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Sample records for abuse prevention nac

  1. Preventing Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvy, Kerby T.

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on two major and general approaches to analyzing the problems of child abuse; briefly discusses the prevention implications; deals with the individual physical abuse of children, with particular emphasis on the relationship between theoretical formulations of the causes of individual physical abuse and preventative programs; and, finally,…

  2. 78 FR 37560 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., http://nac.samhsa.gov/ , or by contacting Matthew J. Aumen. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and...

  3. 77 FR 43344 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., http://nac.samhsa.gov/ , or by contacting Matthew J. Aumen. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and...

  4. Prevent Child Abuse America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse Cases A recent report from the Indianapolis Star has revealed multiple occasions in which allegations of ... Gymnastics. In many of the cases that the Star investigated, complaint… Read more Who we are Prevent ...

  5. Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse » Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

  6. Primary prevention of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Bethea, L

    1999-03-15

    In 1993, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect declared a child protection emergency. Between 1985 and 1993, there was a 50 percent increase in reported cases of child abuse. Three million cases of child abuse are reported in the United States each year. Treatment of the abuser has had only limited success and child protection agencies are overwhelmed. Recently, efforts have begun to focus on the primary prevention of child abuse. Primary prevention of child abuse is defined as any intervention that prevents child abuse before it occurs. Primary prevention must be implemented on many levels before it can be successful. Strategies on the societal level include increasing the "value" of children, increasing the economic self-sufficiency of families, discouraging corporal punishment and other forms of violence, making health care more accessible and affordable, expanding and improving coordination of social services, improving the identification and treatment of psychologic problems, and alcohol and drug abuse, providing more affordable child care and preventing the birth of unwanted children. Strategies on the familial level include helping parents meet their basic needs, identifying problems of substance abuse and spouse abuse, and educating parents about child behavior, discipline, safety and development. PMID:10193598

  7. Recipes for Prevention. Substance Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catherine

    This handbook, which is the first in a series of materials being developed by an educational group in Albany, New York, for parents and caregivers of preschoolers, focuses on substance abuse prevention concepts. Its goals are to promote awareness that substance abuse prevention starts with very young children and to provide a format of activities…

  8. Mississippi Substance Abuse Prevention Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Bureau of School Improvement.

    This document presents the Substance Abuse Prevention Curriculum developed for use in Mississippi elementary and secondary schools. The curriculum uses a developmental approach to substance abuse prevention which emphasizes helping students gain information needed to make sound decisions about drug use. Incorporated into the curriculum are all…

  9. Approaches to Drug Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Paula D.

    1971-01-01

    This article concerns the drug abuse related definitions of the words education" and prevention" as they have come to be used today. The writer infers that the changing uses of these words reflects an increasingly more enlightened approach to ameliorating the problem of drug abuse. (Author)

  10. Collaborative Elder Abuse Prevention Project Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Garry L.

    The Texas Department of Human Services, in collaboration with 13 other public and private organizations, co-sponsored a statewide collaborative elder abuse prevention project, to prevent abuse of elderly and disabled adults. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive, long-range plan for the prevention of elder abuse, a method for…

  11. Drug Abuse Prevention For Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besteman, Karst G.

    Drug abuse is not confined to the young, but if a young person between the ages of 8 and 20 can be prevented from abusing drugs, chances are that he/she will never have a serious drug problem. Drug abuse prevention means helping young people develop personal strengths and values to reduce the chance that they will hurt themselves or others by…

  12. Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Could your kids be at risk for substance ... drugs. Research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has shown the important role that parents ...

  13. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  14. Towards the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…

  15. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolen, Rebecca M.

    2003-01-01

    Current child sexual abuse prevention programs assume that, by targeting potential victims, they can reduce the prevalence of child sexual abuse. This article presents findings that suggest this assumption is flawed. Suggests instead that potential offenders are more appropriate targets of prevention programs. (Contains 39 references.)

  16. Preventing Sexual Abuse. Reference Sheet 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Patti O., Ed.; McGee, Michael, Ed.

    This reference book, developed to present options for the prevention and treatment of child sexual abuse, contains descriptions of creative approaches used to address the problem of child sexual abuse. Some of the programs described offer active and entertaining interventions, such as puppet shows, coloring books, stories, teddy bears, and…

  17. Parent Support Groups to Prevent Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, C. Jerry

    1982-01-01

    Describes the organization and training of a parent support group to prevent child abuse. Initial training assisted group members to become aware of their attitudes toward child abusers. Training also focused on developing listening skills, procedures for making referrals, and the handling of confidential information. (RC)

  18. Teachers and Child Abuse Prevention. Item 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Joy

    1988-01-01

    The monograph considers the role of teachers in child abuse prevention and reporting from the perspective of a New Zealand educator. A 1985 study of the author is summarized in which a training program resulted in commitment by 80% of teachers involved to identify and report child abuse and by 60% of teachers to further educate themselves in child…

  19. Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Page Content Article ... Learn the facts about the harmful effects of drugs. Talk with your child about the negative effects ...

  20. Incestuous Sexual Abuse: Preventing the Scars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oaks, Judy; Anspaugh, David

    1987-01-01

    Addresses the issue of incestuous sexual abuse of children, focusing on the definition and prevalence of the problem and associated myths, immediate and longterm consequences and symptoms, and a multidisciplinary approach to prevention and treatment. (JC)

  1. What Everyone Can Do To Prevent Child Abuse: Child Abuse Prevention Community Resource Packet, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS/ACF), Washington, DC. Children's Bureau.

    Child abuse is a national tragedy, taking the lives of three children every day and affecting millions of children and families every year. To mark the 20th anniversary of the first presidential proclamation of Child Abuse Prevention Month, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Children's Bureau, Office on Child Abuse and Neglect,…

  2. Misguided Intentions in Drug-Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.

    1994-01-01

    Many drug abuse prevention programs and materials, such as the "Smart Choices" newsletter for kindergartners, are developmentally inappropriate for young children. Successful preventive measures need to address the mixed messages that society itself gives to children about alcohol and other drugs and present developmentally appropriate instruction…

  3. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  4. 76 FR 36557 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... Abuse and Mental Health Services, Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  5. Prevention of alcohol use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Hansen, W B

    1994-09-01

    The primary goal of educational alcohol prevention programs is to lower the overall prevalence of alcohol use and abuse among populations at risk for negative alcohol-related outcomes. Youth are primarily targeted for prevention since there is ample evidence that alcohol-related injuries constitute a major risk for this group in particular. Prevention includes a goal to delay the onset of regular consumption and decrease high-risk consumption among youth who do drink. No matter what definition of alcohol use or abuse is adopted, the goal of prevention is to lower the proportion of youth who engage in that type of use. Among those who already use or abuse alcohol by any definition, the goal of prevention is to reduce the average intensity of use and prevent the progression of consumption to more severe levels. Reducing high-risk consumption may include preventing drinking while driving as well as promoting "responsible" drinking. Prevention programs may include a focus on reducing or eliminating consumption among occasional users. Prevention is also targeted at adults, primarily focusing on reduction of alcohol-impaired driving, reduction of alcohol-related violence, and reduction of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. PMID:7845939

  6. A Drug Abuse Prevention Strategy for Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biglan, Anthony; Duncan, Terry; Irvine, A. Blair; Ary, Dennis; Smolkowski, Keith; James, Lisa

    This paper describes strategies for developing drug abuse prevention programs in rural communities, based on available evidence about factors contributing to drug abuse. Comprehensive interventions to prevent drug abuse and other youth problems are needed because drug abuse is entwined with other problem behaviors and stems from a complex set of…

  7. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Evaluation of a Teacher Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, M. K.; Gold, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Evaluates teacher-training programs on child-sexual-abuse prevention developed by Hazzard, Kleemeir, Pohl, and Webb (1986). Trained teachers demonstrated significant increase in knowledge about child sexual abuse, attitudes regarding prevention, identifying behavioral indicators of abuse, and appropriate intervention in potential abuse cases.…

  8. Prevention of substance abuse: a brief overview

    PubMed Central

    MEDINA-MORA, MARÍA ELENA

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in psychosocial research and neurosciences have provided new avenues for prevention of substance abuse at the individual and community level. A series of risk and protective factors affecting the likelihood of using and abusing substances have been identified. The scope of prevention has been broadened, allowing the prescription of different interventions for individuals according to their varying degrees of vulnerability to substance experimentation, continuous use and dependence. An increased awareness of comorbidity between mental and substance use disorders provides an arena for prevention within psychiatry and related disciplines. Emphasis on program evaluation has helped identify cost effective programs and policies. The integration of prevention within healthy life style policies and programs, including interventions at the school, family and community levels, is more likely to produce the desired outcomes. PMID:16633497

  9. The Prevention of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender management initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks,…

  10. Future Directions in Preventing Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krugman, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to prevent the abuse and neglect of children requires: professionals and citizens who care to make a difference; development of multidisciplinary units, teams, or organizations to deal with specific parts of the problem; a clear statement of child protection policy; programs that work; commitment to research and program evaluation; and a…

  11. Prediction and Prevention of Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, R. A. J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This paper uses the infectious disease model as an approach to the prevention of narcotic or poly drug abuse. It lists and discusses productive and counterproductive educational techniques on the basis of research findings and international reports on the outcomes of effective and counterproductive programs. (Author)

  12. Prevention of Alcohol Abuse among Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Originally published in "Alcohol Health and Research World," this article is report of interview with Thomas D. Watts and Roosevelt Wright, Jr., conducted to explore solutions to complex problem of prevention of alcoholism among African Americans. Introduces readers to work of two experts in area of alcohol abuse and alcoholism among African…

  13. Substance Abuse Prevention in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachance, Laurie L.

    This is a Searchlight Plus document, an informational analysis paper based on a computer search of the ERIC database from 1966 through November 1985 and on pertinent outside resources. This paper reviews, analyzes, and interprets the literature on the topic of substance abuse prevention in schools and points out the implications of the information…

  14. Parental Involvement in Sexual Abuse Prevention Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Jeanne M.; Rubin, Roger H.

    1993-01-01

    Parental knowledge of child sexual abuse and interest in educating themselves and their children for primary prevention was studied, via interviews with 51 mothers and 50 fathers of preschool and day-care center children. There were significant differences by sex of parent for sources of preferred information, preferred educators, and types of…

  15. Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Glossary previous page Related Documents PDF Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Tools and Tips ...

  16. 76 FR 50236 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention,......

  17. 78 FR 38355 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  18. The Educator's Guide to Preventing Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary, Ed.; Clark, Kay, Ed.

    This collection of articles was created to give professionals and educators an informed overview of current issues in the field of child sexual abuse prevention. Articles are grouped under the headings of Introduction, Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention, and Guidelines for Prevention Education and include: (1) "Prevention Education in…

  19. Emerging Issues in the Research on Child Sexual Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Roberts, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies major issues in current research on child sexual-abuse prevention including the effectiveness of assessment methods, potential side-effects of prevention programs, the developmental appropriateness of programs, the differential effectiveness of presenters of prevention materials, parental involvement in sexual-abuse prevention efforts,…

  20. National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... income and assets. Elder Abuse News NCPEA’s POLYVICTIMIZATION PROJECT The National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse (NCPEA) is engaged in an interdisciplinary national project to explore and address polyvictimization in late life, ...

  1. Planning, Funding, and Implementing a Child Abuse Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Rebekah L.; Moore, Douglas J.; Schaerfl, Caroline A.

    Preventing child abuse is an endeavor that requires equal parts of caring, optimism, and pragmatism. Drawing on the experiences of more than 100 child abuse prevention projects, this field-tested manual integrates the abstract principles of program development and prevention with the real world experiences and challenges faced by prevention…

  2. Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence: A Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…

  3. Parent's Guide to Preventing Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditioning coolants. How can you tell if a young person is an inhalant abuser? If someone is ... youths involved with inhalant abuse. How does a young person who abuses inhalants die? There are many ...

  4. 75 FR 82408 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... within three weeks after the meeting. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health...

  5. 76 FR 20994 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  6. Drug Abuse on College Campuses: Emerging Issues. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This "Issues in Prevention" focuses on emerging issues concerning drug abuse on college campuses. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Drug Abuse Trends; (2) Q&A With Jim Lange; (3) Bath Salts; (4) Refuse to Abuse; (5) Related Federal Resource; and (6) Higher Education Center Resources.

  7. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Evaluation of a Teacher Training Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleemeier, Carol; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of a six-hour teacher training workshop on child sexual abuse prevention was evaluated. Findings indicated that trained teachers demonstrated significant increases in knowledge about child sexual abuse and pro-intervention opinions. Trained teachers were better able to identify behavioral indicators of abuse and suggest…

  8. Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Approach to Prevention Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarski, John S.; Smyth, Nancy J.

    1994-01-01

    Presents data on the extent, nature, and consequences of adolescent substance abuse. Definition of substance abuse is considered. Discusses primary and secondary prevention programs, including programs targeting high-risk youth, school and peer group, families, and communities. Outlines tertiary prevention efforts and emphasizes the need for…

  9. Law Enforcement and Substance Abuse Prevention: Training and Strategy Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, John J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a training program and a specific information strategy for police promoting substance abuse prevention. Discusses training components for a successful drug abuse presentation and selection of an appropriate prevention strategy. Presents a model of types of drug information. Discusses problems with negative attitudes and use of drug…

  10. Corporal Punishment and Primary Prevention of Physical Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straus, Murray A.

    2000-01-01

    This commentary discusses the end of the use of corporal punishment as a potentially important aspect of primary prevention of physical abuse, explains why this potential has been ignored, and suggests that ending use of corporal punishment should become an explicit goal of those concerned with preventing physical abuse. (Contains references.)…

  11. Research and Intervention. Preventing Substance Abuse in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gerardo M., Ed.; Clement, Vonnie V., Ed.

    This publication presents four major research papers on college campus substance abuse prevention and research with reviews of the papers by practitioners in the substance abuse prevention field. Following a Preface and Introduction, the first paper is "Theories, Dominant Models, and the Need for Applied Research" by Gerardo M. Gonzalez. It…

  12. Puppet Play as Interactive Approach in Drug Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nenadic-Bilan, Diana; Vigato, Teodora

    2010-01-01

    The national strategies of drug abuse prevention across Europe have come to recognise that the drug abuse problem presents a complex set of issues of which there is no simple solution. There is a considerable increase in investment in prevention, treatment and harm-reduction activities and increased focus on supply reduction. School settings are…

  13. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  14. A Multilevel Evaluation of a Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Michael A.; Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Byrnes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which participation in a county-wide prevention program leads to improvements in protective factors associated with child abuse prevention (CAP) and whether improvements in measured protective factors relate to decreased odds of child abuse. Method: Using multilevel growth modeling,…

  15. 38 CFR 21.224 - Prevention of abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of abuse. 21.224 Section 21.224 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Supplies § 21.224 Prevention of abuse. Supplies are to be furnished under the most careful checks by...

  16. Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families: A Model Child Abuse Prevention Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Maril

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about a model child abuse prevention approach called, "Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families." It is NAEYC's professional development initiative to help early childhood educators play leading roles in preventing child abuse and neglect through family strengthening efforts. It focuses on six strategies that high-quality…

  17. Alcohol and Drug Abuse in America: Policies for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    The Join Together Policy Panel on Preventing Substance Abuse has formulated six recommendations that can facilitate community efforts to prevent substance abuse. These recommendations are directed to federal, state, and local policymakers and the communities they serve. The recommendations are: (1) federal, state, and local policies should…

  18. A Guide to Multicultural Drug Abuse Prevention: Funding. Series Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison-Burns, Bettye; And Others

    This booklet explores sources of money for multicultural and minority drug abuse prevention programs and provides an overview of fundraising methods and resources. Local, State and Federal agencies (including private organizations) that provide funds for drug abuse prevention programs are listed. Ways to go about soliciting funds are outlined.…

  19. Federal Strategy for Drug Abuse and Drug Traffic Prevention 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strategy Council on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.

    This represents an approach to the Nation's drug abuse problem and reflects the views of departments and agencies involved in the federal drug control and prevention effort, public interest groups and members of Congress. It describes a comprehensive strategy for federal activities relating to drug abuse prevention and control. Major topics…

  20. Preventing Elder Abuse: The Texas Plan for a Coordinated Service Delivery System. Collaborative Elder Abuse Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Garry L.

    The Texas Department of Human Services, in collaboration with 13 other public and private organizations, co-sponsored a statewide Collaborative Elder Abuse Prevention project. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive, long-range plan for the prevention of elder abuse, a method for achieving a coordinated service delivery system for…

  1. 75 FR 77733 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Preventing Abuse of Interagency Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Preventing Abuse of Interagency Contracts AGENCIES: Department of Defense... Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2009 requirements for preventing abuse of interagency contracts....

  2. The neonatal nurse's role in preventing abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kimberly A

    2014-10-01

    Abusive head trauma in infants occurs in 24.6 to 39.8 per 100,000 infants in developed countries. Abusive head trauma refers to any type of intentional head trauma an infant sustains, as a result of an injury to the skull or intracranial contents from a blunt force and/or violent shaking. The clinical question was: what evidence-based interventions have been implemented by neonatal nurses to prevent abusive head trauma in infants? PubMed was searched to obtain English language publications from 2005 to May 2014 for interventions focused on preventing abusive head trauma using the key term "shaken baby syndrome." A total of 10 studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. All of the interventions targeted prevention of abusive head trauma with information about abusive head trauma/shaken baby syndrome and the "normal" infant crying behaviors. Interventions taught parents why infants cried, how to calm the infants, ways to cope with inconsolable infants, and how to develop a plan for what to do if they could not cope anymore. Parents who participated in the interventions were consistently able to explain the information and tell others about the dangers of shaking infants compared to the control parents. Only 2 studies calculated the preintervention abusive head trauma rate and the postintervention frequency of abusive head trauma. Each found significant differences in abusive head trauma. PMID:25137601

  3. Substance Abuse among Latino Youth. Prevention Research Update, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory A.; Gilbert, M. Jean

    This publication is one of a series summarizing recent research on adolescent drug abuse and its prevention. The report provides an overview of research and reviews its implications for dealing with substance abuse among Latino youth, placing new information in the context of past findings. Research has shown that drug use patterns in several…

  4. 77 FR 60615 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... two hundred and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-24703 Filed 10-3-12; 8:45 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8879 of October 1, 2012 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 By... hurt by alcohol and drug abuse. From diminished achievement in our schools, to greater risks on...

  5. Student Assistance Programs: An Important Approach to Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, John P.; DuPont, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a new approach to school-based drug abuse prevention called Student Assistance Programs (SAP). SAP offers various approaches tailored to particular settings and includes students, teachers, parents, and community representatives who define and resolve student problems including substance abuse. SAP facilitates the use of 12-step…

  6. Substance Abuse Prevention Program. Evaluation Report 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Jennifer S.

    In May 1986, the Albuquerque, New Mexico Public Schools adopted a policy to address concerns about student substance abuse. All schools developed objectives and activities to address substance abuse prevention and intervention, and an interdisciplinary team was formed to monitor and facilitate the schools' efforts in implementing the policy. To…

  7. Federal Strategy for Drug Abuse and Drug Traffic Prevention 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strategy Council on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.

    The Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972 directed the development and promulgation of a comprehensive, coordinated long-term Federal strategy for all drug abuse prevention and drug traffic control functions conducted, sponsored, or supported by the Federal Government. This second annual report of the Strategy Council builds on the…

  8. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: A Midpoint Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Duke Endowment launched its Child Abuse Prevention Initiative in 2002 by funding two program sites, the Durham Family Initiative in Durham, North Carolina, and Strong Communities in Greenville, South Carolina. Both sites aimed to reduce rates of child abuse, improve parenting practices and behaviors, strengthen community service systems, and…

  9. The Enough Abuse Campaign: Building the Movement to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…

  10. Perspectives on Preventing Student Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedone, Ronald, Ed.; Gwaltney, Margaret K., Ed.

    This set of papers is one part of the United States Department of Education's effort to establish a research agenda for drug use. It consists of a foreword and 10 papers that examine issues of drug abuse, students, and schools. It presents different views on the drug abuse problem in order to affect research on schools, drugs, and drug education.…

  11. New Directions for Substance-Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Across the nation and for a very long time, campuses and students have been plagued by drug and alcohol abuse. And it seems that many of our efforts to address that abuse, while necessary, have been woefully insufficient to the task. This article describes the nature and significance of the problem, examines current strategies for addressing it,…

  12. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  13. 3 CFR 9033 - Proclamation 9033 of September 30, 2013. National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013 9033 Proclamation 9033 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 9033 of September 30, 2013 Proc. 9033 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013By the... to crime, motor vehicle crashes, and fatalities. This month, we recognize substance abuse...

  14. Recognition and prevention of inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Carrie E; Loomis, Glenn A

    2003-09-01

    Inhalant abuse is a prevalent and often overlooked form of substance abuse in adolescents. Survey results consistently show that nearly 20 percent of children in middle school and high school have experimented with inhaled substances. The method of delivery is inhalation of a solvent from its container, a soaked rag, or a bag. Solvents include almost any household cleaning agent or propellant, paint thinner, glue, and lighter fluid. Inhalant abuse typically can cause a euphoric feeling and can become addictive. Acute effects include sudden sniffing death syndrome, asphyxia, and serious injuries (e.g., falls, burns, frostbite). Chronic inhalant abuse can damage cardiac, renal, hepatic, and neurologic systems. Inhalant abuse during pregnancy can cause fetal abnormalities. Diagnosis of inhalant abuse is difficult and relies almost entirely on a thorough history and a high index of suspicion. No specific laboratory tests confirm solvent inhalation. Treatment is generally supportive, because there are no reversal agents for inhalant intoxication. Education of young persons and their parents is essential to decrease experimentation with inhalants. PMID:13678134

  15. Child sexual abuse prevention: evaluation of a teacher training model.

    PubMed

    Kleemeier, C; Webb, C; Hazzard, A; Pohl, J

    1988-01-01

    Teachers are potentially helpful resource persons for large numbers of sexually abused children who may have difficulty disclosing abuse, particularly to family members. In the present study, the effectiveness of a 6-hour teacher training workshop on child sexual abuse prevention was evaluated. Responses of 26 female elementary teachers who participated in the workshop were compared to responses of 19 control teachers on several pre-, post-, and follow-up measures. Relative to controls, trained teachers demonstrated significant increases from pre- to post-testing in knowledge about child sexual abuse and pro-prevention opinions. On a post-only vignettes measure, trained teachers were better able than control teachers to identify behavioral indicators of abuse and suggest appropriate interventions for hypothetical sexually abused children. Over a 6-week follow-up period, trained teachers read more about child abuse than control teachers but did not differ on other behavioral dimensions such as reporting suspected abuse cases. Further research will examine the effects of additional teacher training over an extended follow-up period. PMID:3233520

  16. Innovative Approaches to Preventing Child Abuse: Volunteers in Action. Prevention Focus Working Paper 015.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, Chicago, IL.

    Collected in this working paper are summary descriptions of 17 innovative community action programs designed to prevent child abuse. These programs were developed by individuals, community groups, hospitals, and/or state chapters of the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, as well as by other groups and organizations. Located in…

  17. The Multicultural Model in Chemical Abuse Prevention and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold-Ezekoye, Stephanie

    1985-01-01

    Applies the concept of multiculturalism to chemical abuse prevention and intervention programs. Provides a model for implementation and describes projects with a similar conceptual basis. Acknowledges the cultural foundations for developing positive self-understanding. Promotes the development of culture-specific prevention strategies. (Author/LHW)

  18. Preventing Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Program for Catholic Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorry, Frank

    This book provides information for teachers about drugs and their effects on body and mind, and explains the role of teachers in effective drug education, prevention, and assistance programs. Suggestions on preventing drug abuse are also directed to the Catholic community and parents, along with a challenge to introduce programs on the local,…

  19. The Juvenile and Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Program: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha; Lynch, Diane; Lattimore, Barbara; Graham, Ashlee

    2008-01-01

    The Juvenile and Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Program (JASAP) is a curriculum-based prevention and health promotion program for youth between the ages of 13 to 18 years in Fulton County, Georgia. The program was established in 2007 to promote healthy decision-making skills that would eventually lead to informed choices and decisions…

  20. [Methods of substance abuse prevention in the Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ia; Shamreĭ, V K; Marchenko, A A; Sinenchenko, A G; Pastushenkov, A V

    2013-09-01

    Dynamics of substance abuse morbidity in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation during the last 10 years (2002-2012) was analyzed. Results of performed analysis showed decreasing tendency since 2007 in conscripts (0.07% in 2012) and in contract soldiers (0.3% in 2012). Alcoholism prevailed in the structure of substance abuse in conscripts (0.05%), drug abuses were diagnosed 2,5 times less often (0.02%). In contract soldiers non-alcohol abuses were diagnosed in 0.004% of cases. It is stated that the major aims of substance abuse prevention are qualitative recruiting of military units (especially in troops maintaining the combat readiness) and departments (subunits) of military education, creating conditions for propaganda for healthy lifestyle, prohibition of drugs and psychopharmaceuticals in military units. For early detection of persons liable to substance abuse and facts of drug consumption it is necessary to perform a medical examination with the help of special program apparatus complex (such as "Addicts") and take into account clinical signs of addiction. Besides, it is necessary to introduce planned and unexpected medical examinations of servicemen. Algorithm of measures in case of detection of serviceman with alcohol or drug intoxication is given. In conclusion the main organizational principals of substance abuse prevention in the Armed Forces are given. PMID:24341196

  1. Helping Schools Prevent Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    This report describes the efforts of the New Jersey State Department of Education to assist local school districts in a comprehensive approach to combat drug and alcohol abuse in the schools. The introduction examines the drug and alcohol problems of students in New Jersey and discusses the State Board of Education's recent adoption of the first…

  2. Comprehensive Substance Abuse Prevention Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Empey, Donald W.

    This document describes the Glendale Unified School District's (California) comprehensive drug, alcohol, and tobacco education program. The program is based on three components: (1) a sequential outcome-based curriculum that provides students with knowledge about substance abuse and peer-resistant skills; (2) a strong message that the possession,…

  3. Drug Abuse and Eating Disorders: Prevention Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, W. David; Ellis, Anne Marie

    1992-01-01

    Explored relationship between drug and alcohol abuse and eating disorders in female adolescents (n=826). Eating Disorders Risk Scale was adopted and correlated with drug and alcohol use, other forms of deviance, family and peer relationships, and depression. Findings support concept of generalized theory of addictions based on psychosocial,…

  4. Sexual Abuse Prevention: A Misguided Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Robert N.

    2006-01-01

    Although the propensity for child abuse is shared among adults of all occupations and economic strata, this article is concerned mainly with child care professionals. Whatever the case may be, the result is the same: tragic violation of the trust that should exist between child and adult. What can be done to correct the situation? In this article…

  5. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: What Makes them Effective in Protecting Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraizer, Sherryll; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes a school-based child abuse prevention program. The program's effectiveness is evaluated in terms of prevention of sexual abuse, the age of maximum receptivity to prevention education, and implications of the evaluation for early childhood educators. (RJC)

  6. [Child sexual abuse. Epidemiology, clinical diagnostics, therapy, and prevention].

    PubMed

    Fegert, J M; Hoffmann, U; Spröber, N; Liebhardt, H

    2013-02-01

    The article provides an overview of the research on sexual abuse and the current political developments in Germany. First, the terminology of sexual child abuse is discussed, followed by the presentation of epidemiological data. The section on diagnostics and therapy shows that--because of mostly nonspecific indicators--the diagnosis of child sexual abuse is very difficult to define. Child sexual abuse is discussed as a traumatic experience for children and adolescents with different psychiatric and physical diseases. Current studies have shown that especially cognitive behavioral therapeutic-oriented approaches are effective in curing posttraumatic stress disorders. Based on the new German Child Protection Act, the focus lies on the clarification of confidentiality for medical professionals and their right to consulting services for child protection. In conclusion, guidelines and minimum standards for a child prevention and protection model are presented as well as institutional recommendations addressed to all institutions (also clinical) that take care of or treat children and adolescents. PMID:23361204

  7. Prevention of physical child abuse: concept, evidence and practice.

    PubMed

    Coles, Lisa

    2008-06-01

    Given a lack of standardised procedures for preventing child abuse, what can be done in terms of thinking and action about the prevention of physical child abuse in health visiting and community practice? This paper reflects on knowledge gained while undertaking case series research into non-accidental head injury (NAHI), qualitative research with health visitors and mothers and fathers into the feasibility of preventing NAHI, and work as a team member of the Welsh Child Protection Systematic Review Group. Prevention is an abstract term, with dimensions of an ethical nature, and requires prompt and timely action. To identify when preventive action is required, an understanding is needed of where there is risk, and what benefit or outcome may follow interventions. However, the knowledge in this field is limited, which means that it is wise to be cautious in claiming effectiveness of prevention activity. Nonetheless, if prevention is not seen to be practised, the development of skills and the means to evaluate interventions will not become embedded in the routine care of families with small children, and physical child abuse will not be prevented. PMID:18672856

  8. Prevention of sexual abuse: improved information is crucial.

    PubMed

    Zollner, Hans; Fuchs, Katharina A; Fegert, Jörg M

    2014-01-01

    Sexual abuse can lead to long-lasting, even life-long, consequences and is a serious problem on an individual, familial and societal level. Therefore, prevention measures on different levels are a public health issue. Minors as well as adults should be involved in prevention work in order to prevent sexual abuse of minors in a sustainable way. Besides norms, structures and values in society, the respective laws as well as attitudes and structures should be changed and amended in such a way that abusers and the abuse are clearly confronted everywhere. In the last decades, numerous prevention programs for victims have been developed for various target groups (e.g. parenting education classes, home-visiting programs, public education, training sessions for teachers, E-Learning Programs of the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research and the Centre for Child Protection). Many of these programs have proven partially effective. Nevertheless, until now there is no consensus in the scientific community on what constitutes effectiveness in this context. Reasons for this are the discrepancies in definitions or the scarcity of attention which the evaluation of prevention measures has received. PMID:24517625

  9. Prevention of sexual abuse: improved information is crucial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sexual abuse can lead to long-lasting, even life-long, consequences and is a serious problem on an individual, familial and societal level. Therefore, prevention measures on different levels are a public health issue. Minors as well as adults should be involved in prevention work in order to prevent sexual abuse of minors in a sustainable way. Besides norms, structures and values in society, the respective laws as well as attitudes and structures should be changed and amended in such a way that abusers and the abuse are clearly confronted everywhere. In the last decades, numerous prevention programs for victims have been developed for various target groups (e.g. parenting education classes, home-visiting programs, public education, training sessions for teachers, E-Learning Programs of the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research and the Centre for Child Protection). Many of these programs have proven partially effective. Nevertheless, until now there is no consensus in the scientific community on what constitutes effectiveness in this context. Reasons for this are the discrepancies in definitions or the scarcity of attention which the evaluation of prevention measures has received. PMID:24517625

  10. Another Look at Sexual Abuse Prevention for Young Children: A Revised Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Susan; Sippel, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the revision of "Let's Talk about Touching," a child sexual abuse prevention program widely used in early childhood and kindergarten programs in British Columbia since 1986. Describes the program as comprised of a manual providing information about sexual abuse, information on the teacher's role, detailed lesson plans, family information…

  11. Promising and Proven Substance Abuse Prevention Programs. Guide to Science-Based Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    For more than a decade, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administrations Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) has supported demonstration programs designed to identify interventions that work with populations at high risk to prevent substance abuse, delay its onset, and reduce substance abuse-related behaviors. Research now…

  12. 78 FR 5471 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  13. 75 FR 4577 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention...

  14. 75 FR 28623 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention...

  15. 77 FR 55482 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  16. 77 FR 45647 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  17. 78 FR 52779 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  18. 77 FR 1708 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  19. 75 FR 8978 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice... the February 10, 2010 meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) National Advisory Council. Public notice was given in...

  20. 76 FR 59710 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  1. 78 FR 69702 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  2. Uncovering sexual abuse: evaluation of the effectiveness of The Victims of Violence and Abuse Prevention Programme.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, J

    2010-02-01

    Discusses factors inhibiting open talk around a client's history of abuse including gender, age and diagnosis. * Evaluates the helpfulness of a training course designed to reduce and overcome these factors. * Aim of the evaluation is to help replicate the training nationally, following the positive impact found. Abstract Despite the high prevalence of sexual abuse among users of mental health services, it appears that mental health professionals are frequently unaware of clients' abuse histories. In order to address this, a Mental Health Trusts Collaboration Project of nine trusts was formed, which piloted delivering the Department of Health's Victims of Violence & Abuse Prevention Programme one-day education and training course regarding enquiring about histories of sexual abuse to various mental health practitioners. This hoped to educate practitioners in factors associated with victims and offenders, improve confidence and competence in asking about client's history of abuse and to increase awareness of the importance of asking. The purpose of this paper is to describe the impact of this course on mental health professionals' practice and attitudes in one of these nine trusts. It was found that since the delivery of the course, 44% (n= x) of professionals had been asking about abuse in 75-100% of cases. Gender, age and diagnosis of both the service users and the practitioners were all identified as factors potentially affecting practitioners' willingness to ask about abuse. Most importantly, 93% (n= x) of participants were found to feel they have the skills and knowledge to enquire about abuse and respond to disclosure in the appropriate way and 77% (n= x) of participants felt that this training had changed their clinical practice. The aim of this evaluation is to prove the effectiveness of the Department of Health's education and training course, which will help towards replicating the project nationally. PMID:20100302

  3. Drug Education Curriculum: Kindergarten. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Drug Education.

    This curriculum guide, one of nine sequential manuals for elementary and secondary teachers and administrators, is designed to prevent drug misuse and abuse through activities for developing students' cognitive and affective skills. The materials emphasize the involvement of parents and community members and resources in implementing drug abuse…

  4. Say It Straight: Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander-Golden, Paula; And Others

    Patterns of drug use among teenagers indicate they are highly influenced by peers. To examine the influence of Say It Straight, an alcohol/drug abuse prevention program aimed at teaching adolescents to deal with peer pressure, sixth, seventh and eighth graders (N=509) created and role played situations in which they wanted to say "no" to an offer…

  5. Public Attitudes and Behaviors with Respect to Child Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Gelles, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Examines public attitudes toward parental discipline practices, incidences of parental practices, the public's support for and involvement in child abuse prevention efforts, and the public's perceptions of causes of child maltreatment. Found that most persons view physical punishment and repeated yelling and swearing at children as harmful.…

  6. Navy Substance Abuse Prevention Program: Research and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall M.

    This paper describes the research and evaluation efforts of the Navy Substance Abuse Prevention Program at the University of Arizona. The importance and usefulness of formative and summative evaluations are discussed and specific evaluation tasks are identified. The first of these tasks is associated with personnel selection; the functions and…

  7. Alcohol Abuse Prevention Among Latino Adolescents: A Strategy for Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambrana, Ruth E.; Aquirre-Molina, Marilyn

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a prevention program funded by the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in 1978 for Latino youth in East Harlem. Literature on Latino youth and alcohol use is reviewed, followed by a description of the program, its setting, and its evaluative methodology. (Author/JAZ)

  8. Young Children of Substance Abusers. Prevention Research Update No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory; Prendergast, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The stated objectives of this document are: to increase awareness of and clarify the risks facing children of substance abusers (COSAs) through a review of recent empirical research literature; and to examine the prevention and intervention issues involved in providing services to these youth in the schools. The literature review deals mainly with…

  9. 76 FR 19261 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-8382 Filed 4-5-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8645 of March 31, 2011 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Our Nation's children are our hope for the...

  10. 75 FR 17841 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-8022 Filed 4-6-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8490 of April 1, 2010 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Our children are our most valuable resource,...

  11. 77 FR 20493 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-8318 Filed 4-4-12; 8:45 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8791 of April 2, 2012 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 By the... work of raising our children stands among our greatest responsibilities and our most profound...

  12. 78 FR 20215 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-07920 Filed 4-3-13; 8:45 am] Billing code... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8949 of March 29, 2013 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013 By the... to pursue our own measure of happiness and live free from fear. But for the millions of children...

  13. 76 FR 62293 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-26148... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8728 of October 3, 2011 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 By... increase their chances of living long, healthy, and productive lives. During National Substance...

  14. Preventing Sexual Abuse in Day Care Programs: National Program Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimlich, Norm; And Others

    In October 1984, a national program inspection on preventing child sexual abuse in day care programs was begun. Program inspections are short-term studies designed to provide qualitative information and quantitative data for use by the Department of Health and Human Services as an additional source of information. Participants in this study, from…

  15. Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Education for Chinese Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Liu, Chengfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a sexual abuse prevention education in a sample of Chinese preschool children in Beijing, China. Method: One hundred and fifty preschool children were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (N = 78) or the wait-list control group (N = 72). Children were posttested on…

  16. What College Students Are Telling Us about Alcohol Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jeanne A.; Kile, Marilyn J.

    This paper describes the successful use of student focus groups by the University of Wisconsin--Whitewater Student Health Center to assess marketing strategies for alcohol abuse prevention. The focus group is a group of 13 students who met several times with a facilitator to share perceptions, feelings, and attitudes about alcohol abuse…

  17. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention and Treatment. Continuing Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stovall, Bennie

    This self-study manual, for use by individuals or groups, was developed for social work practitioners, and focuses on total family assessment to determine prevention and treatment intervention in cases of child sexual abuse and neglect. The introduction presents the philosophy of continuing education on which the manual is based, an overview of…

  18. Reflective Practice and Supervision in Child Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wightman, Barbara; Whitaker, Kate; Traylor, Diane; Yeider, Sheri; Hyden, Vivian C.; Weigand, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The contributors to this article reflect on the process and value of participating together in a monthly reflective supervision group for supervisors in a child abuse prevention program. Some of them joined the group with considerable interest in and experience with reflective supervision. For others this was an entirely new experience that they…

  19. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs in Texas Public Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanning, Beth; Robinson, James III; Ballard, Danny J.

    1999-01-01

    Assessed the elementary-school child-sexual-abuse-prevention programs in 89 large Texas public school districts. Surveys examined types of programs, training available, evaluation used, involvement of local agencies, and funding. Results indicated that 58 districts addressed the issue formally, and most districts trained their presenters.…

  20. Relapse Prevention with Substance Abusers: Clinical Issues and Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Dennis C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the problems of relapse with alcoholics and other drug abusers from three perspectives: client-related variables, common erroneous beliefs and myths held by professionals regarding relapse, and treatment system problems that may contribute to relapse. Offers proposed solutions and describes a relapse prevention model. (Author/ABB)

  1. Different Strokes: Models of Drug Abuse Prevention Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Martin R.

    This paper delineates models of drug abuse prevention education that have been indicated in the literature during the past six years, and discusses the research related to each. The nine models were considered according to: (1) basic premises, (2) positive and negative salient criticisms, and, (3) implications and modes of application for drug…

  2. Issues in Primary Prevention in Substance Abuse. A Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Donald G.

    The purpose of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism is to reduce the incidence of social, psychological, and health problems due to the use of alcohol. Soliciting financial support for primary prevention programs is difficult because of: (1) Federal, state, and local revenues derived from sales of alcoholic beverages; (2) The…

  3. Abuse Prevention Policy on Alcohol and Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Univ., University.

    This document presents the University of Mississippi's campus drug and alcohol prevention policy. A four page folder details policy and regulations including: Mississippi law regarding alcohol and other drugs (e.g., penalties for trafficking and possession), university disciplinary sanctions, health risks of drug abuse, and counseling and…

  4. A Teaching Guide to Preventing Adolescent Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebill, Joan; Taylor, Julie

    This teaching guide was created for school districts and other agencies to use in developing and teaching sexual abuse prevention education programs at the secondary school level. The first section presents an eight-step approach to the development of a program at the secondary school level. The second section discusses special issues in teaching…

  5. Child Abuse Prevention Optional Unit. Teacher Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This teacher resource manual complements the optional Child Abuse Prevention Unit of the Elementary Health Program for schools in Alberta, Canada. The activities and suggestions contained in the manual are intended to be supportive, not prescriptive. The stated goal of this unit is to enable all children to develop the knowledge, skills, and…

  6. Problems of drug abuse and preventive measures in Poland.

    PubMed

    Tobolska-Rydz, H

    1986-01-01

    An increasing abuse of drugs emerged among young people in Poland at the end of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s. According to information provided by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, there are currently 35,000 drug abusers, but the actual number is estimated at approximately 200,000. The abuse of extract from poppy straw and the inhalation of volatile solvents, such as glue and paint remover, are the major drug abuse problems. Addicts prepare a decoction of poppy straw for injection, and morphine and heroin have been clandestinely manufactured in very elementary home-made laboratories. Recently, methamphetamine hydrochloride and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) have also been illicitly produced in such home-made laboratories. The increasing drug abuse problem has prompted the authorities to prepare new complementary drug control legislation, the Act on the Prevention of Narcotic Addiction, which was adopted on 31 January 1985. The Act provides for more effective preventive and treatment measures, as well as severe punishment for involvement in illicit drug trafficking. Treatment, rehabilitation and social reintegration of drug-dependent persons is provided on a voluntary basis, except for persons convicted of drug-related offences and for persons under 18 years of age, in which case treatment may be compulsory. PMID:3779183

  7. [Experiences from two HIV prevention projects among drug abusers in Oslo. Is methadone maintenance treatment useful?].

    PubMed

    Skogstad, M

    1990-06-10

    Experience from two HIV-preventive projects among drug abusers in Oslo, Norway, shows that HIV-positive drug abusers carry on their drug abuse independent of visits to residential drug-free treatment or prison. HIV-positive former drug abusers show a tendency to relapse to drug abuse. In terms of HIV-prevention among drug abusers it is important to reduce injection of drugs among HIV-positive drug abusers. Thus, methadone maintenance programmes should be considered in HIV-prevention in Norway. PMID:2363170

  8. [Approaches for the prevention of alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Watzl, H

    1996-07-01

    Epidemiological studies of alcohol problems have demonstrated a considerable variation between countries and epoches. Two types of primary prevention strategies of alcohol problems are examined. Firstly, efforts to control and reduce the availability of alcohol including increase of price, restriction of alcohol retail outlets or hours during which alcohol can be sold, minimum legal age for purchase or consumption, drinking-driving laws and enforcement programmes, restriction of alcohol advertising. The second type consists of educational prevention programmes aiming at the reduction of risk factors or the increase of protective factors within the general population. This type includes information to change knowledge and attitudes, education of affects and values, life skill training, resistance training, and mass media campaigns. Programmes aiming at high risk groups and the development of standardised secondary prevention programmes might be more effective and cost-efficient. PMID:8963092

  9. Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…

  10. 3 CFR 8355 - Proclamation 8355 of April 1, 2009. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8355 of April 1, 2009 Proc. 8355 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009By the President of the... they are our future. National Child Abuse Prevention Month provides the opportunity to underscore our commitment to preventing and responding appropriately to child abuse. This month, we emphasize the...

  11. 3 CFR 8728 - Proclamation 8728 of October 3, 2011. National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 8728 Proclamation 8728 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8728 of October 3, 2011 Proc. 8728 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011By the President... chances of living long, healthy, and productive lives. During National Substance Abuse Prevention...

  12. 3 CFR 8645 - Proclamation 8645 of March 31, 2011. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8645 of March 31, 2011 Proc. 8645 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011By the President of the... them is one of our greatest responsibilities. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our commitment to preventing child abuse and neglect by promoting healthy families,...

  13. Come Closer around the Fire. Using Tribal Legends, Myths, and Stories in Preventing Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Multicultural Awareness, Arlington, VA.

    Intended for people working in drug abuse prevention or trying to help American Indian youth feel pride in themselves and their culture, the booklet provides specific guidelines on how to use tribal stories in preventing drug abuse. Following a brief introduction to drug abuse problems and prevention strategies, the booklet explains three kinds of…

  14. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  15. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  16. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  17. Applying Computer Technology to Substance Abuse Prevention Science Results of a Preliminary Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsch, Lisa A.; Bickel, Warren K.; Badger, Gary J.

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript reports on the development and evaluation of a computer-based substance abuse prevention program for middle school-aged adolescents, called "HeadOn: Substance Abuse Prevention for Grades 6-8TM". This self-guided program was designed to deliver effective drug abuse prevention science to youth via computer-based educational…

  18. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  19. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  20. Parent-Focused Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Tamar; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

    2015-08-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health issue. Current after-the-fact approaches to treating victims and punishing offenders are not adequate to address a problem of this magnitude; development and rigorous evaluation of CSA prevention strategies are critical. We propose that CSA prevention efforts should target parents of young children. Parents have been neglected as a focus of CSA prevention; they merit attention given their potential to improve children's safety via effective communication and monitoring. This paper provides an overview of current strategies for reducing CSA prevalence and their limitations, presents a rationale for parent-focused CSA prevention, and discusses considerations pertinent to development of an effective parent-focused approach. Parent-focused CSA prevention offers potential as a public health approach to prevention of CSA, and it is time that we devote resources toward developing and studying this important area. PMID:25757528

  1. 3 CFR 8949 - Proclamation 8949 of March 29, 2013. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8949 of March 29, 2013 Proc. 8949 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013By the President of the... experienced abuse or neglect, it is a promise that goes tragically unfulfilled. National Child Abuse... addressing child abuse a priority. Since I took office, we have advocated for responsible parenting...

  2. 75 FR 7483 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse... meeting. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Testing...

  3. 78 FR 45545 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... meeting will also be available on the SAMHSA Web site after the meeting. Committee Name: Substance...

  4. Prevention of Methamphetamine Abuse: Can Existing Evidence Inform Community Prevention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Johanna; Fisher, Deborah A.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S.

    2008-01-01

    Little research exists on effective strategies to prevent methamphetamine production, distribution, sales, use, and harm. As a result, prevention practitioners (especially at the local level) have little guidance in selecting potentially effective strategies. This article presents a general causal model of methamphetamine use and harms that…

  5. Jump start: a targeted substance abuse prevention program.

    PubMed

    Harrington, N G; Donohew, L

    1997-10-01

    A substance abuse prevention and life skills program for economically disadvantaged, high sensation seeking African American teens was developed and tested in Cincinnati, Ohio. Formative research was conducted to determine program content and format. Over two implementations, 289 individuals in the target population were recruited as participants for the field test of the program. For the first implementation, participants were randomly selected from the city's summer youth employment program. For the second, a media campaign was designed to recruit participants. Process evaluation indicated that participants evaluated the program extremely positively. Outcome evaluation indicated that significant pretest differences between high and low sensation seekers were neutralized for liquor and marijuana in both years of the program and for attitude toward drugs in the first year of the program. These results suggest that sensation seeking is a useful message design and audience-targeting variable for substance abuse prevention program design. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:9307894

  6. 3 CFR 8791 - Proclamation 8791 of April 2, 2012. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8791 of April 2, 2012 Proc. 8791 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012By the President of the... Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our commitment to break the cycle of violence, strengthen support... unit is the surest defense against child abuse, and parents and caregivers who have...

  7. Take Action on 5 Policies America Must Adopt To Reduce and Prevent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    The Join Together National Policy Panel presents five policies that can help communities reduce and prevent substance abuse. They are: (1) compel substance abuse treatment for criminal offenders; (2) ensure that every person who has an addiction gets treatment; (3) make substance abuse prevention an urgent priority in every community; (4) increase…

  8. The Ability of Elementary School Children to Learn Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutty, Leslie M.

    1992-01-01

    This evaluation of a child abuse prevention program with 200 children (Grades K, 1, 3, and 6) 5 months after a child abuse prevention program found participating children scored significantly higher on the Children's Knowledge of Abuse Questionnaire than did controls. Age was a critical factor. All participants maintained their level of knowledge…

  9. 3 CFR 8879 - Proclamation 8879 of October 1, 2012. National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 8879 Proclamation 8879 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8879 of October 1, 2012 Proc. 8879 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012By the President... communities, to the heartache of lives cut tragically short, the consequences of substance abuse are...

  10. Prevention of abusive head trauma: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Bethany; Anderson, Judy K

    2013-01-01

    Abusive head trauma, formerly known as shaken baby syndrome, is a condition with physical, psychosocial, and fiscal implications presenting opportunities for nurses to intervene with prevention strategies. This integrative review of the literature explored the empirical evidence to identify prevention strategies effective in decreasing abusive head trauma. Education, medical, and nursing databases yielded 14 quality research studies providing the basis for the review. Multiple facets of prevention strategies were identified with patterns in the literature of community involvement, early detection and involvement by health professionals, and parental education programming. A five-component model of prevention strategies is proposed to provide nurses with a comprehensive approach to the issue. These components consist of a) completion of personal inventory, b) involvement in multi-modal parental education, c) commitment to a prevention program, d) participation of the family and community, and e) connection to a spiritual element. Through these components, it is hoped there is enhancement of the quality of life for parents and infants, and a discouragement of situations that increase the risk of infant injury. PMID:24640317

  11. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  12. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  13. Community College Presidents' Role in Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William

    2006-01-01

    This publication is designed to guide presidents of community colleges and their administrative staff as they focus on alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse prevention. The first section reviews the challenges facing community colleges in reducing student substance use and the strengths the colleges draw on in addressing it. The second section…

  14. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  15. Assessing state substance abuse prevention infrastructure through the lens of CSAP's Strategic Prevention Framework.

    PubMed

    Piper, Douglas; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert; Orwin, Robert G; Buchanan, Rebecca

    2012-02-01

    Although the organizational structures and operating procedures of state substance abuse prevention systems vary substantially across states, there is scant empirical research regarding approaches for rigorous assessment of system attributes and which attributes are most conducive to overall effectiveness. As one component of the national cross-site evaluation of the SPF State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), an instrument was developed to assess state substance abuse prevention system infrastructure in order to measure infrastructure change and examine the role of state infrastructure in achieving prevention-related outcomes. In this paper we describe the development of this instrument and summarize findings from its baseline administration. As expected, states and territories were found to vary substantially with respect seven key characteristics, or domains, of state prevention infrastructure. Across the six domains that were assessed using numeric ratings, states scored highest on data systems and lowest on strategic planning. Positive intercorrelations were observed among these domains, indicating that states with high capacity on one domain generally have relatively high capacity on other domains as well. The findings also suggest that state prevention infrastructure development is linked to both funding from state government and the presence of a state interagency coordinating body with decision-making authority. The methodology and baseline findings presented will be used to inform the ongoing national cross-site evaluation of the SPF SIG and may provide useful information to guide further research on state substance abuse prevention infrastructure. PMID:22054526

  16. Teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, N; Casey, K; Daro, D

    1992-01-01

    In considering the great responsibility placed upon teachers to involve themselves in child abuse prevention, education, and detection, the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA) conducted a nationwide survey of teachers from 40 school districts in 29 randomly selected counties. The survey explores teachers knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention. Five hundred and sixty-eight teachers responded, revealing that while the majority of teachers confront child abuse among their students, they are provided insufficient education on how to address it. Other findings are reported with respect to teachers' reporting behavior, potential barriers to reporting, child assault prevention programs, and corporal punishment in schools. PMID:1559171

  17. News Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse and Prevention, 2007-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Dorfman, Lori

    2012-01-01

    News media coverage of child sexual abuse can help policymakers and the public understand what must be done to prevent future abuse, but coverage tends to focus on extreme cases. This article presents an analysis of newspaper coverage from 2007 to 2009 to describe how the daily news presents and frames day-to-day stories about child sexual abuse.…

  18. For Kids' Sake: A Child Abuse Prevention and Reporting Kit. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazi, Sherry P., Ed.; Grimes, Linda J., Ed.

    This guidebook was designed to help concerned citizens identify and prevent child abuse. The guidebook provides information about the extent of child abuse in the United States generally and within Oklahoma specifically, and stresses that under Oklahoma state law every adult has the responsibility to report suspected abuse. Programs and services…

  19. Keeping Kids Safe: A Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Manual. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Pnina; Kessner, Sue Levinson

    The material in this book is intended to provide a review of information regarding child abuse prevention. It is divided into two sections. Part 1, The Facilitator's Guide, contains background information on child sexual abuse, with a particular emphasis on the dynamics of incest and other sexual abuse and their effects on the child. It presents a…

  20. Mental Illness: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This guide to alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with mental illness notes the incidence of mental illness and types of conditions. The incidence of alcohol and other drug abuse problems in this population is discussed, emphasizing the difficulty in dealing with the dual problem of substance abuse and chronic mental illness.…

  1. School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Manoj; Branscum, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse, or substance abuse, is a substantial public health problem in the United States, particularly among high school students. The purpose of this article was to review school-based programs implemented in high schools for substance abuse prevention and to suggest recommendations for future interventions. Included were English language…

  2. Effective Prevention of Adolescent Substance Abuse--Educational versus Deterrent Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…

  3. PREVENTION AND OUTCOMES FOR VICTIMS OF CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18–34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897

  4. Drug Abuse Prevention Research Needs among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Joseph E.

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes the literature regarding alcohol and drug abuse among American Indians and Alaska Natives noting four major knowledge gaps in the literature. Discusses abuse prevention efforts among American Indians and notes research questions to be considered regarding primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention efforts. Makes eight recommendations…

  5. 3 CFR 8490 - Proclamation 8490 of April 1, 2010. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proclamation 8490 of April 1, 2010. National Child... 8490 of April 1, 2010 Proc. 8490 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010By the President of the... support to thrive and grow into healthy, productive adults. During National Child Abuse Prevention...

  6. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  7. Utilizing Online Training for Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Benefits and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paranal, Rechelle; Thomas, Kiona Washington; Derrick, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of child sexual abuse demands innovative approaches to prevent further victimization. The online environment provides new opportunities to expand existing child sexual abuse prevention trainings that target adult gatekeepers and allow for large scale interventions that are fiscally viable. This article discusses the benefits and…

  8. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A review of School Policy and Curriculum Provision in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.

    2013-01-01

    The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…

  9. Parental Communication as a Tool Kit for Preventing Sexual Abuse among Adolescent Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tayo, Ajayi Beatrice; Olawuyi, B. O.

    2016-01-01

    This study employed the survey design to investigate the relevance of parent communication in preventing sexual abuse among secondary school students in Nigeria. The instrument for data collection tagged "Parent Communication Strategy for Preventing Sexual Abuse questionnaire" (PCOSPSAQ), was a researcher designed instrument. It was…

  10. Is the Receptivity of Substance Abuse Prevention Programming Affected by Students' Perceptions of the Instructor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Peggy C.; Sloboda, Zili; Grey, Scott; Stephens, Richard; Hammond, Augustine; Hawthorne, Richard; Teasdale, Brent; Williams, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the elaboration likelihood model of persuasive communication, the authors examine the impact of the perceptions of the instructor or source on students' receptivity to a new substance abuse prevention curriculum. Using survey data from a cohort of students participating in the Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study, the authors use…

  11. 77 FR 183 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Preventing Abuse of Interagency Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ..., 17, 18, 35, and 41 RIN 9000-AL69 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Preventing Abuse of Interagency... section of the Duncan Hunter National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2009, to prevent abuse of... an interim rule in the Federal Register at 75 FR 77733 on December 13, 2010, to implement...

  12. An Interdisciplinary Approach for the Integration and Diffusion of Substance Abuse Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtel, Lori J.; Vicary, Judith; Swisher, John; Smith, Edward; Hopkins, Abigail; Henry, Kimberly; Minner, Daphne

    2006-01-01

    Effective substance abuse prevention programs help students develop knowledge as well as psychosocial competencies that can help them resist or delay the initiation of alcohol, tobacco and other drug (ATOD) use. This paper describes the integration process used in a five-year project, Adoption of Drug Abuse Prevention Training (ADAPT), to study…

  13. Comprehensive Outcomes Planning: Strategies for a Non-Profit Child Abuse Prevention Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Christina Olenik; Davis, Stephanie Rice

    This paper discusses the development of evaluation strategies for a nonprofit child abuse prevention agency in Maryland. The Family Tree, an organization associated with National Parents Anonymous and the National Exchange Club Foundation for the Prevention of Child Abuse, serves more than 15,000 people per year through community training,…

  14. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: Durham Family Initiative Implementation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Durham Family Initiative (DFI) is one of two community-based child abuse prevention efforts that comprise The Duke Endowment's Child Abuse Prevention Initiative. Beginning in 2002, the Endowment provided support to the Durham Family Initiative (DFI) in North Carolina and Strong Communities in South Carolina to develop a comprehensive approach…

  15. Pilot Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Taiwanese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yi-Chuen; Fortson, Beverly L.; Tseng, Kai-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the efficacy of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program for Taiwanese children. Forty-six Taiwanese children age 6 to 13 were divided into one of two groups based on their school grade and then randomly assigned to a skills-based child sexual abuse prevention program who…

  16. Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Project. Final Report: Innovations in Protective Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis-Small, Lucretia

    This final report is a process evaluation of the Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Project describing the efforts to develop a statewide philosophy and an operational plan in Texas toward primary and secondary prevention of child abuse and neglect. Discussion focuses on the background and origin of the project, first and second year operations…

  17. Preventing Growth Hormone Abuse: An Emerging Health Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, George L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Facts about growth hormone abuse should be incorporated into substance abuse components of health education curriculums. Sources, uses, and dangers associated with human growth hormones are discussed. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  18. Sexual Abuse in Nine North American Cultures: Treatment and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson, Ed.

    Due to cultural and linguistic misunderstandings, racism, and even homophobia, sexual abuse is frequently mishandled by professionals working with minority populations. Research and multiculturalism have led to advances in understanding sexual abuse in its various contexts. The complicated issues which surround such abuse, in nine different…

  19. Community Action Guide to Policies for Prevention: The Recommendations of the Join Together Policy Panel on Preventing Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    This guide accompanies Join Together's recommendations for drug and alcohol abuse prevention for policymakers and communities. It presents strategic examples of how major institutions and residents in communities have paid attention to substance abuse and worked to overcome its effects. Part 1 contains the recommendations and key policies…

  20. Preventing Substance Abuse among Children and Adolescents: Family-Centered Approaches. Practitioner's Guide. Prevention Enhancement Protocols System (PEPS) Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch & Davis Associates, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    This guideline summarizes state-of-the-art approaches and interventions designed to strengthen the role of families in substance abuse prevention. Topics discussed are: (1) "Why Use Family-Centered Approaches? Aren't Our School and Community Efforts Sufficient?"; (2) "How Big a Problem Is Substance Abuse Among Youth?"; (3) "What Puts Children and…

  1. Science-Based Prevention Programs and Principles, 2002. Effective Substance Abuse and Mental Health Programs for Every Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinke, S.; Brounstein, P.; Gardner, S.

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) are committed to bringing effective substance abuse prevention and behavioral health promotion programs to every community in the Nation. As more knowledge is gained about efficacy and effectiveness of prevention and…

  2. [Child maltreatment prevention: the pediatrician's role. Part 2. Prevention before it happens, when suspected and when abuse is confirmed].

    PubMed

    Mouesca, Juan P

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric actions that can prevent child abuse are described. Interdisciplinary work, training in communication skills, child development and family functions are recommended. Given the intense feelings generated by this subject, self-care strategies are suggested. PMID:26914077

  3. Proximate Effects of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program in Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Piche, Christiane; Poitras, Michele

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the sexual child abuse prevention program ESPACE were evaluated with 133 Canadian children (grades 1-3). Children participating in the prevention program showed greater preventive knowledge and skills relative to children not participating. Follow-up data showed knowledge gains were maintained while the preventive skill gains may…

  4. Development of the System on the Internet for Pre-Assessment of Child Abuse Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko

    Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.

  5. Hidden Disabilities: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet discusses alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with hidden disabilities such as cancer, epilepsy, diabetes, kidney failure, hemophilia, hypertension, early stages of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), or heart disease. Their increased risk for alcohol and other drug abuse and reasons for increased risk are…

  6. The Role of Home-Visiting Programs in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Kimberly Howard and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn examine home visiting, an increasingly popular method for delivering services for families, as a strategy for preventing child abuse and neglect. They focus on early interventions because infants are at greater risk for child abuse and neglect than are older children. In their article, Howard and Brooks-Gunn…

  7. Preventing Sexual Abuse of Children in the Twenty-First Century: Preparing for Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.

    2009-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is a widespread social problem that negatively affects victims, families, communities, and society. This article briefly describes the scope and consequences of child sexual abuse and briefly critiques child-focused personal safety educational programs designed to prevent sexual victimization. The final section offers…

  8. Primary Prevention of Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma: A Cost Audit and Cost-Utility Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Joshua; Reed, Peter; Sharplin, Peter; Kelly, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To obtain comprehensive, reliable data on the direct cost of pediatric abusive head trauma in New Zealand, and to use this data to evaluate the possible cost-benefit of a national primary prevention program. Methods: A 5 year cohort of infants with abusive head trauma admitted to hospital in Auckland, New Zealand was reviewed. We…

  9. Criteria for the Selection of Drug Abuse Prevention Curricula: A Workbook. [Updated].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Jill; Sancho, Anthony

    This workbook was created to enable a school district or school to select a drug abuse prevention curriculum that is educationally sound and effective. It was produced to assist in the selection of pre-developed curricula, but the criteria may be easily adapted for use in developing curricula. Criteria for selecting a drug abuse prevention…

  10. Children--New York's Greatest Resource: The School's Role in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of General Education.

    This publication is intended to assist school personnel to expand their professional understanding of the problem of child abuse and neglect, improve their reporting procedures, and deal with prevention and support activities within the school and community. The nature, causes, extent, and effects of child abuse and neglect are treated briefly in…

  11. The Educator's Role in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhurst, Diane D.

    The manual delineates the roles of the educator in child abuse and neglect identification, treatment, and prevention. Chapter I addresses the nature, extent, causes, and effects of child abuse and neglect. Chapter II explains why educators should be involved with discussion of legal and ethical issues relating to the problem. A third chapter…

  12. Intervening with New Parents: An Effective Way To Prevent Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize current trends in child abuse prevention and to provide program administrators and policymakers with guidelines for implementing successful new parent programs in their communities. Contents address: (1) the scope of the child abuse problem; (2) a theoretical framework or conceptual model for use in…

  13. Incorporating Health and Behavioral Consequences of Child Abuse in Prevention Programs Targeting Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child…

  14. Why Do Teachers Choose to Implement or Reject Drug Abuse Prevention Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, James Reed; Swanchak, John

    State and local school systems have developed comprehensive drug abuse prevention programs that appear to have little influence on the rising tide of teenage drug abuse. Classroom teachers, as implementors of such programs, frequently veto them or change them considerably. Forty secondary teachers were selected as research subjects to examine this…

  15. Randomized Trial of a Statewide Home Visiting Program: Impact in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Anne; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Fuddy, Loretta; Burrell, Lori; Higman, Susan M.; Windham, Amy; Sia, Calvin

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the impact of home visiting in preventing child abuse and neglect in the first 3 years of life in families identified as at-risk of child abuse through population-based screening at the child's birth. Methods: This experimental study focused on Hawaii Healthy Start Program (HSP) sites operated by three community-based…

  16. State Part C Agency Practices and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Sutton, Danielle Thorp; Fox, Lise; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2008-01-01

    Each year nearly 900,000 cases of child abuse and neglect are substantiated in the United States, with the highest rates of maltreatment occurring among infants and toddlers. Children exposed to maltreatment are at increased risk of developmental delay. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act specifies that children under age 3 with…

  17. Benefit-Cost Analysis of Drug Abuse Prevention Programs: A Macroscopic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sehwan; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Determines the overall strategy for initiating benefit-cost analysis (BCA) in relation to drug abuse prevention programs, followed by definitions of BCA and cost-effectiveness analysis. Determines the most likely population benefit-cost efficiency ratio of 15:1, indicating that there is a $15 savings on every dollar spent on drug abuse education.…

  18. Substance Abuse Prevention and Intervention for Students with Disabilities: A Call to Educators. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Kathryn; Moore, Dennis

    This digest summarizes basic information on substance abuse prevention and intervention for students with disabilities. It identifies risks associated with specific disabilities including mental retardation/developmental disability, emotional disturbance (at highest risk for substance abuse), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, blindness,…

  19. The Elder Abuse Prevention Project, Phase Two, Three and Four. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regina Univ. (Saskatchewan). Univ. Extension. Seniors Education Centre.

    This document presents the final report from an educational and community development program designed to raise awareness about the abuse and neglect of the elderly. The Elder Abuse Prevention Project is briefly described in terms of project goals, objectives, the model used, the target groups served, and the evaluation processes employed. It is…

  20. Neuronal expression of GalNAc transferase is sufficient to prevent the age-related neurodegenerative phenotype of complex ganglioside-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Yao, Denggao; McGonigal, Rhona; Barrie, Jennifer A; Cappell, Joanna; Cunningham, Madeleine E; Meehan, Gavin R; Fewou, Simon N; Edgar, Julia M; Rowan, Edward; Ohmi, Yuhsuke; Furukawa, Keiko; Furukawa, Koichi; Brophy, Peter J; Willison, Hugh J

    2014-01-15

    Gangliosides are widely expressed sialylated glycosphingolipids with multifunctional properties in different cell types and organs. In the nervous system, they are highly enriched in both glial and neuronal membranes. Mice lacking complex gangliosides attributable to targeted ablation of the B4galnt1 gene that encodes β-1,4-N-acetylegalactosaminyltransferase 1 (GalNAc-transferase; GalNAcT(-/-)) develop normally before exhibiting an age-dependent neurodegenerative phenotype characterized by marked behavioral abnormalities, central and peripheral axonal degeneration, reduced myelin volume, and loss of axo-glial junction integrity. The cell biological substrates underlying this neurodegeneration and the relative contribution of either glial or neuronal gangliosides to the process are unknown. To address this, we generated neuron-specific and glial-specific GalNAcT rescue mice crossed on the global GalNAcT(-/-) background [GalNAcT(-/-)-Tg(neuronal) and GalNAcT(-/-)-Tg(glial)] and analyzed their behavioral, morphological, and electrophysiological phenotype. Complex gangliosides, as assessed by thin-layer chromatography, mass spectrometry, GalNAcT enzyme activity, and anti-ganglioside antibody (AgAb) immunohistology, were restored in both neuronal and glial GalNAcT rescue mice. Behaviorally, GalNAcT(-/-)-Tg(neuronal) retained a normal "wild-type" (WT) phenotype throughout life, whereas GalNAcT(-/-)-Tg(glial) resembled GalNAcT(-/-) mice, exhibiting progressive tremor, weakness, and ataxia with aging. Quantitative electron microscopy demonstrated that GalNAcT(-/-) and GalNAcT(-/-)-Tg(glial) nerves had significantly increased rates of axon degeneration and reduced myelin volume, whereas GalNAcT(-/-)-Tg(neuronal) and WT appeared normal. The increased invasion of the paranode with juxtaparanodal Kv1.1, characteristically seen in GalNAcT(-/-) and attributed to a breakdown of the axo-glial junction, was normalized in GalNAcT(-/-)-Tg(neuronal) but remained present in GalNAc

  1. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity. PMID:25732188

  2. Substance Abuse among Adolescent Females. Prevention Research Update No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodinger-de Uriarte, Cristina; Austin, Gregory

    This document examines what is known about alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) among adolescent females. The first half of the document discusses the following topics: (1) prevalence and patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among female adolescents; (2) correlates and risk of substance abuse, including age of initiation,…

  3. Adolescent Drug Use: Trends in Abuse, Treatment and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Susan M.

    This report highlights the important trends in adolescent drug use. Although the focus is on the abuse of alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and inhalants, it is important to remember that adolescents abuse a wide range and combination of drugs. This report also addresses state-of-the-art treatment methods, and summarizes research on…

  4. Assessment, Prevention, and Intervention for Abuse among Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilczynski, Susan M.; Connolly, Sarah; Dubard, Melanie; Henderson, Amanda; Mcintosh, David

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities are at increased risk for abuse by their parents, caretakers, and the staff who are entrusted with their care as well as from the general population. Many individuals with disabilities have cognitive or communication impairments that place them at even higher risk for abuse. These limitations also make it more…

  5. Elder Abuse Prevention Project - Phase I. Literature Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Lori; And Others

    This document summarizes information on elder abuse collected from various sources in Canada and the United States. It is noted that document entries are often representative of more than one source, and have been selected as each adds something new and valuable to the overall research on elder abuse. An attempt has been made to choose information…

  6. Preventing sexual abusers of children from reoffending: systematic review of medical and psychological interventions

    PubMed Central

    Enebrink, Pia; Laurén, Eva-Marie; Lindblom, Jonas; Werkö, Sophie; Hanson, R Karl

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of current medical and psychological interventions for individuals at risk of sexually abusing children, both in known abusers and those at risk of abusing. Design Systematic review of interventions designed to prevent reoffending among known abusers and prevention for individuals at risk of sexually abusing children. Randomised controlled trials and prospective observational studies were eligible. Primary outcomes were arrests, convictions, breaches of conditions, and self reported sexual abuse of children after one year or more. Results After review of 1447 abstracts, we retrieved 167 full text studies, and finally included eight studies with low to moderate risk of bias. We found weak evidence for interventions aimed at reducing reoffending in identified sexual abusers of children. For adults, evidence from five trials was insufficient regarding both benefits and risks with psychological treatment and pharmacotherapy. For adolescents, limited evidence from one trial suggested that multisystemic therapy prevented reoffence (relative risk 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.73); lack of adequate research prevented conclusions about effects of other treatments. Evidence was also inadequate regarding effectiveness of treatment for children with sexual behavioural problems in the one trial identified. Finally, we found no eligible research on preventive methods for adults and adolescents who had not sexually abused children but were at higher risk of doing so (such as those with paedophilic sexual preference). Conclusion There are major weaknesses in the scientific evidence, particularly regarding adult men, the main category of sexual abusers of children. Better coordinated and funded high quality studies including several countries are urgently needed. Until conclusive evidence is available, realistic clinical strategies might involve reduction of specific risk factors for sex crimes, such as sexual preoccupation, in

  7. Local and National Outcomes from Community Partnerships to Prevent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Outcomes evaluation of community partnerships to prevent substance abuse poses many methodological challenges. The nine articles of this special section illustrate the variety of approaches evaluators have taken to studies that are often complicated because of small sample size. (SLD)

  8. Substance Abuse Prevention Program for Children and Adolescents in a Community-Based Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Andrea; Harvin, Sheila; White, Janeana

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a community-based substance abuse prevention program utilizing a cognitive-behavioral curriculum to children and adolescents affected by a substance use disorder in a parent or caretaker.

  9. New Hope for Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Proven Solutions To Save Lives and Prevent Future Crime. A Report by Fight Crime: Invest in Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kass, David; Miller, Cate; Rollin, Miriam; Evans, Phil; Shah, Rita

    Asserting that children who are abused or neglected are at risk of becoming future violent criminals, this report argues that this cycle of violence can be prevented by investing in recently confirmed abuse prevention and intervention strategies. The report presents information on the number of deaths each year due to abuse and neglect and calls…

  10. Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect: An Evaluation of a Home Visitation Parent Aide Program Using Recidivism Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Jeanette

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to examine the secondary and tertiary prevention of child abuse and neglect through an evaluation of the Parent Aide Program at the Child Abuse Prevention Center in Dallas, Texas. Method: Using a quasi-experimental, retrospective research design, this project compared abuse recidivism rates for those…

  11. "Helping Communities To Help Themselves." Twenty 1989 Exemplary Prevention Programs for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse. Project Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.

    Twenty exemplary substance abuse prevention programs are presented in this document. These programs are included: (1) Tuba City, Arizona, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Prevention Program; (2) Chemical Addiction Course, University of Arkansas; (3) "Teens Are Concerned" of Arkansas; (4) "Dare to be You of Colorado"; (5) Winyan Was'aka, Denver,…

  12. Community Involvement In Prevention And Control of Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slawson, Marlene R.; Kopacz, Kenneth

    1972-01-01

    This article emphasizes the need for community involvement in controlling drug abuse. It illustrates the type of New York State legislation that gave rise to the creation of Narcotic Guidance Councils. (Author)

  13. Best-Practice Guideline on the Prevention of Abuse and Neglect of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Sandra P; Penney, Tasha; McNeill, Susan; Boscart, Veronique M; Podnieks, Elizabeth; Sinha, Samir K

    2016-06-01

    A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify effective approaches to preventing and addressing abuse and neglect of older adults within health care settings in Canada. The review was conducted using databases searched from January 2000-April-May 2013. Additionally, expert panel members submitted article citations from personal archives. Two research associates (NRA) screened each title and abstract for inclusion. After inter-rater reliability was determined between the NRAs (Kappa score of 0.76), the records were divided, appraised, and data extracted independently. The review resulted in 62 studies that focused on identifying, assessing, and responding to abuse and neglect of older adults; education, prevention, and health promotion strategies; and organizational and system-level supports to prevent and respond to abuse and neglect. Abuse and neglect of older adults remains under-explored in terms of evidence-based studies; consequently, further research in all of the areas described in the results is needed. PMID:27086668

  14. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...

  15. Fluorescence-guided surgery, but not bright-light surgery, prevents local recurrence in a pancreatic cancer patient derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model resistant to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC)

    PubMed Central

    Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Maawy, Ali; Zhang, Yong; Murakami, Takashi; Momiyama, Masashi; Mori, Ryutaro; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with gemcitabine (GEM) in combination with fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) on a pancreatic cancer patient derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. A PDOX model was established from a CEA-positive tumor from a patient who had undergone a pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Mice were randomized to 4 groups: bright light surgery (BLS) only; BLS + NAC; FGS only; and FGS + NAC. An anti-CEA antibody conjugated to DyLight 650 was administered intravenously via tail vein of mice with a pancreatic cancer PDOX 24 hours before surgery. The PDOX was clearly labeled with fluorophore-conjugated anti-CEA antibody. Only one out of 8 mice had local recurrence in the FGS only group and zero out of 8 mice had local recurrence in the FGS + NAC which was significantly lower than BLS only or BLS +NAC mice, where local disease recurred in 6 out of 8 mice in each treatment group (p = 0.041 and p = 0.007, respectively). NAC did not significantly reduce recurrence rates when combined with either FGS or BLS. These results indicate that FGS can significantly reduce local recurrence compared to BLS in pancreatic cancer resistant to NAC. PMID:25800176

  16. Alcohol prevention strategies on college campuses and student alcohol abuse and related problems.

    PubMed

    Ringwalt, Christopher L; Paschall, Mallie J; Gitelman, Amy M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey concerning their use of alcohol and related consequences. Colleges were most likely to prevent alcohol use in public places on campus and the delivery and use of kegs. Four alcohol prevention domains were inversely associated with at least one of five outcomes related to student alcohol abuse or related consequences, and the alcohol policy and enforcement domain was inversely associated with all outcomes. Colleges should pay particular attention to strategies related to policy and enforcement. PMID:21675327

  17. Disability and the Family: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet examines alcohol and other drug abuse prevention in individuals with disabilities and the influence of the family. It points out the family's potential negative reactions to a disability and reasons why a person with a disability uses alcohol or other drugs. Prevention guidelines for families are provided, such as expressing concerns…

  18. Criteria for the Selection of Drug Abuse Prevention Curricula: A Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Jill

    The overwhelming number of drug abuse prevention curricula available to public schools often impedes the rational selection of a program based on sound prevention education strategies. Guidelines for the selection of either predeveloped or for developing curricula are included in this workbook. Suggestions for the formation of a district selection…

  19. School-Based Childhood Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: An Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryda, Candice M.; Hulme, Polly A.

    2015-01-01

    One prevention strategy for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) involves educational programs delivered to children in the school environment. The purpose of this integrative literature review was to determine the state of the science on school-based CSA prevention programs. The authors extracted data from 26 articles that fit inclusion criteria to…

  20. Advancing Prevention Research on Child Abuse, Youth Violence, and Domestic Violence: Emerging Strategies and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Neil B.

    2004-01-01

    Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent…

  1. Innovations in the Field of Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedetti, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect prevention is a complex field due, in part, to the diverse and numerous factors that can lead to maltreatment. As a result, prevention strategies, interventions, and initiatives must address multiple issues and rely on expertise from a variety of disciplines. This literature review considers recent and multidisciplinary…

  2. Project SMART: A Social Approach to Drug Abuse Prevention. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, C. Anderson; And Others

    This document presents the teacher's guide for an experimental research and demonstration project which focuses on the prevention of drug abuse among youth through self-management and resistance training. The major purpose of the curriculum described in this document is to prevent and reduce the incidence of habitual cigarette smoking and of…

  3. The Teachers' Role in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: Implications for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

    2012-01-01

    In response to the diverse number of child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs currently implemented in school contexts, this paper examines key considerations for selecting such initiatives and the multiplicity of understandings required to inform facilitation of contextually relevant prevention curriculum. First, the paper examines concerns…

  4. Alternatives for Young Americans: A Catalog of Drug Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Management Sciences, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    This reference book contains resumes of program descriptions geared toward youth and adults who need or want information on drug abuse prevention programs, locally or nationally. Several major entries include: (1) national program models; (2) evaluated alternative programs from all states; and (3) descriptions of prevention programs. All section…

  5. Serious Games for Learning: Games-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In spite of research demonstrating conceptual weakness in many child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programmes and outdated modes of delivery, students continue to participate in a diversity of initiatives. Referring to the development of a games-based approach to CSA prevention in Australia, this paper examines empirically based attributes of…

  6. Curricula for the Prevention of Sexual Abuse of Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Jennifer; And Others

    A compilation of material prepared for the prevention of sexual abuse of children and youth is presented in this resource manual. A brief introduction to the prevention of sexual assault leads into discussion of ten references useful for preschool, elementary, and secondary settings. Titles and descriptions of curricula and activities are…

  7. The Education of Most Worth: Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Lowell

    1988-01-01

    Combating the teenage substance abuse problem will require total school and community effort. This article presents guidelines for school action, including recognizing alcohol's dominant role in our society, dealing with mixed messages to youngsters, debunking myths about adolescent alcohol use, using available resources in new ways, and creating…

  8. Elder Abuse and Black Americans: Incidence, Correlates, Treatment and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazenave, Noel A.

    Existing evidence on family violence rates by age and race as well as the available data on race and physical elder abuse incidence rates suggests that because such data are not based on random or representative samples and tend to reflect a "sampling artifact" of the particular client populations served by the professionals surveyed, there are no…

  9. Preventing Abuse of Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco by Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falco, Mathea

    From the mid-1960s until 1980, adolescent drug use rose sharply. Although use has declined somewhat since, adolescent cocaine use remains at peak levels, and crack presents a major threat. Treatment for compulsive drug or alcohol use is needed by 5 to 15 percent of the teenagers who experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drug abuse experts now believe…

  10. Preventing Abuse in Federal Student Aid: Community College Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baime, David S.; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent months, some legislators, government agency officials, segments of the media, and campus administrators have called attention to perceived and proven instances of abuse of the federal student financial assistance programs. Concerns have focused on students enrolling in courses primarily to secure student financial aid funds rather than…

  11. Substance Abuse Prevention and Geography. Teacher's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Geographic Alliance, Storrs.

    This guide integrates themes of geography with health issues of the 1990s to encourage healthy lifestyles and promote geographic literacy. Designed for use by social studies educators and educators responsible for teaching about substance abuse and related health issues, this guide includes lessons for kindergarten through 12th grade. After an…

  12. The process of adapting a universal dating abuse prevention program to adolescents exposed to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; Dixon, Kimberly S; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael; Chang, Ling-Yin; Moss, Jennifer L

    2015-07-01

    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at increased risk of dating abuse, yet no evaluated dating abuse prevention programs have been designed specifically for this high-risk population. This article describes the process of adapting Families for Safe Dates (FSD), an evidenced-based universal dating abuse prevention program, to this high-risk population, including conducting 12 focus groups and 107 interviews with the target audience. FSD includes six booklets of dating abuse prevention information, and activities for parents and adolescents to do together at home. We adapted FSD for mothers who were victims of domestic violence, but who no longer lived with the abuser, to do with their adolescents who had been exposed to the violence. Through the adaptation process, we learned that families liked the program structure and valued being offered the program and that some of our initial assumptions about this population were incorrect. We identified practices and beliefs of mother victims and attributes of these adolescents that might increase their risk of dating abuse that we had not previously considered. In addition, we learned that some of the content of the original program generated negative family interactions for some. The findings demonstrate the utility of using a careful process to adapt evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to cultural sub-groups, particularly the importance of obtaining feedback on the program from the target audience. Others can follow this process to adapt EBIs to groups other than the ones for which the original EBI was designed. PMID:25287405

  13. Preventing abusive head trauma resulting from a failure of normal interaction between infants and their caregivers.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ronald G

    2012-10-16

    Head trauma from abuse, including shaken baby syndrome, is a devastating and potentially lethal form of infant physical abuse first recognized in the early 1970s. What has been less recognized is the role of the early increase in crying in otherwise normal infants in the first few months of life as a trigger for the abuse. In part, this is because infant crying, especially prolonged unsoothable crying, has been interpreted clinically as something wrong with the infant, the infant's caregiver, or the interactions between them. Here, we review an alternative developmental interpretation, namely, that the early increase in crying is a typical behavioral development in normal infants and usually does not reflect anything wrong or abnormal. We also review evidence indicating that this normal crying pattern is the most common trigger for abusive head trauma (AHT). Together, these findings point to a conceptualization of AHT as the consequence of a failure in an otherwise common, iterative, and developmentally normal infant-caregiver interaction. They also imply that there is a window of opportunity for prevention of AHT, and potentially other forms of infant abuse, through a public health primary universal prevention strategy aimed at changing knowledge and behaviors of caregivers and society in general concerning normal development of infants and the significance of early increased infant crying. If effective, there may be important implications for prevention of infant abuse nationally and internationally. PMID:23045677

  14. Preventing abusive head trauma resulting from a failure of normal interaction between infants and their caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Ronald G.

    2012-01-01

    Head trauma from abuse, including shaken baby syndrome, is a devastating and potentially lethal form of infant physical abuse first recognized in the early 1970s. What has been less recognized is the role of the early increase in crying in otherwise normal infants in the first few months of life as a trigger for the abuse. In part, this is because infant crying, especially prolonged unsoothable crying, has been interpreted clinically as something wrong with the infant, the infant’s caregiver, or the interactions between them. Here, we review an alternative developmental interpretation, namely, that the early increase in crying is a typical behavioral development in normal infants and usually does not reflect anything wrong or abnormal. We also review evidence indicating that this normal crying pattern is the most common trigger for abusive head trauma (AHT). Together, these findings point to a conceptualization of AHT as the consequence of a failure in an otherwise common, iterative, and developmentally normal infant–caregiver interaction. They also imply that there is a window of opportunity for prevention of AHT, and potentially other forms of infant abuse, through a public health primary universal prevention strategy aimed at changing knowledge and behaviors of caregivers and society in general concerning normal development of infants and the significance of early increased infant crying. If effective, there may be important implications for prevention of infant abuse nationally and internationally. PMID:23045677

  15. "Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann

    2010-01-01

    Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

  16. [Response to treatment of patients abusing the "dappou drug" who participated in a group relapse prevention program: a comparison with patients abusing methamphetamine].

    PubMed

    Hikitsuchi, Emi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Wada, Kiyoshi; Tanibuchi, Yuko; Takano, Ayumi; Imamura, Fumi; Kawachi, Hiraku; Wakabayashi, Asako; Kato, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we compared the efficacy of a group relapse prevention program using the cognitive behavioral therapy-based workbook, Serigaya Methamphetamine Relapse Prevention Program (SMARPP), between patients abusing the so-called "dappou drugs" (designer drug in Japan, and those abusing methamphetamine (MAP). Both groups participated in the SMARPP at the Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry. Results showed that, no significant differences were found in the rates of participation in the program or self-reported frequency of drug or alcohol use between the patients abusing "dappou drugs" or MAP. However, patients using "dappou drugs" reported no significant increase in their confidence in their ability to resist the temptation to use drugs on the self- report drug abuse scales after the SMARPP intervention, while patients abusing MAP reported a significant positive difference in their ability to resist temptation. In addition, insight into substance abuse problems and motivation to participate in further treatment slightly declined in those using "dappou drugs," while there was a significant increase reported by the patients using MAP. These results suggested that the SMARPP might not be as effective for patients abusing "dappou drugs" as for those abusing MAP. The development of a relapse prevention program specifically designed for patients abusing "dappou drugs" is required. PMID:25831947

  17. Substance abuse prevention in Cape Town's peri-urban settlements: local health trainers' perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Puljević, Cheneal; Learmonth, Despina

    2014-01-01

    South Africa currently experiences high levels of alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse. As a result there is a need for the initiation of regional AOD abuse prevention programmes with a specific focus on youth prevention strategies. The Medical Knowledge Institute (MKI) is a non-profit organisation which develops and facilitates health information workshops to members of disadvantaged peri-urban communities in South Africa. This research investigated the views of eight local MKI health trainers on factors contributing to AOD abuse in their communities. Although the expected focus of the discussion was on prevention strategies and effective interventions, the trainers placed more emphasis on the individual and community factors influencing AOD abuse. The themes which emerged through the research included: status, government, (di)stress, gender, recreation, consequences and community. This research holds significance as it has the potential to assist further development of community-based AOD prevention workshops and to guide public health policy and service development for AOD abuse. PMID:25750776

  18. Sex differences in drug abuse: Etiology, prevention, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Evans, Suzette M; Reynolds, Brady

    2015-08-01

    This special issue exemplifies one of the major goals of the current editor of Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology (Dr. Suzette Evans): to increase the number of manuscripts that emphasize females and address sex differences. Taken together, these articles represent a broad range of drug classes and approaches spanning preclinical research to treatment to better understand the role of sex differences in drug abuse. While not all studies found sex differences, we want to emphasize that finding no sex difference is just as important as confirming one, and should be reported in peer-reviewed journals. It is our intention and hope that this special issue will further advance scientific awareness about the importance of accounting for sex differences in the study of substance abuse. Participant sex is an essential variable to consider in developing a more comprehensive understanding of substance abuse. Rather than viewing investigating sex differences as burdensome, investigators should seize this opportune area ripe for innovative research that is long overdue. PMID:26237316

  19. Prevention Validation and Accounting Platform: A Framework for Establishing Accountability and Performance Measures of Substance Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sehwan; McLeod, Jonnie H.; Williams, Charles; Hepler, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    Faced with the absence of a conceptual framework and the terminology for establishing evaluation criteria in the substance abuse prevention services field, this special issue is devoted to exploring the topics of accountability and performance measures. It discusses the requisite components (i.e., theory, methodology, convention on terms, data)…

  20. Simulation of the Impact of Programs for Prevention and Screening of Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma.

    PubMed

    Bailhache, Marion; Bénard, Antoine; Salmi, Louis-Rachid

    2016-07-15

    Primary prevention programs of pediatric abusive head trauma (PAHT) exist and early screening is proposed, but negative effects of mislabeling parents as abusers, an important issue, are not well documented. The aim of our study was to simulate the possible impact of programs for the primary prevention and screening of PAHT. We developed Markov models that simulate the life histories of PAHT with no intervention, with primary prevention program only, with screening program, and with both programs in a hypothetical cohort of 800,000 newborns in a high-income country. Screening program would be addressed to all families until children are 2 years old, during repeated consultations. Potential side effects for parents being mislabeled as abusers were supposed to increase the probability of PAHT and decrease participation in screening. Time horizon was 2 years with cycles of 15 days. Outcomes were number of deaths and abused children avoided. Uncertainty was specified with probability distributions. After 2 years, the median number of deaths avoided through primary prevention would vary from 6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2-11) to 28 (95% CI 6-51) per 100,000 newborns. Screening could prevent up to 6 (95% CI 0-29) or cause up to 66 (95% CI 0-361) deaths per 100,000 children born alive. The impact of both programs was uncertain. Our model confirmed the potential benefits of primary prevention and documented the uncertainty associated with screening of PAHT. PMID:26566679

  1. Federal Strategy for Prevention of Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking, 1982. Prepared for the President Pursuant to the Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Policy Development, Washington, DC.

    This document describes the Federal response to drug abuse and drug trafficking. The actions of President Reagan, in Executive Order 12368, establishing an official advisor on drug abuse policy matters, and the priorities, issues, and objectives (international cooperation, drug law enforcement, education and prevention, detoxification and…

  2. An Evaluation of Immediate Outcomes and Fidelity of a Drug Abuse Prevention Program in Continuation High Schools: Project towards No Drug Abuse (TND)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The present study provides an implementation fidelity, process, and immediate outcomes evaluation of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND), a drug prevention program targeting continuation high school youth (n = 1426) at risk for drug abuse. A total of 24 schools participated in three randomized conditions: TND Only, TND and motivational…

  3. Potential and Dunkelfeld offenders: two neglected target groups for prevention of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Feelgood, Steven; Hupp, Elena; Neutze, Janina; Ahlers, Christoph J; Goecker, David; Beier, Klaus M

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about men who have not yet committed child sexual abuse but may be at risk of doing so (potential offenders) and the factors that distinguish these men from undetected child sexual abuse offenders with a sexual interest in children (Dunkelfeld offenders). The present study describes and compares potential and Dunkelfeld offenders, which can be viewed as ideal target groups for (primary) prevention efforts with respect to child sexual abuse. Also, this study seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of using a telephone screening procedure to conduct research with these groups. Using a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI), data on demographics, mental health, sexuality, criminal history, and victim characteristics were collected from respondents in a nation-wide media campaign, which informed potential (re-)offenders of child sexual abuse of a research and treatment project. Many participants reported recurrent sexual fantasies involving minors, as well as related distress, suggesting a high prevalence of pedophilia and hebephilia. More than half feared they would sexually abuse a minor, and Dunkelfeld offenders reported 3.2 victims on average. Group comparisons revealed that Dunkelfeld offenders were, for example, more likely to perceive themselves being at risk of offending, compared to potential offenders. The results suggest that targeting potential and Dunkelfeld offenders could prove a worthwhile approach in the prevention of child sexual abuse. PMID:20466423

  4. Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Progress Report: Building a Sustainable Substance Abuse Prevention System, State of Hawai'i, 2006-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, S.; Lai, M.C.; Heusel, K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the Hawai'i State Department of Health (DOH) received the Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant (SPF-SIG) from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to establish a comprehensive, coordinated, and sustainable substance abuse prevention infrastructure in Hawai'i. The SPF-SIG Project is funded…

  5. Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse among Children and Adolescents. NIDA Research Monograph 63. A RAUS Review Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Catherine S., Ed.; Battjes, Robert, Ed.

    Papers from the meeting "Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse Among Children and Adolescents" which focused on social skills and social inoculation approaches and also included a contrasting cognitive-developmental approach are presented in this document. These papers are included: (1) "Overview of Drug Abuse Prevention Research," (Catherine…

  6. 28 CFR 0.177 - Applications for orders under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... authorized to exercise the authority vested in the Attorney General by section 514 of the Comprehensive...

  7. The Effectiveness of Psycho-Educational School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Training Program on Turkish Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…

  8. HIV/AIDS, Substance Abuse, and Hepatitis Prevention Needs of Native Americans Living in Baltimore: In Their Own Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Gryczynski, Jan; Wiechelt, Shelly A.

    2007-01-01

    A needs assessment funded by the Center of Substance Abuse Prevention was conducted in 2005-2006 to determine the HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and hepatitis prevention needs of Native Americans living in Baltimore, Maryland. We used a community-based participatory approach to gain an in-depth understanding of local Native American health service…

  9. Impact of a School-Based Sexual Abuse Prevention Education Program on the Knowledge and Attitude of High School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A.; Fajemilehin, Reuben B.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse has been considered a public health issue because of the various health implications resulting from it. The school nurse has a responsibility in assisting the high school girl to prevent victimization. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design in which a sexual abuse prevention education package was developed and used to educate…

  10. Prescription and Over-the-Counter Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    According to the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, "abuse of prescription drugs to get high has become increasingly prevalent among teens and young adults. Past year abuse of prescription pain killers now ranks second--only behind marijuana--as the Nation's most prevalent illegal drug problem." Use of prescription drugs without a…

  11. Parent-Centered Intervention: A Practical Approach for Preventing Drug Abuse in Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Maria I.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Lopez, Barbara; Pantin, Hilda

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present article is to review and discuss Familias Unidas, an empirically supported, family-based, culturally specific drug abuse and HIV prevention intervention for Hispanic immigrant adolescents and their families. Method: The authors focus on engagement and retention as well as on intervention delivery.…

  12. Straight Talking for Targeted Pre-Schoolers: A Substance Abuse Prevention Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggins, Martha Jean; And Others

    This manual provides a substance abuse prevention curriculum for preschoolers that includes numerous activities that can be used in traditional learning centers. Unit One helps caregivers examine their style of interacting with young children and identify strategies that will facilitate children's problem solving, critical thinking, and decision…

  13. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the…

  14. Methodology for Evaluating an Adaptation of Evidence-Based Drug Abuse Prevention in Alternative Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopson, Laura M.; Steiker, Lori K. H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to set forth an innovative methodological protocol for culturally grounding interventions with high-risk youths in alternative schools. This study used mixed methods to evaluate original and adapted versions of a culturally grounded substance abuse prevention program. The qualitative and quantitative methods…

  15. Domestic Abuse Prevention Education: Listening to the Views of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Claire L.; Hale, Rebecca; Gadd, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on findings derived as part of a two-year project funded by the European Union's Daphne III scheme, involving collaboration between seven partner organisations across six European countries. The project involved an evaluation, using questionnaires and focus groups, of domestic abuse prevention education programmes delivered…

  16. Mobility Limitations: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This guide to alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with mobility limitations outlines types of problems with mobility and their incidence. The implications of alcohol and other drug use are examined, emphasizing that this population is generally at higher risk for alcohol and other drug-related problems. Possible solutions to…

  17. Practice Makes Perfect? The Role of Participant Modeling in Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assigned 26 kindergarten children to either a sexual abuse prevention program which taught self-protective skills through modeling and active rehearsal (PM) or a program which taught the same skills by having children watch skills modeled by experimenter (SM). Results provide support for greater efficacy of PM relative to SM for learning of…

  18. Federal Standards for Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention and Treatment Programs and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, A. Catherine

    Presented are federal standards designed to synthesize and describe the knowledge available on the prevention and treatment of child abuse and negect. A summary chapter (Chapter I) covers background information, organization and content of the standards, and utilization of the standards. Chapter II discusses the relationships among children,…

  19. Assertive/Leveling Communication and Empathy in Adolescent Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander-Golden, Paula; And Others

    This paper reports feedback from 349 fifth through eighth graders who participated in Say It Straight (SIS), a school-based drug abuse prevention program which combines assertiveness training with role playing and guided imagery. The feedback presented concerns students' feelings about sending and receiving messages using the following…

  20. Heading Off PBX Hackers: Advice on Preventing PBX Abuse and Toll Fraud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaggs, Sara J.

    1992-01-01

    The technology that allows college staff easy access to the institution's telecommunications services can be used for unauthorized access. Although detection and prevention of abuse are difficult, the best way to limit losses is to anticipate the attempt, frustrate the perpetrator, monitor for unusual activity, and take immediate action. (MSE)

  1. Reducing Gender Role Conflict among Men Attending Partner Abuse Prevention Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jonathan P.; Waldo, Michael

    2003-01-01

    An intervention was created to help resolve gender role conflicts among men attending partner abuse prevention groups. The experimental intervention was conducted in two groups (7 men in each group) over the course of 10 weeks. The groups engaged in gender role conflict resolution interventions addressing conflicts between work and family…

  2. Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention Model Learning Systems: Preliminary Designs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Saul H.

    The final report on a project designed to develop a model learning system for alcohol abuse and alcoholism prevention contains format details of four specific programs. Each program is geared to obtain maximum success in reinforcing responsible behavior, to change learner behavior, and to insure effective implementation in a variety of…

  3. Early Identification of Maternal Depression as a Strategy in the Prevention of Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Dorothy

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of broadening the traditional infant health focus of the Australian Maternal and Child Health Nurse or Public Health Nurse to encompass maternal emotional and social well-being to identify maternal depression and prevent child abuse. Conditions under which mothers would find this role expansion acceptable…

  4. Oregon Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Education (ADAPE) Infused Lesson Guide K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Dan; Holstedt, Peggy

    This resource manual and guide provides schools and communities with the most current research-based information available concerning alcohol and drug abuse prevention education. It also provides model lessons, written by Oregon teachers, to infuse into current programs. The document is organized into four sections. The first, an introduction,…

  5. Improving Preschoolers' Comprehension of Sex Abuse Prevention Concepts through Video Repetition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinon, Marites F.; Hulsey, Timothy L.; Woodland, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Determined whether having preschoolers review video segments they did not initially comprehend would increase their comprehension of sex abuse prevention concepts. States that children who viewed repetition of program segment learned more than children who viewed the segment once. Concludes that this method of enhancing children's comprehension of…

  6. Raising Sexually Healthy Children. Sexual Development, Sexual Abuse Prevention & Self Esteem for Children under Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrank, Louise Welsh; Hoke, Susan

    This videotape guide is intended to prepare current and future parents to handle without nervousness important body issues that develop during a child' early years. The early prevention training companion video shows how parents can protect the young from sexual abuse by training children to recognize improper advances, to say no to a perpetrator,…

  7. College Alcohol Abuse: A Review of the Problems, Issues, and Prevention Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicary, Judith R.; Karshin, Christine M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the extent of underage drinking and alcohol abuse by college students currently and in an historical perspective. Profiles of those individuals and groups most at risk for problem drinking are suggested. Provides examples of efforts to prevent or reduce collegiate drinking, including campus-community coalitions, environmental management…

  8. Their Children's First Educators: Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa

    2012-01-01

    In this descriptive focus group study, we investigated parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education at home and in schools. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 30 Australian adults who identified as the parent or caregiver of a child/children aged 0-5 years. The study explored (1) parents' "knowledge" about child sexual…

  9. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Parents' Perceptions and Practices in Urban Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ige, Olusimbo K.; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents…

  10. A Systematic Review of Universal Campaigns Targeting Child Physical Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W.; Taylor, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA…

  11. GHB Abuse Trends and Use in Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault: Implications for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has become increasingly popular on the campuses of American colleges and universities. In this paper, the characteristics of GHB and the effects of both voluntary and involuntary abuse are described. Further, implications for prevention efforts related to involuntary GHB ingestion and GHB-facilitated rape are…

  12. Preventing Substance Abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native Youth: Promising Strategies for Healthier Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Elizabeth H.; Cummins, Lillian H.; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2004-01-01

    Substance abuse has had profoundly devastating effects on the health and well-being of American Indians and Alaska Natives. A wide variety of intervention methods has been used to prevent or stem the development of alcohol and drug problems in Indian youth, but there is little empirical research evaluating these efforts. This article is an…

  13. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Parent-Provider Partnerships in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibel, Nancy; Britt, Donna; Gillespie, Linda Groves; Parlakian, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This book is an innovative approach to the primary prevention of child maltreatment. It focuses on the impact that child care providers can make in helping to reduce the risk of abuse and neglect in families with very young children. This research- and practice-based curriculum offers concepts, information, strategies, and practices focused on…

  14. Counselors' Role in Preventing Abuse of Older Adults: Clinical, Ethical, and Legal Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Julia M.; McBride, Rebecca G.

    2010-01-01

    Mistreatment of older adults is commonplace. These individuals are subjected to abuse, financial exploitation, and neglect. The authors present an overview of the literature concerning mistreatment, with an emphasis on clinical, ethical, and legal considerations. Methods are proposed for prevention, including counselor education, advocacy, and…

  15. School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: A Review of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith J.; Barron, Ian G.

    2009-01-01

    In this systematic and critical review of purely school based child sexual abuse prevention program efficacy studies, 22 studies meeting the inclusion criteria differed by target population, program implementation, and evaluation methodology. Measured outcomes for children included knowledge, skills, emotion, risk perception, touch discrimination,…

  16. Using Benefit-Cost Analysis to Assess Child Abuse Prevention and Intervention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnick, Robert D.; Deppman, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Presents a case for using benefit-cost analysis to structure evaluations of child-abuse prevention and intervention programs. Presents the basic concept of benefit-cost analysis, its application in the context of assessing these types of child welfare programs, and limitations on its application to social service programs. (Author)

  17. A Media Campaign Prevention Program for Child Sexual Abuse: Community Members' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Campbell, Carole; de Arellano, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the face validity and feasibility of materials included in a multimedia child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention campaign. A quantitative survey method assessed participants' comfort level, knowledge gain, and likelihood of behavioral change in response to the media campaign. Furthermore, a focus group method explored participants'…

  18. Evaluating the Validity and Social Acceptability of Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Skill Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Brandon; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2008-01-01

    In research evaluating sexual abuse prevention programs, knowledge measures are typically used to assess the program's success. In other areas of research on child safety skills, however, skills are typically assessed through behavioral measures such as role-plays. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and acceptability of a set of…

  19. Community Notification: Perceptions of Its Effectiveness in Preventing Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redlich, Allison D.

    2001-01-01

    Megan's law enables law enforcement to notify communities when convicted sex offenders reside in their neighborhoods. Investigates community members', law enforcement officials', and law students' attitudes toward community notification and other child abuse prevention measures. The groups significantly differed in support of Megan's Law and…

  20. Exploratory Evaluation of a School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ian G.; Topping, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, efficacy studies of school-based child sexual abuse prevention programs display a series of methodological shortcomings. Few studies include adolescent participants, recording of disclosures has been inconsistent, and no studies to date have assessed presenter adherence to program protocols or summated the costs of program…

  1. Evaluating the Acceptability of Four Versions of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Brandon; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-nine college students used a modified version of the Treatment Evaluation Inventory-Short Form to evaluate the acceptability of four versions of a sexual abuse prevention program for 10-year-old children. The four versions include an information-based training approach or a behavioral skills training (BST) approach with a focus on strangers…

  2. Concerns about Research and Prevention Strategies in Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eminson, Mary; Jureidini, Jon

    2003-01-01

    This article examines three motives for research into Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy child abuse, which are to enhance treatment, to understand the psychopathology of perpetrators, and to find interventions to prevent its occurrence. It argues that only the first justification is valid and proposes that research energy be directed toward…

  3. The Relationship Between Friends' Marijuana Use, Family Cohesion, School Interest and Drug Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babst, Dean V.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how different types of students respond to various drug abuse prevention areas. This study is based on a school survey completed by 4,000 rural students and 2,700 suburban students. Students most involved with drugs were those least receptive to traditional educational programs. (Author)

  4. A Hispanic/Latino Family Approach to Substance Abuse Prevention. CSAP Cultural Competence Series 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition of Hispanic Health and Human Services Organizations.

    This monograph is designed to help scientists, decision makers, and service providers develop a deeper understanding of the role families and culture play in the prevention of alcohol and other drug abuse in Hispanic/Latino American populations. It also provides information on models of service delivery that are directed at strengthening families…

  5. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect with Parent Training: Evidence and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have identified four common co-occurring parental risk factors--substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and child conduct problems--that lead to child maltreatment. The extent to which maltreatment prevention programs must directly address these risk factors to improve responsiveness to parenting programs or can directly…

  6. Being Real and Being Realistic: Chemical Abuse Prevention, Teen Counselors, and an Ethic of Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsch, Nina G.

    1997-01-01

    Examines a program in which two teen counselors model relatedness and authenticity with their sixth-grade counselees. Investigates the background of the program and identifies being "real" and being "realistic" as expressions of an ethic of caring, which gives power to the program's vision of drug-abuse prevention. (EMK)

  7. Positive and Negative Effects of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taal, Margot; Edelaar, Monique

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of a Dutch sexual abuse prevention program, "Right for Security," for elementary school children (ages 8 to 12) found differences in short-term and long-term effects. In the long run, children thought refusing to cooperate with the intruder more feasible and younger children showed less social anxiousness. However, the oldest children…

  8. Evaluation of a School-Based Sexual Abuse Prevention Program: Cognitive and Emotional Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Renee L.; McNiel, Dale E.

    1987-01-01

    A school-based child sexual abuse prevention program consisting of separate two-hour workshops for children (ages 5-12), parents, and teachers was evaluated. Results indicated parents were more informed and interactive with their children following the workshops. Children showed no increased emotional stress and reported feeling safer and better…

  9. Teachers' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs about Child Abuse and Its Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Nadine; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A nationwide survey of teachers (568 responses) from 40 school districts found that, although the majority of teachers confront child abuse among their students, they are provided insufficient education on how to address it. Other findings concerned teachers' reporting behavior, barriers to reporting, child assault prevention programs, and…

  10. The Evaluation of a Workplace Program to Prevent Substance Abuse: Challenges and Findings.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Rebecca S; Miller, Ted R

    2016-08-01

    Workplace consequences of alcohol and drug abuse include poor performance, fighting, insubordination, and occupational injuries. To address the need for workplace substance abuse prevention, the PREVENT program, originally designed for the United States Navy, was adapted to the railroad workforce. This study evaluates the impact of the PREVENT program on alcohol use and smoking among young adults ages 18-29 in the railroad industry. We discuss challenges to study protocol faced by this evaluation in the reality of the workplace. PREVENT is a 2-day health promotion program that includes substance abuse and smoking modules. Using a prospective controlled before-after study design, we compare self-reported alcohol use and smoking pre- versus post-intervention among PREVENT participants versus a comparison group of workers. Comparison and case group non-equivalency at baseline is controlled for using a propensity score. The study sample suffered high losses to follow-up. In the analysis, we included those lost to follow up and applied an intent-to-treat approach that assumed, conservatively, that substance use by non-respondents was identical pre and post. In regression analysis PREVENT participants showed significant declines in drinking levels post-intervention compared to comparison workers, controlling for baseline and demographic factors. Relative to pre-intervention levels PREVENT participants consumed 56 % fewer drinks (relative rate = 0.44, 95 % CI 0.23-0.85) and consumed alcohol on 32 % fewer days (relative rate = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.50-0.93) compared to comparison workers. Changes in smoking behaviors were not significant. We conclude that PREVENT is a promising program for reducing alcohol abuse. PMID:27062500

  11. Child maltreatment and risk patterns among participants in a child abuse prevention program.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Jennifer Y; Hughes, Marcia; Asnes, Andrea G; Leventhal, John M

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between risk factors and Child Protective Services (CPS) outcomes in families who participate in home visiting programs to prevent abuse and neglect and who are reported to CPS is largely unknown. We examined the relationship between parental risk factors and the substantiation status and number of CPS reports in families in a statewide prevention program. We reviewed CPS reports from 2006 to 2008 for families in Connecticut's child abuse prevention program. Six risk factors (histories of CPS, domestic violence [DV], mental health, sexual abuse, substance abuse, and criminal involvement) and the number of caregivers were abstracted to create risk scores for each family member. Maltreatment type, substantiation, and number of reports were recorded. Odds ratios were calculated. Of 1,125 families, 171 (15.6%) had at least one CPS report, and reports of 131 families were available for review. Families with a substantiated (25.2%) versus unsubstantiated (74.8%) first report had a high number of paternal risk factors (OR=6.13, 95% CI [1.89, 20.00]) and were more likely to have a history of maternal DV (OR=8.47, 95% CI [2.96, 24.39]), paternal DV (OR=11.23, 95% CI [3.33, 38.46]), and maternal criminal history (OR=4.55; 95% CI [1.32, 15.60]). Families with >1 report (34.4%) versus 1 report (65.6%) were more likely to have >3 caregivers, but this was not statistically significant (OR=2.53, 95% CI [0.98, 6.54]). In a prevention program for first-time families, DV, paternal risk, maternal criminal history, and an increased number of caregivers were associated with maltreatment outcomes. Targeting parental violence may impact child abuse prevention. PMID:25484318

  12. Factors associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in schools

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ana Paula Dias; Paes, Ângela Tavares; Sanchez, Zila M

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if characteristics of managers, schools, and curriculum are associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in elementary and high schools. METHODS Cross-sectional study, with random sample of 263 school managers. Data were collected between 2012 and 2013 by a program that sends forms via internet. A closed self-filling questionnaire was applied online. Statistical analysis included Chi-square tests and logistic regression models. The outcome variable was the presence of program for drug abuse prevention inserted in the daily life and educational program of the school. The explanatory variables were divided into: demographic data of the manager; characteristics of the school and of the curriculum; health education; and drug use in the school. RESULTS We found that 42.5% (95%CI 36.1–49.1) of the evaluated schools had programs for drug abuse prevention. With the multiple logistic regression model, we observed that the more time the manager has worked with education, the chance of the school having a program increased at about 4.0%. Experimenting with innovative teaching techniques also increased at about six times the chance of the school developing a program for drug abuse prevention. The difficulties in the implementation of the programs were more present in state and municipal schools, when compared with private schools, due to, for instance: lack of teaching materials, lack of money, and competing demands for teaching other subjects. CONCLUSIONS The implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in the city of Sao Paulo is associated with the experience of the manager in education and with the teaching strategies of the school. PMID:27509010

  13. Child abuse and neglect prevention and treatment program--HHS. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1985-04-15

    This rule contains a new basic State grant requirement to implement the Child Abuse Amendments of 1984 (Pub. L. 98-457). As a condition of receiving State grants under the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, States must establish programs and/or procedures within the State's child protective service system to respond to reports of medical neglect, including reports of the withholding of medically indicated treatment for disabled infants with life-threatening conditions. Other changes in regulations required by these Amendments will be published as a separate NPRM at a later date. PMID:10270565

  14. Child abuse and neglect prevention and treatment program--HHS. Notice of proposed rulemaking.

    PubMed

    1984-12-10

    This rule proposes a new basic State grant requirement to implement the Child Abuse Amendments of 1984 (Pub. L. 98-457). As a condition of receiving State grants under the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, States must establish programs and/or procedures within the State's child protective service system to respond to reports of medical neglect, including reports of the withholding of medically indicated treatment for disabled infants with life-threatening conditions. Other changes in regulations required by these Amendments will be published as a separate NPRM at a later date. PMID:10269290

  15. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly. PMID:20679329

  16. Teachers' knowledge, attitudes and experience in sexual abuse prevention education in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Alicia; Katz, Craig; Ciro, Dianne; Guttfreund, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Research on how to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) in developing nations is practically non-existent. We sought to determine Salvadoran teachers' knowledge, attitudes, experience and barriers to CSA detection and reporting to assess the need for a CSA prevention programme and to assess barriers in conducting such a programme. One hundred teachers completed a questionnaire while they visited the Tin Marin Children's Museum in San Salvador. Nineteen of these teachers also participated in a focus group. We found that 89% of teachers reported at least two signs and symptoms of child abuse. One hundred per cent of teachers agreed that it is their responsibility to teach students about sexual abuse. Unusual for a study of this kind, parental migration was mentioned as making children vulnerable to CSA, and fear of gang violence and retribution was identified as interfering with teachers' ability to protect children. We conclude that Salvadoran teachers were knowledgeable about CSA detection and reporting and would support a programme in which they are trained to speak to their students about this topic. Barriers to reporting child abuse, such as teachers' safety and fear, need to be addressed in future CSA prevention programmes. PMID:24172028

  17. Roundtable on prevention of fraud and abuse in low income weatherization programs, March 23--24, 1987, Highland Hotel, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This report contains: Identification of Issues and Preventive Measures Associated with Fraud and Abuse in Low Income Conservation Programs; Working Papers Prepared by Roundtable Discussants; Annotated Bibliography of Publications Related to Prevention/Detection of Fraud and Abuse in DOE and LIHEAP Conservation Programs; and List of Members on Task Force for Prevention of Fraud and Abuse in Low Income Weatherization Programs.

  18. Measures to prevent and reduce drug abuse among young people in Burma.

    PubMed

    Khant, U

    1985-01-01

    Opium and to a certain extent cannabis were the only drugs of abuse in Burma until the early 1970s when heroin addiction spread rapidly among young people, reaching epidemic proportions. Heroin addiction has caused serious social and health problems that prompted the authorities to adopt new legislation in 1974, the Narcotic and Dangerous Drugs Law, which provided for compulsory treatment and severe penalties for drug-related infractions, including the death sentence for certain categories of drug trafficking. The authorities in Burma consider that legislation, drug-law enforcement, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation, and community measures are important and interrelated strategies in combating drug abuse among young people. Various forms of drug-abuse preventive programmes are carried out for such groups as youths, parents, community leaders and professionals dealing with the problems of the young. Preventive school programmes include lectures and discussions; exhibitions; essay writing and other forms of competition for students; in-service training for teachers; healthy alternatives to drug use; a scheme for talented students; and participation in a national mass movement for literacy. Young people are also encouraged to take active part in various community programmes such as the "Red Cross" and voluntary fire brigades as well as in specially designed programmes that are carried out at the local level to prevent and reduce drug abuse. As the extended family still prevails in Burma, with parents and elders being respected by the young, this important resource is utilized in coping with drug abuse among young people.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2934106

  19. Finding Ways to Effectively Prevent Sexual Abuse by Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alisa; Tabachnick, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Youth with sexual behavior problems pose a complicated challenge to the society. Yet the society has succeeded in developing only a limited range of actions and attitudes to grapple with and prevent this problem. Very few of the social service and criminal justice systems have rallied to create compassionate models that not only address and…

  20. Black Churches in Substance Use and Abuse Prevention Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Diane R.; Scott, Wilma; Lacey, Krim; Blount, Joan; Roman, Dorothy; Brown, Doreen

    2006-01-01

    In light of their historical role in African American communities, faith-based organizations are uniquely positioned to offer substance use prevention programs to urban African American youth. This article describes the efforts of a university-based program to provide training and technical assistance to faith-based organizations in the…

  1. 78 FR 61815 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... programs that work to prevent substance use where young people learn, grow, and play. We support substance... insurance can sign up for affordable coverage by visiting www.HealthCare.gov . Because adult role models... community organizations as they advance their drive to keep young people, families, and neighborhoods...

  2. The prevention of analgesic opioids abuse: expert opinion.

    PubMed

    Maremmani, I; Gerra, G; Ripamonti, I C; Mugelli, A; Allegri, M; Viganò, R; Romualdi, P; Pinto, C; Raffaeli, W; Coluzzi, F; Gatti, R C; Mammucari, M; Fanelli, G

    2015-11-01

    Opioids are drugs of reference for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Their proper use and a periodic assessment of the patient are crucial to prevent misuse. A multidisciplinary group suggests strategies for all stakeholders involved in the management of pain and suggests the importance of the doctor-patient relationship. PMID:26592848

  3. Peer Leaders in Drug Abuse Prevention. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohai, Caroline E.

    Although peer leaders have been effectively assisting school staffs since the 1960s, they have recently assumed their most critical role to date. Peer leaders are leading other students through drug prevention curricula, particularly those based on the Special Influence Model (SIM), which seeks to stregthen students' awareness of and resistance to…

  4. Diffusion of School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbach, Louise Ann; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Observes the preponderance of heavily marketed drug prevention programs (Project DARE, QUEST Skills for Life) over the more effective psychosocial-based programs. Reviews the literature on determinants of diffusion and recent research on strategies to increase diffusion of these programs. Considers implications for policy and future research. (MJP)

  5. Physical Training as a Substance Abuse Prevention Intervention for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collingwood, Thomas R.; Sunderlin, Jeff; Reynolds, Roger; Kohl, Harold W., III

    2000-01-01

    Presents program evaluation data from school and community application of a physical fitness drug prevention program. Results reveal significant increases in physical activity and physical fitness. Youth self-report data indicates significant decreases in risk factors such as low self-concept, poor school attendance, anxiety, depression, and…

  6. Diversity in relapse prevention needs: gender and race comparisons among substance abuse treatment patients.

    PubMed

    Walton, M A; Blow, F C; Booth, B M

    2001-05-01

    Attempts to address high relapse rates following substance abuse treatment have focused on identifying relapse prevention needs and development of subsequent relapse prevention programs. Few studies have examined whether women and African-Americans have unique relapse prevention needs. Research in this area could provide an initial basis for the development of alternative relapse prevention approaches that could be more appropriate for this pop ulation. This study examined gender and race differences in psychosocial concerns among patients recruited from substance abuse treatment as potential indicators of relapse prevention needs. Participants (N = 331) completed several questionnaires during their first month of substance abuse treatment. Assessment packets included measures of coping, self-efficacy, resource needs, cravings, social influences, exposure, and leisure activities. Analyses focused on gender and race differences in these variables before and after controlling for background characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, income, polysubstance use, treatment type, and problem severity). Gender differences found were that men reported poorer coping skills and more negative social influences and exposure to substances than women; these differences remained significant when controlling for background characteristics. Significant race differences were found on all scales except negative social influences. After controlling for background characteristics, African-Americans reported significantly greater coping skills and self-efficacy than did Caucasians; however, African-Americans also reported greater resource needs in comparison to Caucasians. Results highlight the diversity in psychosocial issues among substance abusers in treatment, particularly between Caucasians and African-Americans. Implications for developing alternative relapse prevention approaches to address this diversity are discussed. PMID:11417937

  7. Societal interventions to prevent child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Hay, T; Jones, L

    1994-01-01

    A framework for understanding child maltreatment in terms of complex and interacting factors from the individual to the societal level can aid in conceptualizing and implementing prevention efforts. Research on interventions at the societal level can guide a broad range of activities, increasing their effectiveness and viability. Fundamental approaches include evaluation of specific interventions and systems-level research on implementation and development of best practice in prevention activities for different portions of society. Research can indicate the roles that each individual, agency, organization, community, and level of government can play. The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child provides a useful framework for societal level change to improve the welfare of children and families. PMID:7924560

  8. What Have We Learned about Preventing Child Abuse? An Overview of the "Community and Minority Group Action to Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect" Program. Prevention Focus Working Paper No. 009.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Ellen

    Results from the evaluation of 11 demonstration programs designed to prevent child abuse are summarized in this working paper. The programs were of three types: perinatal programs; community-wide education, information, and referral projects; and culturally relevant parent education efforts. The four perinatal programs focused on extended…

  9. Awareness of Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education among Parents of Grade 3 Elementary School Pupils in Fuxin City, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jing Qi; Chen, Da Guang

    2005-01-01

    Several recent studies on child sexual abuse (CSA) in Chinese society have shown that the problem is not uncommon, and is associated with poor mental health and health-related risk behaviors of abused youth. It is very important to understand and improve public awareness of CSA prevention, especially for the parents. However, there are few…

  10. Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

  11. "When You Tell, Does the Hurt Go Away?" The Impact of Theatre in Education in Sexual Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol

    1996-01-01

    Relates how a professor, for a Theater in Education project in British Columbia, produced and directed "No More Secrets," focusing on preventing child sexual abuse. States that grades five through eight were targeted to transfer learning about sexual abuse, and to tap the emotional experiences of the child to encourage disclosure. (PA)

  12. Early Childhood Interventionists' Perceptions of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act: Provider Characteristics and Organizational Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman-Smith, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: A 2003 amendment to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) required states to develop plans to ensure that children younger than the age of 3 years who are victims of substantiated abuse or neglect have access to developmental screenings. Programs authorized under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities…

  13. Lessons learned from child sexual abuse research: prevalence, outcomes, and preventive strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although child sexual abuse (CSA) is recognized as a serious violation of human well-being and of the law, no community has yet developed mechanisms that ensure that none of their youth will be sexually abused. CSA is, sadly, an international problem of great magnitude that can affect children of all ages, sexes, races, ethnicities, and socioeconomic classes. Upon invitation, this current publication aims at providing a brief overview of a few lessons we have learned from CSA scholarly research as to heighten awareness of mental health professionals on this utmost important and widespread social problem. This overview will focus on the prevalence of CSA, the associated mental health outcomes, and the preventive strategies to prevent CSA from happening in the first place. PMID:23866106

  14. Analysis of legal cases for prevention of elder abuse: decisions from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Diesfeld, Kate

    2011-06-01

    Elder abuse is a universal concern and is gaining greater public and professional attention. This increased concern to protect elders is internationally evident in policy reform, multidisciplinary research and education. Yet neglect in care settings continues. This research responds by contributing to the international effort to promote humane care for elders who are in a position of dependence, particularly in residential facilities. The legal cases that result from some complaints by aggrieved elders and their advocates may offer insights that are relevant for prevention. While the law is often viewed merely as a system of control, it may also be a resource for learning, particularly in the context of abuse prevention. Although the analysis references New Zealand law, the discussion may have broader application by indicating factors that precede, or trigger, unacceptable conduct. By understanding what went wrong and why, we may decrease the likelihood of future incidents. Also, understanding the legal ramifications may have a deterrent effect. Many advocates and activists have asked how we can ensure that abuses do not recur; some answers may lie within the legal cases themselves. How may recent legal cases be used to prevent mistreatment of elders in residential facilities? This question is applied to select decisions of New Zealand's Health and Disability Commissioner, Human Rights Review Tribunal and Health Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal. While each body has distinct functions, relevant factors identified within the cases may reveal information that is of interest to elderly people and their advocates, caregivers, health educators and professional registration bodies. The research is timely in light of New Zealand's Review of Elder Abuse and Neglect Prevention Services in New Zealand (Department of Child Youth and Family Services, 2004) and New Zealand's Positive Ageing Strategy (Office of Senior Citizens, 2001). This article incorporates current debates

  15. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Are We Ready?

    PubMed Central

    Almuneef, Maha; Al-Eissa, Majid

    2011-01-01

    Although child abuse and neglect (CAN) have been recognized by medical professionals for the last 20 years, child protection services and child maltreatment prevention programs are still emerging in Saudi Arabia. This paper will review the progress made in the country in terms of recognition and implementation of child protection services. Furthermore, it will draw attention to the essential steps required to start child maltreatment prevention programs, as CAN prevention is currently viewed as a global healthcare priority with an emphasis on evidence-based interventions. In addition, this paper will assess Saudi Arabia's readiness to prevent CAN and the challenges that will be faced by the professionals in implementing evidence-based CAN prevention programs. PMID:22048511

  16. Prefrontal Cortex and Drug Abuse Vulnerability: Translation to Prevention and Treatment Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jennifer L.; Joseph, Jane E.; Jiang, Yang; Zimmerman, Rick S.; Kelly, Thomas H.; Darna, Mahesh; Huettl, Peter; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Bardo, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Vulnerability to drug abuse is related to both reward seeking and impulsivity, two constructs thought to have a biological basis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review addresses similarities and differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and behavior associated with PFC function in rodents and primates. Emphasis is placed on monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitter systems located in anatomically distinct subregions: medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC); anterior cingulate cortex (ACC); and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). While there are complex interconnections and overlapping functions among these regions, each is thought to be involved in various functions related to health-related risk behaviors and drug abuse vulnerability. Among the various functions implicated, evidence suggests that mPFC is involved in reward processing, attention and drug reinstatement; lPFC is involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition and attentional gating; ACC is involved in attention, emotional processing and self-monitoring; and OFC is involved in behavioral inhibition, signaling of expected outcomes and reward/punishment sensitivity. Individual differences factors (e.g., age and sex) influence functioning of these regions, which, in turn, impacts drug abuse vulnerability. Implications for the development of drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies aimed at engaging PFC inhibitory processes that may reduce risk-related behaviors are discussed, including the design of effective public service announcements, cognitive exercises, physical activity, direct current stimulation, feedback control training and pharmacotherapies. A major challenge in drug abuse prevention and treatment rests with improving intervention strategies aimed at strengthening PFC inhibitory systems among at-risk individuals. PMID:20837060

  17. An acute post-rape intervention to prevent substance use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S; Flood, Amanda; Holmes, Melisa

    2003-12-01

    The trauma of rape is routinely associated with extreme acute distress. Such peri-event anxiety increases risk of developing psychopathology and substance use or abuse post-rape, with the degree of initial distress positively predicting future problems. Unfortunately, the nature of post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may exacerbate initial distress, thereby potentiating post-rape negative emotional sequelae. Consequently, substance use may increase in an effort to ameliorate this distress. To address this, a two-part video intervention was developed for use in acute post-rape time frames to (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased post-rape substance use and abuse. Pilot study data with 124 rape victims indicated that the low-cost, easily administered intervention was effective in reducing risk of marijuana abuse at 6 weeks. Nonstatistically significant trends also were evident for reduced marijuana use. Trends were also noted in favor of the intervention in the subgroup of women who were actively using substances pre-rape (among pre-rape alcohol users, 28% viewers vs. 43% nonviewers met criteria for post-rape alcohol abuse; among pre-rape marijuana users, the rates of post-marijuana use were 17% vs. 43%). PMID:14656554

  18. Prevention validation and accounting platform: a framework for establishing accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; McLeod, J H; Williams, C; Hepler, N

    2000-01-01

    The field of substance abuse prevention has neither an overarching conceptual framework nor a set of shared terminologies for establishing the accountability and performance outcome measures of substance abuse prevention services rendered. Hence, there is a wide gap between what we currently have as data on one hand and information that are required to meet the performance goals and accountability measures set by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 on the other. The task before us is: How can we establish the accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs and transform the field of prevention into prevention science? The intent of this volume is to serve that purpose and accelerate the processes of this transformation by identifying the requisite components of the transformation (i.e., theory, methodology, convention on terms, and data) and by introducing an open forum called, Prevention Validation and Accounting (PREVA) Platform. The entire PREVA Platform (for short, the Platform) is designed as an analytic framework, which is formulated by a collectivity of common concepts, terminologies, accounting units, protocols for counting the units, data elements, and operationalizations of various constructs, and other summary measures intended to bring about an efficient and effective measurement of process input, program capacity, process output, performance outcome, and societal impact of substance abuse prevention programs. The measurement units and summary data elements are designed to be measured across time and across jurisdictions, i.e., from local to regional to state to national levels. In the Platform, the process input is captured by two dimensions of time and capital. Time is conceptualized in terms of service delivery time and time spent for research and development. Capital is measured by the monies expended for the delivery of program activities during a fiscal or reporting period. Program capacity is captured

  19. Methylphenidate and μ opioid receptor interactions: A pharmacological target for prevention of stimulant abuse

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinmin; Spencer, Thomas J.; Kachroo, Anil; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan; Biederman, Joseph; Bhide, Pradeep G.

    2011-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is one of the most commonly used and highly effective treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. As the therapeutic use of MPH has increased, so has its abuse and illicit street-use. Yet, the mechanisms associated with development of MPH-associated abuse and dependence are not well understood making it difficult to develop methods to help its mitigation. As a result, many ADHD patients especially children and youth, that could benefit from MPH treatment do not receive it and risk life-long disabilities associated with untreated ADHD. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms associated with development of MPH addiction and designing methods to prevent it assume high public health significance. Using a mouse model we show that supra-therapeutic doses of MPH produce rewarding effects (surrogate measure for addiction in humans) in a conditioned place preference paradigm and upregulate μ opioid receptor (MOPR) activity in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, brain regions associated with reward circuitry. Co-administration of naltrexone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, prevents MPH-induced MOPR activation and the rewarding effects. The MPH-induced MOPR activation and rewarding effect require activation of the dopamine D1 but not the D2 receptor. These findings identify the MOPR as a potential target for attenuating rewarding effects of MPH and suggest that a formulation that combines naltrexone with MPH could be a useful pharmaceutical approach to alleviate abuse potential of MPH and other stimulants. PMID:21545805

  20. A protective factors model for alcohol abuse and suicide prevention among Alaska Native youth.

    PubMed

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-09-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen et al. in J Prev Interv Commun 32:41-59, 2006; Mohatt et al. in Am J Commun Psychol 33:263-273, 2004a; Harm Reduct 1, 2004b). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:24952249

  1. A Protective Factors Model for Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Prevention among Alaska Native Youth

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen at al., 2006; Mohatt, Hazel et al., 2004; Mohatt, Rasmus et al., 2004). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:24952249

  2. Sexual abuse prevention with high-risk males: the roles of victim empathy and rape myths.

    PubMed

    Schewe, P A; O'Donohue, W

    1993-01-01

    The outcome of two sexual abuse prevention programs, one emphasizing victim empathy and the other stressing modifying rape myths, was evaluated with high-risk males. Sixty-eight high-risk males, as determined by self-reported likelihood of committing sexual abuse, were randomly assigned to an empathy-treatment, a facts-treatment, or a no-treatment control group. Treatment effects were assessed using subjects' pre- and post-treatment scores on the Likelihood of Sexually Abusing scale, the Rape Empathy Scale, the Acceptance of Interpersonal Violence scale, the Adversarial Sexual Beliefs Scale, and a test of self-reported sexual arousal to forced versus consenting sex. In addition, posttest scores on an Asch-type conformity measure were obtained. Results of validity checks indicated that high-risk subjects differed from low-risk subjects on a number of rape-related variables, that the victim-empathy condition increased subjects' empathy, and that subjects found both treatments to be credible and helpful. Comparisons between the empathy-, facts-, and no-treatment group contraindicated the practice of dispelling rape myths as a method of preventing rape among high-risk males. PMID:8060907

  3. Prevention Research Findings: 1988. Proceedings of the Meeting of the National Conference on Prevention Research Findings (1st, Kansas City, Missouri, March 1988): Implications for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Program Planning. OSAP Prevention Monograph-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    Sixteen papers from a conference on findings from prevention research are presented in this document. The papers are categorized into these six areas: (1) state and federal roles in prevention; (2) prevention research perspectives, including prevention research, school-based drug education research findings, and drug abuse prevention research…

  4. Prevention of adolescent substance abuse through the development of personal and social competence.

    PubMed

    Botvin, G J

    1983-01-01

    The initiation of substance use typically begins during adolescence and appears to be the result of the complex interplay of social, personality, cognitive, attitudinal, behavioral, and developmental factors. Traditional smoking, alcohol, and drug education programs have attempted to increase students' knowledge of the risks associated with using these substances in the hope that this would deter use. Other programs have attempted to enrich the personal and social development of students through what has been referred to as "affective" education. Unfortunately, the inescapable conclusion to be drawn from the substance abuse prevention literature is that few of these programs have demonstrated any degree of success in terms of the actual prevention of substance use/abuse. Traditional educational approaches to substance abuse prevention appear to be inadequate because they are based on faulty assumptions and are too narrow in their focus. The "affective" education approaches, on the other hand, appear to have placed too little emphasis on the acquisition of the kind of skills that are likely to increase general personal competence and enable students to cope with the various interpersonal and intrapersonal pressures to begin using tobacco, alcohol, or drugs. From the perspective of social learning theory (Bandura 1977) and problem behavior theory (Jessor and Jessor 1977), substance use is conceptualized as a socially learned, purposive, and functional behavior which is the result of the interplay of social (environmental) and personal factors. One potentially effective approach to substance abuse prevention might involve enhancing general personal competence and teaching adolescents the kind of problem-specific skills and knowledge which will increase their ability to resist the various forms of pro-substance-use social pressure. Brief reviews of the social skills training literature and the literature related to techniques for coping with anxiety not only provide

  5. Community Perspectives on Communication Strategies for Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Rural Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores community perspectives on alcohol abuse prevention strategies in rural Kenya. Data from focus group discussions with members of community organizations and in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of key informants revealed that rural communities view national alcohol abuse prevention interventions as ineffective and messages as unpersuasive in changing this high-risk behavior. The use of ethnic languages, stronger fear appeals, and visual aids were recommended for alcohol prevention messages aimed at communities with low literacy. Community members favored narratives and entertainment-education strategies, which are more engaging, and print media for their educational value. Health activism, although common, was viewed as less effective in motivating individuals to change drinking behavior but more effective in advocacy campaigns to pressure the government to enforce alcohol regulations. This study suggests further empirical research to inform evidence-based prevention campaigns and to understand how to communicate about alcohol-related health risks within communities that embrace alcohol consumption as a cultural norm. PMID:26192335

  6. Drug Abuse Office, Prevention, and Treatment Amendments of 1978. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session on S. 2916.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Human Resources.

    The purpose of the testimony presented before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse in April, 1978 was to amend the drug abuse office and treatment act of 1972, thereby extending assistance programs for drug abuse prevention, education, treatment, rehabilitation and other purposes. Speakers represented such organizations as National…

  7. A review of research on fidelity of implementation: implications for drug abuse prevention in school settings.

    PubMed

    Dusenbury, Linda; Brannigan, Rosalind; Falco, Mathea; Hansen, William B

    2003-04-01

    To help inform drug abuse prevention research in school settings about the issues surrounding implementation, we conducted a review of the fidelity of implementation research literature spanning a 25-year period. Fidelity has been measured in five ways: (1) adherence, (2) dose, (3) quality of program delivery, (4) participant responsiveness and (5) program differentiation. Definitions and measures of fidelity were found not to be consistent across studies, and new definitions are proposed. While there has been limited research on fidelity of implementation in the social sciences, research in drug abuse prevention provides evidence that poor implementation is likely to result in a loss of program effectiveness. Studies indicate that most teachers do not cover everything in a curriculum, they are likely to teach less over time and training alone is not sufficient to ensure fidelity of implementation. Key elements of high fidelity include teacher training, program characteristics, teacher characteristics and organizational characteristics. The review concludes with a discussion of the tension between fidelity and reinvention/adaptation, and ways of resolving this tension. Recommendations are made for developing a consistent methodology for measuring and analyzing fidelity of implementation. Further, researchers and providers should collaborate to develop ways of introducing flexibility into prevention programs. PMID:12729182

  8. A systematic review of universal campaigns targeting child physical abuse prevention

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W.; Taylor, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA incidence was assessed in only three studies and decreased significantly in two. Studies also found significant reductions in relevant outcomes such as dysfunctional parenting, child problem behaviors and parental anger as well as increases in parental self-efficacy and knowledge of concepts and actions relevant to preventing child abuse. The following risk factors were most frequently targeted in campaigns: lack of knowledge regarding positive parenting techniques, parental impulsivity, the stigma of asking for help, inadequate social support and inappropriate expectations for a child’s developmental stage. The evidence base for universal campaigns designed to prevent CPA remains inconclusive due to the limited availability of rigorous evaluations; however, Triple-P is a notable exception. Given the potential for such interventions to shift population norms relevant to CPA and reduce rates of CPA, there is a need to further develop and rigorously evaluate such campaigns. PMID:24711483

  9. A systematic review of universal campaigns targeting child physical abuse prevention.

    PubMed

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W; Taylor, Catherine A

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA incidence was assessed in only three studies and decreased significantly in two. Studies also found significant reductions in relevant outcomes such as dysfunctional parenting, child problem behaviors and parental anger as well as increases in parental self-efficacy and knowledge of concepts and actions relevant to preventing child abuse. The following risk factors were most frequently targeted in campaigns: lack of knowledge regarding positive parenting techniques, parental impulsivity, the stigma of asking for help, inadequate social support and inappropriate expectations for a child's developmental stage. The evidence base for universal campaigns designed to prevent CPA remains inconclusive due to the limited availability of rigorous evaluations; however, Triple-P is a notable exception. Given the potential for such interventions to shift population norms relevant to CPA and reduce rates of CPA, there is a need to further develop and rigorously evaluate such campaigns. PMID:24711483

  10. A Lifespan Developmental-Stage Approach to Tobacco and Other Drug Abuse Prevention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    At least by informal design, tobacco and other drug abuse prevention programs are tailored to human developmental stage. However, few papers have been written to examine how programming has been formulated as a function of developmental stage throughout the lifespan. In this paper, I briefly define lifespan development, how it pertains to etiology of tobacco and other drug use, and how prevention programming might be constructed by five developmental stages: (a) young child, (b) older child, (c) young teen, (d) older teen, and (e) adult (emerging, young-to-middle and older adult substages). A search of the literature on tobacco and other drug abuse prevention by developmental stage was conducted, and multiple examples of programs are provided for each stage. A total of 34 programs are described as examples of each stage (five-young children, 12-older children, eight-young teens, four-older teens, and five-adults). Implications for future program development research are stated. In particular, I suggest that programming continue to be developed for all stages in the lifespan, as opposed to focusing on a single stage and that developmentally appropriate features continues to be pursued to maximize program impact. PMID:25298961

  11. Longitudinal Outcomes of an Alcohol Abuse Prevention Program for Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Schwinn, Traci M.; Fang, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This randomized clinical trial examined longitudinal outcomes from an alcohol abuse prevention program aimed at urban youths. Methods Study participants were an ethnically and racially heterogeneous sample of early adolescents, recruited from community-based agencies in greater New York City and its environs. Once they assented to study participation and gained parental permission, youths were divided into three arms: youth intervention delivered by CD-ROM (CD), the same youth intervention plus parent intervention (CDP), and control. Once all youths completed baseline measures, those in CD and CDP arms received a computerized 10-session alcohol abuse prevention program. Parents of youths in the CDP arm received supplemental materials to support and strengthen their children's learning. All youths completed postintervention and annual follow-up measures, and CD- and CDP-arm participants received annual booster intervention sessions. Results Seven years following postintervention testing and relative to control-arm youths, youths in CD and CDP arms reported less alcohol use, cigarette use, binge drinking, and peer pressure to drink; fewer drinking friends; greater refusal of alcohol use opportunities; and lower intentions to drink. No differences were observed between CD and CDP arms. Conclusions Study findings lend support to the potential of computerized, skills-based prevention programs to help urban youth reduce their risks for underage drinking. PMID:20413081

  12. Preventing and Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect: Guidance for School Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Cindy

    This guide for Colorado educators and other school personnel is intended to help define child abuse and neglect and develop appropriate policy and training programs. Sections address the following topics: identifying child abuse and neglect; identifying physical abuse; identifying neglect and emotional abuse; identifying sexual abuse; responding…

  13. 78 FR 8987 - Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Sexual Abuse and Assault in Confinement Facilities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY 6 CFR Part 115 RIN 1653-AA65 Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to..., DHS proposed to issue regulations setting standards to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section in the NPRM (77 FR 75300) for further information on how to comment on...

  14. Early Childhood Education/Drug Abuse Prevention Curricula/Materials Project Mini-Conference Materials (Washington, D.C., June 8-9, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredekamp, Sue; And Others

    This collection of conference materials presents papers on the following topics: (1) approaches and targeting; (2) the BABES Substance Abuse Prevention Program for Children; (3) a prekindergarten substance abuse prevention education curriculum; (4) a parent-oriented, pilot Head Start primary prevention, drug education project; (5) evaluation…

  15. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Childcare Professionals: Comparison of a Web-Based and In-Person Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Zajac, Kristyn; Patton, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Recent prevention research has established the efficacy of some child sexual abuse prevention programs targeting adults; however, less is known about the feasibility of implementing such programs. The current study examines the feasibility and acceptability of a child sexual abuse prevention program for child care professionals provided in two…

  16. Periodic health examination, 1994 update: 4. Secondary prevention of elder abuse and mistreatment. Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide recommendations for family physicians on the detection, assessment and management of abuse or mistreatment in patients over 65 years of age. OPTIONS: Detection of elder abuse by history and examination or by specific protocols; intervention through mandatory reporting, removing the victim from the situation or acting as an advocate for the patient. OUTCOMES: Termination of abusive situation and prevention of further abuse. EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search was conducted with the use of medical subject headings "elder abuse" and "epidemiology" for articles published from January 1980 to October 1992 and headings "elder abuse" and "clinical trials" for articles published from January 1980 to February 1994. Standard references and review articles and their bibliographies were scrutinized, and experts were consulted. VALUES: The evidence-based methods and values of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination were used. Since senior citizens are among the most disadvantaged people in Canadian society, prevention of abuse and promotion of their autonomy were the highest values selected. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: The principal benefits are cessation and prevention of abuse. Potential harms include the loss of a personal residence, the erosion of an established family structure and the loss of autonomy for the victim. RECOMMENDATIONS: There is poor evidence to include case finding for elder abuse in or exclude it from the periodic health examination. However, it is prudent for physicians to be alert for indications of elder abuse and, if such abuse is discovered, to take measures to prevent further abuse. PMID:7954135

  17. Family-based interventions for the prevention of substance abuse and other impulse control disorders in girls.

    PubMed

    Kumpfer, K L

    2014-01-01

    Standardized family-based interventions are the most effective way of preventing or treating adolescent substance abuse and delinquency. This paper first reviews the incidence of adolescent substance abuse worldwide emphasizing gender and causes by etiological risk and protective factors. New epigenetic research is included suggesting that nurturing parenting significantly prevents the phenotypic expression of inherited genetic diseases including substance abuse. Evidence-based family interventions are reviewed including family change theories behind their success, principles and types of family-based interventions, research results, cultural adaptation steps for ethnic and international translation, and dissemination issues. The author's Strengthening Family Program is used as an example of how these principles of effective prevention and cultural adaptation can result in highly effective prevention programs not only for substance abuse, but for other impulse control disorders as well. The conclusions include recommendations for more use of computer technologies to cut the high cost of family interventions relative to youth-only prevention programs and increase the public health impact of evidence-based prevention programs. The paper recommends that to reduce health care costs these family-based approaches should be applied to the prevention and treatment of other impulse control disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, sexually transmitted diseases, and delinquency. PMID:25938121

  18. Family-Based Interventions for the Prevention of Substance Abuse and Other Impulse Control Disorders in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kumpfer, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Standardized family-based interventions are the most effective way of preventing or treating adolescent substance abuse and delinquency. This paper first reviews the incidence of adolescent substance abuse worldwide emphasizing gender and causes by etiological risk and protective factors. New epigenetic research is included suggesting that nurturing parenting significantly prevents the phenotypic expression of inherited genetic diseases including substance abuse. Evidence-based family interventions are reviewed including family change theories behind their success, principles and types of family-based interventions, research results, cultural adaptation steps for ethnic and international translation, and dissemination issues. The author's Strengthening Family Program is used as an example of how these principles of effective prevention and cultural adaptation can result in highly effective prevention programs not only for substance abuse, but for other impulse control disorders as well. The conclusions include recommendations for more use of computer technologies to cut the high cost of family interventions relative to youth-only prevention programs and increase the public health impact of evidence-based prevention programs. The paper recommends that to reduce health care costs these family-based approaches should be applied to the prevention and treatment of other impulse control disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, sexually transmitted diseases, and delinquency. PMID:25938121

  19. Iran’s Activities on Prevention, Treatment and Harm Reduction of Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Saberi Zafarghandi, Mohammad Bagher; Jadidi, Mohsen; Khalili, Narjes

    2015-01-01

    Context: In the present review study, authors investigated Iran’s activities regarding prevention, abuse and harm reduction of drugs nationwide. The issue appears to be important in order to show the trend of activities in the country. Evidence Acquisition: In this report, authors gathered data from different Farsi/English peer review journals issued both in printed and online versions. These journals have been indexed in PubMed, ISI, ISC, SID, Magiran, UN, etc. These are among the most referred and cited databases. Results: Summarizing the data led to three distinguished sections: 1) drug supply reduction activities; 2) drug demand reduction activities; 3) harm reduction activities. Conclusions: As the results showed, the trend of activities was encouraging and some additional activities could be included to future programs relying on early-onset preventions. PMID:26870709

  20. Efficacy of child abuse and neglect prevention messages in the Florida Winds of Change campaign.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Falconer, Mary Kay; Khan, Munziba; Ferris, Christie

    2012-01-01

    Public awareness campaigns have been included in universal, communitywide, and programmatic approaches aimed at preventing child abuse and neglect. More evaluation of campaign effects is needed to identify their place on the continuum of evidence-based programs. This article reports on an efficacy study of the Florida Winds of Change campaign using a randomized experimental design. Investigators conducted an online survey of a web-based panel of Florida residents with children 18 years of age or younger living in the home. Six outcomes were measured at baseline and a 30-day follow-up. Three outcomes referred to knowledge of child development, child disciplinary techniques, and community resources for parents. Prevention attitudes or beliefs, motivation, and action were also assessed. Respondents were exposed to three public service announcements and a selection of parent resource material. Logistic regression models revealed that exposure to campaign messages was associated with significant increases in all but one of the campaign outcomes. PMID:22206348

  1. Evaluating Environmental Management Approaches to Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Langford, Linda M.

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen an upsurge in prevention work focused on changing the campus and community environments in which college students make decisions about alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. This approach, called "environmental management," is based on three fundamental premises: (1) Substance use problems are aggravated by a physical, social,…

  2. The Employee Stress and Alcohol Project: the development of a computer-based alcohol abuse prevention program for employees.

    PubMed

    Matano, R A; Futa, K T; Wanat, S F; Mussman, L M; Leung, C W

    2000-05-01

    The Employee Stress and Alcohol Project (ESAP) developed an interactive computer-based alcohol abuse prevention and early intervention program accessible to employees over the Internet. Behavioral health research recommends that specialists develop and provide comprehensive yet cost-effective approaches to alcohol abuse prevention, early intervention, and treatment within the context of workplace managed care. ESAP is implementing this web site for a diverse 8,567-employee work site. ESAP's web site enables employees to self-assess their stress levels, coping styles, and risk for alcohol-related problems. It provides personalized feedback, recommendations, mini-workshops, a drinking journal, links to other online resources, and an interactive forum for direct participant-to-participant communication. ESAP's web site provides resources for employees who are concerned about another individual's drinking as well as information about adolescent alcohol use. This article discusses the implications of incorporating the ESAP web site into worksite alcohol abuse prevention and early intervention programming. PMID:10795126

  3. 75 FR 11185 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... cancellation of the March 8, 2010 meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration..., Telephone: 240-276-2600, FAX: 240-276-2610. Toian Vaughn, Committee Management Officer, Substance Abuse...

  4. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...

  5. Relationship of Child Abuse to the Workplace: Employer-Based Strategies for Prevention. Prevention Focus Working Paper No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coolson, Peter

    This background paper examines the relationship between child abuse and the workplace and discusses employer-based strategies that can reduce the stress levels of working parents and provide a buffer against problems of child abuse and neglect. Part 1, "Child Abuse and the World of Work," discusses the kinds of stress experienced by working…

  6. The Feasibility and Acceptability of “Arise”: An Online Substance Abuse Relapse Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Bartel, Chelsea M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a novel online adolescent substance abuse relapse prevention tool, “Arise” (3C Institute, Cary, NC). The program uses an innovative platform including interactive instructional segments and skill-building games to help adolescents learn and practice coping skills training strategies. Materials and Methods: We conducted a pilot test with nine adolescents in substance abuse treatment (44 percent female) and a feasibility test with treatment providers (n=8; 50 percent female). Adolescents interacted with the program via a secure Web site for approximately 30 minutes for each of two instructional units. Treatment providers reviewed the same material at their own pace. All participants completed a questionnaire with items assessing usability, acceptability, understanding, and subjective experience of the program. Results: Regarding feasibility, recruitment of this population within the study constraints proved challenging, but participant retention in the trial was high (no attrition). Adolescents and treatment providers completed the program with no reported problems, and overall we were able to collect data as planned. Regarding acceptability, the program received strong ratings from both adolescents and providers, who found the prototype informative, engaging, and appealing. Both groups strongly recommended continuing development. Conclusions: We were able to deliver the intervention as intended, and acceptability ratings were high, demonstrating the feasibility and acceptability of online delivery of engaging interactive interventions. This study contributes to our understanding of how interactive technologies, including games, can be used to modify behavior in substance abuse treatment and other health areas. PMID:26181807

  7. An acute post-sexual assault intervention to prevent drug abuse: updated findings.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Heidi S; Acierno, Ron; Amstadter, Ananda B; Self-Brown, Shannon; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2007-10-01

    Sexual assault and rape routinely produce extreme distress and negative psychological reactions in victims. Further, past research suggests that victims are at increased risk of developing substance use or abuse post-rape. The post-rape forensic medical exam may itself exacerbate peritraumatic distress because it includes cues that may serve as reminders of the assault, thereby potentiating post-assault negative sequelae. To address these problems, a two-part video intervention was developed to take advantage of the existing sexual assault forensic exam infrastructure, and to specifically (a) minimize anxiety/discomfort during forensic examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased substance use and abuse following sexual assault. Updated findings with a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in the forensic medical exam and completing one or more follow-up assessments at: (1)<3 months post-assault; (2) 3 to 6 months post-assault; or (3) 6 months or longer post-assault indicated that the video was associated with significantly lower frequency of marijuana use at each time point, among women who reported use prior to the assault. PMID:17275198

  8. Causes, Consequences, and Prevention of Burnout among Substance Abuse Treatment Counselors: A Rural versus Urban Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Oser, Carrie B.; Biebel, Elizabeth P.; Pullen, Erin; Harp, Kathi LH

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse counselors are vulnerable to burnout, which has negative repercussions for the counselor, employing organization, and clients. However, little is known about differences in counselor burnout from the counselors’ perspective in rural versus urban treatment centers. In 2008, focus group data from 28 rural and urban counselors in a southern state was analyzed, revealing three burnout themes across all counselors: causes, consequences, and prevention. However, there were various differences between rural and urban counselors in sub-themes with only rural counselors citing office politics and low occupational prestige as causes of burnout. Only urban counselors reported responses endorsing the sub-themes of role reversal, clients trying to choose their counselors, and changing jobs as consequences of burnout. All counselors cited co-worker support, clinical supervision, and self-care as important strategies for managing burnout. In sum, context clearly matters as rural counselors cited more causes of burnout; yet, the implications of burnout are universal in that they often lead to poor quality clinical care. There is a continued need for greater understanding of addiction as a disease, which would reduce stigma, especially in rural areas, as well as increase the prestige and earning potential of the substance abuse counseling occupation. PMID:23662328

  9. An HIV Prevention Intervention for Ethnically Diverse Men in Substance Abuse Treatment: Pilot Study Findings

    PubMed Central

    Burlew, A. Kathleen; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Beadnell, Blair; Wright, Lynette; Wilson, Jerika

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the acceptability, participants' receptivity, and effectiveness of a culturally adapted version of Real Men Are Safe (REMAS-CA), an HIV prevention intervention for men in substance abuse treatment. Methods. In 2010 and 2011, we compared participants who attended at least 1 (of 5) REMAS-CA session (n = 66) with participants in the original REMAS study (n = 136). Participants completed an assessment battery at baseline and at 3-month follow-up with measures of substance abuse, HIV risk behaviors, perceived condom barriers, and demographics. We conducted postintervention focus groups at each clinic. Results. Minority REMAS-CA participants were more likely to have attended 3 or more sessions (87.0%), meeting our definition of intervention completion, than were minority participants in the REMAS study (75.1%; odds ratio = 2.1). For REMAS-CA participants with casual partners (n = 25), the number of unprotected sexual occasions in the past 90 days declined (6.2 vs 1.6). Among minority men in the REMAS study (n = 36), the number of unprotected sexual occasions with casual partners changed little (9.4 vs 8.4; relative risk = 4.56). Conclusions. REMAS-CA was effective across ethnic groups, a benefit for HIV risk reduction programs that serve a diverse clientele. PMID:23488494

  10. The effects of moms and teens for safe dates: a dating abuse prevention program for adolescents exposed to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad; Dixon, Kimberly S; Chang, Ling-Yin; Senkomago, Virginia; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Michael Bowling, J

    2015-05-01

    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at high risk for dating abuse. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a dating abuse prevention program designed specifically for this risk group. Moms and Teens for Safe Dates consisted of six mailed booklets of dating abuse prevention information and interactive activities. Mothers who had been victims of domestic violence but no longer lived with the abuser delivered the program to their adolescents who had been exposed to the abuse. Mother and adolescent pairs (N = 409) were recruited through community advertising; the adolescents ranged from 12 to 16 years old and 64 % were female. Mothers and adolescents completed baseline and 6-month follow-up telephone interviews. Booklet completion in the treatment group ranged from 80 % for the first to 62 % for the last booklet. The analyses first tested whether program effects on dating abuse varied by four a priori identified moderators (mother's psychological health, the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence, and adolescent sex and race/ethnicity). Main effects of the program were examined when there were no differential program effects. Program effects on psychological and physical victimization and psychological and cyber perpetration were moderated by the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence; there were significant favorable program effects for adolescents with higher, but not lower levels of exposure to domestic violence. There were no moderated or main effects on sexual violence victimization and perpetration or cyber victimization. The findings suggest that a dating abuse prevention program designed for adolescents exposed to domestic violence can have important positive effects. PMID:25776110

  11. Cultural Competence for Evaluators: A Guide for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention Practitioners Working with Ethnic/Racial Communities. OSAP Cultural Competence Series 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlandi, Mario A., Ed.; And Others

    As an introduction to a series on the array of issues in the implementation and evaluation of substance abuse prevention programs, this volume attempts to integrate two types of competence for alcohol and other drug abuse prevention program practitioners: program evaluation competence and cultural competence. The chapters in this document provide…

  12. Using PANDA (Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol) in a Baltimore City Head Start Setting: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Lockhart, Paula J.; Perkins-Parks, Susan; McNally, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of a substance abuse prevention curriculum, Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol (PANDA), taught to African American Head Start preschool students, examining changes in children's self-concept following participation. Overall, students demonstrated significantly improved self-concept, and PANDA…

  13. A media campaign prevention program for child sexual abuse: community members' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Rheingold, Alyssa A; Campbell, Carole; de Arellano, Michael A

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the face validity and feasibility of materials included in a multimedia child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention campaign. A quantitative survey method assessed participants' comfort level, knowledge gain, and likelihood of behavioral change in response to the media campaign. Furthermore, a focus group method explored participants' attitudes and opinions regarding the campaign and the unique effects of ethnic or cultural norms on participants' acceptance of the media materials. Six groups, established based on participant ethnicity (i.e., three Caucasian groups, two African American groups, one Hispanic group), met at two sites in the Charleston, South Carolina, area. Quantitative data suggest that participants reported increased CSA knowledge and low levels of discomfort or anxiety related to exposure to the materials. Focus group results suggest that study participants, regardless of ethnic background, agreed that the media campaign can have a positive impact on public knowledge of CSA. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:18378812

  14. Examining key design decisions involved in developing a serious game for child sexual abuse prevention

    PubMed Central

    Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Jones, Christian M.; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitizing game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has implications for the design of Serious Games more generally, including that research should underpin game design decisions, game designers should consider ways of bridging the game to real life, the learning that arises from the game should go beyond rote-learning, designers should consider how the player can make the game-world their own and comprehensive evaluations of Serious Games should be undertaken. PMID:24550880

  15. Promoting Global Health - Prevention and Treatment of Substance Abuse and HIV in Asia.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming D; Hser, Yih-Ing; Chen, Zhiwei; Chang, Linda

    2016-09-01

    This special issue contains 20 papers including 3 Perspectives, 1 Brief Report, 6 Invited Reviews, and 10 Original Articles, which highlight the work by presenters at the second meeting of the biennial Conference Series to Promote Global Health held on April 22-24, 2015 in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. These papers focused on the prevalent substance misuse of amphetamine-type-stimulants and opioids, and the increasing prevalence of HIV-infection in Asian countries. The Conference Series is sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, with the goal of exchanging knowledge and ideas related to, and promoting international collaborative work on, the prevention and treatment of substance use disorders and HIV-infection, in order to promote health in Asian and Pacific Islanders and other populations. PMID:27484319

  16. School-based child sexual abuse prevention programs: moving toward resiliency-informed evaluation.

    PubMed

    Barron, Ian G; Miller, David J; Kelly, Timothy B

    2015-01-01

    Although recent years have seen an increase in the range of child sexual abuse prevention programs delivered in schools, there have been relatively few efficacy studies. Those conducted have focused primarily on intrinsic child factors and have often lacked an explicit theoretical framework. We offer resiliency theory as a useful and apposite theoretical framework for program evaluation. Resiliency theory suggests that a wider range of factors should be considered, including intrinsic (personal characteristics) and extrinsic (environmental) factors. Such factors may increase risk or, alternatively, protect children from the negative effects of adversity. We argue that a resiliency perspective to efficacy studies should recognize a long-term view on children's capacity to cope and can employ both standardized and contextual resiliency-informed measures. PMID:25635899

  17. Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid.

    PubMed

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E; Redhi, Godfrey H; Panlilio, Leigh V; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R

    2013-11-01

    In the reward circuitry of the brain, α-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) modulate effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana's main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of α7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by reexposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of α7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA offers a pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse. PMID:24121737

  18. Application of environmental sensitivity theories in personalized prevention for youth substance abuse: a transdisciplinary translational perspective.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Eric L; August, Gerald J; Cicchetti, Dante; Symons, Frank J

    2016-03-01

    Preventive interventions that target high-risk youth, via one-size-fits-all approaches, have demonstrated modest effects in reducing rates of substance use. Recently, substance use researchers have recommended personalized intervention strategies. Central to these approaches is matching preventatives to characteristics of an individual that have been shown to predict outcomes. One compelling body of literature on person × environment interactions is that of environmental sensitivity theories, including differential susceptibility theory and vantage sensitivity. Recent experimental evidence has demonstrated that environmental sensitivity (ES) factors moderate substance abuse outcomes. We propose that ES factors may augment current personalization strategies such as matching based on risk factors/severity of problem behaviors (risk severity (RS)). Specifically, individuals most sensitive to environmental influence may be those most responsive to intervention in general and thus need only a brief-type or lower-intensity program to show gains, while those least sensitive may require more comprehensive or intensive programming for optimal responsiveness. We provide an example from ongoing research to illustrate how ES factors can be incorporated into prevention trials aimed at high-risk adolescents. PMID:27012256

  19. Let's Prevent Abuse: A Prevention Handbook for Early Childhood Professionals and Families with Young Children, with Special Emphasis on the Needs of Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deb; Martinson, Sue Ann, Ed.

    This handbook on preventing child abuse is intended to help families with young children, especially young children who have or are at risk for disabilities, and to help people working with such families. After an introductory section which presents basic definitions, the first chapter presents highlights of the Education of the Handicapped Act…

  20. Preventing child abuse and neglect with parent training: evidence and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Barth, Richard P

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have identified four common co-occurring parental risk factors-substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and child conduct problems-that lead to child maltreatment. The extent to which maltreatment prevention programs must directly address these risk factors to improve responsiveness to parenting programs or can directly focus on improving parenting skills, says Richard Barth, remains uncertain. Barth begins by describing how each of the four parental issues is related to child maltreatment. He then examines a variety of parent education interventions aimed at preventing child abuse. He cautions that many of the interventions have not been carefully evaluated and those that have been have shown little effect on child maltreatment or its risk factors. Although some argue that parent education cannot succeed unless family problems are also addressed, much evidence suggests that first helping parents to be more effective with their children can address mental health needs and improve the chances of substance abuse recovery. Barth recommends increased public support for research trials to compare the effectiveness of programs focused on parenting education and those aiming to reduce related risk factors. Child welfare services and evidence-based parent training, says Barth, are in a period of transformation. Evidence-based methods are rapidly emerging from a development phase that has primarily involved local and highly controlled studies into more national implementation and greater engagement with the child welfare system. The next step is effectiveness trials. Citing the importance and success of multifaceted campaigns in public health policy, Barth discusses a multifaceted parenting campaign that has demonstrated substantial promise in several large trials. The goal of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program is to help parents deal with the full gamut of children's health and behavioral issues. The campaign includes five levels of intervention

  1. Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse in China: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Communication Practices of Parents of Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, JingQi; Dunne, Michael P.; Han, Ping

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Active involvement by parents may contribute substantially to the success of school-based programs to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA). In China, little is known about parental understanding of CSA. This study investigated Chinese parents' knowledge, attitudes, and communication practices with their children about CSA. Method: Six…

  2. Prevention of Alcoholism, Drug Abuse, and Health Problems among American Indians and Alaska Natives: An Introduction and Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Joseph E.; Beauvais, Fred

    This chapter reviews the literature on substance abuse and prevention efforts in Native communities. The first section describes demographic characteristics of America's indigenous people, including tribal and government definitions, interaction and validation styles, and rural-urban differences. It concludes by warning that use of broad ethnic…

  3. 28 CFR 0.177 - Applications for orders under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applications for orders under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Assigning Responsibility Concerning Applications for Orders Compelling Testimony or...

  4. Helping Students Overcome Substance Abuse: Effective Practices for Prevention and Intervention. The Guilford Practical Intervention in the Schools Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Hawken, Leanne S.

    2007-01-01

    Unique in its coverage of both prevention and intervention, this book provides evidence-based strategies and ready-to-use tools for addressing substance abuse in middle and high school settings. Readers learn ways to identify students at risk and implement programs that meet a broad continuum of needs--from psychoeducational and support groups to…

  5. Sexual Abuse: Facts for Discussion, Prevention, and Management. Teacher's Guide. Health Promotion for Adult Literacy Students: An Empowering Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

    This teaching guide is part of a series of materials developed, with input from adult learners, to aid adult literacy teachers in incorporating health education into the curriculum. This guide aims to help teachers to provide adult students with information about sexual abuse, its effects, and prevention. The guide provides the goals and…

  6. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... financial assistance under any Federal program, an institution of higher education (IHE) must certify that... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? 86.1 Section 86.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG...

  7. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... financial assistance under any Federal program, an institution of higher education (IHE) must certify that... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? 86.1 Section 86.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG...

  8. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... financial assistance under any Federal program, an institution of higher education (IHE) must certify that... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? 86.1 Section 86.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG...

  9. Knowledge and Skills of Sexual Abuse Prevention: A Study on School-Aged Children in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yichen; Chen, Jingqi; Yu, Buyi

    2016-01-01

    To examine the level of child sexual abuse prevention knowledge and skills in a sample of school-aged children, a total of 559 children from first to fifth grade were recruited from one primary school in Beijing, China. Participants were asked to finish a questionnaire surveying their knowledge and skills of child sexual abuse prevention. Results showed that accurate rate of knowledge on child sexual abuse prevention were between 44.0% and 80.0%. Percentage of participants having applied the self-protection skills of "saying 'no,'" "going away," and "telling adults" properly in hypothetical situations was 57.4%, 28.3%, and 48.3%, respectively. Third-to-fifth graders had a better performance than first-to-second graders, and girls performed better than boys. Findings suggest that Chinese school-aged children are in need of knowledge and skills related to child sexual abuse prevention, and education programs should be developed as soon as possible. PMID:27561123

  10. Public Attitudes and Behaviors with Respect to Child Abuse Prevention 1987-1991. Working Paper Number 840.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Gelles, Richard

    This report summarizes key findings of a series of national public opinion polls to determine the public's attitudes and actions with respect to child abuse prevention. Findings are reported for four areas: public attitudes toward specific parental discipline practices; the frequency of specific parental discipline practices; the public's support…

  11. Taking School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention to Scale: District-Wide Implementation of Keep a Clear Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jowers, Keri L.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Gately, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Public schools are under increased pressure to implement evidence-based substance abuse prevention programs. A number of model programs have been identified, but little research has examined the effectiveness of these programs when "brought to scale" or implemented district-wide. The current paper summarizes the application of the Adelman and…

  12. Project Application Guidelines for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Program Funding. Student Services, Prevention, and Wellness Team. Bulletin No. 95202.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Bureau for Pupil Services.

    This publication provides information and application forms for alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) funding. The contents include the following: Framework for Student Services, Prevention and Wellness; Abstracts of AODA Grants; Timetable for Grants; Criteria Applicable to all State AODA Grants; Criteria Specific to Aoda Program Grant; AODA…

  13. Intention to Participate in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: A Study of Chinese Adults in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, C.S.k.; Yan, E.C.w.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives:: This study aimed to explore factors relating to intention to participate in community child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs among Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Method:: A total of 1,606 Chinese adults (497 men and 1,109 women) were individually interviewed about their intention to participate in community CSA prevention…

  14. Responding to Pacific Islanders: Culturally Competent Perspectives for Substance Abuse Prevention. CSAP Cultural Competence Series 8. Special Collaborative Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokuau, Noreen; Kameoka, Velma A.; Kupuna, Abbie Napeahi; Kelly, Terry; Burgess, Paula-Ann; Kamiyama, David; Young, Kawen T.; Galea'i, Kenneth Elifasa; Natividad, Lisalinda; Dobbin, Jay; Oneisom, Innocente; Mason, Michael

    This monograph addresses issues of concern to primary health care practitioners, policy makers, and evaluators wishing to broaden access to quality substance abuse prevention services for Pacific Islanders. It is devoted exclusively to health issues affecting Pacific Islanders, who often lack access to comprehensive health care because of…

  15. Helping To Prevent Child Abuse--and Future Criminal Consequences: Hawai'i Healthy Start. Program Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle, Ralph B.

    This document describes Hawai'i's Healthy Start Program, a statewide, multisite home visitation program designed to screen, identify, and work with at-risk families of newborns. Goals of the program include: (1) reducing family stress; (2) improving family functioning; (3) enhancing child health and development; and (4) preventing abuse and…

  16. Adolescent Substance Abuse: Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies. Maternal & Child Health Technical Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Mark J.

    The high prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse by adolescents poses a significant threat to the wellness of youth. Adolescents appear to use drugs for a variety of reasons. In addition to the multiple etiologic and risk factors present for substance abuse, there are many pathways teenagers may follow on their way to substance abuse. The…

  17. Preventing Alcohol and Drug Abuse through Programs at the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Diana Chapman; Kelleher, Susan E.

    Alcohol and drug abuse have serious physical, psychological, and social consequences, and employees who abuse alcohol and/or drugs ultimately reduce their companies' profits. Employee substance abuse leads to reduced productivity as well as to increased absenteeism, health care and health insurance costs, and liability claims against employers of…

  18. Preventing Child Abuse: A Meta-Analysis of Parent Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundahl, Brad W.; Nimer, Janelle; Parsons, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Objective: A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the ability of parent training programs to reduce parents' risk of abusing a child. Method: A total of 23 studies were submitted to a meta-analysis. Outcomes of interest included parents' attitudes toward abuse, emotional adjustment, child-rearing skills, and actual abuse. Conclusions:…

  19. Child Abuse Prevention: A Job Half Done. Chapin Hall Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    This brief discusses the findings of the Fourth Federal National Incidence Study on Child Maltreatment (NIS 4), which reports a significant reduction in the overall rate of child maltreatment since the 1993 NIS. The study reflects substantial drops in the rates of sexual abuse, physical abuse, and emotional abuse. However, no significant changes…

  20. Sexual Abuse of Individuals with Disabilities: Prevention Strategies for Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, Adriana G.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of individuals with disabilities occurs in alarming proportions, although the prevalence and incidence of such abuse is difficult to determine. Although all states maintain statistics on child sexual abuse, the rate of victimization for individuals with disabilities is not specific. This paper reviews several studies conducted on…

  1. The Prevention of Sexual Abuse: An Evaluation of "Talking about Touching."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madak, Paul R.; Berg, Dale H.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluated "Talking about Touching" program (designed to increase children's knowledge about sexual abuse, ways to resist abuse, and where to get help) in five elementary schools. Found that children made statistically significant gains in knowledge about sexual abuse, teachers felt the program was needed and had few negative side effects, and…

  2. Assessment of family history of substance abuse for preventive interventions with patients experiencing chronic pain: A quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    Pestka, Elizabeth; Nash, Virginia; Evans, Michele; Cronin, Joan; Bee, Susan; King, Susan; Osborn, Kristine; Gehin, Jessica; Weis, Karen; Loukianova, Larissa

    2016-04-01

    This quality improvement project demonstrates that RN Care Managers, in a chronic pain programme, can assess for a family history of substance abuse in 5-10 min. Information informs treatment based on specific high risk criteria. Benefits include heightened awareness of the genetic and environmental risks associated with a family history of substance abuse, an opportunity to participate in motivational interventions to prevent or minimize consequences of substance use disorders, and likely substantial overall health-care cost savings. PMID:25963926

  3. Recognition and prevention of child abuse in the child with disability.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Catherine Bearce

    2015-12-01

    Children with disabilities (CWD) are victims of abuse more frequently than children in the general population. The features of their underlying conditions make it more difficult to detect abuse and on occasion can be mistaken for abuse. Thus, the expertise of the clinical geneticist is often vital to properly identifying maltreatment in this vulnerable population. The purpose of this article is to review the magnitude of abuse in the population of CWD, to identify the aggravating factors, and to suggest practice changes in order to both diagnose and reduce the likelihood of abuse in CWD. PMID:26473616

  4. Worksite cardiovascular wellness programs as a route to substance abuse prevention.

    PubMed

    Heirich, M; Sieck, C J

    2000-01-01

    This study addresses the question of worksites as an effective route to alcohol abuse prevention. Hypotheses tested include: (1) Cardiovascular disease risk reduction programs provide effective access for alcohol behavior change. (2) Proactive outreach and follow-up have more impact on health behavior change than health education classes. (3) Ongoing follow-up counseling produces the most behavior change. (4) Screening alone produces little change. The study population included 2000 employees, recruited through cardiovascular disease health screening, who were randomly assigned to individual outreach or classes interventions. Changes in the organization of work required more visible outreach, which produced demands for counseling services from many employees who were not in the original group targeted for outreach. After 3 years of intervention, rescreening results strongly supported hypotheses 1 and 2. Spill-over effects from counseling produced plant-wide improvements, so that hypotheses 3 and 4 were not confirmed. This demonstrates that highly visible outreach provides a cost-effective strategy for cardiovascular disease and alcohol prevention. PMID:10652688

  5. American Indian Substance Abuse Prevention Efforts: A Review of Programs, 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Margaret L; Baldwin, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the review was to assess substance abuse prevention (SAP) efforts in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities from 2003-2013. In the past, many SAP programs were unable to meet the unique cultural needs of AI/AN communities adequately. It has been suggested that a disconnect may exist between the theories that are used to guide development of prevention programs in AI/AN communities and culturally appropriate theoretical constructs of AI/AN worldviews. To explore this possible disconnect further, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used to assess a total of 18 articles (N = 31 programs) on program location and method, participant characteristics, described program cultural elements, use of theory, program outcomes, program measures, and future recommendations. Results indicated that SAP programs in AI/AN communities vary widely in their use of theory, implementation strategies, view and definition of cultural constructs, overall evaluational rigor, and reporting methods. Future research is needed to integrate appropriate theory and cultural elements into SAP programs to tie them to measurable outcomes for AI/AN communities. PMID:26053884

  6. Preventing Drug Abuse Among Adolescent Girls: Outcome Data from an Internet-Based Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Di Noia, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This study developed and tested an Internet-based gender-specific drug abuse prevention program for adolescent girls. A sample of seventh, eighth, and ninth grade girls (N = 236) from 42 states and 4 Canadian provinces were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. All girls completed an online pretest battery. Following pretest, intervention girls interacted with a 12-session, Internet-based gender-specific drug prevention program. Girls in both groups completed the measurement battery at posttest and 6-month follow-up. Analysis of posttest scores revealed no differences between groups for 30-day reports of alcohol, marijuana, poly drug use, or total substance use (alcohol and drugs). At 6-month follow-up, between-group effects were found on measures of 30-day alcohol use, marijuana use, poly drug use, and total substance use. Relative to girls in the control group, girls exposed to the Internet-based intervention reported lower rates of use for these substances. Moreover, girls receiving the intervention achieved gains over girls in the control group on normative beliefs and self-efficacy at posttest and 6-month follow-up, respectively. PMID:19728091

  7. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Arthur W.

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  8. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  9. Improving Empathy in the Prevention of Sexual Abuse Against Children and Youngsters.

    PubMed

    Man-Ging, Carlos Ignacio; Böhm, Bettina; Fuchs, Katharina Anna; Witte, Susanne; Frick, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the improvement of empathy in child-care professionals (i.e., teachers, psychologists, social workers) involved in the prevention of sexual abuse against children and youngsters. An E-Learning training pilot program was conducted with pre- and post-measures (T(1) = at the beginning and T(2) = after 6 months) using the program's standardized questionnaires of Situational Empathy and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) as a Dispositional Empathy measure. A sample of 42 experienced professionals involved in activities with children and youngsters was obtained from the International Movement of Popular Education in Latin America called "Fe y Alegría." Significant progress was found in the scales of Situational Empathy and in some Coping subscales. The final outcomes seem to indicate that the prevention program elicits important changes in the cognitive sphere and that these changes are more intense when the implication level for the situation is greater. This research shows that empathy can be improved through professional experience and careful situational involvement. PMID:26523447

  10. Preventing fraud and abuse in low income weatherization programs: The proceedings of the EORI (Economic Opportunity Research Institute) Roundtable

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The Economic Opportunity Research Institute (EORI) sponsored a national Roundtable on ''Prevention of Fraud and Abuse in Low Income Weatherization Programs'' in Washington, DC on March 23-24, 1987. Funding for the Roundtable and these Proceedings was provided jointly by the US Departments of Health and Human Services/Office of Family Assistance and Energy through Grant FG01-85CE63438. The purpose of the Roundtable was two-fold: (1) to share successful and possible replicable state and local measures to prevent fraud and abuse in low income conservation programs; and (2) to identify any areas in these programs where the potential for fraud and abuse may exist and examine methods to curb such potential. A Task Force representing eight states and including both state and local low income conservation program operators was chosen by EORI and the HHS Office of Family Assistance. The Agencies represented had developed successful preventive approaches to curbing fraud and abuse. Additional participants in the Roundtable included representatives from the US Department of Energy, Weatherization Assistance Program Office and the HHS Office of Energy Assistance, along with other state and local program operators.

  11. Implementing the Regional Epidemiological Outcomes Workgroup (REOW) in the State of Oklahoma for Substance Abuse Prevention: An ODMHSAS Project.

    PubMed

    Gurganus, Kelsey M; Butt, Amir L; Kirchenbauer, Christin M; Melkvik, Chelsie; Piatt, Jamie; Hawkins, Jessica; U'Ren, Stephanie; Onuorah, Young

    2015-07-01

    With substance abuse being a significant problem in Oklahoma, the Oklahoma Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services aimed to address these problems using the Strategic Prevention Framework to empower local communities and to assist in implementing prevention strategies based on epidemiological data by establishing the Regional Epidemiological Outcomes Workgroup (REOW) network. Seventeen REOWs across the state helped identify and use community resources to collect, analyze, and interpret epidemiological data to measure the burden of substance abuse problems and the associated intermediate variables. The REOWs prioritized the needs of each community based on the data, identified the gaps and limitations in available community-level data, and helped find solutions. The REOWs serve as a permanent resource for the communities to establish a sustainable and ongoing monitoring system. With this comprehensive network, prevention providers and coalitions have a partner to assist in strategically allocating resources to address substance abuse and other emerging public health issues. The issues identified among different public health areas can help different community sectors formulate their strategy and address key problems in their areas. The REOW network brings awareness more effectively and efficiently to communities about eminent dangers posed by different health-related problems and behaviors. PMID:25536944

  12. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  13. Vitrification of NAC process residue

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.A.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    Vitrification tests have been performed with simulated waste compositions formulated to represent the residue which would be obtained from the treatment of low-level, nitrate wastes from Hanford and Oak Ridge by the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process. The tests were designed to demonstrate the feasibility of vitrifying NAC residue and to quantify the impact of the NAC process on the volume of vitrified waste. The residue from NAC treatment of low-level nitrate wastes consists primarily of oxides of aluminum and sodium. High alumina glasses were formulated to maximize the waste loading of the NAC product. Transparent glasses with up to 35 wt% alumina, and even higher contents in opaque glasses, were obtained at melting temperatures of 1,200 C to 1,400 C. A modified TCLP leach test showed the high alumina glasses to have good chemical durability, leaching significantly less than either the ARM-1 or the DWPF-EA high-level waste reference glasses. A significant increase in the final waste volume would be a major result of the NAC process on LLW vitrification. For Hanford wastes, NAC-treatment of nitrate wastes followed by vitrification of the residue will increase the final volume of vitrified waste by 50% to 90%; for Melton Valley waste from Oak Ridge, the increase in final glass volume will be 260% to 280%. The increase in volume is relative to direct vitrification of the waste in a 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O glass formulation. The increase in waste volume directly affects not only disposal costs, but also operating and/or capital costs. Larger plant size, longer operating time, and additional energy and additive costs are direct results of increases in waste volume. Such increases may be balanced by beneficial impacts on the vitrification process; however, those effects are outside the scope of this report.

  14. Vitrification of NAC process residue

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.A.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D.

    1995-09-01

    Vitrification tests have been performed with simulated waste compositions formulated to represent the residue which would be obtained from the treatment of low-level, nitrate wastes from Hanford and Oak Ridge by the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process. The tests were designed to demonstrate the feasibility of vitrifying NAC residue and to quantify the impact of the NAC process on the volume of vitrified waste. The residue from NAC treatment of low-level nitrate wastes consists primarily of oxides of aluminum and sodium. High alumina glasses were formulated to maximize the waste loading of the NAC product. Transparent glasses with up to 35 wt% alumina, and even higher contents in opaque glasses, were obtained at melting temperatures of 1200{degrees}C to 1400{degrees}C. A modified TCLP leach test showed the high alumina glasses to have good chemical durability, leaching significantly less than either the ARM-1 or the DWPF-EA high-level waste reference glasses. A significant increase in the final waste volume would be a major result of the NAC process on LLW vitrification. For Hanford wastes, NAC-treatment of nitrate wastes followed by vitrification of the residue will increase the final volume of vitrified waste by 50% to 90%; for Melton Valley waste from Oak Ridge, the increase in final glass volume will be 260% to 280%. The increase in volume is relative to direct vitrification of the waste in a 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O glass formulation. The increase in waste volume directly affects not only disposal costs, but also operating and/or capital costs. Larger plant size, longer operating time, and additional energy and additive costs are direct results of increases in waste volume. Such increases may be balanced by beneficial impacts on the vitrification process; however, those effects are outside the scope of this report.

  15. Drug Abuse, Relapse, and Prevention Education in Malaysia: Perspective of University Students Through a Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chie, Qiu Ting; Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Wong, Chee Piau; Dang, Hoang Minh; Khairuddin, Rozainee

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing accounts of illegal substance abuse among university students and professional groups in Malaysia. This study looks at university students’ perceptions about this phenomenon. Students from Malaysian universities were asked for their impressions about drug availability and abuse, as well as factors contributing to drug abuse and relapse. The questionnaire also inquired into their knowledge and views regarding government versus private rehabilitation centers, as well as their exposure to, and views about, school-based drug-prevention education. Participants were 460 university students from five Malaysian states: Penang, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Sabah, and Sarawak. Results showed gender differences in perceptions of relapse prevention strategies, as well as factors leading to drug abuse and relapse. Students also believed that drug education would be more effective if initiated between the ages of 11 and 12 years, which is slightly older than the common age of first exposure, and provided suggestions for improving existing programs. Implications of student perceptions for the improvement of current interventions and educational programs are discussed. PMID:25999867

  16. The role Kentucky's dentists must play in preventing child abuse & neglect.

    PubMed

    Mouden, L D

    1997-01-01

    Dentistry must become more aware of its moral, legal, and ethical responsibilities in recognizing and reporting child abuse and neglect. All dental professionals must be aware of the seriousness of the problems of child maltreatment, and understand that children do not just get hurt in abuse and neglect, they often die as a direct result of their maltreatment. Unfortunately, victims of child abuse and neglect fall into only two categories--those who lived through it and those who did not. PMID:9573768

  17. Health Promotion and Substance Abuse Prevention among American Indian and Alaska Native Communities: Issues in Cultural Competence. Cultural Competence Series 9. Special Collaborative Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Joseph E., Ed.; Beauvais, Fred, Ed.

    Substance abuse continues to be one of the most damaging and chronic health problems faced by Indian people. American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) substance abuse prevention and treatment programs must be framed within the broader context of the widening health disparities between AI/AN communities and the general population. Successful…

  18. Prevention of Alcohol Abuse in American Families. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document is the text of a Congressional hearing called to examine prevention of alcohol abuse in American families. In her opening statement, Representative Lindy Boggs states that alcohol abuse is related to many problems confronting families including divorce, violence, and behavioral emotional problems and that the purpose of this hearing…

  19. Child Abuse/Neglect: A Guide for Detection, Prevention, and Treatment in Bureau of Community Health Services (BCHS) Programs and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Health Service (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Intended for personnel of ambulatory health care facilities, the manual provides guidelines for the detection, prevention, and treatment of child abuse and neglect cases. Provided in the introduction is a statement of purpose, a brief history of child abuse, a definition (from the federal law), and incidence estimates. Identification is discussed…

  20. The International Catholic Child Bureau and drug abuse: contributions to drug abuse prevention by a non-governmental organization concerned with children.

    PubMed

    Ruegg, F

    1991-01-01

    The present article is an attempt to demonstrate that a broad-based approach to matters directly affecting children, with special emphasis on meeting their non-material and spiritual needs, can effectively contribute to drug abuse prevention, in particular, by promoting personal values that encourage constructive use of goods and time. The International Catholic Child Bureau (ICCB) has adopted its approach to drug abuse prevention, particularly in respect of "street children", and, through its vast network of experts and practitioners familiar with intercultural and interdenominational education, has implemented a number of projects in Africa, Europe and Latin America, primarily involving the use of therapeutic communities, workshops and "street educators". The religious dimension of the work of ICCB is particularly important because it highlights a fundamental aspect for youth of all cultures, i.e. integrated preparation for life as responsible members of the community. ICCB is of the view that it is imperative to provide children with possibilities for a life that is free of substance dependence, once they are able to make the right decisions. PMID:1817712

  1. Preventing domestic abuse for children and young people: A review of school-based interventions

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Nicky; Ellis, Jane; Farrelly, Nicola; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Downe, Soo

    2015-01-01

    Schools provide the setting in which interventions aimed at preventing intimate partner violence and abuse (IPVA) are delivered to young people in the general population and a range of programmes have been designed and evaluated. To date, most rigorous studies have been undertaken in North America and the extent to which programmes are transferable to other settings and cultures is uncertain. This paper reports on a mixed methods review, aimed at informing UK practise and policy, which included a systematic review of the international literature, a review of the UK grey literature and consultation with young people as well as experts to address the question of what works for whom in what circumstances. The context in which an intervention was delivered was found to be crucial. Context included: the wider policy setting; the national or regional level, where the local culture shaped understandings of IPVA, and the readiness of an individual school. The programmes included in the systematic review provided stronger evidence for changing knowledge and attitudes than for behavioural change and those young people who were at higher risk at baseline may have exerted a strong influence on study outcomes. Shifting social norms in the peer group emerged as a key mechanism of change and the young people consulted emphasised the importance of authenticity which could be achieved through the use of drama and which required those delivering programmes to have relevant expertise. While the consultation identified increasing interest in targeting interventions on boys, there was an identified lack of materials designed for minority groups of young people, especially Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender young people. Increased responsivity to the local context can be achieved by involving those who will deliver and receive these preventive programmes in their development. Schools need to be better prepared and supported in the task of delivering these interventions and this is

  2. Relative effectiveness of comprehensive community programming for drug abuse prevention with high-risk and low-risk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C A; Pentz, M A; Weber, M D; Dwyer, J H; Baer, N; MacKinnon, D P; Hansen, W B; Flay, B R

    1990-08-01

    This article reviews major risk factors for cigarette smoking, alcohol, and other drug abuse and promising community-based approaches to primary prevention. In a longitudinal experimental study, 8 representative Kansas City communities were assigned randomly to program (school, parent, mass media, and community organization) and control (mass media and community organization only) conditions. Programs were delivered at either 6th or 7th grade, and panels were followed through Grade 9 or 10. The primary findings were (a) significant reductions at 3 years in tobacco and marijuana use and (b) equivalent reductions for youth at different levels of risk. This study provides evidence that a comprehensive community program-based approach can prevent the onset of substance abuse and that the benefits are experienced equally by youth at high and low risk. PMID:2212182

  3. Impulsive delayed reward discounting as a genetically-influenced target for drug abuse prevention: a critical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gray, Joshua C; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    This review evaluates the viability of delayed reward discounting (DRD), an index of how much an individual devalues a future reward based on its delay in time, for genetically-informed drug abuse prevention. A review of the literature suggests that impulsive DRD is robustly associated with drug addiction and meets most of the criteria for being an endophenotype, albeit with mixed findings for specific molecular genetic influences. Several modes of experimental manipulation have been demonstrated to reduce DRD acutely. These include behavioral strategies, such as mindfulness, reward bundling, and episodic future thinking; pharmacological interventions, including noradrenergic agonists, adrenergic agonists, and multiple monoamine agonists; and neuromodulatory interventions, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. However, the generalization of these interventions to positive clinical outcomes remains unclear and no studies to date have examined interventions on DRD in the context of prevention. Collectively, these findings suggest it would be premature to target DRD for genetically-informed prevention. Indeed, given the evidence of environmental contributions to impulsive DRD, whether genetically-informed secondary prevention would ever be warranted is debatable. Progress in identifying polymorphisms associated with DRD profiles could further clarify the underlying biological systems for pharmacological and neuromodulatory interventions, and, as a qualitatively different risk factor from existing prevention programs, impulsive DRD is worthy of investigation at a more general level as a novel and promising drug abuse prevention target. PMID:26388788

  4. Impulsive delayed reward discounting as a genetically-influenced target for drug abuse prevention: a critical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Joshua C.; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    This review evaluates the viability of delayed reward discounting (DRD), an index of how much an individual devalues a future reward based on its delay in time, for genetically-informed drug abuse prevention. A review of the literature suggests that impulsive DRD is robustly associated with drug addiction and meets most of the criteria for being an endophenotype, albeit with mixed findings for specific molecular genetic influences. Several modes of experimental manipulation have been demonstrated to reduce DRD acutely. These include behavioral strategies, such as mindfulness, reward bundling, and episodic future thinking; pharmacological interventions, including noradrenergic agonists, adrenergic agonists, and multiple monoamine agonists; and neuromodulatory interventions, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. However, the generalization of these interventions to positive clinical outcomes remains unclear and no studies to date have examined interventions on DRD in the context of prevention. Collectively, these findings suggest it would be premature to target DRD for genetically-informed prevention. Indeed, given the evidence of environmental contributions to impulsive DRD, whether genetically-informed secondary prevention would ever be warranted is debatable. Progress in identifying polymorphisms associated with DRD profiles could further clarify the underlying biological systems for pharmacological and neuromodulatory interventions, and, as a qualitatively different risk factor from existing prevention programs, impulsive DRD is worthy of investigation at a more general level as a novel and promising drug abuse prevention target. PMID:26388788

  5. A case of sexual abuse by a traditional faith healer: are there potential preventions?

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of unique cultural and belief systems. PMID:23194137

  6. Catch It Low to Prevent It High: Countering Low-Level Verbal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the low-level aggression of verbal abuse demonstrated by children and adolescents. Describes the teasing, cursing, gossip, and ostracism associated with verbal abuse. Provides strategies for working with youth who are verbally aggressive including, how to reduce verbal maltreatment, how to engage in constructive communication, and ways…

  7. Preventing Alcohol Abuse: An Examination of the "Downward Spiral" Game and Educational Videos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czuchry, Michael; Sia, Tiffiny L.; Dansereau, Donald F.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, college students (N=178) either played Downward Spiral, a board game that illustrates the dangers of continued substance abuse, or watched educational videos on substance abuse. Results show that students who played Downward Spiral had somewhat higher levels of consumer satisfaction. However, results also show that both videos and…

  8. Preventing Child Abuse in the Harvest: A Handbook for Migrant Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Rebekah, Ed.; Rollo, Karen, Ed.

    Intended for educators who work with migrant children, this handbook and resource directory will also be useful for other groups concerned with child abuse and neglect. The handbook aims to promote understanding of reasons migrant children are maltreated by parents and caretakers, to increase sensitivity to factors contributing to child abuse, to…

  9. Screening American Indian Youth for Referral to Drug Abuse Prevention and Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Dewolfe, Jerome; Graham, Donald

    2006-01-01

    The development and psychometric properties of a brief screening tool for use with American Indian youth suspected of abusing substances is described. The Indian Health Service-Personal Experience Screening Questionnaire (IHS-PESQ) is a brief questionnaire that screens for drug abuse problem severity, response distortion tendencies, and…

  10. A Case of Sexual Abuse by a Traditional Faith Healer: Are There Potential Preventions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of…

  11. Using Social Disorganization Theory to Guide Substance Abuse Prevention among Adolescents: Implications for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaynes, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Substance use and abuse are problematic in the lives of adolescents, including interpersonal problems and scholastic problems. Risk for substance use has commonly been assessed at the individual level. This paper examines risk of adolescent substance abuse as a variable impacted by environmental or contextual factors surrounding the individual.…

  12. Sexual Abuse Prevention: A Training Program for Developmental Disabilities Service Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Rachel A.; Scotti, Joseph R.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2010-01-01

    Persons with developmental disabilities are at an increased risk for becoming victims of sexual abuse. Research has revealed that the largest group of identified perpetrators of sexual abuse is developmental disability service providers. The purpose of the present study was to develop, implement, and evaluate the effectiveness of a sexual abuse…

  13. "Just dreaming of them": The Berlin Project for Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse by Juveniles (PPJ).

    PubMed

    Beier, Klaus M; Oezdemir, Umut C; Schlinzig, Eliza; Groll, Anna; Hupp, Elena; Hellenschmidt, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    The Berlin Project for Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse by Juveniles (PPJ) offers diagnostic and therapeutic help to 12-to-18-year-old juveniles with a sexual preference for the prepubescent and/or early pubescent body of children and who apply for treatment on a voluntary basis. The project goal is to prevent primary or recurrent child sexual abuse as well as primary or recurrent use of child abuse images. Treatment aims to enable affected juveniles to obtain control over their conflictual sexual behaviors. In the present article, the origin of the PPJ; its main approach, including the conception of a media campaign; as well as results from the first year of a three-year study are presented. Further, initial characterizations of juveniles taking part in the project for the first 12 months are provided. The results confirmed that the group of 12-to-18-year-old juveniles with a sexual preference for prepubescent and/or early pubescent minors exists as a target group for primary preventive measures and that they can be assessed for their sexual preferences. PMID:26773897

  14. Comparing corporal punishment and children's exposure to violence between caregivers: Towards better diagnosis and prevention of intrafamilial physical abuse of children.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Cristina Silveira; Coelho, Luís; Magalhães, Teresa

    2016-02-01

    Any intervention involving child victims of intrafamilial abuse must take the alleged underlying motives for the abuse into account. The aim of this study is to further our understanding of intrafamilial physical abuse of children, by comparing its various aspects while considering the alleged underlying motives. A preliminary sample of 1656 cases of alleged physical abuse in the northern region of Portugal was analysed, with two main motives being identified: corporal punishment (CP) (G1 = 927) and exposure to violence between caregivers (EVC) (G2 = 308). Statistically significant differences were found between the two motives (p < 0.05) for the following variables: (1) age of the alleged victims, (2) sex of the alleged abuser, (3) risk factors affecting the alleged abuser, (4) abuser/victim relationship, (5) injury-producing mechanism, (6) time between last abuse and forensic medical examination and (7) location of injuries. Evidence-based knowledge of these differences may help in accurate diagnosis by doctors (particularly forensic physicians) and prevention of this type of violence through support strategies (including tertiary prevention strategies). PMID:26694872

  15. Child sexual abuse prevention training for childcare professionals: an independent multi-site randomized controlled trial of Stewards of Children.

    PubMed

    Rheingold, Alyssa A; Zajac, Kristyn; Chapman, Jason E; Patton, Meghan; de Arellano, Michael; Saunders, Benjamin; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2015-04-01

    Given the significant rates and deleterious consequences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), identifying effective primary prevention approaches is a clear priority. There isa growing awareness that childcare professionals (e.g.,teachers, childcare personnel, clergy) are in a unique position to engage in prevention efforts due to high accessibility to children and expertise in child development. However, CSA prevention programs targeting childcare professionals have received insufficient attention. The goal of this study was toc on duct an independent multi-site controlled evaluation of an existing CSA prevention program, Stewards of Children, offered through both in-person and web-based formats. This study included 352 childcare professionals recruited from children’s advocacy centers across three states. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) inperson training, (2) web-based training, or (3) waitlist control. Dependent variables included CSA knowledge, CSA attitudes,and self-reported CSA preventive behaviors. Results indicated that Stewards impacted knowledge, attitudes, and preventive behaviors. No differences were found between training modalities (i.e., in-person versus web-based) on knowledge and preventive behaviors. Results indicate that brief trainings for childcare professionals may impact CSA prevention efforts. PMID:25015782

  16. Knowledge Gains Following a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program Among Urban Students: A Cluster-Randomized Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Dauber, Sarah; Tully, Brenda A.; Hamilton, Paige; Smith, Michael J.; Freeman, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a school-based child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention program, Safe Touches, in a low–socioeconomic status, racially diverse sample. Methods. Participants were 492 second- and third-grade students at 6 public elementary schools in New York City. The study period spanned fall 2012 through summer 2014. We cluster-randomized classrooms to the Safe Touches intervention or control groups and assessed outcomes with the Children’s Knowledge of Abuse Questionnaire. Hierarchical models tested change in children’s knowledge of inappropriate and appropriate touch. Results. The intervention group showed significantly greater improvement than the control group on knowledge of inappropriate touch. Children in second grade and children in schools with a greater proportion of students in general (vs special) education showed greater gains than other participants in knowledge of inappropriate touch. We observed no significant change in knowledge of appropriate touch among control or intervention groups. Conclusions. Young children benefited from a school-based, 1-time CSA prevention program. Future research should explore the efficacy of CSA prevention programs with children before the second grade to determine optimal age for participation. PMID:25973809

  17. Protecting the whistleblower: preventing retaliation following a report of patient abuse in health-care institutions.

    PubMed

    Burkin, K; Kleiner, B H

    1998-01-01

    Health-care providers throughout the United States face litigation and the threat of litigation on a daily basis due to claims of patient abuse. Hidden within the costs associated with defending patient abuse claims are the wrongful termination filings made by employees who claim they were retaliated against for their whistleblowing activity. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate why an employer would resort to retaliatory acts in the shadow of a patient abuse filing and to discuss what steps are currently taken to prove and investigate the validity of a retaliation claim. Included within the body of this paper are court decisions on the topics of whistleblowing protection and violation of public policy. These examples are illustrated so that recommendations can be provided that assist the employer in avoiding a wrongful discharge claim and help to conclude that retaliation against the whistleblower is a costly mistake even with the employment at-will principle as a defense. PMID:10346307

  18. Standards to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse and sexual harassment involving unaccompanied children. Interim final rule (IFR).

    PubMed

    2014-12-24

    This IFR proposes standards and procedures to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse and sexual harassment involving unaccompanied children (UCs) in ORR's care provider facilities. DATES: This IFR is effective on December 24, 2014. ORR care provider facilities must be in compliance with this IFR by June 24, 2015 but encourages care provider facilities to be in compliance sooner, if possible. HHS will work with facilities to implement and enforce the standards contained in this rule. Comments on this IFR must be received on or before February 23, 2015. PMID:25546883

  19. NAC functions as a modulator of SRP during the early steps of protein targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Berndt, Uta; Gölz, Hanna; Tais, Arlette; Oellerer, Stefan; Wölfle, Tina; Fitzke, Edith; Rospert, Sabine

    2012-08-01

    Nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC) was initially found to bind to any segment of the nascent chain except signal sequences. In this way, NAC is believed to prevent mistargeting due to binding of signal recognition particle (SRP) to signalless ribosome nascent chain complexes (RNCs). Here we revisit the interplay between NAC and SRP. NAC does not affect SRP function with respect to signalless RNCs; however, NAC does affect SRP function with respect to RNCs targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). First, early recruitment of SRP to RNCs containing a signal sequence within the ribosomal tunnel is NAC dependent. Second, NAC is able to directly and tightly bind to nascent signal sequences. Third, SRP initially displaces NAC from RNCs; however, when the signal sequence emerges further, trimeric NAC·RNC·SRP complexes form. Fourth, upon docking to the ER membrane NAC remains bound to RNCs, allowing NAC to shield cytosolically exposed nascent chain domains not only before but also during cotranslational translocation. The combined data indicate a functional interplay between NAC and SRP on ER-targeted RNCs, which is based on the ability of the two complexes to bind simultaneously to distinct segments of a single nascent chain. PMID:22740632

  20. Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Journey of Recognition to Implementation of National Prevention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Eissa, Majid; Almuneef, Maha

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To describe increased child abuse and neglect (CAN) reporting and the characteristics of the reports in the context of the development of a system of intervention for one of the hospital-based child protection centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia aligned with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Article 19.…

  1. Teachers May Never Know: Using Emotional Intelligence to Prevent and Counter Child Neglect and Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Holly Elissa

    2007-01-01

    Caring adults may be unaware of how deeply healing their love for a child can be. A gentle smile, warming cuddle, or soothing lullaby can uplift a baby or toddler. Infants, who appear healthy on the outside, can suffer deeply within from "invisible wounds." "Young children are the most vulnerable to being abused or neglected. Statistically, the…

  2. Substance Abuse among Youth with Disabilities. Prevention Research Update, Number Seven/Summer 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendergast, Michael; And Others

    This literature review focuses on the state of current knowledge concerning alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse among people with developmental, learning, hearing, visual, and mobility impairments. The review is divided into four main sections. The first section addresses the limits of the available research-based information. The second section…

  3. Preventing and Reporting Resident Abuse in Assisted Living: A Learning Module for Resident Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, Cole Marie

    In an effort to conform to the Massachusetts Executive Office of Elder Affairs (EOEA) staff development requirement regarding elder abuse, a learning module was developed. It was designed to be administered to an individual caregiver for the purpose of self-study or to small groups of caregivers using the lecture-discussion format. Following the…

  4. Interventions to Prevent and Reduce Cyber Abuse of Youth: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishna, Faye; Cook, Charlene; Saini, Michael; Wu, Meng-Jia; MacFadden, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The Internet has created a new communication tool, particularly for young people whose use of electronic communication is exploding worldwide. While there are many benefits that result from electronic-based communication, the Internet is concurrently a potential site for abuse and victimization. Methods: This paper systematically…

  5. Preventing Emotional Disturbance in Abused and Neglected Children and Their Families through Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeney, Tawn R.

    The paper examines the nature of child abuse and neglect, considers its effects on the emotional well being of the child, and describes treatment approaches. Emotional neglect is differentiated from emotional disturbance. Long-term effects of child maltreatment include irreversible physical damage to the central nervous system, emotional damage,…

  6. Primer for Teachers: Quick and Easy Liver Wellness, Hepatitis B and Substance Abuse Prevention Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Thelma King

    This guide provides information for teachers to use in teaching about liver wellness, hepatitis B, and substance abuse. The guide includes effective motivational techniques to help students understand how valuable their liver is to their health and well being. It also provides basic information to help students avoid liver damaging behaviors, such…

  7. Strategies for Prevention and Intervention of Drug Abuse among Students in Secondary Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marais, Petro; Maithya, Redempta

    2015-01-01

    Drug abuse is becoming an increasing problem among students in Kenya. The major cause for concern is that a high proportion of the Kenyan youth in secondary schools are involved in drugs (NACADA 2012). As a result, these young people eventually become addicted, posing a threat to their own health and safety. This study sought to establish the…

  8. Narcotics Abuse among Young People in the Northern Territories: Characteristics and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anisimova, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    There is a persistent opinion that the spread of narcotics abuse is taking in more and more young people and having an impact on the economic, political, and cultural development of society. Data obtained by sociologists and criminologists make it possible to single out the factors, conditions, and channels of the spread of psychoactive substances…

  9. The Role of Social Skills Training in a Comprehensive Prevention/Rehabilitation Substance Abuse Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candler, Ann C.; And Others

    Substance abuse is pervasive in both rural and urban settings. Previous attempts to educate America's youth as to its dangers have not reduced the numbers of adolescents involved in the drug culture. The assertiveness-based "Just Say No" campaign attempts to counter peer pressure to use drugs, but is hampered by our society's encouragement of…

  10. Primary Prevention of Child Abuse: The Identification of High Risk Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavolek, Stephen J.

    The study was designed to assess the parenting and child rearing attitudes of four parent populations: abusive parents (N=24), foster parents (N=99), parents of handicapped children (N=171), and nonabusive parents (N=47). Demographic data was collected on the four populations and Ss were administered the Adolescent Parenting Inventory. Among…

  11. Progress Report on the Development of Child Abuse Prevention, Identification, and Treatment Systems in Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Owen; Sargent, John; Chaffin, Mark; Friedrich, William N.; Cunningham, Nicholas; Cantor, Pamela; Coffey, Pamela Sumner; Villani, Susan; Beard, Philip R.; Clifft, Mary Ann; Greenspun, David

    2004-01-01

    Problem: After the Soviet Union dissolved in 1989, it became apparent that there was little recognition of the problems of child abuse and neglect, professionally, legally, or societally. There were no effective systems or laws in place to deal with these problems. Method: Beginning in 1995 the Children's Mental Health Alliance, in conjunction…

  12. Alabama Substance Abuse Prevention Training Program for Educational Personnel. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Univ., Birmingham. School of Education.

    Quality substance abuse training for 279 educational personnel (school counselors, school nurses, and school psychologists) across the state of Alabama was provided in a series of two-day training sessions through a federal grant. Although the original grant proposed 7 training sessions, 9 training sessions were ultimately offered over the course…

  13. Understanding the Etiology of Prescription Opioid Abuse: Implications for Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rigg, Khary K.; Murphy, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Although studies on the initiation of substance abuse abound, the body of literature on prescription opioid abuse (POA) etiology is small. Little is known about why and how the onset of POA occurs, especially among high-risk populations. In this study we aimed to fill this important knowledge gap by exploring the POA initiation experiences of 90 prescription opioid abusers currently in treatment and their narrative accounts of the circumstances surrounding their POA onset. This research was conducted within a storyline framework, which operates on the premise that the path to drug abuse represents a biography or a process rather than a static condition. Audiotapes of in-depth interviews were transcribed, coded, and thematically analyzed. Analyses revealed the presence of four trajectories leading to POA. This study adds to the limited research on POA etiology by not only illuminating the psychosocial factors that contribute to POA onset, but also by situating initiation experiences within broader life processes. The study findings provide crucial insights to policymakers and interventionists in identifying who is at risk for POA, and more important, when and how to intervene most efficaciously. PMID:23656723

  14. Lehigh County Community College Substance Abuse Prevention Program. LCCC Drug Free Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, June

    Three documents illustrate the Lehigh County Community College (LCCC), Pennsylvania, drug and alcohol policy: a formal statement of policy and two educational brochures for distribution to students and employees. The policy statement details policies approved by the board of trustees governing drug and alcohol abuse including policies for students…

  15. Victim Recantation in Child Sexual Abuse Cases: The Prosecutor's Role in Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Susan Perlis

    1996-01-01

    Explores reasons for recantation of abuse allegations and the problems recantation presents for the continued safety of the child and for the efficacy of child protective services and criminal justice interventions. Offers practical steps for prosecutors, child protective workers, attorneys, law enforcement investigators, and members of…

  16. Sexual Abuse Prevention Education for Young Children: A Comparison of Teachers and Parents as Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of a personal safety program with 172 preschoolers found that participants demonstrated greater knowledge about sexual abuse and higher levels of personal safety skills than controls, that children taught by their parents recognized inappropriate-touch requests better than children taught by teachers, and that children taught at both…

  17. Substance abuse in early adolescents and HIV preventive behaviors: findings from a school-based cross-sectional survey for the period from 2009 to 2013, Bangkok Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thepthien, B; Altaf, L; Chuchareon, P; Srivanichakron, S

    2016-10-01

    This study is first of its kind in Bangkok, and is a five-year (2009-2013) cross-sectional web-based survey to examine HIV preventive behaviors related to substance abuse among adolescents (N = 16,913). The questionnaire was self-administered. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The relationship between different types of substance abuse with risky and preventive behaviors was assessed. Male participants reported more substance abuse as compared to females. The risk behaviors observed among the substance abusers include increased sexual experience, multiple sex partners, no use of condoms, and injection drug use. The preventive behaviors include having a high self-risk assessment, going for HIV testing (highest in methamphetamine users), and screening for sexually transmitted infection. Logistic regression suggests that risky behaviors (e.g., sexual experience, injection drug use) are more common in substance abusers. Adolescents are clearly at a high risk. Behavioral preventive measures are needed to reduce or delay premature substance exposure to prevent a wide range of health problems and risks such as HIV and AIDS, injection drug use and unprotected sex. PMID:27120264

  18. Child Abuse Prevention Act, 1973. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Children and Youth of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, Ninety-third Congress, First Session on S.1191.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    A record of the Senate hearings on The Child Abuse Prevention Act of 1973 is presented. A copy of Senator Mondale's bill to establish a national center on child abuse is included. The objectives of the hearings were to investigate the magnitude of the child abuse problem in the United States and to clarify a definition of the problem. Different…

  19. Childhood abuse history and risk behaviors among teen parents in a culturally rooted, couple-focused HIV prevention program.

    PubMed

    Lesser, Janna; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Gonzalez-Figueroa, Evelyn; Huang, Rong; Cumberland, William G

    2007-01-01

    Pregnant and parenting adolescents living in inner cities are at risk for acquiring HIV through unprotected sexual activity. In addition to individual risk behaviors, a lack of socioeconomic and other environmental resources create risk environments that make certain communities vulnerable to both adolescent pregnancy and HIV/AIDS. Research indicates that adolescent parents, many who have histories of childhood trauma, may use their experience of young parenthood and the concomitant feelings of parental protectiveness as a source of renewed hope for their future. The purpose of this report is to explore the relationship between history of childhood abuse and high risk behaviors in adolescent Latino mothers and fathers enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a culturally rooted, couple-focused HIV prevention program. In addition, this report describes the HIV prevention program that was designed specifically for young Latino parents wherein maternal and paternal protectiveness are viewed as intrinsic and developing critical factors that promote resiliency and motivate behavioral change. PMID:17403493

  20. Strengthening Families and Communities to Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect: Lessons from the Los Angeles Prevention Initiative Demonstration Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCroskey, Jacquelyn; Pecora, Peter J.; Franke, Todd; Christie, Christina A.; Lothridge, Jaymie

    2012-01-01

    The Prevention Initiative Demonstration Project, funded by the Los Angeles County Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS), is a community-specific strategy delivered through eight regional networks designed to address the full spectrum of community-based prevention. This article summarizes a strong and meaningful pattern of improvements…

  1. Dementia and elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Hansberry, Maria R; Chen, Elaine; Gorbien, Martin J

    2005-05-01

    Dementia and elder abuse are relatively common and under-diagnosed geriatric syndromes. A unique relationship is observed when the two entities coexist. Special issues can confound the care of the dementia patient suspected of being abused. Impaired language or motor abilities to communicate abusive situations to a third party, lack of decisional capacity to address the abusive situation, disinhibited behavior that contributes to a cycle of violence, and coincident depression of the abused elder complicate the diagnosis and management of elder abuse. Education of the caregiver and attention to caregiver stress, including depression, may prevent onset and perpetuation of abuse. PMID:15804553

  2. HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and hepatitis prevention needs of Native Americans living in Baltimore: in their own words.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeannette L; Gryczynski, Jan; Wiechelt, Shelly A

    2007-12-01

    A needs assessment funded by the Center of Substance Abuse Prevention was conducted in 2005-2006 to determine the HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and hepatitis prevention needs of Native Americans living in Baltimore, Maryland. We used a community-based participatory approach to gain an in-depth understanding of local Native American health service needs. Community stakeholders and key informants embedded in the local Native American population were consulted at each stage of the research planning process. Two complementary methodologies (focus groups and surveys) produced a holistic assessment of the population's needs, risks, and strengths and uncovered the social and cultural contexts in which health risk behaviors unfold. The use of these methods within a participatory framework produced a more complete portrait of the service needs of the Native American population in Baltimore. Findings from this study support the necessity for future HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and hepatitis prevention programming for urban Native Americans. PMID:18190277

  3. The School's Role in the Prevention/Intervention of Child Abuse and Neglect. A Manual for School Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandau-Christopher, Debra

    This handbook on child abuse and neglect was written to assist school personnel, including administrators, teachers, counselors, school nurses, and school social workers in defining abuse and neglect and in developing policy and training programs to best address the abuse issue. Topics addressed include: (1) understanding child abuse and neglect;…

  4. Oxidation pathway and exacerbations in COPD: the role of NAC.

    PubMed

    Matera, Maria Gabriella; Calzetta, Luigino; Cazzola, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an important trait in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Consequently, targeting oxidative stress is likely to be beneficial as a treatment in COPD. Glutathione (GSH) is an intracellular antioxidant that protects against a variety of different antioxidant species. The increase of lung GSH in COPD is an attempt to counter excess oxidant production but it is inadequate during exacerbations due to the excessive production of ROS. N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) acts as a precursor for the substrate cysteine in synthesis of GSH and also as a mucolytic and anti-inflammatory agent. NAC prevents COPD exacerbations at high dosage (≥1200 mg daily), while a regular treatment with 600 mg daily is enough in chronic bronchitis. Nonetheless, we must still establish whether the level of bronchial obstruction may influence its effects, the effect of high-dose NAC in Caucasian patients with COPD, and the role of NAC in the escalation and de-escalation of therapy in COPD. PMID:26567752

  5. Prevention of mental disorders, substance abuse, and problem behaviors: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Beardslee, William R; Chien, Peter L; Bell, Carl C

    2011-03-01

    Robust scientific evidence shows that mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders can be prevented before they begin. This article highlights and expands points from a 2009 Institute of Medicine report to provide a concise summary of the literature on preventing mental illness. Because prevention requires intervention before the onset of illness, effective preventive approaches are often interdisciplinary and developmental. Evidence-based preventive strategies are discussed for the different phases of a young person's life. Specific recommendations to focus on parenting, child development, and the prevention of depression are made for a target audience of practicing psychiatrists and mental health professionals. Further systemic recommendations are to prioritize prevention and to coordinate and facilitate research on preventive practices in order to reduce suffering, create healthier families, and save money. PMID:21363895

  6. Farmworker Substance Abuse: An Action Plan for the Year 2000. Proceedings of the National Farmworker Substance Abuse Prevention Conference (San Diego, California, October 18-20, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Migrant Resource Program, Inc., Austin, TX.

    This proceedings contains commissioned background papers used by conference work groups focusing on nine aspects of farmworker substance abuse, and the action plan developed by the work groups. The keynote address by Felipe G. Castro examines risk factors for substance abuse and addiction among Chicano farmworkers, particularly adolescent and…

  7. Child Abuse and Neglect in New York Mental Hygiene Facilities: An Assessment of Reports Filed Prior to Implementation of New York's Child Abuse Prevention Act of 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Commission on Quality of Care for the Mentally Disabled, Albany.

    The pilot study reported in this document reviewed existing child abuse and neglect reports in mental health and mental retardation residential facilities in the state of New York. The study found that the annual reporting rate of abuse and neglect in these facilities was more than two times higher than for the state as a whole; it also found…

  8. Substance abuse studies and prevention efforts among Arabs in the 1990s in Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S; Sawa, G H; Abdeen, Z; Yanai, J

    1999-02-01

    This paper is the result of a collaborative project of Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian scientists gathered to reveal the current extent of substance abuse and efforts at prevention among Arabs in Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority territories, in order to identify needs and suggest future collaborative activities and directions for regional cooperation. The article provides data and covers the current state of substance abuse prevention and research among Moslems, Christians and Druze in the trilateral region in the 1990s by reviewing prevention materials and studies published in the professional literature, as well as in reports and Doctoral and Master's theses in Arabic, which have been located in academic libraries and other institutions, in the framework of a comprehensive search. This manuscript is the first to summarize Jordanian and Palestinian findings in the substance abuse domain. The review shows that most of the Israeli research in the Arab sector deals with alcohol use among youth, that the majority of Jordanian studies focus on illicit drug use, that the research among Palestinians is in its infancy, and that comprehensive prevention programs are lacking in the trilateral region. It describes the key results of most of the 12 Israeli studies among Arabs, 11 Jordanian studies and four Palestinian studies. It reveals that drug abuse among Israeli Arab students is probably more prevalent than among Jewish adolescents, that the typical Jordanian drug addict has a higher level of education than the typical Palestinian drug addict, and that the Palestinian is more likely to be a multiple drug user. Recommendations for future activities include organization of a regional collaborative workshop in order to establish data collection systems for basic statistics relevant to drug abuse and development of comprehensive prevention programs, as well as studies in the substance abuse domain concerning knowledge, attitudes and behavior among the general

  9. Reaching Hispanics with messages to prevent alcohol and other drug abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E M; Delgado, J L

    1989-01-01

    Hispanics are often labeled a "hard-to-reach" population in the context of health communications, yet there are indicators that corporate interests increasingly are reporting successes in designing advertising and promotional campaigns targeting Hispanic markets. The authors suggest research priorities designed to promote more effective communications programming in the substance abuse field, and they identify three key target audiences: children and adolescents, women of childbearing age, and heavy-drinking men. The significance of the diversity within the Hispanic community; the opportunities to reinforce attitudes, norms, and behaviors that counter substance use; and the centrality of family are discussed as approaches to communications planning and message development. PMID:2479957

  10. Efficacy of Bystander Programs to Prevent Dating Abuse Among Youth and Young Adults: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Storer, Heather L; Casey, Erin; Herrenkohl, Todd

    2016-07-01

    Estimates suggest that between 10% and 25% of adolescents have experienced some form of physical violence within a dating relationship, and one in four college-age women experiences attempted or completed sexual violence on campus. Bystander programs focus on equipping young adults with the skills to safely intervene when they witness behaviors that can result in dating abuse. This approach is promoted for its capacity both to transform community norms that contribute to dating abuse and to foster more positive social interactions among youth, however, there has been limited review of the literature on the outcomes of bystander programs. Therefore, this article provides an in-depth systematic literature review, which describes the content and program components of bystander programs and summarizes what is currently known about the impact of bystander interventions on participants' behaviors and attitudes. Results indicate that bystander programs are promising from the standpoint of increasing young adults' willingness to intervene and confidence in their ability to intervene when they witness dating or sexual violence, however, the utilization of actual bystander behaviors was less straightforward. Implications for prevention practice and for future research are presented. PMID:25951840

  11. A prospective study of the potential moderating role of social support in preventing marginalization among individuals exposed to bullying and abuse in junior high school.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Ida Frugård; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Sagatun, Åse; Dyb, Grete

    2014-10-01

    Negative physical and psychological long-term consequences of abuse and bullying are well documented. It is reasonable to assume that abuse and bullying early in life also may have an impact on the ability to work and stay economically independent later in life, but such prospective studies are lacking. This study investigates the consequences of exposure to abuse and bullying in junior high school, as measured by receiving long-term social welfare benefits in young adulthood. In addition, it explores the potential protective role of social support. Self-reported data from 13,633 (50.3% female) junior high school students were linked to registry data on their use of social welfare benefits from the age of 18 and for eight consecutive years. Cox regression analyses were applied to test the relationship between exposure to life adversities and the use of social welfare benefits, and the potential moderating role of social support. The analyses showed that individuals exposed to abuse and bullying had an increased likelihood of receiving social-welfare benefits compared with individuals not exposed to these types of abuse. Exposure to multiple types of abuse led to a higher likelihood of using social welfare benefits compared with single types of abuse and no abuse. The findings on the potential moderating role of social support were mixed, depending on the source of social support. Family support and classmate relationships were protective in reducing the likelihood of the use of social welfare benefits, whereas peer and teachers' support showed inconsistent patterns. These results are promising in terms of preventing the long-term negative consequences of abuse and bullying. PMID:24985489

  12. Strengthening families and communities to prevent child abuse and neglect: lessons from the Los Angeles Prevention Initiative Demonstration Project.

    PubMed

    McCroskey, Jacquelyn; Pecora, Peter J; Franke, Todd; Christie, Christina A; Lorthridge, Jaymie

    2012-01-01

    The Prevention Initiative Demonstration Project, funded by the Los Angeles County Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS), is a community-specific strategy delivered through eight regional networks designed to address the full spectrum of community-based prevention. This article summarizes a strong and meaningful pattern of improvements found in the second year evaluation for three groups of families--those living in high-risk communities but not involved with DCFS, those being investigated by DCFS for possible child maltreatment, and those with open DCFS cases. PMID:23362613

  13. Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect: Policy Directions for the Future. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Select Education of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (October 17, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    These transcripts present testimony from the second hearing held on the reauthorization of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA). Discussed at this hearing were total financial costs of child abuse and neglect, cost savings from prevention programs, the role of infant safe havens, and parents' rights. Representative Robert Scott…

  14. Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Manpower and Personnel and the Subcommittee on Preparedness of the Committee on Armed Services. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Armed Services.

    This document presents prepared statements and witness testimony from the Congressional hearing on drug and alcohol abuse prevention programs in the armed services. An opening statement by Senator Gordon J. Humphrey (chairman) highlights the importance of drug abuse prevention in the military. Witness testimony is given by the Assistant Secretary…

  15. Hearing on the Child Abuse Prevention, Adoption, and Family Services Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Select Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This document presents testimony from a congressional hearing examining the Child Abuse Prevention, Adoption, and Family Services Act. In response to the General Accounting Office's (GAO's) concerns about the ability of the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (NCCAN) to perform its leadership role in identifying, preventing, and treating…

  16. CAPTA: Successes and Failures at Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Select Education of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (August 2, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    These transcripts present testimony from the first hearing on the reauthorization of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), focusing on CAPTA's implementation and administration since its last reauthorization, and effective and ineffective practice in child abuse and neglect prevention. Opening statements were made by…

  17. How To Define Child Abuse and Neglect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Nora M.

    This paper examines definitions of child abuse and neglect as put forth by the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and the Child Abuse Amendments of 1984. Four types of child abuse and neglect are identified and briefly described: physical abuse, child neglect, sexual abuse, and mental injury (also referred to as emotional/psychological…

  18. Early detection and prevention of domestic violence using the Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) in primary health care clinics in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yut-Lin, Wong; Othman, Sajaratulnisah

    2008-01-01

    Despite being an emergent major public health problem, little research has been done on domestic violence from the perspectives of early detection and prevention. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to identify domestic violence among female adult patients attending health centers at the primary care level and to determine the relationship between social correlates of adult patients and domestic violence screening and subsequent help/health-seeking behavior if abused. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 710 female adult patients from 8 health centers in Selangor who matched the inclusion criteria and consented to participate in the study, using a structured questionnaire that included adaptation of a validated 8-item Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST). Statistical tests showed significant differences in ethnicity, income, and education between those screened positive and those screened negative for domestic violence. Of the participants, 92.4% reported that during consultations, doctors had never asked them whether they were abused by their husband/partner. Yet, 67.3% said they would voluntarily tell the doctor if they were abused by their husband/partner. The findings indicate that primary care has an important role in identifying domestic violence by applying the WAST screening tool, or an appropriate adaptation, with women patients during routine visits to the various health centers. Such assessment for abuse could be secondary prevention for the abused women, but more important, it will serve as primary prevention for nonabused women. This approach not only will complement the existing 1-stop crisis center policy by the Ministry of Health that copes with crisis intervention but also will spearhead efforts toward prevention of domestic violence in Malaysia. PMID:19124304

  19. Project Self-Esteem: A Parent Involvement Program for Improving Self-Esteem and Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse, K-6. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Sandy; Bielen, Peggy

    This guide presents Project Self-Esteem, a program for improving self-esteem and preventing drug and alcohol abuse in kindergarten through grade 6. Chapter I presents the team leader's guide and discusses introducing the program to the principal, school staff, and parents. Chapter II focuses on kindergarten and includes lessons on being a friend…

  20. The Role of the Mental Health Professional in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect. The User Manual Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, James W.; And Others

    The manual delineates the roles of the mental health professional in identification, treatment, and prevention of child maltreatment. Chapters cover the following topics (sample subtopics in parentheses): nature of child abuse and neglect (definitions, extent, and causes); reasons for involvement by mental health professionals (mental health and…

  1. The Social Construction of "Evidence-Based" Drug Prevention Programs: A Reanalysis of Data from the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Dennis M.; Huber, J. Charles, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that any drug prevention program might be considered "evidence-based" given the use of data analysis procedures that optimize the chance of producing statistically significant results by reanalyzing data from a Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) program evaluation. The analysis produced a number of…

  2. NCADI's 1995 National Directory of Drug Abuse and Alcoholism Treatment and Prevention Programs That Have a Special Program for American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderbilt, Rebecca, Comp.; Schacht, Robert M., Comp.

    This state-by-state directory lists over 500 alcohol and drug abuse treatment and prevention services that target American Indians and Alaska Natives. The directory was compiled from the website of the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI). Their home page on the Internet is located at http://www.health.org/index.htm. The…

  3. Long-Term Impact of a District-Wide School/Community-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Initiative on Gateway Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohrmann, David K.; Alter, Randi J.; Greene, Robert; Younoszai, Tina M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined long-term effects of a school/family/community substance abuse prevention partnership intervention lead by a Midwestern school district. Previous findings suggested that the program contributed to decreased tobacco and marijuana, but not alcohol, use prior to and after implementation between 1987 and 1991. The current study…

  4. Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, 1974. Public Law 93-247 (S. 1191): Questions and Answers, Analysis, and Text of the Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    This booklet contains questions and answers concerning the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, an analysis of the Act by the Congressional Research Service, and a copy of the actual text. The question and answer section provides information about the rationale for the Act, the amount of money available for its implementation, as well as its…

  5. Prevention of substance abuse with rural head start children and families: results of project STAR.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Ruth A; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Good, Roland H; Goodman, Matthew Reader

    2002-12-01

    The effectiveness of a comprehensive intervention with preschool children aimed at reducing the risk of later substance abuse was examined. The intervention targeted risk factors during the preschool years linked to later substance use in adolescence and adulthood. Head Start classrooms were randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control group. A classroom-based curriculum was delivered by Head Start teachers who received a number of training workshops and continued consultation. Parent training and home visits were also provided to intervention families. Positive parenting as well as parent-school involvement increased over the 1st year of intervention. Intervention families maintained the positive effects on parenting into the kindergarten year over a matched control group; however, effects on school bonding were not maintained. Improvements in social competence, reported by teachers and parents, were found at the end of kindergarten. No changes were found for self-regulation. PMID:12502274

  6. Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse. Final Report of the Joint Commission of the Chancellor and the Special Commissioner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Office of the Special Commissioner of Investigation, NY.

    In recent years, sex abuse scandals have struck schools around the country. This report contends that the way to address sexual abuse is to face it head on and to develop a comprehensive program to attack every facet of the problem. It is the multi-faceted nature of child sexual abuse that dictates this comprehensive approach. It is recommended…

  7. Preventing Sexual Abuse of Persons with Disabilities: A Curriculum for Hearing Impaired, Physically Disabled, Blind and Mentally Retarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Day, Bonnie; And Others

    The curriculum on sexual abuse is intended for professionals working with hearing impaired, physically disabled, blind, and mentally retarded students. Introductory material addresses the vulnerability of disabled adolescents to sexual abuse; presents background information on such topics as victims, offenders, reporting abuse, and Minnesota laws…

  8. The School's Role in the Prevention and Intervention of Child Abuse and Neglect: A Manual for School Personnel. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandau-Christopher, Debra

    Because of the large number of children being maltreated, Colorado law mandates that suspected cases of child abuse be reported. It is essential that professionals working with children understand how to recognize and report suspected abuse. This handbook was written to assist teachers, counselors, and social workers in defining child abuse and…

  9. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  10. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  11. Developing a media- and school-based program for substance abuse prevention among Hispanic youth: a case study of Mirame!/Look at me!

    PubMed

    Ramirez, A G; Gallion, K J; Espinoza, R; McAlister, A; Chalela, P

    1997-10-01

    Mirame!/Look at Me! is a substance abuse prevention program for low-income Mexican American youth 9 to 13 years of age. The theory-driven curriculum, developed for mass distribution via a satellite television network, features social models who demonstrate cognitive-behavioral skills and display conservative norms regarding substance abuse. An 18-session curriculum contains 5-minute videos that are assigned to be followed by discussion and social reinforcement from a teacher or volunteer. This case study reports the program development process and experiences in the initial dissemination of the program through national networks for schools and cable television subscribers. PMID:9307896

  12. Mass Media, Youth, and the Prevention of Substance Abuse: Towards an Integrated Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallack, Lawrence

    1985-01-01

    Presents a series of principles which foster an integrated approach to prevention, and places the role of mass communications in that framework. Television programming, advertising, and mass media campaigns can all be used in an effort to change the message environment in which individuals behave. (Author)

  13. Weeding and Seeding: Programming for Alcohol Abuse Prevention and Wellness Enhancement in an Undergraduate Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Fredrica R.; Pohl, Jonathan A.; Smith, M. Katrina

    2006-01-01

    College students who are no longer fully adolescent and not yet fully adult are frequently at risk for developing habits of excessive alcohol use, with consequent poor study habits and aberrant socialization patterns. "Weeding out" such trends is the work of prevention programs on campus. "Seeding" with other pro-social norms becomes the second…

  14. Substance Abuse among Asian American Youth. Prevention Research Update. Number Five/Winter 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory A.; And Others

    This report discusses the substance use patterns and problems of Asian Americans adults and youth relative to other ethnic groups (primarily Whites). In addition, it summarizes the main explanations that have been offered for ethnic differences in use, and offers possible conclusions that may be drawn concerning prevention for Asian-American young…

  15. Substance Abuse among Black Youth. Prevention Research Update. Number Four/Fall 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendergast, Michael L.; And Others

    This report discusses the substance use patterns and problems of black adults and youth relative to other groups (primarily whites). In addition, the report examines recent and older literature in order to reveal factors that may influence use and issues that need to be considered in designing prevention programs. The following sections are…

  16. Working with Evaluators: A Guide for Drug Abuse Prevention Program Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, John F., Ed.; And Others

    Following an introduction to the monograph in chapter 1, chapter 2 introduces the conceptual framework for an evaluation model as part of a 9-step continual process of program planning, feedback, and change. Chapter 3 delineates program issues in prevention evaluation discussed from the manager's perspective, including major evaluation questions…

  17. The Effectiveness of an Alcohol Abuse Prevention Program among High School Students in Rural Missouri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, David J.; McLearen, Alix M.

    2002-01-01

    A three-pronged program to prevent underage drinking delivered alcohol education and anti-drinking messages to high school students and their parents and distributed pertinent information to local alcohol retailers in a rural community. Compared to a control community, students in the intervention community were less likely to develop risky…

  18. Preventing Drug Abuse among Hispanic Adolescents: Developing a Responsive Intervention Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinke, Steven P.; Schwinn, Traci M.; Hursh, Hilary A.

    2015-01-01

    Intervention research is essential to help Hispanic American adolescents avoid drug use. This article describes an intervention research program aimed at preventing drug use among these youths. Grounded in salient epidemiological data, the program is informed by bicultural competence, social learning, and motivational interviewing theories. The…

  19. Antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent local infection in Oral Surgery: use or abuse?

    PubMed

    Sancho-Puchades, Manuel; Herráez-Vilas, José María; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2009-01-01

    Antibiotics have a well-documented efficacy in the treatment of established infections and as prophylactic agents in medically compromised patients. However, the systematic administration of antibiotics to prevent local infections in fit patients is much more controversial. The aim of this paper is to reflect on the justification for prophylactic usage of antibiotics to prevent wound infection and to reason out the most appropriate antibiotic guidelines taking into account available scientific data and studies by other authors. Numerous clinical trials question the efficacy of antibiotics in preventing wound infection. While some studies establish that antibiotics reduce the incidence of postoperative infections, others compare their efficacy to that of placebo. Thus, scientific literature suggests that every oral surgical intervention is not tributary of systematic antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent local infections. Intrinsic surgical risk factors and the patient's individual circumstances must be taken into account. Even though the efficacy of other antibiotics cannot be ruled out due to our limited comprehension of the bacteriologic interrelations intervening in the pathogenesis of postextraction local infection, the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination theoretically covers the complete odontogenic bacterial spectrum in Spain. When the prophylactic use of antibiotics is indicated, this should be performed preoperatively, at high doses, and its extent should not exceed 24 hours. Special attention should be paid to antiinfectious local measures that can minimize infection risk during the wound's healing period. PMID:19114952

  20. College Student-Athletes as Peer Educators for Substance Abuse Prevention: An Interactive Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tricker, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Athletes can be involved as role models and leaders--in collaboration with coaches and other staff--to enhance life skills and prevent substance use among their peers. "Drugs in Sport" is a peer education program involving collegiate athletes visiting middle schools to speak with school children. This article discusses the structure of the Drugs…

  1. Impact of a Statewide Home Visiting Program to Prevent Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Anne; Caldera, Debra; Rodriguez, Kira; Burrell, Lori; Rohde, Charles; Crowne, Sarah Shea

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the impact of a voluntary, paraprofessional home visiting program in preventing child maltreatment and reducing the multiple, malleable psychosocial risks for maltreatment for which families had been targeted. Methods: This collaborative, experimental study focused on 6 Healthy Families Alaska (HFAK) programs; 325 families…

  2. Knowledge Mapping: A Psychoeducational Tool in Drug Abuse Relapse Prevention Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Kevin; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined effectiveness of relapse prevention training (RPT), part of outpatient-drug education program for 83 drug addicted probationers, with special attention to knowledge maps as supplemental instructional materials. Found that program participation improved during use of RPT. Participants who successfully completed RPT sessions had lower rates…

  3. CRACKDOWN: A Guide to Preventing Substance Abuse Secondary. Citywide Teach-in--September 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This secondary school curriculum guide, the subject of a citywide teach-in in the New York City schools, provides facts, lessons, and learning activities designed to provide information about and to prevent the use of crack, a form of cocaine. The guide covers the facts about crack, the reasons given for using crack, strategies for saying no to…

  4. Being Real and Being Realistic: Chemical Abuse Prevention, Teen Counselors, and an Ethic of Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsch, Nina G.

    Conducted to evaluate the efficacy of teen counselors in school drug prevention programs, this study utilizes the following as evaluation criterion: (1) interviews with school faculty and teen counselors; (2) observations of teen counselor meetings and sessions with middle school students; and (3) documentation such as teen counselor training and…

  5. Drug Abuse Prevention: Report of the Temporary State Commission to Evaluate the Drug Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betros, Emeel S.; And Others

    The findings and recommendations of the Temporary State Commission to Evaluate the Drug Laws, set forth in the introduction to this report, are based on questionnaires to prevention experts and professionals responsible for child and adolescent care, on communications with community agencies, and on statewide public hearings. The committee found…

  6. The HIV and Drug Abuse Prevention Research Ethics Training Institute: Training Early-Career Scientists to Conduct Research on Research Ethics.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Celia B; Yuko, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    The responsible conduct of HIV/drug abuse prevention research requires investigators with both the knowledge of and ability to generate empirical data that can enhance global ethical practices and policies. This article describes a multidisciplinary program offering early-career professionals a 2-year intensive summer curriculum along with funding to conduct a mentored research study on a wide variety of HIV/drug abuse research ethics topics. Now in its fifth year, the program has admitted 29 trainees who have to date demonstrated increased knowledge of research ethics, produced 17 peer-reviewed publications, 46 professional presentations, and submitted or been awarded five related federal grants. The institute also hosts a global information platform providing general and HIV/drug abuse relevant research ethics educational and research resources that have had more than 38,800 unique visitors from more than 150 countries. PMID:26564944

  7. OGA inhibition by GlcNAc-selenazoline

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Ju; Love, Dona C.; Darout, Etzer; Abdo, Mohannad; Rempel, Brian; Withers, Stephen G.; Rablen, Paul R.; Hanover, John A.; Knapp, Spencer

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, which differs from the powerful O-GlcNAcase (OGA) inhibitor GlcNAc-thiazoline only at the chalcogen atom (Se for S), is a much weaker inhibitor in a direct OGA assay. In human cells, however, the selenazoline shows comparable ability to induce hyper-O-GlcNAc-ylation, and the two show similar reduction of insulin-stimulated translocation of glucose transporter 4 in differentiated 3T3 adipocytes. PMID:20822912

  8. Integrating HIV prevention into services for abused women in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sikkema, Kathleen J; Neufeld, Sharon A; Hansen, Nathan B; Mohlahlane, Rakgadi; Van Rensburg, Madri Jansen; Watt, Melissa H; Fox, Ashley M; Crewe, Mary

    2010-04-01

    The relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV risk is well documented, but few interventions jointly address these problems. We developed and examined the feasibility of an intervention to reduce HIV risk behaviors among 97 women seeking services for IPV from a community-based NGO in Johannesburg, South Africa. Two versions of the intervention (a 6-session group and a 1-day workshop) were implemented, both focusing on HIV prevention strategies integrated with issues of gender and power imbalance. Attendance was excellent in both intervention groups. Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-intervention and two-month follow-up to demonstrate the feasibility of an intervention trial. Women in both groups reported reductions in HIV misperceptions and trauma symptoms, and increases in HIV knowledge, risk reduction intentions, and condom use self-efficacy. The 6-session group showed greater improvements in HIV knowledge and decreases in HIV misperceptions in comparison to the 1-day workshop. The study demonstrated the feasibility and potential benefit of providing HIV prevention intervention to women seeking assistance for IPV. PMID:19826941

  9. Changing community readiness to prevent the abuse of inhalants and other harmful legal products in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Kristen A; Moore, Roland S; Ogilvie, Diane C; Johnson, Knowlton W; Collins, David A; Shamblen, Stephen R

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents results from an application of the Community Readiness Model (CRM) as part of a multi-stage community mobilization strategy to engage community leaders, retailers, parents, and school personnel in preventing youth use of inhalants and other harmful legal products in rural Alaska. The CRM is designed to assess readiness to address a single social problem, based on a limited set of key informant interviews. In this study, researchers conducted 32 baseline and 34 post-intervention community readiness assessment interviews in four rural Alaskan communities. These interviews with key informants from the communities were coded and analyzed using CRM methods to yield readiness scores for each community. The aggregate results were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), and the individual community scores were analyzed in the context of the overall study. Significant positive changes in community readiness were found across six readiness dimensions as well as for the overall readiness score. Variation in the degree of changes in readiness across the four communities is attributed to differences in the intervention's implementation. The implications of these results include the potential for CRM assessments to serve as an integral component of a community mobilization strategy and also to offer meaningful feedback to communities participating in prevention research. PMID:18392927

  10. What factors increase Dutch child health care professionals' adherence to a national guideline on preventing child abuse and neglect?

    PubMed

    Konijnendijk, Annemieke A J; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M; Fleuren, Margot A H; Haasnoot, Maria E; Need, Ariana

    2016-03-01

    Guidelines to support health care professionals in early detection of, and responses to, suspected Child Abuse and Neglect (CAN) have become increasingly widely available. Yet little is known about professionals' adherence to these guidelines or the determinants that affect their uptake. This study used a cross-sectional design to assess the adherence of Dutch Child Health Care (CHC) professionals to seven key activities described in a national guideline on preventing CAN. This study also examined the presence and strengths of determinants of guideline adherence. Online questionnaires were filled in between May and July 2013 by 164 CHC professionals. Adherence was defined as the extent to which professionals performed each of seven key activities when they suspected CAN. Thirty-three determinants were measured in relation to the guideline, the health professional, the organisational context and the socio-political context. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses tested associations between determinants and guideline adherence. Most of the responding CHC professionals were aware of the guideline and its content (83.7%). Self-reported rates of full adherence varied between 19.5% and 42.7%. Stronger habit to use the guideline was the only determinant associated with higher adherence rates in the multivariate analysis. Understanding guideline adherence and associated determinants is essential for developing implementation strategies that can stimulate adherence. Although CHC professionals in this sample were aware of the guideline, they did not always adhere to its key recommended activities. To increase adherence, tailored interventions should primarily focus on enhancing habit strength. PMID:26687328

  11. A New D.A.R.E. Curriculum Gets Mixed Reviews: Communications Activities for Improving and Evaluating the DARE School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Curriculum. Program Results Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakashian, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Zili Sloboda, Sc.D., and colleagues at the University of Akron, Ohio, designed and evaluated "Take Charge of Your Life", a substance abuse prevention curriculum for 7th- and 9th-grade students delivered by D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) police officers. They designed "Take Charge of Your Life" to impact students' later (high school)…

  12. Protective effects of the thiol compounds GSH and NAC against sulfur mustard toxicity in a human keratinocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Balszuweit, Frank; Menacher, Georg; Schmidt, Annette; Kehe, Kai; Popp, Tanja; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent causing blistering, inflammation and ulceration of the skin. Thiol compounds such as glutathione (GSH) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) have been suggested as potential antidotes. We investigated SM toxicity in a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) and used GSH and NAC to counteract its cytotoxic effects. Cells were treated with 1, 5 or 10mM GSH or NAC and exposed to 30, 100 or 300μM SM. Different treatment regimens were applied to model extra- and intra-cellular GSH/NAC effects on SM toxicity. Necrosis, apoptosis and interleukin-6 and -8 levels were determined 24h post-exposure. Necrosis and apoptosis increased with SM dose. Interleukin-6 and -8 production peaked at 100μM and decreased at 300μM probably due to reduced ability for interleukin biosynthesis. Intracellular GSH/NAC diminished necrosis induced by 100μM SM. Extracellular GSH/NAC protected against necrosis and apoptosis induced by 100 and 300μM SM. Interleukin-6 and -8 production, induced by 100μM SM was reduced by GSH/NAC. However, low-dose GSH/NAC treatment of cells exposed to 300μM SM led to increased interleukin production. Thus, moderately poisoned cells are mostly responsible for SM-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. GSH and NAC treatment can reduce SM-induced toxic effects. Protective effects were more pronounced by extracellular GSH or NAC administration. Rescue of severely poisoned cells may result in a strong secretion of pro- inflammatory cytokines. In summary, thiol compounds such as GSH or NAC constitute a promising approach to improve the therapy for SM injury. Additional intervention to prevent adverse effects of interleukin production might be beneficial. PMID:26361990

  13. Preventing Drug Abuse Among Hispanic Adolescents: Developing a Responsive Intervention Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Schwinn, Traci M.; Hursh, Hilary A.

    2014-01-01

    Intervention research is essential to help Hispanic American adolescents avoid drug use. This article describes an intervention research program aimed at preventing drug use among these youths. Grounded in salient epidemiological data, the program is informed by bicultural competence, social learning, and motivational interviewing theories. The program, called Vamos, is aimed at the risk and protective factors as well as the cultural prerogatives that demark the adolescent years of Hispanic American youths. Innovative in its approach, the program is delivered through a smartphone application (app). By interacting with engaging content presented via the app, youths can acquire the cognitive–behavioral skills necessary to avoid risky situations, urges, and pressures associated with early drug use. The intervention development process is presented in detail, and an evaluation plan to determine the program's efficacy is outlined. Lessons for practice and intervention programming are discussed. PMID:26500421

  14. Using genograms to understand pediatric practices' readiness for change to prevent abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Abatemarco, Diane J; Kairys, Steven; Gubernick, Ruth S; Hurley, Tammy

    2012-06-01

    A novel use of genograms in primary care practice is to identify processes and relationships among physicians and staff prior to implementing practice change. The authors hypothesized that the genogram would inform researchers and practice staff, participating in a child maltreatment prevention study, how practice members function in a practice. They describe the use of genograms and show how the genogram results are associated with intervention uptake. Researchers constructed genograms, collected baseline surveys, and conducted postintervention interviews with physicians. Data were analyzed to determine processes associated with intervention uptake. While survey results supported the relationships and conflicts observed in the genograms, the genogram provided more multilevel information that reflected practices' abilities to implement change. By providing a snapshot of the relationship and organizational dynamics within a practice, genograms can assess culture for practice change. Genograms describe organizational dynamics and are useful tools to use prior to initiating new programs. PMID:22363045

  15. EVALUATION OF ALL BABIES CRY, A SECOND GENERATION UNIVERSAL ABUSIVE HEAD TRAUMA PREVENTION PROGRAM

    PubMed Central

    Morrill, Allison C.; McElaney, Lisa; Peixotto, Betsy; VanVleet, Marcia; Sege, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment results in significant individual, family, and societal costs. This study assessed the efficacy of All Babies Cry (ABC), a media-based infant maltreatment prevention program, using a mixed-method, quasi-experimental staged evaluation design. ABC’s messaging, designed and tested through a series of focus groups, provides strategies for reducing parental stress and soothing infants. Participants (n = 423) were first-time parents, 70% fathers, recruited at two hospitals. The first 211 were controls; the next 212 received ABC. Participants were interviewed 3 times: at baseline in hospital, and by telephone 5 weeks (n = 359; 85%) and 17 weeks (n = 326; 77%) later. Researchers measured parents’ perceptions, intentions, and use of strategies to calm crying and manage caregiver stress. Outcomes were based on the Strengthening Families Model and the Theory of Planned Behavior. The intervention was well received, appears effective in improving mediators of behavior, and may change parental behavior. PMID:26456987

  16. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified ... the most frequently cited risk factor associated with elder abuse and neglect. It may be the victim and/ ...

  17. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. PMID:27338970

  18. Interaction between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and abuse history on adolescent African-American females' condom use behavior following participation in an HIV prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Brody, Gene H; Philibert, Robert A; Rose, Eve

    2014-06-01

    Not everyone exposed to an efficacious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intervention will reduce sexual risk behaviors, yet little is known about factors associated with "failure to change" high-risk sexual behaviors post-intervention. History of abuse and polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) may be associated with non-change. The current study sought to identify genetic, life history, and psychosocial factors associated with adolescents' failure to change condom use behaviors post-participation in an HIV prevention intervention. A sub-set of participants from a clinic-based sample of adolescent African-American females (N = 254) enrolled in a randomized trial of an HIV-prevention was utilized for the current study. Forty-four percent did not increase their condom use from baseline levels 6 months after participating in the sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention intervention. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, an interaction between abuse and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with non-change status, along with partner communication frequency scores at follow-up. Follow-up tests found that having a history of abuse was significantly associated with greater odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention for only those with the s allele. For those with ll allele, participants with higher partner communication frequency scores were at decreased odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention. Thus, STI/HIV interventions for adolescent females may consider providing a more in-depth discussion and instruction on how to manage and overcome fear or anxiety related to being assertive in sexual decisions or sexual situations. Doing so may improve the efficacy of STI/HIV prevention programs for adolescent women who have experienced abuse in their lifetime. PMID:23479192

  19. Standards Set for Dealing with Campus Drug Abuse; 57 Pct. of Colleges Said to Lack Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoughry, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    The Network of Colleges and Universities Committed to the Elimination of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, a national higher-education group for exchanging information about substance abuse programs has issued a set of 22 standards for college policy formation and enforcement. Institutions will be invited to join the network. (MSE)

  20. Design and Evaluation of an Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention Program for High Risk Families with Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Stephen; And Others

    In fall, 1991, La Frontera Center, the Tucson Council for Alcohol and Drug Dependence, and the Community Organization for Drug Abuse Control were funded to carry out an educational program to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse in the Tucson, Arizona area. The resulting project, Pasos Adelante (Steps Forward), is an early intervention…