Sample records for academic test scores

  1. Neuropsychological test scores, academic performance, and developmental disorders in Spanish-speaking children.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Español (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms. PMID:11827093

  2. Association of Health Sciences Reasoning Test Scores With Academic and Experiential Performance

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the association of scores on the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) with academic and experiential performance in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Methods. The HSRT was administered to 329 first-year (P1) PharmD students. Performance on the HSRT and its subscales was compared with academic performance in 29 courses throughout the curriculum and with performance in advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Results. Significant positive correlations were found between course grades in 8 courses and HSRT overall scores. All significant correlations were accounted for by pharmaceutical care laboratory courses, therapeutics courses, and a law and ethics course. Conclusion. There was a lack of moderate to strong correlation between HSRT scores and academic and experiential performance. The usefulness of the HSRT as a tool for predicting student success may be limited. PMID:24850935

  3. Investigating Differences in Mean Score on Adaptive and Paper and Pencil Versions of the College Level Academic Skills Reading Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legg, Sue M.; Buhr, Dianne C.

    Possible causes of a 16-point mean score increase for the computer adaptive form of the College Level Academic Skills Test (CLAST) in reading over the paper-and-pencil test (PPT) in reading are examined. The adaptive form of the CLAST was used in a state-wide field test in which reading, writing, and computation scores for approximately 1,000…

  4. Test Scoring [book review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijer, Rob R.

    2003-01-01

    This book discusses how to obtain test scores and, in particular, how to obtain test scores from tests that consist of a combination of multiple choice and open-ended questions. The strength of the book is that scoring solutions are presented for a diversity of real world scoring problems. (SLD)

  5. Is High School GPA Better than Admission Test Scores for Predicting Academic Success in College?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Julie P.; Sawyer, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of high school GPA and ACT score for predicting different levels of first-year college GPA. We estimated predictions of achieving first-year GPA levels ranging from 2.00 to 3.75 at 84 post secondary institutions. Both high school GPA and ACT score were effective predictors of achieving moderate levels of…

  6. Touchdowns and test scores: exploring the relationship between athletics and academics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. G. Mixon; L. J. TreviÑO; T. C. Minto

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between college football success and SAT scores using an updated data series on football winning percentages. The finding here of a positive and significant relationship supports the idea that collegiate athletics, namely football, serves the institution's admissions process. Selective institutions are able to enhance the quality of their student populations. ?Some studies (e.g. Tucker, 1992;

  7. Textbooks and Test Scores in Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Glewwe; Michael Kremer; Sylvie Moulin

    A randomized evaluation suggests that a program which provided official textbooks to randomly selected rural Kenyan primary schools did not increase test scores for the average student. In contrast, the previous literature suggests that textbook provision has a large impact on test scores. Disaggregating the results by students' initial academic achievement suggests a potential explanation for the lack of an

  8. Cash for Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, C. Kirabo

    2008-01-01

    Cash incentives for high school students to perform better in school are growing in popularity, but not everyone understands them. Does paying students for better Advanced Placement (AP) test scores encourage enrollment in AP classes? The author set out to determine the impact of a cash incentive program operating in a number of Texas high…

  9. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores Among Urban Youth in the United States*

    PubMed Central

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must “strengthen schools as the heart of health.” To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Methods Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. Results On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p < .001). Conclusions Schools that utilize nontraditional instructional strategies to improve student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement. PMID:24320151

  10. Do Student Growth Scores Measure Academic Growth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomplun, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated convergent validity evidence for student growth scores with high school course grades. The Measures of Academic Progress and Educational Planning and Assessment System growth scores for approximately 1,800 ninth-grade students over 2 years were related to language, arts, and mathematics course grades for developmental,…

  11. Score test variable screening.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sihai Dave; Li, Yi

    2014-12-01

    Variable screening has emerged as a crucial first step in the analysis of high-throughput data, but existing procedures can be computationally cumbersome, difficult to justify theoretically, or inapplicable to certain types of analyses. Motivated by a high-dimensional censored quantile regression problem in multiple myeloma genomics, this article makes three contributions. First, we establish a score test-based screening framework, which is widely applicable, extremely computationally efficient, and relatively simple to justify. Secondly, we propose a resampling-based procedure for selecting the number of variables to retain after screening according to the principle of reproducibility. Finally, we propose a new iterative score test screening method which is closely related to sparse regression. In simulations we apply our methods to four different regression models and show that they can outperform existing procedures. We also apply score test screening to an analysis of gene expression data from multiple myeloma patients using a censored quantile regression model to identify high-risk genes. PMID:25124197

  12. Teacher Greetings Increase College Students' Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio; Alexander, Ralph; Stewart, Megan

    2009-01-01

    The current study is an extension of a previous investigation dealing with teacher greetings to students. The present investigation used teacher greetings with college students and academic performance (test scores). We report data using university students and in-class test performance. Students in introductory psychology who received teachers'…

  13. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores among Urban Youth in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must "strengthen schools as the heart of health." To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement,…

  14. BAYES, BANJOS, BAD TEST SCORES,

    E-print Network

    Junker, Brian

    and similar tests · What to do with a zero or a 100%?? · Big Science · Big data in science, scalableBAYES, BANJOS, BAD TEST SCORES, AND BIG SCIENCE Brian W Junker Department of Statistics Carnegie Carlo estimation". It was first named and applied to difficult problems by the Manhattan Project folks

  15. Many Children Left Behind? Textbooks and Test Scores in Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Glewwe; Michael Kremer; Sylvie Moulin

    2007-01-01

    A randomized evaluation suggests that a program which provided official textbooks to randomly selected rural Kenyan primary schools did not increase test scores for the average student. In contrast, the previous literature suggests that textbook provision has a large impact on test scores. Disaggregating the results by students? initial academic achievement suggests a potential explanation for the lack of an

  16. Relationship of TOEFL iBT[R] Scores to Academic Performance: Some Evidence from American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yeonsuk; Bridgeman, Brent

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between scores on the TOEFL Internet-Based Test (TOEFL iBT[R]) and academic performance in higher education, defined here in terms of grade point average (GPA). The academic records for 2594 undergraduate and graduate students were collected from 10 universities in the United States. The data consisted of…

  17. Bridging the Gap through Academic Intervention Programs: A Quantitative Study of the Efficacy of the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) on Underrepresented Students' State Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Feon M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the quantitative research study was to determine if participation in the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) led to significant differences in the math and reading/language arts scores on the West Virginia Educational Standards Test 2 (WESTEST 2), between students who participated in the program compared to students who…

  18. Early Kindergarten Identification of Academically Not-Ready Children by Use of Human Figure Drawing Developmental Score.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunleavy, Raymond A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The Koppitz Human Figure Drawing (HFD) Test was examined for use in early identification of academically not-ready kindergarten children. HFD scores of children who later "passed" the Metropolitan Readiness Test were compared with HFD scores of children who later "failed." Results indicate that HFD scores are useful in assessing non-readiness.…

  19. The Relationship between ACT and SAT Scores among Academically Talented Seventh Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Richard; Brounstein, Paul

    This paper describes the efforts of the Talent Identification Program (TIP) of North Carolina to relate American College Testing (ACT) Assessment and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores of academically talented seventh graders. The study was also designed to interpret the results in the context of "concordance" studies that have been done with…

  20. Using Test Score Data to Focus Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Susan; Gay, Anne; Matthews, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Advances in technology available to access test data coupled with the challenges of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) are pushing schools to grapple with the complexities of test score data. With the current frenzy to raise test scores, there is little attention being paid to teacher development in learning to use data to improve learning. For the past…

  1. School enrollment, selection and test scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deon Filmer; Norbert Schady

    2009-01-01

    There is a strong association between schooling attained and test scores in many settings. If this association is causal, one might expect that programs that increase school enrollment and attainment would also improve test scores. However, if there is self-selection into school based on expected gains, marginal children brought into school by such programs may be drawn disproportionately from the

  2. What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This paper by Stephen P. Klein, et al., was at the center of the Presidential campaign last week as Al Gore seized on its conclusion that the great disparity in Texas between student scores on state (Texas Assessment of Academic Skills) vs. federal (NAEP) tests suggested that the improvements claimed by Governor Bush in the state's education system were in fact inflated, possibly due to a policy of teachers teaching to the Texas tests.

  3. META-TEST To Improve SAT Scores!.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellafiore, Gayle

    1998-01-01

    Explores metacognitive strategies that can help students with learning disabilities significantly raise their Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) scores. META-TEST SAT contracts that outline a student's personal test-taking strategy are explained, along with possible test accommodations, test-taking tips, and practice strategies. A mini-case study is…

  4. The Relationship between the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) Scores and Academic Success of International Master's Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcuino, Cathy Lee T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) are related to academic success defined by final cumulative grade point average (GPA). The data sample, from three Midwestern universities, was comprised of international graduate students who…

  5. An automated scoring system for educational testing

    E-print Network

    Verret, Erik Phillip

    1967-01-01

    AN AUTOMATED SCORING SYSTEM FOR EDUCATIONAL TESTING A Thesis By Erik P. Verret Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1967 Major... Subject: COMPUTER SCIENCE AN AUTONATED SCORING SYSTEN FOR EDUCATIONAL TESTING A Thesis By Erik P. Verret Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Comm ttee) H a of art ) (Member) August 1967 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION...

  6. A Study of the Relationship Between Scores on the School and College Ability Test (SCAT Series II), the College English Placement Test (CEPT) and Academic Achievement in American History and Constitution (History 27).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaumburg, Gary F.

    This paper reports the results of an investigation of the relationship between scores on the School and College Ability Test (SCAT), the College English Placement Test (CEPT), and grades earned in American History and Constitution (History 27 at Cerritos College, California) in order to ascertain if predictability of "successful" or "unsuccessful"…

  7. What Do Test Score Really Mean? A Latent Class Analysis of Danish Test Score Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, James; Munk, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyse a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-1955, tested in 1968, and followed until 2011. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. We show that the test scores measure manifest or measured ability as it has…

  8. Raising Standardized Test Scores and the Role of PeaceBuilders®: A School Climate Shift Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max L. Vosskuhler; Steve Issman

    Problem Definition: Having a low performing school academically, where only 16.1% of students were meeting or exceeding standards, the school needed to change not only academics but its entire environment. Therefore CES 132 in the Bronx brought in PeaceBuilders to change the social-emotional environment. 2. Method The method was to follow the pre implementation test scores and the test scores

  9. Using Microcomputers to Score Placement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Judith S.; St. John, Elizabeth A.

    1985-01-01

    The University of California (Irvine) has automated its scoring of placement tests to incoming freshmen and women with specialized administrative software that interfaces a microcomputer with an optical card reader. The university's placement testing program, the computerized system, and advantages of the system are explained. (JN)

  10. Test score disclosure and school performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Braz Ministério de Camargo; Sergio Pinheiro Firpo; Vladimir Pinheiro Ponczek

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we test whether the disclosure of test scores has direct impacts on studentperformance, school composition and school inputs. We take advantage of the discontinuityon the disclosure rules of The National Secondary Education Examination (ENEM) run inBrazil by the Ministry of Education: In 2006 it was established that the 2005 mean scoreresults would be disclosed for schools with

  11. Many Children Left Behind? Textbooks and Test Scores in Kenya. NBER Working Paper No. 13300

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glewwe, Paul; Kremer, Michael; Moulin, Sylvie

    2007-01-01

    A randomized evaluation suggests that a program which provided official textbooks to randomly selected rural Kenyan primary schools did not increase test scores for the average student. In contrast, the previous literature suggests that textbook provision has a large impact on test scores. Disaggregating the results by students' initial academic

  12. Generalized score tests for missing covariate data

    E-print Network

    Jin, Lei

    2009-05-15

    ,Ir)U(?) +Rn3, (2.9) where A = E(?U2?? 1 )E(?U1?? 1 )?1, Rn3 is a negligible remainder with order Op(1), and Ir is the r?r identity matrix. Therefore, Boos obtained one version of generalized score statistic U2(??)prime braceleftBig (??A,Ir) ?JU...(??A,Ir)prime bracerightBig?1 U2(??), (2.10) where ?A = A|??, JU = summationtextni=1 ui(?)uprimei(?) and ?JU = JU|??. The test statistic follows ?2r asymptotically under H0 and regularity conditions. The efficiency of generalized score tests is another important issue...

  13. Standardized Testing of Special Education Students: A Comparison of Service Type and Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan-Young, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program Modified Academic Achievement Standards (TCAP MAAS) achievement test scores for special education students who receive their instruction in the resource classroom or in an inclusion classroom. The study involved third, fourth, and…

  14. Test Scores, Creativity, and Global Competitiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2002-01-01

    Examines correlation between national test scores in mathematics from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the Current Competitiveness Index (CCI). Finds, for example, that while the United States ranks 29th in TIMSS mathematics, it ranks second in competitiveness on the CCI. Korea ranks 3rd in mathematics, but 27th in…

  15. Better decisions through science: exercise testing scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Froelicher; Katerina Shetler; Euan Ashley

    2003-01-01

    Statistical tools can be used to create scores for assisting in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and assessing prognosis. General practitioners and internists frequently function as gatekeepers, deciding which patients must be referred to the cardiologist. Therefore, they need to use the basic tools they have available (ie, history, physical examination and the exercise test) in an optimal fashion.

  16. Better decisions through science: Exercise testing scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Froelicher; Katerina Shetler; Euan Ashley

    2002-01-01

    Statistical tools can be used to create scores for assisting in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and assessing prognosis. General practitioners and internists frequently function as gatekeepers, deciding which patients must be referred to the cardiologist. Therefore, they need to use the basic tools they have available (ie, history, physical examination and the exercise test) in an optimal fashion.

  17. Misidentifying Factors Underlying Singapore's High Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman

    2012-01-01

    Singapore students have scored exceedingly well on international tests in mathematics. In response, there has been a desire in the United States--both at the policy level and at the school level--to emulate Singapore. Because what can be identified most easily about Singapore's school mathematics can be gleaned from curriculum documents from the…

  18. Teacher Use of Achievement Test Score Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    The Wyoming Department of Education (WDE) has invested time and money developing standardized achievement test score reports designed to give teachers data about each of their students' levels of mastery of particular concepts in order to differentiate their instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which…

  19. ITC Guidelines on Quality Control in Scoring, Test Analysis, and Reporting of Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allalouf, Avi

    2014-01-01

    The Quality Control (QC) Guidelines are intended to increase the efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the scoring, analysis, and reporting process of testing. The QC Guidelines focus on large-scale testing operations where multiple forms of tests are created for use on set dates. However, they may also be used for a wide variety of other testing

  20. Making sense of divergent career test scores

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, Steven

    2009-05-15

    Super (1994) has been chosen to as the framework to be used to understand differences in relationships between career test scores. This is because his is the only theory among many others that relates to careers, has been extensively researched... are those of Linda Gottfredson (1981, 1996, 2002) and Donald Super (1957). Gottfredson?s (1981, 1996, 2002) theory of career circumscription describes a theory of career development relative to children and adolescents. The four stages in her theory...

  1. Funding, school specialisation and test scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Bradley; G Migali; Jim Taylor

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the effect on test scores of a UK education reform which has increased funding of schools and encouraged their specialisation in particular subject areas, enhancing pupil choice and competition between schools. Using several data sets, we apply cross-sectional and difference-in-differences matching models, to confront issues of the choice of an appropriate control group and different forms of selection

  2. Providing Transparency and Credibility: The Selection of International Students for Australian Universities. An Examination of the Relationship between Scores in the International Student Admissions Test (ISAT), Final Year Academic Programs and an Australian University's Foundation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Kelvin; Nankervis, Susan; Story, Margot; Hodgson, Wayne; Lewenberg, Michael; Ball, Marita MacMahon

    2008-01-01

    Throughout 2003-04 five cohorts of students in their final year of school studies in various Malaysian colleges and a group of students completing an Australian university foundation year in Malaysia sat the International Student Admissions Test (ISAT). The ISAT is a multiple-choice test of general academic abilities developed for students whose…

  3. The components of a computerized test-scoring service

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Beekman

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the systems, human and computer, that make up the Oregon State University Computer Center Test-Scoring Service. The Test-Scoring Service makes it possible for faculty members from OSU and elsewhere to have their objective tests scored quickly and accurately by computer at a relatively low cost. The service offers the instructor an unusual degree of flexibility in test

  4. The Effect of Schooling and Ability on Achievement Test Scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten T. Hansen; James J. Heckman; Kathleen J. Mullen

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. These methods are applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in close agreement. We find

  5. The effect of schooling and ability on achievement test scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten T. Hansen; James J. Heckman; K. J. Kathleen J. Mullen

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. These methods are applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in close agreement. We find

  6. The Effect of Schooling and Ability of Achievement Test Scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten T. Hansen; James J. Heckman; Kathleen J. Mullen

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops two methods for estimating the e!ect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. These methods are applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in close agreement. We ,nd

  7. A Psychometric Measurement Model for Adult English Language Learners: Pearson Test of English Academic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Hye K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply Rasch modeling to an examination of the psychometric properties of the "Pearson Test of English Academic" (PTE Academic). Analyzed were 140 test-takers' scores derived from the PTE Academic database. The mean age of the participants was 26.45 (SD = 5.82), ranging from 17 to 46. Conformity of the participants'…

  8. A table of color distance scores for quantitative scoring of the Lanthony Desaturate color vision test.

    PubMed

    Geller, A M

    2001-01-01

    The Lanthony Desaturate Panel D-15 (D-15d) color vision test is used in neurotoxicological testing to assess acquired color vision deficits. The original test design included a qualitative scoring method. Quantitative scoring requires mapping the colored objects used in the test into a color space describing perceptual distances. A table of these distances has previously been published for the saturated version of this color vision test, but not the desaturate test. This communication includes a table of color distances for the calculation of Bowman's Total Color Distance Score (TCDS) for the D-15d. This table should be useful for non-computerized scoring under field test conditions or for devising one's own computerized scoring methods using the tabulated color distances for a look-up table. Data analysis programs using SAS or Matlab are available from the author. PMID:11418268

  9. The Effect of Instructions on Multiple-Choice Test Scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerardo Prieto; Ana R. Delgado

    1999-01-01

    Most standardized tests instruct subjects to guess under scoring procedures that do not correct for guessing or correct only for expected random guessing. Other scoring rules, such as offering a small reward for omissions or punishing errors by discounting more than expected from random guessing, have been proposed. This study was designed to test the effects of these four instruction\\/scoring

  10. Do gains in test scores explain labor market outcomes?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather Rose

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, this article investigates whether students who made relatively large test score gains during high school had larger earnings 7 years after high school compared to students whose scores improved little. In models that control for pre-high school test scores, family background, and demographic characteristics, employed women who gain one standard

  11. How Teachers Use the Group IQ Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Jacqueline P.; Kumar, V. K.

    The purpose of this study was to determine how teachers use group I.Q. test scores for planning instruction. Teachers were surveyed on: 1) use of I.Q. tests, 2) reasons for nonuse of I.Q. tests, and 3) instructional strategies based on test results. The widest use of test scores was in parent teacher conferences. The major reasons for not…

  12. The Relationship between STAR Math Score Gains and Academic Achievement in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Don Wesley

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between STAR Math gains and TCAP composite scores. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant relationship between STAR Math pretest and posttest gains over the course of the 2005-2006 academic year through the use of the STAR Math software program and TCAP math composite scores at…

  13. Sensitivity of Rao's score test, the Wald test and the likelihood ratio test to nuisance parameters

    E-print Network

    Li, Bing

    Sensitivity of Rao's score test, the Wald test and the likelihood ratio test to nuisance parameters of the likelihood ratio test, Rao's score test, and the Wald test to the change of the nuisance parameters. The main. Some key words: Edgeworth expansion; Factorization; Likelihood ratio test; Nuisance parameter; Rao

  14. Sex Differences in Mental Test Scores, Variability, and Numbers of High-Scoring Individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry V. Hedges; Amy Nowell

    1995-01-01

    Sex differences in central tendency, variability, and numbers of high scores on mental tests have been extensively studied. Research has not always seemed to yield consistent results, partly because most studies have not used representative samples of national populations. An analysis of mental test scores from six studies that used national probability samples provided evidence that although average sex differences

  15. Relationship of Friends, Physical Education, and State Test Scores: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between dimensions of wellness and academic performance for 634 third through fifth grade students in Title One schools in rural Mississippi, using composites of the Five Factor Wellness Inventory for Elementary Children and Reading, Language, and Math Scores of the Mississippi Curriculum Test (a state level…

  16. Pearson's Goodness of Fit Statistic as a Score Test Statistic

    E-print Network

    Smyth, Gordon K.

    Pearson's Goodness of Fit Statistic as a Score Test Statistic Gordon K. Smyth Abstract For any generalized linear model, the Pearson goodness of fit statistic is the score test statistic for testing; exponential family nonlinear model; saturated model. 1 Introduction Goodness of fit tests go back at least

  17. Does Test Preparation Work? Implications for Score Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qin

    2013-01-01

    This article reports an empirical study that examined the pattern of test preparation for College English Test Band 4 (CET4) and the differential effects of test preparation practices on its scores, thereby drawing implications for CET4 score validity. Data collection involved 1,003 test takers of CET4. A pretest was administered at the beginning…

  18. Reliability of Total Test Scores When Considered as Ordinal Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas, Ajoy Kumar

    2006-01-01

    This article studies the ordinal reliability of (total) test scores. This study is based on a classical-type linear model of observed score (X), true score (T), and random error (E). Based on the idea of Kendall's tau-a coefficient, a measure of ordinal reliability for small-examinee populations is developed. This measure is extended to large…

  19. Many Children Left Behind? Textbooks and Test Scores in Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Glewwe; Michael Kremer; Sylvie Moulin

    2009-01-01

    A randomized evaluation in rural Kenya finds, contrary to the previous literature, that providing textbooks did not raise average test scores. Textbooks did increase the scores of the best students (those with high pretest scores) but had little effect on other students. Textbooks are written in English, most students' third language, and many students could not use them effectively. More

  20. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Nevada's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP increased in grade 8 reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test than on NAEP in both subjects. Trends in average (mean) test scores

  1. Do Parents Value Changes in Test Scores? High Stakes Testing in Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela K. Dills

    2004-01-01

    Texas evaluates, accredits, and financially rewards schools based on student test scores. Test scores increased dramatically following this implementation of high stakes testing. This paper examines whether homebuyers valued these test score increases. The results show little or no relation between changes in test scores and changes in total housing value in a district. Strikingly, improved performance on college entrance

  2. Scholarship Award/Benefits GPA & Test Scores IB Score** USF IB World Scholars Award and USF

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Scholarship Award/Benefits GPA & Test Scores IB Score** USF IB World Scholars Award and USF Green+ ACT 33-34 USF International Student Scholarship (Freshmen only) $2,000 ($500 per year) 3.50+ GPA USF International Transfer Student Scholarship (Transfers only) $1,000 ($500 per year) Cumulative

  3. Test Score Reporting Referenced to Doubly-Moderated Cut Scores Using Splines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, William D.; Hou, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    This study discusses and presents an example of a use of spline functions to establish and report test scores using a moderated system of any number of cut scores. Our main goals include studying the need for and establishing moderated standards and creating a reporting scale that is referenced to all the standards. Our secondary goals are to make…

  4. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Washington's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) decreased in grade 4 reading. In grade 4 math, the percentage scoring proficient on the state test decreased…

  5. The Screening Test of Academic Readiness (STAR) as a Predictor of Third-Grade Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichta, Lawrence J., Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Evaluated the Screening Test of Academic Readiness (STAR) using a sample of 28 third graders. The third graders' scores on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test were correlated with their total STAR scores from prekindergarten testing. Results showed the STAR is a useful instrument for predicting third grade achievement. (Author/JAC)

  6. The Racial Test Score Gap and Parental Involvement in Britain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleonora Patacchini; Yves Zenou

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the racial gap in test scores between black and white students in Britain both in levels and differences across the school years. We find that there is an increasing racial gap in test scores between ages 7 and 11, and a decreasing one between ages 11 and 16. Using the richness of information of the National Child Development

  7. Can doctors predict patients' abbreviated mental test scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELIZABETH BURLEIGH; I AN REEVES; C HRISTINE MCALPINE; J AMES DAVIE

    Objectives: the abbreviated mental test is widely used in the assessment of cognitive impairment in elderly patients. However, many doctors do not administer the full 10 questions, preferring to estimate the patient's score instead. We have studied the accuracy of doctors in predicting patients' abbreviated mental test scores. Methods: we assessed 102 patients in the geriatric unit. We asked doctors

  8. Prediction of true test scores from observed item scores and ancillary data.

    PubMed

    Haberman, Shelby J; Yao, Lili; Sinharay, Sandip

    2015-05-01

    In many educational tests which involve constructed responses, a traditional test score is obtained by adding together item scores obtained through holistic scoring by trained human raters. For example, this practice was used until 2008 in the case of GRE(®) General Analytical Writing and until 2009 in the case of TOEFL(®) iBT Writing. With use of natural language processing, it is possible to obtain additional information concerning item responses from computer programs such as e-rater(®) . In addition, available information relevant to examinee performance may include scores on related tests. We suggest application of standard results from classical test theory to the available data to obtain best linear predictors of true traditional test scores. In performing such analysis, we require estimation of variances and covariances of measurement errors, a task which can be quite difficult in the case of tests with limited numbers of items and with multiple measurements per item. As a consequence, a new estimation method is suggested based on samples of examinees who have taken an assessment more than once. Such samples are typically not random samples of the general population of examinees, so that we apply statistical adjustment methods to obtain the needed estimated variances and covariances of measurement errors. To examine practical implications of the suggested methods of analysis, applications are made to GRE General Analytical Writing and TOEFL iBT Writing. Results obtained indicate that substantial improvements are possible both in terms of reliability of scoring and in terms of assessment reliability. PMID:25773314

  9. Prediction of Academic Achievement with the McCarthy Screening Test and Metropolitan Readiness Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullo, Dominic F.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined the efficacy of the McCarthy Screening Test (MST) and Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT) to predict academic readiness after kindergarten and achievement at the end of first grade. The MST significantly predicted children's scores of the MRT and SFAT. Additionally, the MRT was a significant predictor of the SFAT. (JAC)

  10. Predicting Mutation Score Using Source Code and Test Suite Metrics

    E-print Network

    Bradbury, Jeremy S.

    Predicting Mutation Score Using Source Code and Test Suite Metrics Kevin Jalbert, Jeremy S, Canada {kevin.jalbert, jeremy.bradbury}@uoit.ca Abstract--Mutation testing has traditionally been used to evaluate the effectiveness of test suites and provide confidence in the testing process. Mutation testing

  11. Admission Scores as a Predictor of Academic Success in the Fiji School of Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezeala, Christian C.; Swami, Niraj S.; Lal, Nilesh; Hussain, Shagufta

    2012-01-01

    Secondary education in Fiji ends with the Form 7 examination. Predictive validity for academic success of Form 7 scores which form the basis for admission into the Bachelor of Medicine Bachelor of Surgery programme of the Fiji School of Medicine was examined via a cohort of 129 students. Success rates for year 1 in 2008, 2009, and 2010 were 90.7…

  12. Evidence of Test Score Use in Validity: Roles and Responsibilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. Nichols; Natasha Williams

    Abstract This paper has three goals. The first goal is toclarify the role thatthe consequences,of test score use play in validity judgments by reviewing the role that modern,writers on validity have ascribed for consequences,insupporting validity judgments. The second goal is to assign responsibility for collecting evidence of test score use consequences,by attempting to separate the responsibilities of the test developer

  13. Treadmill test scores: Attributes and limitations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslee J. Shaw; Rory Hachamovitch; Ami E. Iskandrian

    1997-01-01

    Summary  As a general rule, clinicians should attempt to isolate those patient subsets whose posttest patient management may be optimally\\u000a changed by the test referral. Use of testing in a heterogeneous population will lead to an increase in the false-positive\\u000a rate with a resultant increase in the rate of normal catheterization and higher costs of care.14,16 By providing imprecise test results

  14. Missing the Mark: What Test Scores Really Tell Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, John R.

    2011-01-01

    State test scores administered for accountability purposes are regularly used to adjust instruction in nuanced ways. This is no accident--No Child Left Behind demanded that students' scores be returned quickly to teachers in order that this might be the case, and the idea of data-driven decision making continues as one way the promise of education…

  15. Prediction of Metropolitan Readiness Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blowers, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    The efficiency of several visual and auditory predictors of the Metropolitan Readiness Test was examined utilizing 106 grade 1 subjects considered by their teachers to show learning difficulties. (Author/JC)

  16. Choosing Passing Scores for Tests Required for High School Graduation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLarty, Joyce R.

    Educators were asked to read a description of a minimum proficiency test required for high school graduation and select a cutoff score for it. The 24 descriptions used were formed as all possible combinations of a test content, a level of student performance, a penalty for failing the test, and a community response to the test. Of the 223…

  17. Test Scores: Can Year-Round School Raise Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcorn, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Findings from a study of San Diego (California) elementary schools indicate that students in year-round schools outperformed those in traditional schools in the degree of achievement in reading, language, and math test scores. (MLF)

  18. Accountability Is More than a Test Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnipseed, Stephan; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The number one quality business leaders look for in employees is creativity and yet the U.S. education system undermines the development of the higher-order skills that promote creativity by its dogged focus on multiple-choice tests. Stephan Turnipseed and Linda DarlingHammond discuss the kind of rich accountability system that will help students…

  19. Fuzzy Math: A Meditation on Test Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacks, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    As a public school English teacher, the author observes standardized testing season each year with a sort of grim fascination. "So this is it," she thinks as she paces around her silent classroom, peering over kids' shoulders at articles about parasailing. Line graphs tracking the rainfall in Tulsa. Parts of speech. Functions of "x." "These are…

  20. Score tests for zero inflation in generalized linear models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dianliang Deng; Sudhir R. Paul

    2000-01-01

    The authors develop score tests of goodness-of-fit for discrete generalized linear modelsagainst zero-inflation. The binomial and Poisson models are treated as examples and inthe latter case, the proposed test reduces to that of Broek (1995). Some simulation resultsand an illustrative example are presented.R ESUM ELes auteurs developpent des procedures scores permettant de tester l'adequation de modeleslineaires generalises discrets lorsque la

  1. Relationship of Scores and Times of Test Administration via Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorney, Barbara; Maury, Marcia

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between scores and the times that medical students choose to take a computer-administered test. The results indicate that students who choose to take a test later within a given time period tend to perform less well than students who take the test earlier. Although the magnitude…

  2. Passing Score and Length of a Mastery Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    1982-01-01

    In mastery testing a linear relationship between an optimal passing score and test length is presented with a new optimization criterion. The usual indifference zone approach, a binomial error model, decision errors, and corrections for guessing are discussed. Related results in sequential testing and the latent class approach are included. (CM)

  3. Interpreting Test Scores: More Complicated than You Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Susannah

    2008-01-01

    As more colleges move to "test optional" admissions policies, the debate over the utility and interpretation of standardized-test scores continues. In this article, the author interviews Daniel Koretz, a professor of education at Harvard University and author of "Measuring Up: What Educational Testing Really Tells Us". Koretz shares his thoughts…

  4. The Uses and Misuses of Test Scores: Technical Assistance Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echternacht, Gary

    The uses and misuses of standardized test results used for program evaluation as seen by a staff member of an Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I Technical Assistance Center are described. In ESEA Title I, test scores are used to select students for the program. Although federal requirements do not require using standardized test

  5. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Massachusetts' test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 4 reading and math and grade 8 math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test

  6. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Louisiana's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, trends on state tests and NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) sometimes differed. On the state test, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level increased at grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. On NAEP, the percentage of…

  7. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Maryland's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased at grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test than…

  8. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles North Dakota's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentage of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test

  9. Effect of self-assessment on test scores: student perceptions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Beatriz U Ramirez (Universidad de Santiago de Chile)

    2010-09-01

    After a sudden increase in most of the individual grades in a multiple-choice test, students were asked to rank the three most relevant factors responsible for this outcome. Among eight others, the availability of a test for self-assessment before the final test was by far the most frequently mentioned (82.4% of the students). Questions applied during different course activities did not have the same effect on student scores as the "online" self-assessment test.

  10. Microcomputer Card Reader System for Test Scoring and Item Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David E.

    A test scoring system was developed, composed of an optical mark sense card reader (Chatsworth Data Corporation) interfaced with a microcomputer (TRS-80 Model I) that provided the opportunity to do extensive diagnostic and course material testing with item analysis. This system reduced the amount of time required to determine the suitability of…

  11. Increase in Spatial Visualization Test Scores During Engineering Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary F. Blade; Walter S. Watson

    1955-01-01

    The aim of this study is to discover if there was change or growth in the students' ability as measured by the spatial visualizing test. If so, we were also concerned in finding those experiential factors which were related to the change. High school and college counselors will note with interest that while high scores on the spatial visualization test

  12. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Alaska's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grades 4 and 8 in math and grade 8 in reading. In grade 4 reading, the percentage reaching the…

  13. Propensity score matching and variations on the balancing test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang-Sheng Lee

    Balancing tests are diagnostics designed for use with propensity score methods, a widely used non-experimental approach in\\u000a the evaluation literature. Such tests provide useful information on whether plausible counterfactuals have been created. Currently,\\u000a multiple balancing tests exist in the literature but it is unclear which is the most useful. This article highlights the poor\\u000a size properties of commonly employed balancing

  14. Academic Locus of Control, Tendencies Towards Academic Dishonesty and Test Anxiety Levels as the Predictors of Academic Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yesilyurt, Etem

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have focused on finding the level of effect that academic locus of control, tendencies towards academic dishonesty, and test anxiety levels have had on academic self-efficacy, and providing a separate explanation ratio for each. The relationship among the effects of the academic locus of control, tendencies towards academic

  15. Procedure for obtaining six part scores from answer sheets in one run through the IBM test scoring machine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. B. Simon

    1942-01-01

    This paper reports two methods of getting 6 different part scores from one side of an answer sheet in a single run through the IBM test scoring machine. The procedure applies to items scored for right responses only. Preliminary data are presented which show the new methods to be faster, without loss of accuracy, than the usual method of getting

  16. Using Student Test Scores to Measure Principal Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissom, Jason A.; Kalogrides, Demetra; Loeb, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of the use of student test score data to measure teacher performance has fueled recent policy interest in using those data to measure the effects of school administrators as well. However, little research has considered the capacity of student performance data to uncover principal effects. Filling this gap, this article identifies…

  17. Source Country Differences in Test Score Gaps: Evidence from Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2010-01-01

    We combine data from three studies for Denmark in the PISA 2000 framework to investigate differences in the native-immigrant test score gap by country of origin. In addition to the controls available from PISA data sources, we use student-level data on home background and individual migration histories linked from administrative registers. We find…

  18. Score Tests for Zero-Inflation in Overdispersed Count Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao Yang; James W. Hardin; Cheryl L. Addy

    2010-01-01

    The negative binomial (NB) model and the generalized Poisson (GP) model are common alternatives to Poisson models when overdispersion is present in the data. Having accounted for initial overdispersion, we may require further investigation as to whether there is evidence for zero-inflation in the data. Two score statistics are derived from the GP model for testing zero-inflation. These statistics, unlike

  19. What We Lose in Winning the Test Score Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    To achieve perpetually better test results each year as mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), teachers in successful schools such as Leroy Anderson Elementary in San Jose, California, will "try anything" to raise scores, as the school's principal stated in an interview with "The San Jose Mercury News." In schools across California for…

  20. Schooling and the Norming of Intelligence Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the effects of schooling on the development of intelligence in children and how the amount of schooling should be considered when developing norms for turning intelligence test performance into IQ scores. Suggests that because of differences in schooling among same-age children, use of age-based norms results in biased deviation IQS.…

  1. A Mathematical Programming Model for Test Construction and Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feuerman, Martin; Weiss, Harvey

    1973-01-01

    A model is presented for test construction and scoring that utilizes the knapsack model of mathematical programing. The method applies to examinations of the type in which a choice exists in the number of questions the examinee is required to answer. The method has been utilized with respect to a mathematics examination, and computer-generated…

  2. A Latent Class Approach to Estimating Test-Score Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ark, L. Andries; van der Palm, Daniel W.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a general framework for single-administration reliability methods, such as Cronbach's alpha, Guttman's lambda-2, and method MS. This general framework was used to derive a new approach to estimating test-score reliability by means of the unrestricted latent class model. This new approach is the latent class reliability…

  3. The secular increase in test scores is a “Jensen effect”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Colom; Manuel Juan-Espinosa; Lu??s F. Garc??a

    2001-01-01

    The “Jensen effect” results from the correlation between the g factor and a huge number of psychological and biological variables. Although Rushton (Rushton, J. P. (1999). Secular gains in IQ not related to the g factor and inbreding depression — unlike Black–White differences: a reply to Flynn. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 381–389) proposed that the secular increase in test scores

  4. Flow and diffusion of high-stakes test scores

    PubMed Central

    Marder, M.; Bansal, D.

    2009-01-01

    We apply visualization and modeling methods for convective and diffusive flows to public school mathematics test scores from Texas. We obtain plots that show the most likely future and past scores of students, the effects of random processes such as guessing, and the rate at which students appear in and disappear from schools. We show that student outcomes depend strongly upon economic class, and identify the grade levels where flows of different groups diverge most strongly. Changing the effectiveness of instruction in one grade naturally leads to strongly nonlinear effects on student outcomes in subsequent grades. PMID:19805049

  5. Score Tests for Zero-Inflated Poisson Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Jansakul; J. P. Hinde

    2002-01-01

    In many situations count data have a large proportion of zeros and the zero-inflated Poisson regression (ZIP) model may be appropriate. A simple score test for zero-inflation, comparing the ZIP model with a constant proportion of excess zeros to a standard Poisson regression model, was given by van den Broek (Biometrics, 51 (1995) 738–743). We extend this test to the

  6. Racial Segregation and the Black-White Test Score Gap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Card; Jesse Rothstein

    2006-01-01

    Racial segregation is often blamed for some of the achievement gap between blacks and whites. We study the effects of school and neighborhood segregation on the relative SAT scores of black students across different metropolitan areas, using large microdata samples for the 1998-2001 test cohorts. Our models include detailed controls for the family background of individual test-takers, school-level controls for

  7. Racial segregation and the black–white test score gap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Card; Jesse Rothstein

    2007-01-01

    Racial segregation is often blamed for some of the achievement gap between blacks and whites. We study the effects of school and neighborhood segregation on the relative SAT scores of black students across different metropolitan areas, using large microdata samples for the 1998–2001 test cohorts. Our models include detailed controls for the family background of individual test-takers, school-level controls for

  8. Teacher-child relationships and academic achievement: a multilevel propensity score model approach.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Meghan P; O'Connor, Erin E; Cappella, Elise; McClowry, Sandee G

    2013-10-01

    A robust body of research finds positive cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between teacher-child relationships and children's academic achievement in elementary school. Estimating the causal effect of teacher-child relationships on children's academic achievement, however, is challenged by selection bias at the individual and school level. To address these issues, we used two multilevel propensity score matching approaches to estimate the effect of high-quality teacher-child relationships in kindergarten on math and reading achievement during children's transition to first grade. Multi-informant data were collected on 324 low-income, Black and Hispanic students, and 112 kindergarten and first-grade teachers. Results revealed significant effects of high-quality teacher-child relationships in kindergarten on math achievement in first grade. No significant effects of teacher-child relationships were detected for reading achievement. Implications for intervention development and public policy are discussed. PMID:24060063

  9. The Perceptions of Standardized Tests, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Academic Performance of African American Graduate Students: a Correlational and Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrah, Arleezah K.

    2012-01-01

    The academic performance of African American students continues to be a concern for educators, researchers, and most importantly their community. This issue is particularly prevalent in the standardized test scores of African American students where they score on average one or more standard deviations below their Caucasian and Asian American…

  10. Academic Self-Perception and Its Relationship to Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Ronald W.; Heath, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-five students (average age, 10 years 7 months) were initially tested on reading, arithmetic, and academic self-perception. One year later they were tested again. Initial academic scores accounted for a large proportion of the variance in later academic scores. The children's self-perceptions of academic competence accounted…

  11. Source country differences in test score gaps: evidence from Denmark

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatrice Schindler Rangvid; Nina Smith

    2010-01-01

    We combine data from three studies for Denmark in the PISA 2000 framework to investigate differences in the native–immigrant test score gap by country of origin. In addition to the controls available from PISA data sources, we use student?level data on home background and individual migration histories linked from administrative registers. We find that second?generation students from Lebanon and Pakistan

  12. Correlation of modified radioallergosorbent test scores and skin test results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES R. TANDY; RICHARD L. MABRY; CYNTHIA S. MABRY

    1996-01-01

    In addition to a significantly increased sensitivity as compared with the initial Phadebas radioallergosorbent test, a major advantage of the Fadal-Nalebuff modified RAST is its correlation with skin testing using skin end point titration. This correlation allows physicians to use both these modalities in the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disorders. However, it has been anecdotally believed that the correlation

  13. Effect of Increased Academic Momentum on Transfer Rates: An Application of the Generalized Propensity Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have reported a positive impact of increased academic momentum on transfer from community colleges to four-year institutions. This result may be due to selection bias. Using data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students dataset, I test whether taking more credits in the first year has an impact on transfer rates among bachelor's…

  14. Effect of Milk Age, Storage, and Testing Temperatures upon the Wisconsin Mastitis Test Score

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Kroger; D. E. Jasper

    1967-01-01

    Wisconsin MasLitis Test (WMT) scores were determined on milk samples of vary- ing cell counts for five days. The samples were subjected to different conditions of storage and testing, and irrespective of these conditions, the daily decrease of WMT score was, with one exception, significant (p --~ .05). After a 29-hr storage period, there was no significant (p ~ .05)

  15. Score-based tests of measurement invariance: use in practice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Merkle, Edgar C.; Zeileis, Achim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a family of recently-proposed measurement invariance tests that are based on the scores of a fitted model. This family can be used to test for measurement invariance w.r.t. a continuous auxiliary variable, without pre-specification of subgroups. Moreover, the family can be used when one wishes to test for measurement invariance w.r.t. an ordinal auxiliary variable, yielding test statistics that are sensitive to violations that are monotonically related to the ordinal variable (and less sensitive to non-monotonic violations). The paper is specifically aimed at potential users of the tests who may wish to know (1) how the tests can be employed for their data, and (2) whether the tests can accurately identify specific models parameters that violate measurement invariance (possibly in the presence of model misspecification). After providing an overview of the tests, we illustrate their general use via the R packages lavaan and strucchange. We then describe two novel simulations that provide evidence of the tests' practical abilities. As a whole, the paper provides researchers with the tools and knowledge needed to apply these tests to general measurement invariance scenarios. PMID:24936190

  16. The relationship between selected standardized test scores and performance in advanced placement math and science exams: Analyzing the differential effectiveness of scores for course identification and placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, Josue N.

    There is a national need to increase the STEM-related workforce. Among factors leading towards STEM careers include the number of advanced high school mathematics and science courses students complete. Florida's enrollment patterns in STEM-related Advanced Placement (AP) courses, however, reveal that only a small percentage of students enroll into these classes. Therefore, screening tools are needed to find more students for these courses, who are academically ready, yet have not been identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which scores from a national standardized test, Preliminary Scholastic Assessment Test/ National Merit Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT), in conjunction with and compared to a state-mandated standardized test, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), are related to selected AP exam performance in Seminole County Public Schools. An ex post facto correlational study was conducted using 6,189 student records from the 2010 - 2012 academic years. Multiple regression analyses using simultaneous Full Model testing showed differential moderate to strong relationships between scores in eight of the nine AP courses (i.e., Biology, Environmental Science, Chemistry, Physics B, Physics C Electrical, Physics C Mechanical, Statistics, Calculus AB and BC) examined. For example, the significant unique contribution to overall variance in AP scores was a linear combination of PSAT Math (M), Critical Reading (CR) and FCAT Reading (R) for Biology and Environmental Science. Moderate relationships for Chemistry included a linear combination of PSAT M, W (Writing) and FCAT M; a combination of FCAT M and PSAT M was most significantly associated with Calculus AB performance. These findings have implications for both research and practice. FCAT scores, in conjunction with PSAT scores, can potentially be used for specific STEM-related AP courses, as part of a systematic approach towards AP course identification and placement. For courses with moderate to strong relationships, validation studies and development of expectancy tables, which estimate the probability of successful performance on these AP exams, are recommended. Also, findings established a need to examine other related research issues including, but not limited to, extensive longitudinal studies and analyses of other available or prospective standardized test scores.

  17. Significant Factor Score Variability and the Validity of the WISC-III Full Scale IQ in Predicting Later Academic Achievement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miranda E. Freberg; Beverly J. Vandiver; Marley W. Watkins; Gary L. Canivez

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of the WISC-III (Wechsler, 1991) Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores in predicting later academic achievement given significant variability among any of the four WISC-III factor scores. Taken from an archival data set, the sample was composed of 6- to 13-year-old students who were twice evaluated for special education eligibility over

  18. School accountability and the black-white test score gap.

    PubMed

    Gaddis, S Michael; Lauen, Douglas Lee

    2014-03-01

    Since at least the 1960s, researchers have closely examined the respective roles of families, neighborhoods, and schools in producing the black-white achievement gap. Although many researchers minimize the ability of schools to eliminate achievement gaps, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased pressure on schools to do so by 2014. In this study, we examine the effects of NCLB's subgroup-specific accountability pressure on changes in black-white math and reading test score gaps using a school-level panel dataset on all North Carolina public elementary and middle schools between 2001 and 2009. Using difference-in-difference models with school fixed effects, we find that accountability pressure reduces black-white achievement gaps by raising mean black achievement without harming mean white achievement. We find no differential effects of accountability pressure based on the racial composition of schools, but schools with more affluent populations are the most successful at reducing the black-white math achievement gap. Thus, our findings suggest that school-based interventions have the potential to close test score gaps, but differences in school composition and resources play a significant role in the ability of schools to reduce racial inequality. PMID:24468431

  19. Test Scores, Class Rank and College Performance: Lessons for Broadening Access and Promoting Success

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Sunny X.; Tienda, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Using administrative data for five Texas universities that differ in selectivity, this study evaluates the relative influence of two key indicators for college success—high school class rank and standardized tests. Empirical results show that class rank is the superior predictor of college performance and that test score advantages do not insulate lower ranked students from academic underperformance. Using the UT-Austin campus as a test case, we conduct a simulation to evaluate the consequences of capping students admitted automatically using both achievement metrics. We find that using class rank to cap the number of students eligible for automatic admission would have roughly uniform impacts across high schools, but imposing a minimum test score threshold on all students would have highly unequal consequences by greatly reduce the admission eligibility of the highest performing students who attend poor high schools while not jeopardizing admissibility of students who attend affluent high schools. We discuss the implications of the Texas admissions experiment for higher education in Europe. PMID:23788828

  20. Using Patterns of Summed Scores in Paper-and-Pencil Tests and Computer-Adaptive Tests to Detect Misfitting Item Score Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijer, Rob R.

    2004-01-01

    Two new methods have been proposed to determine unexpected sum scores on sub-tests (testlets) both for paper-and-pencil tests and computer adaptive tests. A method based on a conservative bound using the hypergeometric distribution, denoted p, was compared with a method where the probability for each score combination was calculated using a…

  1. A scoring test on probabilistic seismic hazard estimates in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarello, D.; Peruzza, L.; D'Amico, V.

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic estimates of seismic hazard represent a basic element for seismic risk reduction strategies and they are a key element of seismic regulation. Thus, it is important to select the most effective estimates among the available ones. An empirical scoring strategy is described here and is applied to a number of time-independent hazard estimates available in Italy both at national and regional scale. The scoring test is based on the comparison of outcomes provided by available computational models at a number of accelerometric sites where observations are available for 25 years. This comparison also allows identifying computational models that, providing outcomes that are in contrast with observations, should thus be discarded. The analysis shows that most of the hazard estimates proposed for Italy are not in contrast with observations and some computational models perform significantly better than others do. Furthermore, one can see that, at least locally, older estimates can perform better than the most recent ones. Finally, since the same computational model can perform differently depending on the region considered and on average return time of concern, no single model can be considered as the best-performing one. This implies that, moving along the hazard curve, the most suitable model should be selected by considering the specific problem of concern.

  2. Use of Practice Tests in the Prediction of GED Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Warren

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between success on the two new practice-test forms (EE and FF) developed by Steck-Vaughn and success on the General Educational Development (GED) test. Success with practice-form EE correlated with GED test scores; form FF failed to correlate. (JOW)

  3. Schoolwide Test Preparation: One Elementary School's Instructional Approach That Dramatically Raised Standardized Test Scores. ERS Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Steven H.

    This book describes how educators at Harrison Elementary School in Twin Falls, Idaho, used the Standardized Timed Curriculum (STC) to raise students' standardized test scores. The monograph, which is divided into eight chapters, opens with an overview of testing in schools, the growth of the test-preparation business, and the need for school…

  4. Score Gains on "g"-Loaded Tests: No "g"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; van der Flier, Henk

    2007-01-01

    IQ scores provide the best general predictor of success in education, job training, and work. However, there are many ways in which IQ scores can be increased, for instance by means of retesting or participation in learning potential training programs. What is the nature of these score gains? Jensen [Jensen, A. R. (1998a). "The g factor: The…

  5. Developing Test Score Reports that Work: The Process and Best Practices for Effective Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenisky, April L.; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    2012-01-01

    Test scores matter these days. Test-takers want to understand how they performed, and test score reports, particularly those for individual examinees, are the vehicles by which most people get the bulk of this information. Historically, score reports have not always met the examinees' information or usability needs, but this is clearly changing…

  6. Multistate mark-recapture model selection using score tests.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Rachel S; Morgan, Byron J T

    2011-03-01

    Although multistate mark-recapture models are recognized as important, they lack a simple model-selection procedure. This article proposes and evaluates a step-up approach to select appropriate models for multistate mark-recapture data using score tests. Only models supported by the data require fitting, so that over-complicated model structures with too many parameters do not need to be considered. Typically only a small number of models are fitted, and the procedure is also able to identify parameter-redundant and near-redundant models. The good performance of the technique is demonstrated using simulation, and the approach is illustrated on a three-region Canada goose data set. In this case, it identifies a new model that is much simpler than the best model previously considered for this application. PMID:20486927

  7. The Formalization of Fairness: Issues in Testing for Measurement Invariance Using Subtest Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Dylan; Borsboom, Denny

    2013-01-01

    Measurement invariance is an important prerequisite for the adequate comparison of group differences in test scores. In psychology, measurement invariance is typically investigated by means of linear factor analyses of subtest scores. These subtest scores typically result from summing the item scores. In this paper, we discuss 4 possible problems…

  8. A Simulation Study of Reliability and Validity of Multiple-Choice Test Scores Under Six Response-Scoring Modes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. Frary

    1982-01-01

    Responses to a 40-item, four-choice test were simulated for 120 examinees under six response-scoring modes including number-right, corrected-for-guessing and answer-until-correct. Separate score sets were generated to reflect five levels of prevalence of misinformation (belief that an answer is a distractor) and five levels of propensity-to-guess contrary to instructions for modes designed to inhibit guessing. Criteria were simulated using the number-right

  9. Test Scores and Learning Styles: Understanding Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Patricia A.; Schuh, Kathy L.

    2006-01-01

    This two-year study explored the academic lives of three boys in a combined fifth-sixth grade classroom. As these case studies illustrate, viewing students' academic worlds from multiple perspectives can lead to more accurate, comprehensive evaluations and efficacious adaptations of students' learning environments. Richard Snow's aptitude theory…

  10. Antecedents of Academic Emotions: Testing the Internal/External Frame of Reference Model for Academic Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Hall, Nathan C.; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    The present study focused on students' academic enjoyment as predicted by achievement in multiple academic domains. Assumptions were based on Marsh's internal/external (I/E) frame of reference model and Pekrun's control-value theory of achievement emotions, and were tested in a sample of 1380 German students from grades 5 to 10. Students' academic

  11. Estimating Test Score Reliability When No Examinee Has Taken the Complete Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Leonard S.

    2003-01-01

    Develops formulas to cope with the situation in which the reliability of test scores must be approximated even though no examinee has taken the complete instrument. Develops different estimators for part tests that are judged to be classically parallel, tau-equivalent, or congeneric. Proposes standards for differentiating among these three models.…

  12. The Relationship Between Deductive Reasoning Ability, Test Anxiety, and Standardized Test Scores in a Latino Sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Rich; William Fullard; Willis Overton

    2011-01-01

    One Hundred and Twelve Latino students from Philadelphia participated in this study, which examined the development of deductive reasoning across adolescence, and the relation of reasoning to test anxiety and standardized test scores. As predicted, 11th and ninth graders demonstrated significantly more advanced reasoning than seventh graders. Error response patterns revealed a steady, age-related increase in the ability to use

  13. The Persisting Racial Scoring Gap on Graduate and Professional School Admission Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the racial scoring gap on tests for admission to medical, business, law, and other graduate programs, noting that in the highest-scoring brackets on the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), the racial gap is even larger. Whites are five times, twelve times, and seven times more likely, respectively, to score higher on the MCAT, Law…

  14. Test/score/report: Simulation techniques for automating the test process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hageman, Barbara H.; Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.

    1994-01-01

    A Test/Score/Report capability is currently being developed for the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) system which will automate testing of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) and Mission Operations Center (MOC) software in three areas: telemetry decommutation, spacecraft command processing, and spacecraft memory load and dump processing. Automated computer control of the acceptance test process is one of the primary goals of a test team. With the proper simulation tools and user interface, the task of acceptance testing, regression testing, and repeatability of specific test procedures of a ground data system can be a simpler task. Ideally, the goal for complete automation would be to plug the operational deliverable into the simulator, press the start button, execute the test procedure, accumulate and analyze the data, score the results, and report the results to the test team along with a go/no recommendation to the test team. In practice, this may not be possible because of inadequate test tools, pressures of schedules, limited resources, etc. Most tests are accomplished using a certain degree of automation and test procedures that are labor intensive. This paper discusses some simulation techniques that can improve the automation of the test process. The TASS system tests the POCC/MOC software and provides a score based on the test results. The TASS system displays statistics on the success of the POCC/MOC system processing in each of the three areas as well as event messages pertaining to the Test/Score/Report processing. The TASS system also provides formatted reports documenting each step performed during the tests and the results of each step. A prototype of the Test/Score/Report capability is available and currently being used to test some POCC/MOC software deliveries. When this capability is fully operational it should greatly reduce the time necessary to test a POCC/MOC software delivery, as well as improve the quality of the test process.

  15. Using Subpopulation Invariance to Assess Test Score Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorans, Neil J.

    2004-01-01

    Score equity assessment (SEA) is introduced, and placed within a fair assessment context that includes differential prediction or fair selection and differential item functioning. The notion of subpopulation invariance of linking functions is central to the assessment of score equity, just as it has been for differential item functioning and…

  16. Using MCW-APM Test Scoring to Evaluate Economics Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on a study that explored the use of a scoring procedure called Modified Confidence Weighted-Admissible Probability Measurement (MCW-APM) to evaluate curriculum design and to assess students' knowledge of economic concepts. Concluded that the MCW-APM scoring method can help teachers develop curricula to meet specific student needs. (SLM)

  17. Predictive validity of the classroom strategies scale-observer form on statewide testing scores: an initial investigation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the validity of a teacher observation measure, the Classroom Strategies Scale--Observer Form (CSS), as a predictor of student performance on statewide tests of mathematics and English language arts. The CSS is a teacher practice observational measure that assesses evidence-based instructional and behavioral management practices in elementary school. A series of two-level hierarchical generalized linear models were fitted to data of a sample of 662 third- through fifth-grade students to assess whether CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy and Behavioral Management Strategy scale discrepancy scores (i.e., ? |recommended frequency--frequency ratings|) predicted statewide mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores when percentage of minority students in schools was controlled. Results indicated that the Instructional Strategy scale discrepancy scores significantly predicted mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores: Relatively larger discrepancies on observer ratings of what teachers did versus what should have been done were associated with lower proficiency scores. Results offer initial evidence of the predictive validity of the CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy discrepancy scores on student academic outcomes. PMID:24341925

  18. Beyond Standardized Test Scores: An Examination of Leadership and Climate as Leading Indicators of Future Success in the Transformation of Turnaround Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Judy Jackson; Sanders, Eugene T. W.

    2013-01-01

    Districts throughout the nation are engaged in comprehensive transformation to "turn around" low performing schools. Standardized test scores are used to gauge student achievement; however, academic gains may lag behind leading indicators such as improved school climate and effective leadership. This study examines 16 underperforming…

  19. Comparability of Test Scores for the Same Individual: Implications for Vertical Equating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Fred; Karr, Chad

    A method for equating test scores between two standardized achievement testing programs was developed. The first test was the Survey of Basic Skills (SBS) published by Science Research Associates. The second was the Tests of Individual Performance (TIP) of the Portland Public Schools in Oregon. Scores reported in Rasch units (RIT) from the TIP…

  20. The role of test scores in explaining race and gender differences in wages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    McKinley L. Blackburn

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that skills reflected in test-score performance on tests such as the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) can account for some of the racial differences in average wages. I use a more complete set of test scores available with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort to reconsider this evidence, and the results suggest a conclusion

  1. Scoring and Testing Procedures Devoted to Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarello, Dario; D'Amico, Vera

    2015-03-01

    This review addresses long-term (tens of years) seismic ground-motion forecasting (seismic hazard assessment) in the presence of alternative computational models (the so-called epistemic uncertainty affecting hazard estimates). We review the different approaches that have been proposed to manage epistemic uncertainty in the context of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA). Ex- ante procedures (based on the combination of expert judgments about inherent characteristics of the PSHA model) and ex- post approaches (based on empirical comparison of model outcomes and observations) should not be considered as mutually exclusive alternatives but can be combined in a coherent Bayesian view. Therefore, we propose a procedure that allows a better exploitation of available PSHA models to obtain comprehensive estimates, which account for both epistemic and aleatory uncertainty. We also discuss the respective roles of empirical ex-post scoring and testing of alternative models concurring in the development of comprehensive hazard maps. In order to show how the proposed procedure may work, we also present a tentative application to the Italian area. In particular, four PSHA models are evaluated ex-post against macroseismic effects actually observed in a large set of Italian municipalities during the time span 1957-2006. This analysis shows that, when the whole Italian area is considered, all the models provide estimates that do not agree with the observations. However, two of them provide results that are compatible with observations, when a subregion of Italy (Apulia Region) is considered. By focusing on this area, we computed a comprehensive hazard curve for a single locality in order to show the feasibility of the proposed procedure.

  2. Scoring and Testing Procedures Devoted to Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarello, Dario; D'Amico, Vera

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses long-term (tens of years) seismic ground-motion forecasting (seismic hazard assessment) in the presence of alternative computational models (the so-called epistemic uncertainty affecting hazard estimates). We review the different approaches that have been proposed to manage epistemic uncertainty in the context of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA). Ex-ante procedures (based on the combination of expert judgments about inherent characteristics of the PSHA model) and ex-post approaches (based on empirical comparison of model outcomes and observations) should not be considered as mutually exclusive alternatives but can be combined in a coherent Bayesian view. Therefore, we propose a procedure that allows a better exploitation of available PSHA models to obtain comprehensive estimates, which account for both epistemic and aleatory uncertainty. We also discuss the respective roles of empirical ex-post scoring and testing of alternative models concurring in the development of comprehensive hazard maps. In order to show how the proposed procedure may work, we also present a tentative application to the Italian area. In particular, four PSHA models are evaluated ex-post against macroseismic effects actually observed in a large set of Italian municipalities during the time span 1957-2006. This analysis shows that, when the whole Italian area is considered, all the models provide estimates that do not agree with the observations. However, two of them provide results that are compatible with observations, when a subregion of Italy (Apulia Region) is considered. By focusing on this area, we computed a comprehensive hazard curve for a single locality in order to show the feasibility of the proposed procedure.

  3. Comparing Graphical and Verbal Representations of Measurement Error in Test Score Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Hegarty, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that many educators do not understand the terminology or displays used in test score reports and that measurement error is a particularly challenging concept. We investigated graphical and verbal methods of representing measurement error associated with individual student scores. We created four alternative score reports, each…

  4. Improving the Predictive Ability of Placement Tests Using the Rasch Model for Scoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard M.; Mitchell, Virginia P.

    To improve the accuracy of college placement, Rasch scoring and person-fit statistics on the Comparative Guidance and Placement test (CGP) was compared to the traditional right-only scoring. Correlations were calculated between English and mathematics course grades and scores of 1,448 entering freshmen on the reading, writing, and mathematics…

  5. The Expanding Racial Scoring Gap between Black and White SAT Test Takers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Between 1976-88, the black-white scoring gap on the Scholastic Assessment Test closed significantly. The improvement in black scores was so strong that some educators predicted that within a generation, the gap would disappear. However, since 1988, the racial gap in SAT scores has become wider, with no compelling evidence that any improvement is…

  6. Can Machine Scoring Deal with Broad and Open Writing Tests as Well as Human Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the claim that machine scoring of writing test responses agrees with human readers as much as humans agree with other humans. These claims about the reliability of machine scoring of writing are usually based on specific and constrained writing tasks, and there is reason for asking whether machine scoring of writing requires…

  7. A Seven-Year Follow-Up of Intelligence Test Scores of Foster Grandparents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troll, Lillian E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    After seven years, a group (N=32) of originally nonemployed poverty-level older people (over 60) now employed as foster grandparents were retested with the WAIS. Three subtest scores showed stability and Digit Span showed a statistically significant drop. Neither age nor initial level of health or WAIS scores was related to test-score changes over…

  8. Performance on large-scale science tests: Item attributes that may impact achievement scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Janet Victoria

    Significant differences in achievement among ethnic groups persist on the eighth-grade science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The WASL measures academic performance in science using both scenario and stand-alone question types. Previous research suggests that presenting target items connected to an authentic context, like scenario question types, can increase science achievement scores especially in underrepresented groups and thus help to close the achievement gap. The purpose of this study was to identify significant differences in performance between gender and ethnic subgroups by question type on the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL. MANOVA and ANOVA were used to examine relationships between gender and ethnic subgroups as independent variables with achievement scores on scenario and stand-alone question types as dependent variables. MANOVA revealed no significant effects for gender, suggesting that the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL was gender neutral. However, there were significant effects for ethnicity. ANOVA revealed significant effects for ethnicity and ethnicity by gender interaction in both question types. Effect sizes were negligible for the ethnicity by gender interaction. Large effect sizes between ethnicities on scenario question types became moderate to small effect sizes on stand-alone question types. This indicates the score advantage the higher performing subgroups had over the lower performing subgroups was not as large on stand-alone question types compared to scenario question types. A further comparison examined performance on multiple-choice items only within both question types. Similar achievement patterns between ethnicities emerged; however, achievement patterns between genders changed in boys' favor. Scenario question types appeared to register differences between ethnic groups to a greater degree than stand-alone question types. These differences may be attributable to individual differences in cognition, characteristics of test items themselves and/or opportunities to learn. Suggestions for future research are made.

  9. Noncognitive Skills and the Gender Disparities in Test Scores and Teacher Assessments: Evidence from Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Christopher; Mustard, David B.; Van Parys, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the 1998-99 ECLS-K cohort, we show that the grades awarded by teachers are not aligned with test scores. Girls in every racial category outperform boys on reading tests, while boys score at least as well on math and science tests as girls. However, boys in all racial categories across all subject areas are not represented in…

  10. Score Reporting in Teacher Certification Testing: A Review, Design, and Interview/Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klesch, Heather S.

    2010-01-01

    The reporting of scores on educational tests is at times misunderstood, misinterpreted, and potentially confusing to examinees and other stakeholders who may need to interpret test scores. In reporting test results to examinees, there is a need for clarity in the message communicated. As pressure rises for students to demonstrate performance at a…

  11. School Inputs, Household Substitution, and Test Scores. NBER Working Paper No. 16830

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Jishnu; Dercon, Stefan; Habyarimana, James; Krishnan, Pramila; Muralidharan, Karthik; Sundararaman, Venkatesh

    2011-01-01

    Empirical studies of the relationship between school inputs and test scores typically do not account for the fact that households will respond to changes in school inputs. We present a dynamic household optimization model relating test scores to school and household inputs, and test its predictions in two very different low-income country…

  12. Relationship of Achievement Test Scores and State Board Performance in a Diploma Nursing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Gail

    The relationship between the National League for Nursing (NLN) achievement test scores and performance on the State Board Test Pool Examination (SBTPE) was studied with 166 graduates of a diploma degree school of nursing between 1976 and 1978. It was found that NLN achievement test scores had a highly significant correlation with SBTPE results.…

  13. Does Weight Affect Children's Test Scores and Teacher Assessments Differently?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavodny, Madeline

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased dramatically in the United States during the past three decades. This increase has adverse public health implications, but its implication for children's academic outcomes is less clear. This paper uses data from five waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten to…

  14. The achievement impact of the inclusion model on the standardized test scores of general education students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett-Rainey, Syrena

    The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement of general education students within regular education classes to the achievement of general education students in inclusion/co-teach classes to determine whether there was a significant difference in the achievement between the two groups. The school district's inclusion/co-teach model included ongoing professional development support for teachers and administrators. General education teachers, special education teachers, and teacher assistants collaborated to develop instructional strategies to provide additional remediation to help students to acquire the skills needed to master course content. This quantitative study reviewed the end-of course test (EoCT) scores of Grade 10 physical science and math students within an urban school district. It is not known whether general education students in an inclusive/co-teach science or math course will demonstrate a higher achievement on the EoCT in math or science than students not in an inclusive/co-teach classroom setting. In addition, this study sought to determine if students classified as low socioeconomic status benefited from participating in co-teaching classrooms as evidenced by standardized tests. Inferential statistics were used to determine whether there was a significant difference between the achievements of the treatment group (inclusion/co-teach) and the control group (non-inclusion/co-teach). The findings can be used to provide school districts with optional instructional strategies to implement in the diverse classroom setting in the modern classroom to increase academic performance on state standardized tests.

  15. A Study of Methods for Estimating Distributions of Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Ronald T.; Kolen, Michael J.

    This study compared five density estimation techniques applied to samples from a population of 272,244 examinees' ACT English Usage and Mathematics Usage raw scores. Unsmoothed frequencies, kernel method, negative hypergeometric, four-parameter beta compound binomial, and Cureton-Tukey methods were applied to 500 replications of random samples of…

  16. Research-tested Intervention Programs: About Program Scores

    Cancer.gov

    About RTIPs Scores This site provides a consumer-reports-like list of programs that have been reviewed by a panel of topic experts in the field. Programs are rated on 3 criteria which include the following: research integrity, intervention impact, and

  17. The Production of Cognitive Achievement in Children: Home, School, and Racial Test Score Gaps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra E. Todd; Kenneth I. Wolpin

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of children’s scores on tests of cognitive achievement in math and reading. Using rich longitudinal data on test scores, home environments, and schools, we implement alternative specifications for the cognitive achievement production function that allow achievement to depend on the entire history of lagged home and school inputs as well as on parents’ ability and

  18. The Influence of Foreign Language Learning during Early Childhood on Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Tommetta

    2010-01-01

    Increasing standardized test scores in reading and math is of high importance to the California Department of Education to meet requirements mandated by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act of 2001. More research is needed to understand the best ways to improve tests scores to meet concerns of the NCLB act. The purpose of the study was to evaluate…

  19. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities Test Scores: A UK National Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve; Deary, Ian J.; Smith, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    Background and aims: There is uncertainty about the extent or even existence of sex differences in the mean and variability of reasoning test scores ( Jensen, 1998; Lynn, 1994, ; Mackintosh, 1996). This paper analyses the Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT) scores of a large and representative sample of UK pupils to determine the extent of any sex…

  20. Preschool Television Viewing and Adolescent Test Scores: Historical Evidence from the Coleman Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Gentzkow; Jesse M. Shapiro

    2008-01-01

    We use heterogeneity in the timing of television's introduction to different local markets to identify the effect of preschool television exposure on standardized test scores during adolescence. Our preferred point estimate indicates that an additional year of preschool television exposure raises average adolescent test scores by about 0.02 standard deviations. We are able to reject negative effects larger than about

  1. Graduate Students' Administration and Scoring Errors on the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Erica; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Schermerhorn, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    The interpretation of cognitive test scores often leads to decisions concerning the diagnosis, educational placement, and types of interventions used for children. Therefore, it is important that practitioners administer and score cognitive tests without error. This study assesses the frequency and types of examiner errors that occur during the…

  2. Alignment, High Stakes, and the Inflation of Test Scores. CSE Report 655

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    There are many reasons to align tests with curricular standards, but this alignment is not sufficient to protect against score inflation. This report explains the relationship between alignment and score inflation by clarifying what is meant by inappropriate test preparation. It provides a concrete, hypothetical example that illustrates a process…

  3. Are Mathematics and Science Test Scores Good Indicators of Labor-Force Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shiu-Sheng; Luoh, Ming-Ching

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), we investigate the link between test scores (mathematics and science) and cross-country income differences. We would like to know whether test scores are good indicators of labor-force quality. The…

  4. Scoring Yes-No Vocabulary Tests: Reaction Time vs. Nonword Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicer-Sanchez, Ana; Schmitt, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Despite a number of research studies investigating the Yes-No vocabulary test format, one main question remains unanswered: What is the best scoring procedure to adjust for testee overestimation of vocabulary knowledge? Different scoring methodologies have been proposed based on the inclusion and selection of nonwords in the test. However, there…

  5. Correcting for Test Score Measurement Error in ANCOVA Models for Estimating Treatment Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    A common strategy for estimating treatment effects in observational studies using individual student-level data is analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) or hierarchical variants of it, in which outcomes (often standardized test scores) are regressed on pretreatment test scores, other student characteristics, and treatment group indicators. Measurement…

  6. The Effects of Spanish-Language Background on Completed Schooling and Aptitude Test Scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Locay; Tracy L. Regan; Arthur M. Diamond Jr.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the eect of speaking Spanish at home as a child on completed schooling and aptitude test scores using data on Hispanics who grew up in the U.S. from the NLSY79. We model the accumulation of traditional human capital and English uency, leading to the joint determination of schooling and test scores. We nd that speaking Spanish at home

  7. Changes in student populations and average test scores of Dutch primary schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Luyten; Inge de Wolf

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the relation between student population characteristics and average test scores per school in the final grade of primary education from a dynamic perspective. Aggregated data of over 5,000 Dutch primary schools covering a 6-year period were used to study the relation between changes in school populations and shifts in mean test scores. Path analysis findings indicate

  8. The Effects of Historical Settlement Patterns on Oklahoma Student Achievement Test Scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Wade Brorsen; Charles Jacques

    1997-01-01

    Abstract This research demonstrates how cultural differences affect the efficiency of increased public school district expenditures on students’ achievement,test scores. Results indicate that equality of outcome as measured by achievement test scores may be impossible to achieve using school district expenditures. 1

  9. Using Raters from India to Score a Large-Scale Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xi, Xiaoming; Mollaun, Pam

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the scoring of the Speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based (TOEFL iBT[R]) test by speakers of English and one or more Indian languages. We explored the extent to which raters from India, after being trained and certified, were able to score the TOEFL examinees with mixed first languages…

  10. Beyond Correlations: Usefulness of High School GPA and Test Scores in Making College Admissions Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Correlational evidence suggests that high school GPA is better than admission test scores in predicting first-year college GPA, although test scores have incremental predictive validity. The usefulness of a selection variable in making admission decisions depends in part on its predictive validity, but also on institutions' selectivity and…

  11. Peer Effects and the Indigenous/Non-Indigenous Early Test-Score Gap in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellariou, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the magnitude of the non-indigenous/indigenous test-score gap for third-year and fourth-year primary school pupils in Peru, in relation to the main family, school and peer inputs contributing to the test-score gap using the estimation method of feasible generalized least squares. The article then decomposes the gap into its…

  12. The Dynamics of the Evolution of the Black-White Test Score Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Kitae

    2012-01-01

    We apply a quantile version of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to estimate the counterfactual distribution of the test scores of Black students. In the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), we find that the gap initially appears only at the top of the distribution of test scores. As children age, however,…

  13. Adolescent Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Predicts Academic Achievement Test Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley N. Collins; E. Paul Wileyto; Michael F. G. Murphy; Marcus R. Munafò

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Research has linked prenatal tobacco exposure to neurocognitive and behavioral prob- lems that can disrupt learning and school performance in childhood. Less is known about its effects on academic achievement in adolescence when controlling for known confounding factors (e.g., environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)). We hypothesized that prenatal tobacco exposure would decrease the likelihood of passing academic achievement tests taken

  14. Animal source foods have a positive impact on the primary school test scores of Kenyan schoolchildren in a cluster-randomised, controlled feeding intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Hulett, Judie L; Weiss, Robert E; Bwibo, Nimrod O; Galal, Osman M; Drorbaugh, Natalie; Neumann, Charlotte G

    2014-03-14

    Micronutrient deficiencies and suboptimal energy intake are widespread in rural Kenya, with detrimental effects on child growth and development. Sporadic school feeding programmes rarely include animal source foods (ASF). In the present study, a cluster-randomised feeding trial was undertaken to determine the impact of snacks containing ASF on district-wide, end-term standardised school test scores and nutrient intake. A total of twelve primary schools were randomly assigned to one of three isoenergetic feeding groups (a local plant-based stew (githeri) with meat, githeri plus whole milk or githeri with added oil) or a control group receiving no intervention feeding. After the initial term that served as baseline, children were fed at school for five consecutive terms over two school years from 1999 to 2001. Longitudinal analysis was used controlling for average energy intake, school attendance, and baseline socio-economic status, age, sex and maternal literacy. Children in the Meat group showed significantly greater improvements in test scores than those in all the other groups, and the Milk group showed significantly greater improvements in test scores than the Plain Githeri (githeri+oil) and Control groups. Compared with the Control group, the Meat group showed significant improvements in test scores in Arithmetic, English, Kiembu, Kiswahili and Geography. The Milk group showed significant improvements compared with the Control group in test scores in English, Kiswahili, Geography and Science. Folate, Fe, available Fe, energy per body weight, vitamin B??, Zn and riboflavin intake were significant contributors to the change in test scores. The greater improvements in test scores of children receiving ASF indicate improved academic performance, which can result in greater academic achievement. PMID:24168874

  15. A scoring test on probabilistic seismic hazard estimates in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarello, D.; Peruzza, L.; D'Amico, V.

    2014-09-01

    Probabilistic estimates of seismic hazard represent a basic element for planning seismic risk reduction strategies and they are key elements of seismic regulation. Due to its importance, it is mandatory to select most effective estimates among the available ones. A possible empirical scoring strategy is described here and is applied to a number of time-independent hazard estimates available in Italy both at national and regional scale. Scoring is based on the comparison of outcomes provided by available computational models at a number of accelerometric sites where observations are available for 25 years. This comparison also allows identifying computational models providing outcomes that contrast observations and thus should be discarded. The analysis shows that most of hazard estimates so far proposed for Italy do not contrast with observations and some computational models perform significantly better than the others do. Furthermore, one can see that, at least locally, older estimates can perform better that the most recent ones. Finally, since the same computational model can perform differently depending on the region considered and on average return time of concern, no single model can be considered as the best performing one. This implies that time-by-time, the most suitable model must be selected by considering the specific problem of concern.

  16. Within-group norming and other forms of score adjustment in preemployment testing.

    PubMed

    Sackett, P R; Wilk, S L

    1994-11-01

    Various forms of score adjustment have been suggested and used when mean differences by gender, race, or ethnicity are found using preemployment tests. This article examines the rationales for score adjustment and describes and compares different forms of score adjustment, including within-group norming, bonus points, separate cutoffs, and banding. It reviews the legal environment for personnel selection and the circumstances leading to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1991. It examines score adjustment in the use of cognitive ability tests, personality inventories, interest inventories, scored biographical data, and physical ability tests and outlines the implications for testing practice of various interpretations of the Civil Rights Act of 1991. PMID:7985886

  17. An Analysis of Cross Racial Identity Scale Scores Using Classical Test Theory and Rasch Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Joshua; Beaujean, A. Alexander; Worrell, Frank C.; Watson, Stevie

    2013-01-01

    Item response models (IRMs) were used to analyze Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores. Rasch analysis scores were compared with classical test theory (CTT) scores. The partial credit model demonstrated a high goodness of fit and correlations between Rasch and CTT scores ranged from 0.91 to 0.99. CRIS scores are supported by both methods.…

  18. The Non-Credible Score of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test: Is It Better at Predicting Non-Credible Neuropsychological Test Performance Than the RAVLT Recognition Score?

    PubMed

    Whitney, Kriscinda A; Davis, Jeremy J

    2015-03-01

    The ability of both the non-credible score of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT NC) and the recognition score of the RAVLT (RAVLT Recog) to predict credible versus non-credible neuropsychological test performance was examined. Credible versus non-credible group membership was determined according to diagnostic criteria with consideration of performance on two stand-alone performance validity tests. Findings from this retrospective data analysis of outpatients seen for neuropsychological testing within a Veterans Affairs Medical Center (N = 175) showed that RAVLT Recog demonstrated better classification accuracy than RAVLT NC in predicting credible versus non-credible neuropsychological test performance. Specifically, an RAVLT Recog cutoff of ?9 resulted in reasonable sensitivity (48%) and acceptable specificity (91%) in predicting non-credible neuropsychological test performance. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. Note: The views contained here within are those of the authors and not representative of the institutions with which they are associated. PMID:25599723

  19. The value of bayes' theorem for interpreting abnormal test scores in cognitively healthy and clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Gavett, Brandon E

    2015-03-01

    The base rates of abnormal test scores in cognitively normal samples have been a focus of recent research. The goal of the current study is to illustrate how Bayes' theorem uses these base rates-along with the same base rates in cognitively impaired samples and prevalence rates of cognitive impairment-to yield probability values that are more useful for making judgments about the absence or presence of cognitive impairment. Correlation matrices, means, and standard deviations were obtained from the Wechsler Memory Scale -4th Edition (WMS-IV) Technical and Interpretive Manual and used in Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the base rates of abnormal test scores in the standardization and special groups (mixed clinical) samples. Bayes' theorem was applied to these estimates to identify probabilities of normal cognition based on the number of abnormal test scores observed. Abnormal scores were common in the standardization sample (65.4% scoring below a scaled score of 7 on at least one subtest) and more common in the mixed clinical sample (85.6% scoring below a scaled score of 7 on at least one subtest). Probabilities varied according to the number of abnormal test scores, base rates of normal cognition, and cutoff scores. The results suggest that interpretation of base rates obtained from cognitively healthy samples must also account for data from cognitively impaired samples. Bayes' theorem can help neuropsychologists answer questions about the probability that an individual examinee is cognitively healthy based on the number of abnormal test scores observed. (JINS, 2015, 21, 1-9). PMID:25784058

  20. Test Review: Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Margaret E.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a review of the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) Assessment, a high stakes standardized test of the English language. It is a topic-based test that integrates listening, reading, writing and speaking. The test is designed to describe the level of English language proficiency of test takers planning to study at…

  1. Test scores of urban and rural bank workers in Nigeria: an analysis of the effect of location on test performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. Johnnie

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the literature relating to job-related testing, and describes a specific study which examined the test scores, on written tests, of urban and rural bank workers in a national bank. The purpose of the test was to determine the effect of location on test performance of the two sets of bank workers. Also compares the test performance of individual bank

  2. From #2 Pencils to the World Wide Web: A History of Test Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zytowski, Donald G.

    2008-01-01

    The present highly developed status of psychological and educational testing in the United States is in part the result of many efforts over the past 100 years to develop economical and reliable methods of scoring. The present article traces a number of methods, ranging from hand scoring to present-day computer applications, stimulated by the need…

  3. The Impact of the 2004 Hurricanes on Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test Scores: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Ferretti, Larissa K.

    2008-01-01

    What is the impact of natural disasters on students' statewide assessment scores? To answer this question, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) scores of 55,881 students in grades 4 through 10 were analyzed to determine if there were significant decreases after the 2004 hurricanes. Results reveal that there was statistical but no practical…

  4. Differential reproduction: Its relation to IQ test score, education, and occupation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerome H. Waller

    1982-01-01

    The correlations among IQ test score, educational attainment rating, socioeconomic status, total number of children in the family of origin, total number of offspring in completed families, and mean age at birth of live?born children are examined for a representative sample of the Minnesota white population. Natural selection appears to be favoring an increase in the mean IQ score in

  5. TOEFL iBT Speaking Test Scores as Indicators of Oral Communicative Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Powers, Donald; Stone, Elizabeth; Mollaun, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Scores assigned by trained raters and by an automated scoring system (SpeechRater[TM]) on the speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] were validated against a communicative competence criterion. Specifically, a sample of 555 undergraduate students listened to speech samples from 184 examinees who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language…

  6. Alignment, High Stakes, and the Inflation of Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    No one can dispute that tests should measure important content, and for many (but not all) purposes, tests should be aligned with curricular goals. Thus in many cases, alignment is clearly better than the alternative, and nothing that follows here argues otherwise. Unfortunately, however, this does not imply that alignment is sufficient protection…

  7. The Effect of Concept Formulation on Concept Test Scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gavin Lees; Malcolm Wright

    2004-01-01

    While concept testing is a mainstay of the new product development process, there is little empirical evidence on the variation in consumer responses due to alternative concept formulations, particularly for those tests undertaken early in the product development process. The present study addressed this gap in the literature by using a split sample mail survey to compare stripped, embellished, and

  8. Increases in Test Scores as a Function of Material Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuinman, J. Jaap; And Others

    From the entire population (N=341) of grades 7 and 8 in a rural Indiana junior high school, 160 subjects were randomly selected and assigned to the experimental and the control groups. Form A of the Nelson Reading Test was administered twice with a 4-week interval. While the control group was told only that the post-test was given to measure how…

  9. Generalization of the Lord-Wingersky Algorithm to Computing the Distribution of Summed Test Scores Based on Real-Number Item Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seonghoon

    2013-01-01

    With known item response theory (IRT) item parameters, Lord and Wingersky provided a recursive algorithm for computing the conditional frequency distribution of number-correct test scores, given proficiency. This article presents a generalized algorithm for computing the conditional distribution of summed test scores involving real-number item…

  10. Too Much Homework May Hurt Teens' Test Scores

    MedlinePLUS

    ... minutes a night linked to lower performance in math, science (*this news item will not be available ... about their homework habits, and their performance in math and science was assessed using a standardized test. ...

  11. Estimating Achievement Gaps from Test Scores Reported in Ordinal "Proficiency" Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew D.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2012-01-01

    Test scores are commonly reported in a small number of ordered categories. Examples of such reporting include state accountability testing, Advanced Placement tests, and English proficiency tests. This article introduces and evaluates methods for estimating achievement gaps on a familiar standard-deviation-unit metric using data from these ordered…

  12. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the USA Testprep Intervention to Increase High School Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Veronica Faye

    2012-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act emphasized the responsibility of states to improve student academic performance. In one state, students are required to take subject-area tests and master each test to graduate; however, in some schools, many students are failing the English II test administered during students' sophomore year. Two districts have…

  13. Effects of Targeted Test Preparation on Scores of Two Tests of Oral English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of targeted test preparation, or coaching, on oral English as a second language test scores. The tests in question were the Basic English Skills Test Plus (BEST Plus), a scripted oral interview published by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the Versant English Test (VET), a computer-administered and…

  14. Examining alternative scoring rubrics on a statewide test: The impact of different scoring methods on science and social studies performance assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creighton, Susan Dabney

    There is no consensus regarding the most reliable and valid scoring methods for the assessment of higher order thinking skills. Most of the research on alternative formats has focused on the scoring of writing ability. This study examined the value of different types of performance assessment scoring guides on state mandated science and social studies tests. A proportional stratified sample of raters were randomly assigned to one of four scoring groups: checklist, analytic rubric, holistic rubric, and generic rubrics. A fifth method, the weighted analytic rubric, was included by applying an algorithmic formula to the scores assigned by raters using the analytic rubric. A comparison of the mean scores for the five scoring groups suggests that there may be a difference in the way raters applied the rubric for each group. Although the literature suggests that it is possible to achieve high levels of inter-rater reliability, across forms of scoring, phi coefficients of moderate strength were obtained for three of the four constructed-response items. Results for each scoring group were compared indicating that item complexity may impact the level of inter-rate, reliability and the selection of the most reliable rubric for each discipline. Analytic rubrics appear to achieve more reliable results with less complex items. A multitrait-multimethod approach was utilized to investigate the external validity of the social studies and science tasks. As expected, there tended to be a stronger association between the PACT science constructed-response scores with scores based on science multiple-choice scores than between the science constructed-response scores and the writing ability subtest scores. A similar pattern was seen with social studies items. These results provide some evidence for the validity of the performance assessments. A post study survey completed by raters provided qualitative information regarding their thought processes and their primary focus during the scoring process. An analysis of this data suggests that raters using alternative rubrics may have employed different strategies to score student responses.

  15. Test-Wiseness, Memory, and Academic Performance in University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Janine M.; Perry, James S.

    This study examines the relationship between test-wiseness, memory, and grade-point average in college students. Test wiseness is defined as a subject's capacity to utilize the characteristics and format of a test to receive a higher score, independent of the examinee's knowledge of the subject matter. Researchers hypothesized that test-wiseness…

  16. 76 FR 16350 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions AGENCY: Food and Drug...controls guidance document must be in a black box and must appear in all labeling, advertising, and promotional material. The black box warning mitigates the risk to...

  17. 76 FR 82129 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ...Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions AGENCY: Food and Drug...controls guidance document must be in a black box and must appear in all labeling, advertising, and promotional material. The black box warning mitigates the risk to...

  18. 21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Tumor Associated Antigen immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score...

  19. 21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Tumor Associated Antigen immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score...

  20. Evaluating the equal-interval hypothesis with test score scales.

    PubMed

    Domingue, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The axioms of additive conjoint measurement provide a means of testing the hypothesis that testing data can be placed onto a scale with equal-interval properties. However, the axioms are difficult to verify given that item responses may be subject to measurement error. A Bayesian method exists for imposing order restrictions from additive conjoint measurement while estimating the probability of a correct response. In this study an improved version of that methodology is evaluated via simulation. The approach is then applied to data from a reading assessment intentionally designed to support an equal-interval scaling. PMID:24532164

  1. Can Schools Reduce the Indigenous Test Score Gap? Evidence from Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick J. McEwan

    2008-01-01

    In Chile, indigenous students obtain lower test scores, on average, than non-indigenous students. Between two cohorts of eighth-graders in the late 1990s, the test score gap declined by 0.1 to 0.2 standard deviations. An Oaxaca decomposition and related descriptive evidence suggest that the most plausible explanation is related to Chile's large-scale school reforms that were targeted at low-achieving schools and

  2. The dynamics of the evolution of the Black–White test score gap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kitae Sohn

    2010-01-01

    We apply a quantile version of the Oaxaca?Blinder decomposition to estimate the counterfactual distribution of the test scores of Black students. In the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999 (ECLS?K), we find that the gap initially appears only at the top of the distribution of test scores. As children age, however, the gap at the top shrinks whereas

  3. Not Your Parents’ Test Scores: Cohort Reduces Psychometric Aging Effects

    PubMed Central

    Zelinski, Elizabeth M.; Kennison, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Increases over birth cohorts in psychometric abilities may impact effects of aging. Data from 2 cohorts of the Long Beach Longitudinal Study, matched on age but tested 16 years apart, were modeled over ages 55–87 to test the hypothesis that the more fluid abilities of reasoning, list and text recall, and space would show larger cohort differences than vocabulary. This hypothesis was confirmed. At age 74, average performance estimates for people from the more recently born cohort were equivalent to those of people from the older cohort when they were up to 15 years younger. This finding suggests that older adults may perform like much younger ones from the previous generation on fluid measures, indicating higher levels of abilities than expected. This result could have major implications for the expected productivity of an aging workforce as well as for the quality of life of future generations. However, cohort improvements did not mitigate age declines. PMID:17874953

  4. The 5-Step Way to Raise Test Scores: Using the Data to Drive Your Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Pam C.

    2005-01-01

    Many teachers look at standardized tests as something to be dreaded. This author and teacher looks at standardized-test scores and sees a tool to bring students learning to new heights. This is a way for teachers to target instruction exactly where it's needed. A way to get students looking forward to end-of-the-year tests (really!) as a way to…

  5. Effects of Student Self-Corrective Measures on Learning and Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poplin, Beth D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether students who graded and corrected their own test papers improved their learning and standardized test scores on the North Carolina end-of-course test in United States History. Four preexisting, intact classrooms of 11th grade United States History students in two different high schools formed the basis of this…

  6. A Program To Help College Bound Students Improve Their Verbal Scholastic Aptitude Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague, Alan B.

    Improving the verbal scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) of a group of 20 high school juniors was addressed by the implementation of an SAT coaching program. A computer program, "SAT Success," and a video, "SAT Prep Video," along with practice tests from the Educational Testing Service were employed. Students were self-paced through a…

  7. Deriving Comparable Scores for Computer Adaptive and Conventional Tests: An Example Using the SAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eignor, Daniel R.

    Procedures used to establish the comparability of scores derived from the College Board Admissions Testing Program (ATP) computer adaptive Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) prototype and the paper-and-pencil SAT are described in this report. Both the prototype, which is made up of Verbal and Mathematics computer adaptive tests (CATs), and a form of…

  8. Block Scheduling Effectiveness: A 10Year Longitudinal Study of One Georgia School System's Test Score Indicators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen H. Reames; Carol Bradshaw

    A case study of the effectiveness of high school block scheduling in an urban school system was examined by considering whether the changed schedule resulted in an increase in test scores on several measures such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), Advanced Placement Tests (AP), and state mandated graduation examinations. Ten years of data were gathered from the public report

  9. Comparing score tests and other local dependence diagnostics for the graded response model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Thissen, David

    2014-11-01

    Score tests for identifying locally dependent item pairs have been proposed for binary item response models. In this article, both the bifactor and the threshold shift score tests are generalized to the graded response model. For the bifactor test, the generalization is straightforward; it adds one secondary dimension associated only with one pair of items. For the threshold shift test, however, multiple generalizations are possible: in particular, conditional, uniform, and linear shift tests are discussed in this article. Simulation studies show that all of the score tests have accurate Type I error rates given large enough samples, although their small-sample behaviour is not as good as that of Pearson's ?2 and M2 as proposed in other studies for the purpose of local dependence (LD) detection. All score tests have the highest power to detect the LD which is consistent with their parametric form, and in this case they are uniformly more powerful than ?2 and M2 ; even wrongly specified score tests are more powerful than ?2 and M2 in most conditions. An example using empirical data is provided for illustration. PMID:25286229

  10. Does breastfeeding contribute to the racial gap in reading and math test scores?

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Kristen E.; Huang, Jin; Vaughn, Michael G.; Witko, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the impact of divergent breastfeeding practices between Caucasian and African American mothers on the lingering achievement test gap between Caucasian and African American children. Methods The Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, beginning in 1997, followed a cohort of 3563 children aged 0–12 years. Reading and math test scores from 2002 for 1928 children were linked with breastfeeding history. Regression analysis was used to examine associations between ever having been breastfed and duration of breastfeeding and test scores, controlling for characteristics of child, mother, and household. Results African American students scored significantly lower than Caucasian children by 10.6 and 10.9 points on reading and math tests, respectively. After accounting for the impact of having been breastfed during infancy, the racial test gap decreased by 17% for reading scores and 9% for math scores. Conclusions Study findings indicate that breastfeeding explains 17% and 9% of the observed gaps in reading and math scores, respectively, between African Americans and Caucasians, an effect larger than most recent educational policy interventions. Renewed efforts around policies and clinical practices that promote and remove barriers for African American mothers to breastfeed should be implemented. PMID:23880156

  11. Testing the reliability of Grade, Roughness and Breathiness scores by means of synthetic speech stimuli.

    PubMed

    Schoentgen, Jean; Fraj, Samia; Lucero, Jorge C

    2015-04-01

    This article describes a synthesizer of disordered voices and reports a test of the reliability of Grade, Roughness, and Breathiness scores assigned to synthetic stimuli by eight expert listeners in two sessions. Speech stimuli [a], [i], [u], [ai], and [ia] were synthesized with three values of vocal frequency and four levels of vocal jitter and pulsatile additive noise each. The agreement and correlation of scores assigned by the same rater in different sessions, or by different raters in the same session, accord with published data. Only a small part of the variance of the arithmetic differences between the scores that are assigned to the same stimulus is explained by the stimuli properties. The conclusion is that differences between scores that are assigned to the same stimulus are not attributable to biases of individual raters; such biases would shift all the scores assigned on a scale, and the shift would be interpretable in terms of the properties of the stimuli. PMID:24117123

  12. The Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Score (ALDS) item bank: item response theory analysis in a mixed patient population

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Rebecca; Weisscher, Nadine; Glas, Cees AW; Dijkgraaf, Marcel GW; Vermeulen, Marinus; de Haan, Rob J; Lindeboom, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a lot of interest in the flexible framework offered by item banks for measuring patient relevant outcomes. However, there are few item banks, which have been developed to quantify functional status, as expressed by the ability to perform activities of daily life. This paper examines the measurement properties of the Academic Medical Center linear disability score item bank in a mixed population. Methods This paper uses item response theory to analyse data on 115 of 170 items from a total of 1002 respondents. These were: 551 (55%) residents of supported housing, residential care or nursing homes; 235 (23%) patients with chronic pain; 127 (13%) inpatients on a neurology ward following a stroke; and 89 (9%) patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Results Of the 170 items, 115 were judged to be clinically relevant. Of these 115 items, 77 were retained in the item bank following the item response theory analysis. Of the 38 items that were excluded from the item bank, 24 had either been presented to fewer than 200 respondents or had fewer than 10% or more than 90% of responses in the category 'can carry out'. A further 11 items had different measurement properties for younger and older or for male and female respondents. Finally, 3 items were excluded because the item response theory model did not fit the data. Conclusion The Academic Medical Center linear disability score item bank has promising measurement characteristics for the mixed patient population described in this paper. Further studies will be needed to examine the measurement properties of the item bank in other populations. PMID:16381611

  13. Correlates of Mexican American Students' Standardized Test Scores: An Integrated Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, M. Cristina; Saenz, Rogelio

    2007-01-01

    The use of standardized testing to evaluate academic achievement is a widely debated topic. Despite controversies, standardized testing is used in all educational levels from elementary school to college entrance examinations. One of the ethnic groups particularly affected by this is the Mexican-origin population. An integrated model (individual,…

  14. Predicting Success in Graduate School Using GRE and PAEG Aptitude Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornheimer, Deane G.

    1984-01-01

    Performance of limited-English speaking graduate school applicants on the Prueba de Admision para Estudios Graduados aptitude test is compared with Graduate Record Examination results, and the validity of the two tests as predictors of academic success for bilingual doctoral students in the New York University Puerto Rico program is examined. (MSE)

  15. The Relationship between English Language Learners' Language Proficiency and Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakkar, Darshan

    2013-01-01

    It is generally theorized that English Language Learner (ELL) students do not succeed on state standardized tests because ELL students lack the cognitive academic language skills necessary to function on the large scale content assessments. The purpose of this dissertation was to test that theory. Through the use of quantitative methodology, ELL…

  16. Factors affecting mathematics subtest outcomes on the Florida College-Level Academic Skills Test at a private research university

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Ernest Wiles

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which performance (outcomes) on the mathematics subtest of the College-Level Academic Skills Test (CLAST) could be predicted by a University of Miami diagnostic test (D-CLAST) and other variables, including high school percentile rank, ACT or SAT scores, freshman-level mathematics courses and grades, cumulative college grade point average (CGPA), and

  17. The reliability and predictive validity of the College-Level Academic Skills Test for Miami-Dade Community College students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rene Garcia

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the predictive validity and the reliability of pass\\/fail decisions of the College Level Academic Skills Test. Passing scores are required to receive an Associate of Arts degree and for admission to the upper division of Florida's State University System (SUS). The test consists of three multiple-choice sections (Reading, English Language Skills and Mathematics) and an Essay.The sample

  18. Norm scores of the box and block test for children ages 3-10 years.

    PubMed

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Steenbergen, Bert

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new norm scores for the Box and Block Test for gross manual dexterity in children ages 3-10 yr. Two hundred fifteen Dutch children performed the Box and Block Test separately with each hand. We found an age effect for the scores; older children obtained higher scores than younger children. Concurrent validity was assessed by means of comparison with the manual dexterity subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2; correlations were significant. Intraclass correlation coefficients for test-retest and interrater reliability measures were .85 and .99, respectively. The Box and Block Test is an easy, feasible, valid, and reliable measurement for gross manual dexterity in young children. The obtained norms can be used in clinical settings to compare the gross manual dexterity of atypically developing children with that of age-related peers and to evaluate efficacy of interventions. A larger international reference population is needed to increase generalizability. PMID:23597689

  19. The Relationship of Motivational Values of Math and Reading Teachers to Student Test Score Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, David Allen

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory correlational study seeks to answer the question of whether a relationship exists between student average test score gains on state exams and teachers' rating of values on the Schwartz Values Survey. Eighty-seven randomly selected Kansas teachers of math and/or reading, grades four through eight, participated. Student test

  20. Beating the Odds: A Low Equalized Assessed Valuation Elementary School with High Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods study examines what makes Bluffview Elementary School a success as measured by the ISAT, the mandated state test of Illinois. Despite national reports of achievement gaps and low test scores, Bluffview Elementary has shown sustained success in educating children. This paper reviews how Bluffview Elementary students are achieving…

  1. A Factor Analytic Item Response Theory Approach for Relating Item Content to Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-fattah, Abdel-fattah A.

    A scaling procedure is proposed, based on item response theory (IRT), to fit non-hierarchical test structure as well. The binary scores of a test of English were used for calculating the probabilities of answering each item correctly. The probability matrix was factor analyzed, and the difficulty intervals or estimates corresponding to the factors…

  2. Context Clues: The Most Important Factor in Improving Reading Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilman, David; Prewitt, Joseph

    A study ascertained the degree of relationships between scores on each of various reading subskills and overall reading success. Reading subskills were measured by locally developed reading skills tests. Overall reading success was measured by the reading subtest of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS). In each of three southern Indiana school…

  3. Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and the Oral Proficiency Interview: A Comparison of Test Scores and Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalande, John F.; Schweckendiek, Jurgen

    1986-01-01

    Investigates what correlations might exist between an individual's score on the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and on the Oral Proficiency Interview. The tests themselves are briefly described. Results indicate that the two tests appear to correlate well in their evaluation of speaking skills. (SED)

  4. Identifying Local Dependence with a Score Test Statistic Based on the Bifactor Logistic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yang; Thissen, David

    2012-01-01

    Local dependence (LD) refers to the violation of the local independence assumption of most item response models. Statistics that indicate LD between a pair of items on a test or questionnaire that is being fitted with an item response model can play a useful diagnostic role in applications of item response theory. In this article, a new score test

  5. Exercise testing scores as an example of better decisions through science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EUAN ASHLEY; JONATHAN MYERS; VICTOR FROELICHER

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACT ASHLEY, E., J. MYERS, and V. FROELICHER. Exercise testing scores as an example of better decisions through science. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 34, No. 8, pp. 1391–1398, 2002. Introduction: The application of common statistical techniques to clinical and exercise test data has the potential to become a useful tool for assisting in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease,

  6. Detection of Invalid Test Scores: The Usefulness of Simple Nonparametric Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tendeiro, Jorge N.; Meijer, Rob R.

    2014-01-01

    In recent guidelines for fair educational testing it is advised to check the validity of individual test scores through the use of person-fit statistics. For practitioners it is unclear on the basis of the existing literature which statistic to use. An overview of relatively simple existing nonparametric approaches to identify atypical response…

  7. Asymptotic Score-Statistic Processes and Tests for Constant Hazard Against a Change-Point Alternative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Matthews; V. T. Farewell; R. Pyke

    1985-01-01

    The problem of testing for a constant failure rate against alternatives with failure rates involving a single change-point is considered. The asymptotic significance level for tests based on maximal score statistics are shown to involve the solution to a first passage time problem for an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. An example illustrates the methodology.

  8. Score Reliability of a Test Composed of Passage-Based Testlets: A Generalizability Theory Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yong-Won

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of local item dependence (LID) in passage-based testlets on the test score reliability of an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading comprehension test from the perspective of generalizability (G) theory. Definitions and causes of LID in passage-based testlets are reviewed within the…

  9. Examining the stability of Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metric (ANAM) baseline test scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas W. Kaminski; Rachel M. Groff; Joseph J. Glutting

    2009-01-01

    Computerized neuropsychological (NP) testing has evolved into an important tool for clinicians in the assessment of sport-related concussions. The importance of having a reliable baseline test score for comparison post concussion is critical; yet, the stability of these baseline measurements has not been well established. The purpose of this study was to examine the consistency of the measurements derived from

  10. Low intelligence test scores in 18 year old men and risk of suicide: cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Gunnell; F Rasmussen

    2004-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between intelligence test scores in men, measured at age 18, and subsequent suicide. Design Record linkage study of the Swedish military service conscription register (1968-94) with the multi-generation register, cause of death register and census data. Four tests were performed at conscription covering logic, language, spatial, and technical skills. Setting Sweden. Participants 987 308 Swedish

  11. Predictive effects of teachers and schools on test scores, college attendance, and earnings

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    I studied predictive effects of teachers and schools on test scores in fourth through eighth grade and outcomes later in life such as college attendance and earnings. For example, predict the fraction of a classroom attending college at age 20 given the test score for a different classroom in the same school with the same teacher and given the test score for a classroom in the same school with a different teacher. I would like to have predictive effects that condition on averages over many classrooms, with and without the same teacher. I set up a factor model that, under certain assumptions, makes this feasible. Administrative school district data in combination with tax data were used to calculate estimates and do inference. PMID:24101492

  12. Improvement in national test reading scores at Key Stage 1; grade inflation or better achievement?

    PubMed

    Meadows, Sara; Herrick, David; Feiler, Anthony

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the UK National Literacy Strategy is to raise standards in literacy. Strong evidence for its success has, however, been lacking: most of the available data comes from performance on tests administered in schools or from Office for Standards in Education reports and is vulnerable to suggestions of bias. An opportunistic analysis of data from a population cohort study extending over three school years compares school-based scores at school entry and at age 7-8 with independently administered scores on similar tests. The results show a small but statistically significant rise between 1998 and 1999 and between 1998 and 2000 in scores on both Key Stage 1 Reading Standard Assessment Tasks taken in schools and the reading component of the WORD test taken independently. This is clear evidence for a real rise in reading attainment over this period, which may be attributable to the children's experience of the National Literacy Strategy. PMID:18273398

  13. The Tower of London Test: different scoring criteria for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Jonas Jardim; Moreira, Lafaiete; Nicolato, Rodrigo; de Marco, Luiz Armando; Côrrea, Humberto; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio; de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Bicalho, Maria Aparecida; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

    2012-04-01

    The Tower of London (TOL) is used for evaluating planning skills, which is a component of the executive functions. Different versions and scoring criteria were developed for this task, and some of them present with different psychometrical properties. This study aimed to evaluate two specific scoring methods of the TOL in diagnosing Mild Cognitive Impairment and probable Alzheimer's disease. The TOL total scores from 60 patients of each diagnosis were compared with the performance of 60 healthy-aged controls using receiver operating characteristics analysis and multinomial logistic regression. Krikorian method better diagnosed Alzheimer's disease, while Portellas's was better at discriminating healthy controls from Mild Cognitive Impairment, but were not efficient at comparing this last group with Alzheimer's patients. Regression analysis indicates that in addition to screening tests, TOL improves the classification of the three groups. The results suggest the two scoring methods used for this task may be useful for different diagnostic purposes. PMID:22662402

  14. Cognitive Ability and Personality Variables as Predictors of School Grades and Test Scores in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia; Kilian, Britta; Fries, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The predictive power of cognitive ability and self-control strength for self-reported grades and an achievement test were studied. It was expected that the variables use of time structure, academic procrastination, and motivational interference during learning further aid in predicting students' achievement because they are operative in situations…

  15. Test anxiety, perfectionism, goal orientation, and academic performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KoUn Eum; Kenneth G. Rice

    2011-01-01

    Dimensions of perfectionism and goal orientation have been reported to have differential relationships with test anxiety. However, the degree of inter-relationship between different dimensions of perfectionism, the 2×2 model of goal orientations proposed by Elliot and McGregor, cognitive test anxiety, and academic performance indicators is not known. Based on data from 134 university students, we conducted correlation and regression analyses

  16. Relationships between Inquiry-Based Teaching and Physical Science Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tretter, Thomas R.; Jones, M. Gail

    2003-01-01

    This exploratory case study investigates relationships between use of an inquiry-based instructional style and student scores on standardized multiple-choice tests. The study takes the form of a case study of physical science classes taught by one of the authors over a span of four school years. The first 2 years were taught using traditional…

  17. Development and Validation of Scores from an Instrument Measuring Student Test-Taking Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklof, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    Using the expectancy-value model of achievement motivation as a basis, this study's purpose is to develop, apply, and validate scores from a self-report instrument measuring student test-taking motivation. Sampled evidence of construct validity for the present sample indicates that a number of the items in the instrument could be used as an…

  18. Intelligence Test Scores and Birth Order among Young Norwegian Men (Conscripts) Analyzed within and between Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerkedal, Tor; Kristensen, Petter; Skjeret, Geir A.; Brevik, John I.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984-2004. Conscripts, mostly 18-19 years of age, were born to women for…

  19. Integrating GIS in the Middle School Curriculum: Impacts on Diverse Students' Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Donna; Alibrandi, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    This case study conducted with 1,425 middle school students in Palm Beach County, Florida, included a treatment group receiving GIS instruction (256) and a control group without GIS instruction (1,169). Quantitative analyses on standardized test scores indicated that inclusion of GIS in middle school curriculum had a significant effect on student…

  20. Comprehensive School Reform and Standardized Test Scores in Illinois Elementary and Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEnroe, James D.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effects of the federally funded Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program on student performance on mandated standardized tests. The study focused on the mathematics and reading scores of Illinois public elementary and middle and junior high school students. The federal CSR program provided Illinois schools with an annual…

  1. Teachers' Responses to Test-Driven Accountability Pressures: "If I Change, Will My Scores Drop?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Samuel D.

    1995-01-01

    Examines why seven third-grade teachers modified their skills-based reading and language arts program, and describes the instructional changes they made over a two-year period. Examines changes in students' reading and language arts standardized achievement test scores (increases in 4 classrooms), special education referrals (81% decrease), and…

  2. California Standards Test Scores and Attendance Rates in an Afterschool Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Sandra M.

    2013-01-01

    The Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not there were any statistically significant differences in the Mathematics California Standard Test scores and attendance rates for African American and Latina high school girls who participated in an afterschool program. Method: A quasi-experimental design was conducted with…

  3. Permanent Income and the Black-White Test Score Gap. NBER Working Paper No. 17610

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Jesse; Wozny, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Analysts often examine the black-white test score gap conditional on family income. Typically only a current income measure is available. We argue that the gap conditional on permanent income is of greater interest, and we describe a method for identifying this gap using an auxiliary data set to estimate the relationship between current and…

  4. Changes in Student Populations and Average Test Scores of Dutch Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyten, Hans; de Wolf, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the relation between student population characteristics and average test scores per school in the final grade of primary education from a dynamic perspective. Aggregated data of over 5,000 Dutch primary schools covering a 6-year period were used to study the relation between changes in school populations and shifts in mean…

  5. Fitting the Normal-Ogive Factor Analytic Model to Scores on Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2001-01-01

    Describes how the nonlinear factor analytic approach of R. McDonald to the normal ogive curve can be used to factor analyze test scores. Discusses the conditions in which this model is more appropriate than the linear model and illustrates the applicability of both models using an empirical example based on data from 1,769 adolescents who took the…

  6. Defending the Quality of Links between Scores from Different Tests and Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Paul Newton (2010), with his characteristic concern about theory, has set out two different ways of thinking about the basis upon which equivalences of one sort or another are established between test score scales. His reason for doing this is a desire to establish "the defensibility of linkages lower on the continuum than concordance." His…

  7. The Impact of Inclusion and Pullout on Middle School Students' Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herriott, Tavita S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in students' standardized test scores based on the instructional model their teachers used. One group of students was served under a pullout instructional model. The other was served under an inclusive model. It is not known whether or not the pullout instructional model or the…

  8. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) Scores: Testing the Expanded Nigrescence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Frank C.; Watson, Stevie

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors tested the viability of the expanded nigrescence (NT-E) model as operationalized by Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores using confirmatory factor analyses. Participants were 594 Black college students from the Southeastern United States. Results indicated a good fit for NT-E's proposed six-factor structure.…

  9. Detecting Dissimulation in Personality Test Scores: A Comparison between Person-Fit Indices and Detection Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Chico, Eliseo

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether a procedure based on item response theory (IRT) for assessing the scalability of response patterns could detect deliberate dissimulation (faking good) on scores from three tests of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised. Results for 489 and 140 undergraduates show that IRT measures were not powerful enough to detect…

  10. SPATIAL AND VERBAL MEMORY TEST SCORES FOLLOWING YOGA AND FINE ARTS CAMPS FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MANJUNATH N. K; SHIRLEY TELLES

    Abstract : Abstract : Abstract : Abstract : The performance scores of children (aged 11 to 16 years) in verbal and spatial memory tests were compared for two groups (n = 30, each), one attending a yoga camp and the other a fine arts camp. Both groups were assessed on the memory tasks initially and after ten days of their

  11. A Generalizability Approach To Evaluating the Reliability of Testlet-Based Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Guemin; Frisbie, David A.

    Previous studies have indicated that the reliability of test scores composed of testlets might be overestimated by conventional item-based reliability estimation methods (R. Thorndike, 1953; A. Anastasi, 1988; S. Sireci, D. Thissen, and H. Wainer, 1991; H. Wainer and D. Thissen, 1996). This study used generalizability theory to investigate the…

  12. Factors affecting milk ELISA scores of cows tested for Johne’s disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease) has been estimated to cost dairy producers over $1.5 billion per year. The objective of this study was to examine the influence a number of environmental and genetic factors have on ELISA milk test scores for Johne’s diseas...

  13. Textbooks and Test Scores: Evidence from a Prospective Evaluation in Kenya Work-in-Progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Glewwe; Michael Kremer; Sylvie Moulin

    Although there is intense debate about the effect of increased expenditure on education in developed countries, there is widespread consensus that provision of textbooks can substantially increase test scores in developing countries. This paper evaluates a program through which a Dutch non-profit organization provided textbooks to 25 rural Kenyan primary schools that were chosen randomly from a group of 100

  14. Does Charter School Attendance Improve Test Scores?: Comments and Reactions on the Arizona Achievement Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Nelson; Kevin Hollenbeck

    2001-01-01

    In a recent report, Solmon, Paark, and Garcia (2001) seek to identify the impact of attending charter schools on student achievement using data from Arizona. Based on a sophisticated statistical analysis, these authors report that charter school attendance increases test score gains of students. This note raises some questions about the interpretation of the results reported and some questions about

  15. The black–white test score gap and early home environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Jun Jean Yeung; Kathryn M. Pfeiffer

    2009-01-01

    Based on panel data for three age cohorts of children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we examine how early home environment contributes to black–white achievement gaps at different developmental stages and the extent to which early gaps contribute to later racial achievement gaps. We find large black–white test score differences among children of all ages even before children

  16. The Decomposition of Racial Differences in Reading Test Scores Using Multilevel Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles L. Cappell; Carrie Ippel

    This paper applies multi-level modeling techniques to decompose the racial gap in reading test scores at the individual and school level using the NELS 1988 baseline survey of eighth graders. The analysis proceeded stepwise, first estimating individual level explanations then adding school level social characteristics to predict variation in individual level racial gap coefficients. Analysis was performed on the black\\/white

  17. Funding, school specialisation and test scores: An evaluation of the specialist schools policy using matching models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Bradley; Giuseppe Migali; Jim Taylor

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the effect on test scores of a UK education reform which has increased funding of schools and encouraged their specialisation in particular subject areas, en- hancing pupil choice and competition between schools. Using several data sets we apply matching methods to confront issues of the choice of an appropriate control group and selection bias. We demonstrate a statistically

  18. Applicant Reactions to Test Score Banding in Entry-Level and Promotional Contexts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald M. Truxillo; Talya N. Bauer

    1999-01-01

    This series of field studies used a fairness framework to investigate applicant reactions to test score banding in 3 police selection contexts. Studies 1 (N = 85) and 2 (N = 369) involved applicants for entry-level positions, and Study 3 (N = 39) involved applicants for promotion. Across all 3 studies, race interacted with applicants' belief that banding is associated

  19. The eect of potential time in school on early test scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin Leuven; Mikael Lindahl; Hessel Oosterbeek; Dinand Webbink

    2003-01-01

    This study exploits two features of the Dutch schooling system to es- timate the eect of expanding enrollment possibilities on test scores of young children. One of these features is that children are allowed to enroll in school on their fourth birthday. The other that children having their birthday before, during and after the summer holiday are placed in the

  20. The Effect of Four Intervention Programs on Standardized Test Scores by Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cryder, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative correlational study involved the analysis, by gender, of the effect of four intervention programs at an Arizona middle school as seen on Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS) test scores. These four intervention programs included: Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID), a planner stamping system, a World…

  1. Raise Test Scores without Selling Your Soul: An Interview with Scott Mandel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    With his 10th book, Improving Test Scores: A Practical Approach for Teachers and Administrators, Scott Mandel outlines steps educators can take to boost achievement on standardized exams while maintaining the integrity of their day-to-day teaching. Mandel, who holds a Ph.D. in curriculum and instruction from USC, teaches history and English at…

  2. Using Automated Essay Scores as an Anchor When Equating Constructed Response Writing Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments consisting of only a few extended constructed response items (essays) are not typically equated using anchor test designs as there are typically too few essay prompts in each form to allow for meaningful equating. This article explores the idea that output from an automated scoring program designed to measure writing fluency (a common…

  3. A Comparison Study of the College Board Scholastic Aptitude Test Scores between Students in Indiana, the Midwestern Region, and the Nation. Includes Test Scores, High School Records, Socioeconomic Characteristics, and College Plans. Monograph 80-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisack, J. P.

    Selected data from three of the latest summary reports of the College Board's Admissions Testing Program (ATP) are presented. They are: College Bound Seniors, 1980-National, Midwestern, and Indiana. Data including Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores, the Test of Standard Written English (TSWE) scores, and information from the Student Descriptive…

  4. The Relationship between Self Reports of College Experiences and Achievement-Test Scores. AIR 1994 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Gary R.

    This paper examines the proposed use of student self-report data as proxies for College Basic Academic Subjects Examination (College BASE) scores and as policy indicators of good educational practice. A recent study by the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems had recommended this use of student self-reports. For this study 540…

  5. The comparison question polygraph test: A contrast of methods and scoring.

    PubMed

    Honts, Charles R; Reavy, Racheal

    2015-05-01

    We conducted a mock crime experiment with 250 paid participants (126 females, Mdn age=30years) contrasting the validity of the probable-lie and the directed-lie variants of the comparison question test (CQT) for the detection of deception. Subjects were assigned at random to one of eight conditions in a Guilt (Guilty/Innocent)×Test Type (Probable-Lie/Directed-Lie)×Stimulation (Between Repetition Stimulation/No Stimulation) factorial design. The data were scored by an experienced polygraph examiner who was unaware of subject assignment to conditions and with a computer algorithm known as the Objective Scoring System Version 2 (OSS2). There were substantial main effects of guilt in both the OSS2 computer scores F(1, 241)=143.82, p<.001, ?p(2)=0.371, and in the human scoring, F(1, 242)=98.92, p<.001, ?p(2)=.29. There were no differences between the test types in the number of spontaneous countermeasure attempts made against them. Although under the controlled conditions of an experiment the probable-lie and the directed-lie variants of the CQT produced equivocal results in terms of detection accuracy, the directed-lie variant has much to recommend it as it is inherently more standardized in its administration and construction. PMID:25703188

  6. Survival analysis of cancer patients with multiple endpoints using global score test methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Zakiyah; Whitehead, John

    2014-06-01

    Progression-free survival (PFS), time-to-progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) are examples of multiple endpoints commonly used in clinical trials of cancer patients. PFS is increasingly used as a primary endpoint in evaluation of patients with solid tumors, while multiple endpoints are often analysed independently. These endpoints are indeed correlated and it is desirable to evaluate effectiveness of treatments by means of a single parameter. In this paper, a single overall treatment effect is provided by combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint. This global score test methodology was applied in analysis of 330 patients with an aggressive cancer, each with two endpoints recorded, T1 and T2, relating to disease progression and death respectively. The values of score statistics obtained from the proposed method matched closely those from the logrank test. Meanwhile, the correlations between the two score test statistics were found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Simulations further confirmed the consistent performance of this new method in analysis of bivariate survival data.

  7. Language, Content and Skills in the Testing of English for Academic Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamaroff, R.

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated the consistency of criteria for academic English skills as applied by teachers of academic English and science lecturers in a South African historically black university. Both groups were asked to evaluate first-year students' essays on the greenhouse effect. Results indicated a wide variation in scores and judgments within…

  8. An NCME Instructional Module on Quality Control Procedures in the Scoring, Equating, and Reporting of Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allalouf, Avi

    2007-01-01

    There is significant potential for error in long production processes that consist of sequential stages, each of which is heavily dependent on the previous stage, such as the SER (Scoring, Equating, and Reporting) process. Quality control procedures are required in order to monitor this process and to reduce the number of mistakes to a minimum. In…

  9. Examining the Validity of GED[R] Tests Scores with Scheduling and Setting Accommodations. GED Testing Service Research Studies, 2004-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George-Ezzelle, Carol E.; Skaggs, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Current testing standards call for test developers to provide evidence that testing procedures and test scores, and the inferences made based on the test scores, show evidence of validity and are comparable across subpopulations (American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological Association [APA], & National Council on…

  10. The impact of familial environment on depression scores after genetic testing for cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Ashida, S; Hadley, D W; Vaughn, B K; Kuhn, N R; Jenkins, J F; Koehly, L M

    2009-01-01

    The associations between characteristics of family relationships and family trends in cancer worry and the psychological adjustment of recipients of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility were investigated. Data provided by 178 individuals from 24 families with Lynch syndrome who participated in a cohort study investigating psychological and behavioral outcomes of genetic testing were used. Responses from multiple family members were aggregated to construct family trends representing norms and departure from norms in cancer worry. Lower perceived family cohesion at baseline and decrease in this variable at 6 months after receipt of test results were associated with higher depression scores at 12 months. More variability in cancer worry among family members at baseline was also associated with higher depression scores at 12 months. Increase in family conflict was associated with decrease in depression scores among individuals from families with higher levels of cancer worry on average and less variability among the members. Family relationships and family trends in levels of cancer worry may play important roles in the psychological adjustment of genetic test recipients. The findings highlight the complexity of familial environment surrounding individuals that undergo genetic testing and suggest the benefits of considering these factors when providing genetic services. PMID:19021640

  11. Recent Trends in Mean Scores and Characteristics of Test-Takers on "Praxis II" Licensure Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitomer, Drew H.; Qi, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This study concerns the "highly qualified teacher" provisions of the "Elementary and Secondary Education Act" ("ESEA," 2002), as reauthorized, and other policies at the federal, state and local levels, which have aimed to elevate the content knowledge of teachers. This examination of "Praxis II" score trends was not meant to serve as an evaluation…

  12. A Validity Study of Scores on the Personal and Academic Self-Concept Inventory Based on a Sample of Black College Males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm H. Woodland

    2008-01-01

    In this study, factor analyses were used to examine the structural validity of scores on the Personal and Academic Self-Concept Inventory (PASCI) in a group of 222 Black college males. Definitions of self-concept and how self-concept has been operationalized in Black populations were also reviewed. Results from this study challenged the nine-factor PASCI model reported earlier and pointed out the

  13. The effect of instructional methodology on high school students natural sciences standardized tests scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, P. E.

    Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one of these two teaching methodologies was more effective in increasing student performance on standardized science tests. The quasi experimental quantitative study was comprised of two stages. Stage 1 used a survey to identify teaching methods of a convenience sample of 57 teacher participants and determined level of inquiry used in instruction to place participants into instructional groups (the independent variable). Stage 2 used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare posttest scores on a standardized exam by teaching method. Additional analyses were conducted to examine the differences in science achievement by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status by teaching methodology. Results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in test scores when taught using inquiry based instruction. Subpopulation analyses indicated all groups showed improved mean standardized test scores except African American students. The findings benefit teachers and students by presenting data supporting a method of content delivery that increases teacher efficacy and produces students with a greater cognition of science content that meets the school's mission and goals.

  14. Investigating the Robustness of School-Performance Ratings to Three Factors Affecting the Underlying Student-Level Academic-Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Hui Leng

    2012-01-01

    Standardized-test scores are increasingly important indicators of school success. But how robust are school-performance ratings when they are based on measures derived from these scores? In my thesis, using data from Houston Independent School District (HISD) and New York State (NYS), I examined the robustness of school-performance ratings across…

  15. The Relationship between Students’ Verbal and Nonverbal Test Scores within the Context of Poverty

    E-print Network

    Kaya, Fatih

    2013-03-13

    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENTS? VERBAL AND NONVERBAL TEST SCORES WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF POVERTY A Dissertation by FATIH KAYA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... Subject: Educational Psychology Copyright 2013 Fatih Kaya ABSTRACT The association between intelligence and achievement has been investigated by many researchers, and a moderate to strong correlation between the two has been repeatedly found. Few...

  16. The effects of calculator-based laboratories on standardized test scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Charlotte Bethany Rains

    Nationwide, the goal of providing a productive science and math education to our youth in today's educational institutions is centering itself around the technology being utilized in these classrooms. In this age of digital technology, educational software and calculator-based laboratories (CBL) have become significant devices in the teaching of science and math for many states across the United States. Among the technology, the Texas Instruments graphing calculator and Vernier Labpro interface, are among some of the calculator-based laboratories becoming increasingly popular among middle and high school science and math teachers in many school districts across this country. In Tennessee, however, it is reported that this type of technology is not regularly utilized at the student level in most high school science classrooms, especially in the area of Physical Science (Vernier, 2006). This research explored the effect of calculator based laboratory instruction on standardized test scores. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of traditional teaching methods versus graphing calculator teaching methods on the state mandated End-of-Course (EOC) Physical Science exam based on ability, gender, and ethnicity. The sample included 187 total tenth and eleventh grade physical science students, 101 of which belonged to a control group and 87 of which belonged to the experimental group. Physical Science End-of-Course scores obtained from the Tennessee Department of Education during the spring of 2005 and the spring of 2006 were used to examine the hypotheses. The findings of this research study suggested the type of teaching method, traditional or calculator based, did not have an effect on standardized test scores. However, the students' ability level, as demonstrated on the End-of-Course test, had a significant effect on End-of-Course test scores. This study focused on a limited population of high school physical science students in the middle Tennessee Putnam County area. The study should be reproduced in various school districts in the state of Tennessee to compare the findings.

  17. Significance Testing of Subtest Score Differences: The Case of Nonsignificant Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sorel Cahan; Nora Cohen

    1988-01-01

    Though the testing for the statistical significance of subtest score differences yields a considerable proportion of nonsignificant results (e.g., about two-thirds of the V-P IQ differences on the WISC-R, assuming &agr; = .05), the interpretation of such results has been neglected. This paper examines the implications of the decision rule as they concern statistically nonsignificant results. The acceptance of the

  18. Development and validation of a self-scoring test for coronary heart disease risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phyllis L. Pirie; Russell V. Luepker; David R. Jacobs; James W. Brown; Nancy Hall

    1983-01-01

    Self-administered tests to assess an individual's coronary heart disease risk are common in the popular press. However, delusion and inaccuracy in self-scoring may impair their utility as educational tools. Self-assessment questions concerning dietary cholesterol, weight, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure were administered several days prior to risk measurement to 246 randomly selected adults aged twenty-five to sixty-four. A standard risk

  19. Intelligence test scores and birth order among young Norwegian men (conscripts) analyzed within and between families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tor Bjerkedal; Petter Kristensen; Geir A. Skjeret; John I. Brevik

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984–2004. Conscripts, mostly 18–19 years of age, were born to women for whom almost complete reproductive histories were obtained.

  20. Predicting Academic Achievement with Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Treena Eileen; Thompson, Lee Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explain variation in academic achievement with general cognitive ability and specific cognitive abilities. Grade point average, Wide Range Achievement Test III scores, and SAT scores represented academic achievement. The specific cognitive abilities of interest were: working memory, processing speed, and…

  1. Passing Score and Length of a Mastery Test: An Old Problem Appraoched Anew. Twente Educational Report Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    A classical problem in mastery testing is the choice of passing score and test length so that the mastery decisions are optimal. This problem has been addressed several times from a variety of viewpoints. In this paper, the usual indifference zone approach is adopted, with a new criterion for optimizing the passing score. Specifically,…

  2. Comparison of the Bender Gestalt Test for Both Black and White Brain-Damaged Patients Using Two Scoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Oliver T.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This study tested for cultural bias in the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. Subjects were 72 black and white patients diagnosed as either brain damaged or psychiatric. Bender protocols were scored by Pascal-Suttell and Hain systems. No race effect appeared except for the Pascal-Suttell system for which blacks scored significantly better. (Author)

  3. Interpreting the "g" Loadings of Intelligence Test Composite Scores in Light of Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The linear loadings of intelligence test composite scores on a general factor ("g") have been investigated recently in factor analytic studies. Spearman's law of diminishing returns (SLODR), however, implies that the "g" loadings of test scores likely decrease in magnitude as g increases, or they are nonlinear. The purpose of this study was to (a)…

  4. Using Test-Taking Strategies to Maximize Multiple-Choice Test Scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Dolly; Kathy S. Williams

    1986-01-01

    The study was designed to answer two questions: (1) Can cognitive strategies to increase testwiseness be taught? (2) Can the testwiseness strategies be generalized by students so they can improve their scores on examinations other than those measuring testwiseness? Fifty-four undergraduate education students served as subjects. The treatment consisted of a one-hour lecture\\/discussion presentation covering four cognitive strategies identified as

  5. A score test for overdispersion in zero-inflated poisson mixed regression model.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Liming; Lee, Andy H; Yau, Kelvin K W; McLachlan, Geoffrey J

    2007-03-30

    Count data with extra zeros are common in many medical applications. The zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression model is useful to analyse such data. For hierarchical or correlated count data where the observations are either clustered or represent repeated outcomes from individual subjects, a class of ZIP mixed regression models may be appropriate. However, the ZIP parameter estimates can be severely biased if the non-zero counts are overdispersed in relation to the Poisson distribution. In this paper, a score test is proposed for testing the ZIP mixed regression model against the zero-inflated negative binomial alternative. Sampling distribution and power of the test statistic are evaluated by simulation studies. The results show that the test statistic performs satisfactorily under a wide range of conditions. The test procedure is applied to pancreas disorder length of stay that comprised mainly same-day separations and simultaneous prolonged hospitalizations. PMID:16794991

  6. Level of intrauterine cocaine exposure and neuropsychological test scores in preadolescence: subtle effects on auditory attention and narrative memory.

    PubMed

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Frank, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) (Korkman et al., 1998), after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. PMID:24978115

  7. A score-type test for heterogeneity in zero-inflated models in a stratified population.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guanqun; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Todem, David

    2014-05-30

    We propose a score-type statistic to evaluate heterogeneity in zero-inflated models for count data in a stratified population, where heterogeneity is defined as instances in which the zero counts are generated from two sources. Evaluating heterogeneity in this class of models has attracted considerable attention in the literature, but existing testing procedures have primarily relied on the constancy assumption under the alternative hypothesis. In this paper, we extend the literature by describing a score-type test to evaluate homogeneity against general alternatives that do not neglect the stratification information under the alternative hypothesis. The limiting null distribution of the proposed test statistic is a mixture of chi-squared distributions that can be well approximated by a simple parametric bootstrap procedure. Our numerical simulation studies show that the proposed test can greatly improve efficiency over tests of heterogeneity that ignore the stratification information. An empirical application to dental caries data in early childhood further shows the importance and practical utility of the methodology in using the stratification profile to detect heterogeneity in the population. PMID:24488881

  8. A Comparison of the Approaches of Generalizability Theory and Item Response Theory in Estimating the Reliability of Test Scores for Testlet-Composed Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Guemin; Park, In-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Previous assessments of the reliability of test scores for testlet-composed tests have indicated that item-based estimation methods overestimate reliability. This study was designed to address issues related to the extent to which item-based estimation methods overestimate the reliability of test scores composed of testlets and to compare several…

  9. The Impact of Household Possessions on Youth's Academic Achievement in the Ghana YouthSave Experiment: A Propensity Score Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowa, Gina A. N.; Masa, Rainier D.; Wretman, Christopher J.; Ansong, David

    2013-01-01

    Household assets as part of youth's family background have been found to have a significant impact on youth's academic achievement. In this study, the impact of household possessions on youth's academic achievement in the Ghana YouthSave experiment is investigated. Findings support the hypothesized positive direction of the impact of household…

  10. Predicting First Year University Students' Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olani, Aboma

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Premature withdrawal from university due to academic failure can present problems for students, families and educators. In an effort to widen the understanding regarding factors predicting academic success in higher institutions, prior academic achievement measures (preparatory school grade average point (GPA), aptitude test scores,…

  11. Analysis of comorbid factors that increase the COPD assessment test scores

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Assessment Test (CAT) is a concise health status measure for COPD. COPD patients have a variety of comorbidities, but little is known about their impact on quality of life. This study was designed to investigate comorbid factors that may contribute to high CAT scores. Methods An observational study at Keio University and affiliated hospitals enrolled 336 COPD patients and 67 non-COPD subjects. Health status was assessed by the CAT, the St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and all components of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36-Item (SF-36) version 2, which is a generic measure of health. Comorbidities were identified based on patients’ reports, physicians’ records, and questionnaires, including the Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Dual X-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mineral density were performed. Results The CAT showed moderate-good correlations with the SGRQ and all components of the SF-36. The presence of GERD, depression, arrhythmia, and anxiety was significantly associated with a high CAT score in the COPD patients. Conclusions Symptomatic COPD patients have a high prevalence of comorbidities. A high CAT score should alert the clinician to a higher likelihood of certain comorbidities such as GERD and depression, because these diseases may co-exist unrecognized. Trial registration Clinical trial registered with UMIN (UMIN000003470). PMID:24502760

  12. A toxicity scoring system for the 10-day whole sediment test with Corophium insidiosum (Crawford).

    PubMed

    Prato, Ermelinda; Biandolino, Francesca; Libralato, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    This study developed a tool able to evaluate the potential contamination of marine sediments detecting the presence or absence of toxicity supporting environmental decision-making processes. When the sample is toxic, it is important to classify its level of toxicity to understand its subsequent effects and management practices. Corophium insidiosum is a widespread and frequently recorded species along the Mediterranean Sea, North Sea and western Baltic Sea with records also in the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. This amphipod is found in high abundance in shallow brackish inshore areas and estuaries also with high turbidity. At Italian level, C. insidiosum is more frequently collectable than Corophium orientale, making routine toxicity tests easier to be performed. Moreover, according to the international scientific literature, C. insidiosum is more sensitive than C. orientale. Whole sediment toxicity data (10 days) with C. insidiosum were organised in a species-specific toxicity score on the basis of the minimum significance difference (MSD) approach. Thresholds to rank samples as non-toxic and toxic were based on sediment samples (n?=?84) from the Gulf of Taranto (Italy). A five-class toxicity score (absent, low, medium, high and very high toxicity) was developed, considering the distribution of the 90th percentile of the MSD normalised to the effects on the negative controls (samples from reference sites). This toxicity score could be useful for interpreting sediment potential impacts and providing quick responsive management information. PMID:25773894

  13. Implications of Deployed and Nondeployed Fathers on Seventh Graders' California Achievement Test Scores during a Military Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisano, Mark C.

    The differences in California Achievement Test (CAT) scores from 1990 to 1991 in seventh graders, currently enrolled in Albritton Junior High School in the Fort Bragg Schools, of deployed and nondeployed fathers were analyzed. CAT percentile scores from 1990 and 1991 (1991 being the year of "Desert Storm") were obtained in reading, math and…

  14. Math 199 Contract of Understanding You are enrolled in Math 199 because your Calculus Placement Test score was below the

    E-print Network

    Taalman, Laura

    Math 199 Contract of Understanding You are enrolled in Math 199 because your Calculus Placement Test score was below the cutoff for Math 231. Statistical data from previous semesters shows that students with placement scores of 22 and below (out of 45) have a much higher W/D/F rate in Math 231

  15. The Mote In Thy Brother's Eye, and The Beam in Thine Own: Predicting One's Own and Others' Personality Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Henderson, Monika

    1983-01-01

    Examined the similarity between subjects' (N=63) ratings of themselves and others, on various tests of personality. Results revealed that subjects correctly estimated several of their own scores, but only two scores of another person. They believed themselves to be similar to their friend, thereby showing attributional errors. (JAC)

  16. Validation of Automated Scores of TOEFL iBT Tasks against Non-Test Indicators of Writing Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigle, Sara Cushing

    2010-01-01

    Automated scoring has the potential to dramatically reduce the time and costs associated with the assessment of complex skills such as writing, but its use must be validated against a variety of criteria for it to be accepted by test users and stakeholders. This study approaches validity by comparing human and automated scores on responses to…

  17. An Examination of the Relationship Between School Scores Derived From Commercial Achievement Tests and Those From Statewide Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blust, Ross S.; Kohr, Richard L.

    An apparent discrepancy between building level scores in basic skills produced by Pennsylvania's state assessment program (EQA) and building summary scores, generally a grade equivalent, provided by commercial standardized achievement tests is investigated. The impetus for the study came from occasional reports by school administrators that their…

  18. Improving Personality Facet Scores with Multidimensional Computer Adaptive Testing: An Illustration with the Neo Pi-R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Narrowly defined personality facet scores are commonly reported and used for making decisions in clinical and organizational settings. Although these facets are typically related, scoring is usually carried out for a single facet at a time. This method can be ineffective and time consuming when personality tests contain many highly correlated…

  19. The effect of constructivist teaching strategies on science test scores of middle school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaca, James L., Jr.

    International studies show that the United States is lagging behind other industrialized countries in science proficiency. The studies revealed how American students showed little significant gain on standardized tests in science between 1995 and 2005. Little information is available regarding how reform in American teaching strategies in science could improve student performance on standardized testing. The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study using a pretest/posttest control group design was to examine how the use of a hands-on, constructivist teaching approach with low achieving eighth grade science students affected student achievement on the 2007 Ohio Eighth Grade Science Achievement Test posttest (N = 76). The research question asked how using constructivist teaching strategies in the science classroom affected student performance on standardized tests. Two independent samples of 38 students each consisting of low achieving science students as identified by seventh grade science scores and scores on the Ohio Eighth Grade Science Half-Length Practice Test pretest were used. Four comparisons were made between the control group receiving traditional classroom instruction and the experimental group receiving constructivist instruction including: (a) pretest/posttest standard comparison, (b) comparison of the number of students who passed the posttest, (c) comparison of the six standards covered on the posttest, (d) posttest's sample means comparison. A Mann-Whitney U Test revealed that there was no significant difference between the independent sample distributions for the control group and the experimental group. These findings contribute to positive social change by investigating science teaching strategies that could be used in eighth grade science classes to improve student achievement in science.

  20. The Factorial Validity of Scores from a Cognitively Designed Test: The Spatial Learning Ability Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan E.

    1997-01-01

    Four studies of the factorial validity of the Spatial Learning Ability Test (SLAT), involving 431 undergraduates, were summarized to elaborate nomothetic span. These studies support the SLAT as a spatial processing measure. The SLAT, compared to a test with the same item type, was a more pure measure of spatial ability. (SLD)

  1. Test and Score Data Summary for TOEFL[R] Internet-Based and Paper-Based Tests. January 2008-December 2008 Test Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM], better known as TOEFL[R], is designed to measure the English-language proficiency of people whose native language is not English. TOEFL scores are accepted by more than 6,000 colleges, universities, and licensing agencies in 130 countries. The test is also used by governments, and scholarship and…

  2. Normative Scores for the NIH Toolbox Dynamic Visual Acuity Test from 3 to 85?Years

    PubMed Central

    Li, Carol; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Rine, Rose Marie; Slotkin, Jerry; Schubert, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the National Institutes of Health Toolbox initiative, a computerized test of dynamic visual acuity (cDVA) was developed and validated as an easy-to-administer, cost- and time-efficient test of vestibular and visual function. To establish normative reference values, 3,992 individuals, aged 3–85?years, without vestibular pathology underwent cDVA testing at multiple clinical research testing facilities across the United States. Test scores were stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. cDVA was worse in males (p?test. Both versions can distinguish between those with and without vestibular pathology (p?=?0.0002 long; p?=?0.0025 short). The intraclass correlation coefficient between long- and short-cDVA tests was 0.86. PMID:25400618

  3. Tissue pretreatment with formic acid might lower HercepTest scores in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, Florian R; Kristiansen, Glen; Boesl, Andreas; Burkhardt, Mick; Pahl, Stefan; Dankof, Anja; Dietel, Manfred; Dahl, Edgar

    2006-12-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and other prion diseases are diseases with yet not well-defined routes of transmission and infection. The safe processing of potentially contaminated tissue material remains a challenge for histologic laboratories. Formic acid pretreatment is considered to be effective in prion inactivation. We evaluated the c-erbB2 and the hormone receptor-status in potentially prion infectious breast cancer tissue after pretreatment with formic acid. Paired breast cancer tissue samples were immunostained with commercially available antibodies against c-erbB2, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor with 1 tissue sample of each pair being pretreated with 98% formic acid. Staining was evaluated either according to the HercepTest score or using an immunoreactive score. Additionally, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses were performed for 7 of these cases. Untreated tissues showed strong circumferential staining for c-erbB2 (HercepTest score 3+), whereas the membranous staining of the tissues pretreated with formic acid was significantly weaker. FISH analyses showed no differences in both groups. The hormone receptor expression was not significantly influenced and positivity was maintained in all cases. In breast cancer patients, the pretreatment of tissue with formic acid for prion-decontamination in the case of suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or other prion diseases can lead to underestimation of the immunohistologically determined c-erbB2 status. In these cases, a c-erbB2-FISH analysis should be performed. For the immunostaining of hormone receptors in breast cancer, formic acid pretreatment can be applied without negative effects on the sensitivity or specificity of the assay. PMID:17122652

  4. CT densitovolumetry in children with obliterative bronchiolitis: correlation with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results*,**

    PubMed Central

    Mocelin, Helena; Bueno, Gilberto; Irion, Klaus; Marchiori, Edson; Sarria, Edgar; Watte, Guilherme; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether air trapping (expressed as the percentage of air trapping relative to total lung volume [AT%]) correlates with clinical and functional parameters in children with obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). METHODS: CT scans of 19 children with OB were post-processed for AT% quantification with the use of a fixed threshold of ?950 HU (AT%950) and of thresholds selected with the aid of density masks (AT%DM). Patients were divided into three groups by AT% severity. We examined AT% correlations with oxygen saturation (SO2) at rest, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), minimum SO2 during the six-minute walk test (6MWT_SO2), FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and clinical parameters. RESULTS: The 6MWD was longer in the patients with larger normal lung volumes (r = 0.53). We found that AT%950 showed significant correlations (before and after the exclusion of outliers, respectively) with the clinical score (r = 0.72; 0.80), FVC (r = 0.24; 0.59), FEV1 (r = ?0.58; ?0.67), and FEV1/FVC (r = ?0.53; r = ?0.62), as did AT%DM with the clinical score (r = 0.58; r = 0.63), SO2 at rest (r = ?0.40; r = ?0.61), 6MWT_SO2 (r = ?0.24; r = ?0.55), FVC (r = ?0.44; r = ?0.80), FEV1 (r = ?0.65; r = ?0.71), and FEV1/FVC (r = ?0.41; r = ?0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that AT% correlates significantly with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results in children with OB. PMID:24473764

  5. The Shavelson Model Revisited: Testing for the Structure of Academic Self-Concept Across Pre, Early, and Late Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara M. Byrne; Darlene A. Worth Gavin

    1996-01-01

    Focusing on the academic component of the Shavelson Model, the purposes of the study were fourfold: (a) to test for the multidimensionality of academic self-concept (SC); (b) to test that academic SC is hierarchically structured; (c) to test that predictive influence flows upward from actual behavior (e.g., academic performance) at the base of the model to general SC at its

  6. HRCT in cystic fibrosis in patients with CFTR I1234V mutation: Assessment of scoring systems with low dose technique using multidetector system and correlation with pulmonary function tests

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Venkatraman; Wahab, Atiqa Abdul; Garg, Kailash C; Janahi, Ibrahim; Singh, Rajvir

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Pulmonary changes in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) with CFTR I1234V mutation have not been extensively documented. Impact of geographic influence on phenotypical expression is largely unknown. This descriptive clinical study presents the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) pulmonary findings and computed tomography (CT) scoring with respect to pulmonary function tests (PFT) in a small subset of CF group. Materials and Methods: We examined 29 patients between 2 and 31 years of age with CFTR I1234V mutation. HRCT and PFT were performed within 2 weeks of each other. Imaging abnormalities on HRCT were documented and analyzed by utilizing the scoring system described by Bhalla et al., Brody et al., Helbich et al.,and Santamaria et al. Efficacy of the scoring system with respect to PFT was compared. Statistical Analysis: Inter-observer reliability of the scoring systems was tested using intraclass correlation (ICC) between the two observers. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between the scoring systems and between the scoring systems and PFT results. Results: In our study, right upper and middle lobes were the most frequently involved sites of involvement. Bronchiectasis and peribronchial thickening were the most frequent imaging findings. Scores with all four scoring systems were reproducible, with good ICC coefficient of 0.69. There was good agreement between senior radiologists in all scoring systems. Conclusion: We noted pulmonary imaging abnormalities in a large majority (96%) of our CF patients. There was no significant difference in the CT scores observed from various systems. The CT evaluation system by Broody is detailed and time consuming, and is ideal for research and academic setup. On the other hand, the systems by Bhalla and Santamaria are easy to use, quick, and equally informative. We found the scoring system by Santamaria preferable over that of Bhalla by virtue of additional points of evaluation and ease of use, and therefore better suited for busy clinical practice. PMID:25709165

  7. Admission Test Preparation Admission test scores help professional and graduate programs determine who to admit (and, in some cases, to award merit-

    E-print Network

    Hampton, Randy

    Admission Test Preparation Admission test scores help professional and graduate programs determine-prepared for these tests. Some are tests of aptitude in quantitative skills, verbal and analytical reasoning and/or writing ability (e.g., GRE, LSAT, GMAT), while others are tests of content knowledge (e.g., GRE Subject Tests

  8. Reliability and Validity of the New Tanaka B Intelligence Scale Scores: A Group Intelligence Test

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Yota; Mizukami, Hitomi; Ando, Masahiko; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Iwasaki, Yoko; Ozaki, Norio

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. Methods The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2±0.7 years) residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was assessed using the one-way analysis of variance intraclass correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis for screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function (an FIQ<70) was performed. In addition, stratum-specific likelihood ratios for detection of intellectual disability were calculated. Results The Cronbach’s alpha for the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale IQ (BIQ) was 0.86, and the intraclass correlation coefficient with FIQ was 0.83. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85–0.96). In addition, the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ?65 stratum was 13.8 (95% CI: 3.9–48.9), and the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ?76 stratum was 0.1 (95% CI: 0.03–0.4). Thus, intellectual disability could be ruled out or determined. Conclusion The present results demonstrated that the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale score had high reliability and concurrent validity with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition score. Moreover, the post-test probability for the BIQ could be calculated when screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Test is convenient and can be administered within a variety of settings. This enables evaluation of intellectual development even in settings where performing intelligence tests have previously been difficult. PMID:24940880

  9. The TSCA interagency testing committee`s approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups: 1977-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    This paper describes the TSCA interagency testing committee`s (ITC) approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups between 1977 and 1983. During this time the ITC conducted five scoring exercises to select chemicals and chemical groups for detailed review and to determine which of these chemicals and chemical groups should be added to the TSCA Section 4(e) Priority Testing List. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Do reductions in class size raise students’ test scores? Evidence from population variation in Minnesota's elementary schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyunkuk Cho; Paul Glewwe; Melissa Whitler

    2012-01-01

    â–º Consistent estimation of the impact of class size on student learning is difficult. â–º This paper uses a method introduced by Hoxby (2000). â–º It estimates impacts of class size on test scores of grade 3 and 5 pupils in Minnesota. â–º Reductions in class size increase mathematics and reading test scores in Minnesota. â–º But the effect is

  11. Relationship of Students' Prior Knowledge and Order of Questions on Tests to Students' Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papp, Klara K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study examined whether students beginning a cell biology course with prior knowledge of its three areas (genetics, histology, and biochemistry) would retain that advantage throughout the course and whether achievement was influenced by the order of questions in a test. (MSE)

  12. Predicting First-Quarter Test Scores from the New Medical College Admission Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Thomas J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The predictive validity of the new Medical College Admission Test as it relates to end-of-quarter examinations in anatomy, histology, physiology, biochemistry, and "ages of man" is presented. Results indicate that the Science Knowledge assessment areas of chemistry and physics and the Science Problems subtest were most useful in predicting student…

  13. Multiple tests for wind turbine fault detection and score fusion using two- level multidimensional scaling (MDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiang; Gao, Weihua; Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2010-04-01

    Wind is an important renewable energy source. The energy and economic return from building wind farms justify the expensive investments in doing so. However, without an effective monitoring system, underperforming or faulty turbines will cause a huge loss in revenue. Early detection of such failures help prevent these undesired working conditions. We develop three tests on power curve, rotor speed curve, pitch angle curve of individual turbine. In each test, multiple states are defined to distinguish different working conditions, including complete shut-downs, under-performing states, abnormally frequent default states, as well as normal working states. These three tests are combined to reach a final conclusion, which is more effective than any single test. Through extensive data mining of historical data and verification from farm operators, some state combinations are discovered to be strong indicators of spindle failures, lightning strikes, anemometer faults, etc, for fault detection. In each individual test, and in the score fusion of these tests, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) to reduce the high dimensional feature space into a 3-dimensional visualization, from which it is easier to discover turbine working information. This approach gains a qualitative understanding of turbine performance status to detect faults, and also provides explanations on what has happened for detailed diagnostics. The state-of-the-art SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system in industry can only answer the question whether there are abnormal working states, and our evaluation of multiple states in multiple tests is also promising for diagnostics. In the future, these tests can be readily incorporated in a Bayesian network for intelligent analysis and decision support.

  14. Survival analysis of colorectal cancer patients with tumor recurrence using global score test methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Zakiyah; Aziz, Nazrina; Ahmad, Yuhaniz; Azwan, Zairul; Raduan, Farhana; Sagap, Ismail

    2014-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported.

  15. Academe defends its role in Test Ban Treaty monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakefield, J.

    Recent jockeying for control of congressional seismic research funds has left the U.S. scientific research community uneasy about future cooperation with the federal government in the development of comprehensive nuclear test ban monitoring systems.Even though the language in a Defense authorization bill for fiscal year 1995, which cleared the Senate June 30, will likely be toned down in the House and Senate conference, the “aggressive” maneuvering that ensued to tentatively dispose the bulk of power over the interagency seismic network to the Defense Department, critics say, raises new questions about how science policy decisions are made in the United States and how committed the Congress and some federal agencies are to “reinventing” government under the Clinton-Gore plan. And for now, a hefty chunk of funding for academic seismic research is no longer a sure thing.

  16. Metric-Free Measures of Test Score Trends and Gaps with Policy-Relevant Examples. CSE Report 665

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew D.; Haertel, Edward H.

    2006-01-01

    Problems of scale typically arise when comparing test score trends, gaps, and gap trends across different tests. To overcome some of these difficulties, we can express the difference between the observed test performance of two groups with graphs or statistics that are metric-free (i.e., invariant under positive monotonic transformations of the…

  17. Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

  18. A Ten-Year Study of Test Scores for College-Bound Students in the State of Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noeth, Richard J.

    Test results (1968-1977) on the English and mathematics achievement subtests of the Washington Precollege Test (WPC), administered annually to the vast majority of college bound students in the state of Washington, were examined for evidence of test score decline. The following information from 300,000 students was analyzed by both sex and total…

  19. An analysis of factors correlated with the achievement of the goal standard for the science portion of the Connecticut Academic Performance Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmetz, Barbara Fotta

    2001-07-01

    This study sought to identify factors that could be used to predict the success of students on the science portion of the grade ten Connecticut Academic Performance Test (CAPT). While the Connecticut State Department of Education measures student achievement in mathematics, reading and writing in grades 4, 6, and 8, science is assessed only in the grade ten CAPT. Since the CAPT science test does not identify specific areas in need of improvement, it is not possible to determine causes for low test scores. To address this, the study investigated the predictive values of the grade eight Mastery Tests in mathematics and reading, the student ability scores of the Otis-Lennon School Ability Index, and grades in prior science courses. The research sample consisted of five hundred and twenty-five students, member of the graduating classes of 2000 and 2001 in a large suburban high school. Students in the study had participated in the district testing program and their scores for the grade seven Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT), the grade eight Connecticut Mastery Tests (CMT) and the grade ten Connecticut Academic Performance Tests (CAPT) were available for analysis. This study investigated correlations between student achievement on the CMT and the science subtest of the CAPT, between OLSAT scores and the CAPT science scores, and between grades in ninth grade science and CAPT science scores. Scores were disaggregated by gender and by course level. Hypotheses 1, 2, 3 and 4 investigated the Pearson Product Moment Correlations of the OLSAT, CMT and course grades with scores on the science portion of the CAPT. Hypothesis 5 compared the scores of male and female students, using the t-test of independent sample means. Calculations showed moderate correlations for hypotheses 1--4, and the hypotheses were accepted. Hypothesis 5 was accepted for one class and rejected for the other. On the whole, female students received higher course grades and lower standardized test grades. Recommendations included the use of reading strategies to improve comprehension, the inclusion of inquiry-based science activities in the curriculum, and the development of valid and reliable classroom assessments that allow students to apply their content knowledge in authentic tasks. The suggestion that cultural and social factors could account for differences in scores of male and female students warrants further study.

  20. College Students' Social and Academic Behaviors and Scores on the Five Factors: Are Personality Measures Predictive of Campus Functioning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algeo, Eileen; Robertson, Erin; Pomante, Michael; Dias, Rosabelle; Austin, Megan; Brosh, Joanne; Clark, Stephanie; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study was designed to assess the concurrent validity of the Brief Mini Markers Inventory. The 40-item Mini Markers scale and a 15-item situational response questionnaire were administered to a sample of college students. It was hypothesized that scores on the Mini Marker factors would correlate highly with responses to situations tapping the…

  1. Determining Minimum Cognitive Scores for the First-Time Academic Achievement Success on the Education Doctoral Comprehensive Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavil, Jafus Kenyatta

    2009-01-01

    This purpose of the present study was to estimate minimum admission requirements using cognitive measures that will maximize candidate success on the doctoral comprehensive examination. Moreover, the present study established minimum scores on the Graduate Record Examinations (verbal and quantitative components) that will maximize doctoral student…

  2. Patterns of Change in Scholastic Aptitude Test Performance among Academically Talented Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brounstein, Paul J.; Holahan, William

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of the Scholastic Aptitude Test scores of 640 gifted adolescents indicated that, of the 169 students who had taken the test more than once, average test-retest score gains were large (90 points on math and 70 points on verbal subtests) with most gains in initially weaker areas. (Author/DB)

  3. A Comparative Study of the Pre-Professional Skills Tests (PPST) Test Scores of Pre-Service Teachers at Mankato State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Richard F.

    This research study tested commonly held beliefs concerning gender differences in mental ability. People tend to believe that female pre-service teachers will score significantly higher in verbal ability (reading and writing) than male pre-service teachers, and that male pre-service teachers will score significantly higher in mathematics. The…

  4. Psychometric Analyses of the Test Anxiety Scale for Elementary Students (TASE) Scores among Singapore Primary School Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia A. Lowe; Rebecca P. Ang; Stephen W. Loke

    The psychometric properties of the Test Anxiety Scale for Elementary Students (TAS-E) scores were examined among Singapore\\u000a primary school students. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to determine the factor structure\\u000a of the TAS-E in a sample of 540 Singapore students. In Study 2, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed on the\\u000a TAS-E scores in

  5. Teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of an urban health sciences curriculum in closing the Black-White test score gap: A participatory case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, Joan Marie

    1999-12-01

    Over the past years, progress in Black academic achievement, particularly in the area of science, has generally slowed or ceased. According to the 1994 NAEP assessment, twelfth-grade Black students are performing at the level of White eighth-grade students in the discipline of science (Department of Education, 1996). These students, in their last year of required schooling, are about to graduate, yet they lag at least four years behind their white counterparts in science achievement. Despite the establishment and implementation of numerous science intervention programs, Black students still suffer from a disparate gap in standardized test score achievement. The purpose of this research is to investigate teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of an urban sciences intervention tool that was designed to assist in narrowing the Black-White science academic achievement gap. Specifically, what factors affect teachers' personal sense of instructional efficacy, and how does this translate into their outcome expectancy for student academic success? A multiple-case, replicative design, grounded in descriptive theory, was selected for the study. Multiple sources of evidence were queried to provide robust findings. These sources included a validated health sciences self-efficacy instrument, an interview protocol, a classroom observation, and a review of archival material that included case study participants' personnel files and meeting minutes. A cross-comparative analytic approach was selected for interpretation (Yin, 1994). Findings indicate that teachers attribute the success or failure of educational intervention tools in closing the Black-White test score gap to a variety of internal and external factors. These factors included a perceived lack of both monetary and personal support by the school leadership, as well as a perceived lack of parental involvement which impacted negatively on student achievement patterns. The case study participants displayed a depressed outcome expectancy effect for successful student achievement, which they directly attributed to the barriers stated above. If educational reforms are to be successful, the issues of teachers' perceptions of factors that inhibit their personal ability to instruct, and how that translates to student academic achievement must be addressed.

  6. Age and education effects on relationships of cognitive test scores with brain structure in demographically diverse older persons

    PubMed Central

    Mungas, Dan; Reed, Bruce R.; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; DeCarli, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how age and education influence the relationship between neuropsychological test scores and brain structure in demographically diverse older adults spanning the range from normal cognition to dementia. A sample of 351 African Americans, 410 Hispanics, and 458 Caucasians received neuropsychological testing; volumetric MRI measures of total brain, white matter hyperintensity, and hippocampus were available for 79 African Americans, 102 Hispanics, and 134 Caucasians. Latent variable modeling was used to examine effects of age, education, and brain volumes on test scores and determine how much variance brain volumes explained in unadjusted and age and education adjusted scores. Age adjustment resulted in weaker relationships of test scores with MRI variables and adjustment for ethnicity yielded stronger relationships. Education adjustment increased relationships with MRI in the combined sample and in Hispanics, made no difference in Caucasians, but decreased some associations in African Americans. Results suggest that demographic adjustment is beneficial when demographic variables are strongly related to test scores independent of measures of brain structure, but adjustment has negative consequences when effects of demographic characteristics are mediated by brain structure. PMID:19290743

  7. Effects of Mayfield's Four Questions (M4Q) on Nursing Students' Self-Efficacy and Multiple-Choice Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Linda Riggs

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of being taught the Mayfield's Four Questions multiple-choice test-taking strategy on the perceived self-efficacy and multiple-choice test scores of nursing students in a two-year associate degree program. Experimental and control groups were chosen by stratified random sampling. Subjects completed the 10-statement…

  8. Assessing Follow Through: Changes in Intelligence Test Scores over Two and Three Years of Experience in the Responsive Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayder, Nicolas; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Four Wechsler subscales were administered in a longitudinal design to children from the Responsive Model Follow Through Program. On the first testing, subjects' average intelligence scores were significantly lower, but on subsequent tests equivalent to or higher than national norms, calling into question Deutsch's cumulative-deficit hypothesis.…

  9. Error Rates in Measuring Teacher and School Performance Based on Student Test Score Gains. NCEE 2010-4004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.; Chiang, Hanley S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses likely error rates for measuring teacher and school performance in the upper elementary grades using value-added models applied to student test score gain data. Using realistic performance measurement system schemes based on hypothesis testing, we develop error rate formulas based on OLS and Empirical Bayes estimators.…

  10. Age and Education Effects on Relationships of Cognitive Test Scores With Brain Structure in Demographically Diverse Older Persons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Mungas; Bruce R. Reed; Sarah Tomaszewski Farias; Charles DeCarli

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how age and education influence the relationship between neuropsychological test scores and brain structure in demographically diverse older adults spanning the range from normal cognition to dementia. A sample of 351 African Americans, 410 Hispanics, and 458 Whites underwent neuropsychological testing. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of total brain, white matter hyperintensity, and hippocampus were available

  11. Triple Test Score for the Evaluation of Invasive Ductal and Lobular Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zsofia Egyed; Balázs Járay; Janina Kulka; Zoltán Péntek

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to compare the preoperative sum score diagnostics of invasive ductal and lobular cancers using three\\u000a or four diagnostic methods. The novelty of this study is the examination of this phenomenon based on sum score, no such papers\\u000a can be found in the literature. Ductal cancers have higher score values indicating easier diagnostics, but the

  12. Relationship between Academic Stress and Suicidal Ideation: Testing for Depression as a Mediator Using Multiple Regression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca P. Ang; Vivien S. Huan

    2006-01-01

    Relations among academic stress, depression, and suicidal ideation were examined in 1,108 Asian adolescents 12–18 years old from a secondary school in Singapore. Using Baron and Kenny’s [J Pers Soc Psychol 51:1173–1192, 1986] framework, this study tested the prediction that adolescent depression mediated the relationship between academic stress and suicidal ideation in a four-step process. The previously significant relationship between academic

  13. Prediction of mathematics 102 grades from high school algebra grades and the cooperative elementary algebra test scores

    E-print Network

    Oldham, Eldred Beamon

    1962-01-01

    tests before his registration. These tests are used for purposes of placement and counseling. The tests used in this battery include s college ability test, achieve- ment tests in algebra, chemistry, and English' snd a diagnos- tic reading test. A... variables were scores made on s aultipls test battery given to students as seniors in high school, high school grads point average, ond high school rash, His work showed no difference in predictive power as the vines of the high schools were varied. He...

  14. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Maine's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 438 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 477 for non-Title I students and 441 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale score

  15. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Idaho's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2007, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 209 for non-Title I students and 205 for Title I students. In 2007, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 211 for non-Title I students and 208 for Title I students. Between 2007 and 2009, the mean scale score

  16. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Utah's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 167 for non-Title I students and 164 for Title I students. In 2009 the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 168 for non-Title I students and 164 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2009, the mean scale score

  17. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Kansas' test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 80 for non-Title I students and 73 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 84 for non-Title I students and 78 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale score

  18. Exploration of Analysis Methods for Diagnostic Imaging Tests: Problems with ROC AUC and Confidence Scores in CT Colonography

    PubMed Central

    Mallett, Susan; Halligan, Steve; Collins, Gary S.; Altman, Doug G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Different methods of evaluating diagnostic performance when comparing diagnostic tests may lead to different results. We compared two such approaches, sensitivity and specificity with area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC AUC) for the evaluation of CT colonography for the detection of polyps, either with or without computer assisted detection. Methods In a multireader multicase study of 10 readers and 107 cases we compared sensitivity and specificity, using radiological reporting of the presence or absence of polyps, to ROC AUC calculated from confidence scores concerning the presence of polyps. Both methods were assessed against a reference standard. Here we focus on five readers, selected to illustrate issues in design and analysis. We compared diagnostic measures within readers, showing that differences in results are due to statistical methods. Results Reader performance varied widely depending on whether sensitivity and specificity or ROC AUC was used. There were problems using confidence scores; in assigning scores to all cases; in use of zero scores when no polyps were identified; the bimodal non-normal distribution of scores; fitting ROC curves due to extrapolation beyond the study data; and the undue influence of a few false positive results. Variation due to use of different ROC methods exceeded differences between test results for ROC AUC. Conclusions The confidence scores recorded in our study violated many assumptions of ROC AUC methods, rendering these methods inappropriate. The problems we identified will apply to other detection studies using confidence scores. We found sensitivity and specificity were a more reliable and clinically appropriate method to compare diagnostic tests. PMID:25353643

  19. Relationship between Academic Stress and Suicidal Ideation: Testing for Depression as a Mediator Using Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Huan, Vivien S.

    2006-01-01

    Relations among academic stress, depression, and suicidal ideation were examined in 1,108 Asian adolescents 12-18 years old from a secondary school in Singapore. Using Baron and Kenny's [J Pers Soc Psychol 51:1173-1192, 1986] framework, this study tested the prediction that adolescent depression mediated the relationship between academic stress…

  20. Developing a Standardized List of Questions for the Usability Testing of an Academic Library Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letnikova, Galina

    2008-01-01

    Modern academic libraries have a great number of information resources available online in the form of electronic catalogs, books, journals, and subject subscription databases. To determine whether users can easily retrieve the information they are seeking, academic librarians conduct usability testing of their libraries' Web sites. There has been…

  1. The Relationship among Student Achievement Scores on the Math and Science End-of-Course-Tests and Scores on the High School Graduation Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sherry L.

    2011-01-01

    Thirteen percent of the 2008-2009 senior class in one southeastern state did not pass the science portion of the state's high school graduation test. Another 5% failed to pass the math portion of the graduation test, leaving these students unable to obtain a high school diploma. The purpose of this nonexperimental quantitative research study was…

  2. Detection of acute deterioration in health status visit among COPD patients by monitoring COPD assessment test score

    PubMed Central

    Pothirat, Chaicharn; Chaiwong, Warawut; Limsukon, Atikun; Deesomchok, Athavudh; Liwsrisakun, Chalerm; Bumroongkit, Chaiwat; Theerakittikul, Theerakorn; Phetsuk, Nittaya

    2015-01-01

    Background The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Assessment Test (CAT) could play a role in detecting acute deterioration in health status during monitoring visits in routine clinical practice. Objective To evaluate the discriminative property of a change in CAT score from a stable baseline visit for detecting acute deterioration in health status visits of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Methods The CAT questionnaire was administered to stable COPD patients routinely attending the chest clinic of Chiang Mai University Hospital who were monitored using the CAT score every 1–3 months for 15 months. Acute deterioration in health status was defined as worsening or exacerbation. CAT scores at baseline, and subsequent visits with acute deterioration in health status were analyzed using the t-test. The receiver operating characteristic curve was performed to evaluate the discriminative property of change in CAT score for detecting acute deterioration during a health status visit. Results A total of 354 follow-up visits were made by 140 patients, aged 71.1±8.4 years, with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 47.49%±18.2% predicted, who were monitored for 15 months. The mean CAT score change between stable baseline visits, by patients’ and physicians’ global assessments, were 0.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], ?0.37–0.46) and 0.18 (95% CI, ?0.23–0.60), respectively. At worsening visits, as assessed by patients, there was significant increase in CAT score (6.07; 95% CI, 4.95–7.19). There were also significant increases in CAT scores at visits with mild and moderate exacerbation (5.51 [95% CI, 4.39–6.63] and 8.84 [95% CI, 6.29–11.39], respectively), as assessed by physicians. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of CAT score change for the detection of acute deterioration in health status was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84–0.94), and the optimum cut-off point score was at 4, with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 76.8%, 83.6%, and 82.4%, respectively. Conclusions Change in CAT score during monitoring visits is useful for detecting acute deterioration in health status, and a change of 4 units could make a moderate prediction of acute deterioration in health status. PMID:25678783

  3. Extended Homozygosity Score Tests to Detect Positive Selection in Genome-wide Scans

    E-print Network

    Zhong, Ming

    2011-08-08

    are able to replicate findings reported in the literature. We can also identify new candidate regions that may undergo recent selection through a set of filtering criteria including highest EHHT scores, high derived allele frequency and large population...

  4. The Effect of Socioeconomic Levels and Similar Instruction on Scholastic Aptitude Test Scores of Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolinger, Rex W.

    Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores of Asian, Hispanic, Black, and White students with similar socioeconomic backgrounds and access to similar instruction in the same large midwestern school district were compared. Income levels were determined by using federal guidelines for free and reduced school lunches. The population of the study consisted…

  5. Differential Predictive Validity of High School GPA and College Entrance Test Scores for University Students in Yemen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hattami, Abdulghani Ali Dawod

    2012-01-01

    High school grade point average and college entrance test scores are two admission criteria that are currently used by most colleges in Yemen to select their prospective students. Given their widespread use, it is important to investigate their predictive validity to ensure the accuracy of the admission decisions in these institutions. This study…

  6. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 3: Are Achievement Gaps Closing and Is Achievement Rising for All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    A main goal of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is to close gaps in test scores between different groups of students while raising achievement for all groups. Of particular concern are the persistent achievement gaps between African American, Latino, and Native American students and their white and Asian counterparts, and between students from…

  7. School choice, racial segregation, and test-score gaps: Evidence from North Carolina's charter school program&ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Bifulco; Helen F. Ladd

    2007-01-01

    Using panel data that track individual students from year to year, we examine the effects of charter schools in North Carolina on racial segregation and black-white test score gaps. We find that North Carolina's system of charter schools has increased the racial isolation of both black and white students, and has widened the achievement gap. Moreover, the relatively large negative

  8. Sparse kernel density construction using orthogonal forward regression with leave-one-out test score and local regularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng Chen; Xia Hong; Chris J. Harris

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient construction algorithm for obtaining sparse kernel density estimates based on a regression approach that directly optimizes model generalization capability. Computational efficiency of the density construction is ensured using an orthogonal forward regression, and the algorithm incrementally minimizes the leave-one-out test score. A local regularization method is incorporated naturally into the density construction process to further

  9. The Performance of Latinos in Rural Public Schools: A Comparative Analysis of Test Scores in Grades 3, 6, and 12

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Hampton; Javier M. Ekboir; Refugio I. Rochin

    1995-01-01

    Over the lastfew decades, California 's rural communities have experienced a sociodemographic transformation as the percentage of Latinos in these towns increased dramatically. These high concentrations of Latinos are correlated with poverty and low educational achievement. Using multiple regression analysis, this study examines how socioeconomic status, school funding, English proficiency, and Latino concentration affect test scores. This study's major findings

  10. Legal Issues in the Use of Student Test Scores and Value-Added Models (VAM) to Determine Educational Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pullin, Diana

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of states and local schools across the country have adopted educator evaluation and accountability programs based on the use of student test scores and value-added models (VAM). A wide array of potential legal issues could arise from the implementation of these programs. This article uses legal analysis and social science evidence…

  11. Use of e-rater[R] in Scoring of the TOEFL iBT[R] Writing Test. Research Report. ETS RR-11-25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.

    2011-01-01

    Alternative approaches are discussed for use of e-rater[R] to score the TOEFL iBT[R] Writing test. These approaches involve alternate criteria. In the 1st approach, the predicted variable is the expected rater score of the examinee's 2 essays. In the 2nd approach, the predicted variable is the expected rater score of 2 essay responses by the…

  12. A Comparison of Random Normal Scores Test under the F and Chi-Square Distributions to the 2x2x2 ANOVA Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawilowsky, Shlomo

    1985-01-01

    The Random Normal Scores Test (RNST) has been suggested as a powerful alternative to the use of the parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) test when the underlying population is non-normally distributed. The major support for this suggestion rests on asymptotic theory. An empirical analysis of the RNST performed under the F and Chi-square…

  13. Course of COPD Assessment Test (CAT) Scores During Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treated in Outpatient Setting

    PubMed Central

    Minov, Jordan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Vasilevska, Kristin; Stoleski, Saso; Mijakoski, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : COPD Assessment Test (CAT) is an 8-items questionnaire for assessment of health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objective : To evaluate the course of CAT scores during bacterial exacerbations of COPD treated in outpatient setting. Methods : We performed an observational, prospective study including 81 outpatients (57 males and 24 females, aged 43 to 74 years) with bacterial exacerbation of COPD. All participants completed CAT at initial visit (i.e. at the time of diagnosis of exacerbation and beginning of its treatment), 10 and 30 days after initial visit. Mean scores of each item, as well as the overall mean score, at these time points were compared. Results : The mean scores for each CAT question at initial visit varied from 2.6 to 3.5, whereas the mean scores for each CAT question 10 days after initial visit varied from 1.7 to 2.6. We registered significant reduction of the mean overall CAT score 10 days after initial visit as compared to its value at initial visit of 6.9 ± 2.7 points (16.8 vs 23.7; P < 0.001). The mean scores for each CAT question 30 days after initial visit varied from 1.3 to 2.4. We registered reduction of mean overall CAT score 30 days after initial visit as compared to its score 10 days after initial visit of 2.9 ± 1.2 points (13.9 vs 16.8; P < 0.005). The mean overall CAT score 30 days after initial visit was reduced for 9.8 ± 4.5 points as compared to its value at initial visit (13.9 vs 23.7; P < 0.001). Conclusion : We found significant improvement in the patient’s health status during recovery from exacerbation as compared to their health status at the time of exacerbation confirming the CAT as an effective tool to measure health status in patients with COPD.

  14. Investigating the Influence of the Open Court Language Arts Curriculum on Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Denise Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Language Arts is one of the most important subjects for students to learn. Encompassing reading, writing, and comprehension, skills learned through Language Arts instruction influence student ability to reach levels of academic achievement in all subjects. Additionally, Language Arts skills reach far past the classroom and into the workplace. In…

  15. The Reciprocal Internal/External Frame of Reference Model Using Grades and Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Möller, Jens; Zimmermann, Friederike; Köller, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Background: The reciprocal I/E model (RI/EM) combines the internal/external frame of reference model (I/EM) with the reciprocal effects model (REM). The RI/EM extends the I/EM longitudinally and the REM across domains. The model predicts that, within domains, mathematics and verbal achievement (VACH) and academic self-concept have positive effects…

  16. Participation of Minority Students Rises 32 Pct. in Advanced-Placement Tests; Many Score High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Beverly T.

    1988-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Program has become a "program of academic opportunity" for students in high schools that enroll large numbers of minority groups. These schools are raising the expectations of minority students and helping them achieve higher goals, and they are bringing them into professional and graduate schools. (MLW)

  17. The Influence of Social Capital on Test Scores: How Much Do Families, Schools & Communities Matter?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn D. Israel; Lionel J. Beaulieu

    Promoting the academic success of America's youth has been debated intensely within national and state policy arenas. Evidence has accumulated which shows that families and communities must be engaged in helping youth to be successful in school. In this paper, we employ the notion of social capital as a framework for understanding the performance of public school students. Our earlier

  18. Access, attrition, test scores, and grades of college entrants and persisters: 1965–1973

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip R. Rever; Lawrence K. Kojaku

    1976-01-01

    This study contrasts the distributions of indices of academic abilities and achievements of entering freshmen classes and of classes at the end of the first year of college over an eight-year period. The data reported are based on two groups of students: one comprised of all students who completed the ACT Assessment Program and subsequently enrolled in college, and the

  19. The Impact of Curriculum Looping on Standardized Literacy and Mathematics Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nessler, Ralph D.

    2010-01-01

    There is a lack of research on the practice of curriculum looping and student achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine academic achievement between students in looping classes and those in nonlooping classes. The theoretical model of this study was based on the social cognitive theory of Bandura and Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory.…

  20. Testing Measurement Invariance of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Scores across Spanish and Swiss Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Badoud, Deborah; Knecht, Francesca; Paino, Mercedes; Eliez, Stephan; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Debbané, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background Schizotypy is a complex construct intimately related to psychosis. Empirical evidence indicates that participants with high scores on schizotypal self-report are at a heightened risk for the later development of psychotic disorders. Schizotypal experiences represent the behavioural expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Previous factorial studies have shown that schizotypy is a multidimensional construct similar to that found in patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B), the three-dimensional model has been widely replicated. However, there has been no in-depth investigation of whether the dimensional structure underlying the SPQ-B scores is invariant across countries. Methods The main goal of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of the SPQ-B scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents. The final sample was made up of 261 Spanish participants (51.7% men; M?=?16.04 years) and 241 Swiss participants (52.3% men; M?=?15.94 years). Results The results indicated that Raine et al.'s three-factor model presented adequate goodness-of-fit indices. Moreover, the results supported the measurement invariance (configural and partial strong invariance) of the SPQ-B scores across the two samples. Spanish participants scored higher on Interpersonal dimension than Swiss when latent means were compared. Discussion The study of measurement equivalence across countries provides preliminary evidence for the Raine et al.'s three-factor model and of the cross-cultural validity of the SPQ-B scores in adolescent population. Future studies should continue to examine the measurement invariance of the schizotypy and psychosis-risk syndromes across cultures. PMID:24349180

  1. Faith Schools, Social Capital and Academic Attainment: Evidence from TIMSS-R Mathematics Scores in Flemish Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Geoff; Telhaj, Shqiponje

    2008-01-01

    Social capital theory, recent developments in the theory of identity and a small econometric literature all suggest positive attainment effects from faith schooling. To test this hypothesis, the authors use a unique data set on Flemish secondary school students from the 1999 repeat of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study to…

  2. The Relationship between Kindergarten Students' Home Block Play and Their Spatial Ability Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tracy Anne

    2010-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly aware of the role of spatial skills in preparing children for future mathematics achievement (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008). In addition, sex differences have been consistently documented showing boys score higher than girls in assessments of spatial ability, particularly mental rotation (Linn & Peterson,…

  3. Out-of-School Time Program Test Score Impact for Black Children of Single-Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Barry T.

    2013-01-01

    Out-of-School Time programs and their impact on standardized college entrance exam scores for black or African-American children of single parents who have applied for a competitive college scholarship program is the study focus. Study importance is supported by the large percentage of black children raised by single parents, the large percentage…

  4. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of Fourth Graders: Evidence from TIMSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in 7 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries--Australia, Japan, the…

  5. Examining the Achievement Test Score Gap between Urban and Suburban Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandy, Jonathan; Duncan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience for Youth (1997 cohort) are used to examine the urban school achievement gap. Specifically, we use the Blinder-Oaxaca technique to decompose differences in Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery scores for students who attended urban and suburban schools. We find that…

  6. IRT True-Score Test Equating: A Guide through Assumptions and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Davier, Alina A.; Wilson, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the assumptions required by the item response theory (IRT) true-score equating method (with Stocking & Lord, 1983; scaling approach), which is commonly used in the nonequivalent groups with an anchor data-collection design. More precisely, this article investigates the assumptions made at each step by the IRT approach to…

  7. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Rhode Island's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 435 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 448 for non-Title I students and 440 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  8. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles California's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 341 for non-Title I students and 315 for Title I students. In 2008, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 379 for non-Title I students and 340 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2008, the mean scale…

  9. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Missouri's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 661 for non-Title I students and 642 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 661 for non-Title I students and 648 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, there was no…

  10. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Pennsylvania's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 1390 for non-Title I students and 1220 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 1420 for non-Title I students and 1270 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  11. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Massachusetts's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, 59% of non-Title I 4th graders and 29% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 64% of non-Title I 4th graders and 31% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level in reading. Between 2006 and 2009, the…

  12. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Arizona's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2005, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 478 for non-Title I students and 445 for Title I students. In 2008, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 477 for non-title I students and 450 for title I students. Between 2005 and 2008, the mean scale…

  13. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? New Hampshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles New Hampshire's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 438 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 448 for non-Title I students and 441 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  14. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Texas's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2005, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 2297 for non-Title I students and 2207 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 2334 for non-Title I students and 2235 for Title I students. Between 2005 and 2009, the mean scale…

  15. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Colorado's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2003, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 598 for non-Title I students and 558 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 599 for non-Title I students and 556 for Title I students. Between 2003 and 2009, the mean scale…

  16. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles North Carolina's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade math test was 351 for non-Title I students and 347 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade math was 354 for non-Title I students and 350 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…

  17. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Tennessee's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 501 for non-Title I students and 486 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 512 for non-Title I students and 495 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2009, the mean scale…

  18. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Kentucky's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2007, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 455 for non-Title I students and 451 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 455 for non-Title I students and 451 for Title I students. Between 2007 and 2009, the mean scale…

  19. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Maryland's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, 82% of non-Title I 4th graders and 61% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 90% of non-Title I 4th graders and 78% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level in reading. Between 2004 and 2009, the percentage…

  20. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Delaware's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 474 for non-Title I students and 464 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 478 for non-Title I students and 467 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…

  1. Development and Psychometric Testing of a Quality of Recovery Score After General Anesthesia and Surgery in Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul S. Myles; Jennifer O. Hunt; Claire E. Nightingale; Helen Fletcher; Terence Beh; Deral Tanil; Attila Nagy; Alan Rubinstein; Jennie L. Ponsford

    1999-01-01

    a significant negative relationship between QoR Score and female gender (P 5 0.048) and older age (P 5 0.041). There was also good interrater agreement (r 5 0.55, P , 0.0001), test-retest reliability (median r 5 0.61, P , 0.0001), and internal consistency (a 5 0.57 and 0.90, P , 0.0001). There was a significant difference between the groups of

  2. The effect of an intervention program on functional movement screen test scores in mixed martial arts athletes.

    PubMed

    Bodden, Jamie G; Needham, Robert A; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the basic fundamental movements of mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes using the functional movement screen (FMS) assessment and determined if an intervention program was successful at improving results. Participants were placed into 1 of the 2 groups: intervention and control groups. The intervention group was required to complete a corrective exercise program 4 times per week, and all participants were asked to continue their usual MMA training routine. A mid-intervention FMS test was included to examine if successful results were noticed sooner than the 8-week period. Results highlighted differences in FMS test scores between the control group and intervention group (p = 0.006). Post hoc testing revealed a significant increase in the FMS score of the intervention group between weeks 0 and 8 (p = 0.00) and weeks 0 and 4 (p = 0.00) and no significant increase between weeks 4 and 8 (p = 1.00). A ? analysis revealed that the intervention group participants were more likely to have an FMS score >14 than participants in the control group at week 4 (? = 7.29, p < 0.01) and week 8 (? = 5.2, p ? 0.05). Finally, a greater number of participants in the intervention group were free from asymmetry at week 4 and week 8 compared with the initial test period. The results of the study suggested that a 4-week intervention program was sufficient at improving FMS scores. Most if not all, the movements covered on the FMS relate to many aspects of MMA training. The knowledge that the FMS can identify movement dysfunctions and, furthermore, the fact that the issues can be improved through a standardized intervention program could be advantageous to MMA coaches, thus, providing the opportunity to adapt and implement new additions to training programs. PMID:23860293

  3. Use of the Abbreviated Mental Test Score by junior doctors on patients with fractured neck of femur

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. P. M. Jain; P. M. Guyver; P. McCarthy; S. Sarasin; N. K. Rouholamin; M. J. H. McCarthy

    2008-01-01

    Introduction  The mental state of patients with fractured neck of femur is important as a predictor of post-operative outcome. The Hodgkinson\\u000a Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS) is a validated and simple method of assessing the pre-operative mental state of patients\\u000a with fractured neck of femur. This survey investigated whether or not orthopaedic junior doctors (SHOs) appreciated the importance\\u000a of mental state

  4. Stated vocational aims and Strong interest test scores of high school senior girls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Skodak; O. L. Crissey

    1942-01-01

    One-fourth of the stated vocational choices of 297 girl senior students from the pre-college, commercial, and general and home economics groups of two Flint, Michigan, high schools was in office work. The concentration of highest Strong scores was in stenography, office work, home-making, and nursing––4 occupations between which the Strong Blank does not discriminate adequately. Therefore the Strong Blank is

  5. Adapting Academic Course Materials in Software Testing for Industrial Professional DevelopmentTesting for Industrial Professional Development

    E-print Network

    Adapting Academic Course Materials in Software Testing for Industrial Professional DevelopmentTesting for Industrial Professional Development M d il NSF P jMore details on NSF Project: http.associationforsoftwaretesting.org/drupal/courseshttp://www.associationforsoftwaretesting.org/drupal/courses C K J D Ph DCem Kaner, J.D., Ph.D. Professor of Software Engineering Florida Tech Colloquium

  6. Bad Tests, Good Outcomes: Using State Teacher Licensing Scores to Improve the Curriculum, Help Students Meet Their Professional Goals, and Keep Relationships Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olwell, Russell

    2008-01-01

    As universities become more invested in assessment and outcomes, department chairs and deans increasingly are asked to figure out why some departments score well on tests, and others dismally low. In this article, the author sets out some guidelines and processes for examining test score data, in order to save time for faculty members and…

  7. Looking Beyond Test Score Gains: State Accountability's Effect on the Differential Black-White Levels of Education Attainment and Labor Market Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen N. Wong

    Many papers in the accountability literature have attempted to document whether accountability programs have played a role in producing higher test scores. However, given that test scores are not the appropriate measure to gauge accountability programs' success for a number of reasons, this paper seeks to determine whether they may have had larger impacts on more significant measures of student

  8. The Role of Racial Identity, Academic Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem in the Prediction of Academic Outcomes for African American Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Germine H. Awad

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent to which racial identity, academic self-concept, and self-esteem predict two types of academic outcomes, grade point average (GPA), and verbal Graduate Record Examination scores. Although grades and standardized test performance are often collapsed under the category of academic performance, no studies have examined both of these variables' relations with

  9. Does It Matter if You "Kill" the Patient or Order Too Many Tests? Scoring Alternatives for a Test of Clinical Reasoning Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Ruth A.; Dunn, Jennifer L.; van Barneveld, Christina; Jaciw, Andrew P.

    2007-01-01

    This study compares five scoring approaches for a test of clinical reasoning skills. All of the approaches incorporate information about the correct item responses selected and the errors, such as selecting too many responses or selecting a response that is inappropriate and/or harmful to the patient. The approaches are combinations of theoretical…

  10. On the Efficiency of Score Tests for Homogeneity in Two-Component Parametric Models for Discrete Data

    PubMed Central

    Todem, David; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Kim, Kyung Mann

    2013-01-01

    Summary In many applications of two-component mixture models for discrete data such as zero-inflated models, it is often of interest to conduct inferences for the mixing weights. Score tests derived from the marginal model that allows for negative mixing weights have been particularly useful for this purpose. But the existing testing procedures often rely on restrictive assumptions such as the constancy of the mixing weights and typically ignore the structural constraints of the marginal model. In this article, we develop a score test of homogeneity that overcomes the limitations of existing procedures. The technique is based on a decomposition of the mixing weights into terms that have an obvious statistical interpretation. We exploit this decomposition to lay the foundation of the test. Simulation results show that the proposed covariate-adjusted test statistic can greatly improve the efficiency over test statistics based on constant mixing weights. A real-life example in dental caries research is used to illustrate the methodology. PMID:22348298

  11. Usability Testing of an Academic Library Web Site: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battleson, Brenda; Booth, Austin; Weintrop, Jane

    2001-01-01

    Discusses usability testing as a tool for evaluating the effectiveness and ease of use of academic library Web sites; considers human-computer interaction; reviews major usability principles; and explores the application of formal usability testing to an existing site at the University at Buffalo (NY) libraries. (Author/LRW)

  12. Usability testing of an academic library Web site: a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brenda Battleson; Austin Booth; Jane Weintrop

    2001-01-01

    Usability testing is an invaluable tool for evaluating the effectiveness and ease of use of academic library Web sites. This article reviews major usability principles and explores the application of formal usability testing to an existing site at the University at Buffalo libraries.

  13. Academic Achievement, Perfectionism and Social Support as Predictors of Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Ibrahim; Genctanirim, Dilek; Yalcin, Ilhan; Baydan, Yaprak

    2008-01-01

    This study examined likelihood of high school students' gender, levels of academic achievement, perfectionism and perceived social support in predicting their degree of test anxiety. Participants were 505 students from high schools in the Ankara metropolitan area. The Test Anxiety Inventory, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and Perceived…

  14. Correlations Between Chiropractic National Board (Part I) Scores and Basic Science Course Grades and Related Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfenberger, Virginia

    1999-01-01

    A study at one institution found significant correlations between students' scores on the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners test and academic achievement data. Results indicate that it is not always course subject matter that influences the relationship between course grade and board scores, but may instead be the ability to assimilate…

  15. Scoring Best on All Life's Tests--By Using Your "Whole Brain."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenzer, Ronald L.

    This collection of documents contains advice on doing well on tests by preparing and using the whole brain. The first sheet contains general tips for helping students become fact-smart, how to improve test-smartness, and how to build test-smartness. The combination of these three approaches assures that students will do their best on tests. The…

  16. Number Right Scores as a Function of Item Arrangement, Knowledge of Arrangement, and Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Barbara S.; And Others

    Effects of item arrangement (easy-hard, uniform, and random), test anxiety, and sex on a 48-item multiple-choice mathematics test assembled from items of the American College Testing Program and taken by motivated upper level undergraduates and beginning graduate students were investigated. Four measures of anxiety were used: the Achievement Test

  17. Scoring neuropsychological tests using the Rasch model: an illustrative example with the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Gerardo; Delgado, Ana R; Perea, Maria V; Ladera, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Parametric statistical methods are typically used for analyzing test scores, even though they are ordinal at best. The Meyers and Meyers' Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure four-category scoring system has been evaluated with the Rasch Rating Scale Model, and disordered thresholds have been found. However, Rasch-modeling dichotomized data led to good fit for both normal (n = 219) and Traumatic Brain Injury (n = 54) samples and generalized validity for these groups, as well as for male and female groups. The logarithmic transformation of the item and person data performed by the model converts the ordinal data to yield interval scaled data. This is desirable not only from a scientific perspective, but also from the point of view of interpretability and communicability. PMID:19658034

  18. Pass-Fail Reliability for Tests with Cut Scores: A Simplified Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breyer, F. Jay; Lewis, Charles

    A single-administration classification reliability index is described that estimates the probability of consistently classifying examinees to mastery or nonmastery states as if those examinees had been tested with two alternate forms. The procedure is applicable to any test used for classification purposes, subdividing that test into two…

  19. The Effect of Variations of the Metropolitan Reading Readiness Test upon Scores of Culturally Disadvantaged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Lois A.; Guthrie, Larry F.

    The Word Meaning section of the Metropolitan Readiness Test, Form A, was questioned as a true measure of the capabilities of culturally disadvantaged children. Therefore, an attempt was made to compare the Metropolitan Reading Readiness Test with a test in which as many objects as possible were renamed to coincide with the language of the students…

  20. The MDT Innovation: Machine-Scoring of Fill-in-the-Blank Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Paul S.

    The Multi-Digit Technologies (MDT) testing technique is discussed as the first major advance in computer assisted testing in several decades. The MDT testing method uses fill-in-the-blank or completion-type questions, with an alphabetized long list of possible responses. An MDT answer sheet is used to record the code number of the answer. For…

  1. The relationship between the ability to identify evaluation criteria and integrity test scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CORNELIUS J. KÖNIG; KLAUS G. MELCHERS; MARTIN KLEINMANN; GERALD M. RICHTER; UTE-CHRISTINE KLEHE

    2006-01-01

    It has been argued that applicants who have the ability to identify what kind of behavior is evaluated positively in a personnel selection situation can use this information to adapt their behavior accordingly. Although this idea has been tested for assessment centers and structured interviews, it has not been studied with regard to integrity tests (or other personal- ity tests).

  2. How Do Shocks to Non-Cognitive Skills Affect Test Scores?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanie Behncke

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which test performance is affected by shocks to non-cognitive skills. 440 students took a low stakes mathematics test. About half of them were exposed to positive affirmation while being given test instructions, whereas the other half served as controls. The students were allocated to 14 tutorials and randomisation was conducted at the tutorial level.

  3. The relationship of noncredible performance to continuous performance test scores in adults referred for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder evaluation.

    PubMed

    Suhr, Julie A; Sullivan, Brian K; Rodriguez, Jose Luis

    2011-02-01

    Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults is complicated by the fact that neither symptom report nor neuropsychological findings are specific to the diagnosis. Few studies have addressed the possibility that noncredible performance influences the effectiveness of neuropsychological test findings in ADHD assessment. The present study utilized archival data on Conner's Continuous Performance Test (CPT) scores from young adults referred for concerns about ADHD at two different universities, who were divided into three groups: (1) those who failed a measure of noncredible performance (the Word Memory Test; WMT), (2) those who met diagnostic criteria for ADHD, and (3) controls with psychological symptoms who did not meet the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. More individuals who failed the WMT were also clinically impaired on the CPT than individuals diagnosed with ADHD and individuals with psychological symptoms, who could not be distinguished from each other. Results demonstrate the importance of assessing for noncredible performance before interpreting neuropsychological test scores in ADHD assessment. Results also emphasize the importance of considering other disorders that can impact CPT performance prior to interpreting CPT impairment as indicative of ADHD. PMID:21159792

  4. Tacit knowledge: A refinement and empirical test of the Academic Tacit Knowledge Scale.

    PubMed

    Insch, Gary S; McIntyre, Nancy; Dawley, David

    2008-11-01

    Researchers have linked tacit knowledge to improved organizational performance, but research on how to measure tacit knowledge is scarce. In the present study, the authors proposed and empirically tested a model of tacit knowledge and an accompanying measurement scale of academic tacit knowledge. They present 6 hypotheses that support the proposed tacit knowledge model regarding the role of cognitive (self-motivation, self-organization); technical (individual task, institutional task); and social (task-related, general) skills. The authors tested these hypotheses with 542 responses to the Academic Tacit Knowledge Scale, which included the respondents' grade point average-the performance variable. All 6 hypotheses were supported. PMID:19049237

  5. The Racial Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Toneka M.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the racial academic achievement gap is a problem that must be solved in order for future society to properly function. Minorities including African-American and Latino students' standardized test scores are much lower than white students. By the end of fourth grade, African American, Latino, and poor students of all races are two years…

  6. Changes in Test Scores Distribution for Students of the Fourth Grade in Brazil: A Relative Distribution Analysis for the Years 1997-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, Clarissa Guimaraes; Rios-Neto, Eduardo Luiz Goncalves; de Xavier Pinto, Cristine Campos

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, the mean of math test scores for students of the fourth grade declined by approximately 0.2 standard deviation in the late 1990s. However, the potential changes in the distribution of scores have never been addressed. It is unclear if the decline was caused by deterioration in student performance levels at the upper and/or lower tails…

  7. The Impact of Intensive Reading Interventions on Student Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Carolyn Sue

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the impact intensive reading instruction had for 28 students with learning disabilities at the middle school level on standardized tests. National Assessment of Education Progress testing indicates that across the United States, learning disabled students literacy skills are decreasing annually, and these…

  8. Time-Score Analysis in Criterion-Referenced Tests. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.; Tatsuoka, Maurice M.

    The family of Weibull distributions was investigated as a model for the distributions of response times for items in computer-based criterion-referenced tests. The fit of these distributions were, with a few exceptions, good to excellent according to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. For a few relatively simple items, the two-parameter gamma…

  9. Making the Cut: How States Set Passing Scores on Standardized Tests. Explainer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotherham, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    In the current climate of accountability in American public education, tests get more attention and carry more importance than ever before. Both state accountability systems and the federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) hold schools accountable for whether students pass standardized state tests. NCLB requires that schools and school districts…

  10. Correlation of SPINE Test Scores to Judges' Ratings of Speech Intelligibility in Hearing-Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Colleen; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The SPINE test (SPeech INtelligibility Evaluation), designed to measure speech intelligibility of severely to profoundly hearing-impaired children was administered to 30 hearing-impaired children (12-16 years old) to examine its validity. Results suggested that the SPINE test is a valid measure of speech intelligibility with hearing-impaired…

  11. Identifying Language Impairment in Children: Combining Language Test Scores with Parental Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; McDonald, David

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children who meet language test criteria for specific language impairment (SLI) are not necessarily the same as those who are referred to a speech and language therapist. Aims: To consider how far this discrepancy reflects insensitivity of traditional language tests to clinically important features of language impairment. Methods &…

  12. Test based on a normal score for efficient edge detection in image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myong H.; Lee, Ho-Keun; Ha, Yeong-Ho

    2003-05-01

    The current paper proposes an efficient method for edge detection in original and noisy images using Waerden's statistic. Edges represent a significant amount of information on an image. For example, edges reveal the location of objects, their shape and size, and something about their texture. Since edges represent where the intensity of an image moves from a low value to a high value or vice versa, edge detection is often the first step in image segmentation. As a field of image analysis, image segmentation groups pixels into regions to determine the image composition. Therefore, the current paper describes the nonparametric Wilcoxon test and parametric T test based on statistical hypothesis testing for edge detection. Here, the threshold is determined by specifying a significance level, whereas Bovik, Huang, and Munson considered a range of possible test statistic values for the threshold. In the current study, the test statistic is calculated based on pixel gray levels obtained using an edge-height parameter and compared with the threshold determined by a significance level. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of these methods in both original and noisy images. As a result, the Wilcoxon and T test was found to be sensitive to a noisy image, whereas the proposed Waerden test was robust in both noisy and noise-free images under ?=0.0005. Furthermore, when compared with Sobel, LoG, and Canny operators, the proposed Waerden test was also more effective in both noisy and noise-free images.

  13. Keeping Scores: Audited Self-Monitoring of High-Stakes Testing Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Raymond; Richards, Michael

    2006-01-01

    To address a public relations problem faced by a large urban public school district in Texas, we conducted action research that resulted in an audited self-monitoring system for high-stakes testing environments. The system monitors violations of testing protocols while identifying and disseminating best practices to improve the education of…

  14. Effects of an Online Instructional Application on Reading and Mathematics Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martindale, Trey; Pearson, Carolyn; Curda, L. K.; Pilcher, Janet

    2005-01-01

    Standardized tests have become commonly used tools for accountability in public education in the United States. In Florida, the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) is used to measure student achievement on grade-specific standards and benchmarks. Various agencies have developed computer-based and web-based software applications to improve…

  15. Addressing criticisms of existing predictive bias research: cognitive ability test scores still overpredict African Americans' job performance.

    PubMed

    Berry, Christopher M; Zhao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Predictive bias studies have generally suggested that cognitive ability test scores overpredict job performance of African Americans, meaning these tests are not predictively biased against African Americans. However, at least 2 issues call into question existing over-/underprediction evidence: (a) a bias identified by Aguinis, Culpepper, and Pierce (2010) in the intercept test typically used to assess over-/underprediction and (b) a focus on the level of observed validity instead of operational validity. The present study developed and utilized a method of assessing over-/underprediction that draws on the math of subgroup regression intercept differences, does not rely on the biased intercept test, allows for analysis at the level of operational validity, and can use meta-analytic estimates as input values. Therefore, existing meta-analytic estimates of key parameters, corrected for relevant statistical artifacts, were used to determine whether African American job performance remains overpredicted at the level of operational validity. African American job performance was typically overpredicted by cognitive ability tests across levels of job complexity and across conditions wherein African American and White regression slopes did and did not differ. Because the present study does not rely on the biased intercept test and because appropriate statistical artifact corrections were carried out, the present study's results are not affected by the 2 issues mentioned above. The present study represents strong evidence that cognitive ability tests generally overpredict job performance of African Americans. PMID:25150378

  16. Tacit Knowledge: A Refinement and Empirical Test of the Academic Tacit Knowledge Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary S. Insch; Nancy McIntyre; David Dawley

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have linked tacit knowledge to improved organizational performance, but research on how to measure tacit knowledge is scarce. In the present study, the authors proposed and empirically tested a model of tacit knowledge and an accompanying measurement scale of academic tacit knowledge. They present 6 hypotheses that support the proposed tacit knowledge model regarding the role of cognitive (self-motivation,

  17. Speededness of the Academic Assessment Placement Program (AAPP) Reading Comprehension Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Todd; And Others

    Whether the time limits of the Academic Assessment Placement Program (AAPP) Reading Comprehension Test of the State Board of Regents (SBR) of Tennessee provide fair treatment for all underprepared students was assessed. Focus was on studying various response patterns and completion rates that indicate whether or not speededness (SP) is critical.…

  18. Role of Academic Self-Efficacy in Moderating the Relation between Task Importance and Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nie, Youyan; Lau, Shun; Liau, Albert K.

    2011-01-01

    Emphasizing task importance, which is regarded as a way of motivating engaged behavior, may increase an individual's anxiety. The present research investigated whether academic self-efficacy could moderate the maladaptive relation between task importance and test anxiety. 1978 and 1670 Grade 9 Singaporean students participated in a survey related…

  19. Role of academic self-efficacy in moderating the relation between task importance and test anxiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youyan Nie; Shun Lau; Albert K. Liau

    2011-01-01

    Emphasizing task importance, which is regarded as a way of motivating engaged behavior, may increase an individual's anxiety. The present research investigated whether academic self-efficacy could moderate the maladaptive relation between task importance and test anxiety. 1978 and 1670 Grade 9 Singaporean students participated in a survey related to their learning experience and motivational processes in math and English respectively.

  20. Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Performance in Fourth Grade Students: Exploring an Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donato, Jeanne M.

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the effectiveness of a teacher-implemented intervention of eight sessions integrated into an existing curriculum to reduce test anxiety and improve academic performance in fourth grade students. The experimental group, n=23 was drawn from a sample of 64 students in a southwestern Rhode Island public school…

  1. Allergy testing and immunotherapy in an academic otolaryngology practice: A 20-year review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold S. Pine; Harold C. Pillsbury

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Allergic disease plays a central role in the clinical practice of otolaryngology. The purpose of this study was to review the 20-year experience of an allergy clinic integrated within an otolaryngology practice at a major academic institution. Study design: We performed a retrospective database review of over 3300 otolaryngology patients referred for allergy skin testing between 1979 and 1999.

  2. Validity and Fairness Implications of Varying Time Conditions on a Diagnostic Test of Academic English Writing Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoch, Ute; Elder, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    A number of scholars have questioned the practice of assessing academic writing in the context of a one-off language test, claiming that the time restrictions imposed in the test environment, when compared to the writing conditions typical at university, may prevent learners from displaying the kinds of writing skills required in academic

  3. Large-Scale Academic Achievement Testing of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Sen; Mitchell, Ross E.

    2012-01-01

    The first large-scale, nationwide academic achievement testing program using Stanford Achievement Test (Stanford) for deaf and hard-of-hearing children in the United States started in 1969. Over the past three decades, the Stanford has served as a benchmark in the field of deaf education for assessing student academic achievement. However, the…

  4. Correlation among High School Senior Students' Test Anxiety, Academic Performance and Points of University Entrance Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Hakan; Alci, Bulent; Aydin, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure. The aim of this study is to define the correlation among high school senior students' test anxiety, academic performance (GPA) and points of university entrance exam (UEE). The study group…

  5. Construct Validity and Measurement Invariance of Computerized Adaptive Testing: Application to Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shudong; McCall, Marty; Jiao, Hong; Harris, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study are twofold. First, to investigate the construct or factorial structure of a set of Reading and Mathematics computerized adaptive tests (CAT), "Measures of Academic Progress" (MAP), given in different states at different grades and academic terms. The second purpose is to investigate the invariance of test factorial…

  6. Cognitive skills, student achievement tests, and schools.

    PubMed

    Finn, Amy S; Kraft, Matthew A; West, Martin R; Leonard, Julia A; Bish, Crystal E; Martin, Rebecca E; Sheridan, Margaret A; Gabrieli, Christopher F O; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive skills predict academic performance, so schools that improve academic performance might also improve cognitive skills. To investigate the impact schools have on both academic performance and cognitive skills, we related standardized achievement-test scores to measures of cognitive skills in a large sample (N = 1,367) of eighth-grade students attending traditional, exam, and charter public schools. Test scores and gains in test scores over time correlated with measures of cognitive skills. Despite wide variation in test scores across schools, differences in cognitive skills across schools were negligible after we controlled for fourth-grade test scores. Random offers of enrollment to oversubscribed charter schools resulted in positive impacts of such school attendance on math achievement but had no impact on cognitive skills. These findings suggest that schools that improve standardized achievement-test scores do so primarily through channels other than improving cognitive skills. PMID:24434238

  7. Work Ethic and Academic Performance: Predicting Citizenship and Counterproductive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meriac, John P.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, work ethic was examined as a predictor of academic performance, compared with standardized test scores and high school grade point average (GPA). Academic performance was expanded to include student organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and student counterproductive behavior, comprised of cheating and disengagement, in addition…

  8. Grading as a Reform Effort: Do Standards-Based Grades Converge with Test Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Megan E.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Kaniskan, Burcu

    2013-01-01

    Standards-based progress reports (SBPRs) require teachers to grade students using the performance levels reported by state tests and are an increasingly popular report card format. They may help to increase teacher familiarity with state standards, encourage teachers to exclude nonacademic factors from grades, and/or improve communication with…

  9. Test Gains Reigniting Old Debate: Did NCLB Law Play a Role in History, Civics Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Elementary school students have a stronger grasp of U.S. history, and what it means to be a knowledgeable citizen, than they did a few years ago, new test results suggest. Part of the reason they are better informed about history and citizenship, some argue, is that they are better readers. That was the view put forward by U.S. Secretary of…

  10. LIBIDO TEST SCORES, BODY CONFORMATION AND TESTICULAR TRAITS IN BOER AND KIKO GOAT BUCKS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Ford Jr.; C. Okere; O. Bolden-Tiller

    Independent of whether natural mating or artificial insemination is used for breeding, libido (sex drive) is evidently crucial to reproductive competence in all male meat animal species. Breeding goat bucks vary in their levels of libido; therefore, there is a need for the development of a predictive standardized test for estimating sex drive. The objective of this study was to

  11. The Epidemiology of Modern Test Score Use: Anticipating Aggregation, Adjustment, and Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In his thoughtful focus article, Haertel (this issue) pushes testing experts to broaden the scope of their validation efforts and to invite scholars from other disciplines to join them. He credits existing validation frameworks for helping the measurement community to identify incomplete or nonexistent validity arguments. However, he notes his…

  12. The Influences of Linguistic Demand and Cultural Loading on Cognitive Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Damien C.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Ysseldyke, James E.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing diversity of the U.S. population has resulted in increased concerns about the psychological assessment of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. To date, little empirical research supports recommendations in test selection and interpretation, such as those presented in the Culture-Language Interpretative…

  13. A Test of the Relationship between Reading Ability & Standardized Biology Assessment Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Denise A.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence suggested that independent reading abilities of students enrolled in biology predicted their performance on the Biology I Graduation End-of-Course Assessment (ECA). An archival study was conducted at one Indiana urban public high school in Indianapolis, Indiana, by examining existing educational assessment data to test

  14. Distributed Leadership and High-Stakes Testing: Examining the Relationship between Distributed Leadership and LEAP Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Wilbert

    2011-01-01

    Educational stakeholders are aware that school administration has become an incredibly intricate dynamic that is too complex for principals to handle alone. Test-driven accountability has made the already daunting task of school administration even more challenging. Distributed leadership presents an opportunity to explore increased leadership…

  15. The Relationship between Self-Perceptions of Accountability by High School Principals and Student Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koester, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    The high school principalship has been designated an area of professional shortage by many states. Resignations and terminations have been numerous as a result of poor student test performance. The purpose of this ex post facto correlation study was to investigate the self-perceptions of accountability by high school principals as they related to…

  16. Do achievement labels aect students' well-being? Evidence from discontinuities in test scores in England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcello Sartarelli

    In this paper I estimate the eect of using achievement labels to grade school tests, e.g. bad or good, on a measure of well-being given by the event of a police contact or visit to parents due to the behaviour of children in secondary schools. Firstly I illustrate the potential spurious correlation that arises from unobservables aecting both achievement and

  17. The effect of instructional methodology on high school students natural sciences standardized tests scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. Powell

    2010-01-01

    Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one

  18. School finance reform, the distribution of school spending, and the distribution of student test scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Card; A. Abigail Payne

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of school finance reforms on the distribution of school spending across richer and poorer districts, and the consequences of spending equalization for the relative test performance of students from different family backgrounds. We find that states where the school finance system was declared unconstitutional in the 1980s increased the relative funding of low-income districts. Increases

  19. Validity Evidence for Eating Attitudes Test Scores in a Sample of Female College Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doninger, Gretchen L.; Enders, Craig K.; Burnett, Kent F.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the 26-item Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982) using a sample of 207 female college athletes. Previous studies using nonathlete populations have supported a number of factor structures, but a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs)…

  20. A Factor Analysis of Learning Data and Selected Ability Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy L.

    1976-01-01

    A verbal concept-learning task permitting the externalizing and quantifying of learning behavior and 16 ability tests were administered to female graduate students. Data were analyzed by alpha factor analysis and incomplete image analysis. Six alpha factors and 12 image factors were extracted and orthogonally rotated. Four areas of cognitive…

  1. An Evaluation of an Innovation: Standardized Test Scores Were Not Valid Indicators of Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uslick, JoAnn; Walker, Carole

    An overview is provided of the evaluation of the Lighthouse Project, an education enhancement project that began in one urban and two suburban districts. Its methodology was the context for showing how the focus on the results of a standardized achievement test in mathematics inhibited the implementation of mathematics reform in the elementary…

  2. Improvement in national test reading scores at Key Stage 1; grade inflation or better achievement?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Meadows; David Herrick; Anthony Feiler

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the UK National Literacy Strategy is to raise standards in literacy. Strong evidence for its success has, however, been lacking: most of the available data comes from performance on tests administered in schools or from Office for Standards in Education reports and is vulnerable to suggestions of bias. An opportunistic analysis of data from a population cohort

  3. Improvement in National Test arithmetic scores at Key Stage 1: grade inflation or better achievement?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Meadows; David Herrick; Marcus Witt

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the National Numeracy Strategy is to raise standards in numeracy. Strong evidence for its success has, however, been lacking: most of the available data come from performance on National Test assessments administered in schools or from Ofsted reports, and is vulnerable to suggestions of bias. An opportunistic analysis of data from a population cohort study extending over

  4. Nasalance Scores of Children with Repaired Cleft Palate Who Exhibit Normal Velopharyngeal Closure during Aerodynamic Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if children with repaired cleft palate and normal velopharyngeal (VP) closure as determined by aerodynamic testing exhibit greater acoustic nasalance than control children without cleft palate. Method: Pressure-flow procedures were used to identify 2 groups of children based on VP closure during the production of /p/ in the…

  5. Experimenter effects on behavioral test scores of eight inbred mouse strains under the influence of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Bohlen, Martin; Hayes, Erika R; Bohlen, Benjamin; Bailoo, Jeremy D; Crabbe, John C; Wahlsten, Douglas

    2014-10-01

    Eight standard inbred mouse strains were evaluated for ethanol effects on a refined battery of behavioral tests in a study that was originally designed to assess the influence of rat odors in the colony on mouse behaviors. As part of the design of the study, two experimenters conducted the tests, and the study was carefully balanced so that equal numbers of mice in all groups and times of day were tested by each experimenter. A defect in airflow in the facility compromised the odor manipulation, and in fact the different odor exposure groups did not differ in their behaviors. The two experimenters, however, obtained markedly different results for three of the tests. Certain of the experimenter effects arose from the way they judged behaviors that were not automated and had to be rated by the experimenter, such as slips on the balance beam. Others were not evident prior to ethanol injection but had a major influence after the injection. For several measures, the experimenter effects were notably different for different inbred strains. Methods to evaluate and reduce the impact of experimenter effects in future research are discussed. PMID:24933191

  6. Do medical students’ scores using different assessment instruments predict their scores in clinical reasoning using a computer-based simulation?

    PubMed Central

    Fida, Mariam; Kassab, Salah Eldin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The development of clinical problem-solving skills evolves over time and requires structured training and background knowledge. Computer-based case simulations (CCS) have been used for teaching and assessment of clinical reasoning skills. However, previous studies examining the psychometric properties of CCS as an assessment tool have been controversial. Furthermore, studies reporting the integration of CCS into problem-based medical curricula have been limited. Methods This study examined the psychometric properties of using CCS software (DxR Clinician) for assessment of medical students (n=130) studying in a problem-based, integrated multisystem module (Unit IX) during the academic year 2011–2012. Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha statistics. The relationships between students’ scores in CCS components (clinical reasoning, diagnostic performance, and patient management) and their scores in other examination tools at the end of the unit including multiple-choice questions, short-answer questions, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), and real patient encounters were analyzed using stepwise hierarchical linear regression. Results Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was high (?=0.862). Inter-item correlations between students’ scores in different CCS components and their scores in CCS and other test items were statistically significant. Regression analysis indicated that OSCE scores predicted 32.7% and 35.1% of the variance in clinical reasoning and patient management scores, respectively (P<0.01). Multiple-choice question scores, however, predicted only 15.4% of the variance in diagnostic performance scores (P<0.01), while students’ scores in real patient encounters did not predict any of the CCS scores. Conclusion Students’ scores in OSCE are the most important predictors of their scores in clinical reasoning and patient management using CCS. However, real patient encounter assessment does not appear to test a construct similar to what is tested in CCS. PMID:25759603

  7. Variation in Wisconsin Mastitis Test Scores of Bucket Milk Samples and Relationship to Bacterial Infections1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Bodoh; R. E. Pearson; W. D. Schultze; R. H. Miller

    1981-01-01

    Sources of variation in the Wisconsin Mastitis Test were studied in 4739 bucket milk samples from 111 cows in one herd during 103 days. Quarters of cows were classified infected or uninfected through bacteriologic assays of quarter milk samples. Quarters were uninfected in 70.4% of the cow-quarter-days and infected with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in 1.4 and .9% of

  8. A four-year perspective of Society for Academic Emergency Medicine tests: an online testing tool for medical students.

    PubMed

    Senecal, Emily L; Thomas, Stephen H; Beeson, Michael S

    2009-12-01

    Nationwide survey findings that most U.S. emergency medicine clerkship directors were interested in participating in a methodologically rigorous student testing program prompted the development of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) Medical Student Online Testing Service (SAEM Tests). This article describes the development of SAEM Tests and details usage and progress since the on-line release in June 2005. Specifically, we review the construction of SAEM Tests and present validity and difficulty statistics obtained at the first analysis of test performance 6 months after its release and again 12 months later after revisions aimed at enhancing test performance. We then review the current status of SAEM Tests and summarize future goals and directions. PMID:20053210

  9. Trends in Academic Performance and Aptitude of Beginning Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prather, James E.

    Trends in academic performance from 1961 to 1979 for entering freshmen at Georgia State University were examined. Verbal and mathematics scores of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), high school average (HSA), and freshman grade point average (GPA) were analyzed. It was found that SAT verbal and mathematics scores remained generally stable; over…

  10. Does Stereotype Threat Affect Post-Course Scores on the Astronomy Diagnostic Test?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, G. L.; Hufnagel, B.; Landato, J. M.; Hodari, A. K.

    2003-12-01

    During the 1990s, Claude Steele and others demonstrated that women mathematics students under-performed while men over-performed on selected GRE questions when told that the exam could differentiate by gender. Stereotype threat is triggered for these women when they fear someone else may negatively stereotype them, and therefore, their performance is affected. In a limited study involving 229 students, we investigated the effect of stereotype threat on performance on the Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT). The ADT was administered as a pre-test in four introductory astronomy classes intended for non-science majors. The same professors taught pairs of classes at the University of Maryland, a large research institution, and W. R. Harper College, a small liberal arts school. The classes were treated the same until the final day before the post-course ADT was given. One "threatened" class at each campus was told that gender mattered so they should be sure to include it on the ADT. The "control" classes were told that gender does not matter. The results show no stereotype threat effect on the women in these introductory classes. The university men did slightly over-perform at low statistical significance. As Steele suggested, students must identify with a subject in order to strongly invoke a stereotype threat. This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation through grants REC-0089239 to GLD, DGE-97014489 to BH, and DGE-9714452 for AKH.

  11. An examination of mathematics achievement as measured by standardized test scores and grade distribution among urban high schools to determine the relationship between student outcomes in key courses and standardized tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene Gail Norde

    2003-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between mathematics achievement as measured by standardized test scores and grade distribution among high schools in a large urban school district to determine if MEAP and MAT 7 scores reflect student outcomes in key courses. Statistical analysis was used to determine the relationship between student outcomes in key courses and standardized tests. ^ An ex

  12. An Argument against Using Standardized Test Scores for Placement of International Undergraduate Students in English as a Second Language (ESL) Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokhan, Kateryna

    2013-01-01

    Development and administration of institutional ESL placement tests require a great deal of financial and human resources. Due to a steady increase in the number of international students studying in the United States, some US universities have started to consider using standardized test scores for ESL placement. The English Placement Test (EPT)…

  13. Understanding and Using the Brief Implicit Association Test: Recommended Scoring Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Nosek, Brian A.; Bar-Anan, Yoav; Sriram, N.; Axt, Jordan; Greenwald, Anthony G.

    2014-01-01

    A brief version of the Implicit Association Test (BIAT) has been introduced. The present research identified analytical best practices for overall psychometric performance of the BIAT. In 7 studies and multiple replications, we investigated analytic practices with several evaluation criteria: sensitivity to detecting known effects and group differences, internal consistency, relations with implicit measures of the same topic, relations with explicit measures of the same topic and other criterion variables, and resistance to an extraneous influence of average response time. The data transformation algorithms D outperformed other approaches. This replicates and extends the strong prior performance of D compared to conventional analytic techniques. We conclude with recommended analytic practices for standard use of the BIAT. PMID:25485938

  14. Effect of Different Score Reports of Web-Based Formative Test on Students' Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Xiaoling; Zhang, Xuning

    2013-01-01

    A new score report based on a mechanism of formative assessment and feedback is developed to offer individual testees not only their final scores but also their sub-scale scores, their percentile position, as well as corresponding feedback on self-regulation strategies. Structural equation modeling is adopted in the confirmatory factor analysis to…

  15. The effects of Georgia's Choice curricular reform model on third grade science scores on the Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phemister, Art W.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Georgia's Choice reading curriculum on third grade science scores on the Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test from 2002 to 2008. In assessing the effectiveness of the Georgia's Choice curriculum model this causal comparative study examined the 105 elementary schools that implemented Georgia's Choice and 105 randomly selected elementary schools that did not elect to use Georgia's Choice. The Georgia's Choice reading program used intensified instruction in an effort to increase reading levels for all students. The study used a non-equivalent control group with a pretest and posttest design to determine the effectiveness of the Georgia's Choice curriculum model. Findings indicated that third grade students in Non-Georgia's Choice schools outscored third grade students in Georgia's Choice schools across the span of the study.

  16. Admission Interview Ratings: Relationship to Applicant Academic and Demographic Variables and Interviewer Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Carol L.; Andrykowski, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Medical school admission interview ratings for four entering classes (n=356 students) were compared with preadmission academic variables (admission test scores, undergraduate grades), student characteristics (age, gender, residence), and interviewer characteristics (gender, professional background, admission committee membership). Recommendations…

  17. Motor coordination, working memory, and academic achievement in a normative adolescent sample: testing a mediation model.

    PubMed

    Rigoli, Daniela; Piek, Jan P; Kane, Robert; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the relationship between motor coordination and academic achievement is mediated by working memory (WM) in a normative adolescent sample. Participants included 93 adolescents aged 12-16. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 provided three indicators of motor coordination (Manual Dexterity, Aiming and Catching, and Balance), the WM Index of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV and the N-back paradigm provided two indicators of WM, and the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II provided three indicators of academic achievement (Word Reading, Spelling, and Numerical Operations). Structural equation modeling, controlling for verbal comprehension, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and socioeconomic status, suggested that the association between motor coordination and academic achievement may be best understood in terms of a mechanism whereby motor coordination (specifically, Aiming and Catching skills) has an indirect impact on academic outcomes via WM. These findings have important implications for the assessment and treatment of motor coordination and learning difficulties as well as in increasing the understanding of the possible neural mechanisms underpinning the relationship between these areas. PMID:22777140

  18. The Relationship between Receptive and Expressive Subskills of Academic L2 Proficiency in Nonnative Speakers of English: A Multigroup Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Hye K.; Greenberg, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between receptive and expressive language skills characterized by the performance of nonnative speakers (NNSs) of English in the academic context. Test scores of 585 adult NNSs were selected from Form 2 of the Pearson Test of English Academic's field-test database. A correlated…

  19. Examining the potential for gender bias in the prediction of symptom validity test failure by MMPI-2 symptom validity scale scores.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tayla T C; Graham, John R; Sellbom, Martin; Gervais, Roger O

    2012-09-01

    Using a sample of individuals undergoing medico-legal evaluations (690 men, 519 women), the present study extended past research on potential gender biases for scores of the Symptom Validity (FBS) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 by examining score- and item-level differences between men and women and determining the extent to which FBS scores were able to correctly identify men and women who were divided into credible responders (n = 837) and noncredible responders (n = 372) on the basis of performance on symptom validity tests. Results indicated that women had slightly higher raw FBS scores than men (d = .29), and significant differences between men and women in item endorsement were demonstrated for 14 FBS items. Step-down hierarchical logistic regression procedures indicated predictive bias (?²? = 23.72, p < .001). Follow-up analyses indicated intercept bias (?²? = 23.51, p < .001) but not slope bias (?²? = 0.22, p = .64). However, using the test publisher's recommended FBS cutoff scores (Ben-Porath, Graham, & Tellegen, 2009), classification accuracies were similar for women and men (T > 80, h = -.02; T > 100, h = -.22, respectively). On the basis of these results, we conclude there is no evidence of clinically meaningful bias in predictions of symptom validity test failure made using FBS scores for men and women. PMID:22309000

  20. What "No Child Left Behind" Leaves behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In…

  1. The Evolution of the Black-White Test Score Gap in Grades K-3: The Fragility of Results. NBER Working Paper No. 17960

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Timothy N.; Lang, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Although both economists and psychometricians typically treat them as interval scales, test scores are reported using ordinal scales. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study and the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey, we examine the effect of order-preserving scale transformations on the evolution of the black-white reading test

  2. The Robustness of Mini Mental State Examination Scores at Different Baseline Times of Testing in Psychogeriatric Patients upon Admission to the Hospital

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kari Midtbø Kristiansen; Fredrik A. Dahl; Bernhard Lorentzen; Lars Tanum

    2010-01-01

    To investigate possible differences in MMSE scores due to the time of testing at admission to the hospital, we randomly stratified eligible patients into two groups, and tested on the first day (n = 28) or the third day (n = 26) of admission, respectively. Both groups were retested on day seven, and there was no significant difference in delta

  3. The Effect of Music on the Test Scores of the Students in Limits and Derivatives Subject in the Mathematics Exams Done with Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesan, Cenk; Ozkalkan, Zuhal; Iric, Hamdullah; Kaya, Deniz

    2012-01-01

    In the exams based on limits and derivatives, in this study, it was tried to determine that if there was any difference in students' test scores according to the type of music listened to and environment without music. For this purpose, the achievement test including limits and derivatives and whose reliability coefficient of Cronbach Alpha is…

  4. What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela L. Duckworth; Patrick D. Quinn; Eli Tsukayama

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas

  5. TRACKING Trounces Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an adaptation of an article from School Board News, January 6, 2004 edition. The article describes the effort of de-tracking students of varying ability levels, made by officials of South Side High School, in Rockville Centre, New York, and Noble High School, in North Berwick, Maine. Officials from both schools say that the…

  6. New Tests Put States on Spot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ujifusa, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    As states begin to demand more rigor on their high-stakes tests--and the tests evolve to incorporate revised academic standards--many officials are gambling that an initial wave of lower scores will give way to greater student achievement in the future. Changes to statewide tests and subsequent plummeting scores sparked controversy and emergency…

  7. Cognitive Skills, Student Achievement Tests, and Schools

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Amy S.; Kraft, Matthew A.; West, Martin R.; Leonard, Julia A.; Bish, Crystal E.; Martin, Rebecca E.; Sheridan, Margaret A.; Gabrieli, Christopher F. O.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive skills predict academic performance, so schools that improve academic performance might also improve cognitive skills. To investigate the impact schools have on both academic performance and cognitive skills, we related standardized achievement test scores to measures of cognitive skills in a large sample (N=1,367) of 8th-grade students attending traditional, exam, and charter public schools. Test scores and gains in test scores over time correlated with measures of cognitive skills. Despite wide variation in test scores across schools, differences in cognitive skills across schools were negligible after controlling for 4th-grade test scores. Random offers of enrollment to over-subscribed charter schools resulted in positive impacts of such school attendance on math achievement, but had no impact on cognitive skills. These findings suggest that schools that improve standardized achievement tests do so primarily through channels other than cognitive skills. PMID:24434238

  8. Examining the Relationships among Academic Self-Concept, Instrumental Motivation, and TIMSS 2007 Science Scores: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Five East Asian Countries/Regions and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Chong Ho

    2012-01-01

    Many American authors expressed their concern that US competitiveness in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is losing ground. Using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 data, this study investigated how academic self-concept and instrumental motivation influence science test performance among…

  9. An Examination of Secondary School Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course and Achievement Scores in Performance Assignments with Regard to Different Variables: A Boarding School Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre; Günaydin, Esra; Okur, Alperen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the academic achievement and performance tasks of students studying in a regional primary boarding school in science course with regard to different variables. The study was carried out via survey method and total 96 students, 57 of them boarding students and 39 of them non-boarding students studying in the 5th,…

  10. Trends in Gender Differences in Academic Achievement from 1960 to 1994: An Analysis of Differences in Mean, Variance, and Extreme Scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Nowell; Larry V. Hedges

    1998-01-01

    Gender differences in academic achievement have been studied extensively. While it is generally agreed that females have a slight advantage on average in verbal abilities and males have a slight advantage on average in mathematics, it is unclear whether these differences have changed over time. In this paper evidence from seven surveys representative of the United States twelth grade student

  11. TOEFL and FCE Tests as Predictors of Academic Success for Undergraduate Students at the University of Bahrain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Musawi, Nu'man M.; Al-Ansari, Saif H.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multivariate relationship of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the First Certificate of English (FCE), administered by the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, and to determine whether students' total score on the TOEFL or their overall score on the FCE tends to be a…

  12. Do United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Scores Predict In-Training Test Performance for Emergency Medicine Residents?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef G. Thundiyil; Renee F. Modica; Salvatore Silvestri; Linda Papa

    2010-01-01

    Background: Residency selection committees commonly utilize USMLE scores as criteria to screen residency applicants. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) and American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) in-training examination scores (ITEs). Methods: In an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited emergency medicine residency program, data were collected for

  13. Use of Verbal Descriptors, Thermal Scores and Electrical Pulp Testing Scores as Predictors of Tooth Pain Before and After Application of Benzocaine Gels into Cavities of Teeth with Pulpitis

    PubMed Central

    Gangarosa, Louis P.; Ciarlone, Alfred E.; Neaverth, Elmer J.; Johnston, Carey A.; Snowden, J. Douglas; Thompson, William O.

    1989-01-01

    A double-blind pilot study was conducted on 27 consenting human volunteers who had irreversible pulpitis associated with persistent toothache pain from open carious lesions. Formulations tested contained either 0, 10%, or 20% benzocaine and were identified only by a numbered code. Before the experiment started, a small amount of a known 5% benzocaine gel was placed for 1 minute on the tongue of each patient to assure a sensation of numbness within the oral cavity. Then the test tooth was washed with a gentle stream of warm water and dried with gauze. A randomly selected test medication was placed into the open cavity and around the gingival margins for 5 minutes. Pre- and posttreatment tests were conducted at the following timed intervals: 0, 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes. The tests included degree of pain (rated: 0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe); electrical pulp testing (EPT) by a modified, voltage-ramping instrument; and ice water testing (0.5 mL directed quickly onto sound enamel of the tooth and rated: 0 to 4, with 4 being intolerable). After testing, or when pain returned to baseline, endodontic procedures were performed. There was a significant increase (p < 0.032, Fisher exact test) in subjects obtaining pain relief, rated by verbal descriptors, from the benzocaine gels (14 out of 18 improved) compared to placebo (3 out of 9 improved). It was concluded that: 1) benzocaine gels are effective formulations for temporary relief of toothache pain, 2) there were no statistical differences in EPT scores between teeth having pulpitis and control teeth, 3) there were no correlations between direction of EPT scores and pain relief, 4) cold water testing was a good predictor of whether or not a tooth had pulpitis, and 5) changes in cold water testing scores after treatment could not be correlated to relief of pain according to verbal descriptors. The effectiveness of benzocaine in relieving toothache pain verifies previous studies; however, a difference between 10% and 20% benzocaine could not be demonstrated probably because of two factors: 1) the present experiment had a small sample size, and 2) there was no direct measurement of duration of local anesthesia. PMID:2490060

  14. The Predictive Validity of the Preschool Early Literacy Individual Growth and Development Indicators (EL-IGDIS) on State Test Scores Using an Urban, Low-Income Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature linking curriculum based measurements and general outcome measures to state test outcomes. With an increasing focus on the early identification of students at risk for academic failure, the present study investigated the predictive validity of preschool early literacy general outcome measures (GOMs) in a low…

  15. Exploring the Relationship between Access Technology and Standardized Test Scores for Youths with Visual Impairments: Secondary Analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Amy L.; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy B.; Fogarty, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 that explored the predictive association between training in access technology and performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Academic Achievement: III. The results indicated that the use of access technology had a limited predictive…

  16. Effects of Summer Academic Programs in Middle School on High School Test Scores, Course-Taking, and College Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yan; Alfeld, Corinne; Kennedy, Rebecca Prince; Putallaz, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Through their participation in a seventh-grade talent search in 1996-1997, students qualified to attend a summer program at Duke University's Talent Identification Program (Duke TIP). of the North Carolina students in this group, some attended at least one summer program in middle school and others had qualified for but did not attend a summer…

  17. Test of English as a Foreign Language and First Certificate of English Tests as Predictors of Academic Success for Undergraduate Students at the University of Bahrain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Musawi, N. M.; Al-Ansari, S. H.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined multivariate relationships of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the First Certificate of English (FCE) and determined whether students' total score on the TOEFL or their overall score on the FCE tends to be a better predictor of success in university as measured by overall grade-point average (GPA). Subjects…

  18. A test of the construct validity of the elemental psychopathy assessment scores in a community sample of adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Hyatt, Courtland S; Rausher, Steven; Maples, Jessica L; Zeichner, Amos

    2014-06-01

    The Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA) is a relatively new self-report measure of the basic traits associated with psychopathy. Using community participants (N = 104) oversampled for the presence of psychopathic traits, we examined the convergent and criterion validity of the EPA total and factor scores (i.e., Antagonism, Emotional Stability, Disinhibition, and Narcissism) in relation to self- and informant reports of psychopathy and the general personality dimensions of the HEXACO (Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience; Ashton & Lee, 2009), as well as self-reported scores on narcissism, Machiavellianism, and externalizing behaviors (EBs) such as antisocial behavior and aggression. The EPA total and factor scores manifested substantial positive correlations with self- and informant-reported psychopathy scores and dimensions from the HEXACO, narcissism, Machiavellianism, and EBs. The patterns of these relations became clearer and more differentiated when examined via regression analyses such that the EPA factors manifested differential relations with various aspects of psychopathy (e.g., EPA Antagonism was the only unique correlate of psychopathy traits related to callousness and manipulation). Overall, the EPA is a promising assessment tool given the breadth of its coverage, the flexibility with which it can be used (total score; 4-factor scores; 18 subscale scores), and its ties to a popular model of basic personality traits. PMID:24548152

  19. Score 2009

    Cancer.gov

    Objectives/Purpose: The SCORE 2009 workshop has been conducted annually for the past eight years. This workshop brings together key program personnel and site coordinators, research nurses, data managers, and quality assurance officers from institutions

  20. A Pilot Evaluation of the Test-Retest Score Reliability of the Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igoe, Deirdre; Peralta, Christopher; Jean, Lindsey; Vo, Sandra; Yep, Linda Ngan; Zabjek, Karl; Wright, F. Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Preschool-aged children continually learn new skills and perfect existing ones. "Mastery motivation" is theorized to be a personality trait linked to skill learning. The Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ) quantifies mastery motivation. This pilot study evaluated DMQ test-retest score reliability (preschool-version) and included exploratory…

  1. A Cross-Validation of easyCBM Mathematics Cut Scores in Washington State: 2009-2010 Test. Technical Report #1105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    In this technical report, we document the results of a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut-scores for the use of the easyCBM[R] mathematics test in the state of Washington. A large sample, randomly split into two groups of roughly equal size, was used for this study. Students' performance classification on the Washington state…

  2. A Pilot Study of SPINE Test Scores and Measures of Tongue Deviancy in Speakers with Severe-to Profound Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Donald C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study found that clinician-generated SPINE (Speech Intelligibility Evaluation) test scores were correlated with objective computer-generated measures of tongue deviancy during vowel production in 28 persons (ages 14-20) with severe/profound hearing loss. Data suggest that subjects were more deviant in their production of front vowels than…

  3. Impact of the Teacher Advancement Program on Student Test Score Gains: Findings from an Independent Appraisal. Working Paper 2008-19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Ballou, Dale; Peng, Art

    2008-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first independent, third-party appraisal on the impact of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) on student test score gains in mathematics. TAP is a comprehensive school reform model designed to attract highly-effective teachers, improve instructional effectiveness, and elevate student achievement. We use a…

  4. Self-Correction of Wrong Answers as an Alternative to the Arbitrary Setting of Observed-Score Standards in Competency Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Cohen, Nora

    1990-01-01

    A solution is offered to problems associated with the inequality in the manipulability of probabilities of classification errors of masters versus nonmasters, based on competency test results. Eschewing the typical arbitrary establishment of observed-score standards below 100 percent, the solution incorporates a self-correction of wrong answers.…

  5. Transitions in cognitive test scores over 5 and 10 years in elderly people: Evidence for a model of age-related deficit accumulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold Mitnitski; Kenneth Rockwood

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: On average, health worsens with age, but many people have periods of improvement. A stochastic model provides an excellent description of how such changes occur. Given that cognition also changes with age, we wondered whether the same model might also describe the accumulation of errors in cognitive test scores in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study,

  6. What Makes a Test Score? The Respective Contributions of Pupils, Schools and Peers in Achievement in English Primary Education. CEE DP 102

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramarz, Francis; Machin, Stephen; Ouazad, Amine

    2009-01-01

    What makes a test score? There is a great deal of uncertainty surrounding the exact contribution of school quality, pupil background, and peers in educational achievement. If peers make most of the difference, then diversity and heterogeneous classrooms may narrow the gap between high- and low-performing students. If pupil background is the first…

  7. Block Scheduled High School Achievement: Part II. Comparison of End-of-Course Test Scores for Blocked and Nonblocked High Schools (1993 through 1996). Evaluation Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Accountability Services/Research.

    Block scheduling has grown rapidly in recent years. In North Carolina, 77 schools started block scheduling in 1995-96, bringing the total number of blocked schools in the state to 207. A previous evaluation compared 1995 End-of-Course (EOC) Test scores for block-scheduled (blocked) and nonblocked schools. This report presents results of the…

  8. AN INVESTIGATION OF FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PUMROY CONCENTRATION TEST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAXWELL, MARTHA J.; MUELLER, ARTHUR C.

    THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SCORES ON THE PUMROY CONCENTRATION TEST (PCT) AND ANXIETY, READING ABILITY, AND PERCEPTUAL SPEED AND ACCURACY WERE INVESTIGATED. CERTAIN ATTITUDES AND PROBLEMS OF THOSE STUDENTS WHO SCORED HIGH AND LOW ON THE PCT WERE IDENTIFIED, AND THE RELATION BETWEEN CONCENTRATION SCORES AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND ATTITUDES TOWARD…

  9. The patterning of test scores of children living in proximity to an inactive toxic waste disposal site who are classified as neurologically impaired

    SciTech Connect

    Licata, L.

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the pattern of impairment on test scores of the neurologically impaired children and proximity to an inactive toxic waste disposal site. Subjects (N = 147) were students, ages 6-16, classified as neurologically impaired. Seventy-six who lived within six miles of the site served as the experimental group and 71 who did not live near a site comprised the control group. Research was based on existing data available through the Child Study Team evaluation process. Attention was given to the ACID cluster of the WISC-R, the Arithmetic and Reading subtests on the WRAT, and the Koppitz scores of the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. No significant difference was found between the experimental and control groups. Sex differences within the experimental group were not significant. Time of exposure and patterning of scores in the experimental group were investigated. Time had a significant main effect on WISC-R Arithmetic and Digit Span subtests, the ACID cluster and the Bender Test for the total group. Main effect for sex was significant for the WISC-R Information subtest. An interaction effect was found to be significant on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest WRAT. The longer the girls lived within the site area the lower they scored on the WISC-R Information subtest and the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. The variable exposure (interaction of distance and time) was related to lower scores on the WISC-R Arithmetic and Digit Span subtest. A two-way interaction was found on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. The longer the females were exposed to the waste site area, the lower they scored on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. A comparison of those children in the site area from birth and those in the area three years prior to the evaluation was done. A significant main effect was found for the Bender Gestalt.

  10. Evaluation of confluence model variables on IQ and achievement test scores in a sample of 6- to 11-year-old children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soren Svanum; Robert G. Bringle

    1980-01-01

    The confluence model, proposed by R. B. Zajonc and G. B. Markus as a psychosocial model of cognitive development, was tested on a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of 7,060 male and female children born during a period of high and increasing birth rate. Family size, sibling order within family sizes, and hypothesized age-dependent effects were tested. Scores on subtests of

  11. Examining Gender and the Academic Achievement of Students with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Elisabeth Hess; Yen, Cherng-Jyh

    2010-01-01

    Students with emotional disturbance (ED) have significant academic deficits (Trout, Nordness, Pierce, & Epstein, 2003; Lane, 2004). Even after identification and school intervention, students with ED continue to demonstrate limited academic achievement and high rates of drop out and school failure, with 80-90% scoring below grade level on tests of…

  12. The Effects of Curriculum Integration on the Academic Achievement of Secondary Career and Technical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Patricia Anders

    2012-01-01

    Using a causal-comparative design, this quantitative study investigated whether or not the curriculum integration of academic subjects with career and technical education classes affected secondary students' academic performance as assessed by scores on standardized tests. The purposive sample was drawn from students in Trade and Industry…

  13. Validation of the accuracy of pretest and exercise test scores in women with a low prevalence of coronary disease: the NHLBI-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony P Morise; Marian B Olson; C. Noel Bairey Merz; Sunil Mankad; William J Rogers; Carl J Pepine; Steven E Reis; Barry L Sharaf; George Sopko; Karen Smith; Gerald M Pohost; Leslee Shaw

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundRecently revised American College of Cardiology\\/American Heart Association guidelines have suggested that exercise test scores be used in decisions concerning patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Pretest and exercise test scores derived for use in women without known CAD have not been tested in women with a low prevalence of CAD.

  14. The Impact of Optional Flexible Year Program on Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills Test Scores of Fifth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longbotham, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the impact of participation in an optional flexible year program (OFYP) on academic achievement. The ex post facto study employed an explanatory sequential mixed methods design. The non-probability sample consisted of 163 fifth grade students in an OFYP district and 137 5th graders in a 180-day instructional year school…

  15. The Black-White-Other Achievement Gap: Testing Theories of Academic Performance among Multiracial and Monoracial Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Melissa R.

    2009-01-01

    The study presented here tested three theories of racial differences in academic performance among monoracial and multiracial high school students. These theories (status attainment, oppositional culture, and educational attitudes) were developed to explain differences in achievement among monoracial groups, but the study tested how the theories…

  16. Reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in high school and college students with learning disabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald Wachelka; Roger C Katz

    1999-01-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure in otherwise capable students. Because test anxiety is common in older students with learning disabilities (LD), it is surprising that little research has been done on ways to reduce the distress these students

  17. Identifying Academically Gifted English-Language Learners Using Nonverbal Tests: A Comparison of the Raven, NNAT, and CogAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, David F.; Korb, Katrina A.; Lakin, Joni M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors compare the validity of three nonverbal tests for the purpose of identifying academically gifted English-language learners (ELLs). Participants were 1,198 elementary children (approximately 40% ELLs). All were administered the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (Raven), the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT), and…

  18. Visual assessment method of angular performance in medical liquid-crystal displays by use of the ANG test pattern: effect of ambient illuminance and effectiveness of modified scoring.

    PubMed

    Ikushima, Yoichiro; Morishita, Junji; Akamine, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Hashimoto, Noriyuki

    2014-01-01

    A visual assessment method of the angular performance in medical liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) by use of the "ANG test pattern" was proposed by Badano and the International Electrotechnical Commission. Our goals were to examine the effect of ambient illuminance on the visual assessment, and to investigate whether our modified visual assessment (with the ANG test pattern) can be used instead of the conventional assessment based on luminance measurements. As the ambient illuminance increased, the original scores obtained with the visual assessment decreased. The modified score of the visual assessment was in reasonable agreement with the results of the luminance-based assessment. We conclude that the visual assessment with the ANG test pattern should be performed in a room with constant ambient illuminance, and the modified visual assessment could have the potential to be used instead of the luminance-based assessment for quality assurance of medical LCDs. PMID:23934325

  19. NAEP Scores Put Spotlight on Standards: Flat Math Results Also Spur Calls for Teaching Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Fourth grade math scores stagnated for the first time in two decades on a prominent nationwide test, prompting calls for new efforts to improve teacher content knowledge and stirring discussion of the potential benefits of setting more-uniform academic standards across states. The results on the National Assessment of Educational Progress,…

  20. Differential Variability of Test Scores among Schools: A Multilevel Analysis of the Fifth-Grade INVALSI Test Using Heteroscedastic Random Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani, Claudia; Grilli, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    The performance of a school system can be evaluated through the learning levels of the pupils, usually summarized by school mean scores. The variability of the mean scores among schools is rarely studied in detail, though it is a crucial issue especially in primary schools: in fact, a high variability among schools raises doubts on the capacity of…