminary Classification System for Homeless Veterans With Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was that of defining psychiatric profiles among veterans based on a structured interview of 3,595 individuals administered by outreach mental health clinicians to individuals who were presently or recently homeless. The interview included ratings of presence or absence of current psychiatric disorders; alcoholism, drug abuse, psychosis, mood disorders, personality disorders, PTSD, and adjustment disorders. We

Gerald Goldstein; James F. Luther; Aaron M. Jacoby; Gretchen L. Haas; Adam J. Gordon

2008-01-01

263

Mental illness and mental health: is the glass half empty or half full?  

PubMed

During the past century, the scope of mental health intervention in North America has gradually expanded from an initial focus on hospitalized patients with psychoses to outpatients with neurotic disorders, including the so-called worried well. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fifth Edition, is further embracing the concept of a mental illness spectrum, such that increasing attention to the softer end of the continuum can be expected in the future. This anticipated shift rekindles important questions about how mental illness is defined, how to distinguish between mental disorders and normal reactions, whether psychiatry is guilty of prevalence inflation, and when somatic therapies should be used to treat problems of living. Such debates are aptly illustrated by the example of complicated bereavement, which is best characterized as a form of adjustment disorder. Achieving an overarching definition of mental illness is challenging, owing to the many different contexts in which DSM diagnoses are used. Careful analyses of such contextual utility must inform future decisions about what ends up in DSM, as well as how mental illness is defined by public health policy and society at large. A viable vision for the future of psychiatry should include a spectrum model of mental health (as opposed to exclusively mental illness) that incorporates graded, evidence-based interventions delivered by a range of providers at each point along its continuum. PMID:23149280

Pierre, Joseph M

2012-11-01

264

Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

2010-01-01

265

Farming and Mental Health Problems and Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Farmers experience one of the highest rates of suicide of any industry and there is growing evidence that those involved in farming are at higher risk of developing mental health problems. This article provides an overview of the literature examining mental health issues experienced by farming populations in the United Kingdom, Europe, Australia, Canada and the United States and

C. E. Fraser; K. B. Smith; F. Judd; J. S. Humphreys; L. J. Fragar; A. Henderson

2005-01-01

266

Identifying Need for Mental Health Services in Substance Abuse Clients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Counselor detection of co-occurring disorders is critical to ensuring that clients with mental disorders entering substance abuse treatment receive appropriate care. This study sought to: (1) examine correspondence between client-reported psychiatric symptoms and client and counselor ratings of need for mental health treatment, and (2) explore client- and program-level characteristics associated with client and counselor underrating. Methods: Psychiatric symptoms

Amy A. Mericle; Cherie Martin; Deni Carise; Meghan Love

2012-01-01

267

The Relationships between Mental Health and Substance Abuse Treatment and Juvenile Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of mental health and substance abuse treatment in reducing crimes committed by juveniles. The observed high correlations between crime, substance abuse and poor mental health suggests that factors which reduce substance abuse and improve mental health may also be effective in reducing criminal activities. This paper uses detention data in

Alison Evans Cuellar; Sara Markowitz; Anne M. Libby

2003-01-01

268

Koran reading and negotiation with jinn: strategies to deal with mental ill health among Swedish Somalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss traditional Somali concepts of mental ill health. Qualitative interviews were conducted with some 20 Swedish Somali interviewees about factors causing mental ill health, traditional classification, strategies to deal with mental ill health, and attitudes to the mental health care services in Sweden. Social mobilisation and religious healing are cornerstones of traditional Somali measures to deal

Sara Johnsdotter; Karin Ingvarsdotter; Margareta Östman; Aje Carlbom

2011-01-01

269

The criminalization of the mentally ill: Speculation in search of data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the evidence for the speculation that mentally ill persons who would previously have been treated within mental hospitals are now processed through the criminal justice system and constitute an ever-increasing proportion of the jail population. Three factors underlie this speculation: the increase in mentally ill persons residing in the community, police handling of the mentally ill, and evidence that

Linda A. Teplin

1983-01-01

270

The effect of personal experience with mental illness on the attitude towards individuals suffering from mental disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the results of two population surveys conducted in Germany during 1990 and 1993, we examined to what extent personal experience with mental illness might influence attitudes towards the mentally ill. Respondents familiar with mental illness displayed prosocial reactions more frequently than those without any personal experience. They also tended to react less fearfully. There were only small differences,

M. C. Angermeyer; H. Matschinger

1996-01-01

271

Sexual and reproductive behaviors among persons with mental illness.  

PubMed

For this study, 200 women and men with a major mood disorder or schizophrenia were interviewed about their sexual and reproductive behaviors. The responses of the women and men were compared with those of persons from a national health survey who were matched for age and race. Compared with women from the national survey, women with mental illness had fewer pregnancies and live births but were more likely to have had a pregnancy that did not result in a live birth. Women with mental illness had more lifetime sexual partners. The findings suggest that clinicians should pay attention to patients' sexual and reproductive health. PMID:15534020

Dickerson, Faith B; Brown, Clayton H; Kreyenbuhl, Julie; Goldberg, Richard W; Fang, Li Juan; Dixon, Lisa B

2004-11-01

272

Religion and suicide in patients with mental illness or cancer.  

PubMed

In Switzerland, the highest rates of suicide are observed in persons without religious affiliation and the lowest in Catholics, with Protestants in an intermediate position. We examined whether this association was modified by concomitant psychiatric diagnoses or malignancies, based on 6,909 suicides (ICD-10 codes X60-X84) recorded in 3.69 million adult residents 2001-2008. Suicides were related to mental illness or cancer if codes F or C, respectively, were mentioned on the death certificate. The protective effect of religion was substantially stronger if a diagnosis of cancer was mentioned on the death certificate and weaker if a mental illness was mentioned. PMID:23331329

Panczak, Radoslaw; Spoerri, Adrian; Zwahlen, Marcel; Bopp, Matthias; Gutzwiller, Felix; Egger, Matthias

2013-01-18

273

Sri Lankan doctors’ and medical undergraduates’ attitudes towards mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Stigmatizing attitudes towards mental illness can impede help-seeking and adversely affect treatment outcomes, especially\\u000a if such attitudes are endorsed by medical personnel. In order to help identify targets for anti-stigma interventions, we comprehensively\\u000a examined negative attitudes towards mental illness displayed by Sri Lankan doctors and medical students and compared these\\u000a with equivalent UK and other international data.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A self-report questionnaire

Sunera Mayanthi Fernando; Frank P. Deane; Hamish J. McLeod

2010-01-01

274

Racism, mental illness and social support in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The difference in risk of mental illness in UK ethnic minorities may be related to a balance between specific risk factors\\u000a such as racial discrimination and mediating factors such as social support. We investigated whether social support from friends\\u000a or relatives reduces the cross-sectional association between perceived racism and the risk of mental illness in an ethnic\\u000a minority group.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We

Apu T. Chakraborty; Kwame J. McKenzie; Shakoor Hajat; Stephen A. Stansfeld

2010-01-01

275

State substance abuse and mental health managed care evaluation program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The articles in this special section of the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research (30:1) present results from evaluations of publicly funded managed care initiatives for substance abuse and mental health treatment in Arizona, Iowa, Maryland, and Nebraska. This overview outlines the four managed care programs and summarizes the results from the studies. The evaluations used administrative data and

Dennis McCarty; Joan Dilonardo; Milton Argeriou

2003-01-01

276

Mental Health, Alcohol and Drug Abuse Needs Assessment Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mental health, alcohol, and drug abuse (MHADA) needs assessment study was conducted from July 1979 through May 1980 in southern New Jersey. Study goals were to determine the prevalence of MHADA problems among the service area's population, to evaluate t...

1980-01-01

277

Met and unmet needs of severely mentally ill persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Background: There has been a process of deinstitutionalisation and mental health care reforms in most countries in Europe. The objective\\u000a of this study was to discuss the effects of the Psychiatric Care Reform in Sweden in 1995 on the development of needs of severely\\u000a mentally ill persons and to analyse whether the efforts made by social services and psychiatric

Hans Arvidsson

2003-01-01

278

Cardiovascular Risk Factors for People with Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to document the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease among people with chronic mental illness.Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 234 outpatients attending a community mental health clinic in the North-western Health Care Network in Melbourne, Australia. Prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, hypertension, salt intake, exercise and history

Sandra Davidson; Fiona Judd; Damien Jolley; Barbara Hocking; Sandra Thompson; Brendan Hyland

2001-01-01

279

Co-occurring mental illness and health care utilization and expenditures in adults with obesity and chronic physical illness.  

PubMed

The objectives of the study were to compare health care expenditures between adults with and without mental illness among individuals with obesity and chronic physical illness. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 2440 adults (older than age 21) with obesity using a nationally representative survey of households, the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Chronic physical illness consisted of self-reported asthma, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, or osteoarthritis. Mental illness included affective disorders; anxiety, somatoform, dissociative, personality disorders; and schizophrenia. Utilization and expenditures by type of service (total, inpatient, outpatient, emergency room, pharmacy, and other) were the dependent variables. Chi-square tests, logistic regression on likelihood of use, and ordinary least squares regression on logged expenditures among users were performed. All regressions controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, age, martial status, region, education, employment, poverty status, health insurance, smoking, and exercise. All analyses accounted for the complex design of the survey. We found that 25% of adults with obesity and physical illness had a mental illness. The average total expenditures for obese adults with physical illness and mental illness were $9897; average expenditures were $6584 for those with physical illness only. Mean pharmacy expenditures for obese adults with physical illness and mental illness and for those with physical illness only were $3343 and $1756, respectively. After controlling for all independent variables, among adults with obesity and physical illness, those with mental illness were more likely to use emergency services and had higher total, outpatient, and pharmaceutical expenditures than those without mental illness. Among individuals with obesity and chronic physical illness, expenditures increased when mental illness is added. Our study findings suggest cost-savings efforts should examine the reasons for high utilization and expenditures for those with obesity, chronic physical illness, and mental illness. PMID:18564027

Shen, Chan; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Rust, George

2008-06-01

280

The Effect of Severe Child Sexual Abuse and Disclosure on Mental Health during Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship among severe child sexual abuse, disclosure, and mental health symptoms during adulthood. The sample consisted of 172 adults who were sexually abused in childhood. The multivariate model showed that respondents in their 30s and 40s who were abused by more than one abuser, who were injured by their abusers, who…

O'Leary, Patrick; Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D.

2010-01-01

281

Impact of Childhood Abuse: Biopsychosocial Pathways Through Which Adult Mental Health is Compromised  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between childhood abuse and adult mental and physical health problems is well documented. Over the lifespan of victims of child abuse, social, psychological and biological consequences of abuse interact in complex ways. A biopsychosocial model is applied to the experiences of adult victims of child abuse to make sense of the complex and varied impacts of child abuse.

Dominiek Coates

2010-01-01

282

Challenges Relating to the Interface Between Crisis Mental Health Clinicians and Police When Engaging with People with a Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symptoms of mental illness can increase the risk of disturbed behaviour. Joint intervention between police and mental health services is therefore sometimes needed to manage crisis events safely, and to divert people with a mental illness from further criminal justice system contact. This study explored how crisis mental health clinicians and police officers experience the service interface to identify perceived

Yitzchak Hollander; Stuart J. Lee; Steven Tahtalian; David Young; Jayashri Kulkarni

2012-01-01

283

Common understandings of women's mental illness in Ghana: results from a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Despite the high rates of depression and anxiety disorders amongst women, the mental health of women is a neglected area, particularly in Africa. This study sought to explore what key stakeholders perceive as the main causes of mental illness in women in Ghana. Using qualitative methods, 81 semi-structured interviews and seven focus group discussions were conducted with 120 key stakeholders drawn from 5 of the 10 regions in Ghana. The analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory approach. Respondents attributed mental illness in women to a number of causes. These included women being the weaker sex, hormones, witchcraft, adultery, abuse and poverty. Explanations could be clustered under three broad categories: women's inherent vulnerability, witchcraft, and gender disadvantage. The way in which women's subordinate position within society may underpin their mental distress needs to be recognized and addressed. The results from this study offer opportunities to identify how policy can better recognize, accommodate and address the mental health needs of women in Ghana and other low-income African countries. PMID:21226647

Ofori-Atta, Angela; Cooper, Sara; Akpalu, Bright; Osei, Akwasi; Doku, Victor; Lund, Crick; Flisher, Alan; The Mhapp Research Programme Consortium

2010-01-01

284

Promotion and Mental Illness in the Navy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study compares the promotional attainments of 2,939 enlistedmen in pay grades E-4, E-5, and E-6 (third-class petty officer, second-class petty officer, and first-class petty officer, respectively) who were admitted to naval hospitals for mental illnes...

R. J. Arthur E. K. E. Gunderson

1965-01-01

285

Staying alive: a client with chronic mental illness in an environment of domestic violence.  

PubMed

This case study of a young, African American mother with chronic mental illness demonstrates the impact of domestic violence on a vulnerable population. The client was economically disadvantaged, socially isolated, stigmatized, and victimized by repeated abuse from her live-in male partner of 7 years. With this overlay of violence in the home, the client experienced a downward trajectory in health, self-esteem, economic status, personal freedom, social relationships, and legal standing. Using a public health model in the context of an urban nursing center, an advanced practice nurse provided case management and outreach services for the client. PMID:11913224

O'Brien, Susan McMullen

2002-04-01

286

Co-Occurring Disorders in the Adolescent Mental Health and Substance Abuse Treatment Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the rates of co-occurring disorders in two large federally-funded programs that target youth. In the mental health treatment system, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) supports the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program. SAMHSA's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) supports a number

Win C. Turner; Randolph D. Muck; Rebekah J. Muck; Robert L. Stephens; Bhuvana Sukumar

2004-01-01

287

Genetic optimism: framing genes and mental illness in the news.  

PubMed

Over the past two decades the pace and specificity of discoveries associating genetics with mental illness has accelerated, which is reflected in an increase in news coverage about the genetics of mental disorder. The news media is a major source of public understanding of genetics and a strong influence on public discourse. This paper examines the news coverage of genetics and mental illness (i.e., bipolar illness and schizophrenia) over a 25 year period, emphasizing the peak period of 1987-1994. Using a sample of 110 news stories from 5 major American newspapers and 3 news magazines, we identify the frame of "genetic optimism" which dominated the reporting of genetics and mental illness beginning in the mid- 1980s. The structure of the frame is comprised of 3 elements: a gene for the disorder exists; it will be found; and it will be good. New discoveries of genes were announced with great fanfare, but the most promising claims could not be replicated or were retracted in short order. Despite these disconfirmations, genetic optimism persisted in subsequent news stories. While the scientific accuracy of the gene stories is high, the genetic optimism frame distorts some of the findings, misrepresents and reifies the impact of genes on mental disorder, and leaves no space for critics or an examination of potential negative impacts. The stances of reporters, scientists and editors may all in different ways contribute to the perpetuation of genetic optimism. Genetic optimism presents an overly sanguine picture of the state of genetics; as we enter the genetic age it is important to balance the extraneous "hype and hope" contained in news stories of genetics and mental illness. PMID:11453260

Conrad, P

2001-06-01

288

Sociocultural stress and the american native in Alaska: An analysis of changing patterns of psychiatric illness and alcohol abuse among Alaska natives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents selected morbidity and mortality statistics to outline developing trends and the current status of psychiatric illness and alcohol abuse among the Aleut, Athabascan, Yupik, Inupiat, Tlingit, Haida and Tsimpshian people of Alaska. Analysis of the records of the Indian Health Service, the Community Mental Health Centers and the Alaska Psychiatric Institute, the providers of care for Alaska

Robert F. Kraus; Patricia A. Buffler

1979-01-01

289

"Idiots, infants, and the insane": mental illness and legal incompetence  

PubMed Central

Prior to the second world war, most persons confined in insane asylums were regarded as legally incompetent and had guardians appointed for them. Today, most persons confined in mental hospitals (or treated involuntarily, committed to outpatient treatment) are, in law, competent; nevertheless, in fact, they are treated as if they were incompetent. Should the goal of mental health policy be providing better psychiatric services to more and more people, or the reduction and ultimate elimination of the number of persons in the population treated as mentally ill?

Szasz, T

2005-01-01

290

Making Sense Of Mental Illness As A Full Human Experience: Perspective of illness and recovery held by people with a mental illness living in the community  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is substantial current interest in building evidence about recovery from mental illness in order to inform comprehensive practice in health and social paradigms. This paper presents accounts related to recovery and illness expressed by eight people through a Participatory Action Research project. The research facilitated entry to their subjective experiences of living in the community as an artist with

Karleen Gwinner; Marie Knox; Mark Brough

2012-01-01

291

The faith community as a support for people with mental illness.  

PubMed

Innovative programs developed by faith communities for people with mental illness, as well as guidelines for collaboration between religious and mental health organizations, are presented. PMID:9855760

Shifrin, J

1998-01-01

292

Community Mental Health Care for Women with Severe Mental Illness Who Are Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with SMI are involved in childbearing and childrearing, but may have problems with parenting related to symptoms, lack of knowledge and skills, or lack of environmental supports. They may need intensive services to manage their mental illness and to parent to the best of their abilities. Preliminary research suggests that mental health interventions can improve family functioning, but that

Mary F. Brunette; Wendy Dean

2002-01-01

293

Mental Health Stigma about Serious Mental Illness among MSW Students: Social Contact and Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the attitudes toward and beliefs about serious mental illness (SMI) held by a group of graduate social work students in the northwestern United States were examined. Mental health stigma was examined with relation to the following factors: participants' level of social contact with SMI populations, adherence to stereotypes about SMI…

Covarrubias, Irene; Han, Meekyung

2011-01-01

294

The Responsiveness of State Mental Health Authorities to Parents with Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of adults with serious mental illness living in the community are parents, many of whom may be receiving services from State Mental Health Authorities (SMHA). Innovative intervention approaches are available to improve outcomes for these parents and their children. Analyses of SMHA and state-level data, as well as qualitative interviews of administrators, service providers, and consumers, underscore the

Kathleen Biebel; Joanne Nicholson; Valerie Williams; Beth R. Hinden

2004-01-01

295

Child Physical Abuse and Adult Mental Health: A National Study  

PubMed Central

This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000–2001 and 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16–2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention.

Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S.; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

2013-01-01

296

Behavior Therapy Empowers Persons with Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavior therapy has been viewed by some as disempowering persons with severe mental illness (i.e., undermining their ability to make independent decisions). This is ironic because various behavioral strategies actually promote independent decision making. Behavioral interventions (a) provide a safe place for persons to consider their life decisions; (b) simplify the range of choices that comprise many of these decisions;

Patrick W. Corrigan

1997-01-01

297

The role of the general practitioner in severe mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around 25% of patients with severe enduring mental illness (SEMI) lose contact with psychiatric services and are looked after entirely in general practice, so it is important that primary care teams understand their problems and know where to seek help. GPs and practice nurses also have a very important role to play in the physical care of patients with SEMI.

Tony Kendrick

2007-01-01

298

The role of the general practitioner in severe mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around 25–30% of patients with severe and enduring mental illness (SEMI) lose contact with psychiatric services and are looked after entirely in general practice, so it is very important that primary care teams understand their problems and know where to seek help. GPs and practice nurses also have a very important role to play in the physical care of patients

Tony Kendrick

2004-01-01

299

Cultivating Empathy for the Mentally Ill Using Simulated Auditory Hallucinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The authors address the issue of cultivating medical students' empathy for the mentally ill by examining medical student empathy pre- and postsimulated auditory hallucination experience. Methods: At the University of Utah, 150 medical students participated in this study during their 6-week psychiatry rotation. The Jefferson Scale of…

Bunn, William; Terpstra, Jan

2009-01-01

300

Mental Illness in Nursing Homes: United States, 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The data presented in the report on mental illness in nursing homes are from the 1985 National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS). The Survey reports that 65.3 percent of all current nursing home residents (or 974,300 persons) had at least one condition that can ...

G. W. Strahan

1991-01-01

301

The Police Response to Mental Illness on Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Campus police officers are often among the initial contacts for behavioral incidents involving people with mental illness. Their training and access to resources influence decisions to direct the individual to support services and/or through campus disciplinary processes and/or the criminal justice system. Over the past decade, there has been an…

Margolis, Gary J.; Shtull, Penny R.

2012-01-01

302

Stigma, Reflected Appraisals, and Recovery Outcomes in Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Drawing on modified labeling theory and the reflected appraisals process and using longitudinal data from 129 mothers and their adult children with schizophrenia, we estimate models of the effects of mothers' stigmatized identity appraisals of their mentally ill children on reflected and self-appraisals, and how appraisals affect outcomes…

Markowitz, Fred E.; Angell, Beth; Greenberg, Jan S.

2011-01-01

303

The Depiction of Mental Illnesses in Children's Television Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Concern has been expressed that negative attitudes toward people with mental illnesses begin to develop early in childhood. This study examines one of the possible sources of learning of such negative attitudes--children's television programs. Two hundred sixty-nine (269) hours of children's television programming were videotaped, viewed, and…

Wahl, Otto; Hanrahan, Erin; Karl, Kelly; Lasher, Erin; Swaye, Janel

2007-01-01

304

Living with chronic mental illness: Understanding the role of work  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based upon an exploratory study designed to examine the role of work within the lives of those with severe, persistent mental illness (SPMI). Indepth, open ended interviews were conducted with a small number of consumers (n=10) who attend a clubhouse for those with SPMI where emphasis is placed upon preparation for work. Given that little is known

Teresa Linnea Scheid; Cliff Anderson

1995-01-01

305

Challenging Two Mental Illness Stigmas: Personal Responsibility and Dangerousness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two stigmatizing attitudes related to dangerousness and personal responsibility may undermine the opportunities of persons with serious mental illness. This study set out to examine path models that explain how these attitudes lead to discriminatory behavior and to assess the impact of antistigma programs on components of personal responsibility and dangerousness models. Two hundred thirteen persons were randomly assigned to

Patrick W. Corrigan; David Rowan; Amy Green; Robert Lundin; Philip River; Kyle Uphoff-Wasowski; Kurt White; Mary Anne Kubiak

2002-01-01

306

Community impact of group homes for mentally ill adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of resistance to the establishment of group homes for mentally ill adults is well-documented. The extent to which such homes, once established, do or do not create problems for communities is less clear. The current study examined the impressions of residents of a group home neighborhood one year or more after the establishment of the home. Forty-one residents

Otto F. Wahl

1993-01-01

307

The Future of Psychotherapy for Mentally Ill Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Given striking advances in translational developmental neuroscience and its convergence with developmental psychopathology and developmental epidemiology, it is now clear that mental illnesses are best thought of as neurodevelopmental disorders. This simple fact has enormous implications for the nature and organization of psychotherapy…

March, John S.

2009-01-01

308

Effects of Therapist Behavior on People's Mental Illness Judgments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students (N=308) were asked to function in a judgmental activity assumed to correspond to the diagnostic activity of categorizing a target person as "mentally ill." Analysis of scores shows subjects regard the target person as more negative and more "maladjusted" when the interviewer enacts expected appropriate professional interest.…

Yaffe, Peter E.; Mancuso, James C.

1977-01-01

309

Structured Learning Therapy with Mentally Ill Criminal Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of Structured Learning Therapy on social skills and psychopathology were assessed among mentally ill incarcerated offenders. After 12 training sessions inmates receiving Structured Learning Therapy did not report more improved social skills than did controls who received group psychotherapy. However, experimental subjects reported significantly less psychopathology than controls on 6 out of 10 scales of the SCL-90-R. These data

Peter M. Hayman; Deborah M. Weiss Cassady

1982-01-01

310

A special population the elderly deinstitutionalized chronically mentally ill patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Deinstitutionalization began with some noble sentiments: to treat and care for the mentally ill in settings that were closer to their homes, families, and neighborhoods; to treat people in more therapeutic and less restrictive settings; and to provide the array of services and settings in the community rather than in far distant institutions. However, few of these intentions have

John A. Talbott

1983-01-01

311

Clinical Psychologists' Perceptions of Persons With Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical psychologists have an ethical responsibility to monitor the nature and appropriateness of their attitudes toward persons with mental illness. This article presents the results of a survey of randomly selected clinical psychologists who were asked to rate the effectiveness, understandability, safety, worthiness, desirability, and similarity (to the rater) of persons with moderate depression, borderline features, and schizophrenia. The results

Lynn M. Servais; Stephen M. Saunders

2007-01-01

312

Medications Frequently Used To Treat Persons with Mental Illness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The manual is intended to assist the rehabilitation professional in planning services for persons with disabilities, such as long-term mental illness, which require treatment with medication, especially psychotropic medications. The compilation of data groups similar medications together and includes such information as purpose of medication,…

Danser, Helen Lisanby

313

The Depiction of Mental Illnesses in Children's Television Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concern has been expressed that negative attitudes toward people with mental illnesses begin to develop early in childhood. This study examines one of the possible sources of learning of such negative attitudes--children's television programs. Two hundred sixty-nine (269) hours of children's television programming were videotaped, viewed, and…

Wahl, Otto; Hanrahan, Erin; Karl, Kelly; Lasher, Erin; Swaye, Janel

2007-01-01

314

The Future of Psychotherapy for Mentally Ill Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Given striking advances in translational developmental neuroscience and its convergence with developmental psychopathology and developmental epidemiology, it is now clear that mental illnesses are best thought of as neurodevelopmental disorders. This simple fact has enormous implications for the nature and organization of psychotherapy…

March, John S.

2009-01-01

315

The Sylvia Plath Effect: Mental Illness in Eminent Creative Writers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two studies involving a total of 2149 writers and other eminent individuals found that female poets were significantly more likely to suffer from mental illness than female fiction writers, than male writers of any type, or than eminent individuals in other fields. This finding has been dubbed the "Sylvia Plath" effect. (Contains references.)…

Kaufman, James C.

2001-01-01

316

Creativity, self creation, and the treatment of mental illness.  

PubMed

This paper examines how an understanding of systematic findings about creative processes involved in art, literature, and science can be applied to the effective treatment of mental illness. These findings and applications are illustrated by particular reference to the work of the poet Sylvia Plath and the treatment of a patient who aspired to become a writer. PMID:23674742

Rothenberg, A

2006-06-01

317

Factors associated with caregiver burden in mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews caregiver burden studies that evaluated burden of care for a mentally ill relative using measurement instruments with established validity and reliability. The review identifies aspects of caregiving that are most burdensome to caregivers. It describes the nature of the relationships between variables and different dimensions of caregiver burden, and identifies mixed findings that are theoretically relevant to

Anne-Marie Baronet

1999-01-01

318

Instruments measuring family or caregiver burden in severe mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consequences of psychiatric disorders for family members, usually called family or caregiver burden, have been studied during the last 4 decades. During this period a variety of instruments have been developed to measure the impact of mental illness on family members, but not all instruments have been described systematically in the published literature. The authors review 21 instruments that

A. H. Schene; R. C. Tessler; G. M. Gamache

1994-01-01

319

Perceived Mental Illness Stigma among Youth in Psychiatric Outpatient Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to…

Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

2012-01-01

320

Teaching Students with Emotional Disorders and/or Mental Illnesses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This resource manual is designed to assist Alberta teachers in the identification and education of students with emotional disorders and/or mental illnesses. It takes a comprehensive look at six emotional disorders. The first section focuses on eating disorders. It describes the characteristics and symptoms of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

321

Narrative Processing of Entertainment Media and Mental Illness Stigma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the narrative effects of familiarity, transportation, whether a story is factual or fiction, and perceived realism on the stigmatizing behavior of social distancing behavior. A sample of N = 137 participants watched a commercial movie about mental illness. Genre was manipulated to determine whether fiction or nonfiction impacted social distancing behavior. Although there was no effect of

Nicole Mossing Caputo; Donna Rouner

2011-01-01

322

Family coping with mental illness: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Two studies were conducted by the same researcher, one in Canada, the other in Japan, looking at families' reactions to their relatives' mental illness. The focus was placed on family caregivers' transformation processes, which are a unitary process of pattern appraisal and deliberate mutual patterning based on a unitary transformative paradigm within Newman's theory of health as expanding consciousness. PMID:10076282

Yamashita, M

1998-12-01

323

African Americans and Recovery from Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This hermeneutic phenomenological study examined the lived experience of African-American persons recovering from serious and persistent mental illness (SPMI). Semi-structured interviews were conducted at three time points (6, 12, and 18 months) with nine African Americans with SPMI. A culturally sensitive perspective informed the data analysis. Interviews were transcribed, read, and coded to cluster thematic aspects in each case and

Marilyn Peterson Armour; William Bradshaw; David Roseborough

2009-01-01

324

“Knowledge is Power”: Educating Children About Their Parent's Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the prevalence and associated vulnerabilities of children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) it is essential to develop appropriate interventions. While education is an important component in many interventions, little is known about what topics are covered, delivery mode, and the efficacy in meeting the needs of this target group. Eighteen facilitators responsible for delivering COPMI programs across

Andrea E. Reupert; Darryl Maybery

2010-01-01

325

Facilitating Intrinsic Motivation in Clients with Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a set of practice guidelines for occupational therapy clinicians to resolve the problem of motivational deficits in clients with mental illness. The theoretical base for the practice guidelines is derived from self-determination theory and learned helplessness theory. Both theories describe motivational deficits as a result of cumulative frustration experiences in the past and an individual's perception that

Chin-Yu Wu; Shu-Ping Chen; Judy Grossman

2000-01-01

326

Support systems and mental illness in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical experience indicates an especially important role for support systems in a bio-psychosocial approach to understanding the development of mental illness in elderly pesons and the provision of appropriate services for them. Family, work, and community supports are reviewed. The authors believe optimistically that the present traditional supports are not worse than those of the past and that new models

J. Martin Myers; Calvin S. Drayer

1979-01-01

327

The Charcot Effect: The Invention of Mental Illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes the Charcot effect, in which clinicians describe what they themselves prescribe. It is argued that the Charcot effect can be a critical instrument for exposing how mental illnesses are invented in the process of developing diagnostic systems and conducting psychopharmacological research. We argue that the Charcot effect helps explain the expansion of depression to epidemic proportions, the

Marino Pérez-Álvarez; José M. García-Montes

2007-01-01

328

Using Young Adult Literature To End Discrimination against Mental Illness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to inform junior and senior high school students about mental illness, this document provides educators with an annotated bibliography of young adult fiction and a set of supporting activities. Included in the bibliography are nearly 100 current fiction titles, grouped according to the following topics: anorexia, drugs and alcohol,…

Perez, Kathy

329

Cultivating Empathy for the Mentally Ill Using Simulated Auditory Hallucinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors address the issue of cultivating medical students' empathy for the mentally ill by examining medical student empathy pre- and postsimulated auditory hallucination experience. Methods: At the University of Utah, 150 medical students participated in this study during their 6-week psychiatry rotation. The Jefferson Scale of…

Bunn, William; Terpstra, Jan

2009-01-01

330

Estimating the Prevalence of Severe Mental Illness in Mental Health Services in Lombardy (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many countries’ policies give Severe Mental Illness (SMI) priority inside Mental Health Services, researches assessing\\u000a the prevalence of SMI in Mental Health Services according to operational criteria are still few. The aim of this is paper\\u000a is to define annual SMI treated prevalence, describing socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, patterns of care and\\u000a treatment costs of SMI and non-SMI patients.

Antonio Lora; Roberto Bezzi; Arcadio Erlicher

2007-01-01

331

Criminal Justice\\/Mental Health Consensus: Improving Responses to People With Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the impetus for and findings of the Criminal Justice\\/Mental Health Consensus Project. This project has been a 2-year effort to develop recommendations, which reflect a bipartisan agreement among the stakeholders in the criminal justice and mental health systems to improve the response to people with mental illness who are involved with-or are at risk of involvement with-the

Michael D. Thompson; Melissa Reuland; Daniel Souweine

2003-01-01

332

42 CFR 483.134 - Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services (PASARR/MI).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services...Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services...specialized services program for mental illness as defined in § 483.120....

2010-10-01

333

42 CFR 483.134 - Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services (PASARR/MI).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services...Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services...specialized services program for mental illness as defined in § 483.120....

2009-10-01

334

Associations of serious mental illness with earnings: results from the WHO World Mental Health surveys  

PubMed Central

Background Burden-of-illness data, which are often used in setting healthcare policy-spending priorities, are unavailable for mental disorders in most countries. Aims To examine one central aspect of illness burden, the association of serious mental illness with earnings, in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Method The WMH Surveys were carried out in 10 high-income and 9 low- and middle-income countries. The associations of personal earnings with serious mental illness were estimated. Results Respondents with serious mental illness earned on average a third less than median earnings, with no significant between-country differences (?2(9) = 5.5–8.1, P = 0.52–0.79). These losses are equivalent to 0.3–0.8% of total national earnings. Reduced earnings among those with earnings and the increased probability of not earning are both important components of these associations. Conclusions These results add to a growing body of evidence that mental disorders have high societal costs. Decisions about healthcare resource allocation should take these costs into consideration.

Levinson, Daphna; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Petukhova, Maria; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Angermeyer, Matthias; Borges, Guilherme; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Aimee N.; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Browne, Mark Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Viana, Maria Carmen; Williams, David R.; Kessler, Ronald C.

2010-01-01

335

Solving the Mystery of Insanity Law: Zealous Representation of Mentally Ill Servicemembers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Zealous representation of mentally ill servicemembers requires trial defense counsel to be familiar with a complex body of substantive and procedural law. Within this body of law, evidence of the accused's mental illness may be relevant in five specific a...

J. A. Ball

2005-01-01

336

Anatomy of an Epidemic: Psychiatric Drugs and the Astonishing Rise of Mental Illness in America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 50 years, there has been an astonishing increase in severe mental illness in the United States. The percentage of Americans disabled by mental illness has increased fivefold since 1955, when Thorazine-remembered today as psychiatry's first \\

Robert Whitaker

337

Attitudes towards mental illness: testing the contact hypothesis among Chinese student nurses in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether previous contact with mental illness affected the attitudes to mental illness (AMI) of general student nurses in Hong Kong-the contact hypothesis. We employed a quasi-experimental design. We compared the attitudes to mental illness of students who had previous contact with mental illness through having taken a psychiatric secondment with those who had not taken a psychiatric secondment. Also, we compared the AMI of: students who had taken other courses related to mental illness with those who had not; those who had a family history of mental illness with those who had not; and those who lived with a mentally ill relative with those who did not. We found that previous contact with mental illness had no significant effect on the attitudes to mental illness of the students. In other words our findings do not support the contact hypothesis. Our sample expressed positive general attitudes to mental illness when presented with general issues about mental illness. However, their attitudes were less positive when presented with specific issues about mental illness that might impinge upon their daily lives. We discuss the implications of these findings for mental health nursing practice, education and research. PMID:9231275

Callaghan, P; Shan, C S; Yu, L S; Ching, L W; Kwan, T L

1997-07-01

338

Methodology and mental illness: resistance and restorying.  

PubMed

ACCESSIBLE SUMMARY: This paper compares two post-modern methodological approaches, post-structuralist and narrative, and considers their usefulness in relation to emancipatory research in mental health. The paper finds that post-structural analyses can be useful in deconstructing oppressive practices and in indicating emerging forms of resistance. Narrative approaches potentially offer greater emancipatory scope than post-structuralism as they enable people with mental health problems to restore their lives and enact their own subjective transformation. However, narrative templates may perpetuate injustice if they erase the complexity of people's stories. This raises ethical issues in relation to narrative interpretation. ABSTRACT: Concerns with social justice have been traditionally associated with a modernist concept of the individual whose actions express an underlying, essential and unified self. This paper compares the usefulness of two methodologies (post-structuralist and narrative) that are based on a rejection of identity of a unified self and compares their usefulness in relation to the development of a social justice paradigm within mental health. It considers how professional forms of knowledge may be deconstructed by post-structural analyses, arguing that these have also been used by service users to articulate more enabling discursive alternatives. The notion of agency is central to our understanding of social justice. We question the commonly held assumption that although post-structuralism deconstructs power and challenges its legitimacy, it is nevertheless unsuited to facilitating the necessary agency to put forward viable alternatives. The second half of the paper considers how narrative research offers greater emancipatory potential by enabling the research subject to author their stories and thereby brings about their own subjective transformation. Nevertheless, the interpretation of people's stories by researchers may result in the imposition of narrative templates that erase complexities and contribute to the perpetuation of oppression. This raises ethical implications in relation to how people's stories are interpreted. PMID:23578326

Fisher, P; Freshwater, D

2013-04-11

339

Does Mental Illness Stigma Contribute to Adolescent Standardized Patients' Discomfort With Simulations of Mental Illness and Adverse Psychosocial Experiences?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…

Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.

2008-01-01

340

The cultural construction of mental illness in prison: a perfect storm of pathology.  

PubMed

Large numbers of individuals in U.S. prisons meet DSM criteria for severe psychiatric disorder. These individuals also have co-occurring personality and substance abuse disorders, medical conditions, and histories of exposure to social pathologies. Based on nine months of ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. prison, focusing on staff narratives, I utilize interpretivist and constructivist perspectives to analyze how mental health clinicians construct psychiatric disorder among inmates. Discrete categorization of disorders may be confounded by the clinical co-morbidities of inmates and the prison context. Incarcerated individuals' responses to the institutional context substantially inform mental health staffs' illness construction and the prison itself is identified as an etiological agent for disordered behaviors. In addition, diagnostic processes are found to be indeterminate, contested, and shaped by interactions with staff. Analysis of illness construction reveals that what is at stake for clinicians is not only provision of appropriate treatment, but also mandates for the safety and security of the institution. Enmeshed in these mandates, prison mental health becomes a particular local form of psychiatric knowledge. This paper contributes to anthropological approaches to mental disorder by demonstrating how local contexts mediate psychiatric knowledge and contribute to the limited ethnographic record of prisons. PMID:23212545

Galanek, Joseph D

2013-03-01

341

A new look at an old issue: People with mental illness and the law enforcement system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research on encounters between persons with mental illness and the law enforcement system has focused on the extent to\\u000a which persons with mental illness are shifted between the mental health and law enforcement systems. This article focuses\\u000a instead on the interplay between the mental health and law enforcement systems for a group of persons with severe mental illness\\u000a who

Nancy Wolff; Ronald J. Diamond; Thomas W. Helminiak

1997-01-01

342

Persons with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System: Police Interventions to Prevent Violence and Criminalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of contacts between persons with mental illness and police officers generally focus on outcomes for officers, with limited research on the experiences of persons with mental illness. Direct and indirect violence against persons with mental illness, which is perpetrated by the police, adversely affects the criminal justice system and society. Understanding the ramifications of interactions between police and persons

Oren M. Gur

2010-01-01

343

Portrayal of Depression and Other Mental Illnesses in Australian Nonfiction Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study describes Australian media portrayal of mental illnesses, focusing on depression. A random sample of 1,123 items was selected for analysis from a pool of 13,389 nonfictional media items about mental illness collected between March 2000 and February 2001. Depression was portrayed more frequently than other mental illnesses. Items about…

Francis, Catherine; Pirkis, Jane; Blood, R. Warwick; Dunt, David; Burgess, Philip; Morley, Belinda; Stewart, Andrew

2005-01-01

344

The First Steps to Learning with a Child Who Has a Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article shares the author's experience in dealing with her child who has a mental illness. The author hopes that other teachers and school administrators would find her experience helpful when dealing with mentally ill children. The author describes the first steps to learning with a child with a mental illness.|

Baxter, Joanne

2009-01-01

345

On-Screen Portrayals of Mental Illness: Extent, Nature, and Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the published literature on the extent, nature, and impacts of portrayal of mental illness in fictional films and television programs. The literature suggests that on-screen portrayals are frequent and generally negative, and have a cumulative effect on the public's perception of people with mental illness and on the likelihood of people with mental illness seeking appropriate help.

Jane Pirkis; R. Warwick Blood; Catherine Francis; Kerry McCallum

2006-01-01

346

Performance of subjects with and without severe mental illness on a clinical test of problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe mental illness is associated with impairments in executive functions, such as conceptual reasoning, planning, and strategic thinking all of which impact problem solving. The present study examined the utility of a novel assessment tool for problem solving, the Rapid Assessment of Problem Solving Test (RAPS) in persons with severe mental illness. Subjects were 47 outpatients with severe mental illness

R. C. Marshall; S. R. McGurk; C. M. Karow; T. J. Kairy; L. A. Flashman

2006-01-01

347

Images of Mental Illness in the Media: Identifying Gaps in the Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes research published over the past decade and identifies areas where future research is needed to increase our knowledge of the media's role in fostering or reducing mental illness stigma. The fol- lowing questions are addressed: (1) How is mental ill- ness portrayed by the media? (2) How do media images of mental illness impact individuals' knowl- edge,

Patricia A. Stout; Jorge Villegas; Nancy A. Jennings

2004-01-01

348

Genetic Optimism: Framing Genes and MentalIllness in the News  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades the pace andspecificity of discoveries associating geneticswith mental illness has accelerated, which isreflected in an increase in news coverage aboutthe genetics of mental disorder. The newsmedia is a major source of public understandingof genetics and a strong influence on publicdiscourse. This paper examines the newscoverage of genetics and mental illness (i.e.,bipolar illness and schizophrenia) over

Peter Conrad

2001-01-01

349

Interpersonal contact and the stigma of mental illness: A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title: Interpersonal contact and the stigma of mental illness: A review of the literature Background. Stigmatization of mental illness is widespread in Western societies (Crisp et al., 2001) and other cultures (Chung et al., 2001). Furthermore, researchers have found that stigma is detrimental to the well being of persons with a mental illness (Wahl, 1999), potentially resulting in decreased life

SHANNON M. COUTURE; DAVID L. PENN

2003-01-01

350

Dangerous Criminals or Misunderstood? Assessing Police Perceptions of the Mentally Ill  

Microsoft Academic Search

People diagnosed with mental illnesses are often confronted with stigmatization and discrimination because they are stereotyped as dangerous and unpredictable. Police officers are typically the first to respond to a potentially dangerous mentally ill person and therefore, it is important to understand how police officers’ perceive mentally ill persons and how they respond to a call regarding a suspect displaying

Amy Roach

2012-01-01

351

Breaking the Silence: Teaching the Next Generation about Mental Illness. For Upper Elementary Grades. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides curriculum lessons for the upper elementary school student that put a human face on mental illness and confront myths passed on from one generation to the next. One in five children will be affected by mental illness at some point in their lives. The goal of these lessons is help students understand that severe mental illnesses

Susin, Janet; Kaplan, Lorraine; Slater, Louise

352

News Media Portrayal of Mental IllnessImplications for Public Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newspapers are a primary source of information about a variety of topics, including mental illnesses. A study of 1999 newspapers revealed that dangerousness is the most common theme of stories about mental illnesses. In contrast, stories of recovery or accomplishment were found to be rare. The ratio of negative to positive stories involving mental illness decreased between 1989 and 1999,

Otto F. Wahl

2003-01-01

353

Feminist Identity and Social Tolerance of Mental Illness: The Influence of Gender-Role Deviance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the influence of feminist identity on social tolerance of mental illness, specifically, the extent to which people with gender deviant mental illnesses (i.e. men with depression, women with antisocial personality disorder) are socially tolerated. Male and female subjects (N=260) were given the Feminist Perspectives Scale and six character vignettes describing a person with a mental illness followed

Susan Eileen Hamilton

2003-01-01

354

Portrayal of Depression and Other Mental Illnesses in Australian Nonfiction Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes Australian media portrayal of mental illnesses, focusing on depression. A random sample of 1,123 items was selected for analysis from a pool of 13,389 nonfictional media items about mental illness collected between March 2000 and February 2001. Depression was portrayed more frequently than other mental illnesses. Items about…

Francis, Catherine; Pirkis, Jane; Blood, R. Warwick; Dunt, David; Burgess, Philip; Morley, Belinda; Stewart, Andrew

2005-01-01

355

Mental health professionals and suspected cases of child abuse: An investigation of factors influencing reporting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and effects of child abuse have been reported in numerous studies. Although mandatory reporting laws require professionals to report suspected cases of child abuse, studies have indicated that large percentages of mental health professionals report selectively. The present study investigates professionals' tendency to report and attribution of responsibility for child abuse. One-hundred and one mental health clinicians working

Seth C. Kalichman; Mary E. Craig; Diane R. Follingstad

1988-01-01

356

The census of India and the mentally ill  

PubMed Central

Context/Background: Epidemiological data have long been considered essential for documenting incidence of disability and planning services. India has been conducting census operations for a long time, and this information may be relevant in the current context. Aims: To document the prevalence of insanity, and discussions about treatment and disability arising out of mental illness in India (1850-1950). Settings and Design: The material used was located at the British Library and the Wellcome Library, London; the Teen Murti Library, Delhi, and web-based archives. Materials and Methods: We have retrieved and summarized the coverage of psychiatric illness in previous census reports from the 19th and 20th century. Statistical Analysis: None, this relies upon historical archives and documents. Results and Conclusions: Differences in incidence and prevalence of insanity, as well as biological and psycho-social factors in the causation, and outcomes, of mental illness are all discussed in these census reports. Comparisons are often drawn to other countries and cultures, and impressions drawn about these differences and similarities. Similar concerns persist to this day. Disabilities and mental illness were not enumerated since the census of 1941 and have been restored only recently, and this lacuna has hampered planning in the post-Independence era. As we debate policy and plan interventions using contemporary census data, it may be useful to remind ourselves of the issues, then and now.

Sarin, Alok; Jain, Sanjeev

2012-01-01

357

HIV/AIDS awareness in those diagnosed with mental illness.  

PubMed

The spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to increase among the general population. Previous studies in this field focused mainly on the 'at-risk' groups such as homosexuals, prostitutes, intravenous drug users, bisexual men and women. Mentally ill men and women remain one of the subgroups understudied and yet continue to show disproportionately high levels of seroprevalence. The purpose of this study was to elucidate awareness of the risk factors associated with HIV transmission and development of AIDS in those diagnosed with mental illness. Using questionnaires, information regarding HIV method of transmission, knowledge on HIV/AIDS and at-risk behaviour awareness was obtained from 30 subjects in an acute psychiatric mental health unit (13 women and 17 men). Significant association between different variables was determined at 95.5% confidence level (P=0.05). Assessment of HIV/AIDS awareness and at-risk behaviour awareness revealed significant knowledge deficit among this subject group. The outcome of this study underscores the need to introduce intervention programmes tailored to individual needs of the mentally ill. Measures such as 'at-risk sexual' behaviours should be incorporated into the current assessment process or profile so that accurate information and informed judgement can be reached regarding client or patient sexual behaviour. PMID:21395913

Ngwena, J

2011-01-04

358

The effect of severe child sexual abuse and disclosure on mental health during adulthood.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship among severe child sexual abuse, disclosure, and mental health symptoms during adulthood. The sample consisted of 172 adults who were sexually abused in childhood. The multivariate model showed that respondents in their 30s and 40s who were abused by more than one abuser, who were injured by their abusers, who were abused by a biological relative, who told someone about the abuse when it occurred, and who did not discuss their abuse in depth within one year of the abuse had a greater number of mental health symptoms. Abuse severity and disclosure history should be assessed by professionals to identify clients who are at higher risk of mental health symptoms and to focus therapy. PMID:20509077

O'Leary, Patrick; Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D

2010-05-01

359

Ethnic Differences in Mental Illness and Mental Health Service Use Among Black Fathers  

PubMed Central

Objectives We have presented nationally representative data on the prevalence and correlates of mental illness and mental health service use among African American and Caribbean Black (US-born and foreign-born) fathers in the United States. Methods We have reported national estimates of lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of mental illness, correlates, and service use among African American (n = 1254) and Caribbean Black (n = 633) fathers using data from the National Survey of American Life, a national household survey of Black Americans. We used bivariate cross-tabulations and Cox proportional hazards regression approaches and adjusted for the National Survey of American Life’s complex sample design. Results The prevalence of mental illness, sociodemographic correlates, and service use among Black fathers varied by ethnicity and nativity. US-born Caribbean Black fathers had alarmingly high rates of most disorders, including depression, anxiety, and substance disorders. Mental health service use was particularly low for African American and foreign-born Caribbean Black fathers. Conclusions These results demonstrate the need for more research on the causes and consequences of mental illness and the help-seeking behavior of ethnically diverse Black fathers.

Doyle, Otima; Joe, Sean; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

2012-01-01

360

The Stigmatization of Mental Illness in Children and Parents. Data Trends #124  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" reviews theory and research on stigma and mental health with a focus on the stigmatization of mental illness in the family when either a child or a parent has a mental illness.…

Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2005

2005-01-01

361

The Stigmatization of Mental Illness in Children and Parents. Data Trends #124  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" reviews theory and research on stigma and mental health with a focus on the stigmatization of mental illness in the family when either a child or a parent has a mental illness.…

Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2005

2005-01-01

362

The Legal Framework for Care and Treatment of the Mentally Ill. Staff Brief 86-7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report was prepared for the Wisconsin State Legislative Council's Special Committee on Mental Health Issues. It summarizes legal issues and procedures relating to the admission, commitment, and treatment of the mentally ill in Wisconsin. Part I sets forth legal definitions of certain key mental health terms, including mental illness as it is…

Russell, Pam

363

The Contribution of Exercise and Sport to Mental Health Promotion in Serious Mental Illness: An Interpretive Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we synthesise the findings of previous research to explore the question: How can exercise and sport contribute to mental health promotion in the context of serious mental illness? We used an interpretive approach to gain insights into the sport and exercise experiences of 11 men with serious mental illness. Data were gathered through interviews and participant observation,

David Carless; Kitrina Douglas

2008-01-01

364

Determinants that shape public attitudes towards the mentally ill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The stigmatisation of the mentally ill is considered a well-established fact. To improve negative attitudes among the general\\u000a public, we need to identify the factors that cause them. Drawing from previous studies, we combined a variety of variables\\u000a to examine a comprehensive explanative model.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  We examined a sample of the Dutch public on their willingness to interact with mental patients.

Job T. B. van ‘t Veer; Herro F. Kraan; Stans H. C. Drosseart; Jacqueline M. Modde

2006-01-01

365

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. March/April 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"SAMHSA News" is the national newsletter of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Published six times a year (bimonthly) by SAMHSA's Office of Communications, SAMHSA News contains information about the latest substance abuse and mental health treatment and prevention practices, recent statistics on mental health and…

Goodman, Deborah, Ed.

2008-01-01

366

State agency policy and program coordination in response to the co-occurrence of HIV, chemical dependency, and mental illness.  

PubMed Central

The co-occurrence of HIV infection, chemical dependency, and mental illness challenges federal and state governments to develop flexible and coordinated health policy and financing for public health services. State agencies play a critical role in the organization and support of these services at the local level. With emerging stress upon state government budgets and concomitant increasing need for publicly funded services, state agency coordination may be an important policy safety net to assure services for populations at the margins of health systems. Despite this important potential role, nothing is known about the degree to which state HIV, substance abuse, and mental health agencies coordinate policies and/or programs in response to these co-morbid conditions. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to establish a conservative and initial understanding of state HIV, substance abuse, and mental health agency coordination of policy and program in response to the co-occurrence of HIV, chemical dependency, and mental illness. METHOD: Estimation of coordination was accomplished through the comparison of three surveys conducted among state substance abuse directors (1998), state AIDS directors (1999), and state mental health directors (2000). Data from 38 states were reviewed. RESULTS: The most frequently reported state agency activities included coordinating funding, engaging in integrative planning activities, and conducting staff cross-training. When compared for association with state characteristics, coordination among state agencies was found to be associated with Early Intervention Services (EIS) designation, higher rates of AIDS generally, higher rates of AIDS among African Americans, and higher rates of AIDS among Hispanic populations. Given the limitations of comparing three disparate surveys, we determined the estimate of interagency coordination to be conservative and preliminary. CONCLUSION: While this study was useful as an initial step toward identifying state interagency policy and program coordination in response to the co-occurrence of HIV, chemical dependency, and mental illness, there were methodological challenges that should be addressed in future studies of state agency coordination. Several recommendations were advanced.

Meyerson, Beth; Chu, Bong-Chul; Mills, M. Valerie

2003-01-01

367

Describing the homeless mentally ill: cluster analysis results.  

PubMed

Presented descriptive data on a group of homeless, mentally ill individuals (N = 108) served by a two-site demonstration project, funded by NIMH. Comparing results with those from other studies of this population produced some differences and some similarities. Cluster analysis techniques were applied to the data, producing a 4-group solution. Data validating the cluster solution are presented. It is suggested that the cluster results provide a more meaningful and useful method of understanding the descriptive data. Results suggest that while the population of individuals served as homeless and mentally ill is quite heterogeneous, many have well-developed functioning skills--only one cluster, making up 35.2% of the sample, fits the stereotype of the aggressive, psychotic individual with skill deficits in many areas. Further discussion is presented concerning the implications of the cluster analysis results for demonstrating contextual effects and thus better interpreting research results from other studies and assisting in future services planning. PMID:8213647

Mowbray, C T; Bybee, D; Cohen, E

1993-02-01

368

Intergenerational Ambivalence: Aging Mothers Whose Adult Daughters are Mentally Ill  

PubMed Central

Research on families dealing with mental illness has considered either positive or negative aspects of intergenerational family relationships. The current study extends this work by using intergenerational ambivalence theory to examine aging mothers’ contradictory expectations toward adult daughters who are mentally ill. This study focuses on interviews obtained from a sample of 22 mothers aged 52–90 who expressed considerable sociological ambivalence in relation to their grown daughters. Four strategies of managing ambivalence are identified: excusing behaviors, reducing expectations, adjusting help-giving, and confronting. The implications are that practitioners should be aware of intergenerational ambivalence, help aging parents identify their ambivalence management strategies, and assess the extent to which these strategies are adaptive. Future research directions in this area are also discussed.

Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit; Dunkle, Ruth E.; Chadiha, Letha; Lawrence-Jacobson, Abigail; Li, Lydia; Weir, Erin; Satorius, Jennifer

2011-01-01

369

Health status risk factors of people with severe and persistent mental illness.  

PubMed

High rates of medical comorbidity and premature death have become normative health outcomes for individuals with mental illness. On average, people with mental illness die 10 to 15 years earlier than the general population. To date, little research and programmatic attention has focused on the health promotion and prevention needs of people with mental illness. Many factors have been cited as contributing to this problem, including the stigma of being mentally ill, poverty, and limited knowledge and access to health promotion services. Future health planning interventions should restructure the funding mandates of current health care delivery system from an illness and treatment model to one of illness prevention and health promotion. PMID:10382153

Farnam, C R; Zipple, A M; Tyrrell, W; Chittinanda, P

1999-06-01

370

Mental health courts and the complex issue of mentally ill offenders.  

PubMed

Mental health courts are emerging in communities across the country to address the growing number of individuals with serious mental illness in jails and the complex issues they present to the courts. Based on concepts of therapeutic jurisprudence and patterned after drug courts, mental health courts attempt to prevent criminalization and recidivism by providing critical mental health services. The authors describe mental health courts in Broward County, Florida; King County, Washington; Anchorage, Alaska; and Marion County, Indiana. Each of these courts is designed to meet the specific needs and resources of its jurisdiction. The courts' experiences suggest that involving all players from the beginning is essential. The authors discuss the issues of due process, availability of services, and control of resources, which must be addressed before mental health courts are widely implemented. PMID:11274492

Watson, A; Hanrahan, P; Luchins, D; Lurigio, A

2001-04-01

371

Law & psychiatry: Responsibility for torts: should the courts continue to ignore mental illness?  

PubMed

Although courts routinely consider whether a criminal defendant's mental illness makes punishment unfair, the rules are very different for civil liability. When people with mental illness harm others, courts refuse to consider their mental states in determining civil liability. The justifications offered for this rule range from the difficulty of assessing the impact of mental illness on behavior to the desire to place the burden of loss on the person who caused the injury. Undeniably, though, mental disabilities are treated differently from physical impairments, and the law's resistance to change seems largely based on misunderstanding and prejudice against mental illness. PMID:22476297

Appelbaum, Paul S

2012-04-01

372

Self-Stigma and Coming Out about One's Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Self-stigma can undermine self-esteem and self-efficacy of people with serious mental illness. Coming out may be one way of handling self-stigma and it was expected that coming out would mediate the effects of self-stigma on quality of life. This study compares coming out to other approaches of controlling self-stigma. Eighty-five people with…

Corrigan, Patrick W.; Morris, Scott; Larson, Jon; Rafacz, Jennifer; Wassel, Abigail; Michaels, Patrick; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen; Rusch, Nicolas

2010-01-01

373

Representation of mental illness in Christian self-help bestsellers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined messages about mental illness in 14 contemporary Christian self-help bestsellers. Content analysis revealed that most texts focused upon depression. Categories of textual units included Underlying Assumptions Regarding Depression, Representations of Depression, Roots\\/Causes\\/Reasons for Depression, and Christian Responses to Depression. Demonic influence was the most frequently cited reason for depression. Other reasons included negative cognitions, failure as

Marcia Webb; Kathy Stetz; Kristin Hedden

2008-01-01

374

Reproductive Health in Women with Serious Mental Illnesses: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review intends to determine the extent to which a serious mental illness (SMI) interferes with reproductive health (RH).\\u000a The primary focus is the question of whether or not, women with SMI are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections,\\u000a female cancer, unwanted pregnancies, and sexual dysfunction. Eighty-four original studies published 1971–2008 are identified\\u000a through database, journal and Internet searches

Naira R. Matevosyan

2009-01-01

375

A qualitative study of filicide by mentally ill mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine descriptions of maternal filicide committed in the context of major mental illness from the frame of reference of a group of perpetrators.Method: Participants were accessed via their treating psychiatrists. A naturalistic paradigm was used. Semi-structured individual interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Theme analysis of the transcripts was done by repeated reading of transcripts and coding utterances, individually,

Josephine Stanton; Alexander Simpson; Trecia Wouldes

2000-01-01

376

California's historic effort to reduce the stigma of mental illness: the Mental Health Services Act.  

PubMed

In a historic effort to reduce the stigma of mental illness, California voters approved the Mental Health Services Act in 2004. The law funds a comprehensive statewide prevention initiative that places stigma and discrimination reduction at its center, with 25 projects providing interventions at the institutional, societal, and individual levels. Stakeholders selected specific strategies from the research-based California Strategic Plan on Reducing Stigma and Discrimination. Strategies range from social marketing to increase public knowledge to capacity building at the local level, including training that emphasizes participation by consumers of mental health services and cultural competence. Collectively, these strategies aim to foster permanent change in the public perception of mental illness and in the individual experience of stigma. We examined the context, planning, programming, and evaluation of this effort. PMID:23488486

Clark, Wayne; Welch, Stephanie N; Berry, Sandra H; Collentine, Ann M; Collins, Rebecca; Lebron, Dorthy; Shearer, Amy L

2013-03-14

377

[The mentally ill artist--a historical retrospect].  

PubMed

The painting of the mentally ill has fascinated artists and their public throughout the 20th century. Yet the psychologically as well as art-historically interesting topic can be traced back over a long period in the history of Western culture. Aristotle emphasizes that all men who create great works, such as artists, philosophers, poets and politicians, are prone to melancholy, that excess of black gall which is characteristic of artists and depressive. Although Plato distinguished between creative and clinical mania, the topos of "genius and madness" prevails up to our century. The cult of melancholy is taken up bei Marsilio Ficino and becomes fashionable among the artists of the 16th and 17th centuries. During the Romantic period of the early 19th century the psychologically unstable or even sick intellectual and artist becomes the focus of attention. Artistic madness is glorified in an almost mystical fashion. However, disillusionment was soon to follow. Schopenhauer, Lombroso and many physicians stress the close relationship between genius and madness. However, they judge madness to be merely morbid and negative. During the 20th century the artists of the avantgarde show much interest in psychoanalysis and in the art of the mentally ill. The rise of National Socialism brought about a drastic break in the appraisal of the art of the mentally ill, which today is an acknowledged factor in contemporary art. PMID:7672748

Bergdolt, K

1995-07-01

378

SELF-STIGMA AND COMING OUT ABOUT ONE'S MENTAL ILLNESS  

PubMed Central

Self-stigma can undermine self-esteem and self-efficacy of people with serious mental illness. Coming out may be one way of handling self-stigma and it was expected that coming out would mediate the effects of self-stigma on quality of life. This study compares coming out to other approaches of controlling self-stigma. Eighty-five people with serious mental illness completed measures of coming out (called the Coming Out with Mental Illness Scale, COMIS), self-stigma, quality of life, and strategies for managing self-stigma. An exploratory factor analysis of the COMIS uncovered two constructs: benefits of being out (BBO) and reasons for staying in. A mediational analysis showed BBO diminished self-stigma effects on quality of life. A factor analysis of measures of managing self-stigma yielded three factors. Benefits of being out was associated with two of these: affirming strategies and becoming aloof, not with strategies of shame. Implications for how coming out enhances the person’s quality of life are discussed.

Corrigan, Patrick W.; Morris, Scott; Larson, Jon; Rafacz, Jennifer; Wassel, Abigail; Michaels, Patrick; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen; Rusch, Nicolas

2013-01-01

379

Implementing local projects to reduce the stigma of mental illness.  

PubMed

This editorial describes strategies used and the lessons learned in implementing two local anti-stigma projects. The WPA Programme to Reduce Stigma and Discrimination Because of Schizophrenia established projects to fight stigma in 20 countries, using social-marketing techniques to enhance their effectiveness. First steps at each site were to establish an action committee and conduct a survey of perceived stigma. Based on survey results, the action committees selected a few homogeneous and accessible target groups, such as employers, and criminal justice personnel. Messages and media were selected, tested, and refined. Guidelines are provided for setting up a consumer (service-user) speakers' bureau and for establishing a media-watch organization, which can lobby news and entertainment media to exclude negative portrayals of people with mental illness. Improvements in knowledge about mental illness were effected in high school students and criminal justice personnel. Positive changes in attitude towards people with mental illness were achieved with high school students, but were more difficult to achieve with police officers. Local antistigma projects can be effective in reducing stigma and relatively inexpensive. The involvement of consumers is important in working with police officers. Project organizers should be on the lookout for useful changes that can become permanent. PMID:18444453

Warner, Richard

380

Primary care for those with severe and persistent mental illness.  

PubMed Central

Historically, the medical care of persons with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) has been suboptimal. In many communities, large gaps exist in the continuum of services necessary to meet the medical needs of those patients, and existing services are not well coordinated. The effect of the managed mental health care on patients with SPMI remains to be seen, but it does not bode well for patients who are already at risk for being undertreated. We initiated primary care clinics exclusively for patients with SPMI because of our belief that integrating primary care and mental health services offers the best hope of improving health care for those patients. Our experience to date is instructive for other health care systems.

Crews, C; Batal, H; Elasy, T; Casper, E; Mehler, P S

1998-01-01

381

The burden of mental illness and addiction in ontario.  

PubMed

Objective: Public Health Ontario and the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences have collaborated to estimate the burden of illness attributable to mental disorder and addictions in Ontario. Methods: Health-adjusted life years were used to estimate burden. It is conceptually similar to disability-adjusted life years that were used in the global burden of disease studies. Data sources for the mental illnesses and addictions used in our study included health administrative data for the province of Ontario, survey data from Statistics Canada and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, vital statistics data from the Ontario Office of the Registrar General, and US epidemiologic survey data. Results: The 5 conditions with the highest burden are: major depression, bipolar affective disorder, alcohol use disorders (AUDs), social phobia, and schizophrenia. The burden of depression is double the next highest mental health condition (that is, bipolar affective disorder) and is more than the combined burden of the 4 most common cancers in Ontario. AUDs were the only disease group that had a substantial proportion of burden attributable to early death. The burden estimates for the other conditions were primarily due to disability. Conclusions: The burden of these conditions in Ontario is as large or larger than other conditions, such as cancer and infectious diseases, owing in large part to the high prevalence, chronicity, and age of onset for most mental disorders and addiction problems. The findings serve as an important baseline for future evaluation of interventions intended to address the burden of mental health and addictions. PMID:24099501

Ratnasingham, Sujitha; Cairney, John; Manson, Heather; Rehm, Jürgen; Lin, Elizabeth; Kurdyak, Paul

2013-09-01

382

An examination of the needs of older patients with chronic mental illness in public mental health services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To describe the needs of patients aged 50 years and over with chronic mental illness being case managed within a public mental health service, and to determine factors that influence these needs.Method: Patients were recruited from community-based Adult Mental Health (AMH) teams and Specialist Mental Health Services for Older People (SMHSOP) teams. Eligibility criteria included a diagnosis of schizophrenia

Shuli Futeran; Brian M. Draper

2011-01-01

383

An examination of the needs of older patients with chronic mental illness in public mental health services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To describe the needs of patients aged 50 years and over with chronic mental illness being case managed within a public mental health service, and to determine factors that influence these needs.Method: Patients were recruited from community-based Adult Mental Health (AMH) teams and Specialist Mental Health Services for Older People (SMHSOP) teams. Eligibility criteria included a diagnosis of schizophrenia

Shuli Futeran; Brian M. Draper

2012-01-01

384

Treating Older Persons with Severe Mental Illness in the Community: Impact of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Mental Health Team  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information is available concerning community-based interventions to treat the growing number older persons with severe mental illness. This study examined treatment efficacy of a specialized interdisciplinary geriatric mental health team (mental health geriatric interdisciplinary teams or MHGITs) for 69 older clients with severe mental disorders. Depression, life satisfaction, health, and psychiatric and medical hospitalization data were gathered. A decrease

Sherry M. Cummings

2008-01-01

385

Perceived criteria used by criminal justice and mental health professionals to predict dangerous behavior of mentally ill persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of 163 Colorado mental health and criminal justice professionals were asked to rate the effectiveness of a set of predictors of violent behavior for mentally ill persons. Violent behavior and the characteristics of the offense were rated highest, followed by mental health and social factors respectively. Little variation existed between mental health and criminal justice groups with respect

Mary Mande; Herbert C. Covey

1984-01-01

386

Mental health provider perspectives regarding integrated medical care for patients with serious mental illness.  

PubMed

Integrated care for medical conditions is essential for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). This qualitative study describes mental health provider perspectives regarding barriers and facilitators of integrated care for patients with SMI. We interviewed providers from a national sample of Veterans Health Administration facilities that scored in the top or bottom percentile in medical care quality. Providers from high-performing sites reported substantial in-person contacts with general medical providers, while providers from low-performing sites reported stigma and limited communication with medical providers as major concerns. Interventions to improve mental health and medical provider communication may facilitate integrated care for persons with SMI. PMID:21735302

Kilbourne, Amy M; Greenwald, Devra E; Bauer, Mark S; Charns, Martin P; Yano, Elizabeth M

2012-11-01

387

Attitudes toward mental illness in adults by mental illness-related factors and chronic disease status: 2007 and 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system.  

PubMed

Objectives. We examined how attitudes toward mental illness treatment and its course differ by serious psychological distress, mental illness treatment, chronic disease, and sociodemographic factors using representative state-based data. Methods. Using data from jurisdictions supporting the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System's Mental Illness and Stigma Module (35 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico), we compared adjusted proportions of adults agreeing that "Treatment can help people with mental illness lead normal lives" (treatment effectiveness) and that "People are generally caring and sympathetic to people with mental illness" (supportive environment), by demographic characteristics, serious psychological distress, chronic disease status, and mental illness treatment. Results. Attitudes regarding treatment effectiveness and a supportive environment for people with mental illness varied within and between groups. Most adults receiving mental illness treatment agreed that treatment is effective. Fewer adults with serious psychological distress than those without such distress agreed that treatment is effective. Fewer of those receiving treatment, those with psychological distress, and those with chronic disease perceived the environment as supportive. Conclusions. These data can be used to target interventions for population subgroups with less favorable attitudes and for surveillance. PMID:24028243

Kobau, Rosemarie; Zack, Matthew M

2013-09-12

388

Serving severely mentally ill people in a major Canadian city.  

PubMed

Over the past twenty years, GVMHS has been the single organization taking ultimate responsibility for the seriously mentally ill throughout the city. It uses central coordination coupled with community-based teams and partnership programs with other agencies to strike a useful balance between integration and flexibility. GVMHS's mission throughout that time has been to provide everyday community support, networking, case management, rehabilitation, and counseling services to as many seriously mentally ill persons with concomitant disabilities as possible. To carry out that mission, GVMHS has developed some innovative solutions for the problems of community support--problems such as psychiatric emergencies, crises, community demands for service outside the mandate, and workload management. GVMHS has also developed dual-diagnosis, multicultural, multiagency case coordination for the multiproblem client (Buckley and Bigelow, 1992), specialized family and child programs, and specialized geriatric programs. This has all been possible only because financial support is available on an ongoing basis at a level adequate to provide good, dependable services. GVMHS has been proven an effective service in a number of studies (Bigelow and Beiser, 1978; Beiser, Shore, Peters, and Tatum, 1985). It has also demonstrated good cost-efficiency (Bigelow and McFarland, 1989) and abundant innovation and adaptation to emerging challenges (Bigelow, McFarland, Russell, and Sladen-Dew, 1990). It has proven that dedicated, well-trained professionals working at the community level will work hard and smart and that an agency and its staff will stick to the mandate of serving people with serious mental illnesses and disabilities even under pressure to do otherwise. The intriguing thing is that this productivity is not driven by competition, incentives, or threat: none of these factors presses upon the Greater Vancouver Mental Health Services Society from without and none is built in. The excellent performance of GVMHS seems to derive from the professional dedication and motivation of the clinical staff and its administration. PMID:8208230

Bigelow, D A; Sladen-Dew, N; Russell, J S

1994-01-01

389

Role of the Mental Health Professional in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The roles of the mental health professional in child abuse and neglect identification, treatment, and prevention are delineated. Specifically, the manual focuses on why mental health professionals should be involved in the child protection system, how to ...

J. W. Lauer I. S. Lourie M. K. Salus D. D. Broadhurst

1979-01-01

390

Attitudes of Mental Health Professionals about Mental Illness: A Review of the Recent Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A large body of research has documented public attitudes toward people with mental illness. The current attitudes of the people who provide services to those with psychiatric disorders are important to understand, as well. The authors review what studies over the past 5 years reveal about the attitudes of psychiatric professionals. Empirical…

Wahl, Otto; Aroesty-Cohen, Eli

2010-01-01

391

Families' perceptions of community mental health programs for their relatives with a severe mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Realization that families are providing a major portion of the care for people with a severe and persistent mental illness has led to attempts to form an alliance with such families. Many professionals are aware that there is much cognitive distance between families and the professional community. Bridging this gap requires knowledge of the subjective experience of families. This paper

James G. Hanson; Charles A. Rapp

1992-01-01

392

Outcome trends for severely mentally ill persons in capitated and case managed mental health programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared outcomes over time of persons with severe mental illness who were randomly assigned to capitated and fee for service programs. Data were collected by independent raters and case managers. The effects of capitation on linear trends for symptoms, social conflict and functioning were examined using analysis of covariance and regression. Independent variables were capitation versus fee for

H. Stephen Leff; Marcus Lieberman; Virginia Mulkern; Barbara Raab

1996-01-01

393

Frames of mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies: implications for orthodox mental health care.  

PubMed

This study examines the modes of framing mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies. All Yoruba films on display in a convenient sample of movie rental shops in Ibadan (Nigeria) were sampled for content. Of the 103 films studied, 27 (26.2%) contained scenes depicting mental illness. Psychotic symptoms were the most commonly depicted, while effective treatments were mostly depicted as taking place in unorthodox settings. The most commonly depicted aetiology of mental illness was sorcery and enchantment by witches and wizards, as well as other supernatural forces. Scenes of mental illness are common in Nigerian movies and these depictions-though reflecting the popular explanatory models of Yoruba-speaking Nigerians about mental illness- may impede utilization of mental health care services and ongoing efforts to reduce psychiatry stigma in this region. Efforts to reduce stigma and improve service utilization should engage the film industry. PMID:23670966

Atilola, Olayinka; Olayiwola, Funmilayo

2013-05-13

394

Residential Mobility and Severe Mental Illness: A Population-based Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research uses population-based administrative data linking health service use to longitudinal postal code information to describe the residential mobility of individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI), schizophrenia. This group is compared to two cohorts, one with no mental illness, and one with a severe physical illness of inflammatory bowel disease. The percentage of individuals with one or more

Lisa M. Lix; Aynslie Hinds; Geoffrey DeVerteuil; J. Renee Robinson; John Walker; Leslie L. Roos

2006-01-01

395

A qualitative study of primary health care access, barriers and satisfaction among people with mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has found that a substantial proportion of individuals with mental illness have high morbidity and mortality rates, and high under-diagnosis of major physical illnesses. Furthermore, people with a mental illness tend not to seek out or utilise health care services. The reasons for the negative attitudes and behaviour towards health care services among this population have not been investigated.

Marita P. McCabe; Loranie Leas

2008-01-01

396

Dangerous noncompliance: a narrative analysis of a CNN special investigation of mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevention of illness has become a central theme in debates over strategies to reduce healthcare costs. Severe mental illness poses a special challenge to the paradigm of rational prevention, the principal strategy of which is adherence to pharmacological therapies. With the contraction in the US of in-patient psychiatric care from the 1960s onwards, the mentally ill have become more visible

Douglas Glick; Kalman Applbaum

2010-01-01

397

CONCEPTUAL AND METHODOLOGICAL CHALLENGES IN EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MENTAL ILLNESS AND VIOLENT BEHAVIOUR AND CRIME  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a longstanding view within the general population and the criminal justice system that the mentally ill are more prone than the mentally healthy to violence and. This view, however, is not fully supported by empirical research, in particular due to conceptual and methodological challenges that arise when the relationship between mental illness and crime is examined. This paper

Thomas Hugh Richardson

398

Failure of a moral enterprise: Attitude of the public toward mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a critical analysis of published reports on the public’s attitudes toward mental illness and toward deviant conduct. The mental health movement fits the defining criteria for a moral crusade, motivated and supported by moral entrepreneurs. The reported data indicate that the mental illness paradigm, as a formula for understanding and controlling deviant conduct, has not been widely accepted by

Theodore R. Sarbin; James C. Mancuso

1970-01-01

399

Family Intervention and Services for Persons with Mental Illness in the People's Republic of China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Family services and intervention for persons with mental illness is crucial in mental health services. In this paper, the writer attempts to describe family intervention and services for persons with mental illness in the People's Republic of China. Family intervention and services like home-based care, guardianship network, family counseling,…

Yip, Kam-shing

2005-01-01

400

Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

2012-01-01

401

Practice Wisdom on Custodial Parenting with Mental Illness: A Strengths View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Social work principles of strengths, empowerment, and consumer-centered care for persons with mental illness are currently being adapted to broader contexts. This article presents study findings on practice wisdom about custodial parents with mental illness, a potentially increasing group of consumers in light of mental health reform. The…

Zeman, Laura Dreuth; Buila, Sarah

2006-01-01

402

The Silent Parent: Developing Knowledge about the Experiences of Parents with Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores the lived experiences of parents with mental illness in Australia. It draws on in-depth interviews with parents (n = 10) who have mental illness and provides an analysis of national mental health policies. The analysis of the parents' narratives is essential in building a picture for those involved in the issues associated…

Boursnell, Melanie

2007-01-01

403

Implicit stigma of mental illness: Attitudes in an evidence-based practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stigma is a barrier to recovery for people with mental illness. Problematically, stigma also has been documented among mental health practitioners. To date, however, most research has focused on explicit attitudes regarding mental illness. Little research has examined implicit attitudes, which has the potential to reveal evaluations residing outside of conscious control or awareness. Moreover, research has tended to use

Laura Grace Stull

2011-01-01

404

Predictors of Depressive Symptomatology Among Lower Social Class Caregivers of Persons with Chronic Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the predictors of depressive symptomatology among caregivers of persons with chronic mental illness. Data were collected through in-person interviews with family caregivers of 103 adults with chronic mental illness who were served by mental health case management agencies. The results indicated that insufficiency of overall social support was the most powerful predictor of caregiver depressive symptomatology. In

Li-Yu Song; David E. Biegel; Sharon E. Milligan

1997-01-01

405

The Picture of Mental Health\\/Illness in the Printed Media in Three Central European Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even in the era of the Internet, printed media are still among the most frequently identified sources of mental health information. Many studies have shown that this information is frequently negative and contributes to stigmatization of people with mental illness. This international comparative study describes the content of media messages about mental health\\/illness in terms of stigma in three Central

Lucie Nawková; Alexander Nawka; Tereza Adámková; Tea Vukuši? Rukavina; Petra Holcnerová; Martina Rojni? Kuzman; Nikolina Jovanovi?; Ognjen Brborovi?; Bibiána Bednárová; Svetlana Žuchová; Michal Miovský; Ji?í Raboch

2011-01-01

406

The Picture of Mental Health\\/Illness in the Printed Media in Three Central European Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even in the era of the Internet, printed media are still among the most frequently identified sources of mental health information. Many studies have shown that this information is frequently negative and contributes to stigmatization of people with mental illness. This international comparative study describes the content of media messages about mental health\\/illness in terms of stigma in three Central

Lucie Nawková; Alexander Nawka; Tereza Adámková; Tea Vukuši? Rukavina; Petra Holcnerová; Martina Rojni? Kuzman; Nikolina Jovanovi?; Ognjen Brborovi?; Bibiána Bednárová; Svetlana Žuchová; Michal Miovský; Ji?í Raboch

2012-01-01

407

Reducing Risk and Improving Outcomes of Police Interactions with People with Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Canada, 7%–30% of calls for police service involve a person with a mental illness, often experiencing a crisis. Given the variety of community needs and resources, the nature of police responses related to people with mental illnesses will necessarily vary between police organizations. The systems-based Contemporary Policing Guidelines for Working with the Mental Health System developed by the Canadian

Terry G. Coleman; Dorothy H. Cotton

2010-01-01

408

Advocating for Persons Who Are Mentally Ill: A History of Mutual Empowerment of Patients and Profession  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author reviews the history of advocacy for mentally ill individuals. Through organizations such as the National Mental Health Association and the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill, collaboration among professionals, consumers, and concerned citizens is enhanced. The common causes and differences among organizations are discussed within the context of how psychiatrists can realize leadership strategies to further advance advocacy

Edward F. Foulks

2000-01-01

409

Ethnicity, social status, and families' experiences of caring for a mentally ill family member  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing attention to the role of families as caregivers of family members with serious mental illness. This paper presents data from a multicultural sample of 90 family caregivers from diverse ethnic backgrounds. The paper examines families' experiences with mental health services; their support networks and family burdens; and their conceptions of mental illness. The paper both provides one

Peter J. Guarnaccia; Pilar Parra

1996-01-01

410

Dealing with mentally ill domestic violence perpetrators: A therapeutic jurisprudence judicial model  

Microsoft Academic Search

People suffering from mental illness are increasingly referred to the domestic violence court. Yet the typical diversion programs available, including batterer's intervention programs, are inappropriate for those with serious mental illness. As a result, the Miami-Dade Domestic Violence Court has developed a new approach for dealing with this population that applies mental health court techniques in domestic violence court. This

Bruce J. Winick; Richard Wiener; Anthony Castro; Aryn Emmert; Leah S. Georges

2010-01-01

411

From conduct disorder to severe mental illness: associations with aggressive behaviour, crime and victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Conduct disorder (CD) prior to age 15 has been associated with an increased risk of aggressive behaviour and crime among men with schizophrenia. The present study aimed to replicate and extend this finding in a clinical sample of severely mentally ill men and women. Method. We examined a cohort of in-patients with severe mental illness in one mental health

S. Hodgins; A. Cree; J. Alderton; T. Mak

2008-01-01

412

Pilot Investigation of the Effectiveness of Respite Care for Carers of an Adult with Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Informal carers of an adult with mental illness have asked that respite care be an integral component of mental health service provision. The present study involved a pilot investigation of the effectiveness of accessing respite care for carers of individuals with a mental illness. It was hypothesised that compared to carers who have not accessed…

Jardim, Claudia; Pakenham, Kenneth I.

2009-01-01

413

Smoking and mental illness: results from population surveys in Australia and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Smoking has been associated with a range of mental disorders including schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and depression. People with mental illness have high rates of morbidity and mortality from smoking related illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases and cancer. As many people who meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders do not seek treatment for these conditions, we sought to

David Lawrence; Francis Mitrou; Stephen R Zubrick

2009-01-01

414

Racial Disparities in Prescription Drug Use for Mental Illness among Population in US  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Racial minorities are a rapidly growing portion of the US population. Research suggests that racial minorities are more vulnerable to mental illness due to risk factors, such as higher rates of poverty. Given that the burden of mental illnesses is significant, equal likelihood of mental health services utilization is important to reduce such burden. Racial minorities have been known

Euna Han; Gordon G. Liu

2005-01-01

415

Guns, schools, and mental illness: potential concerns for physicians and mental health professionals.  

PubMed

Since the recent shootings in Tucson, Arizona; Aurora, Colorado; and Newtown, Connecticut, there has been an ever-increasing state and national debate regarding gun control. All 3 shootings involved an alleged shooter who attended college, and in hindsight, evidence of a mental illness was potentially present in these individuals while in school. What appears to be different about the current round of debate is that both pro-gun control and anti-gun control advocates are focusing on mentally ill individuals, early detection of mental illness during school years, and the interactions of such individuals with physicians and the mental health system as a way to solve gun violence. This raises multiple questions for our profession about the apparent increase in these types of events, dangerousness in mentally ill individuals, when to intervene (voluntary vs involuntary), and what role physicians should play in the debate and ongoing prevention. As is evident from the historic Tarasoff court case, physicians and mental health professionals often have new regulations/duties, changes in the physician-patient relationship, and increased liability resulting from high-profile events such as these. Given that in many ways the prediction of who will actually commit a violent act is difficult to determine with accuracy, physicians need to be cautious with how the current gun debate evolves not only for ourselves (eg, increased liability, becoming de facto agents of the state) but for our patients as well (eg, increased stigma, erosion of civil liberties, and changes in the physician-patient relationship). We provide examples of potential troublesome legislation and suggestions on what can be done to improve safety for our patients and for the public. PMID:24138962

Hall, Ryan Chaloner Winton; Friedman, Susan Hatters

2013-10-16

416

28 CFR 115.83 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Medical and Mental Care ...victimized by sexual abuse in any prison, jail, lockup, or juvenile...

2013-07-01

417

Exercise and Mental Illness: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)  

PubMed Central

Background Regular exercise is thought to be associated with low rates of mental illness, but this association has been inadequately studied. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that the recommended amount of self-reported vigorous exercise would be cross-sectionally associated with reduced prevalence and incidence of various DSM-IV psychiatric disorders, as well as increased rates of remission. Method Data were collected from 2001 to 2005 as part of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a 2-wave face-to-face survey conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. For this study, the sample consisted of 23,505 nondisabled adults aged between 18 and 65 years. Results Individuals who engaged in vigorous exercise at Wave 2 were significantly more likely than were nonexercisers to be diagnosed with a current psychiatric disorder (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.22, 95% CI, 1.12–1.34 for the nationally recommended amount vs no exercise), significantly less likely to attain remission from a psychiatric disorder between waves (AOR = 0.77, 95% CI, 0.65–0.91), and significantly more likely to relapse or be newly diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder between waves (AOR = 1.15, 95% CI, 1.02–1.30). Alcohol dependence and bipolar II disorder were the disorders most strongly associated with exercise. Conclusions This investigation suggests that the pursuit of vigorous exercise is associated with a vulnerability to mental illness. This surprising finding may be due to reward-related factors that influence both exercise engagement and the expression of certain psychiatric disorders. Prospective trials will be helpful in further clarifying the associations between exercise and mental illness, as the relationships between the 2 are more complex than previously believed.

Dakwar, Elias; Blanco, Carlos; Lin, Keng-han; Liu, Shang-min; Warden, Diane; Trivedi, Madhukar; Nunes, Edward V.

2013-01-01

418

Substance Use and HIV Risk in a Sample of Severely Mentally Ill Puerto Rican Women  

PubMed Central

Latinos, and Puerto Ricans in particular, have been disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS. Severe mental illness (SMI) is associated with an increase in HIV risk. Relatively little research has focused on the role of SMI among Puerto Rican injection drug users (IDUs) and non-IDUs in susceptibility to and transmission of HIV and there are few published reports on HIV risk among Latina SMI. We conducted a longitudinal mixed methods study with 53 Puerto Rican women with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression to examine the cultural context of HIV risk and HIV knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors among a larger study with Puerto Rican and Mexican women with serious mental illness (SMI). There was a high prevalence of past and current substance use and a high prevalence of substance use-associated HIV risk behaviors, such as unprotected sexual relations with an IDU. The violence associated with substance use frequently increased participants’ HIV risk. Choice of substance of abuse depended on cost, availability, and use within the individual participant's network. Participants attributed their substance use to the need to relieve symptoms associated with their mental illness, ameliorate unpleasant feelings, and deaden emotional pain. HIV prevention interventions for poorer Puerto Rican women with SMI must target the individuals themselves and others within their networks if the women are to be supported in their efforts to reduce substance use-related risk. The content of any intervention must address past and current trauma and its relationship to substance use and HIV risk, as well as strategies to prevent HIV transmission.

Sajatovic, Martha; Mendez, Nancy

2012-01-01

419

Treatment decisions in major mental illness: weighing the outcomes.  

PubMed

Increased morbidity and mortality in persons with severe mental illness (SMI) are due in large part to preventable medical conditions. An array of factors contributes to the development of obesity and other medical problems, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A holistic approach that integrates both mental and physical health is critical in treating individuals with SMI. The most common causes of disability and death are influenced by behaviors such as smoking, poor nutrition, and lack of exercise. Nonpharmacologic interventions focusing on lifestyle changes can help to prevent and manage psychotropic-associated weight gain. Furthermore, monitoring and treatment guidelines are underutilized in people with SMI; increased use of these guidelines could help to detect and possibly prevent some cardiometabolic problems. PMID:17956150

Vreeland, Betty

2007-01-01

420

Victim to Abuser: Mental Health and Behavioral Sequels of Child Sexual Abuse in a Community Survey of Young Adult Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey of 750 young adult males found that the combination of emotional abuse with multiple events of sexual abuse in the respondent's childhood was a relatively good predictor of both poor mental health, and later sexual interest in or sexual contact with children. (Author/DB)

Bagley, Christopher; And Others

1994-01-01

421

Setting the bar: athletes and vulnerability to mental illness.  

PubMed

Whereas physical sport activity is generally considered a health benefit, extreme exercise may be harmful. Of particular concern in this regard is the considerable variation between doctors in the primary care setting and those working within the sports setting around the diagnosis and treatment of athletes presenting with similar symptoms. Known risk factors for athletes are herein presented to raise awareness of the negative side of sport and to bring attention to the psychological outcomes and needs of athletes. The need for research into the incidence and aetiology of mental illness within elite level sport is also raised. PMID:22297587

Hughes, Lynette; Leavey, Gerard

2012-02-01

422

Carers’ views on services for the elderly mentally ill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Recent health policy emphasises the involvement of the consumer and carer in health and social care issues. Demographic projections\\u000a predict a rise in the number of elderly people in Ireland and the number of elderly people with a mental illness. The identification\\u000a of gaps in service provision should result in appropriate planning for this group in the future.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  The aim

M. Kelleher; M. Mannix

2001-01-01

423

The involuntary commitment and treatment of mentally ill persons.  

PubMed

A case is made, based on appeal to moral principles, that only mentally ill persons who have violated criminal law may be involuntarily incarcerated/hospitalized and then only for a determinate time based on the nature of the criminal act. Furthermore, compulsory treatment is morally defensible, but it must be restricted to those committed persons judged incompetent to make an informed decision concerning treatment. The length of enforced treatment may not extend beyond the limit of the sentence, nor may those considered 'cured' be released early. PMID:11649360

Humber, James M

1981-12-01

424

Behavioral Research on the Severe and Persistent Mental Illnesses  

PubMed Central

We are honored to introduce the special series highlighting behavioral research on the severe and persistent mental illnesses (SPMIs) that appears in this issue of Behavior Therapy. We begin this series by providing a succinct overview of this category of disorders, noting briefly their impact, cost, etiology, and management. We then identify four recent advances in the care of persons living with a SPMI, and provide an overview of the six articles that appear in this series. The series recognizes and showcases outstanding behavioral research, and seeks to encourage new and continuing participation by behavior therapists in the care of persons living with a SPMI.

Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.

2008-01-01

425

Living with serious mental illness: the desire for normalcy.  

PubMed

This article describes the desire for normalcy as experienced by 6 men and 13 women with serious mental illness based on secondary analysis of data from two previous qualitative studies. Original data were collected by structured and semi-structured interviews, and thematic analysis was done. Major categories of desire for normalcy are having normal things and experiences; doing meaningful activities; and being well, safe, free, and independent. Self-care actions to promote and maintain normalcy are identified, and finding are discussed in relation to Orem's self-care deficit theory of nursing. Implications for nursing theory, research, and practice are addressed. PMID:11847669

Pickens, J M

1999-07-01

426

Smoking and mental illness: results from population surveys in Australia and the United States  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking has been associated with a range of mental disorders including schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and depression. People with mental illness have high rates of morbidity and mortality from smoking related illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases and cancer. As many people who meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders do not seek treatment for these conditions, we sought to investigate the relationship between mental illness and smoking in recent population-wide surveys. Methods Survey data from the US National Comorbidity Survey-Replication conducted in 2001–2003, the 2007 Australian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, and the 2007 US National Health Interview Survey were used to investigate the relationship between current smoking, ICD-10 mental disorders and non-specific psychological distress. Population weighted estimates of smoking rates by disorder, and mental disorder rates by smoking status were calculated. Results In both the US and Australia, adults who met ICD-10 criteria for mental disorders in the 12 months prior to the survey smoked at almost twice the rate of adults without mental disorders. While approximately 20% of the adult population had 12-month mental disorders, among adult smokers approximately one-third had a 12-month mental disorder – 31.7% in the US (95% CI: 29.5%–33.8%) and 32.4% in Australia (95% CI: 29.5%–35.3%). Female smokers had higher rates of mental disorders than male smokers, and younger smokers had considerably higher rates than older smokers. The majority of mentally ill smokers were not in contact with mental health services, but their rate of smoking was not different from that of mentally ill smokers who had accessed services for their mental health problem. Smokers with high levels of psychological distress smoked a higher average number of cigarettes per day. Conclusion Mental illness is associated with both higher rates of smoking and higher levels of smoking among smokers. Further, a significant proportion of smokers have mental illness. Strategies that address smoking in mental illness, and mental illness among smokers would seem to be important directions for tobacco control. As the majority of smokers with mental illness are not in contact with mental health services for their condition, strategies to address mental illness should be included as part of population health-based mental health and tobacco control efforts.

Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R

2009-01-01

427

The genetics of mental illness: implications for practice.  

PubMed Central

Many of the comfortable and relatively simple models of the nature of mental disorders, their causes and their neural substrates now appear quite frayed. Gone is the idea that symptom clusters, course of illness, family history and treatment response would coalesce in a simple way to yield valid diagnoses. Also too simple was the concept, born of early pharmacological successes, that abnormal levels of one or more neurotransmitters would satisfactorily explain the pathogenesis of depression or schizophrenia. Gone is the notion that there is a single gene that causes any mental disorder or determines any behavioural variant. The concept of the causative gene has been replaced by that of genetic complexity, in which multiple genes act in concert with non-genetic factors to produce a risk of mental disorder. Discoveries in genetics and neuroscience can be expected to lead to better models that provide improved representation of the complexity of the brain and behaviour and the development of both. There are likely to be profound implications for clinical practice. The complex genetics of risk should reinvigorate research on the epidemiology and classification of mental disorders and explain the complex patterns of disease transmission within families. Knowledge of the timing of the expression of risk genes during brain development and of their function should not only contribute to an understanding of gene action and the pathophysiology of disease but should also help to direct the search for modifiable environmental risk factors that convert risk into illness. The function of risk genes can only become comprehensible in the context of advances at the molecular, cellular and systems levels in neuroscience and the behavioural sciences. Genetics should yield new therapies aimed not just at symptoms but also at pathogenic processes, thus permitting the targeting of specific therapies to individual patients.

Hyman, S. E.

2000-01-01

428

Prisoners signify: a political discourse analysis of mental illness in a prison control unit.  

PubMed

Increasingly, US prisoners diagnosed with mental illness are housed in control units, the most restrictive form of confinement in the US prison system. This situation has led to intense debate over the legal, ethical and clinical status of mental illness. This is a semiotic struggle with profound effects, yet most related work treats mental illness as a neutral, individual variable. Few analyses locate mental illness within a larger sociopolitical context. Fewer still focus on discursive practice. None critically analyze the accounts of control unit prisoners, who talk about extreme marginality and risk for victimization. This paper has two aims: (i) to develop a systematic method of analysis that accounts for signification as discourse-in-action; and (ii) to show how prisoners' signification of mental illness articulates agency through and against marginalizing discourse. Political discourse analysis demonstrates how control unit prisoners with psychiatric diagnoses signify mental illness, and articulate safer identifications in the process. PMID:17718746

Cloyes, Kristin Gates

2007-09-01

429

Provision of Mental Health Services in South African Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To date, South African research has not examined mental health service provision in substance abuse treatment facilities, even though these services improve client retention and treatment outcomes. To describe the extent to which substance abuse treatment facilities in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provide clients with mental health…

Myers, Bronwyn; Fakier, Nuraan

2009-01-01

430

Comparative analysis of state requirements for the training of substance abuse and mental health counselors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on minimum state requirements for drug and alcohol counselors and mental health counselors in all 50 states and Washington, DC, suggest that training as a mental health counselor is primarily structured through formal education, whereas training as a substance abuse counselor resembles an apprentice model. Fewer states offer or require certification or licensure of substance abuse counselors, compared to

MaryLouise E. Kerwin; Katherine Walker-Smith; Kimberly C. Kirby

2006-01-01

431

Childhood Abuse and Mental Health Indicators among Ethnically Diverse Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Prior research has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people experience higher rates of childhood abuse than heterosexuals. However, there has been little research on the mental health impact of these experiences or how race/ethnicity might influence prevalence and mental health impact of childhood abuse in this…

Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Circo, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

432

28 CFR 115.381 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.381 Section 115.381 Judicial...Care § 115.381 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the screening pursuant...

2013-07-01

433

28 CFR 115.81 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.81 Section 115.81 Judicial...Care § 115.81 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the screening pursuant...

2013-07-01

434

A STATE OF MIND: DOMINATION, COERCION AND ABUSE IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN MENTAL HEALTH CARE ACT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the South African Mental Health Care Act, focussing on its ideological and theoretical underpinnings. It argues that the Act is flawed not only through clear textual inconsistencies, but further, as a consequence of its view of mental illness resting on contestable psychiatric dogma. Specifically, the disease model of mental illness reproduced in the policy allows the desires,

Sam Davis; Cape Town

435

The Relationship between Mental Health and Substance Abuse among Adolescents. Analytic Series: A-9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents an examination of the association between psychological functioning and substance abuse among adolescents aged 12 to 17 using data from the 1994-1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA). The survey, conducted annually by Substance Abuse and Mental Services Administration (SAMHSA), provides estimates of the…

Ragin, Ann; Rasinski, Kenneth A.; Cerbone, Felicia Gray; Johnson, Robert A.

436

Tailored treatment for HIV+ persons with mental illness: the intervention cascade.  

PubMed

The public health literature demonstrates disturbingly high HIV risk for persons with a serious mental illness, who are concurrently comorbid for substance abuse. Many HIV positives have not been tested and therefore do not know their status, but for individuals who are triply diagnosed, adherence to HIV treatment results in meaningful reductions in viral loads and CD4 counts. Barriers to treatment compliance are reviewed, low-threshold/low-intensity community-based interventions are discussed, and preliminary evidence is presented for the efficacy of the intervention cascade, defined as an integrated intervention delivered by specially trained nurses who individualize a treatment compliance intervention in real time as an adaptive response to demand characteristics of the individual. PMID:23673886

Blank, Michael B; Eisenberg, Marlene M

2013-06-01

437

The HIV epidemic among individuals with mental illness in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with depression and other mental illness comprise a growing proportion of individuals living with HIV in the United\\u000a States; at the same time, the prevalence of HIV among mentally ill individuals is at least seven times higher than in the\\u000a general population. Individuals with mental illness are particularly vulnerable to infection with HIV because of several factors,\\u000a including the

Sheri D. Weiser; William R. Wolfe; David R. Bangsberg

2004-01-01

438

Mentally ill sex offenders in a regional secure unit. II: Cognitions, perceptions and fantasies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the aetiological role of deviant sexual interests, cognitions, perceptions, fantasies, assertiveness and self-esteem in sexual offending by the mentally ill. Established psychometric instruments were administered to a sample of mentally ill sex offenders in a secure psychiatric facility (RSU) and the results compared with norms for the non-mentally ill sex offenders and non-offending community groups. The results

Kirpal Sahota; Paul Chesterman

1998-01-01

439

South African Muslim Faith Healers Perceptions of Mental Illness: Understanding, Aetiology and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The important role that religious beliefs may have on perceptions of mental illness cannot be ignored. Many religions including\\u000a Islam advocate witchcraft and spirit possession—all of which are thought to influence the behaviour of a person so as to resemble\\u000a that of a mentally ill individual. Thus this research explored Muslim Faith Healers perceptions of mental and spiritual illness\\u000a in

Yaseen Ally; Sumaya Laher

2008-01-01

440

The impact of personality disorders, substance use and other mental illness on re-offending  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is frequently observed in the literature that mental illness is associated with criminal offending; however, co-morbidity between personality disorders, substance use disorders and other mental illnesses complicates our understanding of this relationship. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of co-morbid substance use disorder, personality disorder and mental illness on the rate of re-offending. Data on

Colmán ODriscoll; Sarah Larney; Devon Indig; John Basson

2012-01-01

441

Speaking Ill of the Dead: Parental Suicide as Child Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many authors have written about the psychological consequences for the survivors when a family member commits suicide. Most clinicians use bereavement as a paradigm for planning therapeutic interventions. We have not been able to find any articles which recognize that the experience may be a form of child abuse. We believe that using the model of child abuse as well

Barry Wright; Ian Partridge

1999-01-01

442

Survey and a Study: Least Restrictive Environment for Mentally Ill Citizens in Macon County.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need of Macon County's mentally ill citizens for residential services was studied in order to answer the questions: (1) Are mentally handicapped persons inappropriately placed in overly restrictive facilities. (2) What gaps are there in the system, an...

J. J. Riehecky

1980-01-01

443

Cytokines and the neurodevelopmental basis of mental illness  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies suggest that prenatal exposure to different types of viral or bacterial infections may be associated with similar outcomes; i.e., an increased risk of mental illness disorders in the offspring. Infections arising from various causes have similar debilitating effects in later life, suggesting that the exact pathogen may not be the critical factor in determining the neurological and cognitive outcome in the offspring. Instead, it is thought that response of the innate immune system, specifically the increased production of inflammatory cytokines, may be the critical mediator in altering fetal brain development pre-disposing the offspring to mental illness disorders later in life. Inflammatory cytokines are essential for normal brain development. Factors such as the site of cytokine production, a change in balance between anti- and pro- inflammatory cytokines, placental transfer of cytokines, the effects of cytokines on glial cells, and the effects of glucocorticoids are important when evaluating the impact of maternal infection on fetal brain development. Although it is clear that cytokines are altered in the fetal brain following maternal infection, further evidence is required to determine if cytokines are the critical factor that alters the trajectory of brain development, subsequently leading to postnatal behavioral and neurological abnormalities.

Ratnayake, Udani; Quinn, Tracey; Walker, David W.; Dickinson, Hayley

2013-01-01

444

A social/emotional theory of 'mental illness'.  

PubMed

One reason that theories of mental illness have made little progress may be their focus on individuals, omitting the social/relational and emotional world. Adding these components will be difficult, however: in modern societies they have become virtually invisible, particularly the emotion of shame. The theory outlined here is based on the work of Cooley, Elias, Lewis and Goffman: shame is both social and individual and, if anticipation is included, virtually omnipresent in modern societies. It is proposed that most symptoms of mental illness are products of shame and relational feedback loops: emotion and alienation can both spiral leading to further alienation and chaotic or hidden emotions. Almost everyone is especially ashamed of their shame. Being ashamed of one's shame and/or anger can spiral when not acknowledged. Under certain conditions, these spirals continue without limit, generating immense force for acting out symptoms or depression. To the extent that this theory is true, we would need to rename the field using non-medical terms, such as emotional/social dysfunction. PMID:22723517

Scheff, Thomas

2012-06-21

445

Mental health care in the community: An analysis of contemporary public attitudes towards, and public representations of, mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public tolerance of, and non-discrimination towards, people with mental health problems are key factors on which success in achieving the goal of community-based mental health care depends. This paper revisits Thomas Scheff' s (1966) sociological theory of mental illness, and tests elements of this thorough critical review of recent UK literature relating to public attitudes towards, and media representations, of

Ben Hannigan

1999-01-01

446

Parents with Mental Illness: Decision?making in Australian Children's Court Cases Involving Parents with Mental Health Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental illness is listed as a child protection concern for a number of families reported to child protection agencies in Australia. Parents with mental health problems are more vulnerable, as are their children, to having parenting and child welfare concerns. Studies undertaken in the Melbourne Children's Court (Victoria) have found that the children of parents with mental health problems comprise

Rosemary Sheehan; Greg Levine

2005-01-01

447

Elders with serious mental illness: lost opportunities and new policy options.  

PubMed

This article reviews key federal Medicaid policies affecting older adults with serious, long-term mental illness: (a) the Medicaid exclusion of coverage for Institutions for Mental Diseases, (b) the Preadmission Screening and Resident Review Process, and (c) the Medicaid Home and Community Based Services waiver policy. Documenting the incentives and restrictions in these policies provides an historical context for understanding the current gaps in treatment for elders with mental illness. New federal options under the Deficit Reduction Act may provide opportunities for reducing the institutional bias for older adults with mental illness and for improving mental health services for elders under Medicaid. PMID:19333839

O'Connor, Darlene; Little, Faith; McManus, Richard

448

Impact of gender and age on attitudes towards mental illness in Sweden.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Factors such as respondent's sex, age, experience of mental illness and marital status have been found to impact public prejudices toward persons with mental illness. Aims: The impact of respondents' sex, age, real-life experience and marital status on their attitudes towards mental illness was the focus of this study. Methods: Altogether, 2391 respondents completed the Swedish version of Community Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill, CAMI-S. Their answers were reduced by principal component analysis into four factors: Open-minded and Pro-integration, Fear and Avoidance, Community Mental Health Ideology and Intention to Interact with Persons with Mental Illness. By Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), the relations between public's sex and age on their attitudes toward mental illness on these four factors were assessed. Impact of experience and marital status on attitudes towards mental illness was assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Females were found to hold a greater open-mindedness and were positive to pro-integration, but they were also fearful and avoidant, more so than males, relative to persons with mental illness. With regard to getting older, as age increased, so did open-mindedness and a pro-integration attitude relative to persons with mental illness; on the other hand as age increased, community mental health ideology decreased. As attitudes of open-mindedness and pro-integration improved, so did attitudes representing community mental health ideology. Furthermore, as fear and avoidance increased, attitudes of open-mindedness and pro-integration increased but also the intention to interact with persons subject to mental illness was improved. PMID:23241018

Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice; Högberg, Torbjörn; Lützén, Kim

2012-12-14

449

Trends in mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina.  

PubMed

A representative sample of 815 pre-hurricane residents of the areas affected by Hurricane Katrina was interviewed 5-8 months after the hurricane and again 1 year later as the Hurricane Katrina Community Advisory Group (CAG). The follow-up survey was carried out to study patterns-correlates of recovery from hurricane-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), broader anxiety-mood disorders and suicidality. The Trauma Screening Questionnaire screening scale of PTSD and the K6 screening scale of anxiety-mood disorders were used to generate DSM-IV prevalence estimates. Contrary to results in other disaster studies, where post-disaster mental disorder typically decreases with time, prevalence increased significantly in the CAG for PTSD (20.9 vs 14.9% at baseline), serious mental illness (SMI; 14.0 vs 10.9%), suicidal ideation (6.4 vs 2.8%) and suicide plans (2.5 vs 1.0%). The increases in PTSD-SMI were confined to respondents not from the New Orleans Metropolitan Area, while the increases in suicidal ideation-plans occurred both in the New Orleans sub-sample and in the remainder of the sample. Unresolved hurricane-related stresses accounted for large proportions of the inter-temporal increases in SMI (89.2%), PTSD (31.9%) and suicidality (61.6%). Differential hurricane-related stress did not explain the significantly higher increases among respondents from areas other than New Orleans, though, as this stress was both higher initially and decreased less among respondents from the New Orleans Metropolitan Area than from other areas affected by the hurricane. Outcomes were only weakly related to socio-demographic variables, meaning that high prevalence of hurricane-related mental illness remains widely distributed in the population nearly 2 years after the hurricane. PMID:18180768

Kessler, R C; Galea, S; Gruber, M J; Sampson, N A; Ursano, R J; Wessely, S

2008-01-08

450

Trends in mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina  

PubMed Central

A representative sample of 815 pre-hurricane residents of the areas affected by Hurricane Katrina was interviewed 5-8 months after the hurricane and again one year later as the Hurricane Katrina Community Advisory Group (CAG). The follow-up survey was carried out to study patterns-correlates of recovery from hurricane-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), broader anxiety-mood disorders, and suicidality. The TSQ screening scale of PTSD and the K6 screening scale of anxiety-mood disorders were used to generate DSM-IV prevalence estimates. Contrary to results in other disaster studies, where post-disaster mental disorder typically decreases with time, prevalence increased significantly in the CAG for PTSD (20.9% vs. 14.9% at baseline), serious mental illness (SMI; 14.0% vs. 10.9%), suicidal ideation (6.4% vs. 2.8%), and suicide plans (5% vs. 1.0%). The increases in PTSD-SMI were confined to respondents not from the New Orleans Metropolitan Area, while the increases in suicidal ideation-plans occurred both in the New Orleans sub-sample and in the remainder of the sample. Unresolved hurricane-related stresses accounted for large proportions of the inter-temporal increases in SMI (89.2%), PTSD (31.9%), and suicidality (61.6%). Differential hurricane-related stress did not explain the significantly higher increases among respondents from areas other than New Orleans, though, as this stress was both higher initially and decreased less among respondents from the New Orleans Metropolitan Area than from other areas affected by the hurricane. Outcomes were only weakly related to socio-demographic variables, meaning that high prevalence of hurricane-related mental illness remains widely distributed in the population nearly two years after the hurricane.

Kessler, Ronald C.; Galea, Sandro; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Ursano, Robert J.; Wessely, Simon

2008-01-01

451

Military sexual trauma as a determinant in the development of mental and physical illness in male and female veterans.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Military Sexual Trauma (MST) is defined as sexual harassment and or sexual assault experienced by a military service member. It is much more widespread and common than reported. It is associated with pre-combat traumatic experiences and pathologic sequelae including mental and medical illness. Methods: An electronic search of the major behavioral science databases was conducted to retrieve studies detailing the social, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of MST and its relationship to psychiatric and medical illness. Results: Studies indicate that military sexual trauma is related to an increase in psychiatric pathology, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse and dependence, depression, anxiety, eating disorders and suicidal behavior. MST is also related to an increase in medical illness, primarily pain-related symptoms involving multiple organ systems, including gastrointestinal, neurological, genitourinary and musculoskeletal. Conclusion: MST is associated with an increased prevalence of mental and physical illness. Although there are some gender differences in the reported rates of MST and there may be some variables, such as prior traumatic experiences, that may make an individual more vulnerable to the psychiatric and medical sequela of MST, it is clear that MST is a major healthcare issue that affects both sexes and warrants further attention and an increase in clinical resources devoted to it. Some preventive measures for decreasing the prevalence of MST may include increasing education and legal prosecution of perpetrators in the military, and increasing access to mental health services for individuals who have suffered from MST. PMID:24006322

O'Brien, Betsy S; Sher, Leo

2013-01-01

452

Provision of Mental Health Services in South African Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, South African research has not examined mental health service provision in substance abuse treatment facilities,\\u000a even though these services improve client retention and treatment outcomes. To describe the extent to which substance abuse\\u000a treatment facilities in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provide clients with mental health services during the course\\u000a of treatment and to compare mental health service provision

Bronwyn Myers; Nuraan Fakier

2009-01-01

453

A vignette study examining the accuracy of mental illness diagnosis: The role of patient and practitioner gender and race match  

Microsoft Academic Search

A convenience snowball sample of 228 mental health practitioners were surveyed and administered two vignettes of persons with mental illness and a 12-question survey that included occupational background and attitudinal questions about diagnosing mental illness. The gender and race of the patients were randomly altered, while the symptoms and characteristics of mental illness remained constant for each vignette. Each practitioner

Kevin Johnson

2010-01-01

454

The effects of news stories on the stigma of mental illness.  

PubMed

The media are often identified as partially responsible for increasing the stigma of mental illness through their negatively focused representations. For many years, training programs have educated journalists on how to report on mental illness to reduce stigma. This purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits of reading a positive, neutral or a negative journalism article that discusses mental illness. Consenting adult participants were randomly assigned to read one of three published articles about recovery from mental illness, a dysfunctional public mental health system, or dental hygiene. The participants completed measures immediately before and after the intervention; the measures administered evaluated stigmatizing and affirming attitudes toward people with mental illness. Public stigma was assessed using the nine-item Attribution Questionnaire and the Stigma Through Knowledge Test (STKT). The STKT is a measure of mental illness stigma less susceptible to the impact of social desirability. Affirming attitudes represent public perceptions about recovery, empowerment, and self-determination, indicated as important to accepting and including people with psychiatric disabilities into society. Significant differences were observed between the articles on recovery and dysfunctional public mental health system, as well as the control condition, on the measures of stigma and affirming attitudes. The recovery article reduced stigma and increased affirming attitudes, whereas the dysfunctional public mental health system article increased stigma and decreased affirming attitudes. Not all journalistic stories have positive effects on attitudes about mental illness. PMID:23407209

Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Michaels, Patrick J

2013-03-01

455

Sexual Abuse Prevention for Individuals with Mental Retardation: Considerations for Genetic Counselors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now widely recognized that children, adolescents, and adults with mental retardation are especially vulnerable to sexual abuse. Because at least 10% of genetic conditions are reported to include mental retardation as a feature, the provision of services to individuals with mental retardation represents a substantial portion of the case load for many genetic counselors. Our objective is to

Helen Levy; Wendy Packman

2004-01-01

456

Partnerships and pathways of dissemination: The National Institute on Drug Abuse—Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Blending Initiative in the Clinical Trials Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2001, the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) has worked to put the results of its trials into the hands of community treatment programs, in large part through its participation in the National Institute on Drug Abuse—Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Blending Initiative and its close involvement with the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's Addiction

Steve Martino; Gregory S. Brigham; Christine Higgins; Steve Gallon; Thomas E. Freese; Lonnetta M. Albright; Eric G. Hulsey; Laurie Krom; Susan A. Storti; Harold Perl; Cathrine D. Nugent; Denise Pintello; Timothy P. Condon

2010-01-01

457

Questions About Behavioral Function in Mental Illness (QABF-MI)A Behavior Checklist for Functional Assessment of Maladaptive Behavior Exhibited by Individuals With Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF), a 25-item rating scale, was developed to identify the function(s) of maladaptive behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. The authors adapted it for use with individuals with serious mental illness who engage in maladaptive behavior and assessed the psychometric characteristics of the new scale (Questions About Behavioral Function in Mental Illness; QABF-MI) in a

Nirbhay N. Singh; Johnny L. Matson; Giulio E. Lancioni; Ashvind N. Singh; Angela D. Adkins; Gerald F. McKeegan; Stephen W. Brown

2006-01-01

458

Time for healing: somatization among chronically mentally ill immigrants.  

PubMed

In a cross-sectional study, we examined demographic factors and acculturation level with somatization among chronically mentally ill groups of immigrants (Russians and Latinos). Ninety Russian and 90 Latino patients attending a university affiliated Day Treatment Program were assessed on somatoform symptoms and acculturation by the 12-item somatization subscale of the SCL-90-R and by a 12- items short acculturation scale, respectively. Higher somatization was significantly associated to women, Russian ethnicity, high school or above level of education, shorter length of residence in the U.S., and lower acculturation. Interaction by ethnic group showed that somatization was influenced by the length of residence in the U.S. among Russians but not among Hispanics. In a multivariate model, higher somatization corresponds to female, Russian, and shorter residence in the U.S. (only among Russians). Length of stay in the host country rather than the level of acculturation influence the frequency of somatic complaints, modified by ethnicity. PMID:21526581

Shiroma, Paulo R; Alarcon, Renato D

2011-01-01

459

Homelessness, mental illness, and criminal activity: examining patterns over time.  

PubMed

This study examined whether street homelessness, sheltered homelessness, and the severity of psychological symptoms predicted non-violent and violent crime among 207 mentally ill participants who were homeless at baseline. Participants were interviewed at 9 time points over 4 years. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine whether changes in homelessness status and symptom severity predicted changes in criminal activity over time. Results indicated that homelessness both on the streets and in shelters and psychological symptom severity predicted increases in non-violent crime. Sheltered homelessness and symptom severity predicted increases in violent crime, although street homelessness did not. A separate mediational analysis with 181 participants showed that the relationship between diagnosis of a psychotic disorder and both non-violent and violent criminal activity was partially mediated through the severity of psychotic symptoms. Implications for research and intervention are discussed. PMID:18956238

Fischer, Sean N; Shinn, Marybeth; Shrout, Patrick; Tsemberis, Sam

2008-12-01

460

The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review  

PubMed Central

There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation.

Gelkopf, Marc

2011-01-01

461

Demon or disorder: A survey of attitudes toward mental illness in the Christian church  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study assessed the attitudes and beliefs that mentally ill Christians encountered when they seek counsel from the church. Participants (n?=?293) completed an anonymous online survey in relation to their interactions with the church. Analysis of the results found that while a majority of the mentally ill participants were accepted by the church, approximately 30% reported a negative interaction.

Matthew S. Stanford

2007-01-01

462

Pathways for Homeless Mentally Ill People in Washington, D.C.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The need for a more responsive service system for people who are both mentally ill and homeless is a salient concern in America today. Preliminary research was conducted to examine how homeless mentally ill persons are processed by the currently organized network of human services in the nation's capital. Data were gathered in the summer of 1985…

Dockett, Kathleen H.

463

Mechanical Chair Massage and Stress Reduction in the Seriously Mentally Ill Consumer: A Preliminary Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the authors evaluate the effectiveness of a mechanical massage chair in reducing stress for people with serious and persistent mental illness. This preliminary investigation involves the use of massage therapy for 19 people with serious mental illness, using a standardized massage protocol. Stress levels were assessed using a 7-point Likert scale, administered before and after each

C. P. Heard; A. Tetzlaff; P. Fryer; L. Fazakas DeHoog; A. M. Johnson; J. Wyburd; J. D. Holmes

2012-01-01

464

Assessment of Alcohol and Other Drug Disorders in the Seriously Mentally Ill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brief assessment methods are needed to determine the presence of alcohol and drug problems in persons with severe mental illness. The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of alcohol and other drug problems in a rural population of 253 clients with severe mental illness and to determine the accuracy of case manager responses to specific alcohol and

Kristen L. Barry; Michael F. Fleming; James Greenley; Prudence Widlak; Svetlana Kropp; David McKee

1995-01-01

465

Psychosocial Outcomes for Adult Children of Parents with Severe Mental Illnesses: Demographic and Clinical History Predictors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children of parents with mental illness are at risk of psychiatric and behavioral problems. Few studies have investigated the psychosocial outcomes of these children in adulthood or the parental psychiatric history variables that predict resilience. From a sample of 379 mothers with serious mental illnesses, 157 women who had at least one adult…

Mowbray, Carol T.; Bybee, Deborah; Oyserman, Daphna; MacFarlane, Peter; Bowersox, Nicholas

2006-01-01

466

Helping Adolescents Cope with the Mental Illness of a Parent Through Bibliotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper highlights some of the needs of adolescents who have parents with a mental illness and examines the usage of bibliotherapy as a treatment modality. Eleven young adult fiction books are examined and considered for use as a bibliotherapeutic tool among the adolescent audience whose parent suffers from a mental illness.

Heidi L. Tussing; Deborah P. Valentine

2001-01-01

467

Effects of Culturally Relevant Psychoeducation for Korean American Families of Persons with Chronic Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study is to identify culturally relevant treatment methods and to assess the effects of family psychoeducational intervention for Korean Americans who had a family member with mental illness. 48 Korean Americans with children with mental illness were randomly assigned to either an experimental group program that provided culturally sensitive…

Shin, Sun-Kyung

2004-01-01

468

Teaching Abnormal Psychology to Improve Attitudes toward Mental Illness and Help-Seeking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes…

Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.

2012-01-01

469

Wraparound Services: An Effective Intervention for Families Impacted by Severe Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children and families impacted by severe mental illness (SMI) have multiple strains that effect family functioning, child safety, and parental rights. Traditional services for children and families struggling with severe mental illness have not achieved success in improving family functioning and keeping families intact. Wraparound is a…

Kessler, Michelle L.; Ackerson, Barry J.

2004-01-01

470

Understanding Parental Grief as a Response to Mental Illness: Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children…

Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat

2008-01-01

471

Impact of Parental Severe Mental Illness: Ethical and Clinical Issues for Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article draws attention to the issue of parental severe mental illness and the ethical and clinical implications for counselors who work with this population. Parents with mental illness face a multitude of life challenges including, but not limited to, parenting difficulties, medication and hospitalization, custody and placement of their…

Spiegelhoff, Sarah F.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel

2011-01-01

472

Perceptions of Barriers to Employment, Coping Efficacy, and Career Search Efficacy in People with Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Barriers to Employment and Coping Efficacy Scale (BECES) and the Career Search Efficacy Scale (CSES) were designed to assist people in their work integration process. The BECES was specifically developed for people with mental illness. Although the CSES was not specifically designed for people with mental illness, its items appear relevant…

Corbiere, Marc; Mercier, Celine; Lesage, Alain

2004-01-01

473

Treatment of Persons with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System: A Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The number of mentally ill inmates in the criminal justice system has increased dramatically. This article evaluates the prevalence and causes of mental illness in the criminal justice system and describes the inadequate care that is provided, the effects of imprisonment, and the problem of rehabilitation. (Contains 4 notes.)|

Brandt, Anna L. S.

2012-01-01

474

Unfinished Business: Student Perspectives on Disclosure of Mental Illness and Success in VET. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of all the different types of disability, mental illness can be particularly disruptive to education and training outcomes. In this report, the authors explore the factors contributing to successful course completion for students with a mental illness. The authors especially focus on the role of disclosure and the reasons why students choose to…

Venville, Annie; Street, Annette

2012-01-01

475

The Mentally Ill Offender Treatment and Crime Reduction Act of 2004: problems and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the United States has engaged in record levels of incarceration, there has been a concomitant rise in the number of persons incarcerated afflicted with severe mental illness (SMI) including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. Legislation aimed at diverting SMI persons away from incarceration and toward treatment has been recently developed. This paper reviews the Mentally Ill Offender Treatment

Christine M. Litschge; Michael G. Vaughn

2009-01-01

476

Play, Pleasure, and Other Positive Life Events: ?Non?Specific? Factors in Recovery from Mental Illness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the emerging recovery paradigm, there is an increasing need for psychiat- ric treatment and rehabilitation to be strengths-based and to be driven by the de- sires and preferences of the person with mental illness. Yet if mental illness is a brain disease, it is not at all clear how these characteristics contribute to improve- ment in the

Larry Davidson; Golan Shahar; Martha Staeheli Lawless; David Sells; Janis Tondora

2006-01-01

477

Coping with the Stigma of Mental Illness: Empirically-GroundedHypotheses from Computer Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research demonstrates how affect control theory and its computer program, Interact, can be used to develop empirically-grounded hypotheses regarding the connection between cultural labels and behaviors. Our demonstration focuses on propositions in the modified labeling theory of mental illness. According to the MLT, negative societal conceptions of the mentally ill become personally relevant upon diagnosis and damage psychiatric patients'

Sarah K. Harkness; Amy Kroska

2011-01-01

478

Coping with the Stigma of Mental Illness: Empirically-GroundedHypotheses from Computer Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

:This research demonstrates how affect control theory and its computer program, Interact, can be used to develop empirically-grounded hypotheses regarding the connection between cultural labels and behaviors. Our demonstration focuses on propositions in the modified labeling theory of mental illness. According to the MLT, negative societal conceptions of the mentally ill become personally relevant upon diagnosis and damage psychiatric patients'

Sarah K. Harkness; Amy Kroska

2011-01-01

479

Understanding Parental Grief as a Response to Mental Illness: Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…

Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat

2008-01-01

480

EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF OLDER ADULTS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the educational needs of mentally ill older adults. Not a single article specifically addressing this population was found in a review of the literature. The adult education literature addresses the well elderly. The mental health literature, when it addresses education, focuses on young chronically ill populations, and when the treatment literature addresses the elderly, retraining is briefly

Timothy B. Kelly

1993-01-01

481

Police perceptions of their encounters with individuals experiencing mental illness: A Victorian survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Police have long played a central role in the management of people experiencing mental illness. This study explored: (1) the frequency of contact between the police and people experiencing mental illness; (2) the way in which police officers’ knowledge and the sources of information used relates to various dispositions; (3) the signs, symptoms and behaviours that police officers consider

Joel W Godfredson; Stuart DM Thomas; James RP Ogloff; Stefan Luebbers

2011-01-01

482

Crisis intervention team officer dispatch, assessment, and disposition: Interactions with individuals with severe mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) model is a specialized police response program for people in a mental illness crisis. We analyzed 2174 CIT officers' reports from one community, which were completed during a five year period. These officers' reports described interactions with people presumed to be in a mental illness crisis. We used hierarchical logistic and multinomial regression analyses to

Christian Ritter; Jennifer L. S. Teller; Kristen Marcussen; Mark R. Munetz; Brent Teasdale

2011-01-01

483

Officer perceptions of police responses to persons with a mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore police officer perceptions of their contacts with the mentally ill and examine outcomes of an innovative police training program designed to improve police handling of cases involving the mentally ill. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study utilizes a sample of 126 police officer respondents from five departments in northern Indiana to understand

William Wells; Joseph A. Schafer

2006-01-01

484

Social rejection of the mentally ill: A replication study of public attitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A replication survey of public attitudes toward the mentally ill was completed after a decade had elapsed which employed similar measures across the same urban area. Prior research evidence was empirically corroborated which indicated that attitude toward the mentally ill is not a uni-dimensional phenomenon, but is tied to differing social contexts. It does appear that a distinction can

Barry Trute; Bruce Tefft; Alexander Segall

1989-01-01

485

Building a Bridge of Trust: Collaborative Assessment With a Person With Serious Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborative assessment utilizes psychological testing to help people make positive changes in their lives. Limited research has evaluated the utility of collaborative assessment for persons with serious mental illness. This case example uses the Personality Assessment Inventory to illustrate the usefulness of collaborative assessment with a person with serious mental illness. This approach informed not only diagnostic considerations but also

Joshua A. Tiegreen; Loretta E. Braxton; Eric B. Elbogen; Daniel Bradford

2012-01-01

486

A Research Agenda Concerning Depictions of Mental Illness in Children's Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To review research on depictions of mental illness in mass media directed to children and to identify requirements for further research in this important field. Methods: The authors identified published research on depictions of mental illness in children's media and the important strengths and weaknesses of such research. Results: Only…

Coverdale, John H.; Nairn, Raymond

2006-01-01

487

Media frames of mental illnesses: The potential impact of negative frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Mass media (e.g., television news and entertainment programming, films and newspapers) are a primary source for information about mental illnesses. Aims: The possible effects of media coverage and predominant frames in which mental illnesses are portrayed are discussed. Methods: Framing is defined as the means by which media information is organized, presented and interpreted. The literature focused on media

ELAINE M. SIEFF

2003-01-01

488

Spirituality and Quality of Life for Chinese People with Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores spirituality in relation to quality of life for Chinese people with severe mental illness whose spiritual orientations are either similar to or different from Western traditions. 117 Chinese people with severe mental illness who were involved in community?based supportive services in Hong Kong completed self?administered questionnaires on spirituality and quality of life. Spirituality was found positively related

Kim Wan Young

2010-01-01

489

Work Experiences of People with Mental Illness in Malaysia: A Preliminary Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…

Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng

2011-01-01

490

Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This bulletin issue contains five papers on the theme of adults with mental illness who are parents of very young children. "Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children" (John N. Constantino) offers the experience of a trainee in a combined residency in pediatrics and psychiatry, focusing on identification,…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

1993-01-01

491

Results of a Multisite Randomized Trial of Supported Employment Interventions for Individuals With Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: National probability surveys indicate that most individuals with schizophrenia and other severe mental illnesses are not employed. This multisite study tested the effectiveness of supported employment (SE) models combining clinical and vocational rehabilitation ser- vices to establish competitive employment. Methods: We randomly assigned 1273 outpatients with severe mental illness from 7 states in the United States to an experimental

Judith A. Cook; H. Stephen Leff; Crystal R. Blyler; Paul B. Gold; Richard W. Goldberg; Kim T. Mueser; Marcia G. Toprac; William R. McFarlane; Michael S. Shafer; Laura E. Blankertz; Ken Dudek; Lisa A. Razzano; Dennis D. Grey; Jane Burke-Miller

2005-01-01

492

Maternal Mental Illness and the Safety and Stability of Maltreated Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Children of mothers with mental illness are at risk for multiple untoward outcomes, including child maltreatment and foster care placement. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the association between maternal mental illness and children's long term safety and stability. Methods: A multi-sector administrative dataset from the…

Kohl, Patricia L.; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett

2011-01-01

493

Effects of Simulated Learning and Facilitated Debriefing on Student Understanding of Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational therapy educators have studied various methods regarding student attitudes towards people with disabling conditions. Among the methods that have been studied is simulated learning. This paper describes the effects of a simulated learning exercise and facilitated debriefing on occupational therapy student understanding of mental illness. Results indicate that students had significant change relative to understanding that mental illnesses are

M. Beth Merryman

2010-01-01

494

Stigma Sentiments and Self-Meanings: Exploring the Modified Labeling Theory of Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We introduce "stigma sentiments" as a way to operationalize the cultural conceptions of the mentally ill. Stigma sentiments are the evaluation, potency, and activity (EPA) associated with the cultural category "a mentally ill person." We find consistent support for the validity of the evaluation and potency components as measures of these…

Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K.

2006-01-01

495

Injection Drug Use Among Homeless Adults in the Southeast with Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined injection drug use and HIV risk behaviors in a predominantly African American sample of homeless men with mental illness. Personal interviews focusing on injection drug use and sexual risk behaviors were completed with 240 homeless mentally ill men in two