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1

Pattern of mental illness on substance abusers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate mental illnesses among the substance abuse dependent populations. A total of 1076 substance abusers were recruited from the Outpatient Department of the Central Drug Addiction Treatment Center, Tejgaon, Dhaka from July 2008 to June 2009. They sought detoxification therapy voluntarily at this centre. The research participants were selected consecutively following the defined selection criteria. Research instruments were interviewer-administered questionnaire and standard mental state examination scales. Of the 1076 substance abusers, 82.6% had been using heroin currently and rest of them used phensedyl followed by injection drugs and cannabis with a period ranged 2-30 years. Results showed that 91.3% of the substance abusers had been suffering from insomnia and 75.0% had altered food habit. About 49.0% showed disturbed behaviors and 45.2% had been suffering from sexual dysfunctions. Around 32.0% of the substance abusers had been suffering from nonspecific generalized anxieties and 72.7% were found in abnormal mood/affects. A striking finding was that 7.3% of the substance abusers had been suffering from perceptual and/or thought disturbances. In conclusion, 7.3%-92.5% of the substance abusers had been suffering from mental illnesses. Insomnias, decreased intake of food and taste preference, irritable mood/affects, loss of interest in sex and non-specific anxieties were highly prevalent among them. Medical management and altering lifestyle are still the only applicable way to control this human catastrophe. PMID:22561767

Hossain, K J; Nandi, A K; Karim, M R; Haque, M M; Kamal, M M

2012-04-01

2

Facts on Mentally Ill Chemical Abusers. Clearinghouse Fact Sheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals are considered mentally ill chemical abusers (MICAs) when they exhibit psychotic behaviors and are actively abusing alcohol and/or drugs; are actively psychotic with a history of alcohol or drug abuse; and/or are actively abusing alcohol or other drugs and have a history of severe psychiatric diagnoses. Although some practitioners use…

Fiorentino, Nancy; Reilly, Phyllis

3

Treatment of substance abuse in severely mentally ill patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance abuse is the most common comorbid complication of severe mental illness. Current clinical research converges on several emerging principles of treatment that address the scope, pace, intensity, and structure of dual-diagnosis programs. They include a) assertive outreach to facilitate engagement and participation in substance abuse treatment, b) close monitoring to provide structure and social reinforcement, c) integrating substance abuse

Robert E. Drake; Stephen J. Bartels; Gregory B. Teague; Douglas L. Noordsy; Robin E. Clark

1993-01-01

4

Mental Illness: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with mental illness notes the incidence of mental illness and types of conditions. The incidence of alcohol and other drug abuse problems in this population is discussed, emphasizing the difficulty in dealing with the dual problem of substance abuse and chronic mental illness.…

VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

5

Children of Mothers with Histories of Substance Abuse, Mental Illness, and Trauma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children exposed to parental substance abuse, mental illness, and violence face profound challenges, including increased risk for emotional and behavioral problems, substance abuse, and victimization. In this article, we describe the characteristics of a sample of children of women entering treatment. These children had been exposed to domestic…

VanDeMark, Nancy R.; Russell, Lisa A.; O'Keefe, Maura; Finkelstein, Norma; Noether, Chanson D.; Gampel, Joanne C.

2005-01-01

6

Characteristics and Treatment of Homeless, Mentally Ill, Chemical-Abusing Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparing two types of treatment modalities in treating homeless, mentally ill, chemical-abusing (HMICAs) men and studying their characteristics, 723 HMICAs were interviewed on their childhood and family background and their psychiatric and substance abuse disorders. and then randomly assigned intoeither therapeutic community (TC) or community residence (CR) programs. The TC and CRs were found to differ from one another in

Michael Rahav; James J. Rivera; Larry Nuttbrock; Daisy Ng-Mak; Elizaheth L. Sturz; Bruce G. Link; Elmer L. Struening; Bert Pepper; Ben Gross

1995-01-01

7

Confronting a Neglected Epidemic: Tobacco Cessation for Persons with Mental Illnesses and Substance Abuse Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco use exerts a huge toll on persons with mental illnesses and substance abuse disorders, accounting for 200,000 of the annual 443,000 annual tobacco-related deaths in the United States. Persons with chronic mental illness die 25 years earlier than the general population does, and smoking is the major contributor to that premature mortality. This population consumes 44% of all cigarettes,

Steven A. Schroeder; Chad D. Morris

2010-01-01

8

Treatment Needs and Services for Mothers with a Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews treatment needs of dual diagnosed, substance abusing and mentally ill mothers. Suggests treatment strategies and programmatic options for serving and meeting needs of these mothers and their children. Devotes particular attention to residential and continuing care services and skills-based interventions for target clients. Concludes with…

Morris, Sylvia K.; Schinke, Steven P.

1990-01-01

9

Mentally ill chemical abusers in residential treatment programs: Effects of psychopathology on levels of functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures of psychopathology among mentally ill chemical abusers (MICAs) were examined as predictors of levels of functioning in two types of community based, residential programs: therapeutic community (TC) and community residence (CR). Non-significant associations were generally observed between scales of psychiatric symptoms (e.g., depression, psychotic ideation, cognitive disorientation, and hostility) and counselors' ratings of the residents' capacity to meet the

Larry Nuttbrock; Michael Rahav; James Rivera; Daisy Ng-Mak; Elmer Struening

1997-01-01

10

An ethnographic study of the longitudinal course of substance abuse among people with severe mental illness.  

PubMed

A two-year ethnography conducted among 16 dually diagnosed clients yielded two longitudinal findings. First, four "positive quality of life" factors were strongly correlated with clients' efforts to cease using addictive substances: (1) regular engagement in an enjoyable activity; (2) decent, stable housing; (3) a loving relationship with someone sober who accepts the person's mental illness; and (4) a positive, valued relationship with a mental health professional. Second, the study revealed that five "negative background factors" in participants' childhood homes were predictive of long-term continuation of substance use: (1) substance abuse in childhood home, (2) childhood household in dire poverty, (3) "non-functional" household members, (4) reporting of abuse imputed to care-givers, and (5) serious mental illness in household. The implications of these findings for treatment are discussed. PMID:11079184

Alverson, H; Alverson, M; Drake, R E

2000-12-01

11

Clinical characteristics related to severity of sexual abuse: A study of seriously mentally ill youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In this study we examined demographic, social, and clinical variables related to sexual abuse histories in a sample of severely mentally ill youth.Method: Data were collected via a retrospective chart review of all patients treated over a 5-year period (1987–1992) at a tertiary care public sector psychiatric hospital. The sample was divided into four groups: no history of sexual

Chris McCurry; Mick Storck

1995-01-01

12

History of Traumatic Abuse and HIV Risk Behaviorsin Severely Mentally Ill Substance Abusing Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies in the United States estimate HIV seroprevalence rates ranging between 4% and 23% for serious mentally ill adults (SMIA; i.e., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other chronic disorders with psychotic features), with substantially greater estimates for risky sexual behaviors. Among the most consistent factors linked to HIV risk in non-SMIA populations is a history of emotional, physical, or sexual

Robert M. Malow; Jessy G. Dévieux; Ligia Martinez; Fred Peipman; Barbara A. Lucenko; Seth C. Kalichman

2006-01-01

13

Long-Term Correlates of Childhood Abuse among Adults with Severe Mental Illness: Adult Victimization, Substance Abuse, and HIV Sexual Risk Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately\\u000a high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood\\u000a abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving\\u000a community mental health

Christina S. Meade; Trace S. Kershaw; Nathan B. Hansen; Kathleen J. Sikkema

2009-01-01

14

Gender Differences in the Assessment of Specialized Treatments for Substance Abuse among People with Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent study examined the relative cost-effectiveness of three specialized interventions for treating people with both severe mental illness and substance abuse disorders: behavioral skills training, intensive case management, and l2-Step recovery. This article reports the changes in client psychosocial outcomes, psychiatric and substance abuse symptomatology, and service utilization and costs for the 31 women involved in the study, and

Jeanette M. Jerrell; M. Susan Ridgely

1995-01-01

15

Long-term correlates of childhood abuse among adults with severe mental illness: adult victimization, substance abuse, and HIV sexual risk behavior.  

PubMed

The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Seventy percent reported childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, and 32% reported both types of abuse. Participants with childhood abuse were more likely to report adult victimization and greater HIV risk. A structural equation model found that childhood abuse was directly and indirectly associated with HIV risk through drug abuse and adult vicitimization. Integrated treatment approaches that address interpersonal violence and substance abuse may be necessary for HIV risk reduction in this population. PMID:17968646

Meade, Christina S; Kershaw, Trace S; Hansen, Nathan B; Sikkema, Kathleen J

2009-04-01

16

Psychiatric and physical sequelae of childhood physical and sexual abuse and forced sexual trauma among individuals with serious mental illness.  

PubMed

Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently co-occur with serious mental illness, yet the unique mental and physical health influences of childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and forced sexual trauma on individuals with serious mental illness remain unevaluated. The present study of 172 individuals with serious mental illness investigated the adverse effects of CPA, CSA, and forced sexual trauma on severity of PTSD and depression, and overall mental and physical health functioning. Data analysis consisted of chi-square tests, independent t tests, bivariate odds ratios, and linear regressions. Prevalence of CPA (44.8%), CSA (29.1%), and forced sexual trauma (33.1%) were elevated, and nearly one third of participants (31.4%) reported clinical PTSD. Participants exposed to CSA or forced sexual trauma evidenced bivariate ORs ranging from 4.13 to 7.02 for PTSD, 2.44 to 2.50 for major depression, and 2.14 to 2.31 for serious physical illness/disability. Sexual trauma exposure associated with heightened PTSD and depression, and reduced mental and physical health functioning, with CSA uniquely predicting PTSD, depression, and physical health difficulties. CPA less significantly affected these clinical domains. Sexual traumas have profound negative effects on mental and physical health outcomes among individuals with serious mental illness; increased screening and treatment of sexual traumas is needed. PMID:24115301

Subica, Andrew M

2013-10-01

17

In their own words: trauma and substance abuse in the lives of formerly homeless women with serious mental illness.  

PubMed

In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 formerly homeless mentally ill women to capture their individual life trajectories of mental illness, substance abuse, and trauma in their own words. Cross-case analyses produced 5 themes: (a) betrayals of trust, (b) graphic or gratuitous nature of traumatic events, (c) anxiety about leaving their immediate surroundings (including attending group treatment programs), (d) desire for one's own space, and (e) gender-related status loss and stigmatization. Findings suggest formerly homeless mentally ill women need (and want) autonomy, protection from further victimization, and assistance in restoring status and devalued identity. Avenues for intervention include enhanced provider training, addressing experiences of betrayal and trauma, and more focused attention to current symptoms rather than previous diagnoses. PMID:17209714

Padgett, Deborah K; Hawkins, Robert Leibson; Abrams, Courtney; Davis, Andrew

2006-10-01

18

Long-term treatment for patients with severe mental illness and substance abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Drug and alcohol addiction is common among patients with severe mental illness. Those patients often fall between different treatment systems. Since 1994 a long-term treatment for patients with this kind of \\

Olof Blix; Ulf Eek

19

Short-Term Naturalistic Treatment Outcomes in Cigarette Smokers with Substance Abuse and/or Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

Objective The majority of cigarette smokers have a lifetime diagnosis of substance abuse and/or mental illness, and treatment outcomes for smokers with these comorbidities are generally reported to be worse than for smokers without co-morbidities. We sought to examine the effect of specific substance abuse/mental illness diagnoses compared to one another on treatment outcomes. Method A retrospective chart review of naturalistic treatment for Tobacco Dependence was performed on male smokers (n= 231) who enrolled in the Greater Los Angeles Veterans Affairs Mental Health Clinic Smoking Cessation Program over a 1.5 year period. Subjects in this program underwent comprehensive treatment for Tobacco Dependence (including, but not limited to, group psychotherapy, nicotine replacement therapy, and bupropion HCl). Quitting smoking was defined as a report of at least 1 week of abstinence and an exhaled carbon monoxide less than 8 parts per million at the final clinic visit. Results Of the total group, 36.4% (84/231) quit smoking at the end of treatment. Quit rates were affected by the presence of specific diagnoses, with smokers with a history of Alcohol Abuse/Dependence or Schizophrenia/Schizoaffective Disorder having poorer response rates than smokers without such diagnoses. Other substance abuse and mental illness diagnoses did not affect quit rates. Conclusion Lower quit rates among patients with Alcohol Abuse/Dependence or Schizophrenia/Schizoaffective Disorder may be due to the severity of these conditions, and suggests that specialized treatment is needed for these populations of smokers. Smokers with most co-morbid diagnoses are successfully treated with standard treatment methods. PMID:17592914

Grand, Risa B. Gershon; Hwang, Sun; Han, Juliette; George, Tony; Brody, Arthur L.

2010-01-01

20

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration  

MedlinePLUS

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Home Newsroom Site Map Contact Us SAMHSA Search Search Data Visit ... SAMHSA's mission is to reduce the impact of substance abuse and mental illness on America's communities. The ...

21

Substance Abuse Recovery after Experiencing Homelessness and Mental Illness: Case Studies of Change Over Time  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper addresses how consumers with dual diagnosis, who were formerly homeless but are now living in supportive housing, understand their recovery from substance abuse (i.e., substance abuse or dependence). Specifically, this study examined: What can be learned about substance abuse recovery from consumers considered to be doing well; how past substance abuse fits into their present-day narratives; and how (if at all) policies of harm reduction versus abstinence are regarded as affecting recovery efforts. Methods As part of a federally-funded qualitative study, 38 individuals who met criteria for having achieved a measure of success in mental health recovery were purposively sampled from two supportive housing agencies – one using a harm reduction and the other an abstinence model. Researchers conducted in-depth interviews and used case study analysis, the latter including the development of case summaries and data matrices, to focus on substance abuse recovery in the larger context of participants’ lives. Results Recovery from substance abuse was depicted as occurring either through discrete decisions or gradual processes; achieving recovery was distinct from maintaining recovery. Emergent themes related to achievement included: (a) pivotal events and people (b) maturation, and (c) institutionalization. Central themes to maintaining recovery were: (a) housing, (b) self-help, and (c) the influence of significant others. Conclusions These findings capture a complex picture of overcoming substance abuse that largely took place outside of formal treatment and was heavily dependent on broader contexts. Equally important is that consumers themselves did not necessarily view substance abuse recovery as a defining feature of their life story. Indeed, recovery from substance abuse was seen as overcoming one adversity among many others during their troubled life courses. PMID:22962547

Padgett, Deborah K.; Smith, Bikki Tran; Tiderington, Emmy

2012-01-01

22

Smoking and Mental Illness  

MedlinePLUS

Smoking and Mental Illness February 5, 2013 The mental illness estimates presented in this publication may differ ... in the 2010 Surgeon General’s report that cigarette smoking causes disease and that no level of cigarette ...

23

What Is Mental Illness: Mental Illness Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... four of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. By ... society are staggering: unnecessary disability, unemployment, substance abuse, ... each year in the United States. The best treatments for serious ...

24

The influence of treatment attendance on subsequent aggression among severely mentally ill substance abusers.  

PubMed

The interrelationships between severe mental illness, substance use, and aggression are of longstanding importance with implications for community treatment programs, treatment research and public policy. Through the analysis of longitudinal data collected from 278 patients over a 6-month period following admission to an outpatient dual diagnosis treatment program, this study examined the association between dual diagnosis treatment attendance and subsequent aggression among individuals diagnosed with both a severe mental illness and a substance use disorder. We also tested substance use and psychiatric symptoms as mediators of this treatment-aggression relationship. The results of structural equation modeling analyses indicated that dual diagnosis treatment was associated with lower levels of subsequent aggression. Mediational analyses indicated that greater treatment involvement was associated with reduced substance use, which was associated with lower levels of aggression; thus, substance use was found to mediate the relationship between dual diagnosis treatment and aggression. Surprisingly, severity of psychiatric symptoms did not predict later aggression. These findings suggest that targeting substance use reduction in treatment may have the additional benefit of reducing the risk of later aggression among dual diagnosis patients. PMID:25124261

Zhuo, Yue; Bradizza, Clara M; Maisto, Stephen A

2014-01-01

25

State Regulation of Residential Facilities for Children with Mental Illness. Rockville, MD: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little national information on the policies and procedures used by states to regulate residential treatment facilities for adults and children with mental illness. As a result, policymakers and program administrators face major difficulties in determining both the effectiveness of current policies and the potential need for new policies that are responsive to emerging trends in mental health care.

Henry Ireys; Lori Achman; Ama Takyi

2006-01-01

26

State Regulation of Residential Facilities for Adults with Mental Illness. Rockville, MD: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little national information on the policies and procedures used by states to regulate residential treatment facilities for adults and children with mental illness. As a result, policymakers and program administrators face major difficulties in determining both the effectiveness of current policies and the potential need for new policies that are responsive to emerging trends in mental health care.

Henry Ireys; Lori Achman; Ama Takyi

2006-01-01

27

Treating substance abuse in the context of severe and persistent mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with comorbid substance use and major mental disorders are treated frequently in the mental health system. Treatment models relevant for this subset of patients have emerged in recent years, however, few have been validated empirically and so relatively few sites benefit from this treatment development activity. Important additional sources of information about good treatment practices are the clinicians who

Kate B Carey; Daniel M Purnine; Stephen A Maisto; Michael P Carey; Jeffrey S Simons

2000-01-01

28

Working effectively with patients with comorbid mental illness and substance abuse: a case study using a structured motivational behavioural approach  

PubMed Central

This case describes the use of innovative person-centred motivational behaviour change tools to enhance chronic condition self-management with a person with chronic paranoid schizophrenia, significant drug abuse and multiple psychosocial issues. In standard care, the complexity of this patient’s presentation, their cognitive impairment level and history of violence would likely exclude them from many therapies and treatment programs as unsuitable or in the “too hard” basket. In fact, using a motivational and highly person-centred approach proved to be extremely necessary and rewarding for the person and their mental health worker. This approach provided a clear structure, actual tools and a clear rationale for what many would argue, yet is often ill-defined, was “just good clinical practice”. However, it also facilitated the development of “something special” in the relationship between the person and their worker that is central to person-centred care. Through a semistructured, motivational, sequential process that encouraged gradual disclosure and greater self-awareness by the client and active listening by the worker, greater collaboration and shared responsibility was enhanced. PMID:21686687

Lawn, Sharon; Pols, Rene G; Battersby, Malcolm W

2009-01-01

29

Attitudes of undergraduate health science students towards patients with intellectual disability, substance abuse, and acute mental illness: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background There is a long history of certain medical conditions being associated with stigma, stereotypes, and negative attitudes. Research has shown that such attitudes can have a detrimental effect on patients presenting with stigmatised medical conditions and can even flow on to impact their family. The objective of this study was to measure the attitudes of undergraduate students enrolled in six different health-related courses at Monash University toward patients with intellectual disability, substance abuse, and acute mental illness. Methods A convenience sample of undergraduate students enrolled in six health-related courses in first, second and third years at Monash University were surveyed. The Medical Condition Regard Scale - a valid and reliable, self-report measure of attitudes - was administered to students along with a brief demographic form. Mean scores, t-tests, and ANOVA were used to analyse student attitudes. Ethics approval was granted. Results 548 students participated. Statistically significant differences were found between the courses (p = 0.05), year of the course (p = 0.09), and gender (p = 0.04) for the medical condition of intellectual disability. There was no statistically significant difference between the courses, year of the course, gender, and age group for substance abuse or acute mental illness conditions. Conclusion The findings suggest that students in undergraduate health-related courses, as a group, have a strong regard for patients with intellectual disability and some regard for patients with acute mental illness, but not for patients presenting with substance abuse problems. PMID:20964840

2010-01-01

30

Prevalence of Mental Illness and Substance Abuse Disorders among Incarcerated Juvenile Offenders in Mississippi  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among incarcerated juveniles in Mississippi was examined. A total of 482 adolescents completed a diagnostic questionnaire and a subset (N = 317) was assessed with face-to-face semistructured interview. Most of the study participants met criteria for one mental disorder, 71?85% depending on assessment method,…

Robertson, Angela A.; Dill, Patricia L.; Husain, Jonelle; Undesser, Cynthia

2004-01-01

31

An Integrated, Multidimensional Treatment Model for Individuals Living with HIV, Mental Illness, and Substance Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The challenge of providing effective treatment services for the growing population of HIV-positive individuals who are also dually diagnosed with substance use and mental disorders has only recently been recognized as an important public health concern affecting both HIV treatment and prevention. This article describes a treatment model that was…

Bouis, Stephanie; Reif, Susan; Whetten, Kathryn; Scovil, Janet; Murray, Andrea; Swartz, Marvin

2007-01-01

32

The Stigma of Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

2008-01-01

33

Factors Affecting Agreement Between Severely Mentally Ill Alcohol Abusers' and Collaterals' Reports of Alcohol and Other Substance Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined subject–collateral reports of alcohol use among a sample of 167 dually diagnosed individuals seeking outpatient treatment at a community mental health clinic. All subjects met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for a schizophrenia-spectrum or bipolar disorder and for alcohol abuse or dependence. Subjects were recruited within 2 weeks

Paul R. Stasiewicz; Paula C. Vincent; Clara M. Bradizza; Gerard J. Connors; Stephen A. Maisto; Nicole D. Mercer

2008-01-01

34

Co-Occurring Severe Mental Illnesses and Substance Abuse Disorders as Predictors of State Prison Inmate Assaults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using hierarchical logistic regression with a nationally representative sample of state prisoners ("n" = 12,504), we found inmates with dual severe psychiatric and substance abuse disorders to be at higher risk of being assaulted and to assault others in prison than nonmentally ill inmates. Dually disordered inmates may be "importing"…

Wood, Steven R.; Buttaro, Anthony, Jr.

2013-01-01

35

Migration and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human beings have moved from place to place since time immemorial. The reasons for and the duration of these migrations put extraordinary stress on individuals and their families. Such stress may not be related to an increase in mental illness for all conditions or to the same extent across all migrant groups. In this paper, we provide an overview of

Ben Z. Locke; Henrietta J. Duvall

1964-01-01

36

Violence and Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, including etiology, comorbidity, risk factor management, and treatment. A psychiatrist who is well versed in the recognition and management of violence can contribute to the appropriate management of dangerous behaviors and minimize risk to patients, their families, mental health workers, and the community as a whole. PMID:19727251

Rueve, Marie E.; Welton, Randon S.

2008-01-01

37

CDC Vital Signs: Adult Smoking among People with Mental Illness  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Adult Smoking Focusing on People with Mental Illness February 2013 ... developmental or substance abuse disorder. Issue Details Problem Smoking is much more common in adults with mental ...

38

Housing First Services for People Who Are Homeless with Co-Occurring Serious Mental Illness and Substance Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on homeless adults with severe mental illness is generally silent on a critical issue surrounding service delivery--the contrast between housing first and treatment first program philosophies. This study draws on data from a longitudinal experiment contrasting a housing first program (which offers immediate permanent housing without…

Padgett, Deborah K.; Gulcur, Leyla; Tsemberis, Sam

2006-01-01

39

Housing First Services for People Who Are Homeless With Co-Occurring Serious Mental Illness and Substance Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on homeless adults with severe mental illness is generally silent on a critical issue surrounding service delivery—the contrast between housing first and treatment first program philosophies. This study draws on data from a longitudinal experiment contrasting a housing first program (which offers immediate permanent housing without requiring treatment compliance or abstinence) and treatment first (standard care) programs for

Deborah K. Padgett; Leyla Gulcur; Sam Tsemberis

2006-01-01

40

Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston  

PubMed Central

In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183

Szasz, T

2001-01-01

41

Costs of care for people living with combined HIV\\/AIDS, chronic mental illness, and substance abuse disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine healthcare access and costs for triply diagnosed adults, we examined baseline data from the HIV\\/AIDS Treatment Adherence, Health Outcomes and Cost Study, a multi-site cohort study of HIV+ adults with co-occurring mental and substance abuse disorders conducted between 2000 and 2004. Baseline interviews were conducted with 1138 triply diagnosed adults in eight predominantly urban sites nationwide. A modified

Christopher J. Conover; Marcia Weaver; Alfonso Ang; Peter Arno; Patrick M. Flynn; Susan L. Ettner

2009-01-01

42

Defining mental health and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key featuresDiscussion of the terminological confusion that exists in relation to issues associated with mental health.  The scale of individual suffering from mental health problems and illness among young people.  The worldwide phenomenon of the stigmatization of mental illness, originating during childhood.

Sharon Leighton; Nisha Dogra

43

Gaius Caligula's mental illness.  

PubMed

The strange behavior of emperor Gaius has been the subject of debate for many historians. Some charge him with madness and attribute it to his illness in A.D. 37, whereas others believe it occurred later, or else had nothing to do with his sickness.We have no real evidence to reconstruct his mental state. Therefore speculations about madness are fruitless, as they can't be proven. Also, his madness belongs to a discourse which originates mainly from the senatorial narrative that sought to discredit him through any means possible. Thus, his acts should be seen from other angles, and the search for "mad Caligula" abandoned. PMID:20213971

Sidwell, Barbara

2010-01-01

44

Detection of substance use disorders in severely mentally ill patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe mental illness is frequently complicated by substance use disorder. Approximately half of the severely mentally ill patients treated in acute care psychiatric settings have abused one or more of these substances. Despite the high rate of comorbidity, substance use disorders are generally not detected in acute care psychiatric settings, leading to incorrect diagnoses and ineffective treatments. The reasons for

Robert E. Drake; Arthur I. Alterman; Stanley R. Rosenberg

1993-01-01

45

Sexual Risk Behaviours and Sexual Abuse in Persons with Severe Mental Illness in Uganda: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) engage in risky sexual behaviours and have high prevalence of HIV in high-income countries. Little is known about sexual behaviours and HIV risk among persons with SMI in sub-Saharan Africa. In this qualitative study we explored how SMI may influence sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks in Uganda. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7 male and 13 female psychiatric patients aged 18–49 years. Participants were interviewed in hospital when clinically stable and capable of giving informed consent. Interview transcripts were analysed using manifest content analysis, generating the categories: (1) casual sex during illness episodes, (2) rape by non-partners, (3) exploitation by partners, (4) non-monogamous partners, and (5) sexual inactivity. Our findings suggest that SMI exacerbated sexual vulnerability in the women interviewed, by contributing to casual sex, to exploitative and non-monogamous sexual relationships, and to sexual assault by non-partners. No link could be established between SMI and increased sexual risk behaviours in the men interviewed, due to a small sample of men, and given that men's accounts showed little variability. Our findings also suggest that SMI caused sexual inactivity due to decreased sexual desire, and in men, due to difficulties forming an intimate relationship. Overall, our study highlights how SMI and gender inequality can contribute to the shaping of sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks, including HIV risk, among persons with SMI in this Ugandan setting. PMID:22253770

Lundberg, Patric; Johansson, Eva; Okello, Elialilia; Allebeck, Peter; Thorson, Anna

2012-01-01

46

Access to Primary Care for Homeless Veterans with Serious Mental Illness or Substance Abuse: A Follow-up Evaluation of Co-Located Primary Care and Homeless Social Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the hypothesis that a demonstration clinic integrating homeless, primary care, and mental health services for homeless\\u000a veterans with serious mental illness or substance abuse would improve medical health care access and physical health status.\\u000a A quasi-experimental design comparing a ‘usual VA care’ group before the demonstration clinic opened (N = 130) and the ‘integrated care’ group (N = 130). Regression models indicated

James McGuire; Lillian Gelberg; Jessica Blue-Howells; Robert A. Rosenheck

2009-01-01

47

Few ACOs Pursue Innovative Models That Integrate Care For Mental Illness And Substance Abuse With Primary Care.  

PubMed

Accountable care organizations (ACOs) may be well positioned to increase the focus on managing behavioral health conditions (mental health and substance abuse) through the integration of behavioral health treatment and primary care. We used a mixed-methods research design to examine the extent to which ACOs are clinically, organizationally, and financially integrating behavioral health care and primary care. We used data from 257 respondents to the National Survey of Accountable Care Organizations, a nationally representative survey of ACOs. The data were supplemented with semistructured, in-depth interviews with clinical leaders at sixteen ACOs purposively sampled to represent the spectrum of behavioral health integration. We found that most ACOs hold responsibility for some behavioral health care costs, and 42 percent include behavioral health specialists among their providers. However, integration of behavioral health care and primary care remains low, with most ACOs pursuing traditional fragmented approaches to physical and behavioral health care and only a minority implementing innovative models. Contract design and contextual factors appear to influence the extent to which ACOs integrate behavioral health care. Nevertheless, the ACO model has the potential to create opportunities for improving behavioral health care and integrating it with primary care. PMID:25288427

Lewis, Valerie A; Colla, Carrie H; Tierney, Katherine; Van Citters, Arica D; Fisher, Elliott S; Meara, Ellen

2014-10-01

48

Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

1974-01-01

49

Mentally ill families. When are the children unsafe?  

PubMed

This article examines the impact of parental mental illness on the behaviour and development of children. Early identification and intervention is crucial; too often the child is not considered, particularly if the parent is not frankly abusive. Supports and aid to parenting may be crucial for mentally ill parents to prevent relapse and promote the child's mental health. General practitioners have a crucial role in this process. PMID:9581333

Buist, A

1998-04-01

50

Screening for and Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis C among an Outpatient Urban Sample of People with Serious Mental Illness and Co-Occurring Substance Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To assess rates of screening and testing of HIV and HCV among those with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders. Methods: One hundred fifty-three people with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders completed measures and were screened for HIV and HCV. Results: Six percent were HIV…

Himelhoch, Seth; Goldberg, Richard; Calmes, Christine; Medoff, Deborah; Slade, Eric; Dixon, Lisa; Gallucci, Gerard; Rosenberg, Stanley

2011-01-01

51

The stigma of mental illness on television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of 17 annual week?long samples of primetime network dramatic programming reveals a negative and generally stigmatized image of mental illness and the mentally ill. Mental illness has consistently appeared in one fifth of all primetime programs, affecting 3% of the major characters. Although relatively small in numbers, the mentally ill were most likely to commit violence and to be

Nancy Signorielli

1989-01-01

52

Gaols or de facto mental institutions? Why individuals with a mental illness are over- represented in the Criminal Justice System in New South Wales, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The over-representation of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system highlights the need for legislative reform and the implementation of programs breaking the cycle of mental illness, poverty, unemployment and substance abuse across Australia. Whilst there is no inherent association between mental illness and crime, there is a strong causal link between mental illness and incarceration. The fragmentation

Corinne Henderson

53

[Creativity and mental illness].  

PubMed

It has been known for a long time that people with salient social and artistic creativity suffer more frequently from psychiatric illnesses than the average population. In their review paper, the authors assess the Hungarian and international scientific literature regarding the association of creativity and psychopathology. They conclude that contrary to the concept prevailing in the first part of the 20th century about the strong association between schizophrenia and creativity, the results of empirical research now unambiguously suggest that prominent social and artistic creativity is associated primarily with affective, and more specifically with bipolar affective illnesses. In addition, we already know that as regards the development of creativity, it is not the given affective (depressive, manic, hypomanic) episode which is important, but the hyperthymic or cyclothymic temperament structure which also predisposes for affective illness. PMID:17170470

Rihmer, Zoltán; Gonda, Xénia; Rihmer, Annamária

2006-01-01

54

Mental Illness and Criminal Behavior Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review some statistical studies regarding the relationships between mental illness and criminal behavior prior to, and following, the deinstitutionalization period. This review supports the common opinion that since deinstitutionalization the jails of the United States house great numbers of the mentally ill. Even though mental illness, per se, is not synonymous with violence-prone behavior, the percentage of mentally

George B. Palermo; Edward J. Gumz; Frank J. Liska

1992-01-01

55

Substance abuse and the chronically mentally ill: A description of dual diagnosis treatment services in a psychiatric hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 20% and 70% of psychiatric patients have a co-occurring substance use disorder and rates of substance abuse among patients with psychotic disorders are especially high. Patients with co-existing psychosis and substance use disorders typically have poorer outcomes than patients diagnosed with either disorder alone. Frequently, treatment services for such dually diagnosed patients are not integrated and organizational barriers may

Shelly F. Greenfield; Roger D. Weiss; Maurico Tohen

1995-01-01

56

Application of the Transtheoretical Model of change: psychometric properties of leading measures in patients with co-occurring drug abuse and severe mental illness.  

PubMed

People with severe mental illness (SMI) have high rates of substance use disorders. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) is a framework for understanding behavior change. There are five leading measures associated with the TTM - University of Rhode Island Change Assessment, Processes of Change Scale, Decisional Balance Scale, Abstinence Self-Efficacy Scale, and Temptation to Use Drugs Scale. While these measures have been found to be reliable and valid in primary substance abusers, it is unknown if these measures are relevant in people with co-occurring SMI and substance use disorders (SUD). We evaluated the psychometric properties of these measures in a sample (n=240) of people with co-occurring disorders. Participants met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder or non-psychotic affective disorder, and current cocaine dependence or cocaine dependence in remission. All subscales showed good reliability and validity in the total sample. Analyses within diagnostic groups showed good reliability and validity in most groups, with some falling off in the affective disorders and remitted cocaine dependence groups. Overall, findings support the use of these measures in people with co-occurring disorders. PMID:18485611

Nidecker, Melissa; DiClemente, Carlo C; Bennett, Melanie E; Bellack, Alan S

2008-08-01

57

Application of the Transtheoretical Model of Change: Psychometric Properties of Leading Measures in Patients with Co-Occurring Drug Abuse and Severe Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

People with severe mental illness (SMI) have high rates of substance use disorders. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) is a framework for understanding behavior change. There are five leading measures associated with the TTM - University of Rhode Island Change Assessment, Processes of Change Scale, Decisional Balance Scale, Abstinence Self-Efficacy Scale, and Temptation to Use Drugs Scale. While these measures have been found to be reliable and valid in primary substance abusers, it is unknown if these measures are relevant in people with co-occurring SMI and substance use disorders (SUD). We evaluated the psychometric properties of these measures in a sample (n=240) of people with co-occurring disorders. Participants met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder or non-psychotic affective disorder, and current cocaine dependence or cocaine dependence in remission. All subscales showed good reliability and validity in the total sample. Analyses within diagnostic groups showed good reliability and validity in most groups, with some falling off in the affective disorders and remitted cocaine dependence groups. Overall, findings support the use of these measures in people with co-occurring disorders. PMID:18485611

Nidecker, Melissa; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Bennett, Melanie E.; Bellack, Alan S.

2008-01-01

58

Overview of severe mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severe mental illnesses are psychiatric disorders characterized by their persistence and extensive disability. Classification of these disorders has seen improved reliability, but problems remain with validity. Etiological formulations emphasize the biological origins of the disorders, but psychological factors, chiefly in the area of stress, are recognized as important in the management of relapse. Psychological features, especially those apparent during

Dale L. Johnson

1997-01-01

59

Mental Health and Substance Abuse Treatment and Juvenile Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Study Aims: There is a large body of literature examining the determinants of juvenile crime, which highlights economic, family, peer, and educational factors associated with delinquency and recidivism, and the important roles of social service and educational systems. Two factors, substance abuse and mental illness are also potentially important. The observed high correlations between crime, substance abuse and

Alison Evans Cuellar; Sara Markowitz; Anne M. Libby

2004-01-01

60

Toward a Theology of Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers research describing religious attitudes toward mental illness, including assumptions that mental illness may be evidence of personal sin or demonic influence. These assumptions are critiqued based upon a review of relevant Scriptural passages. A reformulation of theological conceptions of mental illness is then proposed, focusing on the following themes: heroism in frailty, freedom in finitude, complexity in

Marcia Webb

2012-01-01

61

Self-medication with alcohol and drugs by persons with severe mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with serious mental illnesses are disproportionately likely to experience problems with substance abuse. Attempts to self-medicate symptoms of illness and uncomfortable adverse effects of psychiatric medications are widely assumed to be one of the factors contributing to the high rate of psychiatric illness and substance abuse comorbidity. In this article, biological and psychological theories about self-medication in people with

Bethany Phoenix Kasten

1999-01-01

62

Self-Medication With Alcohol and Drugs by Persons With Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with serious mental illnesses are disproportionately likely to experience problems with substance abuse. Attempts to self-medicate symptoms of illness and uncomfortable adverse effects of psychiatric medications are widely assumed to be one of the factors contributing to the high rate of psychiatric illness and substance abuse comorbidity. In this article, biological and psychological theories about self-medication in people with

Bethany Phoenix Kasten

1999-01-01

63

Combating the Stigma of Mental Illness. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many former mental patients see their biggest problem in resuming community life to be their inability to be accepted by other people. The National Institute of Mental Health has worked to remove the stigma associated with mental illness and research has unraveled many of the mysteries about the origins of mental illness. Deinstitutionalization,…

National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

64

Stigmatization of Mental Illness Among Nigerian Schoolchildren  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite the fact that about 10% of children experience mental health problems, they tend to hold negative views about mental illness. The objective of this study was to investigate the views of Nigerian schoolchildren towards individuals with mental illness or mental health problems.Methods: A cross-sectional design was used. Junior and senior secondary schoolchildren from rural and urban southwest Nigeria

Pablo Ronzoni; Nisha Dogra; Olayinka Omigbodun; Tolulope Bella; Olayinka Atitola

2010-01-01

65

A modified therapeutic community for homeless persons with co-occurring disorders of substance abuse and mental illness in a shelter: an outcome study.  

PubMed

This article reports on a study conducted to determine the effectiveness of a modified therapeutic community (MTC) shelter on client outcomes. The seven-study hypotheses focused on whether greater effectiveness in the MTC would be demonstrated in longer periods of sobriety, fewer days of psychiatric hospitalization, shorter lengths of stay in a shelter, positive discharge from the shelter, medication compliance, housing placement within the first year, and appropriate housing placement according to level of functioning. The study utilized a quasi-experimental design with two groups: 1) an experimental group (E) homeless persons with co-occurring disorders (COD) of substance abuse/dependence and mental illness who reside in a modified therapeutic community (N = 70); and 2) a comparison group (C) of veterans with CODs living in a general shelter (N = 70). The data collection procedures involved a retrospective review of closed case records for subjects in the facilities from September 1, 1998-June 1, 2000 for the MTC shelter, and from June 1, 1999-June 1, 2000 for the general shelter. Baseline differences between the E and C groups were found in age, length of homelessness, years of education, years of work experience, veteran status, marital status, and psychiatric diagnosis; all except for veteran status were unrelated to outcomes and were controlled in subsequent analyses. Significant difference was found on medication compliance when controlled for both groups. Overall, this study showed some promise for the MTC approach. The study also raised a question as to the contribution of veteran status to the differences between groups and to treatment of CODs. PMID:15830731

Skinner, Darren C

2005-01-01

66

Managing Mentally Ill Inmates in Prisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mentally ill inmates now comprise a substantial portion of the prison population and pose administrative and therapeutic challenges to prison administrators and mental health professionals. Some evidence suggests that both the size of the population and the seriousness of their illnesses are increasing. Given this context, several issues are highlighted and discussed in terms of contemporary efforts to deal with

Kenneth Adams; Joseph Ferrandino

2008-01-01

67

How Children Stigmatize People With Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many advocates have called for more anti-stigma programs targeting the attitudes of children towards people with mental illness as a way to forestall subsequent prejudice and discrimination as they age and develop. In order to better understand how children stigmatize people with mental illness, we reviewed the substantial literature on social cognitive development and ethnic prejudice. This literature suggests a

Patrick W. Corrigan; Amy C. Watson

2007-01-01

68

Children's beliefs about people labeled mentally ill.  

PubMed

A group of 104 third-grade students told stories in response to pictures of adults labeled mentally ill, physically disabled, or unlabeled, and answered questions regarding expected behavior of these adults. Results indicate that, children of this age hold more overall negative attitudes about adults labeled mentally ill than about those designated as physically disabled or nondisabled. PMID:9589770

Adler, A K; Wahl, O F

1998-04-01

69

A point prevalence study of alcoholism and mental illness among downtown migrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1960s the bulk of America's mentally ill have been deinstitutionalized to the community. A number of these people now live in the downtown areas of large cities in close association with the established vagrant culture which includes a significant portion of alcohol abusers. The bizarre and impoverished nature of the lives of these formerly institutionalized mentally ill citizens,

Marilyn Peddicord Whitley; Oliver H. Osborne; Mary Ann Godfrey; Karen Johnston

1985-01-01

70

Access to primary care for homeless veterans with serious mental illness or substance abuse: a follow-up evaluation of co-located primary care and homeless social services.  

PubMed

To examine the hypothesis that a demonstration clinic integrating homeless, primary care, and mental health services for homeless veterans with serious mental illness or substance abuse would improve medical health care access and physical health status. A quasi-experimental design comparing a 'usual VA care' group before the demonstration clinic opened (N = 130) and the 'integrated care' group (N = 130). Regression models indicated that the integrated care group was more rapidly enrolled in primary care, received more prevention services and primary care visits, and fewer emergency department visits, and was not different in inpatient utilization or in physical health status over 18 months. The demonstration clinic improved access to primary care services and reduced emergency services but did not improve perceived physical health status over 18 months. Further research is needed to determine generalizability and longer term effects. PMID:19280333

McGuire, James; Gelberg, Lillian; Blue-Howells, Jessica; Rosenheck, Robert A

2009-07-01

71

Health care reform and rural mental health: Severe mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service needs of rural severely mentally ill and strengths of rural communities are addressed. Health care reform policy development at present appears to neglect the seriously mentally ill in general and rural services specifically. Examples of strategies to meet the needs for health care, psychiatric treatment, psychosocial rehabilitation and appropriate housing are described. The advantages and drawbacks of such efforts

Catherine F. Kane; Jacqueline M. Ennis

1996-01-01

72

Child abuse and mental disorders in Canada  

PubMed Central

Background: Nationally representative Canadian data on the prevalence of child abuse and its relation with mental disorders are lacking. We used contemporary, nationally representative data to examine the prevalence of 3 types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse and exposure to intimate partner violence) and their association with 14 mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Methods: We obtained data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health, collected from the 10 provinces. Respondents aged 18 years and older were asked about child abuse and were selected for the study sample (n = 23 395). The survey had a multistage stratified cluster design (household response rate 79.8%). Results: The prevalence of any child abuse was 32% (individual types ranged from 8% to 26%). All types of child abuse were associated with all mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.4 to 7.9). We found a dose–response relation, with increasing number of abuse types experienced corresponding with greater odds of mental conditions. Associations between child abuse and attention deficit disorder, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts showed stronger effects for women than men. Interpretation: We found robust associations between child abuse and mental conditions. Health care providers, especially those assessing patients with mental health problems, need to be aware of the relation between specific types of child abuse and certain mental conditions. Success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:24756625

Afifi, Tracie O.; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Boyle, Michael; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Sareen, Jitender

2014-01-01

73

Attitudes Toward Mental Illness Among Mental Health Volunteers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many research efforts have demonstrated relationships between the experience of mental health volunteers and their attitudes toward mental illness. Questionnaire surveys were completed by adult volunteers in psychiatric and nonpsychiatric programs in order to assess general attitudes toward mental patients and to control for the potential effects…

Wahl, Otto F.; And Others

74

A review of research on residential programs for people with severe mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance use disorder is the most common and clinically significant co-morbidity among clients with severe mental illnesses, associated with poor treatment response, homelessness and other adverse outcomes. Residential programs for clients with dual disorders integrate mental health treatment, substance abuse interventions, housing and other supports. Ten controlled studies suggest that greater levels of integration of substance abuse and mental health

MARY F. BRUNETTE; KIM T. MUESER; ROBERT E. DRAKE

2004-01-01

75

Mothers with mental illness: I. The competing demands of parenting and living with mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to understand the parenting experiences of women with mental illness from the perspectives of mothers and case managers employed by the state department of mental health. METHODS: Six focus groups of mothers and five focus groups of case managers met to discuss the problems facing mothers with mental illness and to recommend solutions.

Joanne Nicholson; Elaine M. Sweeney; Jeffrey L. Geller

1998-01-01

76

Local suffering and the global discourse of mental health and human rights: An ethnographic study of responses to mental illness in rural Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Global Movement for Mental Health has brought renewed attention to the neglect of people with mental illness within health policy worldwide. The maltreatment of the mentally ill in many low-income countries is widely reported within psychiatric hospitals, informal healing centres, and family homes. International agencies have called for the development of legislation and policy to address these abuses.

Ursula M Read; Edward Adiibokah; Solomon Nyame

2009-01-01

77

Stigma of Mental Illness-1: Clinical reflections  

PubMed Central

Although the quality and effectiveness of mental health treatments and services have improved greatly over the past 50 years, therapeutic revolutions in psychiatry have not yet been able to reduce stigma. Stigma is a risk factor leading to negative mental health outcomes. It is responsible for treatment seeking delays and reduces the likelihood that a mentally ill patient will receive adequate care. It is evident that delay due to stigma can have devastating consequences. This review will discuss the causes and consequences of stigma related to mental illness. PMID:22654383

Shrivastava, Amresh; Johnston, Megan; Bureau, Yves

2012-01-01

78

Media and mental illness: relevance to India.  

PubMed

Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored. PMID:24823515

Padhy, S K; Khatana, S; Sarkar, S

2014-01-01

79

From Whence Comes Mental Illness Stigma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This paper seeks to answer two fundamental questions: What is the basis of the current form of mental illness stigma? and Why do western cultures stereotype people with mental illness as dangerous, incompetent and blameful, rather than something else?Material and discussion: We argue that a motivational model called system-justification offers several benefits for answering these questions. System-justification portrays stigma

Amy C. Watson; Victor Ottati; Patrick Corrigan

2003-01-01

80

Programmes for parents with a mental illness.  

PubMed

Parents with a mental illness experience the same parenting stressors that other parents do, and at the same time need to manage their mental illness. However, few programmes are designed for parents who have a mental illness, with older children (as opposed to interventions for mothers with infants). This study identified the common components across six programmes developed for parents with a mental illness who have older children. Australian clinicians, responsible for six parenting programmes for those with a mental illness, participated in individual, semi-structured interviews, during 2008. Programme manuals and evaluation reports were also sourced. Analyses involved thematic analysis, inter-rater reliability and respondent validation. Data were organized in three main areas: (1) programme description (format, goals, length and participants' inclusion criteria); (2) theoretical framework (including clinicians' beliefs and evidence underpinning programmes); and (3) evaluation designs and methodologies. It was found that clinicians facilitated education and support via a peer intervention model for parents with various mental illness diagnoses, responsive to the needs of parents and in a time flexible manner. At the same time, clinicians found it difficult to articulate the theoretical framework of their programmes and employed mostly simplistic evaluation strategies. PMID:21395917

Reupert, A; Maybery, D

2011-04-01

81

Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

Ostler, Teresa

2009-01-01

82

Editors' Introduction: Building Mental Illness Stigma Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

deter persons with symptoms of mental illness from acknowledging that something is wrong, seeking help, and sticking with treatments long enough for them to be effective. When symptoms of treatable illnesses are not recognized, accurate diagnosis and treatment are delayed, and access to lifesaving care is denied, personal tragedy, needless suffering, and wasted human and economic potential are the result.

Emeline Otey; Wayne S. Fenton

2004-01-01

83

Newspaper Coverage of Mental Illness: Is It Changing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the public gets much of its knowledge of mental illness from the news media, it is important to understand what those media report about mental illnesses. It is also useful to know whether or not news coverage of mental illness is changing. The current study looked at 300 newspaper articles containing the key phrase “mental illness” from 6 different

Otto E Wahl; Amy Wood; Renee Richards

2002-01-01

84

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration was established in 1992 and "leads Federal efforts to treat mental illnesses by promoting mental health and by preventing the development or worsening of mental illness when possible". To that end, the agency has created this website to provide information about its ongoing programs, along with offering information for the public who may be curious or concerned about these issues. Practitioners and the public will appreciate the well-organized Publications area which is organized thematically and includes topics such as preventions, disaster, and the elderly. The site also has a complete listing of related activities, such as the youth violence prevention initiative and the Center of Women, Violence and Trauma.

2007-03-12

85

Mental Illness among Us: A New Curriculum to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma among Medical Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…

Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.

2013-01-01

86

ANALYZING EXCESS MORTALITY FROM CANCER AMONG INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare patterns of site-specific cancer mortality in a population of individuals with and without mental illness. Methods This was a cross-sectional, population-based study using a linked dataset comprised of death certificate data for the state of Ohio for the years 2004–2007 and data from the publicly funded mental health system in Ohio. Decedents with mental illness were those identified concomitantly in both data sets. We used age-adjusted standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) in race- and sex-specific person-year strata to estimate excess deaths for each of the anatomic cancer sites. Results Overall, there was excess mortality from cancer associated with having mental illness in all of the race/sex strata: SMR: 2.16, (95% Confidence Interval: 1.85–2.50) for Black men; 2.63 (2.31–2.98) for Black women; 3.89 (3.61–4.19) for non-Black men, and 3.34 (3.13–3.57) for non-Black women. In all of the race/sex strata except for Black women, the highest SMR was observed for laryngeal cancer 3.94 (1.45–8.75) in Black men; 6.51 (3.86–10.35) and 6.87 (3.01–13.60) in non-Black men and women, respectively). The next highest SMRs were noted for hepatobiliary cancer and that of the urinary tract in all race/sex strata, except for Black men. Conclusions Compared to the general population in Ohio, individuals with mental illness experienced excess mortality from most cancers, possibly explained by a higher prevalence of smoking, substance abuse, and chronic hepatitis B or C infections in individuals with mental illness. Excess mortality could also reflect late-stage diagnosis and receipt of inadequate treatment. PMID:23585241

Musuuza, Jackson S.; Sherman, Marion E.; Knudsen, Kraig J.; Sweeney, Helen Anne; Tyler, Carl V; Koroukian, Siran M.

2013-01-01

87

Mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of Hurricane Katrina on mental illness and suicidality by comparing results of a post-Katrina survey with those of an earlier survey. METHODS: The National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, conducted between February 2001 and February 2003, interviewed 826 adults in the Census Divisions later affected by Hurricane Katrina. The post-Katrina survey interviewed a new sample of 1043 adults who lived in the same area before the hurricane. Identical questions were asked about mental illness and suicidality. The post-Katrina survey also assessed several dimensions of personal growth that resulted from the trauma (for example, increased closeness to a loved one, increased religiosity). Outcome measures used were the K6 screening scale of serious mental illness and mild-moderate mental illness and questions about suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. FINDINGS: Respondents to the post-Katrina survey had a significantly higher estimated prevalence of serious mental illness than respondents to the earlier survey (11.3% after Katrina versus 6.1% before; chi(2)1= 10.9; P < 0.001) and mild-moderate mental illness (19.9% after Katrina versus 9.7% before; chi(2)1 = 22.5; P < 0.001). Among respondents estimated to have mental illness, though, the prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans was significantly lower in the post-Katrina survey (suicidal ideation 0.7% after Katrina versus 8.4% before; chi(2)1 = 13.1; P < 0.001; plans for suicide 0.4% after Katrina versus 3.6% before; chi(2)1 = 6.0; P = 0.014). This lower conditional prevalence of suicidality was strongly related to two dimensions of personal growth after the trauma (faith in one's own ability to rebuild one's life, and realization of inner strength), without which between-survey differences in suicidality were insignificant. CONCLUSION: Despite the estimated prevalence of mental illness doubling after Hurricane Katrina, the prevalence of suicidality was unexpectedly low. The role of post-traumatic personal growth in ameliorating the effects of trauma-related mental illness on suicidality warrants further investigation. PMID:17242828

Kessler, Ronald C.; Galea, Sandro; Jones, Russell T.; Parker, Holly A.

2006-01-01

88

Mental illness in homicide-suicide: a review.  

PubMed

Homicide followed by suicide (H-S) is a lethal event in which an individual kills another individual and subsequently dies by suicide. This article presents a review of research carried out in Asia, Australia, Canada, Europe, and the United States of America over the past 60 years on the prevalence of mental illness among the perpetrators of H-S. Analysis of the available data indicated a great disparity in the results of the different studies. Overall, depression was the most frequent disorder reported (about 39% of the cases in the 20 studies that assessed depressive disorders), followed by substance abuse (about 20% in 10 studies) and psychosis (about 17% in 11 studies). This review, therefore, indicated that mental illness plays an important role in H-S. The prevention of these events depends on the identification and treatment of psychiatric disorder in potential perpetrators. PMID:23233465

Roma, Paolo; Pazzelli, Floriana; Pompili, Maurizio; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo; Ferracuti, Stefano

2012-01-01

89

[Stigmatizing of persons with a mental illness].  

PubMed

Persons with a mental illness and their relatives experience discrimination and expect to be discriminated. The public regards them as unpredictable and dangerous and do not wish to have any relation with them neither in private nor at work. This opinion is shared by people working in health care or social care. The myth of dangerousness is out of proportion and the media is to blame as they most often mention persons with mental illnesses as dangerous. Many countries make a great effort to reduce stigma and this is also under planning in Denmark. PMID:21501561

Vendsborg, Per; Nordentoft, Merete; Lindhardt, Anne

2011-04-18

90

The Sociological Study of Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociologists have made, and will continue to make, major contributions to the study of mental disorder. Some of these contributions\\u000a will complement the fingings of biological and psychological research, others will contradict these findings, and still others\\u000a afford a distinctively sociological perspective on mental illness. Note of the styles of explanation considered here is inherently\\u000a superior to the others, and,

Allan V. Horwitz

91

Mental Illness and Violent Crime.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Throughout history, most societies have strongly believed that mental disorder is linked with violence. The earliest recorded account is found in a dialog written by Plato. William Shakespeare wrote of such a connection in The Taming of the Shrew and Henr...

J. Monahan

1996-01-01

92

Evaluation of Perceived Sexual Functioning in Women with Serious Mental Illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

(A) To examine the impact of serious mental illness on female sexual functioning; (B) To determine personal and contextual\\u000a barriers in sexual health of women with DSM-IV Axis-I disorders. A mixed-method study explores perceived sexual health in\\u000a cross-section of 44 consentable women with serious mental illnesses (SMI). Subscales of sexual activity are used as measurable\\u000a outcomes. History of sexual abuse

Naira Roland Matevosyan

2010-01-01

93

Physical Health, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems of Shelter Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined physical health of 72 users of homeless shelters, comparing shelter users with mental illness or substance abuse problems with those without these problems. Found that alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to have low blood pressure, symptoms of liver disease, and tuberculosis treatment history. Found no health differences for…

Harris, Shirley N.; And Others

1994-01-01

94

National Alliance for the Mentally Ill  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI) sponsors a broad range of public outreach projects and research studies dedicated to providing a more nuanced and multi-faceted understanding of the immense complexity of the many mental health issues that affect millions of persons each day. Within the Find Support section of the site, individuals can learn about local branches of NAMI, learn about support networks for young people dealing with mental health issues, and the presence of NAMI on college campuses. The public policy section of the site is quite strong, as visitors to this area can learn about policy news and alerts about mental health issues, download resource materials about assisting those grappling with mental health afflictions, and read Issue Spotlights that deal with a host of subjects such as managed care, Medicaid, parity, and confidentiality.

95

The Stigma of Families with Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…

Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick

2008-01-01

96

Siblings and Mental Illness: Heredity vs. Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Siblings are far more likely to be different than alike in personality and psychopathology. Different genes and different environmental experiences can account for why one sibling becomes mentally ill and another is not affected. Environmental experiences play a much greater role in sibling differentiation than has been previously recognized.…

Rowe, David C.; Elam, Patricia

1987-01-01

97

TRANSITIONAL EMPLOYMENT FOR THE CHRONICALLY MENTALLY ILL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the use of transitional employment in the vocational and psychosocial rehabilitation of the chronically mentally ill. The development and implementation of a transitional employment program at Towne House Creative Living Center, Oakland, California, is described. The value of adapting the work environment and use of support groups in aiding psychosocial and vocational adjustment are discussed. It is

Jane L. Dulay; Mary Steichen

1983-01-01

98

Substance Use Motives and Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to validate the construct validity of the Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (DMQ-R), and to test the hypothesis that coping motives for using substances will vary directly with alcohol use, drug use and substance use problems when controlling for psychiatric symptoms of severe mental illness. Methods: Data from this survey of 120 people with severe

Thomas O’Hare; Ce Shen

2012-01-01

99

The Homeless Mentally Ill: Myths and Realities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This literature review summarises the historical background of homelessness. It suggests that the current view of homeless people as chronic mentally ill is the latest phase in a series of the different ways in which society has perceived and labelled the homeless. We have argued that homelessness is a product of the lack of housing provision to the poorest section

Walid Abdul Hamid; Til Wykes; Stephen Stansfeld

1993-01-01

100

Suicide - Mental Illness or Spiritual Crisis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction The mental illness of depression is defined in terms of symptoms only, symptoms which by themselves are little more than everyday life experiences but which collectively and when severe can render a person dysfunctional and disabled. These symptoms can be viewed through different lenses leading to different diagnoses and treatments. A strictly medical lens sees a biological malfunction of

David Webb

101

Mental Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Abuse  

PubMed Central

Battered women are exposed to multiple forms of intimate partner abuse. This article explores the independent contributions of physical violence, sexual coercion, psychological abuse, and stalking on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among a sample of 413 severely battered, help-seeking women. The authors test the unique effects of psychological abuse and stalking on mental health outcomes, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Mean scores for the sample fall into the moderate to severe range for PTSD and within the moderate category for depression scores. Hierarchical regressions test the unique effects of stalking and psychological abuse, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Psychological abuse and stalking contribute uniquely to the prediction of PTSD and depression symptoms, even after controlling for the effects of physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Results highlight the importance of examining multiple dimensions of intimate partner abuse. PMID:18535306

Mechanic, Mindy B.; Weaver, Terri L.; Resick, Patricia A.

2010-01-01

102

Dating violence: mental health consequences based on type of abuse.  

PubMed

This study aims to determine the relationship between psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, and mental health symptoms. Female college students (N = 499) completed anonymous online surveys to report experiences of abuse, as well as symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and physical injuries. Five groups of participants were found: no abuse; psychological abuse; physical abuse; psychological and physical abuse; and psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. The multiple abuse groups showed the highest rate of mental health symptoms. In addition, increased frequency of abuse was related to more mental health symptoms and more physical injuries. PMID:22594217

Eshelman, Lee; Levendosky, Alytia A

2012-01-01

103

Abuse, Trauma, and GI Illness: Is There a Link?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of the relationship of abuse and trauma history with gastrointestinal (GI) disorders has evolved over the last three decades. Although previously seen within a psychiatric context, ongoing studies continue to show that abuse can have multiple effects on GI symptoms, patient illness behaviors, and clinical outcomes. The prevalence of abuse history is greater among those who have more

Douglas A Drossman

2011-01-01

104

Sexually inappropriate behaviors in seriously mentally ill children and adolescents.  

PubMed

This study examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of sexually inappropriate behaviors in all youth treated at a tertiary care public sector psychiatric hospital over a 5-year period. A retrospective chart review was completed on 499 subjects. Subjects were grouped in four mutually exclusive categories: no inappropriate sexual behaviors (n = 296), hypersexual (n = 82), exposing (n = 39) and victimizing (n = 82) behaviors. Those with histories of sexually inappropriate behaviors had much higher rates of being sexually abused (82 vs. 36%), and also had higher rates of physical abuse and neglect, behavior disorders, developmental problems, and family histories of antisocial behavior. They were less likely to have affective disorders. The hypersexual group had a higher proportion of females, and was associated in part with variables relating to sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder. The more severe offending groups (exposing and victimizing) were associated with variables related to sexual abuse, developmental delays, lower IQ's, peer problems, and other acting-out behavior problems. These findings underscore the importance of evaluating for sexually inappropriate behaviors in seriously mentally ill youth, especially in those with histories of sexual abuse. PMID:7664136

Adams, J; McClellan, J; Douglass, D; McCurry, C; Storck, M

1995-05-01

105

Mental illness, crime, and violence: Risk, context, and social control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I review theory and research on the relationship between mental illness, crime, and violence. I begin by discussing the larger backdrop of deinstitutionalization of mental illness and its consequences for the criminal justice system in both individual and macro-level terms. I then compare public perceptions of dangerousness associated with mental illness with individual-level studies that assess the

Fred E. Markowitz

2011-01-01

106

Structural Levels of Mental Illness Stigma and Discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the models that currently describe processes related to mental illness stigma are based on individual- level psychological paradigms. In this article, using a the opportunities of people with mental illness, and (2) poli- cies of institutions that yield unintended consequences that hinder the options of people with mental illness. The article begins with a review of institutional and

Patrick W. Corrigan; Fred E. Markowitz; Amy C. Watson

2004-01-01

107

Baptist senior pastors’ knowledge and perceptions of mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Senior pastors at churches affiliated with the Baptist General Convention of Texas (BGCT) were anonymously surveyed using an online questionnaire to ascertain their knowledge and perceptions of the causes and potential treatments of mental illness. BGCT senior pastors reported a moderate level of contact with the mentally ill and populations known to have higher than average rates of mental illness

Matthew Stanford; David Philpott

2011-01-01

108

Dealing with mental hospital violence and abuse.  

PubMed

Heavy investments in security systems designed to stem violence at mental institutions in California and New Jersey have resulted from investigations by state officials. In one case, the challenge of a changing mix of mental patients, with a much greater percentage being referred by criminal courts, has spurred changes in security. In another, an extensive camera surveillance system is being installed to reduce incidents of abuse of patients by staff members. PMID:10539575

1999-07-01

109

Arranged matches and mental illness: therapists' dilemmas.  

PubMed

Traditional societies place especial value on marriage and having children, and marriages are often arranged. A series of situations and dilemmas associated with arranged matches and their consequences are described in the course of mental health work with ultra-orthodox Jewish people with severe mental illness. Issues of confidentiality may arise with parents and matchmakers; on the other hand, respectful cooperation with religious authorities, counselors in the community, and family members is important. Information on genetic counseling, contraception, medication during pregnancy, and breastfeeding are considered and interact with communal structures and practices. There is a need for close support and evaluation during the process of marriage, childbearing, and parenthood. PMID:23244012

Greenberg, David; Buchbinder, Jacob Tuvia; Witztum, Eliezer

2012-01-01

110

HIV Testing Policy and Serious Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Using opinion data from experts, we examined the context of the argument for mandatory testing of psychiatric patients. Methods. Vignettes were distributed to experts on HIV and mental illness. Respondents were asked to provide appropriateness ratings for different hypothetical clinical decisions regarding HIV management. Results. Respondents were reluctant to impose testing without informed consent in most circumstances. The presence of risk factors or danger to another increased appropriateness ratings modestly. Conclusions. Despite experts’ tendency to emphasize individual rights, public reluctance to mandate testing is unlikely to extend to people with serious mental illness. No argument for mandatory testing can be persuasive if improved voluntary testing can achieve adequate detection rates. Voluntary testing protocols should be studied to determine which successfully identify infected individuals. PMID:12453811

Walkup, James; Satriano, James; Barry, Danielle; Sadler, Pablo; Cournos, Francine

2002-01-01

111

Tobacco use in youth with mental illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite an abundance of literature documenting the prevalence and dangers of youth tobacco use, there is a relative dearth\\u000a of literature in the area of effective cessation treatments for youth (Fiore et al. in Clinical tobacco guideline: treating\\u000a tobacco use and dependence, 2008). Additionally, although it has been widely accepted that mental illness is highly correlated with tobacco use and

Tamara DeHay; Chad Morris; Mandy Graves May; Karen Devine; Jeanette Waxmonsky

112

Mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To estimate the impact of Hurricane Katrina on mental illness and suicidality by comparing results of a post-Katrina survey with those of an earlier survey. Methods The National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, conducted between February 2001 and February 2003, interviewed 826 adults in the Census Divisions later affected by Hurricane Katrina. The post-Katrina survey interviewed a new sample of 1043 adults

Ronald C. Kessler; Russell T. Jones; Holly A. Parker

2006-01-01

113

The Relationship Between Military Service Eras and Psychosocial Treatment Needs Among Homeless Veterans With a Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Mental Health Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will examine baseline assessment data from consecutive admissions to the MISSION Program, a transitional case management program for homeless veterans, to better understand the differences across military service eras that impact the psychosocial treatment needs of homeless, mentally ill, substance-abusing veterans. In all, 373 homeless veterans with a co-occurring mental illness and substance abuse disorder received the Structured

Anna Kline; Lanora Callahan; Mark Butler; Lauren St. Hill; Miklos F. Losonczy; David A. Smelson

2009-01-01

114

Positive Family Social Support: Counteracting Negative Effects of Mental Illness and Substance Abuse to Reduce Jail Ex-inmate Recidivism Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incarceration and recidivism rates in United States jails are marked by high mental health and substance use problems and racial disparity. Nearly 9 million people cycle through approximately 3,500 jails. For this longitudinal study to identify factors predicting recidivism, data came from a study of Allegheny County Jail inmates (N = 301) that concluded in 2008. Eligible participants were

Solveig Spjeldnes; Hyunzee Jung; Lambert Maguire; Hide Yamatani

2012-01-01

115

Mental illness in parents of phenylketonuric children.  

PubMed

(1) This paper presents the results of a field study designed to investigate the hypothesis that persons presumed heterozygous for phenylketonuria are more vulnerable to mental disorder than other persons. Three-hundred-and-thirty-one persons were interviewed, including 108 parents of phenylketonuric offspring, 102 parents with non-phenylketonuric mentally retarded offspring, and 121 parents of children with cystic fibrosis. (2) Information was collected by means of a standard interview schedule which inquired into mental health problems of the interviewees as well as their parents and siblings. Interviews were coded according to an explicit code. Mental Health was evaluated by a set of indices constructed by assigning numerical values to certain items in the code and summing related items. These indices served as operational definitions of mental illness. (3) Analysis of variance was used to evaluate data derived. (4) Decreasing social class appeared to be associated with increasing scores on the indices. In addition, men and women scored significantly differently on many of the indices. In general, differences due to sex and social class were in the direction which would have been expected if the indices had been measuring the problem areas we were trying to evaluate. (5) The parents of phenylketonuric children did not score differently from the other two groups, indicating that they were not more susceptible to mental health problems than the controls, at least as measured by our operational definitions. (6) Some of the problems associated with field studies of psychiatric disease are discussed. PMID:20034175

Blumenthal, M D

1967-03-01

116

The picture of mental health/illness in the printed media in three Central European countries.  

PubMed

Even in the era of the Internet, printed media are still among the most frequently identified sources of mental health information. Many studies have shown that this information is frequently negative and contributes to stigmatization of people with mental illness. This international comparative study describes the content of media messages about mental health/illness in terms of stigma in three Central European countries. The study sample comprised all articles pertaining to the topic of mental health/illness (N = 450) identified during five week-long periods in 2007 chosen from the six most widely read newspapers and magazines in each country. The authors used content analysis methods to achieve quantitative and qualitative objectives. More than half of all articles contained negative statements reflecting stigma toward persons with mental illness. Substance abuse disorders are the most frequent mental conditions covered in all three countries (22%), and psychotic disorders are the most stigmatized. Countries significantly differ in length of articles, in the association of aggressive behavior with persons with mental illness, and in the use of a sensationalized style of writing. Coverage of mental health/illness issues differs to some extent across countries but is generally of poor quality. On the basis of the authors' findings, practical recommendations for journalists can be tailored specifically for each country. PMID:21707410

Nawková, Lucie; Nawka, Alexander; Adámková, Tereza; Rukavina, Tea Vukuši?; Holcnerová, Petra; Kuzman, Martina Rojni?; Jovanovi?, Nikolina; Brborovi?, Ognjen; Bednárová, Bibiána; Zuchová, Svetlana; Miovský, Michal; Raboch, Ji?í

2012-01-01

117

28 CFR 115.83 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.  

... false Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers. 115...Adult Prisons and Jails Medical and Mental Care § 115.83 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and...

2014-07-01

118

28 CFR 115.283 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.  

... false Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers. 115...Confinement Facilities Medical and Mental Care § 115.283 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and...

2014-07-01

119

28 CFR 115.383 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.  

... false Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers. 115...for Juvenile Facilities Medical and Mental Care § 115.383 Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and...

2014-07-01

120

Stigma, Poverty, and Victimization: Roadblocks to Recovery for Individuals With Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roadblocks to recovery of individuals with severe mental illness include stigma, poverty, and victimization. Stigma cre- ates barriers to accessing safe housing, employment, and community integration. Poverty decreases ability to meet needs and increases risk for victimization. Victimization occurs as direct violence, exploitation, neglect, and abuse by care providers. It results in worsening of psychiatric disorders, increased need for care,

Eris F. Perese

2010-01-01

121

Mental Illness in Offender Populations: Prevalence, Duty and Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prisons are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness. This paper examines the prevalence of mental illness in American jails and prisons, the duty government and society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment, and the implications for inmate safety, costs, recidivism, and community reintegration if…

Soderstrom, Irina R.

2007-01-01

122

Self-Stigma of Mental Illness in High School Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the prevalence of mental health problems, society continues to stigmatize and discriminate against people with mental illness and in particular, schizophrenia. Among the negative consequences of stigma, is that some individuals with mental illness internalize negative stereotypes about themselves, referred to as self-stigma, which is…

Hartman, Leah I.; Michel, Natalie M.; Winter, Ariella; Young, Rebecca E.; Flett, Gordon L.; Goldberg, Joel O.

2013-01-01

123

Understanding causal paths between mental illness and violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stigma associated with mental illness is a major concern for patients, families, and providers of health services. One reason for the stigmatization of the mentally ill is the public perception that they are violent and dangerous. Although, traditionally, mental health advocates have argued against this public belief, a recent body of research evidence suggests that patients who suffer from

J. Arboleda-Flórez; H. Holley; A. Crisanti

1998-01-01

124

An empirical typology of the chronically mentally ill  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the demographic, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics of a sample of chronically mentally ill clients at a large comprehensive community mental health center. Utilizing cluster analytic procedures, five basic types of chronically mentally ill clients are empirically identified. The differential pattern of pyschosocial characteristics associated with each type is explored and the distinctive profile of each type is

G. Nicholas Braucht; Michael W. Kirby

1986-01-01

125

Media portrayal of mental illness and its treatments: what effect does it have on people with mental illness?  

PubMed

This article reviews dominant media portrayals of mental illness, the mentally ill and mental health interventions, and examines what social, emotional and treatment-related effects these may have. Studies consistently show that both entertainment and news media provide overwhelmingly dramatic and distorted images of mental illness that emphasise dangerousness, criminality and unpredictability. They also model negative reactions to the mentally ill, including fear, rejection, derision and ridicule. The consequences of negative media images for people who have a mental illness are profound. They impair self-esteem, help-seeking behaviours, medication adherence and overall recovery. Mental health advocates blame the media for promoting stigma and discrimination toward people with a mental illness. However, the media may also be an important ally in challenging public prejudices, initiating public debate, and projecting positive, human interest stories about people who live with mental illness. Media lobbying and press liaison should take on a central role for mental health professionals, not only as a way of speaking out for patients who may not be able to speak out for themselves, but as a means of improving public education and awareness. Also, given the consistency of research findings in this field, it may now be time to shift attention away from further cataloguing of media representations of mental illness to the more challenging prospect of how to use the media to improve the life chances and recovery possibilities for the one in four people living with mental disorders. PMID:16478286

Stuart, Heather

2006-01-01

126

Eugenics, genetics, and mental illness stigma in Chinese Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The increasing interest in the genetic causes of mental disorders may exacerbate existing stigma if negative beliefs about\\u000a a genetic illness are generally accepted. China’s history of policy-level eugenics and genetic discrimination in the workplace\\u000a suggests that Chinese communities will view genetic mental illness less favorably than mental illness with non-genetic causes.\\u000a The aim of this study is to identify

Ahtoy J. WonPat-BorjaLawrence; Lawrence H. Yang; Bruce G. Link; Jo C. Phelan

127

The Impact of Illness Identity on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically

Philip T. Yanos; David Roe; Paul H. Lysaker

2010-01-01

128

Training in Illness Self-Management for People with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite evidence supporting the utility of teaching people with severe mental illness how to manage their psychiatric disorders more effectively in collaboration with others, little is known about the use of such programs in criminal justice settings. This article provides an overview of the background, principles, and empirical basis for teaching illness self-management strategies to persons with severe mental illness,

SALLY JOY MACKAIN; KIM T. MUESER

2009-01-01

129

Mental illness stigma, help seeking, and public health programs.  

PubMed

Globally, more than 70% of people with mental illness receive no treatment from health care staff. Evidence suggests that factors increasing the likelihood of treatment avoidance or delay before presenting for care include (1) lack of knowledge to identify features of mental illnesses, (2) ignorance about how to access treatment, (3) prejudice against people who have mental illness, and (4) expectation of discrimination against people diagnosed with mental illness. In this article, we reviewed the evidence on whether large-scale anti-stigma campaigns could lead to increased levels of help seeking. PMID:23488489

Henderson, Claire; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Thornicroft, Graham

2013-05-01

130

Lifetime trauma and suicide attempts in people with severe mental illness.  

PubMed

We examined associations among six forms of common lifetime traumatic/adverse events and lifetime suicide attempts while controlling for gender, psychiatric symptoms, self-injury, and substance use in 371 community mental health clients with severe mental illness. Most clients (88.1%) reported at least one traumatic event, and more than half had attempted suicide at least once. Regression revealed that three factors were significantly associated with lifetime suicide attempts: lifetime self-injurious behaviors, lifetime physical abuse, and alcohol use. Having been physically abused appears to be uniquely associated with lifetime suicide attempts when other key risk factors are controlled. Limitations include the cross-sectional design. PMID:24282033

O'Hare, Thomas; Shen, Ce; Sherrer, Margaret

2014-08-01

131

Outcomes of Short Course Interprofessional Education in Parental Mental Illness and Child Protection: Self-efficacy, Attitudes and Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living with a parent with mental illness may expose a child to a degree of risk of abuse and neglect. Consequently, both adult mental health services and children's services share a responsibility for safeguarding children and promoting their welfare. However, there is evidence in England that these services do not work together very effectively. Interagency training for social workers and

John Carpenter; Demi Patsios; Eszter Szilassy; Simon Hackett

2011-01-01

132

Capitation financing of public mental health services for the chronically mentally ill  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 30 years since deinstitutionalization began the public mental health system has experimented with a variety of financing and management models in the delivery of care to the chronically mentally ill. Currently, capitation methods of payment for public mental health services to the chronically mentally ill are being tested as an alternative to fee-for-service reimbursement. Proponents suggest that capitation

T. R. Hadley; A. P. Schinnar; A. B. Rothbard; M. S. Kinosian

1989-01-01

133

Treatment Research in Mental Illness: Improving the Nation's Public Mental Health Care  

E-print Network

Treatment Research in Mental Illness: Improving the Nation's Public Mental Health Care through NIMH of treatments for mental illnesses in the U.S. The NIMH, through the Division of Services and Intervention, pharmacological, and psychosocial treatment modalities for the treatment of mental disorders and behavioral

Baker, Chris I.

134

The Effect of Mental Illness on Household Spending Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between individuals’ mental health status and their spending behavior. Compared to individuals without mental health problems, individuals with mental health problems may have higher discount rates and derive greater utility from spending (commonly referred to as ‘retail therapy’). These characteristics suggest that individuals with mental illnesses will purchase goods and services that give immediate enjoyment,

Angela Fertig; Arati Dahal

2010-01-01

135

Characteristics of mentally ill offenders from 100 psychiatric court reports  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increasing probability that the psychiatrist will, willingly or not, come into contact with mentally ill offenders in the course of their practice. There are increasing rates of violence, substance abuse and other psychiatric disorders that are of legal importance. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the rates of different mental disorders in 100 court reports and to investigate the characteristics of mentally ill offenders. Methods All cases referred from different departments of the legal system to the forensic committee for assessment of legal accountability over 13-months duration were included. A specially designed form was prepared for data collection. Cases were classified into five groups: murder, robbery, financial offences, violent and simple offences and a group for other offences. Data were subjected to statistical analysis and comparisons between different groups of subjects were performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results Men constituted 93% of cases. In all, 73% of offenders were younger than 40 years old. Schizophrenia cases made up 13% of the total, substance related cases constituted 56% and amphetamine cases alone made up 21%; 10% of cases were antisocial personality disorders, and 51% of cases were classified as having a low education level. Unemployment was found in 34% of cases. The final decision of the forensic committee was full responsibility in 46% of cases and partial responsibility in 11% of cases, with 33% considered non-responsible. A total of 58% of cases had had contact with psychiatric healthcare prior to the offence and in 9% of cases contact had been in the previous 12 weeks. A history of similar offences was found in 32% of cases. In all, 14% of the offences were murders, 8% were sexual crimes, and 31% were violent/simple crimes. Conclusions The ability of the legal system to detect cases was good, while the ability of the healthcare system to predict crimes and offences was weak, as 58% of cases had had previous contact with the healthcare system previously. Substance abuse, especially amphetamine abuse, played an important role. PMID:20148107

2010-01-01

136

Telling the whole story: a conceptual model for analysing the mental illness memoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to describe the advantages and limitations of using the mental illness memoir to teach future health care providers about mental illness. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A review of the challenges to reconstructing the mental illness experience is followed by “caveats and considerations” in employing the mental illness memoir to teach prospective health care providers about mental illness.

Maureen Donohue-Smith

2011-01-01

137

Physical health burdens of women with trauma histories and co-occurring substance abuse and mental disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article documents the physical health burdens of participants in a large, federally funded cross-site study of specialized services for women with histories of trauma (physical or sexual abuse) and co-occurring substance abuse and mental health disorders. Nearly half of the 2729 women in the study (48%) reported serious physical illnesses that frequently limited their daily life activities or required

Mary Jo Larson; Lisa Miller; Marion Becker; Erin Richardson; Nina Kammerer; Jennifer Thom; Joanne Gampel; Andrea Savage

2005-01-01

138

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Congress established the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in 1992 to "target effectively substance abuse and mental health services to the people most in need." SAMHSA also administers a number of block grant programs and data collection activities. On their homepage, visitors can get started by clicking on the "Data" link at the top of the page and reading through the "What We Are Doing" section. Here interested parties will find highlights of recent reports, state-level data on these topics, and a series of mental health statistics reports. The top of their homepage contains additional sections of interest, including "Grants", "Publications", "Data", and "Newsroom". Visitors should also take a look at the "Featured Resource", which is also on the homepage. In addition, many of the site's materials are available in Spanish. Visitors can follow SAMHSA on various social networks including Facebook YouTube, and Twitter, and they can also sign up for their mailing list if they wish to keep up with this valuable organization.

139

Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness  

MedlinePLUS

... be helpful in maintaining sobriety. The following medication treatments have been safely tested in multiple studies including FDA medication trials. For people with alcoholism, available medications include disulfiram ( Antabuse ), acamprosate ( Campral ) and ...

140

Mental illness and suicide in British South Asian adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

South Asians make up about 5% of the UK population. Their rates for mental illness and suicide have been shown by some researchers to be rather lower than that of the total UK population, using a variety of measures, and considering many psychiatric conditions. This paper reviews the literature on the extent of mental illness among British South Asian adults,

Bernard Ineichen

2012-01-01

141

Perceptions of Mental Illness Among Public School Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results of a recent study of the perceptions and attitudes about mental illness of 360 teachers in two rural North Carolina counties. A comparison of the results of this study with others conducted in the 1950's suggests that teachers are better able than the general public to identify symptoms of mental illness." (Author/SE)

Bentz, W. Kenneth; And Others

1969-01-01

142

Creativity, preference for complexity, and physical and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental illness might be associated with creative achievement among highly functioning people, but with the mentally ill or with ordinary people, there might be a negative relationship. In Study 1, two measures of creativity (preference for complexity and writing stories rated for creativity) were administered to 37 psychotics. The psychotics were found to be less creative than the control group.

Russell Eisenman

1990-01-01

143

The Sympathetic Discriminator: Mental Illness and the ADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discrimination against people with mental illness occurs in part because of how those with mental illness can make other people feel. A psychotic person may make others feel agitated or afraid, for example, or a depressed person may make others feel sad or frustrated. Thus, a central basis for discrimination in this context is what I call hedonic costs. Hedonic

Elizabeth F. Emens

144

The Monster in the Closet: Misperception of Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental illness affects all major aspects of an individual?s life. From basic needs such as shelter and employment, to interactions with family, partners, and friends, the diagnosis represents likely difficulties due to stigma and negative attitudes. Efforts to bring forth the recognition and acceptance of mental illness in the United States, as well as around the world, start by confronting

Sarah Alexandra Bernstein

2010-01-01

145

Career Counseling with Clients Who Have a Severe Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals who are diagnosed with a serious mental illness encounter a variety of barriers that can impede their career development. In this article, the career barriers of clients who have a severe mental illness are reviewed, and a developmental approach to career counseling with this population is described. A case example is provided to…

Caporoso, Robyn A.; Kiselica, Mark S.

2004-01-01

146

Mental Illness as a Barrier to Marriage among Unmarried Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores how mental illness shapes transitions to marriage among unwed mothers using augmented data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (N = 2,351). We estimate proportional hazard models to assess the effects of mental illness on the likelihood of marriage over a 5-year period following a nonmarital birth. Diagnosed…

Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.

2008-01-01

147

Resilience Factors in Families Living with People with Mental Illnesses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In South Africa, a substantial burden is placed on families living with people with mental illnesses. The aim of this study was to identify resilience factors in families living in an underprivileged area, caring for people with mental illnesses. Data was obtained from family representatives (N=34) using semistructured interviews and a set of…

Jonker, Liezl; Greeff, Abraham P.

2009-01-01

148

Constructing Mental Illness as Dangerous: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: There is a dearth of studies examining how dangerousness is constructed in media depictions of mentally ill individuals who are frequently portrayed as acting violently. The aim of the present study was to identify the contribution of diverse technical, semiotic and discursive resources utilised in portraying a character with a mental illness in a prime-time drama as dangerous.Method: Discourse

Claire Wilson; Raymond Nairn; John Coverdale; Aroha Panapa

1999-01-01

149

The effects of mental illness on families within faith communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the experiences and values of families caring for a mentally ill loved one within the context of a Christian faith community. Participants (n?=?5899) in 24 churches representing four Protestant denominations completed a survey describing their family's stresses, strengths, faith practices, and desires for assistance from the congregation. Results showed mental illness in 27% of families, with

Edward B. Rogers; Matthew Stanford; Diana R. Garland

2012-01-01

150

The effects of mental illness on families within faith communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the experiences and values of families caring for a mentally ill loved one within the context of a Christian faith community. Participants (n?=?5899) in 24 churches representing four Protestant denominations completed a survey describing their family's stresses, strengths, faith practices, and desires for assistance from the congregation. Results showed mental illness in 27% of families, with

Edward B. Rogers; Matthew Stanford; Diana R. Garland

2011-01-01

151

Perception of and Attitude towards Mental Illness in Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: As conceptions of mental illness are often dictated by prevailing socio-cultural factors and the philosophy of the time, there is little research to substantiate how mental illness is perceived in the Arab world in the light of both traditional and more recent modernization and acculturation processes.Aims: To examine whether social factors exert an influence on a person's attitude towards

Samir Al-Adawi; Atsu S. S. Dorvlo; Suad S. Al-Ismaily; Dalal A. Al-Ghafry; Balquis Z. Al-Noobi; Ahmed Al-Salmi; David T. Burke; Mrugeshkumar K. Shah; Harith Ghassany; Suma P. Chand

2002-01-01

152

New Strategies for Representing Mental Illness on Canadian Stages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Workman Arts, a Toronto-based theatre and visual arts company with a 20-year history, provides a rich site for re-imagining stigmatised representations of mental illness. Writing and performing against a long tradition of representing people with mental illnesses as incoherent speakers and visually different, company members seek to re-imagine…

Johnston, Kirsty

2009-01-01

153

Assertive community treatment for elderly people with severe mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adults aged 65 and older with severe mental illnesses are a growing segment of the Dutch population. Some of them have a range of serious problems and are also difficult to engage. While assertive community treatment is a common model for treating difficult to engage severe mental illnesses patients, no special form of it is available for the elderly.

Jolanda Stobbe; Niels CL Mulder; Bert-Jan Roosenschoon; Marja Depla; Hans Kroon

2010-01-01

154

Social Support and Recovery in People with Serious Mental Illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationship between objective and subjective measures of social support with recovery from serious mental illness; recovery has been described as both an outcome state and an ongoing process. One hundred and seventy six people with serious mental illness completed the Recovery Assessment Scale, a process measure of recovery that assessed, among other factors, personal confidence, goal

Patrick W. Corrigan; Sean M. Phelan

2004-01-01

155

Mental illness among Bhutanese shamans in Nepal.  

PubMed

Despite efforts to promote traditional medicine, allopathic practitioners often look with distrust at traditional practices. Shamans in particular are often regarded with ambivalence and have been considered mentally ill people. We tested the hypothesis that shamanism is an expression of psychopathology. In the Bhutanese refugee community in Nepal, a community with a high number of shamans, we surveyed a representative community sample of 810 adults and assessed ICD-10 mental disorders through structured diagnostic interviews. Approximately 7% of male refugees and 0.5% of female refugees reported being shamans. After controlling for demographic differences, the shamans did not differ from the comparison group in terms of 12-month and lifetime ICD-10 severe depressive episode, specific phobia, persistent somatoform pain, posttraumatic stress, generalized anxiety, or dissociative disorders. This first-ever, community-based, psychiatric epidemiological survey among shamans indicated no evidence that shamanism is an expression of psychopathology. The study's finding may assist in rectifying shamans' reputation, which has been tainted by past speculation of psychopathology. PMID:15060406

van Ommeren, Mark; Komproe, Ivan; Cardeña, Etzel; Thapa, Suraj B; Prasain, Dinesh; de Jong, Joop T V M; Sharma, Bhogendra

2004-04-01

156

The Effect of Cognitive Impairment on Mental Healthcare Costs for Individuals With Severe Psychiatric Illness  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was conducted to determine the effect of cognitive impairment (CI) on mental healthcare costs for older low-income adults with severe psychiatric illness. Methods Data were collected from 62 ethnically diverse low-income older adults with severe psychiatric illness who were participating in day programming at a large community mental health center. CI was diagnosed by a neuropsychologist utilizing the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale-Second Edition and structured ratings of functional impairment (Clinical Dementia Rating Scale). Mental healthcare costs for 6, 12, and 24-month intervals before cognitive assessments were obtained for each participant. Substance abuse history was evaluated utilizing a structured questionnaire, depression symptom severity was assessed utilizing the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and psychiatric diagnoses were obtained through medical chart abstraction. Results CI was exhibited by 61% of participants and was associated with significantly increased mental healthcare costs during 6, 12, and 24-month intervals. Results of a regression analysis indicated that ethnicity and CI were both significant predictors of log transformed mental healthcare costs over 24 months with CI accounting for 13% of the variance in cost data. Conclusions CI is a significant factor associated with increased mental healthcare costs in patients with severe psychiatric illness. Identifying targeted interventions to accommodate CI may lead to improving treatment outcomes and reducing the burden of mental healthcare costs for individuals with severe psychiatric illness. PMID:20808129

Mackin, R. Scott; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Bennett, Robert W.; Arean, Patricia A.

2011-01-01

157

Children's Conceptions of Mental Illness: A Naive Theory Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports two studies that investigated children's conceptions of mental illness using a naive theory approach, drawing upon a conceptual framework for analysing illness representations which distinguishes between the identity, causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of an illness. The studies utilized semi-structured interviewing…

Fox, Claudine; Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn

2010-01-01

158

Prevalence and impact of childhood abuse in people with a psychotic illness. Data from the second Australian national survey of psychosis.  

PubMed

Child abuse has been associated with risk of mental illness, including schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders and, among those with mental illness, with a more severe clinical profile. Using an extensively characterised and epidemiologically representative sample of 1825 Australians with a psychotic illness aged 18-64 years and in contact with mental health services, we estimated the proportion of individuals with psychotic disorders who self-reported child abuse and examined its relationship with clinical and other characteristics. The prevalence of child abuse in this nationally representative sample of people with psychotic illness was 30.6%. Women were almost three times more likely to report child abuse compared to males (OR, 2.8, 95% CI 2.3-3.4). When adjusted for age at interview and socio-economic status, there was no significant relationship between self-reported child abuse and type of psychosis or course of illness. Participants with child abuse were significantly more likely to have subjective thought disorder, lifetime suicide attempt and premorbid personality disorder (females only) and anxiety (males only). Our findings demonstrate that child abuse is relatively common across the range of psychotic disorders, with an elevated risk for women in particular, compounding the already high burden associated with psychotic illness. Clinicians need to inquire routinely about child abuse in order to develop appropriate treatment plans tailored to individual needs. PMID:25107848

Shah, Sonal; Mackinnon, Andrew; Galletly, Cherrie; Carr, Vaughan; McGrath, John J; Stain, Helen J; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Sweeney, Shaun; Morgan, Vera A

2014-10-01

159

Mental Illness, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Medicaid Expenditures  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the rates of mental illness among Medicaid beneficiaries with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and associated Medicaid-paid expenditures. Design Retrospective claims-based calendar year data. Setting Claims data. Participants Medicaid recipients with diagnosed TBI and mental illness who received Medicaid services in 4 states in 1995. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Annual expenditures for total, inpatient, and noninpatient services, as derived from Medicaid personal summary files. Mental illness and TBI were identified by using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes recorded in Medicaid claims. Results Of a total of 493,663 Medicaid recipients, 3641 (0.7%) were diagnosed with TBI in the 4 states. Significant demographic and racial differences were found in the rates of TBI; 18% of patients with TBI were diagnosed with serious mental illness. People with TBI in the age group 40 to 49 years were more likely to have a mental disorder. There were significant differences in estimated total, inpatient, and noninpatient expenditures between those with and without mental illness. In general, those with serious mental illness had higher Medicaid-paid expenditures than those without any mental illness. Conclusions Psychiatric comorbidity in TBI increases the overall expenditures in this population. This increased cost is an important consideration in programming for those with TBI. PMID:15895335

Wei, Wenhui; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Crystal, Stephen; Findley, Patricia A.

2007-01-01

160

Mental Health Promotion and Illness Prevention: A Challenge for Psychiatrists  

PubMed Central

Mental health is essential for individual and public health. To improve mental health, promotion, prevention, and the treatment of disease are required. These three kinds of interventions are interrelated but independent from one another. Although separate efforts for mental health promotion and prevention are needed as well as the public need of mental health promotion and well-being, psychiatrists usually are not accustomed to mental health promotion and prevention. This review introduces an overview of the concept, subjects according to target populations, and various intervention strategies for mental health promotion and prevention of mental illnesses. Based on literatures to date, understanding of developmental psychology, lifestyle medicine, and biopsychosocial contributors of mental health with a macroscopic perspective might help to practice mental health promotion and illness prevention. PMID:24474978

Min, Jung-Ah; Lee, Chang-Uk

2013-01-01

161

Racial Disparities in Mental Health Outcomes after Psychiatric Hospital Discharge among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after…

Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

2012-01-01

162

Parental Mental Illness. Building Community Systems for Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Families are the principal influence on development in the first years of life, so the mental health of parents is an issue that affects every child in California. The most common mental health concerns facing parents involve stress and anxiety. These needs can be addressed through public health messages that de-stigmatize mental illness and…

Hendrick, Victoria; Daly, Kathleen

163

ATTITUDES TOWARD MENTAL ILLNESS AND HELP-SEEKING  

E-print Network

ATTITUDES TOWARD MENTAL ILLNESS AND HELP-SEEKING BEHAVIORS IN COLLEGE STUDENTS Author: Kelly #12;INSPIRATIONS FOR THIS STUDY Interest in mental health. Personal experiences with people barrier to seeking help for mental health issues. Finding out levels of stigma at UNH will help tell us

New Hampshire, University of

164

Cultural Lens on Mental Illness: Four Clients Share Their Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

People served by mental health providers represent diverse cultural groups. In-depth qualitative interviews were used to collect data to examine: “How do people, diagnosed with a mental illness, perceive their experience in a partial care mental health program from the perspective of their cultural context?” Four participants described cultural identities that included ethnic, health status, and sexual orientation identities. The

Laurie Knis-Matthews; Lynne Richard; Michele Moccia; Vishwa Patel; Stephanie Salomone; Leslie Stein

2012-01-01

165

Belief in a just world and attitudes towards mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether a person’s belief in a just world (BJW), or knowing someone treated for a mental health problem, was related to their attitudes towards those with a diagnosis of mental illness or to their beliefs about the causes of mental health problems. One hundred and seventy?three participants completed a questionnaire measuring BJW, attitudes towards, and causal beliefs

Vicky McKechnie; David J. Harper

2011-01-01

166

The Need for Substance Abuse Training Among Mental Health Professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines substance abuse as encountered by practitioners in six major mental health professions, from private practice to organizational settings. Respective national professional associations surveyed representative samples of their members, including psychiatrists, psychologists, professional counselors, social workers, marriage and family therapists, and substance abuse counselors. About one in five clients seen in private practice of mental health professionals had

Henrick J. Harwood; Jennifer Kowalski; Ansari Ameen

2004-01-01

167

Posttraumatic Stress and Mental Health Functioning of Sexually Abused Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between levels of posttraumatic stress and overall mental health functioning of fifty-three sexually abused children. This study analyzes the relationships between the mental health functioning of sexual abuse victims and PTSD, using data collected from the Non-Offending Parents Project. Unlike numerous earlier studies, standardized instruments (the Child Assessment Schedule and the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction

Lisa Avery; Carol Rippey Massat; Marta Lundy

2000-01-01

168

SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND MENTAL HEALTH DATA ARCHIVE (SAMHDA)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Data Archive (SAMHDA) is an initiative of the Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The goal of the archive is to provide re...

169

Women prisoners, mental health, violence and abuse.  

PubMed

This article examines the specific experiences of women in prison, focusing on previous (and continuing) physical and mental abuse, the consequent health care requirements of women prisoners, the policy response and the availability of suitable health care in prisons across the EU. It draws from an extensive review of the literature on women prisoners across Europe that was part of an on-going European Project funded by the DAPHNE programme of the European Commission, entitled 'DAPHNE Strong'. It also uses the field research from the project collected via surveys and in-depth interviews with key personnel in organisations that work with women prisoners or ex-prisoners and staff with a strategic overview of activity from the ministries of justice, police, prison service and women's support organisations. There are probably many more women prisoners with a history of domestic abuse than is officially recognised. Many of the women prison population who have experienced violence and abuse mask this by problematic drug or alcohol use as well as self-injury. These are key areas that training for prison staff needs to address. The availability of services for this group of women is inconsistent within and between countries of the EU. The political will to address the situation of women in prison, as distinct from the norms applied to men, is variable and it seems to take the determined efforts of active lobby groups to make inroads into an area of latent inertia. PMID:23642339

Macdonald, Morag

2013-01-01

170

The criminal justice outcomes of jail diversion programs for persons with mental illness: a review of the evidence.  

PubMed

Diversion programs are initiatives in which persons with serious mental illness who are involved with the criminal justice system are redirected from traditional criminal justice pathways to the mental health and substance abuse treatment systems. This article is a review of the research literature conducted to determine whether the current evidence supports the use of diversion initiatives to reduce recidivism and to reduce incarceration among adults with serious mental illness with justice involvement. A structured literature search identified 21 publications or research papers for review that examined the criminal justice outcomes of various diversion models. The review revealed little evidence of the effectiveness of jail diversion in reducing recidivism among persons with serious mental illness. However, evidence was found that jail diversion initiatives can reduce the amount of jail time that persons with mental illness serve. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:20018995

Sirotich, Frank

2009-01-01

171

Lifetime Abuse, Mental Health, and African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between lifetime abuse and mental health among 126 African American women and 365 White women from a primary health care setting who participated in a telephone interview as part of a larger study. Seven types of childhood and adult intimate partner abuse were measured. Consistent with hypotheses, (1) lifetime abuse was associated with elevated levels

Blanca M. Ramos; Bonnie E. Carlson; Louise-Anne McNutt

2004-01-01

172

The Link between Childhood Trauma and Mental Illness: Effective Interventions for Mental Health Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people seeking help from the mental health system have histories of childhood trauma from sexual and physical abuse. Little literature is available for counselors, mental health workers, and other professionals on the topic of specialized therapy for abuse survivors. Counselors have a crucial role in helping these clients heal and recover.…

Everett, Barbara; Gallop, Ruth

173

Treatment Considerations for HIV-Infected Individuals with Severe Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

There has been a general recognition of a syndemic that includes HIV/AIDS and serve mental illnesses including schizophrenia, major depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and others. The pathophysiology and direction of effects between severe mental illness and HIV infection is less clear however, and relatively little work has been done on prevention and treatment for people with these complex, co-occurring conditions. Here we present the most recent work that has been published on HIV and mental illness. Further, we describe the need for better treatments for “triply diagnosed persons”; those with HIV, mental illness, and substance abuse and dependence. Finally, we describe the potential drug-drug interactions between psychotropic medications and anti-retrovirals, and the need for better treatment guidelines in this area. We describe one example of an individually tailored intervention for persons with serious mental illness and HIV (PATH+) that shows that integrated community-based treatments using advanced practice nurses (APNs) as health navigators can be successful in improving health-related quality of life and reducing the burden of disease in these persons. PMID:24158425

Himelhoch, Seth; Walkup, James; Eisenberg, Marlene M.

2013-01-01

174

Components of implicit stigma against mental illness among Chinese students.  

PubMed

Although some research has examined negative automatic aspects of attitudes toward mental illness via relatively indirect measures among Western samples, it is unclear whether negative attitudes can be automatically activated in individuals from non-Western countries. This study attempted to validate results from Western samples with Chinese college students. We first examined the three-component model of implicit stigma (negative cognition, negative affect, and discriminatory tendencies) toward mental illness with the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT). We also explored the relationship between explicit and implicit stigma among 56 Chinese university college students. In the three separate SC-IATs and the combined SC-IAT, automatic associations between mental illness and negative descriptors were stronger relative to those with positive descriptors and the implicit effect of cognitive and affective SC-IATs were significant. Explicit and implicit measures of stigma toward mental illness were unrelated. In our sample, women's overall attitudes toward mental illness were more negative than men's were, but no gender differences were found for explicit measures. These findings suggested that implicit stigma toward mental illness exists in Chinese students, and provide some support for the three-component model of implicit stigma toward mental illness. Future studies that focus on automatic components of stigmatization and stigma-reduction in China are warranted. PMID:23029366

Wang, Xiaogang; Huang, Xiting; Jackson, Todd; Chen, Ruijun

2012-01-01

175

Local suffering and the global discourse of mental health and human rights: An ethnographic study of responses to mental illness in rural Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background The Global Movement for Mental Health has brought renewed attention to the neglect of people with mental illness within health policy worldwide. The maltreatment of the mentally ill in many low-income countries is widely reported within psychiatric hospitals, informal healing centres, and family homes. International agencies have called for the development of legislation and policy to address these abuses. However such initiatives exemplify a top-down approach to promoting human rights which historically has had limited impact at the level of those living with mental illness and their families. Methods This research forms part of a longitudinal anthropological study of people with severe mental illness in rural Ghana. Visits were made to over 40 households with a family member with mental illness, as well as churches, shrines, hospitals and clinics. Ethnographic methods included observation, conversation, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with people with mental illness, carers, healers, health workers and community members. Results Chaining and beating of the mentally ill was found to be commonplace in homes and treatment centres in the communities studied, as well as with-holding of food ('fasting'). However responses to mental illness were embedded within spiritual and moral perspectives and such treatment provoked little sanction at the local level. Families struggled to provide care for severely mentally ill relatives with very little support from formal health services. Psychiatric services were difficult to access, particularly in rural communities, and also seen to have limitations in their effectiveness. Traditional and faith healers remained highly popular despite the routine maltreatment of the mentally ill in their facilities. Conclusion Efforts to promote the human rights of those with mental illness must engage with the experiences of mental illness within communities affected in order to grasp how these may underpin the use of practices such as mechanical restraint. Interventions which operate at the local level with those living with mental illness within rural communities, as well as family members and healers, may have greater potential to effect change in the treatment of the mentally ill than legislation or investment in services alone. PMID:19825191

Read, Ursula M; Adiibokah, Edward; Nyame, Solomon

2009-01-01

176

Intensive case management for severe mental illness  

PubMed Central

Background Intensive Case Management (ICM) is a community based package of care, aiming to provide long term care for severely mentally ill people who do not require immediate admission. ICM evolved from two original community models of care, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management (CM), where ICM emphasises the importance of small caseload (less than 20) and high intensity input. Objectives To assess the effects of Intensive Case Management (caseload <20) in comparison with non-Intensive Case Management (caseload > 20) and with standard community care in people with severe mental illness. To evaluate whether the effect of ICM on hospitalisation depends on its fidelity to the ACT model and on the setting. Search methods For the current update of this review we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (February 2009), which is compiled by systematic searches of major databases, hand searches and conference proceedings. Selection criteria All relevant randomised clinical trials focusing on people with severe mental illness, aged 18 to 65 years and treated in the community-care setting, where Intensive Case Management, non-Intensive Case Management or standard care were compared. Outcomes such as service use, adverse effects, global state, social functioning, mental state, behaviour, quality of life, satisfaction and costs were sought. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For binary outcomes we calculated relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data we estimated mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% confidence interval (CI). We employed a random-effects model for analyses. We performed a random-effects meta-regression analysis to examine the association of the intervention’s fidelity to the ACT model and the rate of hospital use in the setting where the trial was conducted with the treatment effect. Main results We included 38 trials (7328 participants) in this review. The trials provided data for two comparisons: 1. ICM versus standard care, 2. ICM versus non-ICM. 1. ICM versus standard care Twenty-four trials provided data on length of hospitalisation, and results favoured Intensive Case Management (n=3595, 24 RCTs, MD ?0.86 CI ?1.37 to ?0.34). There was a high level of heterogeneity, but this significance still remained when the outlier studies were excluded from the analysis (n=3143, 20 RCTs, MD ?0.62 CI ?1.00 to ?0.23). Nine studies found participants in the ICM group were less likely to be lost to psychiatric services (n=1633, 9 RCTs, RR 0.43 CI 0.30 to 0.61, I2=49%, p=0.05). One global state scale did show an Improvement in global state for those receiving ICM, the GAF scale (n=818, 5 RCTs, MD 3.41 CI 1.66 to 5.16). Results for mental state as measured through various rating scales, however, were equivocal, with no compelling evidence that ICM was really any better than standard care in improving mental state. No differences in mortality between ICM and standard care groups occurred, either due to ’all causes’ (n=1456, 9 RCTs, RR 0.84 CI 0.48 to 1.47) or to ’suicide’ (n=1456, 9 RCTs, RR 0.68 CI 0.31 to 1.51). Social functioning results varied, no differences were found in terms of contact with the legal system and with employment status, whereas significant improvement in accommodation status was found, as was the incidence of not living independently, which was lower in the ICM group (n=1185, 4 RCTs, RR 0.65 CI 0.49 to 0.88). Quality of life data found no significant difference between groups, but data were weak. CSQ scores showed a greater participant satisfaction in the ICM group (n=423, 2 RCTs, MD 3.23 CI 2.31 to 4.14). 2. ICM versus non-ICM The included studies failed to show a significant advantage of ICM in reducing the average length of hospitalisation (n=2220, 21 RCTs, MD ?0.08 CI ?0.37 to 0.21). They did find ICM to be more advantageous than non-ICM in reducing rate of lost to follo

Dieterich, Marina; Irving, Claire B; Park, Bert; Marshall, Max

2014-01-01

177

Reinforcing stigmatization: coverage of mental illness in spanish newspapers.  

PubMed

Because the media influences society's perceptions of reality, the treatment of mental illness in the news can have an effect on the societal stigma related to it. This study aimed to analyze the content and form of news items related to mental illness in Spanish newspapers in order to understand their role in propagating or attenuating stereotypes, prejudices, and stigma. The authors conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study on the basis of a review of news items related to mental illness appearing in the Spanish print media. A sample was taken from articles published on the subject in the 20 Spanish newspapers with the widest circulations over the course of the year 2010. Formal elements and content were analyzed by means of a structured evaluation system. The authors analyzed 695 news items. The content of 47.9% (n = 333) of the articles was not strictly related to mental illness, but rather clinical or psychiatric terms were used metaphorically, and frequently in a pejorative sense. The remaining 52.1% (n = 362) consisted of news items related specifically to mental illness. Of these, news items linking mental illness to danger were the most common (178 texts, 49.2%), specifically those associating mental illness with violent crime (130 texts, 35.9%) or a danger to others (126 texts, 34.8%). The results confirm the hypothesis that the press treats mental illness in a manner that encourages stigmatization. The authors appeal to the press's responsibility to society and advocate an active role in reducing the stigma towards mental illness. PMID:24708534

Aragonès, Enric; López-Muntaner, Judit; Ceruelo, Santiago; Basora, Josep

2014-11-01

178

Human rights of persons with mental illness in Indonesia: more than legislation is needed  

PubMed Central

Background Although attention to human rights in Indonesia has been improving over the past decade, the human rights situation of persons with mental disorders is still far from satisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to examine the legal framework for protection of human rights of persons with mental disorder and the extent to which Indonesia's international obligations concerning the right to health are being met. Methods We examined the Indonesian constitution, Indonesian laws relevant to the right to health, the structure and operation of the National Human Rights Commission, and what is known about violations of the human rights of persons with mental illness from research and the media. Results The focus of the Indonesian Constitution on rights pre-dated the Universal Declaration, Indonesia has ratified relevant international covenants and domestic law provides an adequate legal framework for human rights protections. However, human rights abuses persist, are widespread, and go essentially unremarked and unchallenged. The National Human Rights Commission has only recently become engaged in the issue of protection of the rights of persons with mental illness. Conclusion More than legislation is needed to protect the human rights of persons with mental illness. Improving the human rights situation for persons with mental illness in Indonesia will require action by governments at national, provincial and district levels, substantial increases in the level of investment in mental health services, coordinated action by mental health professionals and consumer and carer organisations, and a central role for the National Human Rights Commission in protecting the rights of persons with mental illness. PMID:19545362

Irmansyah, I; Prasetyo, YA; Minas, H

2009-01-01

179

Court-ordered treatment for serious offenders with mental illness.  

PubMed

The insanity defence was elaborated upon through case authority which paralleled the development of phenomenology and treatment of serious mental illnesses, particularly psychotic disorders. In 1843, the rules in McNaughton's Case established a clear formulation for determining whether a person with a mental illness may be held to have been not criminally responsible at the time of an offence. The current legislative scheme in Queensland incorporates the most modern application of the defence of insanity and diminished responsibility and provides the most efficient mechanism by which mentally ill offenders are diverted into care and treatment. PMID:19205303

Scott, Russ

2008-12-01

180

The workplace and nurses with a mental illness.  

PubMed

A qualitative approach was used to explore workplace experiences of nurses who have a mental illness. Interview transcripts from 29 nurses in New South Wales, Australia were subjected to discourse analysis. One significant finding was a theme depicting the need for support and trust. This superordinate theme encompassed four subelements: declaring mental illnesses, collegial support, managerial support, and enhancing support. Most of the participants portrayed their workplace as an unsupportive and negative environment. A number of colleagues were depicted as having little regard for the codes for professional nursing practice. This paper shows how nurses in the study dealt with the workplace support associated with mental illness. PMID:19883410

Joyce, Terry; McMillan, Margaret; Hazelton, Michael

2009-12-01

181

Doctors’ attitude towards people with mental illness in Western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  It had been suggested that those more knowledgeable about mental illness are less likely to endorse negative or stigmatizing\\u000a attitudes. This study aimed to evaluate the attitude of doctors in Nigeria towards the mentally ill.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Medical doctors (n = 312) from eight selected health institutions in Nigeria completed various questionnaires on knowledge and attitude towards\\u000a people with mental illness.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Beliefs in supernatural

Abiodun O. Adewuya; Ayotunde A. Oguntade

2007-01-01

182

Cost-effectiveness of Supported Housing for Homeless Persons With Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Supported housing, integrating clinical and housing services, is a widely advocated intervention for homeless people with mental illness. In 1992, the US De- partment of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) established the HUD-VA Supported Housing (HUD-VASH) program. Methods: Homeless veterans with psychiatric and\\/or sub- stance abuse disorders or both (N=460) were

Robert Rosenheck; Wesley Kasprow; Linda Frisman; Wen Liu-Mares

2003-01-01

183

Mental Illness and Mental Health: The Two Continua Model Across the Lifespan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health has long been defined as the absence of psychopathologies, such as depression and anxiety. The absence of mental\\u000a illness, however, is a minimal outcome from a psychological perspective on lifespan development. This article therefore focuses\\u000a on mental illness as well as on three core components of positive mental health: feelings of happiness and satisfaction with\\u000a life (emotional well-being),

Gerben J. Westerhof; Corey L. M. Keyes

2010-01-01

184

National Institute of Mental Health Alliance for Research Progress  

E-print Network

the frequency of co-occurrence of mental illness and substance abuse. She discussed the stigma associated with substance abuse and the essential need to address mental illnesses and substance abuse simultaneously during the course of the disorder; (3) Patients with mental illnesses are at greater risk for substance abuse

Baker, Chris I.

185

Abandoned minds : the escalating crisis of geriatric mental illness  

E-print Network

Older adults are susceptible to the same mental afflictions that affect other age groups; depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, and other illnesses affect all adult age groups to varying degrees. Yet despite recent ...

Sipics, Michelle

2006-01-01

186

[Descriptions of mental illness in Alf Prøysen's first book].  

PubMed

One of Norway's most famous artists after the Second World War was Alf Prøysen (1914-70). He made his debut with a collection of short stories in 1945 entitled "Dørstokken heme" (The doorsill at home). Three of the short stories deal with women who develop mental illness. This article is about how Prøysen describes the mental illnesses and what might have provoked them. PMID:16357892

Kanter, Harald

2005-12-15

187

Changing Middle Schoolers' Attitudes About Mental Illness Through Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field test of The Science of Mental Illness curriculum supplement for middle school (grades 6–8) children provided an opportunity to assess knowledge and attitudes about mental illness in more than 1,500 middle school students throughout the United States and to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention on stigma-related attitudes. Two primary questions were examined: (1) what are the

Amy C. Watson; Emeline Otey; Anne L. Westbrook; April L. Gardner; Theodore A. Lamb; Patrick W. Corrigan; Wayne S. Fenton

2004-01-01

188

Changing Middle Schoolers' Attitudes About Mental Illness Through Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field test of The Science of Mental Illness cur- riculum supplement for middle school (grades 6-8) children provided an opportunity to assess knowledge and attitudes about mental illness in more than 1,500 middle school students throughout the United States and to evaluate the impact of an educational interven- tion on stigma-relate d attitudes. Two primary ques- tions were examined:

Amy C. Watson; Emeline Otey; April L. Qardner; Theodore A. Lamb; Patrick W. Corrigan; Wayne S. Fenton

189

Factors Influencing Social Distance Toward People with Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: When identifying ways to reduce stigmatization because of mental illness it is crucial to understand contributing factors. Social distance—the willingness to engage in relationships of varying intimacy with a person—is an indicator of public attitudes toward persons with mental illness. Methods: Multiple linear regression analysis of the results of a vignette-based opinion survey conducted on a representative population sample

Christoph Lauber; Carlos Nordt; Luis Falcato; Wulf Rössler

2004-01-01

190

The Social-Environmental Context of Violent Behavior in Persons Treated for Severe Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of violent behavior by individuals with severe mental illness. Methods. Participants (N = 802) were adults with psychotic or major mood disorders receiving inpatient or outpatient services in public mental health systems in 4 states. Results. The 1-year prevalence of serious assaultive behavior was 13%. Three variables—past violent victimization, violence in the surrounding environment, and substance abuse—showed a cumulative association with risk of violent behavior. Conclusions. Violence among individuals with severe mental illness is related to multiple variables with compounded effects over the life span. Interventions to reduce the risk of violence need to be targeted to specific subgroups with different clusters of problems related to violent behavior. PMID:12197987

Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Essock, Susan M.; Osher, Fred C.; Wagner, H. Ryan; Goodman, Lisa A.; Rosenberg, Stanley D.; Meador, Keith G.

2002-01-01

191

Characteristics of persons with severe mental illness who have been incarcerated for murder.  

PubMed

In this descriptive study, we analyzed data collected from multiple state agencies on 95 persons with severe mental illness who were convicted of murder in Indiana between 1990 and 2002. Subjects were predominantly suffering from a mood disorder, were white and male with a high school education or equivalent, were living in stabilized housing, and, to a lesser degree, were involved in significant intimate and familial relationships. Rage or anger, overwhelmingly directed toward intimate or familial relations by the use of a firearm or sharp object, was the most frequently mentioned motive for murder. Most of those studied had been raised in households with significant family dysfunction, had extensive histories of substance abuse and criminality, and had received little treatment for their mental and substance use disorders. Findings are contextualized and compared with similarly descriptive studies of nonlethal violence and persons with a mental illness; hospitalized, schizophrenic and psychotic murderers; and homicide offenders outside the United States. PMID:18354127

Matejkowski, Jason C; Cullen, Sara W; Solomon, Phyllis L

2008-01-01

192

Rethinking Mental Illness: The View from 2022  

E-print Network

Disorders as Neural Circuit Disorders Mapping the Human Connectome Wedeen et al, Science, 2012 #12;Mental Innovations In Mental Health · Mental disorders are brain disorders Circuits not lesions, not chemicals Disorders as Neural Circuit Disorders Depression PTSD OCD #12;Depression as a Brain Circuit Disorder oF11 p

Bandettini, Peter A.

193

Appraising the Threat of Illness: A Mental Representational Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article (a) describes a mental model underlying initial evaluations of illness signs and (b) reports an experiment demonstrating the model’s utility by showing how the model represents evidence of defensiveness among people who test positively for a sign of illness. The model consists of a set of cognitive elements that people consider to evaluate the threat represented by a

Peter H. Ditto; John B. Jemmott; John M. Darley

1988-01-01

194

Psychoanalytic Concepts of the Etiology of Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I challenge some prevalent psychoanalytic concepts of the etiology and pathogenesis of severe mental illness which I believe to be in need of revision. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that the etiology of the two major adult psychoses, schizophrenia and manic-depressive illness, can be attributed to failures in development or fixations during the earliest years of

Martin S. Willick

1990-01-01

195

Incidence and Documentation of Cognitive Impairment Among Older Adults With Severe Mental Illness in a Community Mental Health Setting  

PubMed Central

Objective Cognitive impairments among older adults are commonly linked to poor medical and psychiatric treatment adherence, increased disability, and poor health outcomes. Recent investigations suggest that cognitive impairments are frequently not recognized by healthcare providers and are often poorly documented in medical records. Older adults utilizing services at community mental health centers have numerous risk factors for developing cognitive impairment. Few studies have explored the incidence and documentation of cognitive impairments in this patient population. Methods Data were collected from 52 ethnically diverse older adults with severe mental illness who were participating in treatment at a large community mental health center. Cognitive impairment was diagnosed by neuropsychologists utilizing the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS). Measures of depression severity and substance abuse history were also obtained. An age and education corrected DRS total score falling at or below the tenth percentile was used as the criteria for diagnosing cognitive impairment. A medical chart review was subsequently conducted to determine the documentation of cognitive impairments among this patient population. Results Cognitive impairment was exhibited by 60% of participants and documented in medical charts for 17% of the sample. Conclusions Preliminary data suggests that cognitive impairment is common in individuals with severe mental illness treated at community mental health centers, but these cognitive impairments are not well recognized or documented. The impact of cognitive impairment on psychiatric treatment and case management among community mental health patients is therefore poorly understood. PMID:19092314

Mackin, R. Scott; Arean, Patricia A.

2011-01-01

196

Grant Title: POSTDOCTORAL FELLOWSHIP IN MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE SERVICES Funding Opportunity Number: NA  

E-print Network

Grant Title: POSTDOCTORAL FELLOWSHIP IN MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE SERVICES (MHSAS) Funding Opportunity Number: NA Agency/Department: American Psychological Association (APA), Substance Abuse and Mental health and substance abuse services and research. Release and Expiration: NA Application Deadline

Farritor, Shane

197

Grant Title: MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE SERVICES FELLOWSHIP Funding Opportunity Number: NA  

E-print Network

Grant Title: MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE SERVICES FELLOWSHIP Funding Opportunity Number: NA Agency/Department: American Psychological Association (APA), Minority Fellowship Program, Substance Abuse to a career in ethnic minority mental health and substance abuse services. This commitment must

Farritor, Shane

198

Risky Business: Mental Illness, Disclosure and the TAFE Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper meets at the crossroads of personal experience and public policy. The personal is the experience of learning as described by five TAFE students with a mental illness. The public policy context is the increased political pressure on Australia's major vocational training providers to increase workforce participation of people with mental

Venville, Annie

2010-01-01

199

Seeking Professional Help: Etiology Beliefs about Mental Illness across Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, the authors examined the contributions of cultural beliefs about the etiology of mental illness to the seeking of help from mental health professionals among college students in 4 cultural groups, European Americans, Chinese Americans, Hong Kong Chinese, and Mainland Chinese. Group differences were found in help-seeking…

Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Mak, Winnie W. S.

2008-01-01

200

Chapter 5. Serious Mental Illness Among Mexican Immigrant Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of family involvement in psychosocial interventions for persons with serious mental illnesses continues to gain empirical support. However, even as ethnic minority cultures are known to be more family-centered in comparison to Euro-American cultures, only a few studies focus on family context or on family treatment approaches for Mexicans. The focus of this paper is on mental health

Concepcion Barrio; Ann Marie Yamada

2005-01-01

201

Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual People with Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very little has been written about lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people (LGBs) with severe mental illness (SMI). In general, LGBs with SMI have the same mental health needs as their heterosexual counterparts. However, there is a need for some basic understanding and confronting potential bias among health practitioners. Although specialized services for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people

Mary E. Barber

2009-01-01

202

When Parents With Severe Mental Illness Lose Contact With Their Children: Are Psychiatric Symptoms or Substance Use to Blame?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month research interviews over a total 30-month period following each participant's entry into

Danson Jones; Rosemarie Lillianne Macias; Paul B. Gold; Paul Barreira; William Fisher

2008-01-01

203

When Parents with Severe Mental Illness Lose Contact with Their Children: Are Psychiatric Symptoms or Substance Use to Blame?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month…

Jones, Danson; Macias, Rosemarie Lillianne; Gold, Paul B.; Barreira, Paul; Fisher, William

2008-01-01

204

Prevalence and characteristics of intimate partner violence against women with severe mental illness: a prevalence study in Spain.  

PubMed

This study examined the prevalence and characteristics of intimate partner violence (IPV) towards women with a severe mental illness (SMI). The sample consisted of 142 adult women with SMI treated in public mental health services in three districts of Madrid (Spain). The prevalence of IPV in the 12 months preceding the interview was 30.3 % and over the lifespan was 79.6 %. 32.7 % of women victims of violence do not qualify themselves as battered women. 48.5 % of battered women do not talk about their abusive situation with anyone or come to any resource or service. Women victims of abuse have low social support. Women who have suffered physical abuse in childhood are at 2.22 times higher risk of being victims of IPV in the past year. Mental health professionals identified 50 % of recent abuse cases. This research highlights the extent of IPV experienced by women with SMI. PMID:24474531

González Cases, Juan; Polo Usaola, Cristina; González Aguado, Francisco; López Gironés, Marisa; Rullas Trincado, Margarita; Fernández Liria, Alberto

2014-10-01

205

Assessing trauma, substance abuse, and mental health in a sample of homeless men.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of physical and sexual trauma on a sample of 239 homeless men. Study participants completed a self-administered survey that collected data on demographics, exposure to psychological trauma, physical health and mental health problems, and substance use or misuse. Binomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relative significance of demographic factors and the four types of trauma exposure associated with three outcomes: mental health, substance abuse, and physical health problems. The authors found that trauma history was significantly associated with more mental health problems but was not associated with substance abuse problems for homeless men. This study reinforces service providers' perceptions that because many homeless men experience the long-term, deleterious effects of not only current stressors, but also abuse and victimization that often begin in childhood, homeless men are a subpopulation in need of proactive prevention services that emphasize long-term continuity of care rather than sporadic crisis-based services. Study findings suggest that mentally ill, homeless men need proactive services that address the sequelae of abuse with care that is specialized and distinctly different from care for homeless adults with substance abuse or physical health care issues. PMID:20218452

Kim, Mimi M; Ford, Julian D; Howard, Daniel L; Bradford, Daniel W

2010-02-01

206

Mental health and illness in traditional India and China.  

PubMed

Biomedical knowledge underlies the science of all national systems of psychiatry and is integral to international psychiatry. It is grounded in Western systems of thought, values, and world views. In assessing the cultural and national presuppositions of contemporary psychiatry, it is desirable to analyze other systems of practice. In this article, some of the characteristics of ancient, non-Western traditions of mental health and approaches to mental illness are discussed. In reviewing salient characteristics of the approach to mental health and illness of India and China, one is provided with a vivid illustration of the interplay between culture and a system of psychiatric practice. The secular and essentially impersonal features of modern biomedical psychiatry contrast with the spiritual, value-laden, but also naturalistic basis of ancient traditions and approaches to mental health and illness. PMID:11593863

Fàbrega, H

2001-09-01

207

Beliefs About the Biological (vs. Nonbiological) Origins of Mental Illness and the Stigmatization of People with Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focuses on the relationship between an individual's attributions of cause regarding mental illness (i.e., the degree by which psychopathology is perceived as biologically or nonbiologically caused) and resulting stigmatization (particularly social distancing, a form of social rejection). To date, much of the research concerning attributional beliefs and stigma use general terms such as “mental patient” and “psychiatric

Patrick M. Sears; Andrew M. Pomerantz; Daniel J. Segrist; Paul Rose

2011-01-01

208

Stages of Change Among Chinese People With Mental Illness: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the effect of self-efficacy and outcome expectancy on the readiness for rehabilitation among Chinese people with mental illness. Participants: Fifty-eight men and 62 women with chronic mental illness. Outcome Measures: Change Assessment Questionnaire for People With Severe and Persistent Mental Illness, Task-Specific Self-Efficacy Scale for People With Mental Illness, and Outcome-Expectancy Scale for People With Mental Illness.

Chih Chin Chou; Fong Chan; Hector W. H. Tsang

2004-01-01

209

Greek adolescents' views of people with mental illness through drawings: mental health education's impact.  

PubMed

People with mental illness are among the most stigmatized and discriminated against as a result of lack of knowledge among the public. Our study explored adolescents' perceptions of people with mental illness through drawings, described these perceptions, and tested the possible changes in perceptions after an educational mental health intervention. Drawings were collected before and after an educational mental health intervention from 59 Greek secondary school students. One group of participants served as the experimental group and received the educational mental health intervention. Content analysis of the drawings was used to analyze data. The drawings provided a clear understanding of adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. After the educational mental health intervention the negative elements presenting the people with mental illness were less among the experimental group, while the drawings among the comparison group did not change. The findings support that educational mental health intervention can have a positive impact on adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. Health professionals can use the findings of our study in order to develop and implement similar interventions. PMID:24382318

Sakellari, Evanthia; Lehtonen, Kimmo; Sourander, Andre; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, Athena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

2014-09-01

210

Current Legislation on Admission of Mentally Ill Patients in China  

PubMed Central

Objective To date, there is no systematic analysis of mental health laws and their implementation across the People’s Republic of China. This article aims to describe and analyze current legal frameworks for voluntary and involuntary admissions of mentally ill patients in the five cities of China that currently have municipal mental health regulations. Methods Information on the legislation and practice of involuntary admission in the five cities was gathered and assessed using the “WHO Checklist on Mental Health Legislation.” The checklist was completed for each city by a group of psychiatrists trained in mental health legislation. Results Although the mental health regulations in these five cities cover the basic principles needed to meet international standards of mental health legislation, some defects in the legislation remain. In particular, these regulations lack detail in specifying procedures for dealing with admission and treatment and lack oversight and review mechanisms and procedures for appeal of involuntary admission and treatment. Conclusions A more comprehensive and enforceable national mental health act is needed in order to ensure the rights of persons suffering mental illness in terms of admission and treatment procedures. In addition, more research is needed to understand how the current municipal regulations of mental health services in these cities are implemented in routine practice. PMID:19913300

Shao, Yang; Xie, Bin; Good, Mary-Jo DelVecchio; Good, Byron J.

2009-01-01

211

Postsecondary education: kindling opportunities for people with mental illness.  

PubMed

Education is recognized in many sectors of society as essential for empowerment and better lives, and postsecondary education is increasingly a prerequisite for many occupations. Given its onset in late adolescence and early adulthood, mental illness frequently disrupts secondary or tertiary education, and resulting lower educational attainment contributes to reduced lifetime employment and earning potential. Yet, supporting people with mental illnesses to pursue postsecondary education offers pathways to vocational qualifications and more diverse opportunities for employment and career advancement. While substantial efforts have been made to develop evidence-based interventions to improve employment outcomes for people with mental ill health, less is known about the best ways to enable people with mental illness to successfully return to study and to pursue their educational goals. This paper briefly discusses supported education, an approach designed to provide pathways and supports for reengagement in education; it highlights the potential of modeling educational support on Individual Placement and Support principles used in supported employment programs; and calls for greater efforts in research and practice to enable youth or adults with mental illness to reengage in education so as to improve their educational outcomes and career prospects. PMID:23857720

Ennals, Priscilla; Fossey, Ellie M; Harvey, Carol A; Killackey, Eóin

2014-06-01

212

Workplace effectiveness and psychotherapy for mental, substance abuse, and subsyndromal conditions.  

PubMed

Abstract While it is known that psychiatric illness and subclinical psychiatric illness can be very disabling, their impact on workers' productivity has been little appreciated or appropriately addressed. Complex variables are involved in fashioning an appropriate policy to ameliorate the impact of mental illness on productivity including the identification of effective treatments and potential negative effects of controlling patients' access to them. The cost-effectiveness of such treatments is considered from the differing perspectives and goals of the various stakeholders involved, including employers, insurers, and workers with psychiatric illness. Depression in workers leads to significant absenteeism, "presenteeism" (diminished capacity due to illness while still present at work), and significantly increased medical expenses in addition to the costs of psychiatric care. In addition to the specific usefulness of psychotropic medication, there are a variety of studies on the cost-effectiveness of different psychotherapeutic treatments that improve health and productivity in psychiatrically ill workers. Research indicates the usefulness of approaches including employee assistance programs, specialized cognitive-behavioral treatments, and brief and longer term psychodynamic interventions. It is clear that substance abuse disorders and especially depression and subsyndromal depression have a profound negative effect on work productivity and increases in medical visits and expenses. The current system of mental health care suffers from ignorance of the negative effects of psychiatric illness in workers, from a lack of subtle awareness of which treatments are most appropriate for which diagnoses and from the reluctance by payers to invest in them. Access to evidence-based appropriate treatment can improve the negative impact on productivity as well as workers' health. This article considers these issues and argues for a role of psychotherapy in the treatment of mental illness and substance abuse from the perspective of worker productivity. PMID:25211435

Sledge, William H; Lazar, Susan G

2014-01-01

213

Impact of psychiatric and social characteristics on HIV sexual risk behavior in Puerto Rican women with severe mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Latinos in the United States have been identified as a high-risk group for depression, anxiety, and substance abuse. HIV\\/AIDS\\u000a has disproportionately impacted Latinos. Review findings suggest that HIV-risk behaviors among persons with severe mental\\u000a illness (SMI) are influenced by a multitude of factors including psychiatric illness, cognitive-behavioral factors, substance\\u000a use, childhood abuse, and social relationships.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To examine the impact of

Emily Lenore Goldman Heaphy; Sana Loue; Martha Sajatovic; Daniel J. Tisch

2010-01-01

214

Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services Among Rural Minorities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a brief overview of current conditions and prospects for increased access to mental health and substance abuse services among rural minorities. First, it addresses challenges in ensuring rural minorities access to needed services. Second, it considers steps to increase rural minority participation in the mental health and…

Gamm, Larry D.

2004-01-01

215

Gender Differences in Substance Use, Consequences, Motivation to Change, and Treatment Seeking in People With Serious Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

Gender differences in patterns and consequences of substance use, treatment-seeking, and motivation to change were examined in two samples of people with serious mental illness (SMI) and comorbid substance use disorders (SUDs): a community sample not currently seeking substance abuse treatment (N = 175) and a treatment-seeking sample (N = 137). In both groups, women and men demonstrated more similarities in the pattern and severity of their substance use than differences. However, treatment-seeking women showed greater readiness to change their substance use. Mental health problems and traumatic experiences may prompt people with SMI and SUD to enter substance abuse treatment, regardless of gender. PMID:21174496

Drapalski, Amy; Bennett, Melanie; Bellack, Alan

2013-01-01

216

Efficacy of lifestyle interventions in physical health management of patients with severe mental illness.  

PubMed

Awareness of the importance of maintaining physical health for patients with severe mental illnesses has recently been on the increase. Although there are several elements contributing to poor physical health among these patients as compared with the general population, risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and obesity are of particular significance due to their relationship with mortality and morbidity. These patients present higher vulnerability to cardiovascular risk factors based on several issues, such as genetic predisposition to certain pathologies, poor eating habits and sedentary lifestyles, high proportions of smokers and drug abusers, less access to regular health care services, and potential adverse events during pharmacological treatment. Nevertheless, there is ample scientific evidence supporting the benefits of lifestyle interventions based on diet and exercise designed to minimize and reduce the negative impact of these risk factors on the physical health of patients with severe mental illnesses. PMID:21929761

Chacón, Fernando; Mora, Fernando; Gervás-Ríos, Alicia; Gilaberte, Inmaculada

2011-01-01

217

Efficacy of lifestyle interventions in physical health management of patients with severe mental illness  

PubMed Central

Awareness of the importance of maintaining physical health for patients with severe mental illnesses has recently been on the increase. Although there are several elements contributing to poor physical health among these patients as compared with the general population, risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and obesity are of particular significance due to their relationship with mortality and morbidity. These patients present higher vulnerability to cardiovascular risk factors based on several issues, such as genetic predisposition to certain pathologies, poor eating habits and sedentary lifestyles, high proportions of smokers and drug abusers, less access to regular health care services, and potential adverse events during pharmacological treatment. Nevertheless, there is ample scientific evidence supporting the benefits of lifestyle interventions based on diet and exercise designed to minimize and reduce the negative impact of these risk factors on the physical health of patients with severe mental illnesses. PMID:21929761

2011-01-01

218

A Preliminary Classification System for Homeless Veterans With Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was that of defining psychiatric profiles among veterans based on a structured interview of 3,595 individuals administered by outreach mental health clinicians to individuals who were presently or recently homeless. The interview included ratings of presence or absence of current psychiatric disorders; alcoholism, drug abuse, psychosis, mood disorders, personality disorders, PTSD, and adjustment disorders. We

Gerald Goldstein; James F. Luther; Aaron M. Jacoby; Gretchen L. Haas; Adam J. Gordon

2008-01-01

219

Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

2010-01-01

220

Adherence to antiretroviral medications and medical care in HIV-infected adults diagnosed with mental and substance abuse disorders.  

PubMed

This paper examines factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral medications (ARVs) in an HIV-infected population at high risk for non-adherence: individuals living with psychiatric and substance abuse disorders. Data were examined from baseline interviews of a multisite cohort intervention study of 1138 HIV-infected adults with both a psychiatric and substance abuse disorder (based on a structured psychiatric research interview using DSM-IV criteria). The baseline interview documented mental illness and substance use in the past year, mental illness and substance abuse severity, demographics, service utilization in the past three months, general health and HIV-related conditions, self-reported spirituality and self-reported ARV medication use. Among the participants, 62% were prescribed ARVs at baseline (n = 542) and 45% of those on ARVs reported skipping medications in the past three days. Reports of non-adherence were significantly associated with having a detectable viral load (p<.01). The factors associated with non-adherence were current drug and alcohol abuse, increased psychological distress, less attendance at medical appointments, non-adherence to psychiatric medications and lower self-reported spirituality. Increased psychological distress was significantly associated with non-adherence, independent of substance abuse (p<.05). The data suggest that both mental illness and substance use must be addressed in HIV-infected adults living with these co-morbid illnesses to improve adherence to ARVs. PMID:19229685

Mellins, Claude Ann; Havens, Jennifer F; McDonnell, Cheryl; Lichtenstein, Carolyn; Uldall, Karina; Chesney, Margaret; Santamaria, E Karina; Bell, James

2009-02-01

221

Drug and Substance Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... such as chronic pain or a mental illness. Alcohol Abuse For an older woman, light or moderate drinking ... likely to be problem drinkers compared to women. Alcohol abuse tends to be higher in retirement communities and ...

222

National Resource Center on Homelessness and Mental Illness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Operated by a private research firm under contract to the Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the National Resource Center on Homelessness and Mental Illness serves as a clearinghouse for technical assistance and research information. Included here are comprehensive, well-annotated national listings of organizations concerned with mental health, housing and homelessness, as well as housing-related technical assistance resources. The site also provides an "extensive bibliographic database on homelessness and mental illness" broken down by subject; a listing of research monographs and papers commissioned by the center, some of which may be accessed online; an annotated directory of online resources; information about technical assistance given by the Center to professionals in the field; and selected posted articles from issues of Access, a periodic information letter to the field.

223

Effects of an educational program on public attitudes towards mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Psychiatric Association promotes global anti-stigma programs. However, evaluation research is crucial to developing effective programs. The present study examined the effects of a lecture on mental health on public attitudes towards mental illness. Subjects were recruited from individuals employed by private companies and the government. Attitudes towards mental illness were measured using the Mental Illness and Disorder Understanding

GORO TANAKA; TAKEO OGAWA; HIROYUKI INADOMI; YASUKI KIKUCHI; YASUYUKI OHTA

2003-01-01

224

Ethical issues in treating pregnant women with severe mental illness.  

PubMed

Severe mental illness tends to occur and recur among women in the reproductive period. Both the disorders and the treatments may have effects on the mother and the foetus. The clinician hence is often in a dilemma when treating pregnant women with severe mental illness and is challenged with ethical issues related to decision making in this regard. Both treatment and non treatment are not without risks and this is particularly challenging if the mother has active symptoms and cannot make decisions because of impaired capacity. This paper highlights some of these ethical and clinical dilemmas through case vignettes based on data from a specialised perinatal psychiatry service. PMID:19517649

Desai, Geetha; Chandra, Prabha S

2009-01-01

225

A qualitative study of undergraduates' conceptualizations of mental illness.  

PubMed

This qualitative study examined three stigma reduction interventions against mental illness stigma: education, video, and contact. Undergraduates (N = 69) in three introductory psychology classes from a small, Catholic, liberal arts university in the northeast United States participated. Responses to two open-ended questions revealed common negative and stereotypical themes associated with mental illness. The benefits of supplementing traditional social distance measures with a qualitative approach, as well as the importance of considering a social developmental approach to stigma education are discussed. PMID:24010560

Matteo, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

226

Racism, mental illness and social support in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The difference in risk of mental illness in UK ethnic minorities may be related to a balance between specific risk factors\\u000a such as racial discrimination and mediating factors such as social support. We investigated whether social support from friends\\u000a or relatives reduces the cross-sectional association between perceived racism and the risk of mental illness in an ethnic\\u000a minority group.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We

Apu T. Chakraborty; Kwame J. McKenzie; Shakoor Hajat; Stephen A. Stansfeld

2010-01-01

227

Treatment of Children with Mental Illness  

MedlinePLUS

... such as sadness or tearfulness Signs of self-destructive behavior, such as head-banging, or a tendency to get hurt often Repeated thoughts of death. Q. Can symptoms be caused by a death in the family, illness in a parent, family financial problems, divorce, or other events? A. ...

228

Longitudinal assessment of inpatient use and functioning of seriously mentally ill veterans with and without co-occurring substance use disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to delineate differences in inpatient service utilization and functional and subjective outcomes between veterans with a serious mental illness (SMI) and those with co-occurring serious mental illnesses and substance abuse (SA) disorders.This study assessed 2-year inpatient utilization and outcomes for 682 SMI veterans enrolled in specialized psychosocial treatment programs which did not have a

Frederic C. Blow; Kristen Lawton Barry; Bonnie J. BootsMillerP; Laurel A. Copeland; Richard McCormick; Stephanie Visnic

1998-01-01

229

Treating mental illness in lactating women.  

PubMed

A high prevalence of psychiatric illness has been noted in the postpartum period. Recent research looks to the potential effects of maternal illness during this period on child development. With the promotion of breast feeding for well-documented medical benefits, there has been increasing attention to the potential effects on the infant of exposure to medication via breast milk. This article reviews the current literature on the secretion of psychotropic medication into breast milk, and any known negative effects. The shortcomings of these studies are highlighted, and recommendations to the clinician are given within the limitations of the current state of knowledge. The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that depression will be 1 of the 2 major illness burdens confronting the world by 2020. The incidence of depression is 2-fold higher in women than in men, and the average age at onset is 25 years. These facts combined with the noted risk of a marked increase in psychiatric illness postpartum have serious implications. Depression occurring at this time can present with depressed mood, anxiety, and difficulties coping with the infant. Suicide, although not more common in depression, is at the severe end of the spectrum in those with puerperal psychosis and bipolar disorder. The morbidity associated with depression is not confined to women suffering from it; there are also potential negative effects of maternal depression on child development, on older children, and on the woman's partner. These effects include impaired bonding and cognitive and behavioral delays in the infant and difficulties in childhood. Moreover, the increased use of antidepressants in the Western world in combination with the strong promotion of breast feeding also has implications for the dependent infant. What do we know? And, what are the risks? PMID:11547266

Buist, A

2001-03-01

230

Stigma, agency and recovery amongst people with severe mental illness.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that people with a severe mental illness still suffer high levels of stigma and discrimination. However little is known about how people with a severe mental illness manage such stigma. As such, the overall aim of this study is to document and analyze behavioral and psychological strategies of stigma management and control in a sample of people in recovery from a severe mental illness. To meet this aim, we conducted a five-year (2008-2012) qualitative longitudinal study in Washington D.C. Participants were recruited from small-scale congregate housing units ('recovery communities') for people in recovery, provided by a public mental health agency. We conducted regular focus groups at these communities, augmented by in-depth participant observation. Analysis was propelled by the grounded theory approach. A key finding of this study is that stigma and discrimination were not perceived as commonly experienced problems by participants. Instead, stigma and discrimination were perceived as omnipresent potential problems to which participants remained eternally vigilant, taking various preventive measures. Most notable among these measures was a concerted and self-conscious effort to behave and look 'normal'; through dress, appearance, conduct and demeanor. In this endeavor, participants possessed and deployed a considered degree of agency to prevent, avoid or preempt stigma and discrimination. These efforts appeared to have a strong semiotic dimension, as participants reported their developing 'normality' (and increased agentic power) was tangible proof of their ongoing recovery. Participants also routinely discussed severe mental illness in normative terms, noting its similarity to physical illnesses such as diabetes, or to generic mental health problems experienced by all. These behavioral and psychological strategies of normalization appeared to be consolidated within the recovery communities, which provided physical shelter and highly-valued peer support. This fostered participants' ability to face and embrace the outside world with confidence, pride and dignity. PMID:24602965

Whitley, Rob; Campbell, Rosalyn Denise

2014-04-01

231

Development of the PICMIN (picture of mental illness in newspapers): instrument to assess mental illness stigma in print media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this paper is to report on the development and applicability of a standardised and objective measure of stigma\\u000a of mental illness in print media. Picture of mental illness in newspapers (PICMIN) instrument consists of eleven descriptive\\u000a and five analytical categories. It is intended to allow comparison among countries and different studies over time.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The research team conducted

Tea Vukuši? Rukavina; Alexander Nawka; Ognjen Brborovi?; Nikolina Jovanovi?; Martina Rojni? Kuzman; Lucie Nawková; Bibiána Bednárová; Svetlana Žuchová; Marie Hrodková; Zuzana Lattová

232

"Idiots, infants, and the insane": mental illness and legal incompetence  

PubMed Central

Prior to the second world war, most persons confined in insane asylums were regarded as legally incompetent and had guardians appointed for them. Today, most persons confined in mental hospitals (or treated involuntarily, committed to outpatient treatment) are, in law, competent; nevertheless, in fact, they are treated as if they were incompetent. Should the goal of mental health policy be providing better psychiatric services to more and more people, or the reduction and ultimate elimination of the number of persons in the population treated as mentally ill? PMID:15681670

Szasz, T

2005-01-01

233

Stigma, Reflected Appraisals, and Recovery Outcomes in Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on modified labeling theory and the reflected appraisals process and using longitudinal data from 129 mothers and their adult children with schizophrenia, we estimate models of the effects of mothers' stigmatized identity appraisals of their mentally ill children on reflected and self-appraisals, and how appraisals affect outcomes…

Markowitz, Fred E.; Angell, Beth; Greenberg, Jan S.

2011-01-01

234

Cultivating Empathy for the Mentally Ill Using Simulated Auditory Hallucinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors address the issue of cultivating medical students' empathy for the mentally ill by examining medical student empathy pre- and postsimulated auditory hallucination experience. Methods: At the University of Utah, 150 medical students participated in this study during their 6-week psychiatry rotation. The Jefferson Scale of…

Bunn, William; Terpstra, Jan

2009-01-01

235

Using Young Adult Literature To End Discrimination against Mental Illness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to inform junior and senior high school students about mental illness, this document provides educators with an annotated bibliography of young adult fiction and a set of supporting activities. Included in the bibliography are nearly 100 current fiction titles, grouped according to the following topics: anorexia, drugs and alcohol,…

Perez, Kathy

236

African Americans and Recovery from Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This hermeneutic phenomenological study examined the lived experience of African-American persons recovering from serious and persistent mental illness (SPMI). Semi-structured interviews were conducted at three time points (6, 12, and 18 months) with nine African Americans with SPMI. A culturally sensitive perspective informed the data analysis. Interviews were transcribed, read, and coded to cluster thematic aspects in each case and

Marilyn Peterson Armour; William Bradshaw; David Roseborough

2009-01-01

237

Prejudice, Social Distance, and Familiarity with Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the paths between two prejudicial atti- tudes (authoritarianism and benevolence) and a proxy measure of behavioral discrimination (social distance) were examined in a sample drawn from the general public Moreover, the effects of two person variables (familiarity with mental illness and ethnicity) on prej- udice were examined in the path analysis. One hun- dred fifty-one research participants

Patrick W. Corrigan; Annette Backs Edwards; Amy Qreen; Sarah Lickey Thwart; David L. Perm

238

Clinical Psychologists' Perceptions of Persons With Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical psychologists have an ethical responsibility to monitor the nature and appropriateness of their attitudes toward persons with mental illness. This article presents the results of a survey of randomly selected clinical psychologists who were asked to rate the effectiveness, understandability, safety, worthiness, desirability, and similarity (to the rater) of persons with moderate depression, borderline features, and schizophrenia. The results

Lynn M. Servais; Stephen M. Saunders

2007-01-01

239

Prejudice, Social Distance, and Familiarity with Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the paths between two prejudicial attitudes (authoritarianism and benevolence) and a proxy measure of behavioral discrimination (social distance) were examined in a sample drawn from the general public. Moreover, the effects of two person variables (familiarity with mental illness and ethnicity) on prejudice were examined in the path analysis. One hundred fifty-one research participants completed measures of

Patrick W. Corrigan; Annette Backs Edwards; Amy Green; Sarah Lickey Diwan; David L. Penn

2001-01-01

240

Narrative Processing of Entertainment Media and Mental Illness Stigma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the narrative effects of familiarity, transportation, whether a story is factual or fiction, and perceived realism on the stigmatizing behavior of social distancing behavior. A sample of N = 137 participants watched a commercial movie about mental illness. Genre was manipulated to determine whether fiction or nonfiction impacted social distancing behavior. Although there was no effect of

Nicole Mossing Caputo; Donna Rouner

2011-01-01

241

Medications Frequently Used To Treat Persons with Mental Illness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual is intended to assist the rehabilitation professional in planning services for persons with disabilities, such as long-term mental illness, which require treatment with medication, especially psychotropic medications. The compilation of data groups similar medications together and includes such information as purpose of medication, side…

Danser, Helen Lisanby

242

Teaching Students with Emotional Disorders and/or Mental Illnesses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource manual is designed to assist Alberta teachers in the identification and education of students with emotional disorders and/or mental illnesses. It takes a comprehensive look at six emotional disorders. The first section focuses on eating disorders. It describes the characteristics and symptoms of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

243

A Modified ESID Approach to Studying Mental Illness and Homelessness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes 15 years of research on homelessness using a modified ESID approach. The article summarizes the results of several needs assessment studies; describes the development and evolution of alternative treatment models to assist homeless individuals with severe mental illness; summarizes results of three outcome evaluation studies; and discusses issues of treatment implementation, treatment diffusion, and dissemination.

Robert J. Calsyn

2003-01-01

244

Issues of Daily Living for Persons with Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential elements of well being and health include an adequate income from meaningful employment, healthful diet, comfortable and safe housing, and good health. Well being also includes being able to improve one's life through education and the building of good relationships. The absence of these elements is faced by people who have experienced mental illness, and thus, in addition

Paolo del Vecchio; Larry Fricks; J. Rock Johnson

2000-01-01

245

Employment Histories of Homeless Persons with Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the work histories of 7,228 homeless persons with mental illness who were enrolled into the multi-site Access to Community Care and Effective Services and Supports (ACCESS) research demonstration program. Multiple logistic regression analyses suggest that use of vocational services is significantly associated with increased likelihood of paid employment. The role of vocational rehabilitation services in removing persons

Susan A. Pickett-Schenk; Judith A. Cook; Dennis Grey; Michael Banghart; Robert A. Rosenheck; Frances Randolph

2002-01-01

246

The Future of Psychotherapy for Mentally Ill Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Given striking advances in translational developmental neuroscience and its convergence with developmental psychopathology and developmental epidemiology, it is now clear that mental illnesses are best thought of as neurodevelopmental disorders. This simple fact has enormous implications for the nature and organization of psychotherapy…

March, John S.

2009-01-01

247

The Effect of Severe Child Sexual Abuse and Disclosure on Mental Health during Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship among severe child sexual abuse, disclosure, and mental health symptoms during adulthood. The sample consisted of 172 adults who were sexually abused in childhood. The multivariate model showed that respondents in their 30s and 40s who were abused by more than one abuser, who were injured by their abusers, who were abused by a biological

Patrick OLeary; Carol Coohey; Scott D. Easton

2010-01-01

248

Unrecognized Trauma and PTSD among Public Mental Health Consumers with Chronic and Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifetime prevalence of traumatic events and current PTSD was assessed among 142 mental health consumers with serious mental illness served by a psychosocial rehabilitation day program. Lifetime exposure to trauma was high (87%). The rate of PTSD based on the PTSD Checklist (PCL) was also high (19–30% depending on different scoring criteria). Overall, the PCL had strong internal reliability for

Karen J. Cusack; Anouk L. Grubaugh; Rebecca G. Knapp; B. Christopher Frueh

2006-01-01

249

Stigmatizing Attitudes About Mental Illness and Allocation of Resources to Mental Health Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests a social psychological model (Skitka & Tetlock, 1992). Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 28, 491–522; [1993]. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 65, 1205–1223 stating that policy maker decisions regarding the allocation of resources to mental health services are influenced by their attitudes towards people with mental illness and treatment efficacy. Fifty four individuals participated in a

Patrick W. Corrigan; Amy C. Watson; Amy C. Warpinski; Gabriela Gracia

2004-01-01

250

Public Policy and Mental Illnesses: Jimmy Carter's Presidential Commission on Mental Health  

PubMed Central

President Jimmy Carter's Presidential Commission on Mental Health was intended to recommend policies to overcome obvious deficiencies in the mental health system. Bureaucratic rivalries within and between governments; tensions and rivalries within the mental health professions; identity and interest group politics; the difficulties of distinguishing the respective etiological roles of such elements as poverty, racism, stigmatization, and unemployment; and an illusory faith in prevention all influenced the commission's deliberations and subsequent enactment of the short-lived Mental Health Systems Act. The commission's work led to the formulation of the influential National Plan for the Chronically Mentally Ill, but a system of care and treatment for persons with serious mental illnesses was never created. PMID:16201999

Grob, Gerald N

2005-01-01

251

Public perceptions, explanatory models and service utilisation regarding mental illness and mental health care in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree to which the mental health services are utilized depends partly on the public’s views about mental illness and\\u000a the public’s perceptions about the roles of the providers of the services. Therefore, effective implementation of Kenya’s\\u000a mental health policy during the 1990s was likely to be influenced in some degree by how far it was compatible with the public’s

Florence A. Muga; Rachel Jenkins

2008-01-01

252

Estimating the Prevalence of Severe Mental Illness in Mental Health Services in Lombardy (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many countries’ policies give Severe Mental Illness (SMI) priority inside Mental Health Services, researches assessing\\u000a the prevalence of SMI in Mental Health Services according to operational criteria are still few. The aim of this is paper\\u000a is to define annual SMI treated prevalence, describing socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, patterns of care and\\u000a treatment costs of SMI and non-SMI patients.

Antonio Lora; Roberto Bezzi; Arcadio Erlicher

2007-01-01

253

Jail hospitalization of prearraignment patient arrestees with mental illness.  

PubMed

A growing number of individuals with mental illness are receiving psychiatric treatment in the criminal justice system. However, mental health problems facing individuals immediately after arrest and before arraignment have not been adequately studied. In New York City, prearraignment arrestees who require psychiatric hospitalization are temporarily transferred from police custody to correctional custody and admitted to the Bellevue Jail Psychiatry Service (BJPS) for treatment. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the impact of this jail hospitalization on the legal disposition of this vulnerable population. A retrospective chart review was conducted of 204 consecutively admitted male patient-arrestees on the BJPS. Results showed that admission to the BJPS delayed arraignment by an average of 8.03 days, with longer delays for individuals arrested outside of Manhattan. Although these delays are considered acceptable under legal precedent, concerns arise about the therapeutic impact of this practice on newly arrested individuals with severe mental illness. PMID:24618522

Gray, Susan M; Racine, Christopher W; Smith, Christopher W; Ford, Elizabeth B

2014-01-01

254

Mentalization in children exposed to parental methamphetamine abuse: relations to children's mental health and behavioral outcomes.  

PubMed

This study examined the mentalization capabilities of children exposed to parental methamphetamine abuse in relation to symptom underreporting, mental health, and behavioral outcomes. Twenty-six school-aged children in foster care participated in this study. Mentalization was assessed using the My Family Stories Interview (MFSI), a semi-structured interview in which children recalled family stories about a happy, sad or scary and fun time. An established scale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC), a self-report measure, provided information on children's symptom underreporting. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), completed by the children's foster caregivers, assessed children's mental health and behavioral outcomes. Children with higher mentalization were significantly less prone to underreport symptoms. These children had fewer mental health problems and were rated by their foster caregivers as more socially competent. The findings underscore that mentalization could be an important protective factor for children who have experienced parental substance abuse. PMID:20473793

Ostler, Teresa; Bahar, Ozge Sensoy; Jessee, Allison

2010-05-01

255

Psychometric Evaluation of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale for Patients with Mental Illnesses: Measurement Invariance across Time  

PubMed Central

Background The current investigation examined the psychometric properties of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale in a sample of patients with mental illness. In addition to the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity that previous studies have tested for the ISMI, we extended the evaluation to its construct validity and measurement invariance using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Methods Three hundred forty-seven participants completed two questionnaires (i.e., the ISMI and the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale [DSSS]), and 162 filled out the ISMI again after 50.23±31.18 days. Results The results of this study confirmed the frame structure of the ISMI; however, the Stigma Resistance subscale in the ISMI seemed weak. In addition, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity were all satisfactory for all subscales and the total score of the ISMI, except for Stigma Resistance (??=?0.66; ICC?=?0.52, and r?=?0.02 to 0.06 with DSSS). Therefore, we hypothesize that Stigma Resistance is a new concept rather than a concept in internalized stigma. The acceptable fit indices supported the measurement invariance of the ISMI across time, and suggested that people with mental illness interpret the ISMI items the same at different times. Conclusion The clinical implication of our finding is that clinicians, when they design interventions, may want to use the valid and reliable ISMI without the Stigma Resistance subscale to evaluate the internalized stigma of people with mental illness. PMID:24887440

Chang, Chih-Cheng; Wu, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Chih-Yin; Wang, Jung-Der; Lin, Chung-Ying

2014-01-01

256

Does Mental Illness Stigma Contribute to Adolescent Standardized Patients' Discomfort With Simulations of Mental Illness and Adverse Psychosocial Experiences?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…

Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.

2008-01-01

257

Knowledge and attitudes about personalized mental health genomics: narratives from individuals coping with serious mental illness.  

PubMed

The present qualitative study examined the personal accounts, elicited via semi-structured interview, of nine United States military veterans with serious mental illness to describe their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about psychiatric genetics, genetic testing and counseling for mental illness. The aim of the research was to elucidate issues from the perspective of adults with mental illness that may inform the education and training of mental health providers on basic genetic counseling. Findings suggest that participants had some basic knowledge about genetics, were interested in psychiatric genetic testing, and had an awareness of both positive and negative aspects of genetic test results. Participants tended to have overly optimistic ideas about current advances in psychiatric genetics and were motivated to undergo genetic testing for the good of their families and to benefit society. Implications of findings for research and practice are discussed. PMID:21394471

Potokar, Danielle N; Stein, Catherine H; Darrah, Olivia A; Taylor, Brent C; Sponheim, Scott R

2012-10-01

258

Stigma of mental illness, religious change, and explanatory models of mental illness among Jewish patients at a mental-health clinic in North Jerusalem  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 3 months in 2004, 38 recent referrals to a Community Mental Health Clinic in North Jerusalem, a substantially Ultra-Orthodox Jewish neighborhood, were evaluated by the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue. This questionnaire, which includes a 13-item scale measuring stigma towards mental illness, was adapted and translated into Hebrew. Patients with a more religious upbringing expressed a greater sense of stigma

Daniel D. Rosen; David Greenberg; James Schmeidler; Gaby Shefler

2008-01-01

259

The census of India and the mentally ill  

PubMed Central

Context/Background: Epidemiological data have long been considered essential for documenting incidence of disability and planning services. India has been conducting census operations for a long time, and this information may be relevant in the current context. Aims: To document the prevalence of insanity, and discussions about treatment and disability arising out of mental illness in India (1850-1950). Settings and Design: The material used was located at the British Library and the Wellcome Library, London; the Teen Murti Library, Delhi, and web-based archives. Materials and Methods: We have retrieved and summarized the coverage of psychiatric illness in previous census reports from the 19th and 20th century. Statistical Analysis: None, this relies upon historical archives and documents. Results and Conclusions: Differences in incidence and prevalence of insanity, as well as biological and psycho-social factors in the causation, and outcomes, of mental illness are all discussed in these census reports. Comparisons are often drawn to other countries and cultures, and impressions drawn about these differences and similarities. Similar concerns persist to this day. Disabilities and mental illness were not enumerated since the census of 1941 and have been restored only recently, and this lacuna has hampered planning in the post-Independence era. As we debate policy and plan interventions using contemporary census data, it may be useful to remind ourselves of the issues, then and now. PMID:22556434

Sarin, Alok; Jain, Sanjeev

2012-01-01

260

Relationship of the Media to Attitudes toward People with Mental Illness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on results of Community Attitudes Toward Mentally Ill questionnaire given to undergraduates. Significant differences emerged on subscales based ranking of primary source of information about mental illness. Results do not imply causality but rather that electronic media is powerful mechanism for spreading the stigma of mental illness.…

Granello, Darcy Haag; Pauley, Pamela S.; Carmichael, Ann

1999-01-01

261

The First Steps to Learning with a Child Who Has a Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article shares the author's experience in dealing with her child who has a mental illness. The author hopes that other teachers and school administrators would find her experience helpful when dealing with mentally ill children. The author describes the first steps to learning with a child with a mental illness.

Baxter, Joanne

2009-01-01

262

Breaking the Silence: Teaching the Next Generation about Mental Illness. For Middle School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a campaign to end discrimination against mentally ill persons, this educational packet is designed to provide health educators with the material necessary to teach the facts about mental illness. The objectives of the lesson plans are for middle school students to: (1) identify the stigmatizing words associated with mental illness and…

Susin, Janet; Kaplan, Lorraine; Slater, Louise

263

Talking about Mental Illness: A Guide for Developing an Awareness Program for Youth. Community Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains all of the information, support and tools that community members need to implement "Talking About Mental Illness" in their community--an awareness program proven to be effective in bringing about positive change in young people's knowledge about mental illness, and in reducing stigma that surrounds mental illness. The program…

2001

264

Interpersonal contact and the stigma of mental illness: A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title: Interpersonal contact and the stigma of mental illness: A review of the literature Background. Stigmatization of mental illness is widespread in Western societies (Crisp et al., 2001) and other cultures (Chung et al., 2001). Furthermore, researchers have found that stigma is detrimental to the well being of persons with a mental illness (Wahl, 1999), potentially resulting in decreased life

SHANNON M. COUTURE; DAVID L. PENN

2003-01-01

265

Images of Mental Illness in the Media: Identifying Gaps in the Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes research published over the past decade and identifies areas where future research is needed to increase our knowledge of the media's role in fostering or reducing mental illness stigma. The fol- lowing questions are addressed: (1) How is mental ill- ness portrayed by the media? (2) How do media images of mental illness impact individuals' knowl- edge,

Patricia A. Stout; Jorge Villegas; Nancy A. Jennings

2004-01-01

266

Persons with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System: Police Interventions to Prevent Violence and Criminalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of contacts between persons with mental illness and police officers generally focus on outcomes for officers, with limited research on the experiences of persons with mental illness. Direct and indirect violence against persons with mental illness, which is perpetrated by the police, adversely affects the criminal justice system and society. Understanding the ramifications of interactions between police and persons

Oren M. Gur

2010-01-01

267

On-Screen Portrayals of Mental Illness: Extent, Nature, and Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the published literature on the extent, nature, and impacts of portrayal of mental illness in fictional films and television programs. The literature suggests that on-screen portrayals are frequent and generally negative, and have a cumulative effect on the public's perception of people with mental illness and on the likelihood of people with mental illness seeking appropriate help.

Jane Pirkis; R. Warwick Blood; Catherine Francis; Kerry McCallum

2006-01-01

268

Health care professionals attitudes towards individuals diagnosed with severe mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this dissertation is to critically examine the attitudes of health care professionals' attitudes towards individuals with severe mental illness. Severe mental illnesses (SMI) are major social and public health issues in the United States and Canada. Severe mental illness may include individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, major depression, bipolar disorder, mood disorders, and some of the

Sonja Grbevski

2009-01-01

269

Portrayal of Depression and Other Mental Illnesses in Australian Nonfiction Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes Australian media portrayal of mental illnesses, focusing on depression. A random sample of 1,123 items was selected for analysis from a pool of 13,389 nonfictional media items about mental illness collected between March 2000 and February 2001. Depression was portrayed more frequently than other mental illnesses. Items about…

Francis, Catherine; Pirkis, Jane; Blood, R. Warwick; Dunt, David; Burgess, Philip; Morley, Belinda; Stewart, Andrew

2005-01-01

270

Treating Offenders with Mental Illness: A Research Synthesis  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this research synthesis was to examine treatment effects across studies of the service providers to offenders with mental illness. Meta-analytic techniques were applied to 26 empirical studies obtained from a review of 12,154 research documents. Outcomes of interest in this review included measures of both psychiatric and criminal functioning. Although meta-analytic results are based on a small sample of available studies, results suggest interventions with offenders with mental illness effectively reduced symptoms of distress, improving offender’s ability to cope with their problems, and resulted in improved behavioral markers including institutional adjustment and behavioral functioning. Furthermore, interventions specifically designed to meet the psychiatric and criminal justice needs of offenders with mental illness have shown to produce significant reductions in psychiatric and criminal recidivism. Finally, this review highlighted admission policies and treatment strategies (e.g., use of homework), which produced the most positive benefits. Results of this research synthesis are directly relevant for service providers in both criminal justice and mental health systems (e.g., psychiatric hospitals) as well as community settings by informing treatment strategies for the first time, which are based on empirical evidence. In addition, the implications of these results to policy makers tasked with the responsibility of designating services for this special needs population are highlighted. PMID:22471384

Morgan, Robert D.; Flora, David B.; Kroner, Daryl G.; Mills, Jeremy F.; Varghese, Femina; Steffan, Jarrod S.

2011-01-01

271

Department of Human Services Division of Substance Abuse and Mental Health (DSAMH)  

E-print Network

Department of Human Services Division of Substance Abuse and Mental Health (DSAMH) I. Internal Scan for longer periods of time. The division believes these issues will impact both substance abuse and mental will likely need other medical services beyond just substance abuse and mental health issues

Tipple, Brett

272

Children of mothers diagnosed with serious mental illness: patterns and predictors of service use.  

PubMed

Children who have a parent diagnosed with a mental illness are at risk of psychiatric and behavioral problems; yet, these children do not necessarily receive needed services. Research has investigated correlates of child mental health service use, but not for these high-risk children. This study is part of an NIMH-funded, longitudinal investigation and describes child problems, service use, and predictors of service use for 506 children of 252 mothers diagnosed with serious mental illness. Mothers are primarily poor, minority women from urban areas. A multilevel-model approach is used to examine service use for multiple siblings in a family. More than one third of children had received services (from school or mental health agencies) in their lifetimes. Service use was predicted by child demographic characteristics (being male, non-African American, and older), social context variables (more negative life events, less financial satisfaction, and more parenting dissatisfaction), and maternal psychiatric variables (positively by high levels of case management receipt and affective diagnoses, negatively by maternal substance abuse history). In a subsample of "target children," mothers' rating of child behavior problems additionally predicted service use. Implications of results for research and intervention are discussed. PMID:15473103

Mowbray, Carol T; Lewandowski, Lisa; Bybee, Deborah; Oyserman, Daphna

2004-09-01

273

The Cultural Construction of Mental Illness in Prison: A Perfect Storm of Pathology  

PubMed Central

Large numbers of individuals in U.S. prisons meet DSM criteria for severe psychiatric disorder. These individuals also have co-occurring personality and substance abuse disorders, medical conditions, and histories of exposure to social pathologies. Based on nine months of ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. prison, focusing on staff narratives, I utilize interpretivist and constructivist perspectives to analyze how mental health clinicians construct psychiatric disorder among inmates. Discrete categorization of disorders may be confounded by the clinical co-morbidities of inmates and the prison context. Incarcerated individuals’ responses to the institutional context substantially inform mental health staffs’ illness construction and the prison itself is identified as an etiological agent for disordered behaviors. In addition, diagnostic processes are found to be indeterminate, contested, and shaped by interactions with staff. Analysis of illness construction reveals that what is at stake for clinicians is not only provision of appropriate treatment, but also mandates for the safety and security of the institution. Enmeshed in these mandates, prison mental health becomes a particular local form of psychiatric knowledge. This paper contributes to anthropological approaches to mental disorder by demonstrating how local contexts mediate psychiatric knowledge and contribute to the limited ethnographic record of prisons. PMID:23212545

2013-01-01

274

Crisis intervention for people with severe mental illnesses  

PubMed Central

Background A particularly difficult challenge for community treatment of people with serious mental illnesses is the delivery of an acceptable level of care during the acute phases of severe mental illness. Crisis intervention models of care were developed as a possible solution. Objectives To review the effects of crisis intervention models for anyone with serious mental illness experiencing an acute episode, compared with ‘standard care’. Search methods We updated the 1998, 2003 and 2006 searches with a search of the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s Register of trials (2010) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials of crisis intervention models versus standard care for people with severe mental illnesses. Data collection and analysis We independently extracted data from these trials and we estimated risk ratios (RR) or mean differences (MD), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assumed that people who left early from a trial had no improvement. Main results Three new studies have been found since the last review in 2006 to add to the five studies already included in this review. None of the previously included studies investigated crisis intervention alone; all used a form of home care for acutely ill people, which included elements of crisis intervention. However, one of the new studies focuses purely on crisis intervention as provided by Crisis Resolution Home Teams within the UK; the two other new studies investigated crisis houses i.e. residential alternatives to hospitalisation providing home-like environments. Crisis intervention appears to reduce repeat admissions to hospital after the initial ‘index’ crises investigated in the included studies, this was particularly so for mobile crisis teams supporting patients in their own homes. Crisis intervention reduces the number of people leaving the study early, reduces family burden, is a more satisfactory form of care for both patients and families and at three months after crisis, mental state is superior to standard care. We found no differences in death outcomes. Some studies found crisis interventions to be more cost effective than hospital care but all numerical data were either skewed or unusable. No data on staff satisfaction, carer input, complications with medication or number of relapses were available. Authors’ conclusions Care based on crisis intervention principles, with or without an ongoing home care package, appears to be a viable and acceptable way of treating people with serious mental illnesses. If this approach is to be widely implemented it would seem that more evaluative studies are still needed. PMID:22592673

Murphy, Suzanne; Irving, Claire B; Adams, Clive E; Driver, Ron

2014-01-01

275

Children of mentally ill mothers: mental development, somatic growth and social outcome.  

PubMed

A two-year cohort of children of parapartum mentally ill mothers born in Stockholm during the mid-70s was studied with regard to mental development, somatic growth and social outcome. The observation period covered the pre-school-age period and the study was based on Well-Baby-Clinic (WBC) data. The findings were compared with those of matched controls. Nearly 40% of the children of the mentally ill mothers, compared to 3% of the controls, did not live with their biological mothers during the pre-school ages. No difference was found in somatic growth between the index and control children. However, more index children--especially those of addicts and neurotic or temporarily insufficient mothers--than controls suffered from developmental (p less than 0.05) and behavioural (p less than 0.001) disturbances. Fifteen per cent of the index children compared to 5% of the controls were judged by the staff of the WBC to be in need of treatment for psychological problems (p less than 0.01). The results of the present study emphasize the fact that children of mentally ill mothers constitute a high-risk group regarding mental and behavioural development. The study supports earlier research reports claiming that, while parental mental illness constitutes an important indicator of psychiatric risk for the children, the main risk stems from associated psychosocial disturbances in the family. PMID:2455335

Bågedahl-Strindlund, M

1988-01-01

276

Injury risk and severity in a sample of Maryland residents with serious mental illness  

PubMed Central

Adults with serious mental illness experience premature mortality and heightened risk for medical disease, but little is known about the burden of injuries in this population. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 6234 Maryland Medicaid recipients with serious mental illness from 1994–2001. Injuries were classified using the Barell Matrix. Relative risks were calculated to compare injury rates among the study cohort with injury rates in the United States population. Cox proportional hazards modeling with time dependent covariates was used to assess factors related to risk of injury and injury-related death. Forty-three percent of the Maryland Medicaid cohort had any injury diagnosis. Of the 7298 injuries incurred, the most common categories were systemic injuries due to poisoning (10.4%), open wounds to the head/face (8.9%), and superficial injuries, fractures, and sprains of the extremities (8.6%, 8.5%, and 8.4%, respectively). Injury incidence was 80% higher and risk for fatal injury was more than four and a half times higher among the cohort with serious mental illness compared to the general population. Alcohol and drug abuse were associated with both risk of injury and risk of injury-related death with hazard ratios of 1.87 and 4.76 at the P<.05 significance level, respectively. The superficial, minor nature of the majority of injuries is consistent with acts of minor victimization and violence or falls. High risk of fatal and non-fatal injury among this group indicates need for increased injury prevention efforts targeting persons with serious mental illness and their caregivers. PMID:22661205

Daumit, Gail L.; McGinty, Emma Elizabeth; Baker, Susan; Steinwachs, Donald

2013-01-01

277

The Stigmatization of Mental Illness in Children and Parents. Data Trends #124  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" reviews theory and research on stigma and mental health with a focus on the stigmatization of mental illness in the family when either a child or a parent has a mental illness.…

Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2005

2005-01-01

278

Children of a parent with a mental illness: perspectives on need  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being a child of a parent who has a mental illness involves considerable risk to the child's secure attachment and long-term mental health. Parental mental health concerns place children at a significantly greater risk of lower social, psychological and physical health than children in families not affected by mental illness. In this paper, previous research is extended by examining the

Darryl Maybery; Lorraine Ling; Emily Szakacs; Andrea Reupert

2005-01-01

279

The role of self-help programs in the rehabilitation of persons with severe mental illness and substance use disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance abuse treatment programs in the United States frequently incorporate self-help approaches, but little is known about the use of self-help groups by individuals with dual disorders. This paper brings together several current studies on the role of self-help programs in treating substance use disorders among individuals with severe mental illness. These studies indicate that only a minority of individuals

Douglas L. Noordsy; Brenda Schwab; Lindy Fox; Robert E. Drake

1996-01-01

280

Predicting Post-Treatment-Initiation Alcohol Use Among Patients With Severe Mental Illness and Alcohol Use Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few investigators studying alcohol abuse among individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) have examined predictors of posttreatment alcohol outcomes. In the present study, a multivariate approach based on a theoretical model was used to study the relationship between psychosocial factors and post-treatment-initiation alcohol use. Predictors of alcohol use outcomes were examined in 278 individuals diagnosed with a current schizophrenia-spectrum

Clara M. Bradizza; Stephen A. Maisto; Paula C. Vincent; Paul R. Stasiewicz; Gerard J. Connors; Nicole D. Mercer

2009-01-01

281

Mentally ill persons who commit crimes: punishment or treatment?  

PubMed

In many countries, there continue to be conflicting opinions and mechanisms regarding the appropriateness of treatment and/or punishment for mentally ill individuals who commit crimes. The general population is concerned with public safety and often finds it difficult to accept the possibility that a mentally ill individual who commits a crime can be hospitalized and eventually discharged, sometimes after a relatively short time. In most countries the options of incarceration and hospitalization are available in concert. In some, incarceration occurs before hospitalization. In others, hospitalization is first, followed by a prison term. An additional option could be "treatment years." The court would determine the number of years of treatment required, according to the crime. This dilemma has no unequivocal solution. The goal is to reach a balance between the right of the patient to treatment and the responsibility of the courts to ensure public safety. PMID:20305082

Melamed, Yuval

2010-01-01

282

Creative writing in recovery from severe mental illness.  

PubMed

There is evidence that creative writing forms an important part of the recovery experience of people affected by severe mental illness. In this paper, we consider theoretical models that explain how creative writing might contribute to recovery, and we discuss the potential for creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation. We argue that the rehabilitation benefits of creative writing might be optimized through focus on process and technique in writing, rather than content, and that consequently, the involvement of professional writers might be important. We describe a pilot workshop that deployed these principles and was well-received by participants. Finally, we make recommendations regarding the role of creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation for people recovering from severe mental illness and suggest that the development of an evidence base regarding the effectiveness of creative writing is a priority. PMID:23211053

King, Robert; Neilsen, Philip; White, Emma

2013-10-01

283

Implementing residential treatment for prison inmates with mental illness.  

PubMed

There is evidence that mentally ill offenders (MIOs) in prisons commit more infractions, serve longer sentences, and are more likely to be victimized than inmates who are not mentally ill. Humanistic and prison management interests are served if intervention programs minimize symptoms and promote coping and other functional skills. A collaborative agreement was established between Washington State Department of Corrections and a consortium of University of Washington faculty to mutually develop a prison-based program of clinical management and psychoeducation for MIOs. The resulting program is described, along with rationale, planning processes, implementation, and initial evaluation. Most aspects of the planned program are in place. Clinical and behavioral progress by inmates following program participation has been documented. Issues concerning treatment program implementation in prisons are discussed. PMID:12434329

O'Connor, Frederica W; Lovell, David; Brown, Linda

2002-10-01

284

Perceptions of mental illness and related stigma among vietnamese populations: findings from a mixed method study.  

PubMed

Mental-illness-related (MIR) stigma is recognized as a major barrier to health care. Yet very little is known about mental illness and stigma among Vietnamese populations, or how emigration and acculturation processes might affect traditional views. Focus group discussions were conducted with Vietnamese Americans in New Orleans (Louisiana) and Vietnamese nationals in Bui Chu (Vietnam), who shared historical and cultural backgrounds, in 2010 to assess differences in their perceptions of mental illness and stigma. Results show several significant differences in mental illness perceptions between Vietnamese Americans and Vietnamese nationals, while MIR stigma seemed prevalent and understanding of mental illness was low among both groups. PMID:24719272

Do, Mai; Pham, Nhu Ngoc K; Wallick, Stacy; Nastasi, Bonnie Kaul

2014-12-01

285

Family costs associated with severe mental illness and substance use  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The study's aim was to document the economic assistance in the form of money, in-kind contributions, and time spent in care-giving by families of adults with both severe mental illness and substance use disorders.\\u000aMETHODS: A total of 119 families of adults with dual disorders were compared with a similar group of 127 families whose adult children had no

Robin E. Clark

1994-01-01

286

Self-Stigma and Coming Out about One's Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-stigma can undermine self-esteem and self-efficacy of people with serious mental illness. Coming out may be one way of handling self-stigma and it was expected that coming out would mediate the effects of self-stigma on quality of life. This study compares coming out to other approaches of controlling self-stigma. Eighty-five people with…

Corrigan, Patrick W.; Morris, Scott; Larson, Jon; Rafacz, Jennifer; Wassel, Abigail; Michaels, Patrick; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen; Rusch, Nicolas

2010-01-01

287

A qualitative study of filicide by mentally ill mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine descriptions of maternal filicide committed in the context of major mental illness from the frame of reference of a group of perpetrators.Method: Participants were accessed via their treating psychiatrists. A naturalistic paradigm was used. Semi-structured individual interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Theme analysis of the transcripts was done by repeated reading of transcripts and coding utterances, individually,

Josephine Stanton; Alexander Simpson; Trecia Wouldes

2000-01-01

288

Representation of mental illness in Christian self-help bestsellers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined messages about mental illness in 14 contemporary Christian self-help bestsellers. Content analysis revealed that most texts focused upon depression. Categories of textual units included Underlying Assumptions Regarding Depression, Representations of Depression, Roots\\/Causes\\/Reasons for Depression, and Christian Responses to Depression. Demonic influence was the most frequently cited reason for depression. Other reasons included negative cognitions, failure as

Marcia Webb; Kathy Stetz; Kristin Hedden

2008-01-01

289

Impact of Childhood Abuse: Biopsychosocial Pathways Through Which Adult Mental Health is Compromised  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between childhood abuse and adult mental and physical health problems is well documented. Over the lifespan of victims of child abuse, social, psychological and biological consequences of abuse interact in complex ways. A biopsychosocial model is applied to the experiences of adult victims of child abuse to make sense of the complex and varied impacts of child abuse.

Dominiek Coates

2010-01-01

290

WHEN PARENTS WITH SEVERE MENTAL ILLNESS LOSE CONTACT WITH THEIR CHILDREN: ARE PSYCHIATRIC SYMPTOMS OR SUBSTANCE USE TO BLAME?  

PubMed Central

This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month research interviews over a total 30-month period following each participant’s entry into the project. Severe substance abuse was documented as present or absent for the 6-month interval preceding each interview. Results revealed that incidence of severe substance abuse was repeatedly associated with less frequent parent-child contact, even after controlling for psychiatric symptoms, diagnosis, gender, age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Neither psychiatric diagnosis nor symptom severity predicted frequency of child contact when substance abuse was taken into account. Mental health agencies offering parenting classes for adults with serious mental illness should incorporate substance use interventions to reduce loss of child custody and strengthen parent-child relationships. PMID:20011665

Jones, Danson; Macias, Rosemarie Lillianne; Gold, Paul B.; Barreira, Paul; Fisher, William

2009-01-01

291

Juror knowledge and attitudes regarding mental illness verdicts.  

PubMed

We begin with a brief overview of the Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity (NGRI) and Guilty but Mentally Ill (GBMI) verdicts in the United States and then report on a study of qualified jurors (n=96) in which we examined jurors' understanding and attitudes about mental illness verdicts and the disposition of mentally ill defendants. Results indicate that although the jury pool was highly educated, only 4.2 percent of jurors could correctly identify both the definitions and dispositions of defendants found NGRI and GBMI. Jurors with lower educational levels were less likely to identify the dispositional outcome of a GBMI verdict (p<.05). Eighty-four percent of respondents believed that juries should be informed of dispositional outcome before deciding a verdict. Also, 68.4 percent of jurors erroneously believed that a defendant found GBMI could not receive the death penalty. Among jurors who correctly identified the definition of GBMI, those with lower educational levels were more punitive in their attitudes toward disposition of the GBMI defendants, believing they should eventually be sent to prison (p<.05). PMID:15985664

Sloat, Lisa M; Frierson, Richard L

2005-01-01

292

Community violence perpetration and victimization among adults with mental illnesses.  

PubMed

Objectives. In a large heterogeneous sample of adults with mental illnesses, we examined the 6-month prevalence and nature of community violence perpetration and victimization, as well as associations between these outcomes. Methods. Baseline data were pooled from 5 studies of adults with mental illnesses from across the United States (n?=?4480); the studies took place from 1992 to 2007. The MacArthur Community Violence Screening Instrument was administered to all participants. Results. Prevalence of perpetration ranged from 11.0% to 43.4% across studies, with approximately one quarter (23.9%) of participants reporting violence. Prevalence of victimization was higher overall (30.9%), ranging from 17.0% to 56.6% across studies. Most violence (63.5%) was perpetrated in residential settings. The prevalence of violence-related physical injury was approximately 1 in 10 overall and 1 in 3 for those involved in violent incidents. There were strong associations between perpetration and victimization. Conclusions. Results provided further evidence that adults with mental illnesses experienced violent outcomes at high rates, and that they were more likely to be victims than perpetrators of community violence. There is a critical need for public health interventions designed to reduce violence in this vulnerable population. PMID:24524530

Desmarais, Sarah L; Van Dorn, Richard A; Johnson, Kiersten L; Grimm, Kevin J; Douglas, Kevin S; Swartz, Marvin S

2014-12-01

293

SELF-STIGMA AND COMING OUT ABOUT ONE'S MENTAL ILLNESS  

PubMed Central

Self-stigma can undermine self-esteem and self-efficacy of people with serious mental illness. Coming out may be one way of handling self-stigma and it was expected that coming out would mediate the effects of self-stigma on quality of life. This study compares coming out to other approaches of controlling self-stigma. Eighty-five people with serious mental illness completed measures of coming out (called the Coming Out with Mental Illness Scale, COMIS), self-stigma, quality of life, and strategies for managing self-stigma. An exploratory factor analysis of the COMIS uncovered two constructs: benefits of being out (BBO) and reasons for staying in. A mediational analysis showed BBO diminished self-stigma effects on quality of life. A factor analysis of measures of managing self-stigma yielded three factors. Benefits of being out was associated with two of these: affirming strategies and becoming aloof, not with strategies of shame. Implications for how coming out enhances the person’s quality of life are discussed. PMID:23970807

Corrigan, Patrick W.; Morris, Scott; Larson, Jon; Rafacz, Jennifer; Wassel, Abigail; Michaels, Patrick; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen; Rusch, Nicolas

2013-01-01

294

Implementing local projects to reduce the stigma of mental illness.  

PubMed

This editorial describes strategies used and the lessons learned in implementing two local anti-stigma projects. The WPA Programme to Reduce Stigma and Discrimination Because of Schizophrenia established projects to fight stigma in 20 countries, using social-marketing techniques to enhance their effectiveness. First steps at each site were to establish an action committee and conduct a survey of perceived stigma. Based on survey results, the action committees selected a few homogeneous and accessible target groups, such as employers, and criminal justice personnel. Messages and media were selected, tested, and refined. Guidelines are provided for setting up a consumer (service-user) speakers' bureau and for establishing a media-watch organization, which can lobby news and entertainment media to exclude negative portrayals of people with mental illness. Improvements in knowledge about mental illness were effected in high school students and criminal justice personnel. Positive changes in attitude towards people with mental illness were achieved with high school students, but were more difficult to achieve with police officers. Local antistigma projects can be effective in reducing stigma and relatively inexpensive. The involvement of consumers is important in working with police officers. Project organizers should be on the lookout for useful changes that can become permanent. PMID:18444453

Warner, Richard

2008-01-01

295

Mental Illness Training for Long Term Care Staff  

PubMed Central

Objectives Mental illness is prevalent among nursing home residents, but staff are not well trained to deal with it. This research evaluated an Internet mental illness training program designed for certified direct care workers i.e., Nurse Aides (NAs). Pilot research was also conducted to explore effects and acceptance of the same program with a sample of Licensed Health Professionals (LHPs). Design Trial 1: Pre-post randomized treatment and control design for NAs; Trial 2: Quasi-experimental pre-post within-subjects design for LHPs. Setting Both studies were conducted on the Internet. Participants Trial 1: N=62 NAs; Trial 2: N=16 LHPs Intervention Internet-based behavioral skills training and knowledge building, using video modeling with mastery learning instructional design. Measurements Video situations testing and assessment of psycho-social constructs associated with behavior change; follow-up interviews with a sample of treatment NAs. Results Trial 1: MANCOVA analysis showed positive results (p=.003) for knowledge, attitudes, self efficacy, and behavioral intention, with medium-large effect sizes. The training was well received by the users. Trial 2: Paired t-tests showed significant effects on five of six outcome measures, with medium-large effect sizes, and it was well received by the LHP sample. Conclusions Internet training can be an effective approach to help staff work with residents with mental illness. In this research, it showed significant positive effects and was well received by NAs and by LHPs. PMID:21450251

Irvine, A. Blair; Billow, Molly B.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Seeley, John R.

2011-01-01

296

Treatment-resistant chronic mental illness: is it Asperger's syndrome?  

PubMed

In some cases of treatment-resistant chronic mental illness, it may be useful to reconsider the primary diagnosis. Patients with Asperger's syndrome, a rare pervasive developmental disorder, have characteristics such as eccentricities, emotional lability, anxiety, poor social functioning, repetitive behavior, and fixed habits that can mimic symptoms of other illnesses, including schizophrenia spectrum illness, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Their disorganizing anxiety in response to stress, which may be accompanied by increased oddness of speech, can easily be misinterpreted as psychosis. The author describes features of Asperger's syndrome, discusses differential diagnosis, and presents care examples. A habilitative treatment plan that concentrates on modifying the patient's eccentricities into strengths and carefully tailors the work and living situation may be effective with some patients. PMID:1427681

Ryan, R M

1992-08-01

297

Sick in the head? Pathogen concerns bias implicit perceptions of mental illness.  

PubMed

Biases against the mentally ill are historically and cross-culturally pervasive, suggesting they may have an evolutionary basis. The prevailing view is that people seek to distance themselves from the mentally ill because they are perceived as dangerous, violent, and incompetent. However, because of similarities between sickness behaviors and symptoms of some mental disorders, it was hypothesized that mental illness stigma could be partially explained as a function of behavioral immune system biases designed to avoid potential sources of contagion. In two experiments, it was found that mental illness was implicitly associated more with disease than danger. In Experiment 1, this implicit association was exacerbated among people who have had their biological immune system activated by a recent illness. In Experiment 2, experimentally priming disease salience increased implicit association between mental illness and disease. Implications for the evolutionary origins of prejudice and the prevention of mental illness stigma are discussed. PMID:25300049

Lund, Erik M; Boggero, Ian A

2014-01-01

298

Child Physical Abuse and Adult Mental Health: A National Study  

PubMed Central

This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000–2001 and 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16–2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. PMID:22806701

Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S.; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

2013-01-01

299

Do medical models of mental illness relate to increased or decreased stigmatization of mental illness among orthodox Jews?  

PubMed

Research suggests that attributing mental illness to moral causes and perceiving it as dangerous relates to greater stigma, whereas belief in biomedical factors is associated with less. Within the family-centric Orthodox Jewish community, mental illness is perceived as a risk to family functioning and future generations, and is therefore stigmatizing of the individual and their family. Since biomedical models may exacerbate these concerns, we hypothesized that unlike within the general population, biological causal attributions would relate to increased stigma among Orthodox Jews. Consequently, we also examined the attitudinal correlates of stigmatization of obsessive-compulsive disorder within the Orthodox community, as measured by both social distance and family/marriage concerns. Results indicated that, unlike previous research, biological models were associated with greater marriage/family stigma, and did not predict less social distance. This suggests that biomedical approaches may increase salient aspects of stigma within the Orthodox community, and clinical practice should be sensitive to these concerns. PMID:20611054

Pirutinsky, Steven; Rosen, Daniel D; Shapiro Safran, Rachel; Rosmarin, David H

2010-07-01

300

Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness  

PubMed Central

Background Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice. Objective To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. Methods We conducted a systematic review of four databases (1980–2010) and then described and analysed 33 studies in terms of primary diagnosis and instruments used to measure trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders. Results Population-weighted mean prevalence rates in SMI were physical abuse 47% (range 25–72%), sexual abuse 37% (range 24–49%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 30% (range 20–47%). Compared to men, women showed a higher prevalence of sexual abuse in schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, and mixed diagnosis groups labelled as having SMI. Conclusions Prevalence rates of interpersonal trauma and trauma-related disorders were significantly higher in SMI than in the general population. Emotional abuse and neglect, physical neglect, complex PTSD, and dissociative disorders have been scarcely examined in SMI. PMID:23577228

Mauritz, Maria W.; Goossens, Peter J. J.; Draijer, Nel; van Achterberg, Theo

2013-01-01

301

Attitudes of Mental Health Professionals about Mental Illness: A Review of the Recent Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large body of research has documented public attitudes toward people with mental illness. The current attitudes of the people who provide services to those with psychiatric disorders are important to understand, as well. The authors review what studies over the past 5 years reveal about the attitudes of psychiatric professionals. Empirical…

Wahl, Otto; Aroesty-Cohen, Eli

2010-01-01

302

The History of Community Mental Health Treatment and Rehabilitation for Persons with Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review the evolution of the treatments for persons with severe mental illnesses over the past 40 years in three areas: pharmacological and other somatic treatments, psychosomatic treatments, and rehabilitation. Current treatments are based on a much stronger evidence base, are more patient-centered, and are more likely to target autonomy and recovery.

Robert E. Drake; Alan I. Green; Kim T. Mueser; Howard H. Goldman

2003-01-01

303

Families' perceptions of community mental health programs for their relatives with a severe mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Realization that families are providing a major portion of the care for people with a severe and persistent mental illness has led to attempts to form an alliance with such families. Many professionals are aware that there is much cognitive distance between families and the professional community. Bridging this gap requires knowledge of the subjective experience of families. This paper

James G. Hanson; Charles A. Rapp

1992-01-01

304

Mental health in primary care: perceptions of augmented care for individuals with serious mental illness.  

PubMed

Individuals with serious mental illness are at increased risk of developing secondary physical illnesses because of lifestyle and psychiatric treatment-related factors. Many individuals with mental illness participate in primary care clinics, such as Placer County Community Clinic (PCCC), which provides primary care and medication-only psychiatric services to low-income county residents. This qualitative study describes an augmented care program provided to this population at PCCC and explores participant experiences with that program. The augmented program consisted of a full-time social worker and part-time registered nurse working as a team to coordinate care between providers, and provide psychosocial education and illness management support. Previous studies have demonstrated that similar programs result in improved clinical outcomes for people with mental illness but have largely not included perspectives of participants in these pilot programs. This article includes participant reports about medical service needs, barriers, and beneficial elements of the augmented program. Medical service needs included the need to provide input in treatment and to be personally valued. Barriers ranged from doubts about provider qualifications to concerns about medication. Elements of the augmented care program that participants found beneficial were those involving care coordination, social support, and weight management support. PMID:23947541

Nover, Cynthia Helen

2013-01-01

305

Recovery and Severe Mental Illness: Description and Analysis  

PubMed Central

The notion of recovery has been embraced by key stakeholders across Canada and elsewhere. This has led to a proliferation of definitions, models, and research on recovery, making it vitally important to examine the data to disentangle the evidence from the rhetoric. In this paper, first we ask, what do people living with severe mental illness (SMI) say about recovery in autobiographical accounts? Second, what do they say about recovery in qualitative studies? Third, from what we have uncovered about recovery, can we learn anything from quantitative studies about proportions of people leading lives of recovery? Finally, can we identify interventions and approaches that may be consistent or inconsistent with the grounded notions of recovery unearthed in this paper? We found that people with mental illness frequently state that recovery is a journey, characterized by a growing sense of agency and autonomy, as well as greater participation in normative activities, such as employment, education, and community life. However, the evidence suggests that most people with SMI still live in a manner inconsistent with recovery; for example, their unemployment rate is over 80%, and they are disproportionately vulnerable to homelessness, stigma, and victimization. Research stemming from rehabilitation science suggests that recovery can be enhanced by various evidence-based services, such as supported employment, as well as by clinical approaches, such as shared decision making and peer support. But these are not routinely available. As such, significant systemic changes are necessary to truly create a recovery-oriented mental health system. PMID:25007276

Drake, Robert E; Whitley, Rob

2014-01-01

306

Frames of mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies: implications for orthodox mental health care.  

PubMed

This study examines the modes of framing mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies. All Yoruba films on display in a convenient sample of movie rental shops in Ibadan (Nigeria) were sampled for content. Of the 103 films studied, 27 (26.2%) contained scenes depicting mental illness. Psychotic symptoms were the most commonly depicted, while effective treatments were mostly depicted as taking place in unorthodox settings. The most commonly depicted aetiology of mental illness was sorcery and enchantment by witches and wizards, as well as other supernatural forces. Scenes of mental illness are common in Nigerian movies and these depictions-though reflecting the popular explanatory models of Yoruba-speaking Nigerians about mental illness- may impede utilization of mental health care services and ongoing efforts to reduce psychiatry stigma in this region. Efforts to reduce stigma and improve service utilization should engage the film industry. PMID:23670966

Atilola, Olayinka; Olayiwola, Funmilayo

2013-06-01

307

Perceptions of mental health and substance abuse program administrators and staff on service delivery to persons with co-occurring substance abuse and mental disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several initiatives in the past 20 years have been implemented in Los Angeles County to improve service delivery across the mental health and substance abuse treatment systems, with the goal of increasing access to and coordination of services for individuals with co-occurring substance abuse and mental disorders. To examine the current status of service delivery to this population, a survey

Christine E. Grella; Virginia Gil-Rivas; Leslie Cooper

2004-01-01

308

The Picture of Mental Health\\/Illness in the Printed Media in Three Central European Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even in the era of the Internet, printed media are still among the most frequently identified sources of mental health information. Many studies have shown that this information is frequently negative and contributes to stigmatization of people with mental illness. This international comparative study describes the content of media messages about mental health\\/illness in terms of stigma in three Central

Lucie Nawková; Alexander Nawka; Tereza Adámková; Tea Vukuši? Rukavina; Petra Holcnerová; Martina Rojni? Kuzman; Nikolina Jovanovi?; Ognjen Brborovi?; Bibiána Bednárová; Svetlana Žuchová; Michal Miovský; Ji?í Raboch

2011-01-01

309

The Picture of Mental Health\\/Illness in the Printed Media in Three Central European Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even in the era of the Internet, printed media are still among the most frequently identified sources of mental health information. Many studies have shown that this information is frequently negative and contributes to stigmatization of people with mental illness. This international comparative study describes the content of media messages about mental health\\/illness in terms of stigma in three Central

Lucie Nawková; Alexander Nawka; Tereza Adámková; Tea Vukuši? Rukavina; Petra Holcnerová; Martina Rojni? Kuzman; Nikolina Jovanovi?; Ognjen Brborovi?; Bibiána Bednárová; Svetlana Žuchová; Michal Miovský; Ji?í Raboch

2012-01-01

310

The Silent Parent: Developing Knowledge about the Experiences of Parents with Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the lived experiences of parents with mental illness in Australia. It draws on in-depth interviews with parents (n = 10) who have mental illness and provides an analysis of national mental health policies. The analysis of the parents' narratives is essential in building a picture for those involved in the issues associated with…

Boursnell, Melanie

2007-01-01

311

Family Intervention and Services for Persons with Mental Illness in the People's Republic of China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family services and intervention for persons with mental illness is crucial in mental health services. In this paper, the writer attempts to describe family intervention and services for persons with mental illness in the People's Republic of China. Family intervention and services like home-based care, guardianship network, family counseling, and…

Yip, Kam-shing

2005-01-01

312

Practice Wisdom on Custodial Parenting with Mental Illness: A Strengths View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social work principles of strengths, empowerment, and consumer-centered care for persons with mental illness are currently being adapted to broader contexts. This article presents study findings on practice wisdom about custodial parents with mental illness, a potentially increasing group of consumers in light of mental health reform. The research…

Zeman, Laura Dreuth; Buila, Sarah

2006-01-01

313

Predictors of Depressive Symptomatology Among Lower Social Class Caregivers of Persons with Chronic Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the predictors of depressive symptomatology among caregivers of persons with chronic mental illness. Data were collected through in-person interviews with family caregivers of 103 adults with chronic mental illness who were served by mental health case management agencies. The results indicated that insufficiency of overall social support was the most powerful predictor of caregiver depressive symptomatology. In

Li-Yu Song; David E. Biegel; Sharon E. Milligan

1997-01-01

314

Can We Talk? Using Facilitated Dialogue to Positively Change Student Attitudes towards Persons with Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To facilitate the recovery of people with mental illness (consumers of mental health services), social workers must be strengths-focused and believe in the potential for consumer growth and improvement. Unfortunately, social workers often share the negative, stigmatizing view of mental illness held by much of the general population. In this…

Scheyett, Anna; Kim, Mimi

2004-01-01

315

Implicit stigma of mental illness: Attitudes in an evidence-based practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stigma is a barrier to recovery for people with mental illness. Problematically, stigma also has been documented among mental health practitioners. To date, however, most research has focused on explicit attitudes regarding mental illness. Little research has examined implicit attitudes, which has the potential to reveal evaluations residing outside of conscious control or awareness. Moreover, research has tended to use

Laura Grace Stull

2011-01-01

316

Failure of a moral enterprise: Attitude of the public toward mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a critical analysis of published reports on the public’s attitudes toward mental illness and toward deviant conduct. The mental health movement fits the defining criteria for a moral crusade, motivated and supported by moral entrepreneurs. The reported data indicate that the mental illness paradigm, as a formula for understanding and controlling deviant conduct, has not been widely accepted by

Theodore R. Sarbin; James C. Mancuso

1970-01-01

317

Living Arrangements and Social Support: Effects on the Well-Being of Mothers with Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the effects of living arrangements on the well-being of mothers with a serious mental illness. Analyses of data from a National Institute of Mental Health-funded study of an urban, primarily African American sample of 379 mothers with mental illness revealed few differences in parenting or social functioning between mothers…

Mowbray, Carol T.; Bybee, Deborah; Hollingsworth, Leslie; Goodkind, Sara; Oyserman, Daphna

2005-01-01

318

Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

2012-01-01

319

From conduct disorder to severe mental illness: associations with aggressive behaviour, crime and victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Conduct disorder (CD) prior to age 15 has been associated with an increased risk of aggressive behaviour and crime among men with schizophrenia. The present study aimed to replicate and extend this finding in a clinical sample of severely mentally ill men and women. Method. We examined a cohort of in-patients with severe mental illness in one mental health

S. Hodgins; A. Cree; J. Alderton; T. Mak

2008-01-01

320

42 CFR 483.134 - Evaluating whether an individual with mental illness requires specialized services (PASARR/MI).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01...individual with mental illness requires specialized...Section 483.134 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE...a qualified mental health professional, as designated...the diagnosis of mental illness and determine...

2010-10-01

321

Mothers with Serious Mental Illness: Their Experience of "Hitting Bottom"  

PubMed Central

This study sought to understand the experience of “hitting bottom” from the perspective of 32 mothers with serious mental illness. Secondary narrative analysis of 173 stories about experiences related to hitting bottom were identified. Enactment of their perceived mothering roles and responsibilities was compromised when confronted by the worst of illness. Subsequent to women's descent to bottom was their need for a timely and safe exit from bottom. An intense experience in bottom further jeopardized their parenting and treatment self-determination and, for some, their potential for survival. The results suggest that prevention of bottom is feasible with early assessment of the diverse issues contributing to mothers' vulnerabilities. Interventions to lessen their pain may circumvent bottom experiences. Healing necessitates purposeful approaches to minimize the private and public trauma of bottom experiences, nurture growth towards a future, and establish resources to actualize such a life. PMID:22007325

Montgomery, Phyllis; Mossey, Sharolyn; Bailey, Patricia; Forchuk, Cheryl

2011-01-01

322

Does mental illness have a place alongside social and recovery models of mental health in service users' lived experiences? Issues and implications for mental health education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Influential social and recovery models, de-emphasising mental illness understandings, form key mandates for mental health education today. This paper, however, aims to question how responsive these perspectives may be to service users, and seeks to review the value of mental illness concepts to social model approaches. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In the context of recovery model concerns with the associations

Helen Barnes

2011-01-01

323

Appraising the threat of illness: a mental representational approach.  

PubMed

This article (a) describes a mental model underlying initial evaluations of illness signs and (b) reports an experiment demonstrating the model's utility by showing how the model represents evidence of defensiveness among people who test positively for a sign of illness. The model consists of a set of cognitive elements that people consider to evaluate the threat represented by a sign of possible illness. Seventy-two undergraduates were led to believe that they tested positively or negatively on a saliva test for a fictitious risk factor for a disease. In addition, half the participants were told about the existence of a simple preventive treatment for the disease, whereas the others were not. Subsequently the participants answered questions about elements of the threat-appraisal model. Analysis of their responses reveals evidence of defensiveness on several elements of the model. Those testing positively for the risk factor, especially those uninformed about its treatment, minimized threat by (a) increasing their estimates of the false-positive rate of the test, (b) decreasing their estimates of the seriousness of the risk factor, and (c) decreasing their estimates of the extent to which the disease itself is life-threatening. Applications of the model to actual illness threats and the relation between threat-related judgments and health-related behavior are discussed. PMID:3371310

Ditto, P H; Jemmott, J B; Darley, J M

1988-01-01

324

Treatment decisions in major mental illness: weighing the outcomes.  

PubMed

Increased morbidity and mortality in persons with severe mental illness (SMI) are due in large part to preventable medical conditions. An array of factors contributes to the development of obesity and other medical problems, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A holistic approach that integrates both mental and physical health is critical in treating individuals with SMI. The most common causes of disability and death are influenced by behaviors such as smoking, poor nutrition, and lack of exercise. Nonpharmacologic interventions focusing on lifestyle changes can help to prevent and manage psychotropic-associated weight gain. Furthermore, monitoring and treatment guidelines are underutilized in people with SMI; increased use of these guidelines could help to detect and possibly prevent some cardiometabolic problems. PMID:17956150

Vreeland, Betty

2007-01-01

325

Integrated Illness Management and Recovery: A Program for Integrating Physical and Psychiatric Illness Self-Management in Older Persons with Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older persons with severe mental illness (SMI) are prone to the development of multiple physical illnesses, which are often poorly recognized and treated and which can threaten the quality of their lives, diminish their ability to live in the community, and lead to premature mortality. To address this issue, the Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) program, a standardized program for

Kim T. Mueser; Stephen J. Bartels; Meghan Santos; Sarah I. Pratt; Erik G. Riera

2012-01-01

326

The genetics of mental illness: implications for practice.  

PubMed Central

Many of the comfortable and relatively simple models of the nature of mental disorders, their causes and their neural substrates now appear quite frayed. Gone is the idea that symptom clusters, course of illness, family history and treatment response would coalesce in a simple way to yield valid diagnoses. Also too simple was the concept, born of early pharmacological successes, that abnormal levels of one or more neurotransmitters would satisfactorily explain the pathogenesis of depression or schizophrenia. Gone is the notion that there is a single gene that causes any mental disorder or determines any behavioural variant. The concept of the causative gene has been replaced by that of genetic complexity, in which multiple genes act in concert with non-genetic factors to produce a risk of mental disorder. Discoveries in genetics and neuroscience can be expected to lead to better models that provide improved representation of the complexity of the brain and behaviour and the development of both. There are likely to be profound implications for clinical practice. The complex genetics of risk should reinvigorate research on the epidemiology and classification of mental disorders and explain the complex patterns of disease transmission within families. Knowledge of the timing of the expression of risk genes during brain development and of their function should not only contribute to an understanding of gene action and the pathophysiology of disease but should also help to direct the search for modifiable environmental risk factors that convert risk into illness. The function of risk genes can only become comprehensible in the context of advances at the molecular, cellular and systems levels in neuroscience and the behavioural sciences. Genetics should yield new therapies aimed not just at symptoms but also at pathogenic processes, thus permitting the targeting of specific therapies to individual patients. PMID:10885164

Hyman, S. E.

2000-01-01

327

The Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Adult Suicidal Behavior Among Rural Former Mental Health Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the relationship between childhood abuse and adult suicidal behavior among former mental health patients in a rural area. Historical data from 1999-2005 were used and analyzed from an outpatient mental health center. Suicidal ideation and attempts were found to be significantly correlated to all types of childhood abuse, such as mental, physical, and sexual. We conclude with

Karen E. Richards; Irma A. Molina

2007-01-01

328

Soldier Characteristics, Alcohol Abuse Risk, and Mental Health Risk as Treatment Predictors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combat exposure and other factors associated with military service may place soldiers at increased risk of substance use and mental health issues. We examine the importance of soldier characteristics and risk for alcohol abuse and mental health issues in predicting entry into treatment for alcohol abuse and treatment for mental health issues among active duty soldiers (n = 43,342). Results

A. Monique Clinton-Sherrod; Kelle Barrick; Deborah A. Gibbs

2011-01-01

329

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. March/April 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"SAMHSA News" is the national newsletter of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Published six times a year (bimonthly) by SAMHSA's Office of Communications, SAMHSA News contains information about the latest substance abuse and mental health treatment and prevention practices, recent statistics on mental health and…

Goodman, Deborah, Ed.

2008-01-01

330

Prisoners signify: a political discourse analysis of mental illness in a prison control unit.  

PubMed

Increasingly, US prisoners diagnosed with mental illness are housed in control units, the most restrictive form of confinement in the US prison system. This situation has led to intense debate over the legal, ethical and clinical status of mental illness. This is a semiotic struggle with profound effects, yet most related work treats mental illness as a neutral, individual variable. Few analyses locate mental illness within a larger sociopolitical context. Fewer still focus on discursive practice. None critically analyze the accounts of control unit prisoners, who talk about extreme marginality and risk for victimization. This paper has two aims: (i) to develop a systematic method of analysis that accounts for signification as discourse-in-action; and (ii) to show how prisoners' signification of mental illness articulates agency through and against marginalizing discourse. Political discourse analysis demonstrates how control unit prisoners with psychiatric diagnoses signify mental illness, and articulate safer identifications in the process. PMID:17718746

Cloyes, Kristin Gates

2007-09-01

331

Homicidal maniacs and narcissistic parasites: stigmatization of mentally ill persons in the movies.  

PubMed

The portrayal of mentally ill persons in movies and television programs has an important and underestimated influence on public perceptions of their condition and care. Movie stereotypes that contribute to the stigmatization of mentally ill persons include the mental patient as rebellious free spirit, homicidal maniac, seductress, enlightened member of society, narcissistic parasite, and zoo specimen. The authors suggest that mental health professionals can fight this source of stigma by increasing their collaboration with patient advocacy groups in monitoring negative portrayals of mentally ill people, using public information campaigns such as Mental Illness Awareness Week to call attention to the process of stigmatization, and supporting accurate dramatic and documentary depictions of mental illness. PMID:1959896

Hyler, S E; Gabbard, G O; Schneider, I

1991-10-01

332

The SMILES program: a group program for children with mentally ill parents or siblings.  

PubMed

The Simplifying Mental Illness + Life Enhancement Skills program, for children with a mentally ill parent or sibling, is a 3-day program that aims to increase children's knowledge of mental illness and to better equip them with life skills considered beneficial for coping in their family. Self-report data from 25 children who attended 3 of these programs, in Canada and Australia, indicate that these aims were achieved. Their parents also report benefits for their children. PMID:15291714

Pitman, Erica; Matthey, Stephen

2004-07-01

333

Would more mental illness services help general practitioners manage their difficult patients?  

PubMed Central

It is argued that the type of local specialist services and the extent of their use are largely the outcome of negotiations between general practitioners and their patients. A study was carried out on behalf of a health care planning team for the mentally ill to discover whether more mental illness services would help general practitioners manage their difficult patients. The findings led to some developments in problem-oriented services but not mental illness services in general. PMID:7310761

Broome, Annabel K.; Kat, Bernard J. B.

1981-01-01

334

The stigma of mental illness in Southern Ghana: attitudes of the urban population and patients’ views  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Stigma is a frequent accompaniment of mental illness leading to a number of detrimental consequences. Most research into the\\u000a stigma connected to mental illness was conducted in the developed world. So far, few data exist on countries in sub-Saharan\\u000a Africa and no data have been published on population attitudes towards mental illness in Ghana. Even less is known about the

Antonia Barke; Seth Nyarko; Dorothee Klecha

335

South African Muslim Faith Healers Perceptions of Mental Illness: Understanding, Aetiology and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The important role that religious beliefs may have on perceptions of mental illness cannot be ignored. Many religions including\\u000a Islam advocate witchcraft and spirit possession—all of which are thought to influence the behaviour of a person so as to resemble\\u000a that of a mentally ill individual. Thus this research explored Muslim Faith Healers perceptions of mental and spiritual illness\\u000a in

Yaseen Ally; Sumaya Laher

2008-01-01

336

The HIV epidemic among individuals with mental illness in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with depression and other mental illness comprise a growing proportion of individuals living with HIV in the United\\u000a States; at the same time, the prevalence of HIV among mentally ill individuals is at least seven times higher than in the\\u000a general population. Individuals with mental illness are particularly vulnerable to infection with HIV because of several factors,\\u000a including the

Sheri D. Weiser; William R. Wolfe; David R. Bangsberg

2004-01-01

337

Cytokines and the neurodevelopmental basis of mental illness  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies suggest that prenatal exposure to different types of viral or bacterial infections may be associated with similar outcomes; i.e., an increased risk of mental illness disorders in the offspring. Infections arising from various causes have similar debilitating effects in later life, suggesting that the exact pathogen may not be the critical factor in determining the neurological and cognitive outcome in the offspring. Instead, it is thought that response of the innate immune system, specifically the increased production of inflammatory cytokines, may be the critical mediator in altering fetal brain development pre-disposing the offspring to mental illness disorders later in life. Inflammatory cytokines are essential for normal brain development. Factors such as the site of cytokine production, a change in balance between anti- and pro- inflammatory cytokines, placental transfer of cytokines, the effects of cytokines on glial cells, and the effects of glucocorticoids are important when evaluating the impact of maternal infection on fetal brain development. Although it is clear that cytokines are altered in the fetal brain following maternal infection, further evidence is required to determine if cytokines are the critical factor that alters the trajectory of brain development, subsequently leading to postnatal behavioral and neurological abnormalities. PMID:24146637

Ratnayake, Udani; Quinn, Tracey; Walker, David W.; Dickinson, Hayley

2013-01-01

338

E-Cigarette Use among Smokers with Serious Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

Background We examined electronic cigarette (EC) use, correlates of use, and associated changes in smoking behavior among smokers with serious mental illness in a clinical trial. Methods Adult smokers were recruited during acute psychiatric hospitalization (N?=?956, 73% enrollment among approached smokers) in the San Francisco Bay Area between 2009–2013. At baseline, participants averaged 17 (SD?=?10) cigarettes per day for 19 (SD?=?14) years; 24% intended to quit smoking in the next month. Analyses examined frequency and correlates of EC use reported over the 18-month trial and changes in smoking behavior by EC use status. Findings EC use was 11% overall, and by year of enrollment, increased from 0% in 2009 to 25% in 2013. In multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of EC use was significantly greater with each additional year of recruitment, for those aged 18–26, and for those in the preparation versus precontemplation stage of change, and unlikely among Hispanic participants. EC use was unrelated to gender, psychiatric diagnosis, and measures of tobacco dependence at baseline. Further, over the 18-month trial, EC use was not associated with changes in smoking status or, among continued smokers, with reductions in cigarettes per day. Interpretation Within a clinical trial with smokers with serious mental illness, EC use increased over time, particularly among younger adults and those intending to quit tobacco. EC use was unrelated to changes in smoking. The findings are of clinical interest and warrant further study. PMID:25419703

Prochaska, Judith J.; Grana, Rachel A.

2014-01-01

339

Law & psychiatry: Gun laws and mental illness: how sensible are the current restrictions?  

PubMed

This column describes federal and state laws to restrict access to firearms among people with mental illness. The contribution to public safety of these laws is likely to be small because only 3%-5% of violent acts are attributable to serious mental illness, and most do not involve guns. The categories of persons with mental illnesses targeted by the laws may not be at higher risk of violence than other subgroups in this population. The laws may deter people from seeking treatment for fear of losing the right to possess firearms and may reinforce stereotypes of persons with mental illnesses as dangerous. PMID:20591996

Appelbaum, Paul S; Swanson, Jeffrey W

2010-07-01

340

Vocational rehabilitation for people with severe mental illness  

PubMed Central

Background Unemployment rates are high amongst people with severe mental illness, yet surveys show that most want to work. Vocational rehabilitation services exist to help mentally ill people find work. Traditionally, these services have offered a period of preparation (Pre-vocational Training), before trying to place clients in competitive (i.e. open) employment. More recently, some services have begun placing clients in competitive employment immediately whilst providing on-the-job support (Supported Employment). It is unclear which approach is most effective. Objectives To assess the effects of Pre-vocational Training and Supported Employment (for people with severe mental illness) against each other and against standard care (in hospital or community). In addition, to assess the effects of: (a) special varieties of Pre-vocational Training (Clubhouse model) and Supported Employment (Individual Placement and Support model); and (b) techniques for enhancing either approach, for example payment or psychological intervention. Search methods Searches were undertaken of CINAHL (1982-1998), The Cochrane Library (Issue 2, 1999), EMBASE (1980-1998), MEDLINE (1966-1998) and PsycLIT (1887-1998). Reference lists of eligible studies and reviews were inspected and researchers in the field were approached to identify unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of approaches to vocational rehabilitation for people with severe mental illness. Data collection and analysis Included trials were reliably selected by a team of two raters. Data were extracted separately by two reviewers and cross-checked. Authors of trials were contacted for additional information. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of homogeneous dichotomous data were calculated. A random effects model was used for heterogeneous dichotomous data. Continuous data were presented in tables (there were insufficient continuous data for formal meta-analysis). A sensitivity analysis was performed, excluding poorer quality trials. Main results Eighteen randomised controlled trials of reasonable quality were identified. The main finding was that on the primary outcome (number in competitive employment) Supported Employment was significantly more effective than Pre-vocational Training; for example, at 18 months 34% of people in Supported Employment were employed versus 12% in Pre-vocational Training (RR random effects (unemployment) 0.76 95% CI 0.64 to 0.89, NNT 4.5). Clients in Supported Employment also earned more and worked more hours per month than those in Pre-vocational Training. There was no evidence that Pre-vocational Training was more effective in helping clients to obtain competitive employment than standard community care. Authors’ conclusions Supported employment is more effective than Pre-vocational Training in helping severely mentally ill people to obtain competitive employment. There is no clear evidence that Pre-vocational Training is effective. PMID:11406069

Crowther, Ruth; Marshall, Max; Bond, Gary R; Huxley, Peter

2014-01-01

341

Human Rights Act 1998 and mental health legislation: implications for the management of mentally ill patients.  

PubMed

In the management of mentally ill patients, there is a tension between protecting the rights of individual patients and safeguarding public safety. The Human Rights Act 1998 emphasises on the former while two recent white papers focus on the latter. This article first examines the extent to which the Mental Health Act 1983 is consistent with the Human Rights Act. It argues that while the recent white papers exploit the gaps in the judgments given by the European courts, its compatibility with human rights is very doubtful. The practical implications of the Human Rights Act for doctors are discussed. PMID:11884706

Leung, W-C

2002-03-01

342

Mental illness stigma and willingness to seek mental health care in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  It is often assumed that individual stigmatizing attitudes toward the mentally ill are linked to stigmatizing attitudes in\\u000a the social milieu and that both, individual and social stigmatizing attitudes are major barriers to mental health treatment\\u000a seeking. This study aims to examine these assumptions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Data from the 2005–2006 Eurobarometer general population survey (N = 29,248) are used to examine the association of

Ramin Mojtabai

2010-01-01

343

Coverage of mental health and substance abuse services under a single-payer health care system.  

PubMed

Health care reform proposals based on a single-payer system of health care insurance were introduced in the U.S. Congress in 1992 and 1993 but were superseded by the Clinton Administration's health care reform proposal, which was based on managed competition. In a single-payer system, the government collects all health care funding and pays private- and public-sector providers; similar providers are paid the same rate. Other features include consumer choice of providers, distribution of risk of high utilization over the entire nation, and control of health care expenses via an annual national health care budget. Such proposals cover outpatient, inpatient, and long-term care and case management services for mental illness and substance abuse disorders, call for periodic utilization review of continuing mental health care, and eliminate the distinction between public and private services based on limits of coverage. The last provision particularly affects severely or chronically mentally ill persons who are likely to exhaust their private insurance coverage. PMID:7989025

Shaffer, E R; Cutler, A J; Wellstone, P D

1994-09-01

344

Mental health care in the community: An analysis of contemporary public attitudes towards, and public representations of, mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public tolerance of, and non-discrimination towards, people with mental health problems are key factors on which success in achieving the goal of community-based mental health care depends. This paper revisits Thomas Scheff' s (1966) sociological theory of mental illness, and tests elements of this thorough critical review of recent UK literature relating to public attitudes towards, and media representations, of

Ben Hannigan

1999-01-01

345

Effects of the Vermont Mental Health and Substance Abuse Parity Law. Rockville, MD: Center for Mental Health Services, Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study looks at the first two to three years of parity for mental health and substance abuse benefits in Vermont and concludes that parity was achieved in the state. Increased use of managed care helped make parity affordable but may have reduced access and utilization for some services and beneficiaries. Parity did not appear to have an effect on

Margo Rosenbach; Tim Lake; Cheryl Young; Wendy Conroy; Brian Quinn; Julie Ingels; Brenda Cox; Anne Peterson; Lindsay Crozier

2003-01-01

346

The effects of news stories on the stigma of mental illness.  

PubMed

The media are often identified as partially responsible for increasing the stigma of mental illness through their negatively focused representations. For many years, training programs have educated journalists on how to report on mental illness to reduce stigma. This purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits of reading a positive, neutral or a negative journalism article that discusses mental illness. Consenting adult participants were randomly assigned to read one of three published articles about recovery from mental illness, a dysfunctional public mental health system, or dental hygiene. The participants completed measures immediately before and after the intervention; the measures administered evaluated stigmatizing and affirming attitudes toward people with mental illness. Public stigma was assessed using the nine-item Attribution Questionnaire and the Stigma Through Knowledge Test (STKT). The STKT is a measure of mental illness stigma less susceptible to the impact of social desirability. Affirming attitudes represent public perceptions about recovery, empowerment, and self-determination, indicated as important to accepting and including people with psychiatric disabilities into society. Significant differences were observed between the articles on recovery and dysfunctional public mental health system, as well as the control condition, on the measures of stigma and affirming attitudes. The recovery article reduced stigma and increased affirming attitudes, whereas the dysfunctional public mental health system article increased stigma and decreased affirming attitudes. Not all journalistic stories have positive effects on attitudes about mental illness. PMID:23407209

Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Michaels, Patrick J

2013-03-01

347

Picturing Recovery: A Photovoice Exploration of Recovery Dimensions Among People With Serious Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

Objectives Recovery from mental disorders encompasses multiple interrelated dimensions. This study used photovoice to explore how individuals with serious mental illness and a history of substance abuse and homelessness envisioned their recovery. A dimensional recovery model was applied to examine how the interrelationships between recovery dimensions supported consumers’ recovery journeys. Methods Photovoice is a participatory research method that empowers people by giving them cameras to document their experiences and inform social action. Sixteen consumers recruited from two supported housing agencies participated in six weekly sessions to which they brought photographs that they took of persons and events in their lives that reflected recovery and wellness and discussed the meaning of the photographs in individual interviews and group sessions. The authors used pile-sorting, grounded theory, and a deductive template-analytic technique to analyze narrative and visual data. Results Spirituality, life achievements, and receiving and providing support were the most salient themes that emerged from the analysis and illustrate beneficial interrelationships between recovery dimensions. Participants discussed how they relied on their spirituality to support their sobriety and cope with addictions—aspects of clinical recovery. Educational and vocational achievements represented gains in functioning that contributed to increasing self-esteem and self-agency and reducing self-stigma. Social dimensions of recovery, such as receiving and giving support to loved ones, rippled through consumers’ lives reducing isolation and enhancing their self-worth. Conclusions The findings illustrate the value of participatory methods to understand what recovery signified to people with serious mental illness and how understanding the interrelationships between recovery dimensions can inform recovery-oriented services. PMID:23728528

Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Nicasio, Andel; Whitley, Rob

2013-01-01

348

A Research Agenda Concerning Depictions of Mental Illness in Children's Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To review research on depictions of mental illness in mass media directed to children and to identify requirements for further research in this important field. Methods: The authors identified published research on depictions of mental illness in children's media and the important strengths and weaknesses of such research. Results: Only…

Coverdale, John H.; Nairn, Raymond

2006-01-01

349

Professional Psychology's Role in the Treatment of the Seriously and Persistently Mentally Ill and Their Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of professional psychology's involvement with the chronically mentally ill population and their families is reviewed. Contemporary developments which will impact on professional psychology during the 1990's and potentially increase our involvement with this disabled population are described. The article concludes with a discussion of a model useful to the professional psychologist for conceptualizing serious mental illness and a

William I. Dorfman

1992-01-01

350

Gender and Opinions about Mental Illness as Predictors of Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates relationship between students' opinions about mental illness and their attitudes toward seeking professional help, while considering gender as a predictor. Results indicate that females had more positive attitudes toward seeking help. People's opinions about mental illness account for significant percentage of positive help-seeking…

Leong, Frederick T. L.; Zachar, Peter

1999-01-01

351

The Mentally Ill Offender Treatment and Crime Reduction Act of 2004: problems and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the United States has engaged in record levels of incarceration, there has been a concomitant rise in the number of persons incarcerated afflicted with severe mental illness (SMI) including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. Legislation aimed at diverting SMI persons away from incarceration and toward treatment has been recently developed. This paper reviews the Mentally Ill Offender Treatment

Christine M. Litschge; Michael G. Vaughn

2009-01-01

352

Maternal Mental Illness and the Safety and Stability of Maltreated Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Children of mothers with mental illness are at risk for multiple untoward outcomes, including child maltreatment and foster care placement. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the association between maternal mental illness and children's long term safety and stability. Methods: A multi-sector administrative dataset from the…

Kohl, Patricia L.; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett

2011-01-01

353

Building a Bridge of Trust: Collaborative Assessment With a Person With Serious Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborative assessment utilizes psychological testing to help people make positive changes in their lives. Limited research has evaluated the utility of collaborative assessment for persons with serious mental illness. This case example uses the Personality Assessment Inventory to illustrate the usefulness of collaborative assessment with a person with serious mental illness. This approach informed not only diagnostic considerations but also

Joshua A. Tiegreen; Loretta E. Braxton; Eric B. Elbogen; Daniel Bradford

2012-01-01

354

Impact of Parental Severe Mental Illness: Ethical and Clinical Issues for Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws attention to the issue of parental severe mental illness and the ethical and clinical implications for counselors who work with this population. Parents with mental illness face a multitude of life challenges including, but not limited to, parenting difficulties, medication and hospitalization, custody and placement of their…

Spiegelhoff, Sarah F.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel

2011-01-01

355

Psychosocial Outcomes for Adult Children of Parents with Severe Mental Illnesses: Demographic and Clinical History Predictors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children of parents with mental illness are at risk of psychiatric and behavioral problems. Few studies have investigated the psychosocial outcomes of these children in adulthood or the parental psychiatric history variables that predict resilience. From a sample of 379 mothers with serious mental illnesses, 157 women who had at least one adult…

Mowbray, Carol T.; Bybee, Deborah; Oyserman, Daphna; MacFarlane, Peter; Bowersox, Nicholas

2006-01-01

356

Associations Between Caregiving and Health Outcomes Among Parents of Children with Mental Illness: An Attachment Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the associations between attachment, caregiving, and health outcomes (perceptions of somatic and depressive symptoms) in a sample of 194 parents who have a child with mental illness. Securely attached parents reported using more comforting behavior and tactile communication with their children with mental illness. Parents with a fearful attachment reported using more overinvolved and egocentric caregiving, as

Lisa Farinelli; Laura K. Guerrero

2011-01-01

357

Teaching Abnormal Psychology to Improve Attitudes toward Mental Illness and Help-Seeking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes…

Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.

2012-01-01

358

Talking about Mental Illness: A Guide for Developing an Awareness Program for Youth. Teacher's Resource.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains all of the information, support and tools teachers will need to implement "Talking about Mental Illness" in their classroom--an awareness program that has been proven to bring about positive change in students' knowledge and attitudes about mental illness. The program supports teachers in four essential ways: it outlines the…

2001

359

Mainland Chinese Family Caregiver Narratives in Mental Illness: Disruption and Continuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employs a phenomenological hermeneutic approach to analyse narratives written by mainland Chinese people who care for a family member with serious mental illness. Locating culture at the centre of the analysis, the study explicates and explores the salient themes and subthemes in texts that were originally published in a monthly psychoeducational newsletter. Analysis reveals that mental illness constitutes

Guy Ramsay

2010-01-01

360

Effects of Simulated Learning and Facilitated Debriefing on Student Understanding of Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational therapy educators have studied various methods regarding student attitudes towards people with disabling conditions. Among the methods that have been studied is simulated learning. This paper describes the effects of a simulated learning exercise and facilitated debriefing on occupational therapy student understanding of mental illness. Results indicate that students had significant change relative to understanding that mental illnesses are

M. Beth Merryman

2010-01-01

361

An exploration of the experience of caring for the mentally ill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family caregivers are confronted with the often arduous task of attending to the needs of their mentally ill relatives and have become increasingly prominent in society following the Australian deinstitutionalisation movement. The discourse pertaining to the experiences of mental illness caregivers is particularly negative and is largely generated from international research. While other aspects of the caregiving experience have been

Belinda A Urquhart

2011-01-01

362

Effects of Exposure to Mental Illness in Role-Play on Undergraduate Student Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Education is integral to reducing stigma toward the mentally ill. Medical educators have a key role in delivering education that reduces that stigma. Undergraduate psychiatric training and specific education programs are both effective in reducing stigma. However, many students are exposed to concepts of mental illness at a much earlier stage in their education. No previous study has explored

Lesley M. Roberts; Connie Wiskin; Andrea Roalfe

363

Changing mental illness stigma as it exists in the real world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons with mental illness frequently encounter public stigma. This review seeks to clarify mental illness stigma and discuss methods for changing stigma in the real world. Following an overview of public stigma we discuss the main avenues recognised for changing stigma in the real world: protest, education and contact; and give examples of anti-stigma strategies in practice. Finally, we discuss

Patrick W. Corrigan; John R. O'Shaughnessy

2007-01-01

364

Work Experiences of People with Mental Illness in Malaysia: A Preliminary Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…

Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng

2011-01-01

365

Schizophrenia is among the most debilitating of mental illnesses (NARSAD 2003). Although relatively rare,  

E-print Network

CHANCE 11 Beginnings Schizophrenia is among the most debilitating of mental illnesses (NARSAD 2003, and personal effects. The National Institute of Mental Health estimates that schizophrenia is responsible for 2 offer relief of some symptoms, schizophrenia remains an incurable, lifelong illness and most patients

Horton, Nicholas

366

Adolescents' attitudes towards mental illness: relationship between components and sex differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a vignette format, components of attitudes towards mental illness were assessed in 413 high school students. The results suggest that while attitude components are generally not highly related, perceived severity of mental illness is positively related to attribution to physical causes, and negatively related to social acceptability. Beliefs in psychosocial etiology and psychosocial treatment correlate positively with optimistic beliefs

Ross M. G. Norman; Ashok K. Malla

1983-01-01

367

Stage movement following a 5A's intervention in tobacco dependent individuals with serious mental illness (SMI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking among individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) creates significant health problems. This study explored stage of change transitions over time among smokers with serious mental illness (SMI) and how dose of a brief intervention and other psychosocial variables were related to stage transitions. Participants were a subsample of 110 patients who participated in a larger controlled trial (Dixon, et

Carlo C. DiClemente; Janine C. Delahanty; Miranda G. Kofeldt; Lisa Dixon; Richard Goldberg; Alicia Lucksted

2011-01-01

368

Media frames of mental illnesses: The potential impact of negative frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Mass media (e.g., television news and entertainment programming, films and newspapers) are a primary source for information about mental illnesses. Aims: The possible effects of media coverage and predominant frames in which mental illnesses are portrayed are discussed. Methods: Framing is defined as the means by which media information is organized, presented and interpreted. The literature focused on media

ELAINE M. SIEFF

2003-01-01

369

28 CFR 115.383 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...victims and abusers. 115.383 Section 115.383 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Medical and Mental Care § 115.383 Ongoing...

2012-07-01

370

28 CFR 115.83 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...victims and abusers. 115.83 Section 115.83 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Medical and Mental Care § 115.83...

2013-07-01

371

28 CFR 115.383 - Ongoing medical and mental health care for sexual abuse victims and abusers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...victims and abusers. 115.383 Section 115.383 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Medical and Mental Care § 115.383 Ongoing...

2013-07-01

372

'Individualism-collectivism' as an explanatory device for mental illness stigma.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is investigate whether the cross-cultural value paradigm 'individualism-collectivism' is a useful explanatory model for mental illness stigma on a cultural level. Using snowball sampling, a quantitative questionnaire survey of 305 individuals from four UK-based cultural groups (white-English, American, Greek/Greek Cypriot, and Chinese) was carried out. The questionnaire included the 'Community Attitudes to Mental Illness scale' and the 'vertical-horizontal individualism-collectivism scale'. The results revealed that the more stigmatizing a culture's mental illness attitudes are, the more likely collectivism effectively explains these attitudes. In contrast, the more positive a culture's mental illness attitudes, the more likely individualism effectively explains attitudes. We conclude that a consideration of the individualism-collectivism paradigm should be included in any future research aiming to provide a holistic understanding of the causes of mental illness stigma, particularly when the cultures stigmatization levels are particularly high or low. PMID:22837106

Papadopoulos, Chris; Foster, John; Caldwell, Kay

2013-06-01

373

Newspaper coverage of mental illness in the UK, 1992-2008  

PubMed Central

Background Recent years have seen a number of attempts to reduce the stigma related to mental illness; the media can play a significant role in perpetuating this stigma. This paper analyses trends in newspaper coverage of mental illness in the UK between 1992-2008 across a range of psychiatric diagnoses. Methods A content analysis was performed on a sample of articles (n = 1361) about mental illness in a range of UK newspapers in 1992, 2000, and 2008. Results There was a significant proportional reduction in negative articles about mental illness between 1992 and 2008, and a significant increase in articles explaining psychiatric disorders. Coverage improved for depression but remained largely negative for schizophrenia. Conclusions Newspaper coverage of mental illness became less stigmatising overall in the 1990s and 2000s, but this was not true for all diagnoses. PMID:21992410

2011-01-01

374

New roads paved on losses: photovoice perspectives about recovery from mental illness.  

PubMed

People with serious mental illness face stigma that interferes with recovery. Photovoice is a method that integrates photography and writing, providing a valuable means for capturing the narratives of people with mental illness whose voices are often marginalized. The purpose of the present article is to explore the meaning of recovery for individuals with serious mental illness based on a qualitative analysis of a new photovoice-based intervention, Recovery Narrative Photovoice. This intervention focuses on promoting the process of recovery and sense of identity through the creation of empowering visual images and narratives of recovery for individuals with serious mental illness. In this article, we present iconographic and thematic analysis for the 23 photovoice works from two pilots of the Recovery Narrative Photovoice intervention. Results reveal several themes, including metaphors for mental illness, associated losses, recovery strategies, and recovery outcomes. A final theme pertains to recovery messages learned from the recovery process. PMID:25168704

Mizock, Lauren; Russinova, Zlatka; Shani, Roni

2014-11-01

375

Smoking, mental illness and socioeconomic disadvantage: analysis of the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing  

PubMed Central

Background High rates of smoking and lower rates of smoking cessation are known to be associated with common mental disorders such as anxiety and depression, and with individual and community measures of socioeconomic status. It is not known to what extent mental illness and socioeconomic status might be jointly associated with smoking behaviour. We set out to examine the relationship between mental illness, measures of socioeconomic disadvantage and both current smoking and smoking cessation rates. Methods We used data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing to examine the relationship between mental illness, socioeconomic status and both current smoking and smoking cessation. We used cross-classified tables and logistic regression to examine the relationship between psychosocial and sociodemographic predictors and current smoking. We also used proportional hazards regression to examine the relationship between the factors and smoking cessation. Results Both mental illness and socioeconomic status were independently associated with current smoking and with lower likelihood of smoking cessation, with gradients in smoking by mental health status being observed within levels of socioeconomic indicators and vice versa. Having a mental illness in the past 12 months was the most prevalent factor strongly associated with smoking, affecting 20.0% of the population, associated with increased current smoking (OR 2.43; 95% CI: 1.97-3.01) and reduced likelihood of smoking cessation (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.65-0.91). Conclusions The association between mental illness and smoking is not explained by the association between mental illness and socioeconomic status. There are strong socioeconomic and psychosocial gradients in both current smoking and smoking cessation. Incorporating knowledge of the other adverse factors in smokers’ lives may increase the penetration of tobacco control interventions in population groups that have historically benefitted less from these activities. PMID:23663362

2013-01-01

376

How Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Co-Occur with Mental Illness  

MedlinePLUS

... Alcohol and drug abuse • Legal problems • Premature death (suicide, accident, murder, untreated physical illness) Recognizing an FASD as a co-occurring disorder can help decrease anger and frustration among individuals, families, providers, and community members. Individuals may feel relieved ...

377

Childhood Abuse and Mental Health Indicators Among Ethnically Diverse Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Prior research has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people experience higher rates of childhood abuse than heterosexuals. However, there has been little research on the mental health impact of these experiences or how race\\/ethnicity might influence prevalence and mental health impact of childhood abuse in this population. The study's objective was to examine the relationships between race\\/ethnicity,

Kimberly F. Balsam; Keren Lehavot; Blair Beadnell; Elizabeth Circo

2010-01-01

378

Childhood Abuse and Mental Health Indicators among Ethnically Diverse Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Prior research has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people experience higher rates of childhood abuse than heterosexuals. However, there has been little research on the mental health impact of these experiences or how race/ethnicity might influence prevalence and mental health impact of childhood abuse in this…

Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Circo, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

379

28 CFR 115.81 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.  

...2014-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.81 Section 115.81 Judicial...Care § 115.81 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the screening pursuant...

2014-07-01

380

28 CFR 115.381 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.  

...2014-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.381 Section 115.381 Judicial...Care § 115.381 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the screening pursuant...

2014-07-01

381

28 CFR 115.381 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.381 Section 115.381 Judicial...Care § 115.381 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the screening pursuant...

2012-07-01

382

28 CFR 115.81 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.81 Section 115.81 Judicial...Care § 115.81 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the screening pursuant...

2012-07-01

383

28 CFR 115.381 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.381 Section 115.381 Judicial...Care § 115.381 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the screening pursuant...

2013-07-01

384

Advance treatment directives for people with severe mental illness  

PubMed Central

Background An advance directive is a document specifying a person’s preferences for treatment, should he or she lose capacity to make such decisions in the future. They have been used in end-of-life settings to direct care but should be well suited to the mental health setting. Objectives To examine the effects of advance treatment directives for people with severe mental illness. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s Register (February 2008), the Cochrane Library (Issue 1 2008), BIOSIS (1985 to February 2008), CINAHL (1982 to February 2008), EMBASE (1980 to February 2008), MEDLINE (1966 to February 2008), PsycINFO (1872 to February 2008), as well as SCISEARCH and Google - Internet search engine (February 2008). We inspected relevant references and contacted first authors of included studies. We updated this search on 17 May 2012 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs), involving adults with severe mental illness, comparing any form of advance directive with standard care for health service and clinical outcomes. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For homogenous dichotomous data we calculated fixed-effect relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) and their 95% confidence interval again using a fixed-effect model. Main results We were able to include two trials involving 321 people with severe mental illnesses. There was no significant difference in hospital admission (n=160, 1 RCT, RR 0.69 0.5 to 1.0), or number of psychiatric outpatient attendances between participants given advanced treatment directives or usual care. Similarly, no significant differences were found for compliance with treatment, self harm or number of arrests. Participants given advanced treatment directives needed less use of social workers time (n=160, 1 RCT, WMD ?106.00 CI ?156.2 to ?55.8) than the usual care group, and violent acts were also lower in the advanced directives group (n=160, 1 RCT, RR 0.27 CI 0.1 to 0.9, NNT 8 CI 6 to 92). The number of people leaving the study early were not different between groups (n=321, 2 RCTs, RR 0.92 CI 0.6 to 1.6). The addition of 11 studies to awaiting classification section of the review may alter the conclusions of the review once assessed. Authors’ conclusions There are too few data available to make definitive recommendations. More intensive forms of advance directive appear to show promise, but currently practice must be guided by evidence other than that derived from randomised trials. More trials are indicated to determine whether higher intensity interventions, such as joint crisis planning, have an effect on outcomes of clinical relevance. PMID:19160260

Campbell, Leslie Anne; Kisely, Steve R

2014-01-01

385

Economic Expenditures Associated with Instrumental Caregiving Roles of Adult Siblings of Persons with Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siblings of persons with mental illness who assume primary caregiving roles experience substantial and tangible economic impacts\\u000a associated with this responsibility. This study investigated mailed survey responses collected from 156 adult siblings of\\u000a persons with mental illness from New York State to examine instrumental costs associated with providing support to siblings\\u000a with illness. Genders of both siblings, severity of the

Steven P. Lohrer; Ellen P. Lukens; Helle Thorning

2007-01-01

386

Community mental health teams (CMHTs) for people with severe mental illnesses and disordered personality  

PubMed Central

Background Closure of asylums and institutions for the mentally ill, coupled with government policies focusing on reducing the number of hospital beds for people with severe mental illness in favour of providing care in a variety of non-hospital settings, underpins the rationale behind care in the community. A major thrust towards community care has been the development of community mental health teams (CMHT). Objectives To evaluate the effects of community mental health team (CMHT) treatment for anyone with serious mental illness compared with standard non-team management. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (March 2006). We manually searched the Journal of Personality Disorders, and contacted colleagues at ENMESH, ISSPD and in forensic psychiatry. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials of CMHT management versus non-team standard care. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a fixed effects model. We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) again based on a fixed effects model. Main results CMHT management did not reveal any statistically significant difference in death by suicide and in suspicious circumstances (n=587, 3 RCTs, RR 0.49 CI 0.1 to 2.2) although overall, fewer deaths occurred in the CMHT group. We found no significant differences in the number of people leaving the studies early (n=253, 2 RCTs, RR 1.10 CI 0.7 to 1.8). Significantly fewer people in the CMHT group were not satisfied with services compared with those receiving standard care (n=87, RR 0.37 CI 0.2 to 0.8, NNT 4 CI 3 to 11). Also, hospital admission rates were significantly lower in the CMHT group (n=587, 3 RCTs, RR 0.81 CI 0.7 to 1.0, NNT 17 CI 10 to 104) compared with standard care. Admittance to accident and emergency services, contact with primary care, and contact with social services did not reveal any statistical difference between comparison groups. Authors’ conclusions Community mental health team management is not inferior to non-team standard care in any important respects and is superior in promoting greater acceptance of treatment. It may also be superior in reducing hospital admission and avoiding death by suicide. The evidence for CMHT based care is insubstantial considering the massive impact the drive toward community care has on patients, carers, clinicians and the community at large. PMID:17636625

Malone, Darren; Marriott, Sarah; Newton-Howes, Giles; Simmonds, Shaeda; Tyrer, Peter

2014-01-01

387

Attitudes of Malaysian general hospital staff towards patients with mental illness and diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The context of the study is the increased assessment and treatment of persons with mental illness in general hospital settings\\u000a by general health staff, as the move away from mental hospitals gathers pace in low and middle income countries. The purpose\\u000a of the study was to examine whether general attitudes of hospital staff towards persons with mental illness, and extent

Harry Minas; Ruzanna Zamzam; Marhani Midin; Alex Cohen

2011-01-01

388

STIGMA OF MENTAL ILLNESS: COMPARISON OF PATIENTS’ AND STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES IN SLOVENIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Background,It is known that the consequences of stigmatization towards people with severe mental illness reflect themselves in a lack of self-esteem and consequently,in low level of initiatives toimprove,one’s status in the community.,The burden,of stigma may,cause denial of partici- pation in the stigmatized group. So far, there were few studies to compare the mentally ill patients’ perception,of the »other« mentally

Mateja Strbad; Igor Švab; Bojan Zalar; Vesna Švab

389

Measuring Self-Stigma of Mental Illness in China and Its Implications for Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study translated and validated the Chinese Version of the Self-stigma of Mental Illness Scale (CSSMIS), which may be used to measure self-stigma of mental health consumers in China. We also examined its correlation with self-esteem, self-efficacy and psychosocial treatment compliance. A cross-sectional observational study was implemented. Some 51 males and 57 females who suffered from severe mental illness were

Kelvin M. T. Fung; Hector W. H. Tsang; Patrick W. Corrigan; Chow S. Lam; Wai-ming Cheng

2007-01-01

390

Public Stigma of Mental Illness in the United States: A Systematic Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public’s stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public’s stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental disorders and advance research in this area. Public stigma of mental illness in the U.S. was widespread. Findings can inform interventions to reduce the public’s stigma of mental illness. PMID:22833051

Cabassa, Leopoldo J.

2013-01-01

391

Preexisting mental illness and risk for developing a new disorder after hurricane Katrina.  

PubMed

To investigate predisaster mental illness as a risk factor of poor postdisaster mental health outcomes, veterans with (n = 249) and without (n = 250) preexisting mental illness residing in the Gulf Coast during Hurricane Katrina were surveyed after Katrina and screened for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic. Logistic regression examined the association between preexisting mental disorders and positive screens after the hurricane, adjusting for demographics and exposure to hurricane-related stressors. The odds of screening positive for any new mental disorder were 6.8 times greater for those with preexisting mental illness compared with those without preexisting mental illness. Among those with preexisting PTSD, the odds of screening positive for any new mental illness were 11.9 times greater; among those with schizophrenia, 9.1 times greater; and among those with affective disorders, 4.4 times greater. Persons with preexisting mental illnesses, particularly PTSD, should be considered a high-risk group for poor outcomes after a disaster. PMID:23364127

Sullivan, Greer; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Han, Xiaotong; Tharp, Andra Teten; Davis, Teri; Deitch, Elizabeth A; Constans, Joseph I

2013-02-01

392

Themes and risk of sexual violence among the mentally ill: implications for understanding and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the files of 11 men from a regional forensic service who committed acts of sexual violence in the context of a mental disorder. The aim was to identify what factors other than a mental disorder may be relevant when considering acts of sexual violence by the mentally ill and what treatment implications this might raise. Several men

Paul Vincent Greenall; Lorna Jellicoe-Jones

2007-01-01

393

Peer Supports for Tobacco Cessation for Adults With Serious Mental Illness: A Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A relatively new approach to addressing tobacco use in mental health settings is the involvement of consumers or peers, defined as other individuals with mental health conditions, as service providers. This review examines the literature describing peer delivered supports for tobacco cessation for adults with serious mental illness. Methods: The authors conducted a review of online databases to identify

Colleen E. McKay; Faith Dickerson

2012-01-01

394

Integrated treatment of co-occurring mental illness and addiction: clinical intervention, program, and system perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with mental illness and addiction comprise at least half of the patients in most mental health treatment systems. This combination results in increased risk for frequent psychiatric relapses, poor medication compliance, violence, suicide, legal problems, and high utilization of the emergency room or inpatient services. Traditional mental health and addiction treatments have not adequately addressed these co-occurring disorders due

Douglas M. Ziedonis

2004-01-01

395

Interpersonal trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with severe mental illness: demographic, clinical, and health correlates.  

PubMed

This study's purpose was to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in persons with severe mental illness. Standardized assessments of interpersonal trauma and PTSD were conducted in 782 patients with severe mental illness receiving services in one of five inpatient and outpatient treatment settings. Analyses examined the prevalence of PTSD and the demographic, clinical, and health correlates of PTSD diagnosis. The overall rate of current PTSD in the sample was 34.8 percent. For demographic characteristics, the prevalence of PTSD was higher in patients who were younger, white, homeless, and unemployed. For clinical and health variables, PTSD was more common in patients with major mood disorders (compared to schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders), alcohol use disorder, more recent psychiatric hospitalizations, more health problems, more visits to doctors for health problems, and more nonpsychiatric hospitalizations over the past year. The results support prior research documenting the high rates of PTSD in patients with severe mental illness and suggest that PTSD may contribute to substance abuse, psychiatric and medical comorbidity, and psychiatric and health service utilization. PMID:15176761

Mueser, Kim T; Salyers, Michelle P; Rosenberg, Stanley D; Goodman, Lisa A; Essock, Susan M; Osher, Fred C; Swartz, Marvin S; Butterfield, Marian I

2004-01-01

396

Effects of Snoezelen room, Activities of Daily Living skills training, and Vocational skills training on aggression and self-injury by adults with mental retardation and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-sensory stimulation provided in a Snoezelen room is being used increasingly for individuals with mental retardation and mental illness to facilitate relaxation, provide enjoyment, and inhibit behavioral challenges. We observed aggressive and self-injurious behavior in three groups of 15 individuals with severe or profound mental retardation and mental illness before, during, and after being in a Snoezelen room. All participants

Nirbhay N Singh; Giulio E Lancioni; Alan S. W Winton; Enrique J Molina; Monica Sage; Stephen Brown; Jop Groeneweg

2004-01-01

397

Evaluating the psychosocial and mental health consequences of abuse among Jordanian women.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study evaluated the mental health consequences of abuse among Jordanian women. Standard tools were used to collect data from 93 abused women seeking help at a welfare centre in relation to forms of abuse, depression, coping, suicidal ideation, substance use, social support and self-efficacy. The most commonly reported form of abuse was psychological abuse. Applying the Beck Depression Inventory showed that 38.7% of the abused women had moderate to severe levels of depression. Although half the women had a low level of perceived social support, abused Jordanian women reported moderate to very high levels of self-efficacy and used approach coping more frequently than avoidance coping strategies. Using the Modified Scale for Suicide Ideation, 15.7% of the women reported that the desire for death was stronger than the desire for life. Abused women in Jordan face mental health and psychosocial risks that could compromise their quality of life. PMID:22574472

Hamdan-Mansour, A M; Constantino, R E; Shishani, K R; Safadi, R; Banimustafa, R

2012-03-01

398

Recovery from Mental Illness: The Guiding Vision of the Mental Health Service System in the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

he implementation of deinstitutional- ization in the 1960s and 1970s, and the increasing ascendance of the com- munity support system concept and the practice of psychiatric rehabilitation in the 1980s, have laid the foundation for a new 1990s vision of service delivery for people who have men- tal illness. Recovery from mental illness is the vision that will guide the

William A. Anthony

399

An exploratory study of the relationship between mother–infant interaction and maternal cognitive function in mothers with mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence for a deleterious effect of maternal mental illness on mother–infant interaction. Presence of mental illness and lowered maternal cognitive function independently predict quality of interaction, but their combined effect on interaction is unclear. A pilot study was conducted to explore the relationship between maternal serious mental illness (SMI), cognitive function, and mother–infant interaction. Six mothers with SMI

Joanna Steadman; Susan Pawlby; Andrew Mayers; Romola S. Bucks; Alain Gregoire; Alexandra M. Hogan

2007-01-01

400

Attitudes of Jordanian Nursing Students towards Mental Illness: The Effect of Teaching and Contact on Attitudes Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purposes: Attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental illness influence the treatment they receive and decisions of policy makers. The purposes of this study were to assess Jordanian nursing students' attitudes towards mental illness, and to assess the effectiveness of teaching and contact on changing nursing students' attitudes about…

Hamaideh, Shaher H.; Mudallal, Rola

2009-01-01

401

To protect or to publish: confidentiality and the fate of the mentally ill victims of Nazi euthanasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Nazi Germany, approximately 200 000 mentally ill people were murdered under the guise of euthanasia. Relatively little is known regarding the fate of the Jewish mentally ill patients targeted in this process, long before the Holocaust officially began. For the Nazis, Jewish mentally ill patients were doubly cursed since they embodied both “precarious genes” and “racial toxin”. To preserve

R D Strous

2009-01-01

402

Attitudes of Community-Living Staff Members toward Persons with Mental Retardation, Mental Illness, and Dual Diagnosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes of 340 staff members in 120 community living programs for people with mental retardation, mental illness, and dual diagnosis were assessed using the Community Living Attitudes Scale, a measure of attitudes toward inclusion. Findings identified attitudinal differences toward inclusion between managers and staff and between those working…

Henry, David; And Others

1996-01-01

403

Attitudes toward mental illness: Recognition, desired social distance, expected burden and negative influence on mental health among Turkish freshmen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Attitudes toward three types of disorders and a normal subject portrayed in vignettes were assessed among university students. The variables assessed were: perception of mental illness in the vignettes; desired social distance; emotional and physical burden expected; and expected negative influence on one's mental health from association with the type of persons portrayed in the vignettes. Analysis revealed that,

Dogan Eker

1989-01-01

404

Identification and Analysis of Learning Preferences of Mentally Ill Adults in Rehabilitative Psychosocial Therapy at the Anderson Mental Health Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study identified and analyzed the learning preferences of 17 seriously and chronically mentally ill adults participating in the rehabilitative psychosocial therapy program at the Toxaway Church Site of the Anderson Mental Health Center. Staff perceived as boring and unfocused the traditional treatment approach that relied mainly upon…

Newman, Michael K.

405

Setting the stage for chronic health problems: cumulative childhood adversity among homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia  

PubMed Central

Background It is well documented that childhood abuse, neglect and household dysfunction are disproportionately present in the backgrounds of homeless adults, and that these experiences adversely impact child development and a wide range of adult outcomes. However, few studies have examined the cumulative impact of adverse childhood experiences on homeless adults with mental illness. This study examines adverse events in childhood as predictors of duration of homelessness, psychiatric and substance use disorders, and physical health in a sample of homeless adults with mental illness. Methods This study was conducted using baseline data from a randomized controlled trial in Vancouver, British Columbia for participants who completed the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale at 18 months follow-up (n?=?364). Primary outcomes included current mental disorders; substance use including type, frequency and severity; physical health; duration of homelessness; and vocational functioning. Results In multivariable regression models, ACE total score independently predicted a range of mental health, physical health, and substance use problems, and marginally predicted duration of homelessness. Conclusions Adverse childhood experiences are overrepresented among homeless adults with complex comorbidities and chronic homelessness. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of literature indicating that childhood traumas are potent risk factors for a number of adult health and psychiatric problems, particularly substance use problems. Results are discussed in the context of cumulative adversity and self-trauma theory. Trials registration This trial has been registered with the International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register and assigned ISRCTN42520374. PMID:24726046

2014-01-01

406

Nicotine addiction and comorbidity with alcohol abuse and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Health Organization estimates that one-third of the global adult population smokes. Because tobacco use is on the rise in developing countries, death resulting from tobacco use continues to rise. Nicotine, the main addictive component of tobacco, initiates synaptic and cellular changes that underlie the motivational and behavioral alterations that culminate in addiction. Nicotine addiction progresses rapidly in adolescents

John A Dani; R Adron Harris

2005-01-01

407

Social firms as a means of vocational recovery for people with mental illness: a UK survey  

PubMed Central

Background Employment is associated with better quality of life and wellbeing in people with mental illness. Unemployment is associated with greater levels of psychological illness and is viewed as a core part of the social exclusion faced by people with mental illness. Social Firms offer paid employment to people with mental illness but are under-investigated in the UK. The aims of this phase of the Social Firms A Route to Recovery (SoFARR) project were to describe the availability and spread of Social Firms across the UK, to outline the range of opportunities Social Firms offer people with severe mental illness and to understand the extent to which they are employed within these firms. Method A UK national survey of Social Firms, other social enterprises and supported businesses was completed to understand the extent to which they provide paid employment for the mentally ill. A study-specific questionnaire was developed. It covered two broad areas asking employers about the nature of the Social Firm itself and about the employees with mental illness working there. Results We obtained returns from 76 Social Firms and social enterprises / supported businesses employing 692 people with mental illness. Forty per cent of Social Firms were in the south of England, 24% in the North and the Midlands, 18% in Scotland and 18% in Wales. Other social enterprises/supported businesses were similarly distributed. Trading activities were confined mainly to manufacturing, service industry, recycling, horticulture and catering. The number of employees with mental illness working in Social Firms and other social enterprises/supported businesses was small (median of 3 and 6.5 respectively). Over 50% employed people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, though the greatest proportion of employees with mental illness had depression or anxiety. Over two thirds of Social Firms liaised with mental health services and over a quarter received funding from the NHS or a mental health charity. Most workers with mental illness in Social Firms had been employed for over 2 years. Conclusions Social Firms have significant potential to be a viable addition to Individual Placement and Support (IPS), supporting recovery orientated services for people with the full range of mental disorders. They are currently an underdeveloped sector in the UK. PMID:23844779

2013-01-01

408

Mental illness in metropolitan, urban and rural Georgia populations  

PubMed Central

Background Mental illness represents an important public health problem. Local-level data concerning mental illness in different populations (e.g., socio-demographics and residence – metropolitan/urban/rural) provides the evidence-base for public health authorities to plan, implement and evaluate control programs. This paper describes prevalence and covariates of psychiatric conditions in Georgia populations in three defined geographic areas. Methods Data came from the Georgia population-based random-digit-dialing study investigating unwellness and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in Georgia populations of three defined geographic areas (metropolitan, urban, and rural). Respondents were screened for symptoms of fatigue, sleep, cognition, and pain at household screening interviews, and a randomly selected sample completed detailed individual phone interviews. Based on the detailed phone interviews, we conducted one-day clinical evaluations of 292 detailed interview participants classified as unwell with a probable CFS (i.e. CFS-like; a functional somatic syndrome), 268 classified as other unwell, and 223 well (matched to CFS-like). Clinical evaluation included psychiatric classification by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID). To derive prevalence estimates we used sample weighting to account for the complexity of the multistage sampling design. We used 2- and 3-way table analyses to examine socio-demographic and urbanicity specific associations and multiple logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Results Anxiety and mood disorders were the most common psychiatric conditions. Nineteen percent of participants suffered a current anxiety disorder, 18% a mood disorder and 10% had two or more conditions. There was a significant linear trend in occurrence of anxiety or mood disorders from well to CFS-like. The most common anxiety disorders were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (6.6%) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (5.8%). Logistic regression showed that lower education and female sex contributed significantly to risk for both PTSD and GAD. In addition, rural/urban residence and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with PTSD. We defined moderate to severe depression as Major Depressive Disorder or a Zung score >60 and logistic regression found lower education to be significantly associated but sex, age and urbanicity were not. Conclusions Overall occurrence of anxiety and mood disorders in Georgia mirrored national findings. However, PTSD and GAD occurred at twice the published national rates (3.6 and 2.7%, respectively). State and local prevalence and associations with education, sex and urbanicity comprise important considerations for developing control programs. The increased prevalence of anxiety and mood disorders in people with a functional somatic syndrome (or CFS-like illness) is important for primary care providers, who should consider additional psychiatric screening or referral of individuals presenting with somatoform symptoms. PMID:23631737

2013-01-01

409

Sexual Abuse Prevention for Individuals with Mental Retardation: Considerations for Genetic Counselors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now widely recognized that children, adolescents, and adults with mental retardation are especially vulnerable to sexual abuse. Because at least 10% of genetic conditions are reported to include mental retardation as a feature, the provision of services to individuals with mental retardation represents a substantial portion of the case load for many genetic counselors. Our objective is to

Helen Levy; Wendy Packman

2004-01-01

410

Changes in Attitudes Towards Mental Illness Following Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes towards mental patients influence the treatment they receive and decisions of policymakers. It is important to modify attitudes of students who may work with them. Psychopathology course students (45 visited a mental institution, 56 volunteered in it, and 12 neither) and 53 introductory psychology students participated in this study. Benevolence, mental hygiene etiology and interpersonal etiology (opinions about mental

Helene S. Wallach

2004-01-01

411

Violent victimization of adult patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched using several terms related to severe mental illness in successive combinations with terms describing victimization. The searches identified 34 studies. Nine epidemiological studies indicate that patients with severe mental illness are more likely to be violently victimized than other community members. Young age, comorbid substance use, and homelessness are risk factors for victimization. Victimized patients are more likely to engage in violent behavior than other members of the community. Violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences for the course of their illness, and further impairs the quality of lives of patients and their families. Victimization of persons with severe mental illness is a serious medical and social problem. Prevention and management of victimization should become a part of routine clinical care for patients with severe mental illness. PMID:25336958

Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan

2014-01-01

412

Life-sharing experiences of relatives of persons with severe mental illness - a phenomenographic study.  

PubMed

Relatives of those suffering from severe mental illness experience multiple challenges and a complex life situation. The aim of this study was to describe life-sharing experiences from the perspective of relatives of someone with severe mental illness. A qualitative, descriptive study was performed, and interviews were carried out with eighteen relatives of persons with severe mental illness. A phenomenographic analysis, according to the steps described by Dahlgren and Fallsberg, was used to describe the relatives' conceptions of their situation. The findings show that the experiences of these relatives can be summarized in one main category: 'The art of balancing between multiple concerns'. Two descriptive categories emerged: 'Making choices on behalf of others and oneself' and 'Constantly struggling between opposing feelings and between reflections'. Relatives report that they have to manoeuvre between different ways to act and to prioritize between different wishes and needs. In addition, they face a wide range of strong feelings and they search for hope and meaning. Relatives of someone with severe mental illness have to balance multiple concerns, which induce ethical dilemmas. They felt love, compassion or sense of duty towards the mentally ill person. The changeable situation made it difficult for the relatives to establish a balance in their lives. To be able to prioritize some private time was important. Relatives need own support and sufficient follow-up of the mentally ill next of kin from the mental health services. PMID:22583154

Weimand, Bente M; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise; Sällström, Christina; Hedelin, Birgitta

2013-03-01

413

Impact of psychiatry training on attitude of medical students toward mental illness and psychiatry  

PubMed Central

Context: Attitude of fresh graduates toward psychiatric patients is important to bridge the treatment gap due to mental illness. Psychiatry as a subject has been neglected in the undergraduates of MBBS. Aims: (1) To compare the attitude of medical students and interns in a medical college toward mental illness and psychiatry. (2) To assess the impact of psychiatric training on attitude toward the mentally ill person and mental illness. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional, single assessment study conducted at a tertiary hospital. Subjects and Methods: Participants consisted of medical students of 1st and 2nd year who didn’t have any exposure to psychiatry and interns, who had completed their compulsory 2 week clinical posting in psychiatry. Participants were individually administered sociodemographic proforma, General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), opinion about mental illness (OMI) scale, and attitude to psychiatry-29 (ATP-29) scale. Statistical Analysis: Standard descriptive statistics (mean, percentage), Chi-square test. Results: A total of 135 participants formed the study sample, with 48, 47, and 40 participants from 1st year, 2nd year and interns, respectively. Mean GHQ score was 14.03 for the entire sample. There was better outlook of interns toward psychiatry and patients with mental disorders in comparison to fresh graduate students in some areas. Overall, negative attitude toward mental illness and psychiatry was reflected. Conclusions: Exposure to psychiatry as per the current curriculum seems to have a limited influence in bringing a positive change in OMI and psychiatry.

Gulati, Prannay; Das, Subhash; Chavan, B. S.

2014-01-01

414

Mental Health and Substance Abuse Insurance Parity for Federal Employees: How Did Health Plans Respond?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A fundamental concern with competitive health insurance markets is that they will not supply efficient levels of coverage for treatment of costly, chronic, and predictable illnesses, such as mental illness. Since the inception of employer-based health insurance, coverage for mental health services has been offered on a more limited basis than…

Barry, Colleen L.; Ridgely, M. Susan

2008-01-01

415

Patterns of treatment seeking behavior for mental illnesses in Southwest Ethiopia: a hospital based study  

PubMed Central

Background Early recognition of the signs and symptoms of mental health disorders is important because early intervention is critical to restoring the mental as well as the physical and the social health of an individual. This study sought to investigate patterns of treatment seeking behavior and associated factors for mental illness. Methods A quantitative, institution-based cross sectional study was conducted among 384 psychiatric patients at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH) located in Jimma, Ethiopia from March to April 2010. Data was collected using a pretested WHO encounter format by trained psychiatric nurses. Data was analyzed using SPSS V.16. Result Major depression disorder 186 (48.4%), schizophrenia 55 (14.3%) and other psychotic disorders 47 (12.2%) were the most common diagnoses given to the respondents. The median duration of symptoms of mental illness before contact to modern mental health service was 52.1 weeks. The main sources of information for the help sought by the patients were found to be family 126 (32.8%) and other patients 75 (19.5%). Over a third of the patients 135 (35.2%), came directly to JUSH. Half of the patients sought traditional treatment from either a religious healer 116 (30.2%) or an herbalist 77 (20.1%) before they came to the hospital. The most common explanations given for the cause of the mental illness were spiritual possession 198 (51.6%) and evil eye 61 (15.9%), whereas 73 (19.0%) of the respondents said they did not know the cause of mental illnesses. Nearly all of the respondents 379 (98.7%) believed that mental illness can be cured with modern treatment. Individuals who presented with abdominal pain and headache were more likely to seek care earlier. Being in the age group 31-40 years had significant statistical association with delayed treatment seeking behavior. Conclusions There is significant delay in modern psychiatric treatment seeking in the majority of the cases. Traditional healers were the first place where help was sought for mental illness in this population. Most of the respondents claimed that mental illnesses were caused by supernatural factors. In contrast to their thoughts about the causes of mental illnesses however, most of the respondents believed that mental illnesses could be cured with biomedical treatment. Interventions targeted at improving public awareness about the causes and treatment of mental illness could reduce the delay in treatment seeking and improve treatment outcomes. PMID:21859455

2011-01-01

416

76 FR 19261 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to prevent and treat child abuse. Last December...into law the CAPTA (Child Abuse Prevention and...mental illness, and domestic violence. We are also supporting...improve outcomes for young children. As a Nation, we...

2011-04-06

417

Communal normalization in an online self-help group for adolescents with a mentally ill parent.  

PubMed

Although implications of parental mental illness are well documented, most children of mentally ill parents are left to manage their family situation with limited information and support. We explored the role of a Norwegian online self-help group for adolescents (aged 15 to 18) with a mentally ill parent. Through in-depth interviews with 13 participants, we found that the online self-help group provided "communal normalization" by which participants, through communication in the forum, made sense of everyday experiences and emotions arising from having a mentally ill parent. We identified three main aspects of this process-recognizability, openness, and agency-all of which were important for the adolescents' efforts to obtain support, to be supportive, and to handle everyday life situations better. Communal normalization might provide resources for significantly improving the participants' life situations, and could demonstrate similar potential for users in other situations characterized by stigma, loneliness, silence, and health worries. PMID:25147219

Trondsen, Marianne V; Tjora, Aksel

2014-10-01

418

Police responses to persons with mental illness: does the label matter?  

PubMed

With the movement of persons with mental illness out of hospitals and into the community, the frequency of contact between police officers and such persons, in crisis or otherwise, has increased significantly. How police respond in these situations has important consequences for the subject, police officers, and the community. Officers (n = 554) from police departments in a major metropolitan area participated in a vignette experiment that examined how information that a subject has a mental illness influences the way police officers respond in several types of situations. Results indicate that officers are less likely to take action based on information provided by victims and witnesses with mental illness. No differences were found in response to suspects with or without a mental illness. The effects of officer characteristics and perceptions of the subject on responses to the vignettes were also examined. Findings suggest several directions for training and future research. PMID:15704622

Watson, Amy C; Corrigan, Patrick W; Ottati, Victor

2004-01-01

419

Experts, actor clash on cause of mental ills By Tina Hesman  

E-print Network

of mental illness, neuroscientists say. Advertisement "It's safe to say that we know that metabolic changes University. Children of mothers who got the flu in the second trimester of pregnancy also have a greater risk

420

Exploring Food Insecurity among Individuals with Serious Mental Illness: A Qualitative Study  

E-print Network

Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) are likely highly vulnerable to food insecurity, yet this issue remains unexplored within this population. METHODS: A mixed method approach to assess the prevalence and underlying factors was conducted...

Goetz, Jeannine Renee

2008-05-05

421

78 FR 28140 - Tentative Eligibility Determinations; Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...veteran receives immediate medical treatment for such condition, without waiting...certain that veterans receive prompt treatment for psychosis or mental illness other...the veteran may be eligible for treatment under new Sec. 17.109,...

2013-05-14

422

Mental Illness and the Family: Recognizing the Warning Signs & How to Cope  

MedlinePLUS

... mental illness or emotional disorder. How to cope day-to-day Accept your feelings Despite the different symptoms and ... Policy Issues Position Statements Advocacy Network Capitol Hill Day Webinars Newsroom Press Releases News Chiming In The ...

423

Examining the Meaning Attached to Mental Illness and Mental Health Services Among Justice System-Involved Youth and Their Parents  

PubMed Central

A large percentage of youth involved in the juvenile justice system experience mental health problems, yet many do not receive mental health care. In this study, we used a process-focused framework of mental health decision making to gain insight into the use of mental health services among these youth. In-depth interviews were conducted with nine youth and nine parents participating in a program servicing youth with mental health problems who have been in detention. Themes related to problem recognition, the decision to seek and participate in services, subjective norms, and juvenile justice system involvement emerged. Most families acknowledged their youth was having problems, but few defined those problems in mental health terms. This did not prevent them from seeking services, although some were not able to access adequate services until the justice system became involved. Participants were aware of negative attitudes about mental illness, and might have limited their social networks to shield themselves. PMID:19638602

Watson, Amy C.; Kelly, Brian L.; Vidalon, Theresa M.

2010-01-01

424

Zuclopenthixol acetate for acute schizophrenia and similar serious mental illnesses  

PubMed Central

Background Medication used for acute aggression in psychiatry must have rapid onset of effect, low frequency of administration and low levels of adverse effects. Zuclopenthixol acetate is said to have these properties. Objectives To estimate the clinical effects of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of acute aggression or violence thought to be due to serious mental illnesses, in comparison to other drugs used to treat similar conditions. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia’s Group Trials Register (July 2011). We supplemented this by citation searching and personal contact with authors and relevant pharmaceutical companies. Selection criteria All randomised clinical trials involving people thought to have serious mental illnesses comparing zuclopenthixol acetate with other drugs. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted and cross-checked data independently. We calculated fixed-effect relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data. We analysed by intention-to-treat. We used mean differences (MD) for continuous variables. Main results We found no data for the primary outcome, tranquillisation. Compared with haloperidol, zuclopenthixol acetate was no more sedating at two hours (n = 40, 1 RCT, RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.34). People given zuclopenthixol acetate were not at reduced risk of being given supplementary antipsychotics (n = 134, 3 RCTs, RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.30) although additional use of benzodiazepines was less (n = 50, 1 RCT, RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.47). People given zuclopenthixol acetate had fewer injections over seven days compared with those allocated to haloperidol IM (n = 70, 1 RCT, RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.84, NNT 4, CI 3 to 14). We found no data on more episodes of aggression or harm to self or others. One trial (n = 148) reported no significant difference in adverse effects for people receiving zuclopenthixol acetate compared with those allocated haloperidol at one, three and six days (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.27). Compared with haloperidol or clotiapine, people allocated zuclopenthixol did not seem to be at more risk of a range of movement disorders (< 20%). Three studies found no difference in the proportion of people getting blurred vision/dry mouth (n = 192, 2 RCTs, RR at 24 hours 0.90, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.70). Similarly, dizziness was equally infrequent for those allocated zuclopenthixol acetate compared with haloperidol (n = 192, 2 RCTs, RR at 24 hours 1.15, 95% CI 0.46 to 2.88). There was no difference between treatments for leaving the study before completion (n = 522, RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.31 to 2.31). One study reported no difference in adverse effects and outcome scores, when high dose (50-100 mg/injection) zuclopenthixol acetate was compared with low dose (25-50 mg/injection) zuclopenthixol acetate. Authors’ conclusions Recommendations on the use of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of psychiatric emergencies in preference to ‘standard’ treatment have to be viewed with caution. Most of the small trials present important methodological flaws and findings are poorly reported. This review did not find any suggestion that zuclopenthixol acetate is more or less effective in controlling aggressive acute psychosis, or in preventing adverse effects than intramuscular haloperidol, and neither seemed to have a rapid onset of action. Use of zuclopenthixol acetate may result in less numerous coercive injections and low doses of the drug may be as effective as higher doses. Well-conducted pragmatic randomised controlled trials are needed. PMID:22513898

Jayakody, Kaushadh; Gibson, Roger Carl; Kumar, Ajit; Gunadasa, Shalmini

2014-01-01

425

[Ethical questions in clinical research with the mentally ill].  

PubMed

The review deals with present problems of protecting mentally ill patients who are incompetent to give informed consent to participating in clinical research, and of assessment of the capacity to consent. 1. Clinical trials of drugs on efficacy and safety in incompetent patients are ethically justified and legally admissible if the investigational drug can be expected to exert a direct potential individual benefit and if such trials will be performed under defined criteria to protect these vulnerable patients. In Germany it is questionable how far these prescriptions of the German Drug Law (AMG) are transferable to other than drug research. 2. Research with no direct potential individual benefit or only a group-specific benefit in incompetent patients is controversially discussed. However, it may be ethically justified as an exception, and is in Germany legally admissible only in minors, but not in adults. 3. However, internationally there exists a wide range of legal regulations, terms, interpretations, and practices of research with vulnerable persons. In the past years a shift seems to have developed from normatively oriented discussions to more empirically based investigations. Especially vague but clinically relevant terms in protection declarations or guidelines have been better specified, put in concrete form by anchor examples, and empirically studied. 4. In general the criteria of protecting the dignity and, even if impaired, the autonomy of incompetent patients as subjects for research appear to guarantee a high standard of protection. However, the application of these criteria must be improved by practicable procedures. This is valid particularly for the assessment of the basic criterion whether a patient is capable of consenting or not. 5. Open Questions are formulated as need of research. PMID:18633585

Helmchen, H

2008-09-01

426

Reducing the stigma of mental illness in undergraduate medical education: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The stigma of mental illness among medical students is a prevalent concern that has far reaching negative consequences. Attempts to combat this stigma through educational initiatives have had mixed results. This study examined the impact of a one-time contact-based educational intervention on the stigma of mental illness among medical students and compared this with a multimodal undergraduate psychiatry course at the University of Calgary, Canada that integrates contact-based educational strategies. Attitudes towards mental illness were compared with those towards type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Method A cluster-randomized trial design was used to evaluate the impact of contact-based educational interventions delivered at two points in time. The impact was assessed by collecting data at 4 time points using the Opening Minds Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC) to assess changes in stigma. Results Baseline surveys were completed by 62% (n=111) of students before the start of the course and post-intervention ratings were available from 90 of these. Stigma scores for both groups were significantly reduced upon course completion (p < 0.0001), but were not significantly changed following the one-time contact based educational intervention in the primary analysis. Student confidence in working with people with a mental illness and interest in a psychiatric career was increased at the end of the course. Stigma towards mental illness remained greater than for T2DM at all time points. Conclusions Psychiatric education can decrease the stigma of mental illness and increase student confidence. However, one-time, contact-based educational interventions require further evaluation in this context. The key components are postulated to be contact, knowledge and attention to process, where attending to the student’s internal experience of working with people with mental illness is an integral factor in modulating perceptions of mental illness and a psychiatric career. PMID:24156397

2013-01-01

427

Gender-specific correlates of substance use in patients with serious mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to examine gender differences in symptoms, functioning, substance use problems and substance use correlates in patients with serious mental illness. The current study is cross-sectional, and data were collected using the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Severe Mental Illness (HoNOS-SMI) questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed by the patients' therapists. The study included

Turid Møller Olsø; Camilla Buch Gudde; Elin Wullum; Olav M. Linaker

2012-01-01

428

Patterns, Predictors and Gender Differences in HIV Risk Among Severely Mentally Ill Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of studies have established high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among severely mentally ill men and women living in large urban areas. Much less research has characterized the patterns of risk behavior that contribute to elevated vulnerability to HIV\\/AIDS among the mentally ill, as well as psychological, situational, and gender-related influences on risk in this population. One-hundred thirty-four

Laura L. Otto-Salaj; Timothy G. Heckman; L. Yvonne Stevenson; Jeffrey A. Kelly

1998-01-01

429

Palliative and End-of-Life Care in the Serious and Persistently Mentally Ill Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palliative and end-of-life care have become topics of considerable interest over the past decade. However, caring for the seriously mentally ill dying population is an area within the palliative care field that is consistently overlooked. This article explores the limited literature regarding persons with serious and persistent mental illness and end-of-life and palliative care. It examines existing barriers to palliative

Angela Baker

2005-01-01

430

Positive life change and remission of non-psychotic mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Episode duration in non-psychotic mental illness is associated with personal characteristics of patients, like age or personality. Part of these links may be mediated by life change, a predictor of episode duration in its own right. Methods: In 170 primary care patients who suffered 4171 person-months of non-psychotic mental illness diagnosed according to Bedford College Criteria, we examined to

J Neeleman; A. J Oldehinkel; J Ormel

2003-01-01

431

Challenges in acute care of people with co-morbid mental illness.  

PubMed

Acute secondary care settings are complex environments that offer a range of challenges for healthcare staff. These challenges can be exacerbated when patients present with a co-morbid mental illness. This article is a systematic review of the literature that has investigated the challenges imposed on health professionals working in acute secondary care settings where they care for patients who experience co-morbid physical and mental illnesses. A systematic search of the bibliographic databases was conducted and a total of 25 articles were included in this review. A number of challenges were identified including experience of fear, negative attitudes, poor mental health literacy, being positive and optimistic in providing care as a profession and environmental factors. Health professionals working in acute secondary care settings require organisational support and training in mental health care. Acute secondary care environments conducive to providing holistic care to patients experiencing mental illness co-morbidity are required. PMID:25072334

Giandinoto, Jo-Ann; Edward, Karen-Leigh

432

[Displacement and isolation. Mental illness in the city of Medellín. 1878-1930].  

PubMed

The observation in the city of Medellín within the framework of urban history generated a surprising picture of subjects in hygiene and public health, among which we found the case of mental illness and the control systems proposed by civilian authorities and doctors. In Medellín, between 1880 and 1950, the modernization process went on, turning its pole of attraction on population displacements to the interior of the province of Antioch. As a result of Railroad I, there was a massive mobility of population from the neighboring towns, including some mentally ill people. At the end of the 19th century, the authorities created a house of asylum for these people, which became the Mental Hospital in the middle of the 20th century. The isolation of the mentally ill people reports both medical authority and the beginning of the constitution process and institutionalization of the psychopathology and medicalization of mental disease in Antioquia at the beginning of the 20th century. PMID:19618540

Casas Orrego, A L

2008-01-01

433

Parental Psychological Abuse toward children and Mental Health Problems in adolescence  

PubMed Central

Objective: Present study was conducted to explore the relationship between parental psychological abuse toward their children and mental health problems in adolescence. Method: Three hundred participants age range 13-17 years, (57% boys and 43% girls) participated in the study from both public and private high schools of Lahore. Psychological maltreatment experience scale (PMES) and Youth Self-Report(YSR) were used for assessment and diagnosis. Results: Findings revealed that psychological abuse by parents significantly related with mental health problems in adolescents, for mother abuse (r= .24 to.67, p< .05) and father abuse (r= .20 to.70, p< .05). Adolescents who perceived their parents as more abusive exhibited greater problems. Regression analysis indicated that hypothesized factors of parental psychological abuse predicted the mental health problems in adolescents (contributed from 10% to 49% of variance). Conclusion: Psychological abuse by parents is related with mental health problems in adolescents. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of non-injurious psychological abuse and its impact on adolescents. Findings of the study can be used to bring the attention of parents, public and professionals’ towards damaging effects of psychological abuse on adolescents PMID:24772122

Iram Rizvi, Syeda Fariha; Najam, Najma

2014-01-01

434

Increasing lifestyle physical activity in patients with depression or other serious mental illness.  

PubMed

People with severe and persistent mental illness are more likely to be overweight and to suffer from obesity-related illnesses such as diabetes and heart disease than healthy individuals. Lifestyle change interventions that emphasize integrating physical activity into daily life have not been studied extensively in people with mental illness. The authors present the results of an initial feasibility study of a lifestyle modification program for individuals with serious mental illness. Thirty-nine individuals with depression or other serious mental illness were recruited from three different mental health facilities to attend an 18-week lifestyle intervention program promoting physical activity and healthy eating. At each session, participants discussed topics related to healthy lifestyle changes and participated in group walks. Data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks, and 18 weeks. The results demonstrated that individuals who have depression and other serious mental illnesses can participate in a lifestyle intervention program. Participants who attended the final follow-up session had lost weight over the course of the intervention. Study retention was a problem. However, the cost of this type of group-based lifestyle intervention was relatively low, so that such an intervention for this high-risk group may still be cost-effective. PMID:16304506

Richardson, Caroline R; Avripas, Sabrina A; Neal, David L; Marcus, Sheila M

2005-11-01

435

Reducing The Stigma of Mental Illness Among Adolescents and Young Adults: The Effects of Treatment Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stigma of mental illness is pervasive in adolescents and interferes with treatment and overall life quality for those with disorders. A strategy for reducing stigma is to create awareness of counterstereotypes that can undermine the perceived homogeneity of the stigmatized group and promote help seeking for those with the illness. This study tested the strategy by presenting counterstereotypical information

Daniel Romer; Mary Bock

2008-01-01

436

Lay Beliefs About Treatments for People With Mental Illness and Their Implications for Antistigma Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

proposed by people who had a higher education, who had a positive attitude toward psychopharmacology, who correctly recognized the person depicted in the vignette as being ill, who were presented with the schizophrenia vignette, who kept social distance, and who had contact with mentally ill people. The variables could explain alternative and social treatment proposals only to a small extent.

Christoph Lauber; Nordt Carlos; Rössler Wulf

2005-01-01

437

Are nurses in mental health services providing physical health care for people with serious mental illness? An Australian perspective.  

PubMed

People with serious mental illness are at high-risk for physical illnesses and premature death, and nurses can contribute to ensuring mental health services address these risks. There is very little research examining the role of nurses in mental health who provide physical health care. To identify the levels of participation in physical health care of people with serious mental illness (SMI), a national Internet-based survey of nurses working in mental health in Australia was conducted (n = 643). The survey included an adapted version of the Robson and Haddad Physical Health Attitude Scale. Data were analysed through comparison of frequencies, correlations, principal components analysis, and Mann-Whitney tests. Nurses reported regular physical health care in 12 of the 17 tasks presented to them. The three most common self-reported physical health care activities were inquiring about consumers' contact with GPs, doing physical assessments, and providing information on drug use and lifestyle. Although some practices were less common (e.g., contraceptive advice) nurses who provided one type of care tended to do other types as well. In addition, credentialing in mental health nursing was associated with slightly more regular engagement in all practice domains except screening and assessments. Nurses in mental health in Australia may be engaged in improving physical health of consumers with SMI more than is assumed. PMID:23477441

Happell, Brenda; Platania-Phung, Chris; Scott, David

2013-03-01

438

28 CFR 115.81 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...history of sexual abuse. 115.81 Section 115.81 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Medical and Mental Care § 115.81...

2013-07-01

439

[Characteristics of interactions between mentally ill parents and their young children].  

PubMed

Disturbed parent infant interactions are frequently seen in cases of parental mental illness. They are indicating possible risks of the infant's development. Regular and illness-specific patterns are not found. Therefore the interaction has to be observed and classified in each individual case to recognize the relevance of the parental illness to the child. Different interaction patterns and their impact on the child's development are described and illustrated by case vignettes. The importance of preventive intervention is highlighted. PMID:12693353

Deneke, Christiane; Lüders, Bettina

2003-03-01

440

Prevention Service Programs for Infants of Mentally-Ill Mothers. Progress Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the progress of an ongoing clinical research project on prevention services for at risk infants of mentally ill mothers. This project extends the prevention focus of early education programs into the mental health field. Previous research findings indicate that maximum preventive effects are achieved when programs (a) begin…

Donnellan, Gerard J.; And Others

441

The Stigma of Mental Illness and its Deleterious Effects on Psychiatric Treatment and Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the 1960s social justice movements, discrimination against the mentally ill remains a pervasive problem. The stigma that routinely accompanies the diagnosis of a mental disorder prevents victims suffering in silence from seeking treatment and inhibits the recovery of those patients who have already been diagnosed. This paper examines the nature of this prejudice and its tangible effects,

Ashley Doty

2006-01-01

442

Implementing evidence-based practices for persons with severe mental illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive empirical research, summarized in several reviews and codified in practice guidelines, recommendations, and algorithms, demonstrates that several pharmacological and psychosocial interventions are effective in improving the lives of persons with severe mental illnesses. Yet the practices validated by research are not widely offered in routine mental health practice settings. As part of an effort to promote the implementation of

William C. Torrey; Robert E. Drake; Lisa Dixon; Barbara J. Burns; Laurie Flynn; A. John Rush; Robin E. Clark; Dale Klatzker

2001-01-01

443

Educational Attainment and its Relationship to Singaporean Clergymen's Belief Models About Mental Illness Causation  

Microsoft Academic Search

While religiously?based explanations have previously been popular in explaining mental illness, support for such models has waned with the increasing prominence of the fields of psychiatry and psychology in developed societies. The question remains, however, whether religious specialists continue to endorse religious explanations for mental disease despite increasing secular and psychological education—possible markers of secularization. In this study, a representative

Mathew Mathews

2010-01-01

444

Soldiers Hospitalized for Mental Illness Face Raised Suicide Risk, Study Shows  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Soldiers Hospitalized for Mental Illness Face Raised Suicide Risk, Study Shows Most vulnerable period is the year after they are discharged from treatment, researchers report (*this news ... -- American soldiers hospitalized with mental health disorders have a significantly increased risk of ...

445

Case Management Models for Persons Who Are Homeless and Mentally Ill: The ACCESS Demonstration Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons who are homeless and mentally illpresent unique challenges to service providers and humanservice systems. In vivo case management approaches suchas assertive community treatment (ACT) have shown promise in engaging this population. This paperexplores case management models employed within theACCESS program, a five year, 18-site demonstrationprogram enriching services for homeless persons with serious mental illness. We describe theimplementation of case

Matthew Johnsen; Laura Samberg; Robert Calsyn; Margaret Blasinsky; Wendy Landow; Howard Goldman

1999-01-01

446

Physical Activity in Individuals with Severe Mental Illness: Client versus Case Manager Ratings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities" was examined as a physical activity measure for people with severe mental illness. Case manager ratings were more closely related to body mass index than clients' ratings, challenging the accuracy of self-report physical activity measures for individuals with severe mental

Bezyak, Jill L.; Chan, Fong; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Catalano, Denise; Chiu, Chung-Yi

2012-01-01

447

Eating Disorder Symptoms Among Adults with Severe and Persistent Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents pilot data examining the: (1) prevalence of eating disorder symptoms among adults with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) and (2) clinical and demographic predictors of eating disorder symptoms. Participants were 149 adults with SPMI who were receiving community mental health services. The Eating Attitudes Test, Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire, purging questions, and Body Mass Index were

DEBRA SREBNIK; KATE COMTOIS; JENNIFER STEVENSON; HOLLY HOFF; MARK SNOWDEN; JOAN RUSSO; RICHARD RIES

2003-01-01

448

New Research into General Psychiatric Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There are a variety of models for the mental health care of adults with comorbid intellectual disability (ID) and mental illness. There has been a long-running debate as to whether this should be provided by general psychiatric or specialised ID services. A previous review concluded that there was no clear evidence to support either…

Chaplin, R.

2009-01-01

449

Mental illness, gender and homicide: A population-based descriptive study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In England and Wales, a lifetime history of mental disorder is recorded in almost a third of homicides but mental illness as a defence in homicide cases has recently come under review. In this study, we aimed to compare the social, criminological and clinical characteristics of women and men convicted of homicide and secondly, to understand how pathways through the

Sandra Flynn; Kathryn M. Abel; David While; Hetal Mehta; Jenny Shaw

2011-01-01

450

Reducing Stigma by Meeting and Learning from People with Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examines the effects of a public education program, devel- oped in large part by consumers of mental health services, on the attitudes of high school students toward people with mental illnesses. Methods: Four hundred and twenty-six students were provided an informational session delivered by con- sumers and a faculty member from the University of Medicine and Dentistry

Amy B. Spagnolo; Ann A. Murphy

2008-01-01

451

The severely mentally ill in residential facilities: a national survey in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. In Italy, Residential Facilities (RFs) have completely replaced Mental Hospitals (MHs) for the residential care of mentally ill patients. We studied all patients resident in 265 randomly sampled Italian RFs (20 % of the total). Method. Structured interviews focusing on each patient were conducted by trained research assist- ants with the manager and staff of each RF. Patients were

GIOVANNI de GIROLAMO; ANGELO PICARDI; GIOVANNI SANTONE; IAN FALLOON; PIERLUIGI MOROSINI; ANGELO FIORITTI; ROCCO MICCIOLO

2005-01-01

452

DSM-III and the revolution in the classification of mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A revolution occurred within the psychiatric profession in the early 1980s that rapidly transformed the theory and practice of mental health in the United States. In a very short period of time, mental illnesses were transformed from broad, etiologically defined enti- ties that were continuous with normality to symptom-based, categorical diseases. The third edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic

Rick Mayes; Allan V. Horwitz

2005-01-01

453

ASSERTIVE COMMUNITY TREATMENT (ACT) FOR PATIENTS WITH SEVERE MENTAL ILLNESS: EXPERIENCE IN MALAYSIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychiatric community-based services are being developed in Malaysia currently to ensure more comprehensive mental health care to especially patients with severe mental illness. Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) as one of the earliest component of community-based services has been observed to be useful and able to provide favourable outcomes in this group of patients. Though the paradigm shift has gradually occurred

Z Ruzanna; M Marhani

454

Influences of Maternal Mental Illness on Psychological Outcomes for Adolescent Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the effects of maternal psychiatric symptoms and community functioning on child outcomes in a diverse sample of seriously mentally ill women caring for their teenaged children. In hierarchical multiple regression, for youth depression, we find effects for parenting style and maternal mental health; for youth anxiety and efficacy, effects…

Oyserman, Daphna; Bybee, Deborah; Mowbray, Carol

2002-01-01

455

Involving People with Severe Mental Illness in Evaluation and Performance Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues for the increased involvement of people with severe mental illness and consumers of other health and mental health services in evaluation and performance improvement in the organizations from which they receive services. Among other reasons, consumers can bring a different perspective to the selection of areas to evaluate, such involvement is consistent with some models of program

Donald M. Linhorst; Anne Eckert

2002-01-01

456

Development of a Web-Based Officer's Field Guide to Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Probation and parole officers supervise a disproportionate amount of offenders with mental illness. Many causes contribute to this over-representation ranging from deinstitutionalization, to co-occurring disorders, to homelessness. It appears there may be a lack of training specifically for probation and parole officers on the topic of mental

Staley, Georgiana M.

2012-01-01

457

Community Treatment Orders for People with Serious Mental Illness: A New Zealand Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary New Zealand legislation allows for the involuntary outpatient treatment of people with serious mental illness. This study examines the views of service users, family mem- bers and mental health professionals (MHPs) about the impact of this regime. Semi- structured interviews were completed with forty-two service users, twenty-seven family members and ninety MHPs, with recent experience of the regime. Participants

Anita Gibbs; John Dawson; Richard Mullen

2005-01-01

458

The effect of an abnormal psychology course on students' attitudes toward mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Opinions about Mental Illness Scale was administered at the beginning and end of the semester to an abnormal psychology class (38 men, 32 women) and to a control class of sociology students (60 men, 67 women). 5 attitudes were measured: Authoritarianism, Unsophisticated Benevolence, Mental Hygiene Ideology, Social Restrictiveness, and Interpersonal Etiology. Analysis of covariance revealed that changes which could

Frank Costin; William D. Kerr

1962-01-01

459

National Instant Criminal Background Check Improvement Act: implications for persons with mental illness.  

PubMed

The National Instant Criminal Background Check Improvement Act has serious implications for persons with mental illness with regard to the ability to purchase firearms. Federally prohibited persons include those who have been adjudicated as mentally defective, or have been committed to a mental institution, or are unlawful users of or are addicted to a controlled substance. The legislation was intended to expand the reporting practices of states by providing significant financial incentives and disincentives for releasing all relevant records, including those contained within mental health databases, to the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS). As of April 2007, only 22 states were voluntarily submitting records from mental health databases to the NICS. The legislation was introduced following the Virginia Tech tragedy, when public opinion favored tightening control over access to firearms of persons with mental illness. PMID:18354133

Price, Marilyn; Norris, Donna M

2008-01-01

460

The gendered experience of stigmatization in severe and persistent mental illness in Lima, Peru.  

PubMed

Although power differentials which enable the components of stigma to unfold have been identified, literature that demonstrates the gendered disparities in stigmatization is scarce. Using a gender-based framework, this paper aims first at understanding the gendered social cues which produce the stigma in mental illness enacted by the general population. Second, it highlights the influence of gender on the everyday experiences of a severe and persistent mental illness and the related stigmatization. Results are drawn from a combination of ethnographic and qualitative methods including a field ethnography of two health centres, one psychiatric hospital, and participants' households and neighbourhoods, two group discussions with members of the general population participating in gender-specific social support groups (N = 12 women/5 men), and illness narratives of men and women with a severe and persistent mental illness (N = 22), which was conducted from May to August 2006 in a poor, urban district of Peru. It is argued that in a society like that of Peru where gender roles are segregated into specific social and economic fields, gendered expectations shape both the experience of a severe and persistent mental illness and the stigmatization of people with such a mental illness in a gender-specific way. Not only do gender inequalities create the conditions leading to a power differential which enables stigmatization to unfold, but stigma is constructed as much around gendered-defined social roles as it is enacted in distinct social spheres for men and women with a severe and persistent mental illness. The gendered experience of stigmatization must, therefore, be fully understood in order to design more effective interventions that would challenge stereotypical perceptions and discriminatory practices, and reduce their effect on the everyday life of the mentally ill in Peru. PMID:21050630

Robillard, Chantal

2010-12-01

461

Open-ended and Open-door Treatment Groups for Young People with Mental Illness.  

PubMed

The concept of open-ended groups is expanded to include an open-door model (OEOD) wherein members with severe mental illnesses, including schizophrenia disorders and bi-polar, can join, leave, and re-enter groups as their life circumstances dictate their availability and willingness for treatment. This model is grounded on the work of Schopler and Galinsky's (1984/2006) and Galinsky and Schopler's (1989) theses on the value and processes of open-ended groups and includes perspectives on mutual aid and group development. Groupwork with the OEOD format is illustrated with examples taken from a group of 79 participants diagnosed with first-episode schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorders, 40 of who had co-occurring substance abuse. Of the 79 participants in the OEOD group program, 70 (89%) remained in treatment for the maximum of 3 years. The over-all value of group treatment for this population is reviewed along with the small number of available publications on open-ended and open-door-type groups. PMID:22427713

Miller, Rachel; Mason, Susan E

2012-01-01

462

Open-ended and Open-door Treatment Groups for Young People with Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

The concept of open-ended groups is expanded to include an open-door model (OEOD) wherein members with severe mental illnesses, including schizophrenia disorders and bi-polar, can join, leave, and re-enter groups as their life circumstances dictate their availability and willingness for treatment. This model is grounded on the work of Schopler and Galinsky’s (1984/2006) and Galinsky and Schopler’s (1989) theses on the value and processes of open-ended groups and includes perspectives on mutual aid and group development. Groupwork with the OEOD format is illustrated with examples taken from a group of 79 participants diagnosed with first-episode schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorders, 40 of who had co-occurring substance abuse. Of the 79 participants in the OEOD group program, 70 (89%) remained in treatment for the maximum of 3 years. The over-all value of group treatment for this population is reviewed along with the small number of available publications on open-ended and open-door-type groups. PMID:22427713

MILLER, RACHEL; MASON, SUSAN E.

2012-01-01

463

How Norwegian casualty clinics handle contacts related to mental illness: A prospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Low-threshold and out-of-hours services play an important role in the emergency care for people with mental illness. In Norway casualty clinic doctors are responsible for a substantial share of acute referrals to psychiatric wards. This study’s aim was to identify patients contacting the casualty clinic for mental illness related problems and study interventions and diagnoses. Methods At four Norwegian casualty clinics information on treatment, diagnoses and referral were retrieved from the medical records of patients judged by doctors to present problems related to mental illness including substance misuse. Also, routine information and relation to mental illness were gathered for all consecutive contacts to the casualty clinics. Results In the initial contacts to the casualty clinics (n?=?28527) a relation to mental illness was reported in 2.5% of contacts, whereas the corresponding proportion in the doctor registered consultations, home-visits and emergency call-outs (n?=?9487) was 9.3%. Compared to other contacts, mental illness contacts were relatively more urgent and more frequent during night time. Common interventions were advice from a nurse, laboratory testing, prescriptions and minor surgical treatment. A third of patients in contact with doctors were referred to in-patient treatment, mostly non-psychiatric wards. Many patients were not given diagnoses signalling mental problems. When police was involved, they often presented the patient for examination. Conclusions Most mental illness related contacts are managed in Norwegian casualty clinics without referral to in-patient care. The patients benefit from a wide range of interventions, of which psychiatric admission is only one. PMID:22520067

2012-01-01

464

Community mental health services: a way forward to rehabilitate chronic mentally ill client.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia and other mental illnesses produce devastating effects on a clients' personal and psychosocial wellbeing. Besides the sufferer, it has irrevocable impacts on the lives of their loved ones. With advancement in the treatment modalities, researches have proven that hospital based care and psychotropic drugs are not the sole solution in managing the client symptoms. Deinstitutionalization is the paradigm shift from hospital based to community based care model that allows client/s to spend rest of their lives in the community setting. A well-structured community care based programme that focuses on psychosocial interventions has significant contribution in treatment and rehabilitation of client/s. This article is aimed to provide the evidence of the effective use of community mental health care for management and prevention of relapse of a client with chronic schizophrenia. The substantial evidence of rehabilitation is represented through this case study of a chronic schizophrenic client who received these psychosocial interventions in his own community setting. PMID:24397076

Tharani, Ambreen; Farooq, Salima; Naveed, Anila

2012-01-01

465

Evidence for Specific Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Mental Well-Being and Physical Self-Esteem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of child sexual abuse on female adult mental health and physical self-esteem was studied, based on a mental health survey in which 98 women reported sexual abuse and 110 served as comparisons. Women sexually abused as children obtained lower scores on well-being and physical self-concept measures. (SW)

Brayden, Robert M.; And Others