Gunter, Helen M.
Reading current accounts of higher education demonstrates the flux and damage of rapid neoliberal changes to the type and conduct of academic work. Opening the Times Higher Education magazine on the 28 April 2011 shows articles about cuts in staffing and undergraduate provision in England, concerns about the quality of for-profit higher education…
Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka
Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…
Gappa, Judith M.; Austin, Ann E.; Trice, Andrea G.
Faculty and their work are the heart, and thus determine the health, of every college and university and have a lasting impact on the many lives they touch. Well over a million faculty members now teach about 15 million students at over 4,000 colleges and universities in this country. The continued vitality of the academic profession is therefore…
Martell, Charles; Untawale, Mercedes
Explores important quality of work life strategy--job redesign--and discusses job enlargement and job enrichment. A case study of academic library personnel demonstrates how introduction of automated systems at University of California, Berkeley led to restructuring and enrichment of jobs. References and list of selected resources are appended.…
Kolde, Rosemary F.
As the economy has shifted focus from production to service to information, work force composition has diversified, and the scope of required skills has expanded. The classroom of the future must integrate academic and technical knowledge and skills within an applied vocational learning model. This article explains this process. Includes five…
Niday, Jackson A., II; Harrington, Kathleen
This article addresses the thorny question of military discipline vs. academic freedom, demonstrating that the military academy is the perfect proving ground if you want to test the value of academic freedom. The authors, who are also Air Force officers, embarked on a two-year quest to determine what place academic freedom has at a military…
Jones, Woodson S; Yun, Heather C
Air Force (AF) Medical Service leadership considers education, training, and research as key priorities. However, AF academic physicians' perceptions about the academic environment and challenges to success are not well described. AF faculty physicians were surveyed in autumn 2009. One hundred seventy-two responded and rated the academic environment as needing improvement (median Likert-like score 2 [interquartile range 1] on 1-5 scale). The impact of stepping away from an academically oriented career path for other executive positions was rated negatively (median Likert-like score 2, interquartile range 1). Concerns included loss of clinical skills, career disruption, and the challenge of returning to and/or competing for positions within the academic pathway. New policies limiting deployment of Program Directors and/or key teaching faculty were viewed favorably. Most physicians (59%) completing this survey expressed concerns about the AF academic environment and identified numerous challenges. Information from this survey can guide future initiatives to enhance leadership's goals. PMID:22338353
Five potential work profiles for full-time academic advisors, based on the impact of technology, are proposed. The forces accelerating the impact of technology are identified, and the impact of emerging technologies on full-time advisor practice is discussed.
Warner, Stephen L.
The factor make-up of the Protestant Work Ethic, first presented by M. Weber, was explored, and the relationship between endorsement of the Protestant Work Ethic and academic achievement was studied in a sample of 257 high school seniors. The independent variable was level of endorsement of the Protestant Work Ethic. The dependent variable was…
American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.
This booklet provides information about the demographics of the changing work force. It offers an at-a-glance profile of workers age 45 and older and considers likely changes in the work force of the future. The document includes topics such as the composition of the work force of today and tomorrow by age and sex, labor force participation rates,…
Gornall, Lynne; Salisbury, Jane
The paper applies Hoyle's notion of "extended" professionality to modern higher education working. It begins with some of the policy contexts and theoretical perspectives around the structural and professional change experienced by academic staff: changes that have been documented in systematic studies of university life from the 1970s onwards.…
Gray, Kathleen; Radloff, Alex
This paper summarises current ideas about the place of academic development in the twenty-first century university. It focuses on aligning the leadership and management of academic development work with the "ownership" of such work by its key stakeholders--teaching academics, university management and the wider academic development community--and…
Describes a pilot study examining how Australian academics are using the Australian Academic and Research Network. Ten tables provide details on network services used in relation to academic role, importance of services used and relationship to academic work, and specific applications for e-mail, remote login, news groups and FTP (file transfer…
Meriac, John P.
In this study, work ethic was examined as a predictor of academic motivation and performance. A total of 440 undergraduate students completed measures of work ethic and academic motivation, and reported their cumulative grade point average. Results indicated that several dimensions of work ethic were related to academic motivation and academic…
American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.
This booklet provides information about the changing work force. It offers a profile of workers aged 45 and older, as well as likely changes in the work force of the future. Tables and graphs illustrate the following: profile of Americans aged 50 and older, by employment status; employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by age…
Nyhagen, Gigliola Mathisen; Baschung, Lukas
This article will particularly focus on Norway and the consequences for academic work. Frequently in studies of academic work, focus has been on academics' individual autonomy and to what extent the latter is challenged (Altbach in "Ann Am Acad Pol Soc Sci" 448:1-14, 1980; Shattock in "High Educ" 41:27-47, 2001). One of…
Ann McLaughlin, a former secretary of labor, discusses her views on the future of the workplace. She feels that to solve the impending problem of educational deficits among the work force, employers will begin their own educational programs, improving both employee loyalty and work force mobility. Includes predictions for future growth fields.…
College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.
This report presents the findings of a study done by a college-wide task force at the College of DuPage (Illinois) on academic calendar formats in an effort to determine whether to retain the quarter system or convert to another calendar. A brief introduction gives the background to the issue at DuPage. A section on procedures explains that the…
Jones, Glen A.
Academic work has become increasingly fragmented. The horizontal fragmentation of the profession into disciplinary tribes has been accompanied by the increasing participation of student affairs and educational development professionals located outside the academic units but are actively engaged in academic work, such as supporting teaching and…
Almquist, Jennifer M.
This dissertation is situated as the third work in a series on academic women. In 1964, Jessie Bernard published "Academic Women," which provided a comprehensive assessment of the status of women in academia. Two decades later, in 1987, Angela Simeone offered insight into attempts to achieve equity for women in higher education in her…
Pop-Vasileva, Aleksandra; Baird, Kevin; Blair, Bill
This study examines the work-related attitudes of Australian accounting academics. A survey of 350 academics provides an insight into the specific organisational and institutional factors associated with the dissatisfaction, stress levels, and propensity to remain of academics. Of particular concern is the lower level of satisfaction and…
An academic advisory board of volunteers drawn from college alumni and the general community can serve institutions of higher education at the college, school and even departmental level. Board members link the academic community to the external community by sharing expertise gained through practical experience. Such a board exists solely to give…
Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, M.; Brito, L.
We discuss the role of the internal forces and how their work changes the energy of a system. We illustrate the contribution of the internal work to the variation of the system’s energy, using a pure mechanical example, a thermodynamical system and an example from electromagnetism. We emphasize that internal energy variations related to the work of the internal forces should be pinpointed in the classroom and placed on the same footing as other internal energy variations such as those caused by temperature changes or by chemical reactions.
This text suggests a way of framing academic work and outlines a design for a preparatory event based on this understanding. It conceives academic work as "practical activity" and potential "praxis" in emergence by focusing on four issues: how can I do this work (tactical stance), what can I accomplish and achieve in it (political), why are my…
Internationally, changes to academic work are a response to the massification of higher education and a changed and changing higher education context. The majority of these adjustments involve a casualisation of academic work, widely characterised as being of a de-skilling nature, alongside the emergence of new, as well as changing, roles that…
Forrester, William R.; Tashchian, Armen
This study investigated the effects of personality on attitudes toward academic group work among a sample of 225 business students. Data were collected using pre-existing scales for measuring personality and attitudes toward academic group work. Specifically, the Neo-FFI scale was used to measure the five personality dimensions of openness,…
Smyth, John, Ed.
This collection of papers examines what academics do as a work process and how that is changing dramatically with the fiscal crises being experienced by most governments around the world. It explores how academic work is organized, how it is enacted, in whose interests, and with what ultimate effects. Papers include: "Markets in Higher Education:…
Malcolm, Janice; Zukas, Miriam
Within the policy discourse of academic work, teaching, research and administration are seen as discrete elements of practice. We explore the assumptions evident in this "official story" and contrast it with the messy experience of academic work, drawing upon empirical studies and conceptualisations from our own research and from recent…
Peterson, Linda H.
There is virtue in the movement recently begun within academic discourse that moves personal expression into professional writing. But before academics can understand why it works, they must first acknowledge that at times it does not work. A case in point would be Jane Tompkins' essay, "Me and My Shadow," which is predicated on a metaphoric split…
Despite their physics instructors' arguments to the contrary, introductory students can observe situations in which there seems to be compelling evidence for magnetic force doing work. The counterarguments are often highly technical and require physics knowledge beyond the experience of novice students, however. A simple example is presented…
Jones, Glen; Weinrib, Julian; Metcalfe, Amy Scott; Fisher, Don; Rubenson, Kjell; Snee, Iain
This paper analyses junior academic staff's (assistant professors) perceptions of academic work in a highly decentralised Canadian "system". Drawing on recent work by the authors on Canadian university tenure processes and remuneration, the paper compares the perceptions of assistant professor respondents with senior (associate full professor)…
Increasingly PhD graduates who wish to take up traditional academic positions (full-time teaching and research leading to permanence) are unable to find such jobs. They end up in fixed-term appointments as post-doctoral fellows or researchers on others' grants. Few studies document their experiences and most that do draw on data from the late…
Rhea, Zane Ma
The idea of "transmorphosis" will be used in this article to discuss the impact of new teaching and learning environments on the highly mobile global academic pedagogue. "Trans-" implies "movement across", whether it be space, time, place, culture, or institution. "-morphosis" evokes the possibility/requirement to shapeshift one's pedagogical…
González Ramos, Ana M.; Fernández Palacín, Fernando; Muñoz Márquez, Manuel
Why is the gender gap so large in researchers' career progression? Do men and women have different priorities in their academic careers? This study explores men's and women's academic work to shed light on the strategies of male and female researchers. The online survey collected data on Andalusian researchers to determine possible differences in…
Heijstra, Thamar M.; Rafnsdottir, Gudbjorg Linda
The aim of this article is to analyse whether the Internet and other ICT technologies support a work-family balance amongst academics. The study is based on 20 in-depth interviews with academics in Iceland and analysed according to the Grounded Theory Approach. This study challenges the notion that the Internet, as part of ICT technology, makes it…
Meriac, John P.
In this study, work ethic was examined as a predictor of academic performance, compared with standardized test scores and high school grade point average (GPA). Academic performance was expanded to include student organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and student counterproductive behavior, comprised of cheating and disengagement, in addition…
Shields, Mark A.; Graves, William; Nyce, James M.
This article discusses the academic computing movement during the 1980s. We focus on the Faculty Workstations Project at Brown University, where major computing initiatives were undertaken during the 1980s. Six departments are compared: chemistry, cognitive and linguistic sciences, geology, music, neural science, and sociology. We discuss the theoretical implications of our study for conceptualizing the relationship of computing to academic work.
Fox, Geri; Schwartz, Alan; Hart, Katherine M.
Objective: This study examines various options that a faculty member might exercise to achieve work-family balance in academic medicine and their consequences for academic advancement. Method: Three data sets were analyzed: an anonymous web-administered survey of part-time tenure track-eligible University of Illinois College of Medicine (UI-COM)…
Lechuga, M. Teresa; Pelegrina, Santiago; Pelaez, Jose L.; Martin-Puga, M. Eva; Justicia, M. Jose
There is growing evidence supporting the importance of executive functions, and specifically working memory updating (WMU), for children's academic achievement. This study aimed to assess the specific contribution of updating to the prediction of academic performance. Two updating tasks, which included different updating components, were…
Forgasz, Helen J.; Leder, Gilah C.
Academics are reported to be working longer hours and have less time for research because of increasing administrative and teaching demands. The traditional pattern of the academic enterprise appears to have changed. To explore whether this is indeed the case, the Experience Sampling Method [ESM], a research technique devised by Mihaly…
Strauser, David R.; O'Sullivan, Deirdre; Wong, Alex W. K.
The authors investigated the relationship between the variables of work engagement, developmental work personality, and academic effort in a sample of college students. This study provides evidence for the hypothesized positive relationship between academic effort, engagement, and work personality. When gender was controlled, the Work Tasks…
Hughes, Katherine L.; Moore, David Thornton; Bailey, Thomas R.
The claim that work-based experience improves students' academic performance was examined through a study of the academic progress of 25 high school and community college student interns employed in various health care workplaces. Data were collected from the following activities: (1) review of the literature on academic reinforcement and academic…
This article analyses the obituaries of 100 academics published in the British quality press in 2007 to see what they tell us about the changing nature of contemporary academic work, and how it is presented in this particular genre of writing. It concludes that the influence of Oxbridge and the American higher education system, and the dominance…
In the early 1990s, El Camino Hospital (ECH) streamlined its operations in order to remain competitive. In 1992, the hospital's District Board voted to turn the hospital's management over to a nonprofit company and it became an integrated delivery system (IDS). Hospital employees continued to suffer as their work and work schedules changed in ongoing efforts by the new administration to streamline. Finally, in early 1997, the IDS, Camino Healthcare, was dissolved. The director of radiology and radiation oncology services became aware of increasing employee problems, from high turnover rates and increased absenteeism, to morale and productivity issues. Employees also worried about job redesign, re-engineering and a lack of clear direction and expectations from department leadership. The director of the department created a task force to respond to the needs of staff members. With so much anger directed at department leadership, supervisory staff were not included in the task force. The task force worked first to identify rumors and innuendos and followed with a plan to resolve such issues. The second step was to agree to focus on issues that they could change and to let go of those they couldn't. They selected five priority issues or concerns. The group met weekly and made progress by replacing negative talk and attitudes with positive ones. Meanwhile, the director researched employee satisfaction issues so she would be prepared to discuss such issues and concerns with employees. She focused on a common theme, of having a personal mission or goal for one's self. She encouraged staff members to be aware of their own behavior when communicating with others. Although several informal surveys proved there was still much work to be done, there was positive response--a light at the end of the long tunnel. PMID:10180224
In troubled times, where threats to honor abound, it is essential that people support students who may have been enculturated in social dishonesty. The United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) has worked hard to put in place a number of supports to help cadets to grow beyond social norms where dishonesty may be tolerated. The academy seeks to…
Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E.; Bachman, Jerald G.
Teenagers working over 20 hours per week perform worse in school than youth who work less. There are two competing explanations for this association: (1) that paid work takes time and effort away from activities that promote achievement, such as completing homework, preparing for examinations, getting help from parents and teachers, and participating in extracurricular activities; and (2) that the relationship between paid work and school performance is spurious, reflecting preexisting differences between students in academic ability, motivation, and school commitment. Using longitudinal data from the ongoing national Monitoring the Future project, this research examines the impact of teenage employment on school performance and academic engagement during the 8th, 10th, and 12th grades. We address issues of spuriousness by using a two-level hierarchical model to estimate the relationships of within-individual changes in paid work to changes in school performance and other school-related measures. Unlike prior research, we also compare youth school performance and academic orientation when they are actually working in high-intensity jobs to when they are jobless and wish to work intensively. Results indicate that the mere wish for intensive work corresponds with academic difficulties in a manner similar to actual intensive work. PMID:20802795
This paper investigates the influence of the English language on the work of management academics. They are seen as knowledge workers in the context of business and management, who have to be able to use the English language in such ways to pursue successfully and competently the main purpose of their work--the generation, dissemination and…
This report summarizes work force restructuring and community transition activities at all sites. It outlines work force restructuring activity for FY 1997, changing separation patterns, cost savings and separation costs, program assessment, activities to mitigate restructuring impacts, community transition activities, status of displaced workers, lessons learned, and emerging issues in worker and community transition. Work force restructuring and community transition activities for defense nuclear sites are summarized, as are work force restructuring activities at non-defense sites.
Decuypere, Mathias; Simons, Maarten
Over the last two decades, a sense of awareness has arisen that universities are facing important challenges. This article focuses on the challenge that could be broadly termed as "the digitisation of academic work", yet without assuming that this digitisation would be an explanatory factor clarifying the precise nature of contemporary…
Sutton, Anna; Taylor, David
An increasing emphasis on developing students' transferable skills, such as group working and IT, is creating challenges in ensuring the academic integrity of individually assessed coursework. This study investigated the frequency with which students engaged in a range of study behaviours for individual assignments, with a focus on the extent to…
Baum, Charles L.; Ford, William F.
Identifies some of the likely effects of the Senior Citizens' Freedom To Work Act of 2000 on the retirement decisions of professors approaching their normal retirement age as they learn about the added income opportunities created by the new rules. Discusses the Act's potential impact on faculty turnover rates, academic staffing patterns, and the…
Drawing on legal, historical, and qualitative research, this book explores the way in which academic work has become property and shows how that process is shaking the foundations of the university, the professorate, and intellectual property law. Following an introduction, the chapters are: (1) Building an Epistemic Regime; (2) An Uncommon…
Weber, James M.
Demographic and social changes, increasing economic interdependence, and educational reform movements are causing major changes in vocational education. Essential work force skills and the standards to account for their achievement are being debated. The 1980s'"Excellence Movement" focused on strengthening academic requirements, developing…
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14 Section... Force account work. (a) A grantee must secure the project officer's prior written approval for use of the force account method for (1) any step 1 or step 2 work in excess of $10,000; (2) any...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14 Section... Force account work. (a) A grantee must secure the project officer's prior written approval for use of the force account method for (1) any step 1 or step 2 work in excess of $10,000; (2) any...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14 Section... Force account work. (a) A grantee must secure the project officer's prior written approval for use of the force account method for (1) any step 1 or step 2 work in excess of $10,000; (2) any...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14 Section... Force account work. (a) A grantee must secure the project officer's prior written approval for use of the force account method for (1) any step 1 or step 2 work in excess of $10,000; (2) any...
... Force account work. (a) A grantee must secure the project officer's prior written approval for use of the force account method for (1) any step 1 or step 2 work in excess of $10,000; (2) any sewer... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14...
Szelenyi, Katalin; Goldberg, Richard A.
This study examines the demographic, academic, attitudinal, and institutional correlates of receiving industry or business funding for academic work in a national sample of faculty in the United States. The findings depict a complicated picture of externally funded academic work, with implications for the practical and theoretical understanding of…
Martin, Gail M.
Robots--powerful, versatile, and easily adapted to new operations--may usher in a new industrial age. Workers throughout the labor force could be affected, as well as the nature of the workplace, skill requirements of jobs, and concomitant shifts in vocational education. (SK)
Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.
We examined the interaction between academic burnout and work-related burnout for a sample of working undergraduate university students. Using a longitudinal design we found that the factors of burnout (Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Efficacy) change significantly over the semester. In addition, the study suggests there are distinct differences in how…
Blai, Boris, Jr.
Work and adjustment to work are vital components of a smoothly functioning society. Currently, a growing imbalance between the collective level of educational attainment of American workers and the skill/knowledge requirements of existing jobs has created the potential for widespread social and economic problems in this country. Overeducation…
Field, Marilyn J., Ed.; And Others
Health services research is a multidisciplinary field that investigates the structure, processes, and effects of health care services. This report focuses on one part of the field of health services research--its work force and its programs for educating and training that work force. This study undertook the following information collection…
Lankard, Bettina A.
Economic pressures, work force diversity, and advances in technology are changing the nature of work and organizational policy and management. A predicted decline in the annual growth in gross national product is expected to trigger a slowdown in the labor force, especially in occupations that employ workers with only a high school education.…
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 223.570 Section 223.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 223.570 Drug-free work force....
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 223.570 Section 223.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 223.570 Drug-free work force....
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 223.570 Section 223.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 223.570 Drug-free work force....
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 223.570 Section 223.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 223.570 Drug-free work force....
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 223.570 Section 223.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 223.570 Drug-free work force....
This research examines academic work in an offshore campus of an Australian university. The focus is on the external factors that influence academic practice, mainly in relation to assessment and the way academics perceive their role. The study is set within the wider context of transnational education and the changing nature of academic life and…
Tagliaferri, Louis E.
To cope with the negative attitudes of workers and the public towards industry, industry should utilize a program that: (1) understands clearly worker beliefs and attitudes towards the work environment, (2) utilizes study results as a basis for an employee communications program, and (3) takes their message to the public. (BP)
Premalatha, G D; Ravindran, J
The number of women in the workforce in increasing. A substantial proportion are in the reproductive age which brings to attention the problem of work exposures that adversely affect reproductive outcome. These exposures include chemicals, radiation, strenuous physical activity and infections. They affect reproduction by effect on the germ cells, through hormonal distribution which in turn affects transport of germ cells or zygote, implantation and development. Some of these exposures are teratogenic. At present, some regulations and policies seem to be directed at women workers while there is evidence to show that women are not the only victims. Paternal exposures have also been reported to be associated with infertility, spontaneous abortions and other adverse outcomes. There is insufficient information about reproductive effects of work exposures and hence further research is required in this area. PMID:11072503
Ortega, S.U.; Jackson, E.R.
This document describes an educational program designed to provide a pool of highly qualified administrative, technical, and managerial graduates that are familiar with the Hanford Site and business operations. The program is designed to provide work experience and mentoring to a culturally diverse student base which enhances affirmative employment goals. Short-term and long-term objectives of the program are outlined in the report, and current objectives are discussed in more detail. Goals to be completed by the year 2003 are aimed at defining the criteria necessary to establish partnerships between schools, community organizations, and human resources departments. Actions to be implemented includes providing instructors and equipment, enhancing skills of local teachers, and establishing collaboration with human resources organizations. Long-term goals of the program are to ensure a constant supply of qualified, trained workers to support industry missions. 6 refs., 1 tab.
Ebener, M; Hasselhorn, H M
Working life in Germany is changing. The work force is ageing and the number of people available to the labour market will - from now on - shrink considerably. Prospectively, people will have to work longer; but still today, most people leave employment long before reaching official retirement age. What are the reasons for this? In this report, a conceptual framework and the German lidA Cohort Study are presented. The "lidA conceptual framework on work, age, health and work participation" visualises determinants of employment (11 "domains") in higher working age, e. g., "work", "health", "social status" and "life style". The framework reveals 4 key characteristics of withdrawal from work: leaving working life is the result of an interplay of different domains (complexity); (early) retirement is a process with in part early determinants in the life course (processual character); retirement has a strong individual component (individuality); retirement is embedded in a strong structural frame (structure). On the basis of this framework, the "lidA Cohort Study on work, age, health and work participation" (www.lida-studie.de) investigates long-term effects of work on health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany. It is the only large study in Germany operationalising the concept of employability in a broad interdisciplinary approach. Employees subject to social security and born in 1959 or in 1965 will be interviewed (CAPI) every 3 years (N[wave 1]=6 585, N[wave 2]=4 244) and their data will be linked (where consented) with social security data covering employment history and with health insurance data. The study design ("Schaie's most efficient design") allows for a tri-factor model that isolates the impact of age, cohort and time. In 2014, the second wave was completed. In the coming years lidA will analyse the association of work, health and work participation, and identify age as well as generation differences. lidA will investigate the
Ren, Xiaoni; Caudle, Darren
Drawing on in-depth interviews with 30 academics from various disciplines in both UK and Chinese universities, this comparative study aims to offer new insights into how academics in British and Chinese universities maintained work-life balance and the similarities and differences experienced between academics of both countries. This study finds…
The writing activities involved in research are not fully articulated in discussions of academic work. In this context, academics say they have to disengage from other tasks in order to write, which raises fundamental questions about the place of writing in academic work. A study designed to find out more about this disengagement showed that it…
Although several fundamental forces are changing the American economy and the American work force, three conditions are pivotal--demographic change, technological change coupled with shifting conditions of competition, and the continuing inadequacies of both public- and private-sector employment and training policies. The employment and training…
Morrison, Malcolm H.
An entirely different approach is needed to manage America's aging work force. Human resource management and acceleration of skill levels are significantly more important as the structure of the economy changes. (SK)
Round ceiling detail, note tension wires working against outward forces on the vertical columns while restoration of collapsed roof takes place. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD
Bexley, Emmaline; James, Richard; Arkoudis, Sophie
Australia has an ageing academic workforce and the nation's capacity to refresh, build and maintain this workforce during a period of expansion in tertiary education participation needs urgent consideration. To inform possible strategies to recruit and retain academic staff, this study investigates the current attitudes of the academic profession…
This paper focuses on a generational change taking place in the Polish academic profession: a change in behaviors and attitudes between two groups of academics. One was socialized to academia under the communist regime (1945-1989) and the other entered the profession in the post-1989 transition period. Academics of all age groups are beginning to…
Faculty members in higher education institutions which technology produced in and used actively try to overcome simultaneous one more works because of their intensive works and responsibilities. This study associated simultaneously doing one more academic works to multitasking. Multitasking may have a detrimental effect on academic works since it…
Hemmings, Brian; Smith, Erica; Rushbrook, Peter
The study reported here focuses on the factors that contribute to the production or non-production of refereed publications by academics. A literature review revealed that factors associated with an academic's personal characteristics, attitude to work, and workplace circumstances could influence publication output. Academics from a large…
Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.
Part of a Special Labor Force Report series, this bulletin on children of working mothers discusses the increase in the number of children with working mothers as of March 1981, and describes major reasons for this growth. The bulletin consists of an article first published February 1982 in the "Monthly Labor Review," additional tables providing…
Kimzey, Reed T.; Prince, Samuel M. O.
The thesis discusses the advantages and disadvantages of one work force scheduling technique--flextime. The authors were interested in determining if a flextime schedule could be put into effect in a governmental organization such as Headquarters Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC). The study objectives were to determine the feasibility,…
According to the "work made for hire doctrine" of the Copyright Act, the creators of artistic and literary works are not legally granted ownership of works created in the course of employment; ownership rests with the employer. However, through "de facto" custom and court dicta, academics may enjoy a "teacher exception" that grants them copyright…
Wentling, Rose Mary
A literature review was conducted to identify critical work force diversity issues in today's changing workplace and identify ways organizations and career and technical education (CTE) practitioners can increase work force diversity. A broad, all-inclusive definition of diversity was developed that focuses on how diversity affects individuals and…
Ellis, Viv; McNicholl, Jane; Pendry, Anna
Through an analysis of job recruitment texts, and interviews with academic leaders, this article shows how the university-based teacher educator is produced as a category of academic worker in England. Focussing on the discursive processes of categorisation provides insights into how English universities conceptualise teacher education. Variations…
Casanova, Ursula; Budd, Alice Trujillo
Plans for an oral history project involving Hispanic academics are presented. Although the 1980s were heralded as the decade of the Hispanics, Chicanos and Puerto Ricans continued to be poorly represented in the academy, and in 1983 they comprised less than 2% of all full-time academic faculty in the United States. The project is designed to…
Porfeli, Erik; Ferrari, Lea; Nota, Laura
This study asserts a theoretical model of academic and work socialization within the family setting. The presumed associations between parents' work valences, children's work valences and valence perceptions, and children's academic interest and achievement are tested. The results suggest that children's perceptions of parents…
Increasing demands on academic work have resulted in many academics working long hours and expressing dissatisfaction with their working life. These concerns have led to a number of faculties and universities adopting workload allocation models to improve satisfaction and better manage workloads. This paper reports on a study which examined the…
Stoyanov, Hristiyan; Brochu, Paul; Niu, Xiaofan; Della Gaspera, Enrico; Pei, Qibing
We demonstrate that the force output and work density of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based dielectric elastomer transducers can be significantly enhanced by the addition of high permittivity titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The nanocomposites are capable of maintaining the actuation strain performance of the pure PDMS at relatively low electric fields while increasing the force output and work density due to mechanical reinforcement. A model relating the Maxwell stress to the measured force from the actuator was used to determine the dielectric permittivity at high electric fields thus providing results that can be directly correlated to device performance. This approach toward higher work density materials should enable smaller, lighter, and less intrusive actuator systems ideal for biomedical and robotic devices in particular.
Sheldon, G F
Since 1990, society has been evolving through a period of significant transformation. In response to an increasingly information-rich and knowledge-based environment, the work force for most of society is becoming more specialized. Medicine is one of the few areas developing a work force which emphasizes generalism. For our current needs, the transitional work force has overproduced physicians. Because the overproduction has been uneven by specialty, it is deceptive to evaluate growth collectively rather than by individual subspecialty. Future shifts in age and types of illness combined with enhanced technology will transform the public's expectations of the American health care system. The type and number of physicians that will be needed in the future will be substantially different than in the past, so current patterns in physician education may not address the population's future demands. Images Figure 1. PMID:7677453
Xu, Xun; Ou, Jinping
One of the key inverse problems for estimating dynamic forces acting on a structure is to determine the force expansion and the corresponding solving method. This paper presents a moving least square (MLS) method for fitting dynamic forces, which improves the existing traditional methods. The simulation results show that the force expansion order has a tiny effect on the types of forces, which indicates the MLS method's excellent ability for local approximation and noise immunity as well as good fitting function. Then, the differential equation of motion for the system is transformed into an integral equation by using the virtual work principle, which can eliminate the structural acceleration response without introducing the calculation error. Besides, the transformation derives an expression of velocity by integrating by parts, which diminishes the error propagation of the velocity. Hence, the integral equation of motion for the system has a strong constraint to noise with zero mean value. Finally, this paper puts forward an optimization method to solve the equation. The numerical stability can be enhanced as the matrix inversion calculation is avoided. Illustrative examples involving different types of forces demonstrate that the transformation of the differential equation proposed through virtual work principle can eliminate interference efficiently and is robust for dynamic calculation.
Johnston, W B
Just as there are global markets for products, technology, and capital, managers must now think of one for labor. Over the next 15 years, human capital, once the most stationary factor in production, will cross national borders with greater and greater ease. Driving the globalization of labor is a growing imbalance between the world's labor supply and demand. While the developed world accounts for most of the world's gross domestic product, its share of the world work force is shrinking. Meanwhile, in the developing countries, the work force is quickly expanding as many young people approach working age and as women join the paid work force in great numbers. The quality of that work force is also rising as developing countries like Brazil and China generate growing proportions of the world's college graduates. Developing nations that combine their young, educated workers with investor-friendly policies could leapfrog into new industries. South Korea, Taiwan, Poland, and Hungary are particularly well positioned for such growth. And industrialized countries that keep barriers to immigration low will be able to tap world labor resources to sustain their economic growth. The United States and some European nations have the best chance of encouraging immigration, while Japan will have trouble overcoming its cultural and language barriers. PMID:10110172
Levine Associates, Inc., Rockville, MD.
This report contains all materials pertinent to an intensive evaluation of the environmental health work force conducted in 1986 and 1987. The materials relate to a workshop that was one of the key tools used in conducting the study to estimate environmental health personnel supply, demand, and need. The report begins with an overview and…
Gordon, Edward E.
Educational problems underlie the crisis in the high-tech workplace. Insufficient expenditures for workplace education result in low productivity. Technology requires a skilled work force; the chief competitive advantage for a nation will be its skilled workers. Workplace literacy has been a half-hearted effort. Investment of billions by U.S.…
Schloss, Patrick J.
The article proposes a training program in self-management skills for handicapped youths entering the work force. Included are the following sample forms: critical events log, self-referral for training form, self-monitoring report, self-management contract. The forms provide tangible evidence of student progress in self-management. (DB)
Quinley, John W.; Cantrell, Jo Ellen
The 1998 Work Force Development Study focuses on Spartanburg Technical College's (STC's) (South Carolina) role in preparing new workers and training/retraining the current workforce. Surveys were mailed to employers in business and industry--the response rate was 10%. In addition, a series of focus groups, including various business, industry,…
Loftis, Julia; Nickens, Stephanie; Pell, Melissa; Pell, Vince
Global Alert Resolution Network (GARNET) is a software system for delivering emergency alerts as well as less-urgent messages to members of the Goddard Space Flight Center work force via an intranet or the Internet, and can be adapted to similar use in other large organizations.
Lund, Leonard; McGuire, E. Patrick
Up to 10 percent of U.S. workers are either functionally illiterate or marginally literate. These workers increase the operational costs of their employers and restrain companies' flexibility. The high school graduates of the 1990s will exacerbate the problem by entering the work force with marginal literacy skills. A survey of 1,600 manufacturing…
Julius, Nancy B., Ed.; Krauss, Herbert H., Ed.
This volume offers 15 papers on the "graying" of the college and university work force in the context of national demographic trends. The papers are arranged in groups which address: growing older, the graying of America, adapting to changing times, retirement and retirement planning, and the corporate example. The following papers are presented:…
Katsinas, Stephen G.
The proposals for work force training put forth by the Clinton Administration offer unprecedented opportunities as well as risks for community colleges, particularly for community colleges in Illinois. These proposals are grounded in a world view that recognizes the need for public investment in employment and training, although this agenda for…
This booklet is written to provide managers, supervisors, and workers with general information about Latino diversity, Latino language differences, and Latino culture as an influence in the work force. The text emphasizes two themes in particular: (1) the great diversity within the Latino group due to many racial and historical differences; and…
Christmas, Colleen; Durso, Samuel C.; Kravet, Steven J.; Wright, Scott M.
their clinical work, that productivity expectations are likely different from those of private practitioners, and that resource allocation both facilitates and limits excellent care in the academic setting. These findings have important implications for patients, learners, and faculty and academic leaders, and suggest challenges as well as opportunities in fostering clinical medicine at academic institutions. PMID:21976102
Schapper, Jan M.; Mayson, Susan E.
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the impact of internationalisation on academic work within a department of management in a large Australian university. It has been argued elsewhere that internationalisation strategies have transformed the nature and demands of academic work through the massification and commodification of educational…
Most work on writing and publication processes focuses on writing support for undergraduates or postgraduates writing in the disciplines, while work on academic identities frequently considers development as a university teacher. This essay consider the reviewing process for academics who write, whether doctoral students, researchers, teachers or…
Jadidian, Alex; Duffy, Ryan D.
The present study examined the relation of work volition to career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and academic satisfaction in a diverse sample of 447 undergraduate college students. Work volition was found to be moderately correlated with academic satisfaction and strongly correlated with CDSE. Potential mediators and moderators in the link of…
Lafferty, George; Fleming, Jenny
Examines how the restructuring of Australia's university system and the introduction of corporate managerialism has changed the work performed by academic staff. Illustrates how there is more regulation of academic work due to the emergence of higher education as an export industry and a vehicle for more competitiveness. Includes references. (CMK)
Decuypere, Mathias; Simons, Maarten
This article reports of an ethnographic study conducted in two academic research centers. The article is centrally directed at the role of digital technologies and devices in contemporary academic work, and more particularly at the role of the screen in the daily composition of this work. Three central questions are raised. First, which positional…
Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2008
The purpose of this advisory is to assist academic staff members in avoiding conflict over ownership and authorship rights in collaborative academic work. When students, professors, librarians and other researchers work together in teams, they can create fundamental advances in knowledge. Unfortunately, these arrangements are also generating…
Boud, David; Tennant, Mark
Professional doctorates designed to meet the needs of particular groups (education, nursing, business, law, etc.) have been established, and the PhD now encompasses a wide range of academic pursuits. However, the combination of the PhD and designated professional doctorates does not exhaust the range of doctoral-level education. Is there a…
Bundza, Maira; Vander Meer, Patricia Fravel; Perez-Stable, Maria A.
Although the library's Web site has become a standard tool for seeking information and conducting research in academic institutions, there are a variety of ways libraries approach the often challenging--and sometimes daunting--process of Web site development and maintenance. Three librarians at Western Michigan University explored issues related…
Powell, J. P.; And Others
Views were surveyed of 24 academics from the Faculties of Arts and Sciences of the University of New South Wales, Australia, on the ways in which their professional lives were being affected by the current recession in higher education. The comments cluster around seven topics: teaching, students, research, colleagues, career prospects, the…
Frost, Eugene A.; Morris, Robert C.
A concise record of the growth of home-schools and a discussion of associated problems are presented. Results of a current regional study of academic achievement by 94 home-school students are related, as well as a summary of results from three other recent studies. (IAH)
This exploratory study linked academic and personal development within a group counseling intervention. A pre-test post-test research design compared social skills, learning behaviors, and achievement with a convenience sample and control group of students from three elementary schools. For the treatment group, grade point average in Language Arts…
Working-class academic narratives reveal a number of common themes, like dual estrangement and internalized class conflict. A less popularized motif is the bookish child who is catapulted out of her working-class origins. But some working-class academics, like myself, were not academically ambitious as children. I am a nontraditional working-class…
Dow-Royer, Cathy A.
Over the last two decades there has been heightened interest in redefining faculty scholarship in higher education (Boyer, 1990). Trends have included the development of cultural frameworks for understanding how disciplines and institutions influence faculty work and how socialization processes impact academic career development. Despite the fact…
Analysis of higher education in postcommunist Romania looks at the system's history since World War II, enrollment patterns from 1948-49 to 1992-93, control of academic appointments, public policy concerning science and the conditions of academic work, and restructuring of higher education institutions after 1970 to support technological and…
The purpose of this article is to examine the validity of perceptions by academic staff about their past and present workload and working hours. Retrospective assessments are compared with time-series data. The data are drawn from four mail surveys among academic staff in Norwegian universities undertaken in the period 1982-2008. The findings show…
Alexander, Stephanie J. H.
This research study explored how White working class Appalachian males who have completed, or who were within one term of completing a program of study at one of ten community and technical colleges in West Virginia perceived academic success. It examined their definitions of academic success, the perceptions they held regarding their own past and…
Silver, Michelle Pannor; Pang, N. Celeste; Williams, Sarah A.
For individuals with strong work identities, the decision to retire can be particularly challenging. For academic physicians, retirement is an important personal decision that also has far-reaching implications for the healthcare system. This is because academic physicians are responsible for producing the research from which key medical decisions…
Gosal, R P
This study was conducted to explore the work force of India's scheduled caste population in a spatial perspective. Findings are based upon data from detailed district-wise maps from data relating to the workers. Peninsular India has a far larger proportion of workers to the total scheduled caste population than northern India. The degree of participation of females trying to earn their living is the most crucial factor in the broad regional differentiation which is then associated with women's social status and autonomy in the society and their freedom from inhibitions to work outside of the home. These factors are deeply rooted in the histories of the two regions and their components. Demographic, economic, and political variables are intermingled with the social and cultural dimensions to impact upon the magnitude and composition of the work force. Further disparities exist within and across macro-regions at meso and micro regional levels which are connected with socioeconomic and demographic specificities of the local/regional situations. PMID:12179048
Feeney, Daniel; Stanhope, Steven J; Kaminski, Thomas W; Machi, Anthony; Jaric, Slobodan
The aims of the current study were to explore the pattern of the force-velocity (F-V) relationship of leg muscles, evaluate the reliability and concurrent validity of the obtained parameters, and explore the load associated changes in the muscle work and power output. Subjects performed maximum vertical countermovement jumps with a vest ranging 0-40% of their body mass. The ground reaction force and leg joint kinematics and kinetics were recorded. The data revealed a strong and approximately linear F-V relationship (individual correlation coefficients ranged from 0.78-0.93). The relationship slopes, F- and V-intercepts, and the calculated power were moderately to highly reliable (0.67 < ICC < 0.91), while the concurrent validity F- and V-intercepts, and power with respect to the directly measured values, was (on average) moderate. Despite that a load increase was associated with a decrease in both the countermovement depth and absolute power, the absolute work done increased, as well as the relative contribution of the knee work. The obtained findings generally suggest that the loaded vertical jumps could not only be developed into a routine method for testing the capacities of leg muscles, but also reveal the mechanisms of adaptation of multijoint movements to different loading conditions. PMID:26398963
Dundes, Lauren; Marx, Jeff
Given that 74% of undergraduates work an average of 25.5 hours per week while going to school, we know surprisingly little about how off-campus employment affects undergraduates and to what extent its impact varies by the number of hours worked. Our survey of undergraduates at a small liberal arts college found that the academic performance of…
This article compares the practices of teacher educators with those of academics working as educators on pre-service courses for nurses and social workers. It includes a framework for analyzing professional education work, which conceptualizes the educators as "second order practitioners." The findings of the study show that similar missions,…
Discussions of higher education in the U.S. are driven today by the language of finance rather than of pedagogy--more specifically, the language of financial hardship. Terms like "shortfall," "cutback," and "retrenchment" set the tone and shape the policies that force austerities and lead to "triage" in…
Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E.; Bachman, Jerald G.
Teenagers working more than 20 hours per week perform worse in school than youth who work less. There are two competing explanations for this association: (1) that paid work takes time and effort away from activities that promote achievement, such as completing homework, preparing for examinations, getting help from parents and teachers, and…
The aim of this overview is to describe the background of work force ageing and its consequences in the society, to introduce concepts for the solutions, to emphasize the actions needed, to point out the new challenges for occupational health, to review the targets of work life improvements, and to highlight the new innovations needed. Work life must be lengthened for the sake of society. Early retirement and low employment rates of 55-64-years old employees make the dependency ratios an increasingly heavy burden. New innovations and concepts like promotion of work ability and age management training have been effective tools for the increase of employment rates and decrease of age discrimination in Finland. The increase of the prevalence and incidence rates of work-related symptoms and diseases during ageing is a serious challenge for occupational health experts. The better adjustments of the working life with the individual health is a crucial element for a longer career. The European working life has not improved markedly for workers over 45 years between 1996 and 2000. Therefore, evidence based concepts should be widely and effectively implemented and new innovations created. A better co-operation between macro-, meso and micro levels is necessary, social partners should create mutual programmes in work places and a new deal is needed between the generations. Life course approach combines the needs and possibilities of different generations. Age management takes into consideration the different strengths of the diverse work force. PMID:17017338
Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Alloway, Ross G.
There is growing evidence for the relationship between working memory and academic attainment. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether working memory is simply a proxy for IQ or whether there is a unique contribution to learning outcomes. The findings indicate that children's working memory skills at 5 years of age were the best…
Thomas, Michael N; Nadalin, Silvio; Schemmer, Peter; Pascher, Andreas; Kaiser, Gernot M; Braun, Felix; Becker, Thomas; Nashan, Björn; Guba, Markus
This manuscript reports the results of a nationwide survey of transplant surgeons in Germany, including the demographics, training, position, individual case loads, center volumes, program structure, professional practice, grade of specialization, workload, work hours, salary, and career expectations. We contacted all 32 German transplant centers that perform liver, kidney, and pancreas transplantation. Surgeons engaged in transplantation were asked to reply to the survey. Eighty-five surgeons responded, with a mean age of 44 ± 8 years, 13% of whom were female. The median transplant frequency per active transplant surgeon was relatively low, with 16 liver transplants, 15 kidney transplants, and three pancreas transplants. The median reported center volumes were 45 liver transplants, 90 kidney transplants, and five pancreas transplants per year. Most of the surgeons reported a primary focus on hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery, and only 10% of effective work time was actually dedicated to perform transplant surgeries. The majority of respondents estimated their weekly work hours to be between 55 and 66 h. When asked about their career satisfaction and expectations, most respondents characterized their salaries as inappropriately low and their career prospects as inadequate. This survey provides a first impression of the transplant surgery work force in Germany. PMID:25800065
Halter, Anthony; Gullerud, Ernest
Using data from a 1991 survey of social work program deans and directors, the experiences of recently merged, long-term merged, and independent social work programs with salaries, financial resources, promotion and tenure, staff morale, enrollment, curriculum, class size, and access to central administration are compared. Respondents' views are…
Miller, Harold D
Under fee-for-service payment systems, physicians and hospitals can be financially harmed by delivering higher-quality, more efficient care. The author describes how current "value-based purchasing" initiatives fail to address the underlying problems in fee-for-service payment and can be particularly problematic for academic health centers (AHCs). Bundled payments, warranties, and condition-based payments can correct the problems with fee-for-service payments and enable physicians and hospitals to redesign care delivery without causing financial problems for themselves. However, the author explains several specific actions that are needed to ensure that payment reforms can be a "win-win-win" for patients, purchasers, and AHCs: (1) disconnecting funding for teaching and research from payment for service delivery, (2) providing predictable payment for essential hospital services, (3) improving the quality and efficiency of care at AHCs, and (4) supporting collaborative relationships between AHCs and community providers by allowing each to focus on their unique strengths and by paying AHC specialists to assist community providers in diagnosis and treatment. With appropriate payment reforms and a commitment by AHCs to redesign care delivery, medical education, and research, AHCs could provide the leadership needed to improve care for patients, lower costs for health care purchasers, and maintain the financial viability of both AHCs and community providers. PMID:26266462
National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2010
The National Center for Homeless Education and the Legal Center for Foster Care and Education present this brief to help educators and child welfare advocates work together to support the academic success of children and youth in out-of-home care. The brief offers practical, proven strategies for implementing two federal laws collaboratively: The…
The worked-example effect, an application of cognitive load theory, is a well-supported method of instruction for well-structured problems (Chandler and Sweller, 1991; Cooper and Sweller, 1987; Sweller and Cooper, 1985; Tuovinen & Sweller, 1999; Ward and Sweller, 1990). One limitation is expertise-reversal effect, where advanced students…
Schuster, Jack H.; Finkelstein, Martin J.
Higher education is becoming destabilized in the face of extraordinarily rapid change. The composition of the academy's most valuable asset--the faculty--and the essential nature of faculty work are being transformed. Jack H. Schuster and Martin J. Finkelstein describe the transformation of the American faculty in the most extensive and ambitious…
Increasing numbers of full-time university students mix their studies with paid employment. The current research examined the nature, extent and correlates of paid work amongst a sample of 246 university students. Approximately 85% of the sample reported having a paid job during semester, a figure that exceeds that found in previous studies. Five…
Patel, Nayna; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Coughlan, Jane
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate and understand whether students who complete a work placement as part of their degree course achieve a better classification of degree than those students who do not include a placement. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted by extracting the profiles of computing students from…
Decker, Janice E.
Brain-based initiatives and school readiness mandates in education have prompted researchers to examine the biological mechanisms associated with learning in the hope that understanding empirical evidence can maximize learning potential. Current research has examined working memory skills in relationship to early learning. The function of working…
Lazar, Aryeh; Davidovitch, Nitza; Coren, Gal
In order to examine possible gender differences in work calling and work spirituality, 68 university academic faculty members responded to self-report multidimensional measures of these constructs. No gender differences were found for the attribution of the source of a transcendent summons, with a majority of respondents indicating internal…
Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan E.; Elliott, Julian
Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether behaviours typical of working memory problems are associated with poor academic attainment in those with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as a non-clinical group identified on the basis of working memory difficulties. Method: Children clinically diagnosed with…
This cross-sectional study examined relationships between job-specific stressors and psychological and physical health symptoms in academic employees working in UK universities. The study also tests the main and moderating role played by sense of coherence (SOC: Antonovsky, 1987 in work stress process). SOC is described as a generalised resistance…
Beeson, Melisa J.; Wessel, Roger D.
This longitudinal study of 3,578 matriculating freshmen at a mid-sized public doctoral university in the Midwest found that students working on campus academically persisted at higher rates from fall to spring of their first year, and year to year thereafter. Also, students who worked on campus during their first semester graduated within 6 years…
Ligon, Jan; Cobb, Alicia; Thyer, Bruce
The researchers tabulated the academic affiliations of the authors of all articles published between 2004 and 2008 in 6 major social work journals to produce a ranking of the colleges and universities whose faculty made the most substantive contributions to the social work literature. The results of this analysis are compared with findings of 5…
Byrom, Tina; Lightfoot, Nic
Higher education (HE) is often viewed as a conduit for social mobility through which working-class students can secure improved life-chances. However, the link between HE and social mobility is largely viewed as unproblematic. Little research has explored the possible impact of academic failure (in HE) on the trajectories of working-class students…
Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Langton, Nancy
Data from 1,805 academic departments in 303 colleges and universities were used to examine the effect of work organization on wage variation within departments. Private control, larger size, and working alone were associated with more dispersed wages; greater social contact, participative governance, and demographic homogeneity were associated…
Ibrahim, Norhayati; Freeman, Steven A.; Shelley, Mack C.
The study explored the influence of work experience on adult part-time students' academic success as defined by their cumulative grade point average. The sample consisted of 614 part-time students from four polytechnic institutions in Malaysia. The study identified six factors to measure the perceived influence of work experiences--positive…
Alfano, Halley J.; Eduljee, Nina B.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between work, levels of involvement and academic performance between residential and commuter students. One hundred and eight undergraduate students at a private college in the Northeast were surveyed. Surveys aimed at examining work and levels of involvement were administered to the…
Gray, Kathleen; Radloff, Alex
In the current context of higher education, those working in academic development feel the need to demonstrate the impact that their work makes on achieving desired institutional outcomes. In this paper, we examine the concept of impact, consider the various meanings of impact and review ways that the term has been used rhetorically and…
Ridgell, Susan D.; Lounsbury, John W.
General intelligence, Big Five personality traits, and the construct Work Drive were studied in relation to two measures of collegiate academic performance: a single course grade received by undergraduate students in an introductory psychology course, and self-reported GPA. General intelligence and Work Drive were found to be significantly…
D'Angelo, Eugene J; Gallagher, Katie
This paper describes how psychology faculty positions in academic health centers (AHCs) have evolved to meet the changing needs in healthcare. In that context, the roles of psychologists have expanded significantly to include a wide array of clinical responsibilities, teaching and supervisory roles, administrative functions, research initiatives, and academic scholarship. Traditionally, faculty compensation plans have been calculated through the use of Relative Value Units which are primarily based on clinical service delivery, hence, incomplete when attempting to account for these growing academic responsibilities. This paper reviews the need to expand the ways in which the work provided by psychologists is appropriately identified and compensated for in AHCs. Drawing upon six models utilized in other areas of medical education, this paper describes the potential utility of incorporating Educational Value Units as a metric for capturing this expanding set of academic responsibilities and systematically incorporating them into a psychologist's job design. Recommendations for future considerations are provided. PMID:26894750
Bentley, Peter James; Kyvik, Svein
Sociological institutional theory views universities as model driven organizations. The world's stratification system promotes conformity, imitation and isomorphism towards the "best" university models. Accordingly, academic roles may be locally shaped in minor ways, but are defined and measured explicitly in global terms. We test this proposition…
Peters, Kath; Jackson, Debra; Andrew, Sharon; Halcomb, Elizabeth J; Salamonson, Yenna
Sessional teachers are taking an increasing role in classroom teaching in Schools of Nursing. However, there is a paucity of literature reporting the experiences of, and impact on, career academics working with or alongside the burgeoning numbers of sessional teachers. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of continuing academics working with sessional teachers. This qualitative study used purposive sampling to recruit nurse academics and collect narrative data related to their experiences of working with sessional teachers. Four major themes emerged from the data, namely: They have got real credibility - perceptions of clinical currency, We've got people who are very good clinically, but don't know how to teach - lacking skills and confidence, No allegiance to the school or the students - perceived lack of commitment and accountability, and A terrible burden - workload implications for continuing academics. The development and implementation of standards for the recruitment and employment of sessional teachers would benefit both continuing academics and sessional teachers, and assist in the delivery of quality teaching and learning to nursing students. PMID:21854236
McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Fisher, Gwenith G.; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L.; Grosch, James W.
Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her personal resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the U.S., given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the Job Demands-Resources Model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using three independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers’ job characteristics were from self-report and O*NET measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or two weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all three of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PMID:25314364
McGonagle, Alyssa K; Fisher, Gwenith G; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L; Grosch, James W
Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the United States, given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the job demands-resources model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress, and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using 3 independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers' job characteristics were from self-report and Occupational Information Network measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job and personal resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or 2 weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all 3 of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PMID:25314364
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7004 Drug-free work force. As prescribed in 223.570-2, use the following clause: Drug-Free Work Force (SEP 1988) (a) Definitions. (1) Employee in a sensitive position, as used...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7004 Drug-free work force. As prescribed in 223.570-2, use the following clause: Drug-Free Work Force (SEP 1988) (a) Definitions. (1) Employee in a sensitive position, as used...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7004 Drug-free work force. As prescribed in 223.570-2, use the following clause: Drug-Free Work Force (SEP 1988) (a) Definitions. (1) Employee in a sensitive position, as used...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7004 Drug-free work force. As prescribed in 223.570-2, use the following clause: Drug-Free Work Force (SEP 1988) (a) Definitions. (1) Employee in a sensitive position, as used...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7004 Drug-free work force. As prescribed in 223.570-2, use the following clause: Drug-Free Work Force (SEP 1988) (a) Definitions. (1) Employee in a sensitive position, as used...
Oliveira, Victor J.; Cox, E. Jane
This report examines the demographic and employment characteristics, geographic distribution, and earnings of the agricultural work force in the United States as of 1985. Data are from the Agricultural Work Force Supplement to the December 1985 Current Population Survey. The three components of the agricultural work force--hired farmworkers, farm…
Bass, Howard G. Sam
The rapid growth since the 1980s of the use of total quality workforce methods in U.S. companies has contributed to the movement for integrating academic and vocational/technical education. This integration seeks to improve the intellectual capabilities of students through applied and contextual learning and thus make them more capable of adapting…
Helvoigt, Ted L.
Labor force issues do not take place in a vacuum. Most individuals base labor force decisions on a multitude of cultural and social factors, such as the environment in which they were reared, family obligations and responsibilities, divorce or the death of a spouse, or because of governmental policies. Sections in this document on demographics,…
Lee, Kerry; Ning, Flora; Goh, Hui Chin
Although the effects of achievement goals and working memory on academic performance are well established, it is not clear whether they jointly affect academic performance. Children from Primary 4 and 6 (N = 608) were administered (a) measures of working memory and updating from the automated working memory battery and a running span task, (b)…
Powers, David R.; Powers, Mary F.
Participatory management (PM) is discussed in this step-by-step guide that shows how PM can be made to work effectively on a daily basis in academe. Suggestions are offered for helping higher education administrators consult efficiently with representatives of campus groups--faculty, other administrators, advisory board members, policy council…
College students are increasingly combining studying with paid employment, and community college students tend to work even longer hours compared with students at four-year colleges. Yet, there is little evidence on the academic consequences of community college students' term-time employment. Using a rare administrative dataset from Washington…
Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment, 2015
Policymakers may be interested in the extent to which Federal Work-Study programs (FWS) increase students' access to productive employment, and how they impact students' academic and career success. This brief summarizes findings from a recent study using national data and a propensity score matching approach to examine the overall effects of FWS…
Gannon-Leary, Pat; Trayhurn, Deborah; Home, Margaret
Work at Northumbria University has focussed on activity that extends opportunities for students to engage directly with the skills development necessary for sound academic practice. This has included highly visual campaigns on the "Plagiarism trap", providing access to Turnitin plagiarism detection software, guides and sessions to highlight use of…
Acker, Sandra; Webber, Michelle; Smyth, Elizabeth
Over the past 40 or so years, women's share of faculty positions in Canada and elsewhere has increased considerably, if not yet reaching parity. Yet working in the gendered university remains problematic. This article uses data from a qualitative research project in which 38 junior academics were interviewed about their responses to being on the…
Stasz, Cathleen; And Others
This report documents the second of two studies on teaching and learning generic skills in high schools. It extends the earlier work by providing a model for designing classroom instruction in both academic and vocational classrooms where teaching generic skills is an instructional goal. Ethnographic field methods were used to observe, record, and…
Isaac, Carol; Byars-Winston, Angela; McSorley, Rebecca; Schultz, Alexandra; Kaatz, Anna; Carnes, Mary L.
The high attrition rate of female physicians pursuing an academic medicine research career has not been examined in the context of career development theory. We explored how internal medicine residents and faculty experience their work within the context of their broader life domain in order to identify strategies for facilitating career…
Selepe, Mosa; Grobler, Christa; Dicks, Emsie; Oldewage-Theron, Wilna
The W(h)ine Club is a multidisciplinary women's research team which has been working together for the past 10 years. The idea for this Viewpoint piece grew as we participated in a Women in Research programme. The aim of the programme was to improve academic publications among women. A group of us in the programme found ourselves repeatedly…
Gropper, Rachel J.; Tannock, Rosemary
Objective: To investigate working memory (WM), academic achievement, and their relationship in university students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Participants were university students with previously confirmed diagnoses of ADHD (n = 16) and normal control (NC) students (n = 30). Participants completed 3…
Titz, Cora; Karbach, Julia
The aim of this review is to illustrate the role of working memory and executive functions for scholastic achievement as an introduction to the question of whether and how working memory and executive control training may improve academic abilities. The review of current research showed limited but converging evidence for positive effects of process-based complex working-memory training on academic abilities, particularly in the domain of reading. These benefits occurred in children suffering from cognitive and academic deficits as well as in healthy students. Transfer of training to mathematical abilities seemed to be very limited and to depend on the training regime and the characteristics of the study sample. A core issue in training research is whether high- or low-achieving children benefit more from cognitive training. Individual differences in terms of training-related benefits suggested that process-based working memory and executive control training often induced compensation effects with larger benefits in low performing individuals. Finally, we discuss the effects of process-based training in relation to other types of interventions aimed at improving academic achievement. PMID:24389706
Galaz-Fontes, Jesús Francisco; Gil-Antón, Manuel
The central purpose of this work is to present data that evaluates the impact and perspectives of various merit-pay systems directed at Mexican academics. To this end a brief description is provided of recent Mexican higher education evolution, including that of merit-pay programs. It is proposed that faculty merit-pay systems, in the context of…
Taher, Md. Abu
Purpose: The main purpose of this research was to analyze the key issues related to quality of work life (QWL), which have become increasingly important to HRD scholars and practitioners. In addition, the significant differences between the academic professionals of public and private universities in Bangladesh in terms of QWL were also addressed.…
The author attempted to examine how Taiwanese junior high school students' perfectionistic tendencies and achievement goals were related to their academic burnout versus work engagement, and to determine differences in the indicators of burnout versus engagement among students with different subtypes of perfectionism. A total of 456 eighth-grade…
Dumont, Michelle; Leclerc, Danielle; McKinnon, Suzie
Part-time work is becoming a common fact of life for high school students. Furthermore, its short and intermediate term impacts on the academic and psychosocial adaptation of students between the middle and end of high school are fairly unknown. To compensate for this lack of information, students in Grades 9 and 11 were consulted and asked to…
Pike, Gary R.; Kuh, George D.; Massa-McKinley, Ryan C.
This study examined the relationships among first-year students' employment, engagement, and academic achievement using data from the 2004 National Survey of Student Engagement. A statistically significant negative relationship was found between working more than 20 hours per week and grades, even after controlling for students' characteristics…
Halloran, Roberta Kathryn
Self-regulation, executive function and working memory are areas of cognitive processing that have been studied extensively. Although many studies have examined the constructs, there is limited empirical support suggesting a formal link between the three cognitive processes and their prediction of academic achievement. Thus, the present study…
Sauermann, Henry; Stephan, Paula E.
Some scholars view academic and industrial science as qualitatively different knowledge production regimes. Others claim that the two sectors are increasingly similar. Large-scale empirical evidence regarding similarities and differences, however, has been missing. Drawing on prior work on the organization of science, we first develop a framework…
This paper explores the effects of the internationalisation of higher education on the working lives of academics at an offshore campus in eastern Malaysia. Using the interpretivist paradigm and grounded theory methods it investigates their perspectives on various themes as those emerge during a series of interviews. These emerging themes are:…
Polonski, Vitali; Yamamoto, Yoh; White, Jonathon; Kourogi, Motonobu; Ohtsu, Motoichi
A new technique—Vacuum Shear Force Microscopy (VSFM)—is introduced as a reliable method for maintaining a constant separation between a probe and sample. Elimination of many of the instabilities observed when applying the shear force mechanism to imaging under ambient conditions, allows for routine nanometer lateral and sub-nanometer normal resolution. In this paper this technique is applied, firstly, to the imaging of microtubules (biology) and, secondly, to the patterning and subsequent imaging of nanoscale metal lines (nanofabrication).
... force account. 151.51 Section 151.51 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Development Projects § 151.51 Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account. (a) Before undertaking any force account construction work, the sponsor (or any public agency acting as agent for the...
... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false White House Task Force on Middle-Class Working... Task Force on Middle-Class Working Families Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and... times. To these ends, I hereby direct the following: Section 1. White House Task Force on...
... force account. 151.51 Section 151.51 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Development Projects § 151.51 Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account. (a) Before undertaking any force account construction work, the sponsor (or any public agency acting as agent for the...
... force account. 151.51 Section 151.51 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Development Projects § 151.51 Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account. (a) Before undertaking any force account construction work, the sponsor (or any public agency acting as agent for the...
Kenny, John; Fluck, Andrew; Jetson, Tim
This paper presents a detailed case study of the development and implementation of a quantifiable academic workload model in the education faculty of an Australian university. Flowing from the enterprise bargaining process, the Academic Staff Agreement required the implementation of a workload allocation model for academics that was quantifiable…
Falk, Nancy L
Aging nurse faculty members are vital human resources who serve as educators, researchers, and leaders within baccalaureate nursing (BSN) programs. On average, aging nurse faculty members are over 50 years of age and face key retirement decisions over the next decade. The purpose of this study was to begin to build substantive theory about academic nurse leaders' perceptions of extending the academic working life of aging nurse faculty members. Nine academic nurse leaders from BSN programs nationwide were interviewed in this grounded theory study. Data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Four categories emerged: valuing aging nurse faculty, enduring environmental challenges, recognizing stakeholder incongruence, and readjusting. Findings reveal that aging nurse faculty members are highly valued by academic nurse leaders, bringing wisdom, experience, and institutional, historical, and cultural awareness to their many roles. Yet, some aging nurse faculty fail to keep knowledge, skills, and teaching modes current, which is problematic given the multiple environmental challenges that academic nurse leaders face. Stakeholder incongruence arises as a mismatch between the needs of the BSN program and the skills and contributions of aging nurse faculty members. BSN programs, program leaders, and aging nurse faculty members can lessen incongruence by readjusting to address the pressures, tensions, and ongoing change. PMID:24503313
Barkhuizen, Nicolene; Rothmann, Sebastiaan; van de Vijver, Fons J R
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among dispositional optimism, job demands and resources, burnout, work engagement, ill health and organizational commitment of South African academic staff in higher education institutions. A cross-sectional survey design was used, with stratified random samples (N = 595) taken of academics in South African higher education institutions. The results confirmed that job demands and a lack of job resources contributed to burnout, whereas job resources contributed to work engagement. Dispositional optimism had a strong direct effect on perceptions of job resources as well as strong indirect effects (via job resources) on burnout, work engagement, ill health and organizational commitment. The results of this study extend the dual-process model of burnout and engagement by demonstrating the strong effects of dispositional optimism on the constructs in the model. PMID:23949954
Jones, Donald W.; Saltman, Lenore E.
The Department of Defense, in cooperation with a number of colleges and universities, offers a variety of higher education opportunities to military personnel: the Community College of the Air Force, the Army and Navy's Servicemembers Opportunity Colleges, and Defense Activity for Nontraditional Education Support (DANTES). (SK)
National Association of Secondary School Principals, Reston, VA.
The reduction-in-force (RIF) policies presented here are intended to represent the variety of approaches currently being used throughout the nation. They were obtained through inquiries to personnel in more than 100 U.S. school districts. They are presented to give principals and assistant principals information to allow them to play an…
Multicultural group work represents a powerful tool for helping and healing in the context of human diversity. This article summarizes multicultural group work, including task, psychoeducational, counseling, and psychotherapy groups, and describes a group work model for multicultural assessment, diagnosis, and treatment planning. Group work…
Fassinger, Ruth E.; Scantlebury, Kathryn; Richmond, Geraldine
This article presents quantitative results of a study of 139 academic women in the chemical sciences who participated in a professional development program sponsored by the Committee on the Advancement of Women Chemists. The study investigated variables frequently examined in the vocational psychology of women: approaches to achievement, coping strategies, career advancement, the home-work interface, workplace climate, and mentoring. The article presents and discusses results in the context of unique issues faced by women in scientific careers.
Tullos, Kimberly C.
The purpose of this life story narrative study was to explore how women scientists develop views of self that enable them to negotiate careers within academic science. I framed the study using feminist standpoint theory as my theoretical foundation, and used possible selves theory as my conceptual framework. Eight women scientists working in academe described their journey regarding their views of self and career-related experiences. The study produced two key findings. First, seven themes emerged from my data analysis; these themes suggest that these women shared significant experiences in their quest to become scientists. Second, my feminist analysis of the participants' narratives indicates that distinct, but submerged gender-related tensions shaped their views of themselves as scientists and their science career decisions. These tensions include career choice and advancement constrained by family obligations, work environments that do not recognize or undervalue their skills and contributions to the profession, and perceived pressure to de-feminize their behavior to blend in to their work environment. Not unlike other women negotiating careers in academic science, they generally accepted their status as women to be an inherent part of their career pursuits and viewed workplace challenges as an opportunity to prove their competency. Seven of the eight women did not attribute their challenges to gender differences. However, the combined narratives revealed underlying conflicts between their views of self as women and as scientists resulting from their experiences in, and perceptions of, academic science environments. The study's principal theoretical contribution, from the feminist standpoint perspective, highlights the pervasive and unseen influence of gender dynamics. In this study, the participants developed views of themselves, not as scientists, but as "educators who work in science." This critical distinction enabled these participants, perhaps unknowingly
Froeschle, Mary Lynn; Sinkford, Jeanne C
A significant factor in a faculty member's accepting or maintaining an academic appointment is the work environment. Assessing the work environment to identify characteristics that could increase faculty retention and recruitment could be valuable to an educational institution. This study assessed the academic dental work environment to identify positive and negative areas affecting career satisfaction. An online survey about departmental structure and individual work patterns was sent to the deans of fifty-two U.S. dental schools who then forwarded the survey to their faculty. Thirty-eight institutions (73 percent) and 451 full-time faculty members from those thirty-eight schools responded. Most dental faculty members in this survey intend to remain in academia for the next five to eight years. Slightly fewer male faculty members intend to remain in dental education for five to eight years than do female faculty members. Positive satisfaction aspects of the work environment listed by respondents included supportive chair/administration, working relationships with colleagues, and interactions with students. Negative satisfaction aspects of the work environment included low salary, long hours, and heavy workloads. Both positive aspects of job satisfaction and negative factors that impede productivity need to be analyzed within the framework of each institution to enact change for career enrichment, leading to increased faculty recruitment and retention. PMID:19805780
Isaac, Carol; Byars-Winston, Angela; McSorley, Rebecca; Schultz, Alexandra; Kaatz, Anna; Carnes, Mary L.
The high attrition rate of female physicians pursuing an academic medicine research career has not been examined in the context of career development theory. We explored how internal medicine residents and faculty experience their work within the context of their broader life domain in order to identify strategies for facilitating career advancement. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 18 residents and 34 faculty members representing male and female physicians at different career stages. Using thematic analysis, three themes emerged: 1) the love of being a physician (“Raison d’être”), 2) family obligations (“2nd Shift”), and 3) balancing work demands with non-work life (“Negotiating Academic Medicine”). Female researchers and educators reported more strategies for multiple role planning and management than female practitioners. Interventions aimed at enhancing academic internists’ planning and self-efficacy for multiple role management should be investigated as a potential means for increasing participation and facilitate advancement. PMID:23605099
García-Vargas, Mery Constanza; Cortés-Castell, Ernesto
Background. Little research exists on the impact of paid work on academic performance of students of health sciences. No research exists on this subject for students in Colombia. Objectives. This paper seeks to analyze the impact of paid work on academic performance among nursing students. Design, settings and participants: cross-sectional research, involving 430 of nursing students from the National University of Colombia (N = 566). Methods. Variables analyzed: sex, age, work activity, attendance, current semester, degree subjects studied and unavailable, lost credits, grades during the second semester of 2013, and delayed semesters. Subgroups analyzed: (i) according to labor activity: do not work, work up to 20 h and work more than 20 h per week; (ii) Grade point average: failing is considered as less than 3.0 and passing 3.0 or above out of 5.0. Percentage of delayed semesters were calculated. Qualitative and quantitative variables were analyzed for groups by work activity. The percentage and probability of students getting a grade point average less than 3.0 and delaying semesters were calculated by multivariate logistic regression. Results. A total of 219 of the students work (50.9%), the main reason is socioeconomic, of which 99 (45.2%) work more than 20 h per week and have an increased risk of failing, which is higher in the first semester. They also get lower grades, lose more credits and take longer to finish the degree. The logistic bivariate regressions of success (grade point average, credits gained, courses gained and not having delayed semesters) reduce with work, above all in those who work more than 20 h per week and increase as the number of semesters completed increases, independent of sex. Conclusion. A high percentage of nursing students work more than 20 h per week. The compatibility of paid work with studies in university nursing students has a negative impact on academic performance, more so when they work more than 20 h per week. This
Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Almeida, David M.; McDonald, Daniel A.
Data from two affiliated national surveys were used to examine distribution of work-family spillover among working adults. Analyses testing family life course hypotheses indicated self-reported negative and positive spillover between work and family were not randomly distributed within the labor force. Age was found to have a persistent…
Santiago, Rui; Carvalho, Teresa
New public management (NPM) approaches have informed policy in the public sector in advanced countries in the last decade. Some authors suggest that the main objective of NPM at the organisational level is to change the traditional way professionals are regulated. This study examines the impact of NPM on the working conditions of Portuguese higher…
Matehkolaee, Mehdi Jafari; Majidian, Kourosh
In this paper we have calculated the work of friction force on the arbitrary path. In our method didn't use from energy conservative conceptions any way. The distinction of this procedure is that at least do decrease measurement on the path once. Thus we can forecast the amount of work of friction force without information about speed of…
Halbritter, Bump; Blon, Noah; Creighton, Caron
Documentary movie making is not academic writing. Nor is it traditional academic research. However, I have found it to be a remarkable vehicle for teaching both of these things...each semester I am amazed and humbled by the creativity and sincerity that my students bring to their work.
Owens, Matthew; Stevenson, Jim; Hadwin, Julie A.; Norgate, Roger
Anxiety and depression are linked to lower academic performance. It is proposed that academic performance is reduced in young people with high levels of anxiety or depression as a function of increased test-specific worry that impinges on working memory central executive processes. Participants were typically developing children (12 to…
Fitzgerald, Tanya, Ed.; White, Julie, Ed.; Gunter, Helen M., Ed.
This book was written across a period of intense turmoil and change in higher education in Australia and England. The authors are deeply unsettled by these changes and wish to open up the discussion about what it means to be an academic and engage in academic work in the 21st century. Accordingly, each of the authors has nominated a theme or lens…
Jais, Juraifa; Smyrnios, Kosmas X.; Hoare, Lynnel A.
There is a dearth of research on the work-life balance experiences of academics who undertake short-term international teaching assignments. Academics who teach offshore are also accountable for onshore activities including lecturing, research, supervision of higher degree students, mentoring, publishing and administrative obligations "inter…
Proponents of the concept of the audit culture in UK higher education argue that from the late 1990s onward audit functioned as a form of power control and had a profound effect on academics and their work. Such arguments continued to be made into the early 2000s. Since then, however, the level of external scrutiny surrounding UK academics'…
Austin, Ann E.; Chapman, David W.; Farah, Samar; Wilson, Elisabeth; Ridge, Natasha
As many countries expand their higher education systems, they must attract, support, and retain qualified academic staff. This paper focuses on the United Arab Emirates (UAE) as a case study of a nation drawing on large numbers of mostly expatriate faculty working in short-term academic appointments. The paper begins by considering the national…
Boyd, Pete; Smith, Caroline
Internationally, the increasing emphasis in universities on the quality of teaching, on student employability and on a corporate approach to entrepreneurial income generation has created a tension around the primacy afforded to published research outputs as a focus for academic work and status. In this study, a framework for academic socialisation…
Cox, Walter H.; Zerface, W. A., Ed.
Armed Services VIEW (Vital Information for Education and Work) is described as a cooperative program with the Department of Defense which (1) introduces career opportunities and training available through volunteer service enlistment, (2) will be provided to senior high schools at no cost, and (3) presents materials in both printed and microfilm…
This is a reflective paper that explores Martin Nakata's work as a basis for understanding the possibilities and restrictions of non-Indigenous academics working in Indigenous studies. The paper engages with Nakata's work at the level of praxis. It contends that Nakata's work provides non-Indigenous teachers of Indigenous studies a framework for…
Felstead, Alan; Jewson, Nick; Phizacklea, Annie; Walters, Sally
The patterns, extent, and problems of working at home in the United Kingdom were examined through a multivariate analysis of data from the Labour Force Survey, which has questioned respondents about the location of their workplace since 1992. The numbers of people working "mainly" at home increased from 345,920 (1.5%) in 1981 to 680,612 (2.5%) in…
Kuo, Arthur D.
Muscles expend energy to perform active work during locomotion, but they may also expend significant energy to produce force, for example when tendons perform much of the work passively. The relative contributions of work and force to overall energy expenditure are unknown. We therefore measured the mechanics and energetics of a cyclical bouncing task, designed to control for work and force. We hypothesized that near bouncing resonance, little work would be performed actively by muscle, but the cyclical production of force would cost substantial metabolic energy. Human subjects (n = 9) bounced vertically about the ankles at inversely proportional frequencies (1–4 Hz) and amplitudes (15–4 mm), such that the overall rate of work performed on the body remained approximately constant (0.30 ± 0.06 W/kg), but the forces varied considerably. We used parameter identification to estimate series elasticity of the triceps surae tendon, as well as the work performed actively by muscle and passively by tendon. Net metabolic energy expenditure for bouncing at 1 Hz was 1.15 ± 0.31 W/kg, attributable mainly to active muscle work with an efficiency of 24 ± 3%. But at 3 Hz (near resonance), most of the work was performed passively, so that active muscle work could account for only 40% of the net metabolic rate of 0.76 ± 0.28 W/kg. Near resonance, a cost for cyclical force that increased with both amplitude and frequency of force accounted for at least as much of the total energy expenditure as a cost for work. Series elasticity reduces the need for active work, but energy must still be expended for force production. PMID:21212245
Herz, M.; Schiller, Ch.; Giessibl, F. J.; Mannhart, J.
The local work function of a surface determines the spatial decay of the charge density at the Fermi level normal to the surface. Here, we present a method that enables simultaneous measurements of local work-function and tip-sample forces. A combined dynamic scanning tunneling microscope and atomic force microscope is used to measure the tunneling current between an oscillating tip and the sample in real time as a function of the cantilever's deflection. Atomically resolved work-function measurements on a silicon (111)-(7×7) surface are presented and related to concurrently recorded tunneling current and force measurements.
Cui, Zhenglie; Matsunaga, Katsuya; Shidoji, Kazunori
The operating efficiency of teleoperation under stereoscopic video images has been reported to be inferior to that of using the naked eye at a real working environment. A human operator working at an actual work location is aided by force, tactile, and acoustic senses in addition to vision. Conventional teleoperated robots lack sense information, except vision, which may explain operators" inefficient cognition of the working space. Therefore, using stereoscopic video images, we intend to clarify effects of force and acoustic feedback information on the performance of the teleoperation work. Experiment 1 produces a system that can acquire touch-information by the site of the master robot; it elucidates the influence of force and acoustic feedback information in work. Human operators are required to pick up a cylindrical object and insert it into a hole. The experiment shows that feedback of simple touch-information by force and acoustic feedback was not effective to shorten the completion-time. Experiment 2, in force feedback conditions, directs a user to search a hole by sliding a cylindrical object on its surface. Experimental results indicate that the working efficiency was improved by force information using a sliding sense. Experiment 3 investigated effects of sound when the cylindrical object was oriented such that it could be inserted in a hole and the hole was approached in a state of contact. Experimental results demonstrate that working efficiency was not improved by presentation of acoustic information.
Igun, Sylvester Nosakhare
The study examined Extrinsic motivation as correlates of work attitude of the Nigeria Police Force and its implications for counselling. 300 Police personnel were selected by random sampling technique from six departments that make up police force Headquarters, Abuja. The personnel were selected from each department using simple sampling…
Bennefield, Robert L.; McNeil, John M.
This document examines 8-year trends in the labor force status and other characteristics (including age and years of school completed) of persons with a work force disability, using March supplements to the U.S. Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS). (Disabled persons are considered to be individuals 16 to 64 years old with a disability…
Pillay, Hitendra; Kelly, Kathy; Tones, Megan
Early labour force exit is a significant challenge associated with the ageing workforce in Australia and many other developed countries. A reduction and increased flexibility of work hours has been suggested to improve labour force participation of the mature aged cohort. However, little is known about mature aged workers' aspirations for…
Saltmarsh, Sue; Randell-Moon, Holly
University work-life balance policies increasingly offer academic workers a range of possible options for managing the competing demands of work, family, and community obligations. Flexible work arrangements, family-friendly hours and campus facilities, physical well-being and mental health programs typify strategies for formally acknowledging the…
Smith, Steven J.; Pedersen-Gallegos, Liane; Riegle-Crumb, Catherine
We present an in-depth portrait of the training, careers, and work of recent Ph.D. physical scientists. Use of specialized training varies widely, with about half often using knowledge of their Ph.D. specialty area in their jobs. The use of specialized training does not, however, correlate with job satisfaction. In this and other important measures, there are relatively few differences between "academics" and "nonacademics." Important job skills for all employment sectors include writing, oral presentation, management, data analysis, designing projects, critical thinking, and working in an interdisciplinary context. Rankings given by respondents of graduate training in some of these skill areas were significantly lower than the importance of these skills in the workplace. We also found that the rated quality of graduate training varies relatively little by department or advisor. Finally, although nonacademic aspirations among graduate students are fairly common, these do not appear to be well supported while in graduate school.
Supriadi, Eddi; Yusof, Hj. Abdul Raheem Bin Mohamad
The study aimed to investigate the relationship between the instructional leadership of the headmaster and the work discipline of teachers and the work motivation and the academic achievement of primary school students from Special Province of Central Jakarta. The research method will be done with quantitative research methods. The study uses data…
Zirker, Christopher A; Bennett, Bradford C; Abel, Mark F
We examined how the application of a forward horizontal force applied at the waist alters the metabolic cost, kinematics, and external work of gait. Horizontal assist forces of 4%, 8% and 12% of a subject's body weight were applied via our testing apparatus while subjects walked at comfortable walking speed on a level treadmill. Kinematic and metabolic parameters were measured using motion capture and ergospirometry respectively on a group of 10 healthy male subjects. Changes in kinematic and metabolic parameters were quantified and found similar to walking downhill at varying grades. A horizontal assist force of 8% resulted in the greatest reduction of metabolic cost. Changes in recovery factor, external work, and center of mass (COM) movement did not correlate with changes in metabolic rate and therefore were not driving the observed reductions in cost. The assist force may have performed external work by providing propulsion as well as raising the COM as it pivots over the stance leg. Assist forces may decrease metabolic cost by reducing the concentric work required for propulsion while increasing the eccentric work of braking. These findings on the effects of assist forces suggest novel mobility aids for individuals with gait disorders and training strategies for athletes. PMID:23183216
Fournillier, Janice B.
Having assumed the role of academic tourist/midnight robber from the Caribbean island of Trinidad and Tobago, I discover that I have never fully dealt with the emotional aspect of using academic discourses that came out of a Eurocentric frame. Academic habitus, conventions, laws, shame, guilt, and fear of the repercussions because of my dual…
This book focuses on the work of writing, dealing with the thinking, strategizing, and decision making that academic and professional writers do. It also deals with the complex issues of purpose, audience, genre, and voice that all writers face. The chapters are: (1) "The Work of Writing"; (2) "Contributing to the Professional Conversation"; (3)…
Ward, Michael R. M.
During the last few decades, the South Wales Valleys (UK) have undergone a considerable economic, social, cultural and political transformation, altering youth transitions from school to work. Drawing on a two and a half year ethnographic study, in the paper I concentrate on a group of academically successful young white working-class men aged…
Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.
INFORMATION ON THE SIZE AND COMPOSITION OF THE HIRED FARM WORKING FORCE, AND ON THE EMPLOYMENT AND CASH EARNINGS FROM FARM AND NONFARM WAGE WORK FOR 1966 IS PRESENTED. THE DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM THE ANNUAL SURVEY CONDUCTED FOR THE ECONOMIC RESEARCH SERVICE BY THE BUREAU OF CENSUS. THE SAMPLE INCLUDED APPROXIMATELY 35,000 HOUSEHOLDS INTERVIEWED…
Johnson, Stephanie K.; Davis, Jason J.; Rate, Christopher
This document contains three poster presentations from a conference on human resource development. "Intrinsic and Extrinsic Work Motivators: Implications for the Incoming Air Force Officer Workforce" (Stephanie K. Johnson, Jason J. Davis, Christopher Rate) reports on a study that explored the literature relating to work motivators to find Air…
Grossman, Allyson Sherman
This special labor force report, focusing on children of working mothers, summarizes findings from the 1977 annual survey of marital and family characteristics of workers in the population who are 16 years old and over. Data are given on: the numbers of children of various ages with working mothers, the percentages of black and white children…
Waldman, Elizabeth; Whitmore, Robert
A special labor force report, the pamphlet provides statistics related to the children of working mothers: type of family, number of children under 18, race, number of children in broken families, work experience of family head, and family income. Although the number of children in the population has declined, the number of children with working…
Cahill, Michael; Salomone, Paul R.
Notes that inclusion of older workers into the labor force is becoming a social and economic need. Asks counselors to encourage career planning for the total life span including years typically used for retirement. Addresses attitudinal obstacles to extending work lives, options for continuing work life, and effective procedures for promoting…
Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald
Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…
Onorato, Pasquale; De Ambrosis, Anna
We present a sequence of activities aimed at promoting both learning about magnetic forces and students’ reflection about the conceptual bridge between magnetic forces on a moving charge and on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field. The activity sequence, designed for students in high school or on introductory physics courses, has been tested with about 150 high school students and 50 pre-service teachers. Results indicate that students’ understanding of the direction and magnitude of the magnetic force improved markedly and that some typical difficulties were overcome. Comparison of the two types of forces and of their effects allowed focusing on their crucial difference with respect to the possibility of doing work and encouraged students to search for models that are able to link one force to another.
Discusses pupil misconceptions concerning forces. Summarizes some of Assessment of Performance Unit's findings on meaning of (1) force, (2) force and motion in one dimension and two dimensions, and (3) Newton's second law. (YP)
Melin, Marika; Astvik, Wanja; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
This study investigates the relationship between the work conditions in higher education work settings, the academic staff's strategies for handling excessive workload and impact on well-being and work-life balance. The results show that there is a risk that staff in academic work places will start using compensatory coping strategies to deal…
Ortega, Justus O; Lindstedt, Stan L; Nelson, Frank E; Jubrias, Sharon A; Kushmerick, Martin J; Conley, Kevin E
Muscle produces force by forming cross-bridges, using energy released from ATP. While the magnitude and duration of force production primarily determine the energy requirement, nearly a century ago Fenn observed that muscle shortening or lengthening influenced energetic cost of contraction. When work is done by the muscle, the energy cost is increased and when work is done on the muscle the energy cost is reduced. However, the magnitude of the 'Fenn effect' and its mirror ('negative Fenn effect') have not been quantitatively resolved. We describe a new technique coupling magnetic resonance spectroscopy with an in vivo force clamp that can directly quantify the Fenn effect [E=I+W, energy liberated (E) equals the energy cost of isometric force production (I) plus the work done (W)] and the negative Fenn effect (E=I-W) for one muscle, the first dorsal interosseous (FDI). ATP cost was measured during a series of contractions, each of which occurred at a constant force and for a constant duration, thus constant force-time integral (FTI). In all subjects, as the FTI increased with load, there was a proportional linear increase in energy cost. In addition, the cost of producing force greatly increased when the muscle shortened, and was slightly reduced during lengthening contraction. These results, though limited to a single muscle, contraction velocity and muscle length change, do quantitatively support the Fenn effect. We speculate that they also suggest that an elastic element within the FDI muscle functions to preserve the force generated within the cross-bridges. PMID:25964423
Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
A task force studied the undergraduate program at the College of Agriculture and the School of Forest Resources and Conservation at the University of Florida, ranging from recruitment techniques and strategies designed to attract students to the college to strategies to recognize and reward quality teaching at the undergraduate level. Data were…
Gray, S. A.; Chaban, P.; Martinussen, R.; Goldberg, R.; Gotlieb, H.; Kronitz, R.; Hockenberry, M.; Tannock, R.
Background: Youths with coexisting learning disabilities (LD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for poor academic and social outcomes. The underlying cognitive deficits, such as poor working memory (WM), are not well targeted by current treatments for either LD or ADHD. Emerging evidence suggests that WM might be…
Graubard, Stephen R., Ed.
This collection focuses on the forces that have worked together to create the U.S. system of higher education. Contributors consider the development of the university system, the present role of the university, and the future of higher education. The chapters are: (1) "How the Academic Profession Is Changing" (Arthur Levine); (2) "Small Worlds,…
Malinowska-Borowska, Jolanta; Harazin, Barbara; Zieliński, Grzegorz
Prolonged exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) generated by chainsaws can cause HAV syndrome, i.e., disorders in the upper extremities of forestry workers. Progress of HAV syndrome depends on the intensity of mechanical vibration transmitted throughout the body, which is directly proportional to coupling forces applied by the woodcutter to a vibrating tool. This study aimed to establish a method of measuring coupling forces exerted by chainsaw workers in real working conditions. Coupling forces exerted by workers with their right and left hands were measured with a hydro-electronic force meter. Wood hardness, the type of chainsaw and the kind of forest operation, i.e., felling, cross-cutting or limbing, were considered. PMID:22429531
Price, Emma; Coffey, Brian; Nethery, Amy
This article documents the experiences of three early career academics trying to establish a network of early career academics (ECAs) in a middle-ranked university in Australia. The changing context of academia means that ECAs face considerable challenges in understanding and negotiating effective career paths. Some of the issues encountered…
Shields, Mark A., Ed.
This volume contributes to the understanding of higher education's catalytic role in shaping the microcomputer revolution. Academic computing is viewed here as a social and cultural phenomenon. An in-depth collection of mainly ethnographic studies of the academic computing revolution--its consequences, meanings, and significance--is presented. The…
Range, Bret; Dougan, Kelli; Pijanowski, John
In this article, the authors discuss two interventions deployed to remediate low performing students. The first is grade level retention in which a student is required to repeat a given grade due to lack of academic or social progress. The second is academic redshirting in which a parent voluntarily delays the entrance of her child into…
Zavala, Blanca Arciga
For more than ten years, academics of public universities in Mexico have endured modernization programs that promote individual productivity and operate as a mechanism of selection and assessment. The implementation of the programs has exposed a tension between the values implicit in the programs and the values of the academic teachers. There is a…
This study explores the perceptions that Israeli reference librarians have of their jobs and their academic environment. Fifteen academic reference librarians were interviewed over a period of four months and their answers were analyzed using the thematic analysis approach. The analysis resulted in five major themes: 1) elements in reference work…
Richardson, Jessica J.; Kemp, Simon; Malinen, Sanna; Haultain, Steve A.
There is growing concern about the detrimental effect of term-time employment on university students' academic success. We report results from an online survey of 1837 students of the University of Canterbury in New Zealand, whose responses were later matched to their academic records for a semester. The majority of employed students reported…
Quality audit has become the dominant means of assessing the quality of university teaching and learning. This paper addresses this international trend through the analysis of academics' perception of quality audit. It presents a new way to understand quality audit through the interpretation of how frontline academics in England perceived and…
Brunkhorst, Bonny J.
Argues that it is possible to evaluate the excellence of academic documents involving the study of geosciences K-16 by using the Geoscience Academic Excellence Model which was developed by scientific societies including the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences. (Author/YDS)
Mann, Collette; Canny, Benedict J; Reser, David H; Rajan, Ramesh
Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50, showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress - all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students' Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = -0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to assess
Canny, Benedict J.; Reser, David H.; Rajan, Ramesh
Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50 ) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50 , showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress – all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students’ Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = −0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to