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Sample records for acanthosis nigricans

  1. Acanthosis nigricans

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause any symptoms other than skin changes. Eventually, dark, velvety skin with very visible markings and creases ... care provider if you develop areas of thick, dark, velvety skin. Images Acanthosis nigricans - close-up Acanthosis ...

  2. Generalized benign acanthosis nigricans in an infant

    PubMed Central

    Das, Dipti; Das, Anupam; Kumar, Dhiraj; Gharami, Ramesh C.

    2014-01-01

    The generalized form of acanthosis nigricans, especially in infants, is extremely rare. Herein we report a 1-year-old female child who developed generalized acanthosis nigricans without any evidence of internal malignancy or endocrine disorder. This case is being reported for its rarity. PMID:25593799

  3. An approach to acanthosis nigricans

    PubMed Central

    Phiske, Meghana Madhukar

    2014-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is characterized by dark, coarse and thickened skin with a velvety texture, being symmetrically distributed on the neck, the axillae, antecubital and popliteal fossae, and groin folds, histopathologically characterized by papillomatosis and hyperkeratosis of the skin. A high prevalence of AN has been observed recently. Different varieties of AN include benign, obesity associated, syndromic, malignant, acral, unilateral, medication-induced and mixed AN. Diagnosis is largely clinical with histopathology needed only for confirmation. Other investigations needed are fasting lipoprotein profile, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, hemoglobin and alanine aminotransferase for obesity associated AN and radiological investigations (plain radiography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging/computerized tomography) for malignancy associated AN. The most common treatment modalities include retinoids and metformin. PMID:25165638

  4. Acanthosis nigricans: A fold (intertriginous) dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Bairamov, Orkhan; Tüzün, Yalçın

    2015-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a mucocutaneous disorder that is characterized by focal or diffuse hyperkeratotic, surfaces, which are symmetrically distributed hyperpigmented lesions of the skin. It rarely affects mucosal surfaces like oral cavities. Although it is commonly seen in adolescents, AN is also increasingly seen in children who are obese. Recent studies have found that AN can be a cutaneous indicator of insulin resistance and malignancy. Acanthosis nigricans has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, endocrinopathies, drugs, and malignancies. PMID:26051063

  5. Hyperinsulinemia and acanthosis nigricans in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, C. A.; Gilkison, C. R.; Keenan, B. S.; Nagamani, M.

    1997-01-01

    Compared with the US white, non-Hispanic population, the African-American population has a nearly two-fold higher prevalence of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Obesity, which usually precedes NIDDM, is associated with the skin lesion acanthosis nigricans in African Americans. This study was undertaken to determine what the relationship of acanthosis nigricans was to hyperinsulinemia, a major risk factor for NIDDM. Eighty-nine African-American subjects with acanthosis nigricans and 25 others without the skin lesion were evaluated using oral glucose tolerance testing and responsiveness to insulin. Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was present in 19 of the subjects with acanthosis nigricans. The prevalence of NIDDM in this group increased with increasing age, reaching 50% among those in their 40s. Fasting plasma insulin concentration was in direct proportion to the severity of the acanthosis nigricans involvement of the neck. These data suggest that among African Americans, this skin lesion is a marker for hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Furthermore, the presence of acanthosis nigricans identifies a subset with a much higher prevalence of NIDDM than is present in African Americans in the general population. PMID:9264219

  6. Unilateral nevoid acanthosis nigricans: Uncommon variant of a common disease

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anupam; Bhattacharya, Sabari; Kumar, Piyush; Gayen, Tirthankar; Roy, Kunal; Das, Nilay K.; Gharami, Ramesh C.

    2014-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a fairly common dermatosis characterized by hyperpigmented velvety plaques, having a predilection for the intertriginous areas. We herein present a case of unilateral nevoid acanthosis nigricans over the left lateral chest, in an adult male. The rarity of documentation of this entity in the world literature prompted us to report the case. PMID:25506563

  7. [Acral acanthosis nigricans associated with taking growth hormone].

    PubMed

    Peña Irún, A

    2014-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans is a skin lesion characterized by the presence of a hyperpigmented, velvety cutaneous thickening that usually appears in flexural areas. Less frequently, it can occur in other locations, such as the dorsum of hands and feet. In this case it is called acral acanthosis nigricans. It is a dermatological manifestation of systemic disease. It is often associated with insulin resistance-mediated endocrine diseases. A case is presented on a patient with acanthosis nigricans secondary to the use of growth hormone. PMID:23746703

  8. Acanthosis Nigricans among Northern Plains American Indian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Blakely; Noonan, Curtis; Bentley, Bonnie; Conway, Kathrene; Corcoran, Mary; FourStar, Kris; Gress, Shannon; Wagner, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present cross-sectional and prospective data on acanthosis nigricans (AN) prevalence in the context of other risk factors for diabetes including high body mass index (BMI), abnormal blood pressure (BP), physical inactivity and family history of diabetes among Northern Plains American Indian (AI) children.…

  9. Observing Anthropometric and Acanthosis Nigrican Changes among Children Over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Jennifer; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the anthropometrics and acanthosis nigricans (AN) in a sample of 7,337 children at two assessments. Four groups of children were identified based on the presence of AN at both time points: those who never had the marker, those who gained the marker, those who lost the marker, and those who maintained the marker. Group…

  10. Acanthosis Nigricans among Native Americans: an indicator of high diabetes risk.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, C A; Smith, M M; Gilkison, C R; Shaheb, S; Stahn, R M

    1994-01-01

    Prevalence of the skin lesion acanthosis nigricans was determined in two tribal communities in Texas and Nebraska. Thirty-eight percent of the Alabama-Coushatta tribe of Texas had acanthosis nigricans. Nineteen percent of Omaha and Winnebago tribal children had the skin lesion; the youngest children had the least acanthosis nigricans. Among weight-matched Alabama-Coushatta, fasting insulin concentrations were twofold higher in subjects with the lesion. It was concluded that acanthosis nigricans is highly prevalent among Native Americans and that its presence suggests insulin resistance. Thus, it may identify those with the highest risk for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in this population. PMID:7977931

  11. Resolution of Acanthosis Nigricans Following Curative Gastric Carcinoma Resection.

    PubMed

    Jagwani, A V; Reynu, R; Affirul, C A; Mustafa, M T; Kosai, N R

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a 48-year old, who presented with upper epigastrium pain associated with early satiety and significant weight loss. Physical examination revealed a thickening and darkening of skins around the skin folds, scalp, back and front of abdomen. A diagnosis of gastro-esophageal junction adenocarcinoma was confirmed by oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGDS) and biopsy. The biopsy of the skin lesion revealed a diagnosis of acanthosis nigricans, He underwent a total gastrectomy followed by adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy. Recovery is unremarkable. Interestingly, the skin lesions disappear following our therapy. We believe this may be attributed to the treatment of the malignancy. We highlight the interesting association, pathophysiology and therapy. PMID:27598021

  12. Hyperandrogenism-Insulin Resistance-Acanthosis Nigricans Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dédjan, A. H.; Chadli, A.; El Aziz, S.; Farouqi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Female hyperandrogenism is a frequent motive of consultation. It is revealed by hirsutism, acne or seborrhea, and disorders in menstruation cycle combined or not with virilisation signs. Several etiologies are incriminated but the hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans syndrome is rare. Observation. A 20-year-old girl, having had a five-year-old secondary amenorrhea. The exam revealed a patient, normotensive with a body mass index at 30 kg/m2 and a waist measurement of 120 cm, a severe hirsutism assessed to be 29 according to Ferriman Gallwey scale, virilisation signs of male morphotype, clitoridic hypertrophy and frontal alopecia, and an acanthosis nigricans behind the neck, in the armpits and elbows. The assessment carried out revealed testosteronemia at 1.28 ng/mL, which is more than twice the upper norm of the laboratory. Imaging studies were negative for both ovarian and adrenal masses. The retained diagnosis is HAIR-AN syndrome probably related to ovarian hyperthecosis and she was provided with androcur 50 mg/day and estradiol pills 2 mg/day and under hygiene-dietetic conditions. Conclusion. This case proves that HAIR-AN syndrome could be responsible for severe hyperandrogenism with virilisation signs. It must be retained after discarding the tumoral causes and when there are signs of insulin resistance. PMID:26229697

  13. Acanthosis Nigricans associated with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ferraz de Campos, Fernando Peixoto; Narvaez, Margarita Rosa Aveiga; Reis, Paola Vasconcellos Soares; Gomes, Augusto Cesar Marins; Paraskevopoulos, Daniela Kallíope de Sá; Santana, Frederico; Fugita, Oscar Eduardo Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN), an entity recognized since the 19th century, is a dermatopathy associated with insulin-resistant conditions, endocrinopathies, drugs, chromosome abnormalities and neoplasia. The latter, also known as malignant AN, is mostly related to abdominal neoplasms. Malignant AN occurs frequently among elderly patients. In these cases, the onset is subtle, and spreading involves the flexural regions of the body, particularly the axillae, palms, soles, and mucosa. Gastric adenocarcinoma is the most frequent associated neoplasia, but many others have been reported. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), although already reported, is rarely associated with malignant AN. The authors report the case of a woman who was being treated for depression but presented a long-standing and marked weight loss, followed by darkening of the neck and the axillary regions. Physical examination disclosed a tumoral mass in the left flank and symmetrical, pigmented, velvety, verrucous plaques on both axillae, which is classical for AN. The diagnostic work-up disclosed a huge renal mass, which was resected and further diagnosed as a RCC. The post-operative period was uneventful and the skin alteration was evanescent at the first follow-up consultation. The authors call attention to the association of AN with RCC. PMID:27284539

  14. Acanthosis Nigricans associated with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Narvaez, Margarita Rosa Aveiga; Reis, Paola Vasconcellos Soares; Gomes, Augusto Cesar Marins; Paraskevopoulos, Daniela Kallíope de Sá; Santana, Frederico; Fugita, Oscar Eduardo Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN), an entity recognized since the 19th century, is a dermatopathy associated with insulin-resistant conditions, endocrinopathies, drugs, chromosome abnormalities and neoplasia. The latter, also known as malignant AN, is mostly related to abdominal neoplasms. Malignant AN occurs frequently among elderly patients. In these cases, the onset is subtle, and spreading involves the flexural regions of the body, particularly the axillae, palms, soles, and mucosa. Gastric adenocarcinoma is the most frequent associated neoplasia, but many others have been reported. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), although already reported, is rarely associated with malignant AN. The authors report the case of a woman who was being treated for depression but presented a long-standing and marked weight loss, followed by darkening of the neck and the axillary regions. Physical examination disclosed a tumoral mass in the left flank and symmetrical, pigmented, velvety, verrucous plaques on both axillae, which is classical for AN. The diagnostic work-up disclosed a huge renal mass, which was resected and further diagnosed as a RCC. The post-operative period was uneventful and the skin alteration was evanescent at the first follow-up consultation. The authors call attention to the association of AN with RCC. PMID:27284539

  15. FGF21 Is Associated with Acanthosis Nigricans in Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yueye; Yang, Jie; Li, Yan; Chen, Jiaqi; Song, Kexiu; Wang, Xingchun; Bu, Le; Cheng, Xiaoyun; Wang, Jiying; Qu, Shen

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to investigate the relationship between FGF21 and obesity-related acanthosis nigricans (AN). Methods. 40 obese patients without AN (OB group), 40 obese patients with AN (AN group), and 40 healthy volunteers (control group, CON) were included in this study. Weight, BMI, lipid profile, FFA, UA, and CRP were measured in all participants. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed and serum glucose and plasma insulin were measured. Serum FGF21 was measured by ELISA. Results. Compared with OB group, AN group had higher levels of fasting insulin and homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P < 0.05), but lower serum levels of blood glucose. The difference of FGF21 among three groups was significant and AN group showed the highest serum level of FGF21 (P < 0.05). Serum FGF21 was most positively correlated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. Multiple logistic analysis showed that FGF21 was the independent risk factor for AN (OR 4.550; 95% CI 1.054–19.635; P = 0.042). Conclusion. AN patients had more serious hyperinsulinemia but better serum levels of blood glucose than OB. Increased FGF21 is associated with AN in obese patients and may be considered as compensatory response to the decreased insulin sensitivity. PMID:27190511

  16. Three Cases of Concomitant Acanthosis Nigricans with Confluent and Reticulated Papillomatosis in Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun; Kang, Bong Seon; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is characterized by symmetric, velvety, gray-brown hypertrophied plaques most commonly on the axillae and neck. Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis (CRP) is manifested by papules in the mid-chest that coalesce in the midline, and are arranged in a reticulated pattern peripherally. Both diseases are known to be related to endocrinopathies such as diabetes mellitus (DM), an insulin resistant state and obesity with unknown mechanisms. Herein, we presented three cases of concomitant acanthosis nigricans with confluent and reticulated papillomatosis in obese patients. PMID:27303169

  17. A Comparison of Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, and Acanthosis Nigricans in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Tijerina, Sandra L.; Reyna, Maria Elena; Farooqi, Mohammad I.; Shelton, Margarette L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective quantitative study was to examine the relationships among acanthosis nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), school grade, and gender in children attending elementary school located in South West Texas. Data were collected by attending school district nurses. Researchers reviewed 7,026…

  18. Increasing Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, and Acanthosis Nigricans Abnormalities in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Garza, Viola; Fuentes, Lilia A.; Rodriguez, Melinda C.; Sullivan, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective quantitative study examined the relationships among gender, Acanthosis Nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) in children attending school Grades 1-9 in Southwest Texas. Of the 34,897 health screening records obtained for the secondary analysis, 32,788 were included for the study. A logistic regression…

  19. Is Acanthosis Nigricans a Reliable Indicator for Risk of Type 2 Diabetes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lisa H.; Ficca, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a thickening and hyperpigmentation of the skin commonly found on the neck, axilla, or groin and is generally caused by hyperinsulinemia, a consequence of insulin resistance associated with obesity. Insulin resistance is a primary risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and…

  20. The association between acanthosis nigricans and dysglycemia in an ethnically diverse group of eighth grade students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of acanthosis nigricans (AN) and to quantify its association with dysglycemia in an ethnically diverse group of eighth-grade students. Data were collected in 2003 from a cross-sectional study of students from 12 middle schools in three US stat...

  1. A case of acanthosis nigricans as a paraneoplastic syndrome with squamous cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Karakas, Yusuf; Esin, Ece; Lacin, Sahin; Ceyhan, Koray; Heper, Aylin Okcu; Yalcin, Suayib

    2016-01-01

    A 55-year-old man presented with oral mucosal ulcers, blackening of both hands, and hyperpigmentation on axillary, anal, and inguinal regions for the last 3 months, which were all progressive. The patient was referred to the oncology department with the diagnosis of acanthosis nigricans for investigation of an underlying malignancy. He was a smoker. A computed tomography scan of thorax revealed enlarged mediastinal lymphadenopathies and a lesion on the left upper lobe. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the mediastinal lesion was consistent with squamous cell carcinoma, and biopsies of the skin and oral mucosal lesion also further confirmed the diagnosis of acanthosis nigricans. After docetaxel and cisplatin chemotherapy, a significant improvement in his skin and mucosal lesions was observed with almost complete resolution of the pulmonary lesion and the mediastinal lymph nodes. PMID:27536145

  2. Co-occurrence of acanthosis nigricans and bladder adenocarcinoma – case report

    PubMed Central

    Silny, Wojciech; Żaba, Ryszard; Osmola-Mańkowska, Agnieszka; Mackiewicz-Wysocka, Małgorzata; Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is characterized by the occurrence of symmetrical velvety hyperpigmented plaques that can be observed in each location on the skin. However, the lesions are most frequently located in the axillary, inguinal and nuchal areas. Primarily, the lesions appear as hyperpigmented focuses which later transform into papillary lesions. There are two forms of the disease – benign and malignant. Malignant AN is considered to represent paraneoplastic syndrome co-occurring with advanced cancer, but as such it is not malignant. This article presents a case of a patient diagnosed with AN and coexisting bladder cancer and discusses the case in the context of available literature. PMID:24596525

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Overweight, Elevated Blood Pressure, and Acanthosis Nigricans among Low-Income Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopping, Dana; Nevarez, Holly; Goto, Keiko; Morgan, Irene; Frigaard, Martin; Wolff, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the rates of overweight, elevated blood pressure, acanthosis nigricans, and their associated factors in third through fifth grade students over 4 years. Participants consisted of 279 students who participated in health screenings in 2002 and 2006. Hispanic students had significantly higher rates of overweight and…

  4. Is Acanthosis Nigricans a Reliable Indicator for Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Obese Children and Adolescents?: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Cilymol; Rozmus, Cathy L.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes is becoming a major health problem affecting children and adolescents in the United States. This article reviews the current literature examining the association between the presence of acanthosis nigricans (AN) and risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in obese children and adolescents. Ethnicity, family…

  5. Acanthosis Nigricans

    MedlinePlus

    ... easy to fall into believing the hype about bleaches, skin scrubs, and over-the-counter exfoliating treatments. ... When Being Overweight Is a Health Problem Skin, Hair, and Nails Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It? ...

  6. Acanthosis Nigricans

    MedlinePlus

    ... or lactic acid. Over-the-counter lotions containing salicylic acid. Over-the-counter creams containing urea. Over-the- ... or beta-hydroxy acids (glycolic acid, lactic acid, salicylic acid) Prescription-strength urea A retinoid such as tretinoin, ...

  7. A STUDY OF PATHOGENESIS OF ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS AND ITS CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Neerja

    2011-01-01

    Background: Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a dermatosis characterized by thickened, hyperpigmented plaques, typically on the intertriginous surfaces and neck. Common in some populations, its prevalence depends on race. Clinicians should recognize AN; it heralds disorders ranging from endocrinologic disturbances to malignancy. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis of AN and its clinical implications and management. Materials and Methods: We selected 30 patients for the study. Diagnosis of associated disorders was established by history, physical examination, body mass index (BMI), hormone measurements by radioimmunoassays of thyroidnfunction tests, free testosterone, 17 (OH) progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), cortisol, gonadotropins, prolactin, immunoreactive insulin, and C-peptide levels. Results and Discussion: In our study, the flexural involvement (flexures of groins, knees and elbows) was seen in 40% patients, lip involvement was seen in 6.6% patients, and dorsal involvement was seen in 3.3% patients each. Increased serum testosterone levels were seen in 13.3% patients and increased DHEAS levels were seen in 20% patients. Regarding the types of AN, obesity induced AN or pseudo-AN was seen 70% patients, syndromic AN was seen in 23.35% patients and malignant AN was seen in 6.6% patients. The commonest histopathological feature of patients with AN was hyperkeratosis, seen in 100% patients, papillomatosis was seen in 90% patients, dermal infiltrate of lymphocytes and plasma cells was seen in 60% patients, horn pseudocysts were seen in 30% patients, and irregular acanthosis was seen in 26.6% patients. PMID:22345770

  8. Reliability and Validity of the Acanthosis Nigricans Screening Tool for Use in Elementary School-Age Children by School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Leslie K.; Hall, Lynne M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of an acanthosis nigricans (AN) screening tool for use in elementary school-age children of different ethnic groups. Cross-sectional data were collected via observation of 288, 5- to 12-year-old school-age children. Three nurse clinicians used a 0-4 grade AN screening tool to rate…

  9. Social Anxiety, Depression and Self-Esteem in Obese Adolescent Girls with Acanthosis Nigricans

    PubMed Central

    Pirgon, Özgür; Sandal, Gonca; Gökçen, Cem; Bilgin, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of acanthosis nigricans (AN) on depression symptoms, related quality of life and self-esteem scores in obese adolescent girls. Methods: Fifty-nine obese adolescent girls (mean age: 13.19±1.3 years, age range: 12-17 years, mean body mass index: 29.89±3.30) were enrolled in this study. The obese adolescent girls were divided into two groups based on presence or absence of AN. Non-obese healthy adolescents constituted the control group (30 girls, mean age: 13.5±1.4 years). All subjects were evaluated using the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAI-C), and the modified Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES). Higher scores indicated more severe depression and anxiety, as well as low self-esteem status. Results: The AN and non-AN obese groups showed significantly higher CDI, STAI-C and SES scores than the control group, and the two obese groups demonstrated no significant differences for these scores. The AN obese group with higher total testosterone levels (>50 ng/dL) had higher scores for SES (2.55±1.8 vs. 1.42±1.2; p=0.03) than the AN obese group with low total testosterone levels. SES scores significantly correlated with total testosterone levels (r=0.362; p=0.03) and fasting insulin (r=0.462; p=0.03) in the AN obese group. Conclusion: Higher SES scores (low self-esteem status) were determined in obese adolescents with acanthosis and were related to hyperandrogenism. This study also showed that a high testosterone level may be one of the important indicators of low self-esteem status in obese girls with AN. PMID:25800478

  10. [Systemic photochemotherapy (PUVA) in acanthosis nigricans maligna: regression of keratosis, hyperpigmentation and pruritus].

    PubMed

    Bonnekoh, B; Thiele, B; Merk, H; Mahrle, G

    1989-12-15

    We report on a 60-year-old patient, who developed malignant acanthosis nigricans (MAN) with intense itching 2 years after a large-cell bronchial carcinoma had been diagnosed and found inoperable. The MAN became manifest at a phase of full clinical remission of the lung tumor, which had been treated with cytostasis (cisplatin, vindesine), high energy irradiation, and extirpation of the lymph node metastases. One year after onset of MAN, the lung tumor relapsed, accompanied by an elevated serum level of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The patient was slightly obese, but not diabetic. The generalized MAN was treated with 18 exposures to systemic PUVA (photochemotherapy) over 9 weeks. The patient received 8-methoxypsoralene (8-MOP) orally and a total UVA dose of 52 J/cm2; the last exposure amounted to a maximum dose of 4 J/cm2. Under this treatment, the patient was completely relieved from tormenting pruritus; in addition, we observed significant regression of the pigmented keratoses as well as the intertriginous maceration. PMID:2561241

  11. The Association between Acanthosis Nigricans and Dysglycemia in an Ethnically Diverse Group of Eighth Grade Students

    PubMed Central

    Rafalson, Lisa; Pham, Trang H.; Willi, Steven M.; Marcus, Marsha; Jessup, Ann; Baranowski, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of acanthosis nigricans (AN) and to quantify its association with dysglycemia in an ethnically diverse group of eighth grade students. Data were collected in 2003 from a cross-sectional study of students from 12 middle schools in three U.S. states. Sex, race/ethnicity and pubertal status were self-reported. Anthropometric measures were recorded. Trained staff identified the presence and severity of AN by inspection of the back of the neck. Fasting and 2hr blood samples were analyzed for impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and high-risk glycated hemoglobin (A1C), respectively defined as ≥100 mg/dl, ≥140 mg/dl, and ≥ 5.7-6.4%. Overall, 25.0%, 58.2%, and 16.8% were Black, Hispanic and White, respectively. AN was present among 406 /1438 (28.2%) of students: 39% among Black, 30% among Hispanic, and 5.4% among White. IGT and highArisk A1C were present among 2.1%, and 12.4%, respectively. In multivariate logistic modeling after adjusting for gender, family history of diabetes, BMI percentile and pubertal staging, the presence (vs. absence) of AN was associated with a 59% increased likelihood of highArisk A1C: (P = 0.04), twice the likelihood of IGT (P=0.06), and 47% greater likelihood of IGT/IFG combined (P<0.0001). Adjustment for insulin attenuated the ORs by 25-70%. In a racially/ethnically diverse sample of U.S. adolescents, AN was common, occurring in 28% of the sample. AN was associated with a 50-100% increased likelihood of dysglycemia even after consideration of established diabetes risk factors. PMID:23592686

  12. Acanthosis nigricans predicts the clustering of metabolic syndrome components in Hispanic elementary school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Vanderbloemen, Laura; Skipper, Betty; Leggott, John; Sebesta, Emilie; Glew, Robert; Burge, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a dermatologic condition associated with hyperinsulinemia, a marker of insulin resistance that is the principal abnormality in metabolic syndrome (MetS). We examined the association of AN with the clustering of MetS components. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban school-based health center in New Mexico. Students without diabetes were evaluated for AN, a family history of type 2 diabetes, body mass index (BMI), and MetS components. The clustering of MetS components by BMI category and AN status was assessed by comparing the group means of summed average z-scores of fasting insulin, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure among the students. A multivariate model with BMI category and AN status controlling for Tanner stage was performed to identify the variables associated with the clustering of MetS components. Results Complete data were available for 90 children (age, 9.7 ± 1.4 years; 94 % Hispanic; 60 % female). In multivariate modeling of MetS cluster z-score, significant differences were found between the students with BMI < 85th percentile [−0.27; 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) = − 0.42 to − 0.11] and (a) the students with BMI 85th – 94.9th percentile with AN (0.74; 95 % CI = 0.17 – 1.31) and (b) the students with BMI ≥ 95th percentile with AN (0.86; 95 % CI = 0.54 – 1.18). No significant differences in the MetS cluster z-score were seen between the students with BMI < 85th percentile and those with BMI 85th – 94.9th percentile without AN (0.24; 95 % CI = − 0.33 to 0.81) or those with BMI ≥ 95th percentile without AN (0.31; 95 % CI = − 0.13 to 0.75). Conclusions Overweight/obese Hispanic elementary school-aged children with AN exhibit clustering of MetS components and could benefit from early intervention. PMID:23329755

  13. Defect in tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor from a patient with insulin resistance and acanthosis nigricans.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, R; Shiba, T; Tobe, K; Shibasaki, Y; Koshio, O; Izumi, T; Odawara, M; Mikami, Y; Matsuura, N; Akanuma, Y

    1990-04-01

    We report here a defect in tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor from an insulin-resistant patient with acanthosis nigricans using cultured Ebstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B-lymphocytes. As judged by affinity labeling and immunoblotting, the alpha- and beta-subunits of insulin receptors from the patient's lymphocytes exhibited the same mol wt as those from control subjects. Lectin-purified extracts from lymphocytes of the patient and the control subjects containing the same insulin-binding capacity were assayed for autophosphorylation and the ability to phosphorylate histone H2B. The degree of insulin-dependent autophosphorylation and the tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor from the patient's lymphocytes were decreased to 15% and 13%, respectively, in a cell-free system. The insulin-dependent autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor was also impaired in intact EBV lymphocytes from the patient. Consistent with these results, we found that one of this patient's alleles had a mutation in which valine is substituted for Gly996, the third glycine in the conserved Gly-X-Gly-X-X-Gly motif in the kinase domain. Thus, it seems likely that the defect in tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor cause the insulin resistance in this patient. The EBV lymphocyte can be a good system to detect genetically determined abnormalities in the insulin receptor. PMID:2180980

  14. Claviceps nigricans and Claviceps grohii: their alkaloids and phylogenetic placement.

    PubMed

    Pazoutová, Sylvie; Olsovská, Jana; Sulc, Miroslav; Chudícková, Milada; Flieger, Miroslav

    2008-06-01

    Claviceps purpurea, C. grohii, C. zizaniae, C. cyperi, and C. nigricans are closely related ergot fungi and form a monophyletic clade inside the genus Claviceps. Analysis of alkaloid content in C. nigricans sclerotia using UPLC detected ergocristine (1), ergosine (2), alpha-ergocryptine (3), and ergocristam (4). Alkaloids 1, 3, and 4 were found in the sclerotia of C. grohii. The content of 4 in the mixture of alkaloids from C. nigricans and C. grohii (over 8% and over 20%, respectively) was unusually high. Submerged shaken cultures of C. nigricans produced no alkaloids, whereas C. grohii culture formed small amounts (15 mg L (-1)) of extracellular clavines and 1. In the previously used HPLC method the ergocristam degradation product could have been obscured by the ergosine peak. Therefore sclerotia of a C. purpurea habitat-specific population G2 with the dominant production of 1 and 2 have been reanalyzed, but no 4 was detected. The phylogeny of the C. purpurea-related species group is discussed with regard to alkaloid-specific nonribosomal peptide synthetase duplication leading to the production of two main ergopeptines instead of a single product. PMID:18461998

  15. Histopathological changes in the placentas and fetuses of mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from the Myotis nigricans nigricans bat.

    PubMed

    Badra, E S; Sala, M A; Lopes, R A; Prado, J C; Albuquerque, S; Zucoloto, S; Carraro-Abrahão, A A

    2008-01-01

    Histopathological changes and placental transmission were studied in the late stages of pregnancy in mice infected with a strain of Trypanosoma cruzi, isolated from a Myotis nigricans nigricans bat. Large amastigote nests were observed in uterine muscles, as well as in decidual and endothelial placental cells. In addition, persistent coagulative and fibrotic vascular degeneration was observed. Large amastigote burdens were found in giant cells, spongioblasts and endothelial cells within the labyrinthine layer. Transplacental transmission was confirmed in 30% of the fetuses examined, in which amastigote nests were seen only in striated muscle. During the acute phase, intrauterine development was impaired as the result of parasitic invasion of the placenta, and fetal mortality rose to 10%. PMID:18640685

  16. DNA barcoding of Nilssonia congeners corroborates existence of wild N. nigricans in northeast India.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Shantanu; Laskar, Boni Amin; Venkataraman, Krishnamoorthy; Banerjee, Dhriti; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-07-01

    DNA barcode data of soft-shell turtles is limited in global DNA database while it is completely lacking for the highly debated species Nilssonia nigricans. We employed DNA barcoding technique to discriminate the species cluster for Nilssonia congeners, especially for the highly debated N. nigricans from different localities of northeast India. Sampling across the region included a few live specimens from wild, market sold carcass specimens, and a few dry carapaces meant for home decoration purpose. The generated sequences (621 bp of mtCOI) of dry carapaces showed 99-100% homology with the generated sequences of morphologically identified N. nigricans. The COI barcode sequences of N. nigricans (n = 12) showed 3.8% mean genetic divergence with N. hurum (n = 3), 10% with N. gangetica (n = 4), and 9.2% with N. formosa (GenBank sequences). Similarly, the mtCytb sequences of the dry carapace and live specimens of N. nigricans were 99-100% homologous with the conspecific database sequences and formed specific clusters. The inferred Neighbor-Joining (NJ), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and Bayesian (BA) phylogeny based on partial mtCOI gene efficiently discriminated all the congeners of Nilssonia into specific clusters and, therefore, it was helpful to detect the existence of N. nigricans. PMID:26057013

  17. Pest-managing activities of plant extracts and anthraquinones from Cassia nigricans from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Georges, Kambou; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Dalavoy, Sanjeev S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2008-04-01

    Insecticidal activity of eight plants collected from Burkina Faso was studied using mosquito (Ochlerotatus triseriatus), Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens larvae and adult white fly (Bemisia tabaci). The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Strophantus hispidus, Securidaca longepedunculata, Sapium grahamii, Swartzia madagascariensis, Cassia nigricans, Jatropha curcas and Datura innoxia were used in this study. Extracts were tested at 250 microg/mL concentration. All three extracts of C. nigricans, J. curcas (skin and seeds) and D. innoxia exhibited 100% mortality on fourth instar mosquito (O. triseriatus) larvae. In addition, the n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of S. hispidus, S. longepedunculata, S. grahamii showed 100% mortality. The ethyl acetate extract of S. madagascariensis was the most active on adult white fly and exhibited 80% mortality. Extracts of all other plants exhibited 30-50% mortality on B. tabaci. In the antifeedant assays against H. zea and H. virescens, the MeOH extracts of C. nigricans, S. madagascarensis and S. hispidus were more effective against H. zea as indicated by 74% larval weight reduction as compared to the control. Since C. nigricans is commonly used in West Africa to protect grain storage from insects, we have characterized the insecticidal components present in its extract. Bioassay directed isolation of C. nigricans leaf extract yielded anthraquinones emodin, citreorosein, and emodic acid and a flavonoid, luteolin. Emodin, the most abundant and active anthraquinone in C. nigricans showed approximately 85% mortality on mosquito larvae Anopheles gambiaea and adult B. tabaci at 50 and 25 microg/mL, respectively, in 24 h. These results suggest that the extract of C. nigricans has the potential to be used as an organic approach to manage some of the agricultural pests. PMID:17478091

  18. Rapid regulation of blood parameters under acute hypoxia in the Amazonian fish Prochilodus nigricans.

    PubMed

    Val, Adalberto Luis; Gomes, Katia Regina Maruyama; de Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca

    2015-06-01

    Prochilodus nigricans, locally known as curimatã, is an Amazonian commercial fish that endures adverse environmental conditions, in particular low dissolved oxygen, during its migration. Poorer environmental conditions are expected in the near future. Prochilodus nigricans overcomes current seasonal and diurnal changes in dissolved oxygen by adjusting erythrocytic levels of ATP and GTP, modulators of Hb-O2 affinity. Will this fish species be endangered under more extreme environmental conditions as hypoxia and acidification tend to occur in a shorter period of time? As P. nigricans does not exhibit any apparent morphological alterations to exploit the air-water interface, it must rely on fast adjustments of blood properties. To investigate this aspect, basic hematology indices, pHe, pHi, plasma lactate, erythrocytic levels of ATP and GTP and functional properties of the hemolysate of P. nigricans were analyzed over a period of 6h in hypoxia and subsequent recovery in normoxia. The levels of erythrocytic GTP were four times higher than ATP and were reduced to ¼ of the original level after 3h under hypoxia. Erythrocytic levels of ATP were unaffected over the experimental period. All other analyzed blood parameters exhibited a time-course change in animals under hypoxia and returned to normoxic levels. Considering the hemolysate functional properties and the ability to regulate the above mentioned blood characteristics, P. nigricans is able to endure short-term changes in dissolved oxygen. PMID:25737030

  19. GOUSSIA GIRELLAE N. SP. (APICOMPLEXA: EIMERIORINA) IN THE OPALEYE, 'GIRELLA NIGRICANS' (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Goussia girellae n. sp. is described from the opaleye fish, Girella nigricans. Merogonic stages were observed in the apices of intestinal epithelial cells, in the lamina propria, and in extraintestinal sites including liver, gills, and spleen. Gamonts were observed in the intesti...

  20. Natural growth, otolith shape and diet analyses of Odontesthes nigricans Richardson (Atherinopsidae) from southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattuca, M. E.; Lozano, I. E.; Brown, D. R.; Renzi, M.; Luizon, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Age and growth, otolith shape and diet of Odontesthes nigricans were analysed in order to provide an insight into the life history of the species and furthermore, to assess their possible use as a tool for discriminating silverside populations from the South Atlantic Ocean (Punta María) and Beagle Channel waters (Varela Bay). The age and growth analysis was performed by counting daily increments and annual marks in sagittae otoliths. Length-at-age data of individuals <65 mm standard length (SL) were fitted to the Laird-Gompertz model (SLt = 6.22 exp 2.45 [1-exp (-0.02t)]), which provided an excellent description of the pattern of daily growth for O. nigricans juveniles from Varela Bay. The spawning period was also assessed through back-calculation of hatching dates and it extended from November to February. The count of annual marks in larger individuals identified 7 year classes (0+ to 6+) in Varela Bay and 6 year classes (0+ to 5+) in Punta María. The von Bertalanffy growth model explained more than 95% of the growth patterns observed in O. nigricans from Varela Bay (SLt = 245.49 [1 - exp -0.24(t+0.46)]) and Punta María (SLt = 345.09 [1 - exp -0.15(t+0.31)]). Particularly, k and SL∞ varied significantly between sampling sites; reaching Punta María a larger SL∞ value with a lower k. Otolith shape variation was also explored using elliptical Fourier analysis and it showed significant differences between Varela Bay and Punta María populations. Furthermore, gut content analysis characterized O. nigricans as an invertebrate predator, being benthic organisms the most important components of its diet, which also showed significant site dependence. The use of all these analyses contributed to a holistic approach which maximized the likelihood of correctly identifying both O. nigricans populations in the southernmost limit of the species distribution.

  1. Combined Non-Target Effects of Insecticide and High Temperature on the Parasitoid Bracon nigricans.

    PubMed

    Abbes, Khaled; Biondi, Antonio; Kurtulus, Alican; Ricupero, Michele; Russo, Agatino; Siscaro, Gaetano; Chermiti, Brahim; Zappalà, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We studied the acute toxicity and the sublethal effects, on reproduction and host-killing activity, of four widely used insecticides on the generalist parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a natural enemy of the invasive tomato pest, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Laboratory bioassays were conducted applying maximum insecticide label rates at three constant temperatures, 25, 35 and 40°C, considered as regular, high and very high, respectively. Data on female survival and offspring production were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinetoram caused 80% mortality at 25°C and 100% at higher temperatures, while spinosad caused 100% mortality under all temperature regimes. Cyantraniliprole was slightly toxic to B. nigricans adults in terms of acute toxicity at the three temperatures, while it did not cause any sublethal effects in egg-laying and host-killing activities. The interaction between the two tested factors (insecticide and temperature) significantly influenced the number of eggs laid by the parasitoid, which was the lowest in the case of females exposed to chlorantraniliprole at 35°C. Furthermore, significantly lower B. nigricans demographic growth indexes were estimated for all the insecticides under all temperature conditions, with the exception of chlorantraniliprole at 25°C. Our findings highlight an interaction between high temperatures and insecticide exposure, which suggests a need for including natural stressors, such as temperature, in pesticide risk assessments procedures. PMID:26382245

  2. Combined Non-Target Effects of Insecticide and High Temperature on the Parasitoid Bracon nigricans

    PubMed Central

    Abbes, Khaled; Biondi, Antonio; Kurtulus, Alican; Ricupero, Michele; Russo, Agatino; Siscaro, Gaetano; Chermiti, Brahim; Zappalà, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We studied the acute toxicity and the sublethal effects, on reproduction and host-killing activity, of four widely used insecticides on the generalist parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a natural enemy of the invasive tomato pest, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Laboratory bioassays were conducted applying maximum insecticide label rates at three constant temperatures, 25, 35 and 40°C, considered as regular, high and very high, respectively. Data on female survival and offspring production were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinetoram caused 80% mortality at 25°C and 100% at higher temperatures, while spinosad caused 100% mortality under all temperature regimes. Cyantraniliprole was slightly toxic to B. nigricans adults in terms of acute toxicity at the three temperatures, while it did not cause any sublethal effects in egg-laying and host-killing activities. The interaction between the two tested factors (insecticide and temperature) significantly influenced the number of eggs laid by the parasitoid, which was the lowest in the case of females exposed to chlorantraniliprole at 35°C. Furthermore, significantly lower B. nigricans demographic growth indexes were estimated for all the insecticides under all temperature conditions, with the exception of chlorantraniliprole at 25°C. Our findings highlight an interaction between high temperatures and insecticide exposure, which suggests a need for including natural stressors, such as temperature, in pesticide risk assessments procedures. PMID:26382245

  3. A new species of Myotis from the Islas Tres Marias, Nayarit, Mexico, with comments on variation in Myotis nigricans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bogan, Michael A.

    1978-01-01

    A new Myotis is described from the Islas Tres Marias, Nayarit, Mexico. the new species is distinct from related taxa n the adjacent Mexican mainland (M. californicus, M. leibii, and M. carteri), although most closely related to M. carteri as shown by univariate and canonical variates analyses. An analysis of six groups of M. nigricans from Middle and South America supports the elevation of M. nigricans carteri to specific status, confirms the distinctness of M. nigricus extremus, but fails to substantiate subspecific status for bats from Columbia and Ecuador, recent recognized as M. n. punensis.

  4. Main features of the oxidative metabolism in gills and liver of Odontesthes nigricans Richardson (Pisces, Atherinopsidae).

    PubMed

    Lattuca, M E; Malanga, G; Aguilar Hurtado, C; Pérez, A F; Calvo, J; Puntarulo, S

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study comparatively the oxidative metabolism in gills and liver of a silverside, Odontesthes nigricans, in their natural environment, the Beagle Channel. Oxidative damage to lipids was evaluated by assessing TBARS and lipid radical content, in gills and liver. Gills showed a significantly higher degree of damage than liver. The content of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and catalase activity showed significantly higher values in the liver than in the gills. The ascorbyl radical (A(*)) content showed no significant differences between gills and liver. The ascorbate (AH(-)) content was 12+/-2 and 159+/-28 nmol/mg FW in gills and liver, respectively. Oxidative metabolism at the hydrophilic level was assessed as the ratio A(*)/AH(-). The ratio A(*)/AH(-) was significantly different between organs, (6+/-2)10(-5) and (5+/-2)10(-6), for the gills and the liver, respectively. Both, lipid radical content/alpha-tocopherol content and lipid radical content/beta-carotene content ratios were significantly higher in gills as compared to the values recorded for the liver, suggesting an increased situation of oxidative stress condition in the lipid phase of the gills. Taken as a whole, the O. nigricans liver exhibited a better control of oxidative damage than the gills, allowing minimization of intracellular damage when exposed to environmental stressing conditions. PMID:19706336

  5. Immune-enhancing activity of extracellular polysaccharides isolated from Rhizopus nigricans.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhidan; Kong, Mengli; Zhang, Pengying; Sun, Qingjie; Chen, Kaoshan

    2016-09-01

    Extracellular polysaccharides (EPS1-1) was extracted from fermentation liquor of Rhizopus nigricans and evaluated its immune-enhancing activities in vitro and in vivo. Results suggested that the proliferation of lymphocyte was stimulated after treated with EPS1-1. Moreover, the activities of macrophages were enhanced by increasing the activities of phagocytosis and acid phosphatase, the production of NO and the mRNA levels of IL-2, TNF-α and iNOS. Furthermore, EPS1-1 could significantly boost the immunity of normal and immunosuppressed mice, which included the increase of loaded swimming time, footpad swelling, organ index and the secretion of IL-2 and TNF-α in serum, thus suggesting that EPS1-1 could improve the body immunity through cellular immunity and humoral immunity. These findings provided further insights into the potential use of EPS1-1 as immunopotentiator or new function food. PMID:27185145

  6. Habitat Fragmentation in Arid Zones: A Case Study of Linaria nigricans Under Land Use Changes (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñas, Julio; Benito, Blas; Lorite, Juan; Ballesteros, Miguel; Cañadas, Eva María; Martinez-Ortega, Montserrat

    2011-07-01

    Habitat fragmentation due to human activities is one of the most important causes of biodiversity loss. In Mediterranean areas the species have co-evolved with traditional farming, which has recently been replaced for more severe and aggressive practices. We use a methodological approach that enables the evaluation of the impact that agriculture and land use changes have for the conservation of sensitive species. As model species, we selected Linaria nigricans, a critically endangered plant from arid and semiarid ecosystems in south-eastern Spain. A chronosequence of the evolution of the suitable habitat for the species over more than 50 years has been reconstructed and several geometrical fragmentation indices have been calculated. A new index called fragmentation cadence (FC) is proposed to quantify the historical evolution of habitat fragmentation regardless of the habitat size. The application of this index has provided objective forecasting of the changes of each remnant population of L. nigricans. The results indicate that greenhouses and construction activities (mainly for tourist purposes) exert a strong impact on the populations of this endangered species. The habitat depletion showed peaks that constitute the destruction of 85% of the initial area in only 20 years for some populations of L. nigricans. According to the forecast established by the model, a rapid extinction could take place and some populations may disappear as early as the year 2030. Fragmentation-cadence analysis can help identify population units of primary concern for its conservation, by means of the adoption of improved management and regulatory measures.

  7. Horizontal movements of Atlantic blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) in the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, R.T.; Wells, R.J.D.; Rooker, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined movements of Atlantic blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) from the Gulf of Mexico based upon 42 pop-up archival transmitting (PAT) tags. Long deployments (including one 334-day track) revealed diverse movement patterns within the Gulf of Mexico. North-south seasonal changes in blue marlin distribution showed strong correspondence with established seasonal patterns of sea surface temperature and primary production. During the summer spawning season, blue marlin utilized outer shelf and shelf edge waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and longer duration tracks indicated overwintering habitats in the Bay of Campeche. Egress occurred throughout the year and was difficult to determine because some tracks ended in the Straits of Florida (n = 3) while other tracks recorded movement through it or the Yucatan Channel (n = 4). Our results indicate that Atlantic blue marlin have a more restricted geographic range of habitats than previously recognized and that the Gulf of Mexico provides spatially dynamic suitable habitat that is utilized year-round through seasonal movements. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Early environment and recruitment of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) into the breeding population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, J.S.; Herzog, M.P.; Ward, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    In geese, growth regulates survival in the first year. We examined whether early growth, which is primarily governed by environmental conditions, also affects the probability that individuals that survive their first year enter the breeding population. We used logistic regression on a sample of Black Brant (Brauta bernicla nigricans) that were weighed at a known age in their first summer and observed during winter (indicating that they had survived the principal mortality period in their first year) to study whether early growth influenced the probability that those individuals would be recruited into the breeding population. We also examined the effects of cohort (1986-1996), sex, age when measured, and area where individuals were reared. The model with the lowest Akaike's Information Criterion score contained body mass, age (days) at measurement, cohort, sex, and brood-rearing area. Models that included variable mass had 85% of the cumulative model weight of the models we considered, indicating that gosling mass had a substantial effect on probability of them entering the breeding population. Females were more likely to be detected breeding than males, which is consistent with the differential fidelity of the sexes. Of individuals that survived the first year, larger goslings were more likely to become breeders. More recent cohorts were less likely to have been detected as breeders. Our findings indicate that environment during the growth period affects the ability of individuals to enter the breeding population, even after accounting for the effects of growth on survival.

  9. Geographic variation in the diet of opaleye (Girella nigricans) with respect to temperature and habitat.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Michael D; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2012-01-01

    We studied diet variation in an omnivorous fish across its range, which allowed us to test predictions about the effect of ocean temperature and habitat on herbivory. Throughout most of its geographic range, from Southern California to central Baja California, the opaleye (Girella nigricans) fed primarily on red and green algae, but there was significant variation in the amount of algal material in the diet among sites. The proportion of algal material in the diet was related to habitat, with algae making up a larger proportion of a fish's diet in algal-dominated habitats than in urchin barrens. Independent of habitat, the proportion of algal material in the diet increased with environmental temperature. Analyses of stable isotopes revealed similar changes in trophic position and confirmed that these associations with diet persisted over relatively long time scales. The shift to a more herbivorous diet at warmer temperatures is in agreement with past laboratory studies on this species that show a diet-dependent change in performance with temperature and can indicate a diet shift across the species' geographic range to meet its physiological demands. A possible plastic response to herbivory was a longer gut relative to body size. The results of this study are consistent with past findings that associate temperature with increases in the relative diversity of herbivorous fishes in tropical parts of the ocean. PMID:23029302

  10. Geographic Variation in the Diet of Opaleye (Girella nigricans) with Respect to Temperature and Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Michael D.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    We studied diet variation in an omnivorous fish across its range, which allowed us to test predictions about the effect of ocean temperature and habitat on herbivory. Throughout most of its geographic range, from Southern California to central Baja California, the opaleye (Girella nigricans) fed primarily on red and green algae, but there was significant variation in the amount of algal material in the diet among sites. The proportion of algal material in the diet was related to habitat, with algae making up a larger proportion of a fish’s diet in algal-dominated habitats than in urchin barrens. Independent of habitat, the proportion of algal material in the diet increased with environmental temperature. Analyses of stable isotopes revealed similar changes in trophic position and confirmed that these associations with diet persisted over relatively long time scales. The shift to a more herbivorous diet at warmer temperatures is in agreement with past laboratory studies on this species that show a diet-dependent change in performance with temperature and can indicate a diet shift across the species’ geographic range to meet its physiological demands. A possible plastic response to herbivory was a longer gut relative to body size. The results of this study are consistent with past findings that associate temperature with increases in the relative diversity of herbivorous fishes in tropical parts of the ocean. PMID:23029302

  11. Corynebacterium nigricans sp. nov.: Proposed Name for a Black-Pigmented Corynebacterium Species Recovered from the Human Female Urogenital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Sanjay K.; Bernard, Kathryn A.; Harney, Mary; Frank, Daniel N.; Reed, Kurt D.

    2003-01-01

    Six independent isolates of an unusual black-pigmented Corynebacterium species (strains CN-1, CN-2, CN-3415, W70124, 91-0032, and 92-0360) were recovered from the human female urogenital tract. Four of the six source patients had complications of pregnancy, including spontaneous abortion, preterm labor, and low amniotic fluid volume at the time of the pathogen isolation. One isolate was recovered from a vaginal ulcer. All six strains yielded black-pigmented colonies on sheep blood agar, chocolate agar, and colistin-nalidixic acid agar after 24 to 48 h of incubation at 35°C. The dry, adherent colonies pitted the agar surface. The cells were coccobacillary to rod-shaped, catalase positive, nonmotile, and nonlipophilic. Only five of six isolates were available for characterization. Biochemical and chemotaxonomic studies revealed that the strains belong to the genus Corynebacterium but differ from known corynebacterial species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strains are closely related and form a new subline within the genus Corynebacterium. We propose the name Corynebacterium nigricans sp. nov. for this group of coryneforms. The type strain of Corynebacterium nigricans is CN-1. It is deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (assigned strain number ATCC 700975) and in the Institute Pasteur collection (assigned strain number CIP 107346). PMID:12958268

  12. Rabson-Mendenhall Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Iffat; Altaf, Hinah; Yaseen, Atiya

    2014-01-01

    Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome (RMS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by growth retardation, dysmorphisms, lack of subcutaneous fat, acanthosis nigricans, enlarged genitalia, hirsutism, dysplastic dentition, coarse facial features, abnormal glucose homeostasis, hyperinsulinemia and pineal hyperplasia. Herein, we describe a 13-year-old girl with physical features of RMS who presented to us on account of acanthosis nigricans. PMID:25484423

  13. Anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities of an exopolysaccharide from Rhizopus nigricans on CT26 tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Cao, Jianfeng; Chen, Guochuang; Xu, Yanghui; Lu, Jingbo; Fang, Fang; Chen, Kaoshan

    2016-07-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) from Rhizopus nigricans. Our results showed EPS could significantly inhibit the tumor growth and increase the immune organs index of CT26 tumor-bearing mice. EPS treatment increased the productions of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in serum. The increase of percentage of CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells among total spleen T lymphocyte was also observed. Furthermore, EPS remarkably stimulate spleen lymphocytes proliferation in the absence or presence of mitogens. In addition, we found that EPS had synergistic effect with chemotherapy and improved immunosuppressive effect induced by 5-Fu. In summary, these findings indicated that the antitumor effects of EPS might be partly due to immune function activation and it might have potential to be used in the treatment for colorectal cancer. PMID:27163210

  14. Impact of the processes of testicular regression and recrudescence in the prostatic complex of the bat Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    PubMed

    Beguelini, Mateus R; Góes, Rejane M; Rahal, Paula; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-07-01

    Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression during the annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of total testicular regression on the prostatic morphophisyology and its regulation. The prostatic complex (PC) of animals from the four periods of the reproductive cycle (active, regressing, regressed, and recrudescence) was analyzed by different histological, morphometric, and immunohistochemical procedures to characterize its variations, analyze its hormonal regulation and evaluate whether the prostate is affected by the processes of testicular regression and recrudescence. The results indicated a decrease in the prostatic parameters from the active to regressed periods, which are related to decreases in the testicular production of testosterone and in the prostatic expression of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor α (ERα) and aromatase. However, in regressed-recrudescence periods, the prostatic expression of AR, ERα and aromatase increased, indicating the reactivation of the PC. Despite this, the PC appears to have a slower reactivation and seems not to follow the testicular recrudescence in morphological and morphometric terms. With these data, we demonstrate that the prostatic physiology is directly affected by total testicular regression and conclude that it is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, via the production of testosterone by the testes, its conversion to dihydrotestosterone by 5α-redutase and to estrogen by aromatase, and the activation/deactivation of AR and ERα in epithelial cells, which regulate cell expression and proliferation. PMID:25703716

  15. Survival and breeding advantages of larger Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) goslings: Within- and among-cohort variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, J.S.; Chelgren, N.D.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relationship between mass late in the first summer and survival and return to the natal breeding colony for 12 cohorts (1986-1997) of female Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). We used Cormack-Jolly-Seber methods and the program MARK to analyze capture-recapture data. Models included two kinds of residuals from regressions of mass on days after peak of hatch when goslings were measured; one based on the entire sample (12 cohorts) and the other based only on individuals in the same cohort. Some models contained date of peak of hatch (a group covariate related to lateness of nesting in that year) and mean cohort residual mass. Finally, models allowed survival to vary among cohorts. The best model of encounter probability included an effect of residual mass on encounter probability and allowed encounter probability to vary among age classes and across years. All competitive models contained an effect of one of the estimates of residual mass; relatively larger goslings survived their first year at higher rates. Goslings in cohorts from later years in the analysis tended to have lower first-year survival, after controlling for residual mass, which reflected the generally smaller mean masses for these cohorts but was potentially also a result of population-density effects additional to those on growth. Variation among cohorts in mean mass accounted for 56% of variation among cohorts in first-year survival. Encounter probabilities, which were correlated with breeding probability, increased with relative mass, which suggests that larger goslings not only survived at higher rates but also bred at higher rates. Although our findings support the well-established linkage between gosling mass and fitness, they suggest that additional environmental factors also influence first-year survival. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  16. Luteolin-7-glucoside inhibits IL-22/STAT3 pathway, reducing proliferation, acanthosis, and inflammation in keratinocytes and in mouse psoriatic model.

    PubMed

    Palombo, R; Savini, I; Avigliano, L; Madonna, S; Cavani, A; Albanesi, C; Mauriello, A; Melino, G; Terrinoni, A

    2016-01-01

    The epidermis is a dynamic tissue in which keratinocytes proliferate in the basal layer and undergo a tightly controlled differentiation while moving into the suprabasal layers. The balance between keratinocyte proliferation, differentiation, and death is essential, and its perturbation can result in pathological changes. Some common skin diseases, such as psoriasis, are characterized by hyperproliferation accompanied by inflammatory reactions, suggesting that molecules with topical anti-inflammatory and ROS scavenging abilities may be useful for their treatment. Here we investigate the potential of the flavone Luteolin-7-glucoside (LUT-7G) as a treatment for psoriasis. We show that LUT-7G leads to a modification of the cell cycle and the induction of keratinocyte differentiation, with modification of energy, fatty acid, and redox metabolism. LUT-7G treatment also neutralizes the proliferative stimulus induced by the proinflammatory cytokines IL-22 and IL-6 in HEKn. Moreover, in the Imiquimod (IMQ) mouse model of psoriasis, topical administration of LUT-7G leads to a marked reduction of acanthosis and re-expression of epidermal differentiation markers. Dissection of the IL-22 signalling pathway, activated by IMQ treatment, demonstrates that LUT-7G impairs the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated (activated) STAT3, blocking the IL-22 signalling cascade. Thus LUT-7G appears to be a promising compound for the treatment of hyperproliferative and inflammatory skin diseases, such as psoriasis. PMID:27537526

  17. Impact of the Processes of Total Testicular Regression and Recrudescence on the Epididymal Physiology of the Bat Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    PubMed

    Beguelini, Mateus R; Góes, Rejane M; Rahal, Paula; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-01-01

    Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression within the same annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Studies have demonstrated that its epididymis has an elongation of the caudal portion, which stores spermatozoa during the period of testicular regression in July, but that they had no sperm during the regression in November. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the total testicular regression in the epididymal morphophysiology and patterns of its hormonal regulation. The results demonstrate a continuous activity of the epididymis from the Active to the Regressing periods; a morphofunctional regression of the epididymis in the Regressed period; and a slow recrudescence process. Thus, we concluded that the processes of total testicular regression and posterior recrudescence suffered by M. nigricans also impact the physiology of the epididymis, but with a delay in epididymal response. Epididymal physiology is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, through the production and secretion of testosterone by the testes, its conduction to the epididymis (mainly through luminal fluid), conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by the 5α-reductase enzyme (mainly in epithelial cells) and to estrogen by aromatase; and through the activation/deactivation of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor α in epithelial cells, which regulate the epithelial cell morphophysiology, prevents cell death and regulates their protein expression and secretion, which ensures the maturation and storage of the spermatozoa. PMID:26057377

  18. Impact of the Processes of Total Testicular Regression and Recrudescence on the Epididymal Physiology of the Bat Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Beguelini, Mateus R.; Góes, Rejane M.; Rahal, Paula; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R.

    2015-01-01

    Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression within the same annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Studies have demonstrated that its epididymis has an elongation of the caudal portion, which stores spermatozoa during the period of testicular regression in July, but that they had no sperm during the regression in November. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the total testicular regression in the epididymal morphophysiology and patterns of its hormonal regulation. The results demonstrate a continuous activity of the epididymis from the Active to the Regressing periods; a morphofunctional regression of the epididymis in the Regressed period; and a slow recrudescence process. Thus, we concluded that the processes of total testicular regression and posterior recrudescence suffered by M. nigricans also impact the physiology of the epididymis, but with a delay in epididymal response. Epididymal physiology is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, through the production and secretion of testosterone by the testes, its conduction to the epididymis (mainly through luminal fluid), conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by the 5α-reductase enzyme (mainly in epithelial cells) and to estrogen by aromatase; and through the activation/deactivation of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor α in epithelial cells, which regulate the epithelial cell morphophysiology, prevents cell death and regulates their protein expression and secretion, which ensures the maturation and storage of the spermatozoa. PMID:26057377

  19. Carry-over effects of winter location contribute to variation in timing of nest initiation and clutch size in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamber, Jason L.; Sedinger, James S.; Ward, David H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed carry-over effects from winter location on timing of nest initiation and clutch size of Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) using observations of individually marked brant breeding at the Tutakoke River colony in Alaska, and wintering along a latitudinal gradient at three areas on the Pacific coast of Baja California: northernmost Bahia San Quintin (BSQ), Laguna Ojo de Liebre (LOL), and southernmost Laguna San Ignacio (LSI). Black Brant initiated nests according to a north—south trend in winter location, although year was a stronger predictor of initiation date than was wintering site. Female Black Brant that wintered at BSQ initiated nests 2.2 days earlier than females from LSI. Conversely, Black Brant showed only a weak south—north trend in clutch size; individuals from LSI laid slightly larger clutches than individuals from BSQ, probably because a smaller proportion of only high-quality females from the southernmost wintering area in Baja California were able to attain the nutritional condition necessary to breed. These results indicate that winter location can influence individual reproductive performance and, potentially, limit population growth of southern segments of the wintering Black Brant population.

  20. Form and function of the bulbus arteriosus in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans): static properties.

    PubMed

    Braun, Marvin H; Brill, Richard W; Gosline, John M; Jones, David R

    2003-10-01

    The juxtaposition of heart and gills in teleost fish means that the Windkessel function characteristic of the whole mammalian arterial tree has to be subserved by the extremely short ventral aorta and bulbus arteriosus. Over the functional pressure range, arteries from blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) have J-shaped pressure-volume (P-V) loops, while bulbi from the same species have r-shaped P-V loops, with a steep initial rise followed by a compliant plateau phase. The steep initial rise in pressure is due to the geometry of the lumen. The interactions between radius, pressure and tension require a large initial pressure to open the bulbar lumen for flow. The plateau is due to the unique organization of the bulbar wall. The large elastin:collagen ratio, limited amount of collagen arranged circumferentially, lack of elastin lamellae and low hydrophobicity of the elastin itself all combine to lower stiffness, increase extensibility and allow efficient recoil. Even though the modulus of bulbus material is much lower than that of an artery, at large volumes the overall stiffness of the bulbus increases rapidly. The morphological features that give rise to the special inflation characteristics of the bulbus help to extend flow and maintain pressure during diastole. PMID:12939364

  1. Complete genome sequence and lifestyle of black-pigmented Corynebacterium aurimucosum ATCC 700975 (formerly C. nigricans CN-1) isolated from a vaginal swab of a woman with spontaneous abortion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Corynebacterium aurimucosum is a slightly yellowish, non-lipophilic, facultative anaerobic member of the genus Corynebacterium and predominantly isolated from human clinical specimens. Unusual black-pigmented variants of C. aurimucosum (originally named as C. nigricans) continue to be recovered from the female urogenital tract and they are associated with complications during pregnancy. C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 (C. nigricans CN-1) was originally isolated from a vaginal swab of a 34-year-old woman who experienced a spontaneous abortion during month six of pregnancy. For a better understanding of the physiology and lifestyle of this potential urogenital pathogen, the complete genome sequence of C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 was determined. Results Sequencing and assembly of the C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 genome yielded a circular chromosome of 2,790,189 bp in size and the 29,037-bp plasmid pET44827. Specific gene sets associated with the central metabolism of C. aurimucosum apparently provide enhanced metabolic flexibility and adaptability in aerobic, anaerobic and low-pH environments, including gene clusters for the uptake and degradation of aromatic amines, L-histidine and L-tartrate as well as a gene region for the formation of selenocysteine and its incorporation into formate dehydrogenase. Plasmid pET44827 codes for a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase that plays the pivotal role in the synthesis of the characteristic black pigment of C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975. Conclusions The data obtained by the genome project suggest that C. aurimucosum could be both a resident of the human gut and possibly a pathogen in the female genital tract causing complications during pregnancy. Since hitherto all black-pigmented C. aurimucosum strains have been recovered from female genital source, biosynthesis of the pigment is apparently required for colonization by protecting the bacterial cells against the high hydrogen peroxide concentration in the vaginal environment

  2. Differential expression of aromatase, estrogen receptor alpha and 17β-HSD associated with the processes of total testicular regression and recrudescence in the bat Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    PubMed

    Beguelini, Mateus R; Falleiros, Luiz R; Góes, Rejane M; Rahal, Paula; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2014-05-15

    Despite the worldwide distribution and many unique reproductive adaptations that bats present, many aspects of their reproductive hormonal regulation have not been adequately studied, especially in species that presented patterns of total testicular regression. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the testicular expression of 17β-HSD type 1, aromatase and ERα in the bat Myotis nigricans, during the four periods of its reproductive cycle. Immunoreactivity for ERα was detected only in the cytoplasm of elongated spermatids and in the nuclei of spermatogonia and Sertoli cells. Expression of aromatase was observed in round and elongated spermatids and in Sertoli and Leydig cells. Immunoreactivity for 17β-HSD was restricted to the cytoplasm of Leydig cells. The three expression patterns varied significantly during the four periods of the reproductive cycle. Expression of ERα and aromatase in spermatids was continuous, while expression of ERα in spermatogonia occurred only in initial types (Ap). Expression of ERα and aromatase in Sertoli cells varied, with expression only in periods of spermatogenetic activities; and the same variation was observed for the expression of aromatase and 17β-HSD in Leydig cells. We, therefore, propose that the processes of total testicular regression and posterior recrudescence suffered by M. nigricans from September to January in the northwest of the São Paulo State of Brazil, are directly regulated by testosterone and estrogen. This occurs via the production of testosterone by 17β-HSD, its conversion into estrogen by aromatase, and activation/deactivation of Sertoli cells' AR and spermatogonia's ERα. PMID:24726986

  3. Two new Myxidium species (Myxosporea: Myxidiidae) infecting the gallbladder of African flying fish, Cheilopogon nigricans and Suez fusilier, Caesio suevicus from the Red Sea, Egypt: a morphological and morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem Sh

    2009-08-01

    Myxidium maamouni sp. n. and Myxidium aydai sp. n. were described from the gallbladder of the African flying fish Cheilopogon nigricans and Suez fusilier Caesio suevicus, respectively. Fishes were collected from the Red Sea at Al-Quseir, Egypt. M. maamouni have irregular to mostly rounded polysporous plasmodia with diameter of 27 microm. Spores were sigmoid or S-shaped and sometimes spindle-shaped in the frontal view with smooth valves. They measured 13.5 x 8.0 x 8.2 microm in size. Their polar capsules were equal pyriform and measured 7.0 x 3.2 microm in size with nine to 12 coils. Spores of M. aydai were spindle-shaped in the frontal view with thin smooth valves. They measured 23.0 x 5.6 x 5.5 microm in size. Their polar capsules were pyriform and measured 7.2 x 3.4 microm in size with eight to nine coils. PMID:19347364

  4. Delaying or Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... a condition called acanthosis nigricans, characterized by a dark, velvety rash around my neck or armpits. I have a history of cardiovascular disease. The more items you checked, the higher your risk. Does sleep matter? Yes. Studies show that untreated sleep problems, especially ...

  5. Are There Disorders or Conditions Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious health conditions, including metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. A symptom of PCOS called acanthosis nigricans (pronounced ay-kan-THOE-sis NY-grih-kanz )—patches of thickened, dark, velvety skin—is associated with ... by the ovaries. 2 Having abnormally high androgens causes many of the ...

  6. Systemic conditions in children associated with pigmentary changes.

    PubMed

    Treadwell, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Systemic conditions may have pigmentary associations. Prompt recognition of these associations allows the practitioner to initiate the appropriate workup and therapy when indicated. This contribution highlights some of the clinical features of neurofibromatosis 1, LEOPARD syndrome, acanthosis nigricans, hypomelanosis of Ito, incontinentia pigmenti, CHILD syndrome, and piebaldism to assist the dermatologist in making the proper diagnosis. PMID:25889139

  7. Am I at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes? Taking Steps to Lower Your Risk of Getting Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... a condition called acanthosis nigricans, characterized by a dark, velvety rash around my neck or armpits. I have a history of cardiovascular disease. The more items you checked, the higher your risk. [ Top ] Does sleep matter? Yes. Studies show that untreated sleep problems, especially ...

  8. Neurofibromatosis, Down's syndrome, and acquired abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Syed Yousuf; Manne, Vimala; Manne, Ranjit; Himani, Chennamaneni

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with Down's syndrome and neurofibromatosis who presented with a keloid, sebaceous cyst and acanthosis nigricans, along with dental and ophthalmological defects. The coexistence of neurofibromatosis type 1 and Down's syndrome which are two unrelated genetic conditions is itself a rarity. PMID:27294059

  9. Neurofibromatosis, Down's syndrome, and acquired abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syed Yousuf; Manne, Vimala; Manne, Ranjit; Himani, Chennamaneni

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with Down's syndrome and neurofibromatosis who presented with a keloid, sebaceous cyst and acanthosis nigricans, along with dental and ophthalmological defects. The coexistence of neurofibromatosis type 1 and Down's syndrome which are two unrelated genetic conditions is itself a rarity. PMID:27294059

  10. Identification of Some Charcoal-Black-Pigmented CDC Fermentative Coryneform Group 4 Isolates as Rothia dentocariosa and Some as Corynebacterium aurimucosum: Proposal of Rothia dentocariosa emend. Georg and Brown 1967, Corynebacterium aurimucosum emend. Yassin et al. 2002, and Corynebacterium nigricans Shukla et al. 2003 pro synon. Corynebacterium aurimucosum

    PubMed Central

    Daneshvar, Maryam I.; Hollis, Dannie G.; Weyant, Robbin S.; Jordan, Jean G.; MacGregor, John P.; Morey, Roger E.; Whitney, Anne M.; Brenner, Don J.; Steigerwalt, Arnold G.; Helsel, Leta O.; Raney, Patti M.; Patel, Jean B.; Levett, Paul N.; Brown, June M.

    2004-01-01

    Sixty-three clinical isolates of charcoal-black-pigmented, gram-positive coryneform rods were received for identification by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and were provisionally designated CDC fermentative coryneform group 4 (FCG4). Forty-five of these were characterized by morphological, physiologic, antimicrobial susceptibility, cellular fatty acids, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses. Nitrate reduction, cellular fatty acid analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and DNA-DNA hybridization studies segregated these strains into two groups: FCG4a (8 strains) and FCG4b (37 strains). The FCG4a strains, only one of which was from a female genitourinary source, produced cellular fatty acid and biochemical profiles similar to those observed with reference strains of Rothia dentocariosa and Rothia mucilaginosa, while the FCG4b strains were similar to Corynebacterium species. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis demonstrated species-level relatedness among six FCG4a tested strains and showed that they were a charcoal-black-pigmented variant of R. dentocariosa. Sixteen isolates of the FCG4b group, mainly from female genitourinary tract specimens, as well as the type strains of two recently named species, Corynebacterium aurimucosum and Corynebacterium nigricans, were shown by DNA-DNA hybridization analysis and the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to be related at the species level and unrelated to the type strain of R. dentocariosa; therefore, the Corynebacterium-like strains were classified as a charcoal-black-pigmented variant of C. aurimucosum, because this name has nomenclatural priority over C. nigricans. These findings indicate that FCG4 represents a heterogeneous group that contains pigmented variants of both R. dentocariosa and C. aurimucosum; hence, the descriptions of both R. dentocariosa and C. aurimucosum have been amended to include charcoal-black-pigmented variants, and C. nigricans is a pro synonym of C. aurimucosum. PMID

  11. Concentrations of cadmium, cobalt, lead, nickel, and zinc in blood and fillets of northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-zinc mining: implications for monitoring.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, C J; Brumbaugh, W G; May, T W

    2009-04-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained <12% of the total variation. Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet

  12. Concentrations of cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-Zinc mining: Implications for monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained <12% of the total variation. Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet

  13. Dermatologic manifestation of hyperandrogenism: a retrospective chart review.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte M; Rudolph, Jennifer; Gerber, Donald A; Glick, Sharon; Shalita, Alan R; Lowenstein, Eve J

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have described a wide spectrum of hyperandrogenism diseases, many of which are difficult to distinguish from each other. In order to better understand diseases of hyperandrogenism, the authors performed a retrospective study of the cutaneous features and metabolic findings in women with hyperandrogenism. A retrospective chart analysis compiled by three dermatologists in both academic and private settings was performed, including patients presenting with > or = 2 manifestations of hyperandrogenism. Relevant dermatologic and associated manifestations and laboratory and imaging study findings were reviewed. Moderate to severe acne was the most common manifestation. Other common manifestations that patients first presented with include hirsutism, acanthosis nigricans, androgenic alopecia, and skin tags. Oligomenorrhea was the most common systemic presenting sign. Statistical analysis of various clinical markers revealed correlations with hyperandrogenemia. Acanthosis nigricans and hirsutism were found to be useful clinical markers for hyperandrogenism, whereas androgenic alopecia was not. This study provides some insights into the presentation and diverse manifestations seen in hyperandrogenism. PMID:24933845

  14. Cardiometabolic Risk among African-American Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Appel, Susan J.; Oster, Robert A.; Floyd, Natalie A.; Ovalle, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the associations of the Homeostatic Model of Assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-ir), acanthosis nigricans, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with two of the commonly used definitions of the metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III {ATP III} and International Diabetes Federation {IDF}) among reproductive age healthy free living African-American women. Methods A pilot study with a cross-sectional design examined 33 African-American women aged 20 to 46 (mean 31.24, +/- 7.25), for the presence of metabolic syndrome determined by ATP III and IDF criteria, insulin resistance (HOMA-ir and/or acanthosis nigricans), degree of inflammation (hs-CRP) and presence of dysfibrinolysis (PAI-1). Results HOMA-ir identified insulin resistance in 27 (81.8%) of the women, whereas the presence of acanthosis nigricans indicated that 16 (48 %) of these women manifested insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome was found in 7 women (21.2 %) by ATP III or 9 (27.3 %) by IDF criteria. Bivariate correlations showed associations between HOMA-ir and waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), acanthosis nigricans, the ATP III and IDF definitions for metabolic syndrome. PAI-1 was significantly correlated with waist circumference, BMI, fasting glucose, HOMA-ir, and ATP III. Both HOMA-ir and PAI-1 were significantly and negatively correlated with HDL-C. hs-CRP was significantly correlated with BMI and 2-hour post glucose. Conclusion Both dysfibrinolysis (PAI-1 levels) and insulin resistance (HOMA-ir) when individually regressed on the ATP III definition of metabolic syndrome explained 32 % and 29% of the respective variance. The addition of HOMA-ir measurement may significantly improve early recognition of cardiometabolic risk among reproductive age African-American women who have not yet met the criteria for the ATP III or IDF definitions of the metabolic syndrome. Likewise, acanthosis nigricans is potentially a

  15. Is this patient insulin resistant? How much does it matter?

    PubMed

    Sheeder, Jeanelle; Travers, Sharon H; Stevens-Simon, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    Alex was an obese 10-year-old girl with a family history of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and perhaps polycystic ovarian syndrome. Her physical examination was significant for a central accumulation of body fat and acanthosis nigricans. Although the laboratory studies indicated that Alex was not diabetic and probably not glucose intolerant, she could be insulin resistant (IR). Should any further evaluation be done? If Alex is IR, what kind of treatment should be offered? The following discussion addresses these questions by reviewing the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and consequences of isolated IR. PMID:14686557

  16. Paraneoplastic cutaneous manifestations: concepts and updates*

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Josenilson Antônio; Mesquita, Kleyton de Carvalho; Igreja, Ana Carolina de Souza Machado; Lucas, Isabella Cristina Rodrigues Naves; Freitas, Aline Ferreira; de Oliveira, Sandra Maximiano; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho; Campbell, Iphis Tenfuss

    2013-01-01

    The skin often signals systemic changes. Some neoplastic diseases that affect internal organs may trigger several cutaneous manifestations. Although these dermatoses are relatively unusual, the recognition of some typical paraneoplastic dermatoses may lead to the early diagnosis of a neoplasm and determine a better prognosis. In this review article, we discuss the paraneoplastic cutaneous manifestations strongly associated with neoplasms, which include acanthosis nigricans maligna, tripe palms, erythema gyratum repens, Bazex syndrome, acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa, necrolytic migratory erythema, Leser-Trélat sign and paraneoplastic pemphigus. We also review the clinical manifestations of each condition and include updated knowledge on disease pathogenesis. PMID:23538999

  17. Correlation of Skin Changes with Hormonal Changes in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Gowri, B Vijaya; Chandravathi, PL; Sindhu, PS; Naidu, K Shanthi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenous collection of signs and symptoms that when gathered, form a spectrum of disorder with disturbance of reproductive, endocrine and metabolic functions. Aim: The aim of this study is to correlate the skin manifestations with hormonal changes and to know the incidence and prevalence of skin manifestations in patients with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients with PCOS were examined during 1 year time period from May 2008 P to May 2009. Detailed clinical history was taken from each patient. PCOS was diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonography. Hormonal assays included fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, dehydroepiandrostenedione, prolactin, free testosterone, fasting lipid profile and sex hormone binding globulin. The results obtained were statistically correlated. Results: In our study, the prevalence of cutaneous manifestations was 90%. Of all the cutaneous manifestations acne was seen in highest percentage (67.5%), followed by hirsutism (62.5%), seborrhea (52.5%), androgenetic alopecia (AGA) (30%), acanthosis nigricans (22.5%) and acrochordons (10%). Fasting insulin levels was the most common hormonal abnormality seen in both acne and hirsutism, whereas AGA was associated with high testosterone levels. Conclusion: The prevalence of cutaneous manifestations in PCOS was 90%. Hirsutism, acne, seborrhea, acanthosis nigricans and acrochordons were associated with increased levels of fasting insulin, whereas AGA showed higher levels of serum testosterone. PMID:26288423

  18. Deletion mutation in BSCL2 gene underlies congenital generalized lipodystrophy in a Pakistani family

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) also known as Berardinelli-Seip Congenital Lipodystrophy (BSCL) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by loss of adipose tissues, Acanthosis nigricans, diabetes mellitus, muscular hypertrophy, hepatomegaly and hypertriglyceridemia. There are four subclinical phenotypes of CGL (CGL1-4) and mutations in four genes AGPAT2, BSCL2, CAV1 and PTRF have been assigned to each type. Methods The study included clinical and molecular investigations of CGL disease in a consanguineous Pakistani family. For mutation screening all the coding exons including splice junctions of AGPAT2, BSCL2, CAV1 and PTRF genes were PCR amplified and sequenced directly using an automated DNA sequencer ABI3730. Results Sequence analysis revealed a single base pair deletion mutation (c.636delC; p.Tyr213ThrfsX20) in exon 5 of BSCL2 gene causing a frame shift and premature termination codon. Conclusion Mutation identified here in BSCL2 gene causing congenital generalized lipodystrophy is the first report in Pakistani population. The patients exhibited characteristic features of generalized lipodystrophy, Acanthosis nigricans, diabetes mellitus and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1913913076864247. PMID:23659685

  19. Restrictive pulmonary deficit is associated with inflammation in sub-optimally controlled obese diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Seemungal, Terence A. R.; Teelucksingh, Surujpal; Nayak, B. Shivananda

    2013-01-01

    Caribbean data linking inflammation, pulmonary dysfunction and diabetes is unavailable. Spirometry, acanthosis nigricans, hs-CRP were assessed in 109 type 2 diabetics (43% males) mean age=55.6 years, BMI=29.29 kg/m2, waist circumference=103.86 cm. Residual FEV1/FVC increased with age (P=0.005), BMI (P=0.011) and waist circumference (P=0.003). Residual FVC related inversely to hs-CRP (–0.178), P<0.06) systolic (–0.028, P<0.031), diastolic (–0.247, P<0.010) pressure and weight (–0.25, P<0.009). Residual FEV1 related inversely to diastolic pressure (–0.219, P<0.023), hs-CRP (–0.234, P<0.015), acanthosis nigricans (–0.029, P<0.029). HbA1C and residual FEV1 predict high hs-CRP (P=0.011, P=0.046). Low FVC with inflammation presents in poorly controlled obese diabetics. PMID:23825761

  20. An Autosomal Recessive Syndrome of Joint Contractures, Muscular Atrophy, Microcytic Anemia, and Panniculitis-Associated Lipodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Abhimanyu; Hernandez, Maria Dolores; Sousa, Ana Berta; Subramanyam, Lalitha; Martínez de Villarreal, Laura; dos Santos, Heloísa G.; Barboza, Oralia

    2010-01-01

    Context: Genetic lipodystrophies are rare disorders characterized by partial or complete loss of adipose tissue and predisposition to insulin resistance and its complications such as diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia, hepatic steatosis, acanthosis nigricans, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Objective: The objective of the study was to report a novel autosomal recessive lipodystrophy syndrome. Results: We report the detailed phenotype of two males and one female patient, 26–34 yr old, belonging to two pedigrees with an autosomal recessive syndrome presenting with childhood-onset lipodystrophy, muscle atrophy, severe joint contractures, erythematous skin lesions, and microcytic anemia. Other variable clinical features include hypergammaglobulinemia, hepatosplenomegaly, generalized seizures, and basal ganglia calcification. None of the patients had diabetes mellitus or acanthosis nigricans. Two had mild hypertriglyceridemia and all had low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Skin biopsy of an erythematous nodular skin lesion from one of the patients revealed evidence of panniculitis. The lipodystrophy initially affected the upper body but later became generalized involving abdomen and lower extremities as well. Conclusions: We conclude that these patients represent a novel autoinflammatory syndrome resulting in joint contractures, muscle atrophy, microcytic anemia, and panniculitis-induced lipodystrophy. The molecular genetic basis of this disorder remains to be elucidated. PMID:20534754

  1. Acquired hyperpigmentations*

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644

  2. FGFR3-related condition: a skeletal dysplasia with similarities to thanatophoric dysplasia and SADDAN due to Lys650Met.

    PubMed

    Farmakis, Shannon G; Shinawi, Marwan; Miller-Thomas, Michelle; Radmanesh, Alireza; Herman, Thomas E

    2015-03-01

    Mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene account for six related skeletal dysplasia conditions: achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, thanatophoric dysplasia types 1 and 2, SADDAN (severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans), and platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasia, San Diego type. This group of disorders has very characteristic clinical and radiologic features, which distinguish them from other skeletal dysplasias. They display a spectrum of severity in the skeletal findings, ranging from relatively mild hypochondroplasia to lethal thanatophoric dysplasia. We report a patient who has the missense FGFR3 mutation, Lys650Met, previously reported in association only with SADDAN, who exhibits some findings similar to both thanatophoric dysplasia (types 1 and 2) in addition to those findings characteristic of SADDAN. PMID:25119967

  3. Dermatosis as the initial presentation of gastric cancer: two cases

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Wei; Teng, Bu-Wei; Yu, De-Cai; Zheng, Li-Ming; Ding, Yi-Tao

    2014-01-01

    Paraneoplastic dermatoses are known to be certain dermatosis related with tumor. The common paraneoplastic dermatoses are acanthosis nigricans, acquired ichthyosis, dermatomyositis, erythroderma, and so on. Here we report two cases of paraneoplastic dermatoses associated with gastric cancer. One case was a 57-year-old man with dermatomyositis and proved to be associated with gastric cancer through stomachoscopy. The other was a 66-year-old man with erythroderma and proved to be associated with gastric cancer through stomachoscopy. Both cases were treated with radical total gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy (D2) and esophagojejunostomy of Roux-en-Y. The skin symptom of both cases had improved a lot but still existed after operation. Paraneoplastic dermatoses can be seen as the early manifestation of visceral carcinomas. As a result, gastric cancers should be excluded in the patients with paraneoplastic dermatoses. PMID:25400431

  4. Metabolic Syndrome in Childhood: Rare Case of Alstrom Syndrome with Blindness.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Afzal; D'Souza, Benedicta; Yadav, Charu; Agarwal, Ashish; Kumar, Anand; Nandini, M; D'Souza, Vivian; Poornima, A M; Kamath, Nutan

    2016-10-01

    Alstrom's syndrome (AS) is a rare autosomal recessive ciliopathic condition affecting 1:10,00,000 children. It's a single gene disorder of ALMS1 on chromosome 2 with multisystem involvement with cone-rod retinal dystrophy causing juvenile blindness, obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 Diabetes mellitus, hypogonadism and sensorineural hearing loss. Till now only 800 patients with this disorder has been identified so far. In this report, we describe the case of a 9-year old male boy from south India. He had been initially referred for polyphagia, polyuria, polydipsia, generalized weakness from 1 weeks. On examination he was demonstrated features suggestive of AS, including blindness, obesity, type 2 diabetes, altered lipid profile, hypogonadism, acanthosis nigricans, seborrheic dermatitis, right ear discharge and episodes of respiratory tract infections. So, diagnosis of AS is critical as it can easily be overlooked because of the many features associated with metabolic syndrome starting at age 7, a relatively early age. PMID:27605748

  5. Morbid obesity in a child with monosomy 1p36 syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zagalo, Ana; Dias, Patricia; Pereira, Carla; Sampaio, Maria de Lurdes

    2012-01-01

    The monosomy 1p36 syndrome is a cause of syndromic obesity. It is characterised by psychomotor delay, hypotonia and typical craniofacial dysmorphism. Other features commonly associated are behavioural anomalies including hyperphagia and self-injuring, seizures, congenital heart disease and hypothyroidism. The authors report the case of a 9-year and 5-month-boy referred to the paediatric endocrinology clinics for morbid obesity. Clinical findings were generalised obesity with a body mass index >95th centile, acanthosis nigricans of the neck, arms with self inflicted lesions, deep-set eyes, straight eyebrows, broad nasal bridge and pointed chin. He was unable to walk and had no expressive language. Cytogenetic analysis identified 1p36.33-pter deletion (~139 Mb terminal deletion in chromosome 1 short arm) and Y chromosome duplication. The blood analysis showed insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. The authors emphasise the need to consider monosomy 1p36 as a cause of severe psychomotor delay and obesity. PMID:22605691

  6. Chronic Pruritus: a Paraneoplastic Sign

    PubMed Central

    Yosipovitch, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Chronic itch could be a presenting sign of malignancy. Pruritus of lymphoma is the common prototype of paraneoplastic itch and can precede other clinical signs by weeks and months. Paraneopalstic pruritus has also been associated with solid tumors and is an important clinical symptom in paraneoplastic skin diseases such as erythroderma, Grovers disease, malignant acanthosis nigricans, generalized granuloma annulare, Bazex syndrome and dermatomyositis. In any case with high index of suspicion a thorough work-up is required. This review highlights the association between itch and malignancy and presents new findings related to pathophysiological mechanisms and the treatment of itch associated with malignancy. Combinative therapies reducing itch sensitization and transmission using selective serotonin and neuroepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, Kappa opioids and Neuroleptics are of prime importance in reducing this bothersome symptom. PMID:21054705

  7. Mixed Form of Hirsutism in an Adolescent Female and Laser Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gacaferri Lumezi, Besa; Goci, Aferdita; Lokaj, Violeta; Latifi, Hatixhe; Karahoda, Natyra; Minci, Ganimete; Telaku, Drita; Gercari, Antigona; Kocinaj, Allma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Hirsutism is a common disorder of excess growth of terminal hair in an androgen-dependent male distribution in women, including the chin, upper lip, breasts, back, and abdomen. It is very important to identify the etiology of hirsutism and adequate treat is prior to any cosmetic therapy. Case Presentation: The case was a 17-year-old female with severe hirsutism, oligomenorrhea, and obesity. She was evaluated to identify the etiology and diagnosed as a case of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NC-CAH), and hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans (HAIR-AN) syndrome, which is a rare combination of hirsutism etiology. She was successfully treated according to the underlying pathology, and laser photoepilation was used as the preferred hair removal method. Discussion: Establishing the etiology, using the evidence–based strategies to improve hirsutism, and treating the underlying disorder, are essential for proper management of women with hirsutism. PMID:25068069

  8. Acne-associated syndromes: models for better understanding of acne pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Hong, J-B; Melnik, B C; Yamasaki, O; Dessinioti, C; Ju, Q; Liakou, A I; Al-Khuzaei, S; Katsambas, A; Ring, J; Zouboulis, C C

    2011-06-01

    Acne, one of the most common skin disorders, is also a cardinal component of many systemic diseases or syndromes. Their association illustrates the nature of these diseases and is indicative of the pathogenesis of acne. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and seborrhoea-acne-hirsutism-androgenetic alopecia (SAHA) syndrome highlight the role of androgen steroids, while polycystic ovary (PCO) and hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans (HAIR-AN) syndromes indicate insulin resistance in acne. Apert syndrome with increased fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) signalling results in follicular hyperkeratinization and sebaceous gland hypertrophy in acne. Synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) and pyogenic arthritis-pyoderma gangrenosum-acne (PAPA) syndromes highlight the attributes of inflammation to acne formation. Advances in the understanding of the manifestation and molecular mechanisms of these syndromes will help to clarify acne pathogenesis and develop novel therapeutic modalities. PMID:21198949

  9. Acne as a chronic systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, Christos C

    2014-01-01

    Acne is the most common skin disorder. In the majority of cases, acne is a disease that changes its skin distribution and severity over time; moreover, it can be a physically (scar development) and psychologically damaging condition that lasts for years. According to its clinical characteristics, it can be defined as a chronic disease according to the World Health Organization criteria. Acne is also a cardinal component of many systemic diseases or syndromes, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, seborrhea-acne-hirsutism-androgenetic alopecia syndrome, polycystic ovarian syndrome, hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans syndrome, Apert syndrome, synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis syndrome, and pyogenic arthritis-pyoderma gangrenosum-acne syndrome. Recent studies on the Ache hunter gatherers of Paraguay detected the lack of acne in association with markedly lower rates of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases, a finding that indicates either a nutritional or a genetic background of this impressive concomitance. PMID:24767186

  10. Insulin Resistance and Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Maddalena; Megna, Matteo; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In medical practice, almost every clinician may encounter patients with skin disease. However, it is not always easy for physicians of all specialties to face the daily task of determining the nature and clinical implication of dermatologic manifestations. Are they confined to the skin, representing a pure dermatologic event? Or are they also markers of internal conditions relating to the patient's overall health? In this review, we will discuss the principal cutaneous conditions which have been linked to metabolic alterations. Particularly, since insulin has an important role in homeostasis and physiology of the skin, we will focus on the relationships between insulin resistance (IR) and skin diseases, analyzing strongly IR-associated conditions such as acanthosis nigricans, acne, and psoriasis, without neglecting emerging and potential scenarios as the ones represented by hidradenitis suppurativa, androgenetic alopecia, and hirsutism. PMID:25977937

  11. Cutaneous manifestations of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Owen, Cindy England

    2016-06-01

    Skin findings can serve as a clue to internal disease. In this article, cutaneous manifestations of underlying lung malignancy are reviewed. Paraneoplastic dermatoses are rare, but when recognized early, can lead to early diagnosis of an underlying neoplasm. Malignancy-associated dermatoses comprise a broad group of hyperproliferative and inflammatory disorders, disorders caused by tumor production of hormonal or metabolic factors, autoimmune connective tissue diseases, among others. In this review, paraneoplastic syndromes associated with lung malignancy are discussed, including ectopic ACTH syndrome, bronchial carcinoid variant syndrome, secondary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy/digital clubbing, erythema gyratum repens, malignant acanthosis nigricans, sign of Leser-Trélat, tripe palms, hypertrichosis lanuginosa, acrokeratosis paraneoplastica, and dermatomyositis. PMID:27178690

  12. Pseudoacromegaly in congenital generalised lipodystrophy (Berardinelli-Seip syndrome).

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Datta, Saumik; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoacromegaly, or acromegaloidism, is characterised by a clinical appearance mimicking acromegaly in the absence of documented hypersomatotropism or past exposure to excess growth hormone. It can develop secondary to a number of congenital and acquired conditions of which severe insulin resistance is an important example. Lipodystrophy syndromes are a group of rare disorders of which autosomal recessive congenital generalised lipodystrophy is the most common type. Patients with this disorder are predisposed to insulin resistance and its associated complications such as diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridaemia, fatty liver, polycystic ovaries and acanthosis nigricans. Elevated circulating insulin levels in these patients rarely can give rise to soft tissue and bony overgrowth, with resultant acromegaloidism. We report an adolescent girl presenting with unusual prominence of her hands and feet; a thorough evaluation ultimately revealed a diagnosis of congenital generalised lipodystrophy. PMID:27068725

  13. Metformin - For the dermatologist.

    PubMed

    Bubna, Aditya Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Metformin though primarily an antidiabetic drug, has found to play an important role in a number of cutaneous disorders. Because of its role in improving hyperinsulinemia, it has proven beneficial in hormonal acne, hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) and acanthosis nigricans. Its antiandrogenic properties further serve as an add-on to the conventional management of hirsutism associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Very recently, systemic usage of metformin for psoriasis and cutaneous malignancies has shown promising results. Interestingly, metformin has also been topically used in hyperpigmentary disorders with pertinent levels of improvement and happens to be the most recent addition to the list of dermatologic indications. Though an oral hypoglycemic agent to begin with, metformin today has proven to be a boon for dermatologists. PMID:26997714

  14. Cutaneous markers of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Shridhar; Jhamb, Rajat

    2010-09-26

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is rapidly increasing in prevalence across the world and particularly in south Asians at a relatively younger age. As atherosclerosis starts in early childhood, the process of risk evaluation must start quite early. The present review addresses the issue of cutaneous markers associated with atherosclerosis, and the strengths and weaknesses of the markers in identifying early coronary atherosclerosis. A diligent search for such clinical markers, namely xanthelasma, xanthoma, arcus juvenilis, acanthosis nigricans, skin tags, ear lobe crease, nicotine stains, premature graying in smokers, hyperpigmented hands in betel quid sellers, central obesity, and signs of peripheral vascular disease may prove to be a rewarding exercise in identifying asymptomatic CAD in high risk individuals. PMID:21160602

  15. Metformin - For the dermatologist

    PubMed Central

    Bubna, Aditya Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Metformin though primarily an antidiabetic drug, has found to play an important role in a number of cutaneous disorders. Because of its role in improving hyperinsulinemia, it has proven beneficial in hormonal acne, hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) and acanthosis nigricans. Its antiandrogenic properties further serve as an add-on to the conventional management of hirsutism associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Very recently, systemic usage of metformin for psoriasis and cutaneous malignancies has shown promising results. Interestingly, metformin has also been topically used in hyperpigmentary disorders with pertinent levels of improvement and happens to be the most recent addition to the list of dermatologic indications. Though an oral hypoglycemic agent to begin with, metformin today has proven to be a boon for dermatologists. PMID:26997714

  16. The First Korean Case of Beare-Stevenson Syndrome with a Tyr375Cys Mutation in the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Eun, So-Hee; Ha, Ki Ssu; Je, Bo-Kyung; Lee, Eung Seok; Lee, Jung Hwa; Eun, Baik-Lin; Yoo, Kee Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Here we report the first case of a Korean infant with a cloverleaf-shaped craniosynostosis, in which the diagnosis of Beare-Stevenson syndrome was suspected upon observation of the typical morphological features. This infant exhibited craniofacial anomalies, ocular proptosis, cutis gyrata, acanthosis nigricans, prominent umbilical stump, furrowed palms and soles, hypospadia, and sacral skin tag coupled with dermal sinus tract. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the patient also had non-communicating hydrocephalus with Chiari malformation. This is the 8th report of Beare-Stevenson syndrome in the literature, which was confirmed by the detection of a Tyr375Cys mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene. PMID:17449949

  17. Genetic epidemiology of cardiometabolic risk ractors and their clustering patterns in Mexican American children and adolescents: The SAFARI Study

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Sharon P.; Puppala, Sobha; Arya, Rector; Chittoor, Geetha; Farook, Vidya S.; Schneider, Jennifer; Resendez, Roy G.; Upadhayay, Ram Prasad; VandeBerg, Jane; Hunt, Kelly J.; Bradshaw, Benjamin; Cersosimo, Eugenio; VandeBerg, John L.; Almasy, Laura; Curran, Joanne E.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Lehman, Donna M.; Jenkinson, Christopher P.; Lynch, Jane L.; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Blangero, John; Hale, Daniel E.; Duggirala, Ravindranath

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric metabolic syndrome (MS) and its cardiometabolic components (MSCs) have become increasingly prevalent, yet little is known about the genetics underlying MS risk in children. We examined the prevalence and genetics of MS-related traits among 670 non-diabetic Mexican American (MA) children and adolescents, aged 6–17 years (49 % female), who were participants in the San Antonio Family Assessment of Metabolic Risk Indicators in Youth (SAFARI) study. These children are offspring or biological relatives of adult participants from three well-established Mexican American family studies in San Antonio, Texas, at increased risk of type 2 diabetes. MS was defined as ≥ 3 abnormalities among 6 MSC measures: waist circumference, systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and fasting and/or 2-h OGTT glucose. Genetic analyses of MS, number of MSCs (MSC-N), MS factors, and bivariate MS traits were performed. Overweight/obesity (53 %), pre-diabetes (13 %), acanthosis nigricans (33 %), and MS (19 %) were strikingly prevalent, as were MS components, including abdominal adiposity (32 %) and low HDL-cholesterol (32 %). Factor analysis of MS traits yielded three constructs: adipo-insulin-lipid, blood pressure, and glucose factors, and their factor scores were highly heritable. MS itself exhibited 68 % heritability. MSC-N showed strong positive genetic correlations with obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, and acanthosis nigricans, and negative genetic correlation with physical fitness. MS trait pairs exhibited strong genetic and/or environmental correlations. These findings highlight the complex genetic architecture of MS/MSCs in MA children, and underscore the need for early screening and intervention to prevent chronic sequelae in this vulnerable pediatric population. PMID:23736306

  18. Dermatological complications of obesity.

    PubMed

    García Hidalgo, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is a health problem of considerable magnitude in the Western world. Dermatological changes have been reported in patients with obesity, including: acanthosis nigricans and skin tags (due to insulin resistance); hyperandrogenism; striae due to over extension; stasis pigmentation due to peripheral vascular disease; lymphedema; pathologies associated with augmented folds; morphologic changes in the foot anatomy due to excess load; and complications that may arise from hospitalization. Acanthosis nigricans plaques can be managed by improved control of hyperinsulinemia; the vitamin D3 analog calcipitriol has also been shown to be effective. Skin tags can be removed by snipping with curved scissors, by cryotherapy or by electrodesiccation. Hyperandrogenism, a result of increased production of endogenous androgens due to increased volumes of adipose tissue (which synthesizes testosterone) and hyperinsulinemia (which increases the production of ovarian androgens) needs to be carefully assessed to ensure disorders such as virilizing tumors and congenital adrenal hyperplasia are treated appropriately. Treatment of hyperandrogenism should be centred on controlling insulin levels; weight loss, oral contraceptive and antiandrogenic therapies are also possible treatment options. The etiology of striae distensae, also known as stretch marks, is yet to be defined and treatment options are unsatisfactory at present; striae rubra and alba have been treated with a pulsed dye laser with marginal success. The relationship between obesity and varicose veins is controversial; symptoms are best prevented by the use of elastic stockings. Itching and inflammation associated with stasis pigmentation, the result of red blood cells escaping into the tissues, can be treated with corticosteroids. Lymphedema is associated with dilatation of tissue channels, reduced tissue oxygenation and provides a culture medium for bacterial growth. Lymphedema treatment is directed towards reducing the

  19. An atlas of the morphological manifestations of hidradenitis suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2014-01-01

    This article is dermatological atlas of the morphologic presentations of Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS). It includes: superficial abscesses (boils, furnucles, carbuncles), abscesses that are subcutaneous and suprafascial, pyogenic granulomas, cysts, painful erythematous papules and plaques, folliculitis, open ulcerations, chronic sinuses, fistulas, sinus tracts, scrotal and genital lyphedema, dermal contractures, keloids (some that are still pitted with follicular ostia), scarring, skin tags, fibrosis, anal fissures, fistulas (i.e. circinate, linear, arcuate), scarring folliculitis of the buttocks (from mild to cigarette-like scarring), condyloma like lesions in intertrigous areas, fishmouth scars, acne inversa, honey-comb scarring, cribiform scarring, tombstone comedones, and morphia-like plaques. HS can co-exist with other follicular diseases such as pilonidal cysts, dissecting cellulitis, acne conglobata, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acanthosis nigricans. In sum, the variety of presentations of HS as shown by these images supports the supposition that HS is a reaction pattern.HS is a follicular based diseased and its manifestations involve a multitude of follicular pathologies [1,2]. It is also known as acne inversa (AI) because of one manifestation that involves the formation of open comedones on areas besides the face. It is as yet unclear why HS is so protean in its manifestations. HS severity is assessed using the Hurley Staging System (Table 1). It also remains unclear why hidradentitis may remain limited to Hurley Stage 1, evolve to the more confluent (Hurley Stage 2), or progress even further to the fully confluent (Hurley Stage 3).In addition, HS can be associated with other follicular based diseases such as pilonidal cysts (PCs) of the sacrum and buttocks, dissecting cellulitis (DC), and acne conglobata (AC), which usually involves the face, chest, When HS occurs with PCs, DC, and/or AC it is referred to as the follicular occlusion triad or tetrad [2]. HS

  20. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Reinehr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is emerging as a new clinical problem within pediatric practice. Recent reports indicate an increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents around the world in all ethnicities, even if the prevalence of obesity is not increasing any more. The majority of young people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus was found in specific ethnic subgroups such as African-American, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islanders and American Indians. Clinicians should be aware of the frequent mild or asymptomatic manifestation of type 2 diabetes mellitus in childhood. Therefore, a screening seems meaningful especially in high risk groups such as children and adolescents with obesity, relatives with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and clinical features of insulin resistance (hypertension, dyslipidemia, polycystic ovarian syndrome, or acanthosis nigricans). Treatment of choice is lifestyle intervention followed by pharmacological treatment (e.g., metformin). New drugs such as dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors or glucagon like peptide 1 mimetics are in the pipeline for treatment of youth with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, recent reports indicate a high dropout of the medical care system of adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus suggesting that management of children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus requires some remodeling of current healthcare practices. PMID:24379917

  1. Familial partial lipodystrophy: two types of an X linked dominant syndrome, lethal in the hemizygous state.

    PubMed Central

    Köbberling, J; Dunnigan, M G

    1986-01-01

    Familial lipodystrophy (referred to in publications as the Köbberling-Dunnigan syndrome) comprises at least two clinical phenotypes which are consistent within each pedigree. In type 1 familial lipodystrophy, loss of subcutaneous fat is confined to the limbs, sparing the face and trunk. In type 2 familial lipodystrophy, the trunk is also affected with the exception of the vulva, giving an appearance of labial hypertrophy. Diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinaemia, and acanthosis nigricans are present to a variable degree in some but not all patients with familial lipodystrophy, and the abnormal distribution of subcutaneous fat is the essential hallmark of the syndrome. In addition to a survey of published reports, new cases with the syndrome are described. Both types of partial lipodystrophy, occurring either as familial disease or as sporadic cases, have only been observed in female patients. Study of the pedigrees of five families with familial lipodystrophy (two Scottish and three German) suggests an X linked dominant mode of transmission, lethal in the hemizygous (XY) state. The two clinical phenotypes with their variably expressive metabolic abnormalities are consistent either with different mutants of the same allele or with two genes on adjacent loci. Other clinical phenotypes of familial lipodystrophy may exist due to further mutations of the same allele or of genes on adjacent loci. The nature of the disorder in patients with familial lipodystrophy usually escapes recognition for many years and the syndrome is almost certainly much commoner than the few families described to date suggest. Images PMID:3712389

  2. [Epithelial tumor-like changes, precancerous conditions and skin neoplasms (standardization study)].

    PubMed

    Bednár, B; Stanová, M

    1976-05-01

    A retrospective study of bioptic material was used to design the following outline of a histological classification of epithelial skin tumours tentatively compared with handbooks published by the WHO (1) and AFIP (2): I. Tumour-like changes: 1. senile verruca (mixed, acanthotic, melanoacanthotic, hyperkeratonic, reticular, inverted). 2. Virus verrucosities (v. vulgaris, v. plana, c. accuminatum, molluscom contagiosum). 3. Hamartogenic verrucosities (naevus verrucosus, n. comedonicus, fibroepithelial papilloma. 4. Genetically undefined verrucosities (acanthosis nigricans, light cell acanthoma, verrucous dyskeratosis). 5. Cysts (atheroma, epidermoid cyst, dermoid cyst, others). 6. Unclassified. II. Precanceroses: 1. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasis, 2. keratosis senilis, 3. Radiation dermatosis, 4. Unclassified. III. Epithelial tumours A. From surface epithelium 1. Spinocellular carcinoma (basic type, anaplastic, adenoid, sarcomatoid, clear cell carcinoma, intraepidermal). 2. Basocellular carcinoma: a) varieties derived from surface epithelium (intraepithelial, superficial, solid, cystic, invasive), b) varieties with adenoid features (cylindromatous, fibroepithelia), c) varieties with trichoepithelial features (keratinizing, pigment-type, clear cell type), d) naevus varieties (basocellular naevi). 3. Spinobasocellular carcinoma. 4. Unclassifiable. B. Sweat gland tumours: 1. syringocystadenoma papilliferum, 2. hidradenoma papillare, 3. nodular hidradenoma (eccrine spiradenoma, eccrine acrospiroma, myxochondroepithelioma, myoepithelioma, mucinous epithelioma), 4. syringoma, 5. eccrine cylindroma, 6. hidrocystoma, 7. eccrine poroma, 8. carcinomas (so called extramammary Paget carcinoma), 9. unclassifiable. C. Sebaceous gland tumours: 1. adenoma sebaceum, 2. carcinoma sebaceum, 3. quasi tumours (naevus sebaceus, Pringle's hamartoma, steatocystoma multiplex, hyperplasia), 4. unclassifiable. D. Trichoepithelial tumours: 1. trichofolliculoma, 2. follicular poroma, 3

  3. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Garness, Rachel L; Zarroug, Abdalla E; Kumar, Seema; Swain, James M

    2012-04-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a novel technique in pediatric bariatric surgery. The patient reported here participated in our pediatric weight management clinic for 2 years. His obesity was complicated by obstructive sleep apnea, acanthosis nigricans, and hypertension. His past medical history included 2 small bowel resections, bilateral nephrectomy and kidney transplantation for multicystic renal dysplasia, and 2 peritoneal dialysis-catheter infections. Gastric banding was contraindicated because of previous foreign body infections and chronic need of immunosuppression and steroids. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was of higher risk given his previous abdominal operations and the resulting medication absorption issues. He underwent LSG without any complications. Five trocars were utilized and a gastroscope was placed during gastric resection. Presurgical body mass index was 44.8 kg/m. At 18 months follow-up body mass index was 26.5 kg/m. We concur that LSG can be a safe and effective alternative in bariatric surgery in well-selected adolescents. PMID:22487636

  4. A Heterozygous ZMPSTE24 Mutation Associated with Severe Metabolic Syndrome, Ectopic Fat Accumulation, and Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Galant, Damien; Gaborit, Bénédicte; Desgrouas, Camille; Abdesselam, Ines; Bernard, Monique; Levy, Nicolas; Merono, Françoise; Coirault, Catherine; Roll, Patrice; Lagarde, Arnaud; Bonello-Palot, Nathalie; Bourgeois, Patrice; Dutour, Anne; Badens, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    ZMPSTE24 encodes the only metalloprotease, which transforms prelamin into mature lamin A. Up to now, mutations in ZMPSTE24 have been linked to Restrictive Dermopathy (RD), Progeria or Mandibulo-Acral Dysplasia (MAD). We report here the phenotype of a patient referred for severe metabolic syndrome and cardiomyopathy, carrying a mutation in ZMPSTE24. The patient presented with a partial lipodystrophic syndrome associating hypertriglyceridemia, early onset type 2 diabetes, and android obesity with truncal and abdominal fat accumulation but without subcutaneous lipoatrophy. Other clinical features included acanthosis nigricans, liver steatosis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and high myocardial and hepatic triglycerides content. Mutated fibroblasts from the patient showed increased nuclear shape abnormalities and premature senescence as demonstrated by a decreased Population Doubling Level, an increased beta-galactosidase activity and a decreased BrdU incorporation rate. Reduced prelamin A expression by siRNA targeted toward LMNA transcripts resulted in decreased nuclear anomalies. We show here that a central obesity without subcutaneous lipoatrophy is associated with a laminopathy due to a heterozygous missense mutation in ZMPSTE24. Given the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and android obesity in the general population, and in the absence of familial study, the causative link between mutation and phenotype cannot be formally established. Nevertheless, altered lamina architecture observed in mutated fibroblasts are responsible for premature cellular senescence and could contribute to the phenotype observed in this patient. PMID:27120622

  5. [Severe type A insulin resistance syndrome due to a mutation in the insulin receptor gene].

    PubMed

    Ros, P; Colino-Alcol, E; Grasso, V; Barbetti, F; Argente, J

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance syndromes without lipodystrophy are an infrequent and heterogeneous group of disorders with variable clinical phenotypes, associated with hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The three conditions related to mutations in the insulin receptor gene are leprechaunism or Donohue syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, and Type A syndrome. A case is presented on a patient diagnosed with type A insulin resistance, defined by the triad of extreme insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, and hyperandrogenism, carrying a heterozygous mutation in exon 19 of the insulin receptor gene coding for its tyrosine kinase domain that is crucial for the catalytic activity of the receptor. The molecular basis of the syndrome is reviewed, focusing on the structure-function relationships of the insulin receptor, knowing that the criteria for survival are linked to residual insulin receptor function. It is also pointed out that, although type A insulin resistance appears to represent a somewhat less severe condition, these patients have a high morbidity and their treatment is still unsatisfactory. PMID:25027621

  6. Efficacy of pioglitazone in familial partial lipodystrophy of the Dunnigan type: a case report.

    PubMed

    Moreau, F; Boullu-Sanchis, S; Vigouroux, C; Lucescu, C; Lascols, O; Sapin, R; Ruimy, D; Guerci, B; Pinget, M; Jeandidier, N

    2007-11-01

    A 25 year old woman consulted for a severe acanthosis nigricans and central distribution of fat. Her masculine type morphology was associated with muscular appearance of the limbs and excess fat deposits in the face and neck. Biological testing confirmed glucose intolerance associated with a severe insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and polycystic ovary syndrome. The detection of a heterozygous missense mutation in LAMIN A/C gene at position 482 confirmed the diagnosis of Familial Partial Lipodystrophy (FPLD2). Due to a deterioration of clinical and metabolic status, 15 and then 30 mg per day of pioglitazone were added to her previous treatment with metformin, bezafibrate and omega-3 fatty acids. Metabolic status improved rapidly after 3 months and continued thereafter. Weight remained stable, body mass composition and waist circumference improved. After 18 months of treatment, glycaemia and triglycerides levels normalized, hepatic enzymes and liver echographic features improved. Insulin sensitivity improved dramatically with a HOMA % S value of 73% with metformin and of 98.2% when pioglitazone was added. Leptin levels increased from 6.6 to 10.2 microg/ml. We report a very rapid and good efficacy of pioglitazone added to metformin without side effects in FPLD2. If confirmed on more patients, early use of pioglitazone in association with metformin could be proposed in FPLD2. PMID:17936664

  7. The Castleman's Disease and Related Disorders--A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Khan, M K; Talukder, R H; Kamruzzaman, M

    2016-01-01

    Castleman's disease is a rare primary disease of the lymph nodes. Little is known about the management of the disease. Surgical treatment gives a very good result. What other modalities of treatment could be done is not yet established. The role of surgery gives good result and follow up evaluation is satisfactory. We found a solitary intra-abdominal mass of lymphoid hyperplasia with a histological diagnosis of Castlemans disease identified in the pathological data base. Unicentric disease was defined as it was a solitary mass. Clinical, Radiological and Laboratory data were analysed to evaluate treatment response. The patient also has related disorders as Acanthosis nigricans, Myoneuronal disorder as-MG and bronchiolitis. The patient diagnosed as angiofollicular hyperplasia (Castleman's disease). After evaluation patient under went surgical treatment, partial excision of tumor mass due to morbid adhesion with inferior vena cava. The patient becomes symptom free and lump disappears within 60 days of treatment. There was no recurrence of the disease after further evaluation. The author recommends that in Unicentric variant of Castlemans disease surgical resection of the tumor is curative. The unicentric tumour may be hyaline-vascular or hyaline-vascular/ plasma cell type. Partial resection, Radiotherapy or observation alone may avoid excessive aggressive therapy. PMID:26931270

  8. A Heterozygous ZMPSTE24 Mutation Associated with Severe Metabolic Syndrome, Ectopic Fat Accumulation, and Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Galant, Damien; Gaborit, Bénédicte; Desgrouas, Camille; Abdesselam, Ines; Bernard, Monique; Levy, Nicolas; Merono, Françoise; Coirault, Catherine; Roll, Patrice; Lagarde, Arnaud; Bonello-Palot, Nathalie; Bourgeois, Patrice; Dutour, Anne; Badens, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    ZMPSTE24 encodes the only metalloprotease, which transforms prelamin into mature lamin A. Up to now, mutations in ZMPSTE24 have been linked to Restrictive Dermopathy (RD), Progeria or Mandibulo-Acral Dysplasia (MAD). We report here the phenotype of a patient referred for severe metabolic syndrome and cardiomyopathy, carrying a mutation in ZMPSTE24. The patient presented with a partial lipodystrophic syndrome associating hypertriglyceridemia, early onset type 2 diabetes, and android obesity with truncal and abdominal fat accumulation but without subcutaneous lipoatrophy. Other clinical features included acanthosis nigricans, liver steatosis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and high myocardial and hepatic triglycerides content. Mutated fibroblasts from the patient showed increased nuclear shape abnormalities and premature senescence as demonstrated by a decreased Population Doubling Level, an increased beta-galactosidase activity and a decreased BrdU incorporation rate. Reduced prelamin A expression by siRNA targeted toward LMNA transcripts resulted in decreased nuclear anomalies. We show here that a central obesity without subcutaneous lipoatrophy is associated with a laminopathy due to a heterozygous missense mutation in ZMPSTE24. Given the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and android obesity in the general population, and in the absence of familial study, the causative link between mutation and phenotype cannot be formally established. Nevertheless, altered lamina architecture observed in mutated fibroblasts are responsible for premature cellular senescence and could contribute to the phenotype observed in this patient. PMID:27120622

  9. Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a and insulin resistance in a child.

    PubMed

    Nwosu, Benjamin U; Lee, Mary M

    2009-06-01

    Background. A 5-year-old white girl with a history of hypothyroidism in infancy presented to the endocrinology clinic of a tertiary hospital. Her physical examination noted a stocky physique, broad chest, short neck and short digits. Two years later, skin examination revealed subcutaneous nodules and acanthosis nigricans.Investigations. Measurement of levels of serum phosphate, parathyroid hormone, ionized calcium and insulin; measurement of peak growth hormone by the arginine-levodopa stimulation test; calculation of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; assessment of bone age; DNA analysis of the GNAS gene.Diagnosis. Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a in a patient with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, characterized by hypocalcemia, hypothyroidism, growth-hormone deficiency and insulin resistance.Management. The child continued to take levothyroxine 25 microg once daily, and at 5 years of age she was started on 40 mg/kg elemental calcium as calcium carbonate daily, and calcitriol (active vitamin D) 0.25 microg twice daily. Lifestyle modifications were also recommended for weight control. At 6 years and 4 months of age, treatment with growth hormone was initiated at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg weekly. PMID:19465898

  10. Sixteen years and counting: the current understanding of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) signaling in skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Foldynova-Trantirkova, Silvie; Wilcox, William R; Krejci, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    In 1994, the field of bone biology was significantly advanced by the discovery that activating mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) receptor tyrosine kinase (TK) account for the common genetic form of dwarfism in humans, achondroplasia (ACH). Other conditions soon followed, with the list of human disorders caused by FGFR3 mutations now reaching at least 10. An array of vastly different diagnoses is caused by similar mutations in FGFR3, including syndromes affecting skeletal development (hypochondroplasia [HCH], ACH, thanatophoric dysplasia [TD]), skin (epidermal nevi, seborrhaeic keratosis, acanthosis nigricans), and cancer (multiple myeloma [MM], prostate and bladder carcinoma, seminoma). Despite many years of research, several aspects of FGFR3 function in disease remain obscure or controversial. As FGFR3-related skeletal dysplasias are caused by growth attenuation of the cartilage, chondrocytes appear to be unique in their response to FGFR3 activation. However, the reasons why FGFR3 inhibits chondrocyte growth while causing excessive cellular proliferation in cancer are not clear. Likewise, the full spectrum of molecular events by which FGFR3 mediates its signaling is just beginning to emerge. This article describes the challenging journey to unravel the mechanisms of FGFR3 function in skeletal dysplasias, the extraordinary cellular manifestations of FGFR3 signaling in chondrocytes, and finally, the progress toward therapy for ACH and cancer. PMID:22045636

  11. Prevalence of Skin Changes in Diabetes Mellitus and its Correlation with Internal Diseases: A Single Center Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Kaushik; Das, KapilDev; Ghosh, Susmita; Chakraborty, Sisir; Jatua, Sanat Kumar; Bhattacharya, Ambarish; Ghosh, Manas

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: This single-center observational cross-sectional study has been done in an attempt to find out the prevalence of various skin manifestations in diabetes patients (DM) and their correlation with diabetes control and complications. Materials and Methods: Skin manifestations present over 12 months among those attend diabetes clinic were included in the study. Apart from demographic data and type, patients were also screened for micro vascular complications and control of diabetes over last 3 months. Results and Discussion: Sixty (n = 60) diabetes patisents (Type 1 DM, 9 patients and Type 2 DM 51 patients) have been found to have various skin lesions. Thirty-one (51.67%) patients presented with infectious conditions, vascular complications were present in 21 (35%) and dermatomes belonging to the miscellaneous group were present in 50 (83.33%) patients. Pyoderma, diabetic dermopathy, and pruritus without skin lesions were found to be most common manifestations in infective, vascular and miscellaneous group, respectively. Higher level of HB1AC was found in patient with diabetic bulla (10.5 ± 0), scleredema (9.75 ± 0.77), lichen planus (9.3 ± 1.6), and acanthosis nigricans (9.15 ± 0.89). Patients with psoriasis and vitiligo had statistically significant lower level of glycosylated hemoglobin (P =< 0.001 and 0.03, respectively). However, no association of any kind of skin manifestation with DM with other microangiopathic complications was found in this study. PMID:26538693

  12. A syndrome of insulin resistance resembling leprechaunism in five sibs of consanguineous parents.

    PubMed Central

    al-Gazali, L I; Khalil, M; Devadas, K

    1993-01-01

    Leprechaunism is a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with extreme insulin resistance with paradoxical hypo-glycaemia. It is characterised by prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, reduced subcutaneous tissue, coarse features, acanthosis nigricans, enlarged genitalia, and death in the first year of life. Defects in both the insulin receptor and postreceptor steps of the insulin action pathway have been reported. At the molecular level, several mutations have been described. The patients reported here are from a Yemeni family with a syndrome of insulin resistance similar to leprechaunism in which the parents are second cousins and five of their eight children are affected. However, the phenotypes seem to be less severe than the classical leprechaunism previously described. All the children are alive (oldest 11 years), there is normal subcutaneous tissue, and a normal growth pattern in some of them. It may be that this is a milder type of leprechaunism with a better prognosis, perhaps caused by a different type of mutation from those previously described. Images PMID:8326490

  13. Acne - a potential skin marker of internal disease.

    PubMed

    Pace, Joseph L

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder in adult women. Hyperandrogenism is the crux of the pathogenesis of both acne and hirsutism, the most frequent clinical presentations of the syndrome. The chronic anovulation that may occur, often but not always associated with enlarged cystic ovaries, has long been recognized as an important feature of PCOS. In recent years major changes have occurred with regard to PCOS: Although management of the common cutaneous manifestations, mainly acne, hirsutism, alopecia, and acanthosis nigricans, remains strictly within the realm of daily dermatologic practice, the pendulum is shifting toward greater awareness of the longer-term systemic implications of PCOS, with emphasis on the unique opportunity and privileged position of the dermatologist to diagnose this potentially serious problem at an early stage, when effective long-term treatment can be instituted. Patients need to be advised that PCOS cannot be cured but can be controlled. Management should involve a multidisciplinary team with emphasis on lifestyle change, insulin sensitizing agents, androgen blockers, and attention to specific cutaneous manifestations. PMID:26321405

  14. The phenotype masks the genotype: A possible new expression of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mimbacas, Adriana; Vitarella, Graciela; Souto, Jorge; Reyes, Ana Laura; Farias, Joaquina; Fernández, Mariana; Fabregat, Matias; Javiel, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a new form of diabetes, with signs of both types 1 and 2, has not been often considered, until recently. It is of immense interest to explore the role of the admixture that characterizes the Uruguayan population (higher and different from other Latin America countries) for the presence of such expression of that particular disease. We describe here a child who possibly presents with this expression. He had typical signs of both diabetic conditions: type 1 (young age, positive immunologic and genetic markers, ketoacidosis) and type 2 (obesity [body mass index = 36 kg/m2] and acanthosis nigricans). In spite of complying with the established guidelines, therapeutic and nutritional control, quality of life and good metabolic control, the patient's obesity had been continually increasing. Looking for a genetic explanation, we studied three single nucleotide polymorphisms involved in three different metabolic pathways (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2, insulin receptor substrate-1 and uncoupling protein-2) associated with insulin resistance. Our patient showed three mutations, GG, GA, GG, associated with insulin resistance that explains obesity associated with limited response to the commonly used drugs. According to the clinical presentation and the genetic and immunological background, we considered that this patient presents with a new form of diabetes. We have termed this particular disease “hybrid diabetes” because of the involvement of genes associated with both the classical type of diabetes. However, at least in an admixed population such as in Uruguay, clinical classification would not strictly dictate the choice of treatment.

  15. Black hairy tongue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although aesthetic concerns are common. Differential diagnosis includes pseudo-BHT, acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual observation, detailed history taking, and occasionally microscopic evaluation. Treatment involves identification and discontinuation of the offending agent, modifications of chronic predisposing factors, patient’s re-assurance to the benign nature of the condition, and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene with gentle debridement to promote desquamation. Complications of BHT (burning mouth syndrome, halitosis, nausea, gagging, dysgeusia) typically respond to therapy. Prognosis is excellent with treatment of underlying medical conditions. BHT remains an important medical condition which may result in additional burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate prevention, recognition and treatment. PMID:25152586

  16. [Habitat use patterns of the Black Brant Branta bernicla nigricans (Anseriformes: Anatidae) in natural and artificial areas of Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cedillo, Israel Martínez; Carmona, Roberto; Ward, David H; Danemann, Gustavo D

    2013-06-01

    The Black Brant is a common inhabitant of the Western Artic American tundra, which migrates to Southern Pacific coasts during the winter season. Approximately, 31000 birds (31%) constitute the Mexican population of Brants at Guerrero Negro, Ojo de Liebre, and Exportadora de Sal lagoon complex; nevertheless, there is little information about the distribution patterns and zone usage. At Guerrero Negro Lagoon (GNL), Ojo de Liebre Lagoon (OLL, both natural sites), and at Exportadora de Sal (ESSA, artificial site) we determined by monthly censuses (from November 2006 to April 2007, 08:00-16:00h) and observed: (1) season and site effects on population structure (age groups), and (2) the tide level relationship with the abundance and proportion of feeding birds. Within a total of 150 observation hours and 98 birds, our results showed a general 0.68 proportion of adults, that was higher in winter than in spring. The statistics analysis showed no effects by site on the proportion of feeding birds, but we observed a temporal decrease at ESSA and at GNL. In contrast the proportion of feeding birds at OLL was constant. We observed an increase in the juveniles between winter and spring. This increase is related with the differential migration, which mentions that the juveniles are the last to leave the wintering area. In winter the relations of the tide level with the abundance of Brant were: direct at ESSA, inverse at OLL and no relation found at GNL. In spring, no relation was observed in the sites. The proportion of Brants feeding at OLL (the site with the higher abundance) was independent of the tide level. This is related with two possible behaviors of the geese: (1) they can move through the lagoon and take advantage of the tidal lag, which is up to four hours; and (2) they can modify their feeding strategies, more on floating eelgrass (Zostera marina). PMID:23885600

  17. A Case of Beare-Stevenson Syndrome with Unusual Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Ron, Nitin; Leung, Samuel; Carney, Erin; Gerber, Alexis; David, Karen Laurie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Beare-Stevenson syndrome (BSS) is an extremely rare genetic disorder, with fewer than 25 cases reported worldwide. This autosomal dominant syndrome has been linked to two mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2), Tyr375Cys and Ser372Cys, both causing amino acid changes. CASE REPORT BSS is characterized by a range of morphological features, some more classically associated than others, of which craniosynostosis has been almost uniformly present. Other common features include cutis gyrata, acanthosis nigricans, ear and eye defects, skin/mucosal tissue tags, prominent umbilical stump, and anogenital anomalies. This account reports what we believe to be the 25th case of BSS, and exhibits a constellation of the characteristic features similar to those previously described, including the presence of cutis gyrata, proptosis, a bifid scrotum, and hypospadias. However, craniosynostosis was not detected prenatally by ultrasound or at birth. Prenatal ultrasound may detect some dysmorphic features of BSS. Many of these features have also been associated with other genetic disorders with overlapping phenotypes. Our case presented with the unusual features of a natal tooth and absence of craniosynostosis at birth. At birth, a diagnosis of BSS was suspected based on clinical features despite the absence of craniosynostosis. This was later confirmed with the use of molecular analysis, revealing a Tyr375Cys mutation of exon 9 of the FGFR2 gene. CONCLUSIONS We suggest that a normal antenatal ultrasound scan and the absence of craniosynostosis at birth should not preclude further workup for BSS if this possibility is clinically suspected. PMID:27079505

  18. [Metabolic syndrome in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Barkai, László; Paragh, György

    2006-02-12

    Metabolic syndrome has an outstanding impact on public health due to its increasing prevalence and poor prognosis. The development of insulin resistance, as a consequence of obesity, can be demonstrated even in childhood which has a pivotal role in the pathomechanism of the syndrome. Besides obesity, low birth weight, increased gain in body mass in early childhood, decreased pubertal insulin sensitivity and clinical markers of insulin resistance (acanthosis nigricans, polycystic ovarian syndrome, premature adrenarche) confer risk of metabolic syndrome. Currently, there are no consistent and consensus based diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. The most recent definition of the International Diabetes Federation [central obesity plus any two of four factors (raised triglyceride, reduced high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, raised blood pressure and raised fasting plasma glucose)] is not approved for children and epidemiology data are not yet available. Applying the modified version of the most commonly used Adult Treatment Panel III diagnostic system for children and adolescents, the prevalence is given as 4.2% in the literature. As the components of the syndrome, frequency were as follows: 9.8-17.9% for abdominal obesity, 21.0-23.4% for elevated triglyceride, 18.3-23.3% for reduced high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, 4.9-7.1% for elevated blood pressure and 0.8-1.7% for impaired fasting glucose. High frequency of morphological and functional disturbances of the vascular and endothelial systems seen frequently among children with signs of metabolic syndrome suggests early cardiovascular events and underlines the clinical significance of this entity. The most effective tool for prevention of metabolic syndrome is to avoid the development of childhood obesity. In case of established disease, the effective treatment should address the different components of the syndrome. The authors emphasize the need of elaboration of consensus

  19. A Case of Beare-Stevenson Syndrome with Unusual Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Ron, Nitin; Leung, Samuel; Carney, Erin; Gerber, Alexis; David, Karen Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Case series Patient: — Final Diagnosis: Beare-Stevenson syndrome Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Genetic analysis Specialty: Pediatrics and Neonatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Beare-Stevenson syndrome (BSS) is an extremely rare genetic disorder, with fewer than 25 cases reported worldwide. This autosomal dominant syndrome has been linked to two mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2), Tyr375Cys and Ser372Cys, both causing amino acid changes. Case Report: BSS is characterized by a range of morphological features, some more classically associated than others, of which craniosynostosis has been almost uniformly present. Other common features include cutis gyrata, acanthosis nigricans, ear and eye defects, skin/mucosal tissue tags, prominent umbilical stump, and anogenital anomalies. This account reports what we believe to be the 25th case of BSS, and exhibits a constellation of the characteristic features similar to those previously described, including the presence of cutis gyrata, proptosis, a bifid scrotum, and hypospadias. However, craniosynostosis was not detected prenatally by ultrasound or at birth. Prenatal ultrasound may detect some dysmorphic features of BSS. Many of these features have also been associated with other genetic disorders with overlapping phenotypes. Our case presented with the unusual features of a natal tooth and absence of craniosynostosis at birth. At birth, a diagnosis of BSS was suspected based on clinical features despite the absence of craniosynostosis. This was later confirmed with the use of molecular analysis, revealing a Tyr375Cys mutation of exon 9 of the FGFR2 gene. Conclusions: We suggest that a normal antenatal ultrasound scan and the absence of craniosynostosis at birth should not preclude further workup for BSS if this possibility is clinically suspected. PMID:27079505

  20. Anthropometric and metabolic characteristics in children with clinically diagnosed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Mager, Diana R; Ling, Simon; Roberts, Eve A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Childhood obesity is currently approaching epidemic proportions worldwide. Various chronic diseases are associated with obesity, but nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has received little attention from paediatricians. AIM To examine anthropometric and metabolic variables relevant to NAFLD disease mechanism and severity. METHODS A retrospective review of 53 consecutive paediatric patients clinically diagnosed with NAFLD was performed between 1997 and 2004. Variables studied included ethnicity, body mass index, acanthosis nigricans, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine amino-transferase levels, and fasting levels of glucose, insulin and lipids. Insulin resistance was quantified by validated models (the homeostasis model of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] and the quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index [QUICKI]). RESULTS The cohort was comprised of 34 boys and 19 girls; there was a 2:1 male predominance. The mean age of the children was 13.5 years (median 14.2 years; range 5.6 to 18.9 years), and 13 were 11 years of age or younger. Forty-five per cent were Caucasian, 30% Asian and 21% Hispanic. Thirty-eight children (72%) were classified as obese and 11 children (21%) were classified as overweight, with a mean ideal body weight percentage of 150.9±4.2 (range 67% to 226%) and a BMI Z score of 1.9±0.1 (range −1.2 to 3.2). Hyperinsulinemia was present in 35 children (66%). Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR 9.8±2.6, abnormal if greater than 3) was associated with increased plasma triglyceride (P=0.03) and total cholesterol (P=0.04) levels. These parameters were significant irrespective of alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase levels. CONCLUSIONS Hyperlipidemia with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in overweight and obese children with fatty liver may be important signs of liver dysfunction in childhood NAFLD, irrespective of serum aminotransferases. In overweight or obese children with hyperlipidemia or insulin resistance

  1. Correlation between serum adiponectin and clinical characteristics, biochemical parameters in Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ramanand, Sunita J.; Ramanand, Jaiprakash B.; Ghongane, Balasaheb B.; Patwardhan, Milind H.; Patwardhan, Varsha M.; Ghanghas, Ravi; Halasawadekar, Nimish R.; Patil, Praveenkumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder. PCOS women are at a high risk for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MS). Adiponectin is positively related to insulin sensitivity. It has a preventive role in atherogenesis and MS. The present work was conducted to study the correlation between serum adiponectin levels and clinical characteristics and biochemical parameters in PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: A prospective study in 49 newly diagnosed (as per Rotterdam criteria) Indian PCOS women was conducted. PCOS women were clinically examined and investigated for biochemical parameters. Results: The mean serum adiponectin was 12 ± 9.4 μg/mL (range 0.47-45). Hypoadiponectinemia (serum adiponectin <4 μg/mL) was present in 22% patients. Age and adiponectin correlated significantly and inversely (r = −0.42, P = 0.027). Overweight/obese patients had lower mean adiponectin levels than normal weight (11.62 ± 9.5 vs 13.58 ± 9.5, P = 0.56). It was significantly lower in patients with acanthosis nigricans (AN) as compared with those without AN (8.4 ± 5.9 vs 15 ± 11, P = 0.038). Hirsute patients showed lower mean adiponectin levels than nonhirsute (10 ± 7.3 vs 13 ± 10, P = 0.57). A positive, insignificant correlation was observed between serum adiponectin and cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid stimulating hormone, levels. A negative insignificant correlation existed between serum adiponectin and luteinizing hormone (LH), LH: FSH ratio, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment. Conclusion: Hypoadiponectinemia is present in one-fifth of women with PCOS. Adiponectin levels decrease as age advances. Low levels of adiponectin possibly contributes to the development of dermal manifestation (AN) of insulin resistance. PMID:24741521

  2. Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy, Type 4 (CGL4) Associated with Myopathy due to Novel PTRF Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Shastry, Savitha; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Dirik, Eray; Turkmen, Mehmet; Agarwal, Anil K.; Garg, Abhimanyu

    2010-01-01

    Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by near total absence of body fat since birth with predisposition to insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis. Three CGL loci, AGPAT2, BSCL2 and CAV1 have been identified previously. Recently, mutations in polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) were reported in five Japanese patients presenting with myopathy and CGL (CGL4). We report on novel PTRF mutations and detailed phenotype of two male and three female patients with CGL4 belonging to two pedigrees of Mexican origin (CGL7100 and CGL178) and one pedigree of Turkish origin (CGL180). All patients had near total loss of body fat and congenital myopathy manifesting as weakness, percussion-induced muscle mounding and high serum creatine kinase levels. Four of them had hypertriglyceridemia. Three of them had atlantoaxial instability. Two patients belonging to CGL178 pedigree required surgery for pyloric stenosis in the first month of life. None of them had prolonged QT interval on electrocardiography but both siblings belonging to CGL7100 had exercise-induced arrhythmias. Three of them had mild acanthosis nigricans but had normal glucose tolerance. Two of them had hepatic steatosis. All patients had novel null mutations in PTRF gene. In conclusion, mutations in PTRF result in a novel phenotype that includes generalized lipodystrophy with mild metabolic derangements, myopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, atlantoaxial instability and pyloric stenosis. It is unclear how mutations in PTRF, which plays an essential role in formation of caveolae, affect a wide variety of tissues resulting in a variable phenotype. PMID:20684003

  3. Prevalence of Hypovitaminosis D and Its Association with Comorbidities of Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ronald; Novick, Marsha; Lehman, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Our study sought to further delineate the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and its relationship to comorbidities of childhood obesity. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review from 155 obese children aged 5 to 19 years who attended the Penn State Children’s Hospital Pediatric Multidisciplinary Weight Loss Program from November 2009 through November 2010. We determined the incidence of hypovitaminosis D and examined its association with comorbidities including elevated blood pressure, diabetes, acanthosis nigricans, depression, hyper-lipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and abnormal liver function test results, as well as age, sex, and geographic location. Results: Under the latest Institute of Medicine definitions, vitamin D deficiency (< 20 ng/mL) and insufficiency (20–29 ng/mL) was present in 40% and 38% of children, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 27.8% in children aged 5 to 9 years, 35.4% in children aged 10 to 14 years, and 50.9% of children aged 15 years or older. Older age, African-American race, winter/spring season, higher insulin level, total number of comorbidities, and polycystic ovary syndrome (in girls) were significantly associated with vitamin D deficiency. African-American race, winter/spring season, hyperinsulinemia, elevated systolic blood pressure, urban location, and total numbers of comorbidities were significantly associated with hypovitaminosis D (< 30 ng/mL). Conclusions: Hypovitaminosis D is associated with several medical comorbidities in obese children. Given the large percentage of children, even in our youngest age group, who are vitamin D deficient, obese children should be considered for routine vitamin D screening. PMID:25662524

  4. Long-term clinical follow-up and molecular testing for diagnosis of the first Tunisian family with Alström syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chakroun, Amine; Ben Said, Mariem; Ennouri, Amine; Achour, Imen; Mnif, Mouna; Abid, Mohamed; Ghorbel, Abdelmonem; Marshall, Jan D; Naggert, Jürgen K; Masmoudi, Saber

    2016-09-01

    Alström syndrome is a clinically complex disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of sensory functions, resulting in visual and audiological impairment as well as metabolic disturbances. It is caused by recessively inherited mutations in the ALMS1 gene, which codes for a centrosomal/basal body protein. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic and clinical features of two Tunisian affected siblings with Alström syndrome. Detailed clinical examinations were performed including complete ophthalmic examination, serial audiograms and several biochemical and hormonal blood tests. For the molecular study, first genomic DNA was isolated using a standard protocol. Then, linkage analysis with microsatellite markers was performed and DNA array was used to detect known mutations. Subsequently, all ALMS1 exons were simultaneously sequenced for one affected patient with the TaGSCAN targeted sequencing panel. Finally, segregation of the causal variant was performed by Sanger sequencing. Both affected siblings had cone rod dystrophy with impaired visual acuity, sensorineural hearing loss and truncal obesity. One affected individual showed insulin resistance without diabetes mellitus. Other clinical features including cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction, hypothyroidism, hyperlipidemia, acanthosis nigricans, renal and hepatic dysfunction were absent. Genetic analysis showed the presence of a homozygous splice site mutation (c.10388-2A > G) in both affected siblings. Although Alström syndrome is relatively well characterized disease, this syndrome is probably misdiagnosed in Tunisia. Here, we describe the first report of Tunisian patients affected by this syndrome and carrying a homozygous ALMS1 mutation. The diagnosis was suspected after long-term clinical follow-up and confirmed by genetic testing. PMID:27523285

  5. Predictors of Acquired Lipodystrophy in Juvenile-Onset Dermatomyositis and a Gradient of Severity

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, April; Mamyrova, Gulnara; Rother, Kristina I.; Oral, Elif; Cochran, Elaine; Premkumar, Ahalya; Kleiner, David; James-Newton, Laura; Targoff, Ira N.; Pandey, Janardan P.; Carrick, Danielle Mercatante; Sebring, Nancy; O’Hanlon, Terrance P.; Ruiz-Hidalgo, Maria; Turner, Maria; Gordon, Leslie B.; Laborda, Jorge; Bauer, Steven R.; Blackshear, Perry J.; Imundo, Lisa; Miller, Frederick W.; Rider, Lisa G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the clinical features of 28 patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) and 1 patient with adult-onset dermatomyositis (DM), all of whom developed lipodystrophy (LD) that could be categorized into 1 of 3 phenotypes, generalized, partial, or focal, based on the pattern of fat loss distribution. LD onset was often delayed, beginning a median of 4.6 years after diagnosis of DM. Calcinosis, muscle atrophy, joint contractures, and facial rash were DM disease features found to be associated with LD. Panniculitis was associated with focal lipoatrophy while the anti-p155 autoantibody, a newly described myositis-associated autoantibody, was more associated with generalized LD. Specific LD features such as acanthosis nigricans, hirsutism, fat redistribution, and steatosis/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis were frequent in patients with LD, in a gradient of frequency and severity among the 3 sub-phenotypes. Metabolic studies frequently revealed insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia in patients with generalized and partial LD. Regional fat loss from the thighs, with relative sparing of fat loss from the medial thighs, was more frequent in generalized than in partial LD and absent from DM patients without LD. Cytokine polymorphisms, the C3 nephritic factor, insulin receptor antibodies, and lamin mutations did not appear to play a pathogenic role in the development of LD in our patients. LD is an under-recognized sequela of JDM, and certain DM patients with a severe, prolonged clinical course and a high frequency of calcinosis appear to be at greater risk for the development of this complication. High-risk JDM patients should be screened for metabolic abnormalities, which are common in generalized and partial LD and result in much of the LD-associated morbidity. Further study is warranted to investigate the pathogenesis of acquired LD in patients with DM. PMID:18344805

  6. Loss of NPC1 function in a patient with a co-inherited novel insulin receptor mutation does not grossly modify the severity of the associated insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Kirk, J; Porter, K M; Parker, V; Barroso, I; O'Rahilly, S; Hendriksz, C; Semple, R K

    2010-12-01

    In Npc1 null mice, a model for Niemann Pick Disease Type C1, it has been reported that hepatocyte insulin receptor function is significantly impaired, consistent with growing evidence that membrane fluidity and microdomain structure have an important role in insulin signal transduction. However, whether insulin receptor function is also compromised in human Niemann Pick disease Type C1 is unclear. We now report a girl who developed progressive dementia, ataxia and opthalmoplegia from 9 years old, followed by severe acanthosis nigricans, hirsutism and acne at 11 years old. She was diagnosed with Niemann Pick Disease type C1 (OMIM#257220) based on positive filipin staining and reduced cholesterol-esterifying activity in dermal fibroblasts, and homozygosity for the p.Ile1061Thr NPC1 mutation. Further analysis revealed her also to be heterozygous for a novel trinucleotide deletion (c.3659 + 1_3659 + 3delGTG) at the end of exon 20 of INSR, encoding the insulin receptor, leading to deletion of Trp1193 in the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. INSR mRNA and protein levels were normal in dermal fibroblasts, consistent with a primary signal transduction defect in the mutant receptor. Although the proband was significantly more insulin resistant than her father, who carried the INSR mutation but was only heterozygous for the NPC1 variant, their respective degrees of IR were very similar to those previously reported in a father-daughter pair with the closely related p.Trp1193Leu INSR mutation. This suggests that loss of NPC1 function, with attendant changes in membrane cholesterol composition, does not significantly modify the IR phenotype, even in the context of severely impaired INSR function. PMID:20521171

  7. [The polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance].

    PubMed

    Kreze, A; Hrnciar, J; Dobáková, M; Pekarová, E

    1997-10-01

    The insulin resistance syndrome and the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) appear to have some following coincidences: the existence of subclinical acanthosis nigricans in PCOS hyperinsulinemic women, correlation of insulin levels and free testosterone, insulin-like growth factor I binding protein (IGFIBP), and sex-hormone binding globulin. Insulin and IGFI act synergically with luteinizing hormone increasing the activity of cytochrome P450c17 and its enzymatic activity in the adrenals. The decrease in IGFI level and IGFI receptors in the ovarian granulosa cells reduce the steroids aromatisation. The increased expression of IGFI receptors in the theca cells favours the androgens' synthesis. Long-term insulin therapy results in an increase in ovary volume and the blood androgens levels. The deterioration of insulin resistance in PSOC women progresses also by the reduction of type I of skeletal muscle fibres which are sensitive to insulin, and the increase of type II fibres which are resistant to insulin in hyperandrogenemia. Testosterone deteriorates the skeletal as well as hepatic insulin sensitivity by both its facilitating effect on lipolysis and the increase of free fatty acids. Abdominal obesity seen in PCOS and insulin resistance is composed by adipocytes with glucocorticoid receptors, which after cortisol stimulation activate the lipoprotein lipase and fat accumulation. Gynoid obesity with the preferential aromatisation of steroids is not evolved because of the low estrogens and progesterone levels in PCOS. Low progesterone levels (with anticortisol effect) support the development of abdominal obesity. Ultimately, the early peak of insulin secretion (4-8 min) in PCOS is higher. This fact should testify a certain diabetic disposition. (Ref. 37.) PMID:9490171

  8. Polycystic ovary syndrome: Is obesity a sine qua non? A clinical, hormonal, and metabolic assessment in relation to body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Pikee; Prakash, Anupam; Nigam, Aruna; Mishra, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the proportion of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients who have normal body mass index (BMI) and to compare the clinical, hormonal, and metabolic profile between lean and overweight patients of PCOS. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive infertile women with PCOS were studied and divided into lean (BMI between 18.5 and 23) and overweight (BMI ≥ 23). Metabolic and hormonal profile (serum FSH, LH, testosterone, prolactin, TSH on days 2–3 of menstrual cycle; serum progesterone premenstrually; serum insulin—fasting and 2 hours postglucose, glucose tolerance test, and fasting serum lipid profile) was performed along with pelvic sonogropahy; and clinical features, viz. waist hip ratio, hirsutism, acne, acanthosis nigricans, and clitoromegaly were recorded. Results: 42% of the PCOS subjects had normal BMI. Average age, hirsutism (80.9% vs. 89.7%), irregular cycles (92.8% vs. 96.6%), acne (9.5% vs. 15.5%), clitoromegaly (2.3% vs. 3.4%), endometrial thickness >4 mm (9.5% vs. 15.5%), and hormonal profile were similar in the lean and overweight PCOS groups. Family history of diabetes (9.5% vs. 24.1%), abnormal glucose tolerance test (GTT) (4.7% vs. 10.3%), deranged lipid profile (14.2% vs. 31%), and 2-hour postprandial insulin levels were higher in the overweight PCOS (P < 0.05). Insulin resistance was observed in 83.3% of lean PCOS but was still lower than 93.1% seen in overweight PCOS (P < 0.05). Conclusion: 42% of the PCOS had normal BMI, but clinical and hormonal profile was similar to PCOS patients with elevated BMI (overweight/obese). However, insulin resistance is observed in 83.3% of lean PCOS. Family history of diabetes, impaired GTT, deranged lipid profile, and insulin resistance were more prevalent in overweight PCOS. PMID:23226650

  9. Children’s Healthy Living (CHL) Program for remote underserved minority populations in the Pacific region: rationale and design of a community randomized trial to prevent early childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although surveillance data are limited in the US Affiliated Pacific, Alaska, and Hawaii, existing data suggest that the prevalence of childhood obesity is similar to or in excess of other minority groups in the contiguous US. Strategies for addressing the childhood obesity epidemic in the region support the use of community-based, environmentally targeted interventions. The Children’s Healthy Living Program is a partnership formed across institutions in the US Affiliated Pacific, Alaska, and Hawaii to design a community randomized environmental intervention trial and a prevalence survey to address childhood obesity in the region through affecting the food and physical activity environment. Methods/Design The Children’s Healthy Living Program community randomized trial is an environmental intervention trial in four matched-pair communities in American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, and Hawaii and two matched-pair communities in Alaska. A cross-sectional sample of children (goal n = 180) in each of the intervention trial communities is being assessed for outcomes at baseline and at 24 months (18 months post-intervention). In addition to the collection of the participant-based measures of anthropometry, diet, physical activity, sleep and acanthosis nigricans, community assessments are also being conducted in intervention trial communities. The Freely Associated States of Micronesia (Federated States of Micronesia, and Republics of Marshall Islands and Palau) is only conducting elements of the Children’s Healthy Living Program sampling framework and similar measurements to provide prevalence data. In addition, anthropometry information will be collected for two additional communities in each of the 5 intervention jurisdictions to be included in the prevalence survey. The effectiveness of the environmental intervention trial is being assessed based on the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance

  10. The Evaluation of the Impact of Age, Skin Tags, Metabolic Syndrome, Body Mass Index, and Smoking on Homocysteine, Endothelin-1, High-sensitive C-reactive Protein, and on the Heart

    PubMed Central

    El Safoury, Omar Soliman; Ezzat, Marwa; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud F; Shoukry, Nadia; Badawy, Ehssan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Skin tags (STs) are small, pedunculated skin-colored or brown papules that occur around any site where skin folds occur. The literature is short of comprehensive and controlled clinical studies aimed to evaluate the atherogenic risk factors in patients with STs. Aim of Work: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of age, STs, metabolic syndrome (METs), body mass index (BMI), and smoking on homocysteine (Hcy), endothelin-1 (ET-1), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), and on cardiovascular diseases. Materials and Methods: This study included 30 cardiac patients with STs, 30 non-cardiac patients with STs, and 30 healthy controls with neither heart disease nor STs. History of smoking, measurement of height, weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, STs number, color, acanthosis nigricans, estimation of serum level of fasting glucose, triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol, high-dense lipoproteins (HDL), Hcy, ET-1, Hs-CRP, and the presence of the METs were elicited in the three groups. Results: Regarding the Hcy, ET-1, and Hs-CRP, the cardiac-STs group showed the highest levels and the control group showed the least (P < 0.001). The percents of patients with METs were 56.7% in the cardiac-STs, 40% in the non-cardiac-STs, and 0% in the control group (P < 0.001). Mean BMI exceeded the limit of obesity in the cardiac-STs group (30.9 ± 3.9) and the non-cardiac-STs group (32.6 ± 6) and was normal in the control group (24.7 ± 2.8). Hyperpigmented STs were present in 66.7% of the cardiac-STs group. Multivariate regression analysis for the independent effectors on Hcy level were the presence of STs (P < 0.001), METs (P = 0.001), and BMI (P = 0.024). Regarding ET-1, the effectors were the presence of STs and METs (P = 0.032). For Hs-CRP, effectors were the presence of STs (P < 0.001) and smoking (P = 0.040). Multivariate logistic regression of the predictors of cardiac disease showed that the independent predictors of the occurrence of

  11. Early Signs of Atherogenesis in Adolescents in a Havana Family Medicine Catchment Area.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Wendy; Díaz-Perera, Georgia; Espinosa, Tania M

    2015-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Atherosclerosis is the common underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases; the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. It is a major contributor to disability and poorer quality of life and is costly to health systems, individuals, families and society. Early signs of atherogenesis are manifestations of atherosclerosis and known atherogenic risk factors occurring at young ages and detectable by health professionals. Early detection of such signs in children and adolescents enables actions to prevent short- and long-term complications. OBJECTIVE Detect early signs of atherogenesis in adolescents in Family Doctor-and-Nurse Office No. 13 of the Raúl Gómez García Polyclinic in Havana's 10 de Octubre Municipality. METHODS An observational, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted: the universe consisted of 110 adolescents and, once exclusion criteria were applied, the sample was made up of 96 adolescents in the office's geographical catchment area. Variables included sociodemographic data; measurements from physical and anthropometric examinations (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, presence of acanthosis nigricans); maternal history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, smoking during pregnancy; birth weight and duration of exclusive breastfeeding; lifestyle (physical activity, dietary habits by frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables, salt intake, and smoking); and a history of atherogenic risk factors and atherosclerotic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease and chronic kidney disease) in adolescents and their families. The number of early signs of atherogenesis was determined. Descriptive statistics and a chi-square test, with significance threshold set at p = 0.05, were used to examine differences by sex and age. RESULTS A total of 62.5% of participating adolescents were female and the same percent of the total

  12. Insulin resistance in adolescents with Down syndrome: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Cristina T; Amaral, Daniela M; Ribeiro, Márcia G; Beserra, Izabel CR; Guimarães, Marília M

    2005-01-01

    Background The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is higher in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) than in the general population; it may be due to the high prevalence of obesity presented by many of them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the insulin resistance (IR) using the HOMA (Homeostasis Model Assessment) method, in DS adolescents, describing it according to the sex, body mass index (BMI) and pubertal development. Methods 15 adolescents with DS (8 males and 7 females) were studied, aged 10 to 18 years, without history of disease or use of medication that could change the suggested laboratory evaluation. On physical examination, the pubertal signs, acanthosis nigricans (AN), weight and height were evaluated. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin were analysed by the colorimetric method and RIA-kit LINCO, respectively. IR was calculated using the HOMA method. The patients were grouped into obese, overweight and normal, according to their BMI percentiles. The EPIINFO 2004 software was used to calculate the BMI, its percentile and Z score. Results Five patients were adults (Tanner V or presence of menarche), 9 pubertal (Tanner II – IV) and 1 prepubertal (Tanner I). No one had AN. Two were obese, 4 overweight and 9 normal. Considering the total number of patients, HOMA was 1.7 ± 1.0, insulin 9.3 ± 4.8 μU/ml and glucose 74.4 ± 14.8 mg/dl. The HOMA values were 2.0 ± 1.0 in females and 1.5 ± 1.0 in males. Considering the nutritional classification, the values of HOMA and insulin were: HOMA: 3.3 ± 0.6, 2.0 ± 1.1 and 1.3 ± 0.6, and insulin: 18.15 ± 1.6 μU/ml, 10.3 ± 3.5 μU/ml and 6.8 ± 2.8 μU/ml, in the obese, overweight and normal groups respectively. Considering puberty, the values of HOMA and insulin were: HOMA: 2.5 ± 1.3, 1.4 ± 0.6 and 0.8 ± 0.0, and insulin: 13.0 ± 5.8 μU/ml, 7.8 ± 2.9 μU/ml and 4.0 ± 0.0 μU/ml, in the adult, pubertal and prepubertal groups respectively. Conclusion The obese and overweight, female and adult patients showed

  13. Association of obesity and overweight with the prevalence of insulin resistance, pre-diabetes and clinical–biochemical characteristics among infertile Mexican women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Muñoz, Enrique; Ortega-González, Carlos; Martínez-Cruz, Nayeli; Arce-Sánchez, Lidia; Estrada-Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Moran, Carlos; Sánchez-Serrano, Ana Paola; Higareda-Sánchez, Rodolfo; de la Jara-Díaz, Julio Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the association of obesity and overweight with the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR), pre-diabetes and clinical–biochemical characteristics among infertile Mexican women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design Retrospective cross-sectional study. Setting Level-three medical institution, an infertility clinic in Mexico City. Participants We included infertile Mexican women with diagnosis of PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria: group 1 (n=83), normal weight (body mass index (BMI) 18.5–24.9 kg/m2); group 2 (n=217), overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2); and group 3 (n=238), obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2). Primary and secondary outcome measures IR was determined by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) >2.5 and pre-diabetes by fasting glucose between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/L and/or glucose value between 7.8 and 11 mmol/L at 2 hours during an oral glucose tolerance test. We compared clinical–biochemical characteristics among groups. Results Prevalence of IR for groups 1, 2 and 3 was 19.3%, 56.2% and 78.2%; overweight and obesity increase the IR OR (CI 95%) to 5.3 (2.9 to 9.8) and 14.9 (8.0 to 28), respectively. Prevalence of pre-diabetes for groups 1, 2 and 3 was 7.2%, 17.5% and 31.5%; overweight and obesity increase the pre-diabetes OR (CI 95%) to 2.7 (1.1 to 6.7) and 5.9 (2.4 to 14), respectively. Acanthosis nigricans was more frequent in group 3 than group 1. Free Androgen Index (FAI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were lower in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. Progesterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were higher in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) was higher in group 1 than group 3. Conclusions Obese and overweight infertile Mexican women with PCOS, attending to an infertility clinic, have a higher prevalence of IR and pre-diabetes compared with normal-weight women with PCOS. Therapeutic interventions should include those that improved metabolic functioning prior to

  14. Populations of sharpshooters in two citrus groves in east-central Florida as indicated by yellow sticky card traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sharpshooter species were captured on yellow sticky card traps in two citrus groves in east-central Florida: Homalodisca insolita, H. vitripennis and Oncometopia nigricans. H. vitripennis and O. nigricans were relatively common and H. vitripennis relatively abundant over a three year period ...

  15. Indirect effects of a key ecosystem engineer alter survival and growth of foundation coral species.

    PubMed

    White, Jada-Simone S; O'Donnell, James L

    2010-12-01

    Stegastes nigricans, a "farmerfish" that cultivates algal turf and defends territories from grazers and other intruders, can affect coral indirectly due to increased competition with farmed algal turf and/or reduced predation resulting from territorial aggression directed at corallivores. To investigate the indirect effects of this key ecosystem engineer on coral mortality and growth, we transplanted caged and exposed fragments of four coral species to patch reefs in French Polynesia on which we manipulated the presence of S. nigricans and turf, and to reefs naturally devoid of S. nigricans. Reef access was two to four times higher for herbivorous fishes, and two times higher for corallivorous fishes, when S. nigricans was removed, indicating that reef access is reduced for two important guilds of fishes when S. nigricans is present. Stegastes' territoriality indirectly benefited delicate acroporids (Montipora floweri and Acropora striata), yielding a twofold to fivefold reduction in skeletal loss due to lower predation frequencies in the presence of S. nigricans. Three corals, A. striata, M. floweri, and especially Porites australiensis, suffered mortality due to overgrowth significantly more frequently in the presence of farmed turf, but Pocillopora verrucosa did not. Algal abundance predicted the frequency of overgrowth for only A. striata and P. australiensis. M. floweri were more likely to be overgrown when exposed (uncaged) in the presence of S. nigricans, suggesting an interaction modification, in this case that initial predation increased susceptibility to competition with turf. In this community, the presence of S. nigricans may increase algal overgrowth of massive Porites by facilitating its turf competitors and simultaneously reduce predation of branching corals through territorial exclusion of corallivores. These indirect interactions may underlie previously documented community transitions from disturbance-resistant massive coral to recovering

  16. Characterization of membrane protein interactions in plasma membrane derived vesicles with quantitative imaging Förster resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Del Piccolo, Nuala; Hristova, Kalina

    2015-08-18

    single amino acid mutations that cause skeletal and cranial dysplasias, as well as cancer, we also study the effects of these mutations on dimerization. First, we show that the A391E mutation, linked to Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans and to bladder cancer, significantly enhances FGFR3 dimerization in the absence of ligand and thus induces aberrant receptor interactions. Second, we present results about the effect of three cysteine mutations that cause thanatophoric dysplasia, a lethal phenotype. Such cysteine mutations have been hypothesized previously to cause constitutive dimerization, but we find instead that they have a surprisingly modest effect on dimerization. Most of the studied pathogenic mutations also altered FGFR3 dimer structure, suggesting that both increases in dimerization propensities and changes in dimer structure contribute to the pathological phenotypes. The results acquired with the QI-FRET method further our understanding of the interactions between FGFR3 molecules and RTK molecules in general. Since RTK dimerization regulates RTK signaling, our findings advance our knowledge of RTK activity in health and disease. The utility of the QI-FRET method is not restricted to RTKs, and we thus hope that in the future the QI-FRET method will be applied to other classes of membrane proteins, such as channels and G protein-coupled receptors. PMID:26244699

  17. Enzymatic modification of schizophyllan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An enzymatic method was developed for the progressive modification of the polysaccharide schizophyllan. Fungal strains Hypocrea nigricans NRRL 62555, Penicillium crustosum NRRL 62558, and Penicillium simplicissimum NRRL 62550 were previously identified as novel sources of ß-endoglucanase with specif...

  18. Comparative Genomics- Identifying similarities and differences across three leafhopper vectors of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafhoppers are the second most important vectors of agricultural diseases, thus we examined the gene expression across three leafhopper leafhoppers, Homalodisca vitripennis, Graphocephala atropunctata, and Oncometopia nigricans, which are vectors of the plant-infecting bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa...

  19. Verruculogen Produced by soil fungi in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, D S; Shreeve, B J; Roberts, B A; MacDonald, S M

    1981-01-01

    Soil fungi, including Aspergillus fischeri, Penicillium piceum, Penicillium nigricans, and Penicillium raistrickii, produced a tremorgenic toxin previously described as toxin X. Chemical analysis showed that this toxin was predominantly verruculogen. PMID:7316507

  20. Verruculogen Produced by soil fungi in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Patterson, D S; Shreeve, B J; Roberts, B A; MacDonald, S M

    1981-11-01

    Soil fungi, including Aspergillus fischeri, Penicillium piceum, Penicillium nigricans, and Penicillium raistrickii, produced a tremorgenic toxin previously described as toxin X. Chemical analysis showed that this toxin was predominantly verruculogen. PMID:7316507

  1. Bite force and feeding kinematics in the eastern North Pacific Kyphosidae.

    PubMed

    Moran, Clinton Joseph; Ferry, Lara

    2014-04-01

    Some fishes that feed on attached food items possess an intramandibular joint (IMJ), which is thought to increase maximum gape and facilitate contact between the tooth-bearing surface and the substrate. However, the mechanical consequences of using an IMJ to remove attached food items from the substrate are still poorly understood. We examined the most prominent eastern North Pacific kyphosid, the scraper: Girella nigricans and two other kyphosids, Medialuna californiensis and Hermosilla azurea, which occupy similar habitats. Of the three species, G. nigricans had the highest theoretical bite force per unit length. We examined the feeding mechanics of G. nigricans in two different feeding scenarios: a scraping behavior elicited on a block of brine shrimp gelatin and a picking behavior elicited on Ulva sp. We measured cranial elevation, lower jaw rotation, premaxillary protrusion, premaxillary rotation, gape maximum, and intramandibular rotation. Ulva treatments produced significantly greater cranial rotation, when compared to gelatin treatments. Gelatin treatments were associated with greater lower jaw rotation and larger gape. Premaxillary rotation and premaxillary protrusion did not differ between treatments. Intramandibular rotation occurred only when G. nigricans physically contacted the gelatin, suggesting the IMJ is a passive joint with no associated musculature. We also noted that G. nigricans do not appear to use suction to draw food into the mouth. The lack of suction and the presence of the IMJ suggest that the jaws of G. nigricans are specialized for maximizing jaw force when scraping. PMID:24497484

  2. [Effects of peeling agents (resorcinol, crystalline sulfur, salicylic acid) on the epidermis of guinea pig (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Windhager, K; Plewig, G

    1977-08-22

    The mode of action of "classical peeling agents" such as resorcinol, crystalline sulfur, and salicylic acid on the epidermis is almost unknown. There are only a few experimental data available. Therefore the effects of resorcinol, crystalline sulfur, and salicylic acid were studied. A 1% and 3% concentration of these chemicals in vaselinum flavum or Unguentum Cordes was applied to the ears and flanks of adult male guinea pigs up to 14 days. Prior to biopsies at various time intervals, 3H-thymidine was injected intradermally. Specimens were paraffin embedded and routinely processed for autoradiographical analysis. The following parameters were assessed: Labelling index (L.I. in %); number of labelled basal cells per unit length of basement membrane; papillomatosis-index; and acanthosis-factor (projection histoplanimetry). The data were statistically analysed. The peeling agents induced a concentration-dependent increase of the L.I., acanthosis, and papillomatosis. Crystalline sulfur caused the most pronounced effect, followed by resorcinol. In contrast salicylic acid caused only a minute acanthosis factor and a slight increase in labelling. The correlation coefficient r of epidermal thickness to the L.I. for all concentrations and peeling agents used reaches the high figure of 0.978 for the ear. The 1% and 3% salicylic acid has a lower acanthosis factor than vaselinum flavum by itself. Preliminary autoradiographical studies in humans with 1% and 10% salicylic acid confirm these data. Salicylic acid counteracts acanthosis. These experiments show that crystalline sulfur and resorcinol have a potent effect on cell proliferation and acanthosis. They peel via proliferation hyperkeratosis. The mode of peeling by salicylic acid must be different, as cell proliferation and acanthosis are barely enhanced. The clinically known "keratolytic" effect of salicylic acid may be due to a direct action on the intercellular cement substance of the horny cells. PMID:907368

  3. Searching chromosomal landmarks in Indian lentils through EMA-based Giemsa staining method.

    PubMed

    Jha, Timir Baran; Halder, Mihir

    2016-09-01

    Lentil is one of the oldest protein-rich food crop with only one cultivated and six wild species. India is one important cultivator, producer and consumer of lentils and possesses a large number of germplasms. All species of lentil show 2n = 14 chromosomes. The primary objective of the present paper is to search chromosomal landmarks through enzymatic maceration and air drying (EMA)-based Giemsa staining method in five Indian lentil species not reported elsewhere at a time. Additionally, gametic chromosome analysis, tendril formation and seed morphology have been studied to ascertain interspecific relationships in lentils. Chromosome analysis in Lens culinaris, Lens orientalis and Lens odemensis revealed that they contain intercalary sat chromosome and similar karyotypic formula, while Lens nigricans and Lens lamottei showed presence of terminal sat chromosomes not reported earlier. This distinct morphological feature in L. nigricans and L. lamottei may be considered as chromosomal landmark. Meiotic analysis showed n = 7 bivalents in L. culinaris, L. nigricans and L. lamottei. No tendril formation was observed in L. culinaris, L. orientalis and L. odemensis while L. nigricans and L. lamottei developed very prominent tendrils. Based on chromosomal analysis, tendril formation and seed morphology, the five lentil species can be separated into two distinct groups. The outcome of this research may enrich conventional and biotechnological breeding programmes in lentil and may facilitate an easy and alternative method for identification of interspecific hybrids. PMID:26342302

  4. Lens Biodiversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lens genus includes the cultivated L. culinaris, and wild subspecies orientalis - the progenitor, tomentosus, and odemensis, are in the primary genepool, while L. ervoides, L. nigricans and L. lamottei are in the secondary – tertiary gene pool. The Middle East is the primary centre of diversity ...

  5. Leafhopper viral pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four newly discovered viral pathogens in leafhopper vectors of Pierce’s disease of grapes, have been shown to replicate in sharpshooter leafhoppers; the glassy-winged sharpshooter, GWSS, Homalodisca vitripennis, and Oncometopia nigricans (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The viruses were classified as memb...

  6. Expressed sequence tags from the black-winged sharpshooter: Application to biology and vector control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We identified 14 putative full-length transcripts of proteins important for the survival of the black-winged sharpshooter, BWSS, Oncometopia nigricans. The BWSS is considered a highly competent vector of several strains of the xylem-inhabiting bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of a numb...

  7. Three geese resembling Gray-Bellied Brant/Lawrence's Brant from Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckley, P.A.; Mitra, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    Three oddly plumaged brant, intermediate in several respects between 'Atlantic' or 'Pale-bellied Brant' (hrota) and ?Black Brant? (nigricans) were photographed and described on western Long Island, New York during 2002 (two in March, the third in October). Their plumage corresponded to that of the little-studied, and apparently genetically distinctive small population known among goose biologists as 'Gray-bellied Brant,' which breeds only on a few islands in the western Canadian High Arctic, stages in migration in the inner Aleutians, and winters in a small portion of the Greater Puget Sound area. But Gray-bellied Brant also wander, having recently been found in winter as far from Puget Sound as Baja California in the west, and Iceland and the British Isles to the east?these strays presumably having migrated southwest with Pacific-wintering nigricans and southeast with Atlantic-wintering hrota, respectively. Despite their tendency to associate with locally wintering hrota and nigricans, mixed pairs or hybrid young involving these vagrants have never been demonstrated in North America?nor have mixed pairs or hybrid young between hrota and nigricans, despite widespread belief to the contrary. Complicating the picture is that the type specimen of nigricans, a distinctive New Jersey specimen collected in 1846, also differs from 'true' Pacific Coast Black Brant in several respects, in a manner qualitatively similar to the LI birds described herein. The appearance of the type, often referred to informally as 'Lawrence?s Brant,' differs from typical Black Brant to such an extent that Delacour and Zimmer (1952) rejected application of nigricans to Pacific Black Brant, to which the name orientalis would have to be applied instead. Recent examination of museum specimens of breeding- and winter-area Gray-bellies confirms that Lawrence?s Brant closely resembles some of them?as do these three Long Island birds. Whatever the ultimate statuses of Gray-bellied and Lawrence's Brant

  8. Angiokeratoma circumscriptum neviforme: An entity, few and far between

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anupam; Mondal, Ashim Kumar; Saha, Abanti; Chowdhury, Satyendra Nath; Gharami, Ramesh Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Angiokeratomas are a group of vascular ectasias that involve the papillary dermis and may produce papillomatosis, acanthosis and hyperkeratosis of the epidermis. Angiokeratoma circumscriptum is the least common variant among many types. Angiokeratoma circumscriptum neviforme is a still rarer variety of angiokeratoma, which is classically seen at birth. We report here a case of congenital, linear, unilateral, verrucous plaques on the leg of a young girl, diagnosed as angiokeratoma circumscriptum neviforme (ACN). PMID:25396132

  9. Histological dermal changes caused by preparation and application procedures in percutaneous dose toxicity studies in dogs, rabbits and rats.

    PubMed

    Mitsuishi, Mikio; Oshikata, Takafumi; Kumabe, Shino; Kobayashi, Azusa; Katoku, Koshiro; Kanno, Takeshi; Hamamura, Masao; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    We reevaluated histological slides of dorsal skin in control animals from past percutaneous dose toxicity studies using dogs, rabbits and rats to provide background data concerning histological changes related to preparation and application procedures and vehicles or embrocations of every variety. Acanthosis, dermal or perifollicular inflammatory cell infiltration in dogs; hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, dermal inflammatory cell infiltration or hemorrhage in rabbits; and acanthosis, dermal inflammatory cell infiltration, crust or foreign body granuloma in rats were present as procedure-related underlying histological changes in the control animals. Four mechanical acts, (1) rubbing with gauze to remove an administered substance for reapplication, (2) use of a taut bandage to avoid slipping from the application site, (3) peeling a patch off as a preparation procedure for reapplication, and (4) clipping or shaving, were considered to cause injury to the skin. The degree of influence of the various application procedures was found to be as follows: sham, lotion < cream < ointment and tape in dogs; untreated control, sham < lotion < tape and poultice in rabbits; and sham, sodium carboxymethylcellulose < olive oil and lotion < ointment and tape in rats. The degree of ointment influence on rabbits is equivocal. PMID:26023255

  10. Histological dermal changes caused by preparation and application procedures in percutaneous dose toxicity studies in dogs, rabbits and rats

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuishi, Mikio; Oshikata, Takafumi; Kumabe, Shino; Kobayashi, Azusa; Katoku, Koshiro; Kanno, Takeshi; Hamamura, Masao; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    We reevaluated histological slides of dorsal skin in control animals from past percutaneous dose toxicity studies using dogs, rabbits and rats to provide background data concerning histological changes related to preparation and application procedures and vehicles or embrocations of every variety. Acanthosis, dermal or perifollicular inflammatory cell infiltration in dogs; hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, dermal inflammatory cell infiltration or hemorrhage in rabbits; and acanthosis, dermal inflammatory cell infiltration, crust or foreign body granuloma in rats were present as procedure-related underlying histological changes in the control animals. Four mechanical acts, (1) rubbing with gauze to remove an administered substance for reapplication, (2) use of a taut bandage to avoid slipping from the application site, (3) peeling a patch off as a preparation procedure for reapplication, and (4) clipping or shaving, were considered to cause injury to the skin. The degree of influence of the various application procedures was found to be as follows: sham, lotion < cream < ointment and tape in dogs; untreated control, sham < lotion < tape and poultice in rabbits; and sham, sodium carboxymethylcellulose < olive oil and lotion < ointment and tape in rats. The degree of ointment influence on rabbits is equivocal. PMID:26023255

  11. Mixed culture optimization for marigold flower ensilage via experimental design and response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Bolaños, José Luis; Jiménez-Islas, Hugo; Botello-Alvarez, Enrique; Rico-Martínez, Ramiro

    2003-04-01

    Endogenous microorganisms isolated from the marigold flower (Tagetes erecta) were studied to understand the events taking place during its ensilage. Studies of the cellulase enzymatic activity and the ensilage process were undertaken. In both studies, the use of approximate second-order models and multiple lineal regression, within the context of an experimental mixture design using the response surface methodology as optimization strategy, determined that the microorganisms Flavobacterium IIb, Acinetobacter anitratus, and Rhizopus nigricans are the most significant in marigold flower ensilage and exhibit high cellulase activity. A mixed culture comprised of 9.8% Flavobacterium IIb, 41% A. anitratus, and 49.2% R. nigricans used during ensilage resulted in an increased yield of total xanthophylls extracted of 24.94 g/kg of dry weight compared with 12.92 for the uninoculated control ensilage. PMID:12670157

  12. Geographic variation in the damselfish-red alga cultivation mutualism in the Indo-West Pacific

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background On coral reefs, damselfish defend their territories from invading herbivores and maintain algal turfs, from which they harvest filamentous algae. In southern Japan, intensive weeding of indigestible algae by Stegastes nigricans results in overgrowth by one filamentous alga, Polysiphonia sp. 1. Because this alga is highly susceptible to grazing and is competitively inferior to other algae, it survives only within the protective territories of this fish species, suggesting an obligate mutualism between damselfish and their cultivated alga. The wide distribution of damselfish species through the Indo-Central Pacific raises the question of whether this species-specific mutualism is maintained throughout the geographic range of the fish. To address this question, from all 18 damselfish species we conducted comprehensive surveys of algal flora within their territories throughout the Indo-West Pacific, and identified species of Polysiphonia using morphological examination and gene sequencing data. Results Several species of the genus Polysiphonia were observed as a major crop in territories throughout the geographic range of S. nigricans. Polysiphonia sp. 1 occurred only in territories of S. nigricans in central areas of the Indo-Pacific. However, its occurrence was low from the Great Barrier Reef and Mauritius. In contrast, other indigenous Polysiphonia species, which formed a clade with Polysiphonia sp. 1, occurred in the territories of fishes from Egypt, Kenya, and the Maldives. The other Polysiphonia species in the clade only inhabited damselfish territories and were never found elsewhere. Conclusions Cultivation mutualism between the damselfish S. nigricans and algae of Polysiphonia was maintained throughout the Indo-West Pacific, although algal crop species and the mode of cultivation (e.g., presence/absence of selective weeding, the species composition of algal turfs) varied among localities. This finding implies that damselfish utilize indigenous

  13. Occupational asthma in a coal miner.

    PubMed Central

    Gamboa, P. M.; Jáuregui, I.; Urrutia, I.; Antépara, I.; González, G.; Múgica, V.

    1996-01-01

    Occupational asthma in coal miners is hardly recognised. A report is presented of a coal miner whose clinical picture suggested a respiratory allergy which occurred only in the mine where he worked. Serum specific IgE levels, skin tests, and bronchial provocation tests with different commercial extracts showed sensitisation to Rhizopus nigricans. Rhizopus spp were found inside the mine, as demonstrated by cultures on petri plates. PMID:8795682

  14. Hybridization of reef fishes at the Indo-Pacific biogeographic barrier: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie, A. D.; van Herwerden, L.; Choat, J. H.; Hobbs, J.-P. A.

    2007-12-01

    Hybridization is recognized as an important source of genetic variation. In some reef fishes, including the Acanthuridae, hybridization has been detected due to intermediate colouration. This study used a molecular genetic approach to investigate hybridization in two Acanthurid species: Acanthurus leucosternon and Acanthurus nigricans, which have Indian and Pacific Ocean distributions respectively and are sympatric in the eastern Indian Ocean. In this area a putatitve hybrid, Acanthurus cf. leucosternon has been recognized based on intermediate colouration and restriction to the sympatric region of otherwise allopatric putative parental species. This study aimed to test this hypothesis using genetic tools. The three species were sampled from Cocos (Keeling) and Christmas Islands, the biogeographic boundary where many Indian and Pacific Ocean biota meet. Representatives from allopatric populations of both parental species and outgroups were also sampled. Mitochondrial COI and intron 1 of the nuclear ribosomal protein S7 were sequenced from 13 and 30 specimens respectively. Although sample sizes in this study are relatively small and more genetic data, including an extended phylogeographic sampling, is required to further evaluate these findings, the COI results support hybrid origins of Acanthurus cf. leucosternon, but S7 data are inconclusive due to the possibility of incomplete lineage sorting . The fourfold more abundant Acanthurus nigricans is most often the maternal parent. Inter-fertile hybrids apparently backcross with rare Acanthurus leucosternon males, transferring Acanthurus nigricans mitochondria to this species. These results suggest that Acanthurus leucosternon may eventually be lost from these islands, due to their relative rarity and introgressive hybridization.

  15. Dengue virus in Mexican bats

    PubMed Central

    AGUILAR-SETIÉN, Á.; ROMERO-ALMARAZ, M. L.; SÁNCHEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, C.; FIGUEROA, R.; JUÁREZ-PALMA, L. P.; GARCÍA-FLORES, M. M.; VÁZQUEZ-SALINAS, C.; SALAS-ROJAS, M.; HIDALGO-MARTÍNEZ, A. C.; PIERLÉ, S. AGUILAR; GARCÍA-ESTRADA, C.; RAMOS, C.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Individuals belonging to five families, 12 genera, and 19 different species of bats from dengue endemic areas in the Gulf and Pacific coasts of Mexico were examined by ELISA, RT–PCR, and for the presence of dengue virus (DV) NS1 protein. Nine individuals from four species were seropositive by ELISA: three insectivorous, Myotis nigricans (four positives/12 examined), Pteronotus parnellii (3/19), and Natalus stramineus (1/4), and one frugivorous Artibeus jamaicensis (1/35) (12·86% seroprevalence in positive species). DV serotype 2 was detected by RT–PCR in four samples from three species (all from the Gulf coast – rainy season): two frugivorous, A. jamaicensis (2/9), and Carollia brevicauda (1/2), and one insectivorous, M. nigricans (1/11). The latter was simultaneously positive for NS1 protein. DV RT–PCR positive animals were all antibody seronegative. M. nigricans showed positive individuals for all three tests. This is the first evidence suggesting the presence of DV in bats from Mexico. PMID:18325131

  16. Hirudinella ventricosa (Pallas, 1774) Baird, 1853 represents a species complex based on ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Dana M; Curran, Stephen S; Pulis, Eric E; Provaznik, Jennifer M; Franks, James S

    2013-10-01

    Digeneans in the genus Hirudinella de Blainville, 1828 (Hirudinellidae) from three species of pelagic fishes, Acanthocybium solandri (Cuvier), Makaira nigricans Lacépède and Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre), and one benthic fish, Mulloidichthys martinicus (Cuvier), from the Gulf of Mexico are investigated using comparison of ribosomal DNA. Four species are identified based on molecular differences: Hirudinella ventricosa (Pallas, 1774) Baird, 1853 from A. solandri, Hirudinella ahi Yamaguti, 1970 from T. albacares, and two unidentified but distinct species of Hirudinella, herein referred to as Hirudinella sp. A (from both M. nigricans and M. martinicus) and Hirudinella sp. B from M. nigricans. Additionally, H. ahi, based tentatively on morphological identification, is reported from Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus). This represents the first record of a hirudinellid from M. martinicus and the first record of H. ahi from T. thynnus. A phylogeny of some Hemiurata Skrjabin & Guschanskaja, 1954 using partial fragments of the 28S rDNA sequences is consistent with earlier phylogenies and the position of the Hirudinellidae Dollfus, 1932 is well-supported as a derived group most closely related to the Syncoeliidae Looss, 1899. PMID:24048751

  17. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the Royal Belgian Institute of Sciences, Brussels, with descriptions of two new species

    PubMed Central

    Breure, Abraham S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The type status is described of 57 taxa from the superfamily Orthalicoidea in the collection of the Brussels museum. Two new species are described: Stenostylus perturbatus sp. n., and Suniellus adriani sp. n. New lectotypes are designated for Bulimulus (Naesiotus) amastroides Ancey, 1887; Bulimulus blanfordianus Ancey, 1903; Bulimulus montivagus chacoensis Ancey, 1897; Bulimus coloratus Nyst, 1845; Plecochilus dalmasi Dautzenberg, 1900; Placostylus porphyrostomus elata Dautzenberg, 1923; Bulimulus ephippium Ancey, 1904; Bulimus fulminans Nyst, 1843; Bulimus funckii Nyst, 1843; Orphnus thompsoni lutea Cousin, 1887; Bulimus melanocheilus Nyst, 1845; Orphnus thompsoni nigricans Cousin, 1887; Orphnus thompsoni olivacea Cousin, 1887; Bulimulus pollonerae Ancey, 1897; Orphnus thompsoni zebra Cousin, 1887. New combinations are: Bostryx borellii (Ancey, 1897); Bostryx carandaitiensis (Preston, 1907); Protoglyptus mazei (Crosse, 1874); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) sanborni (Haas, 1947). New synonymies are established for the following nominal taxa: Orphnus thompsoni var. lutea Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845); Orphnus thompsoni var. nigricans Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845); Thaumastus nystianus var. nigricans Cousin, 1887 = Drymaeus (Drymaeus) nystianus (Pfeiffer, 1853); Orphnus thompsoni var. olivacea Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845); Orphnus thompsoni var. zebra Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845). PMID:21747669

  18. UNUSUAL PRESENTATION OF GENERALIZED MACULAR AMYLOIDOSIS IN A YOUNG ADULT

    PubMed Central

    Kudur, Mohan H; B, Sathish Pai; H, Sripathi; Prabhu, Smitha

    2008-01-01

    Macular amyloidosis is a common problem seen dermatology out-patient department. Generalized macular amyloidosis presenting with a poikilodermatous appearance is rare. In our case, an 18-year-old male presented with generalized hypopigmented macules with a poikilodermatous appearance of 10-year duration. His developmental milestones were normal with negative family history of similar complaints. Histopathology of hyperpigmented lesions revealed hyperkeratosis and acanthosis of epidermis and hypopigmented lesion showing only hyperkeratosis. Both lesions were showing the deposition of amorphous, hazy material in the tips of papillary dermis with perivascular inflammatory infiltrate. Congo red staining of the amorphous material was positive for amyloid. PMID:19882037

  19. Pseudoepitheliomatous keratotic and micaceous balanitis of Civatte.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudip; Ghoshal, Loknath

    2014-04-01

    Pseudoepitheliomatous, keratotic, and micaceous balanitis is a rare condition characterized by verrucous excrescences with scaling. Most patients are over the age of 50 and frequently have been circumcised for phimosis in adult life. We present here a case of 35-year-old male patient with long standing phimosis presenting with a firm whitish plaque on the glans penis. The crusts were micaceous in nature. Histopathologically, there was pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia with acanthosis and no cellular atypia. The condition was explained to the patient and treatment options discussed. The patient was started on topical 5-fluorouracil cream on a daily basis as he did not express consent for operative intervention. PMID:24860747

  20. Bilateral Systematized Epidermolytic Verrucous Epidermal Nevus: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vivek; Saha, Abanti; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Das, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    Verrucous epidermal nevi are congenital, noninflammatory cutaneous hamartomas composed of keratinocytes. They follow the lines of Blaschko and show hyperkeratosis without cellular atypia. The routine histology shows variable amount of hyperkeratosis, acanthosis and papillomatosis and rarely epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. We saw a 3-year-old boy with bilaterally symmetrical, systematized verrucous plaques along the lines of Blaschko extensively involving the trunk and extremities but sparing the face and palmoplantar skin. Histopathology showed features of epidermal nevi with prominent epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. We report here the case for the rarity of this entity. PMID:26288413

  1. Rare case of recurrent angiokeratoma of Fordyce on penile shaft.

    PubMed

    Pianezza, Michael L; Singh, Dharm; Van der Kwast, Theodore; Jarvi, Keith

    2006-10-01

    Angiokeratomas are benign cutaneous vascular lesions characterized by dilated thin-walled blood vessels lying in the upper part of the dermis, mostly associated with an epidermal reaction such as acanthosis and/or hyperkeratosis. Angiokeratomas of Fordyce are predominantly located on the scrotum and are only rarely found on the penis and then usually on the glans penis. We report a rare case of angiokeratoma of Fordyce located on the shaft of the penis and associated with two recurrences after appropriate surgical excision. PMID:17070385

  2. Altered expression of prohibitin in psoriatic lesions and its cellular implication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon Young; Kim, Younghwa; Hwang, Ha Young; Kim, Tae-Yoon

    2007-08-31

    Psoriasis is characterized by excessive proliferation of keratinocytes accompanying acanthosis and incomplete differentiation. Prohibitin was investigated by examining its function of HaCaT as well as psoriasis. Psoriatic involved skin revealed high level of prohibitin in the basal layer. Prohibitin was analyzed by applying RNAi (PHBi) with HaCaT, which demonstrated increased S-phase. PHBi showed enhanced sensitivity to anthralin-mediated cell death due to enhanced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting a protective role of prohibitin against apoptosis. Collectively, prohibitin plays a role both in cell cycle regulation and in maintaining mitochondrial integrity, implying its association with pathogenesis of psoriasis. PMID:17618601

  3. Acantholytic dermatosis of the vulva.

    PubMed

    Mansura, Adva; Maly, Alexander; Ramot, Yuval; Zlotogorski, Abraham

    2015-05-01

    Acantholytic dermatosis of the vulva is a rare condition, presenting with papular eruption in the genital area without history of Darier disease or Hailey-Hailey disease. We report a case with a papular pruritic eruption in the region of the vulva, coalescing into plaques. Biopsy specimen showed irregular acanthosis with an area of split-like bullous formation in the deeper part of the epidermis, as well as acantholytic cells, marked hypergranulosis and hyperkeratosis, compatible with the rare diagnosis of acantholytic dermatosis of the vulva. We review the clinical and histological characteristics of this uncommon disease. PMID:26295855

  4. Mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae) in wild raccoon dogs, Nyctereutes procyonoides, in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M; Nogami, S; Misumi, H; Maruyama, S; Shiibashi, T; Yamamoto, Y; Sakai, T

    2001-04-01

    Parasitological and histopathological examinations were performed in 25 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) obtained in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, all of which were found to be heavily infected with Sarcoptes scabiei. The mites detected on these raccoon dogs were morphologically indistinguishable from the human species, and no Demodex mites were detected. Histopathological examinations showed prominent hyperkeratosis and acanthosis with eczema, and numerous burrows containing mites were observed in the epidermis. The enzootic dermatitis of wild raccoon dogs in recent years was clearly demonstrated to be caused by S. scabiei in the present study. PMID:11346184

  5. Microspectrophotometric quantitation of nucleic acid and protein in irradiated epidermis.

    PubMed

    Conti, C J; Giménez, I B; Cabrini, R L

    1976-03-01

    Nucleic acid and proteins of newborn rat tail subjected to local X-irradiation were microspectrophotometrically studied. Feulgen, gallocyanine chrom-alum and naphthol yellow S methods were performed for demonstration of DNA, total nucleic acid and proteins respectively. The amount of proteins and total nucleic acid increases concomitantly with reactional acanthosis. However, the proteins and nucleic acid decrease as from day 3 post-irradiation. A tentative interpretation of the results would point to a giantization of the epidermic cells not only caused by aqueous imbition but also by an actual increase of the cellular protoplasm. PMID:1258094

  6. Altered expression of prohibitin in psoriatic lesions and its cellular implication

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soon Young; Kim, Younghwa; Hwang, Ha Young; Kim, Tae-Yoon . E-mail: tykimder@catholic.ac.kr

    2007-08-31

    Psoriasis is characterized by excessive proliferation of keratinocytes accompanying acanthosis and incomplete differentiation. Prohibitin was investigated by examining its function of HaCaT as well as psoriasis. Psoriatic involved skin revealed high level of prohibitin in the basal layer. Prohibitin was analyzed by applying RNAi (PHBi) with HaCaT, which demonstrated increased S-phase. PHBi showed enhanced sensitivity to anthralin-mediated cell death due to enhanced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting a protective role of prohibitin against apoptosis. Collectively, prohibitin plays a role both in cell cycle regulation and in maintaining mitochondrial integrity, implying its association with pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  7. Do biopesticides affect the demographic traits of a parasitoid wasp and its biocontrol services through sublethal effects?

    PubMed

    Biondi, Antonio; Zappalà, Lucia; Stark, John D; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide risk assessments are usually based on short-term acute toxicity tests, while longer-term population dynamic related traits, critical to the success of biological control and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, are often overlooked. This is increasingly important with respect to new biopesticides that frequently cause no short-term acute effects, but that can induce multiple physiological and behavioral sublethal effects, leading to a decrease in population growth and ecosystem services. In this study we assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of six biopesticides [abamectin, azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, borax plus citrus oil (Prev-Am®), emamectin benzoate, and spinosad], used in tomato crops to control the invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), on adults and pupae of the parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Data on female survival and production of female offspring were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinosad caused 100% and 80% mortality in exposed adults (even 10 d after the treatment) and pupae, respectively. Although most of the biopesticides had low levels of acute toxicity, multiple sublethal effects were observed. The biocontrol activity of both females that survived 1-h and 10-d old residues, and females that emerged from topically treated pupae was significantly affected by the application of the neurotoxic insecticides emamectin benzoate and abamectin. Furthermore, very low B. nigricans demographic growth indices were estimated for these two insecticides, indicating potential local extinction of the wasp populations. Among the tested products, Bt proved to be the safest for B. nigricans adults and pupae. Our findings emphasize that acute toxicity assessment alone cannot fully predict the actual impact of pesticides on non-target parasitoids. Thus, sublethal effects related to the species specific life-history variables

  8. Do Biopesticides Affect the Demographic Traits of a Parasitoid Wasp and Its Biocontrol Services through Sublethal Effects?

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Antonio; Zappalà, Lucia; Stark, John D.; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide risk assessments are usually based on short-term acute toxicity tests, while longer-term population dynamic related traits, critical to the success of biological control and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, are often overlooked. This is increasingly important with respect to new biopesticides that frequently cause no short-term acute effects, but that can induce multiple physiological and behavioral sublethal effects, leading to a decrease in population growth and ecosystem services. In this study we assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of six biopesticides [abamectin, azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, borax plus citrus oil (Prev-Am®), emamectin benzoate, and spinosad], used in tomato crops to control the invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), on adults and pupae of the parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Data on female survival and production of female offspring were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinosad caused 100% and 80% mortality in exposed adults (even 10 d after the treatment) and pupae, respectively. Although most of the biopesticides had low levels of acute toxicity, multiple sublethal effects were observed. The biocontrol activity of both females that survived 1-h and 10-d old residues, and females that emerged from topically treated pupae was significantly affected by the application of the neurotoxic insecticides emamectin benzoate and abamectin. Furthermore, very low B. nigricans demographic growth indices were estimated for these two insecticides, indicating potential local extinction of the wasp populations. Among the tested products, Bt proved to be the safest for B. nigricans adults and pupae. Our findings emphasize that acute toxicity assessment alone cannot fully predict the actual impact of pesticides on non-target parasitoids. Thus, sublethal effects related to the species specific life-history variables

  9. New additions to the leafhopper genus Salka Dworakowska (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) from Hainan and Henan Provinces of China.

    PubMed

    Song, Yue-Hua; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The leafhopper genus Salka Dworakowska, 1972 belongs to the Typhlocybinae tribe Erythroneurini with Zygina nigricans Matsumura, 1932 as its type species. The known species of this genus are distributed in the Oriental and Palearctic regions. Recently, it was reviewed by Zhang et al. (2009), Ohara (2012) and Song & Li (2012). Seventy-eight species are known, including 36 species from China. In this present work, two new species from China are described and illustrated. All specimens examined are deposited to the collection of the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, China (GUGC). PMID:27394468

  10. Molecular Taxonomy of the Trichophyton rubrum Complex

    PubMed Central

    Gräser, Y.; Kuijpers, A. F. A.; Presber, W.; de Hoog, G. S.

    2000-01-01

    The validity of taxa around Trichophyton rubrum was evaluated by a combination of phenetic and molecular methods. Morphological and physiological features were compared to results of sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal operon, PCR fingerprinting, and amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. The 15 species and varieties investigated (Trichophyton circonvolutum, Trichophyton fischeri, Trichophyton fluviomuniense, Trichophyton glabrum, Trichophyton gourvilii, Trichophyton kanei, Trichophyton kuryangei, Trichophyton megninii, Trichophyton pedis, Trichophyton raubitschekii, Trichophyton rodhaini, Trichophyton rubrum var. nigricans, Trichophyton soudanense, Trichophyton violaceum var. indicum, and Trichophyton yaoundei) were reclassified or synonymized as T. rubrum or T. violaceum. PMID:10970379

  11. Surgeons and suture zones: Hybridization among four surgeonfish species in the Indo-Pacific with variable evolutionary outcomes.

    PubMed

    DiBattista, Joseph D; Whitney, Jonathan; Craig, Matthew T; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Rocha, Luiz A; Feldheim, Kevin A; Berumen, Michael L; Bowen, Brian W

    2016-08-01

    Closely related species can provide valuable insights into evolutionary processes through comparison of their ecology, geographic distribution and the history recorded in their genomes. In the Indo-Pacific, many reef fishes are divided into sister species that come into secondary contact at biogeographic borders, most prominently where Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean faunas meet. It is unclear whether hybridization in this contact zone represents incomplete speciation, secondary contact, an evolutionary dead-end (for hybrids) or some combination of the above. To address these issues, we conducted comprehensive surveys of two widely-distributed surgeonfish species, Acanthurus leucosternon (N=141) and A. nigricans (N=412), with mtDNA cytochrome b sequences and ten microsatellite loci. These surgeonfishes are found primarily in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, respectively, but overlap at the Christmas and Cocos-Keeling Islands hybrid zone in the eastern Indian Ocean. We also sampled the two other Pacific members of this species complex, A. achilles (N=54) and A. japonicus (N=49), which are known to hybridize with A. nigricans where their ranges overlap. Our results indicate separation between the four species that range from the recent Pleistocene to late Pliocene (235,000-2.25million years ago). The Pacific A. achilles is the most divergent (and possibly ancestral) species with mtDNA dcorr≈0.04, whereas the other two Pacific species (A. japonicus and A. nigricans) are distinguishable only at a population or subspecies level (ΦST=0.6533, P<0.001). Little population structure was observed within species, with evidence of recent population expansion across all four geographic ranges. We detected sharing of mtDNA haplotypes between species and extensive hybridization based on microsatellites, consistent with later generation hybrids but also the effects of allele homoplasy. Despite extensive introgression, 98% of specimens had concordance between mtDNA lineage and

  12. Age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    I studied the frequency with which Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) of known age were observed breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. No one- or two-year old geese were observed on nests. Three-year old geese bred at a lower rate than four-year old geese. These data suggest that patterns of age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese are similar to other sympatrically nesting, large bodied geese [Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons)] but delayed relative to smaller bodied geese [Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima) and Pacific Black Brant (B. bernicla nigricans)].

  13. New geographic records of Hamlets, Hypoplectrus spp. (Serranidae), in the Caribbean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, E.H., Jr.; Bunkley-Williams, L.; Rogers, C.S.; Fenner, R.

    2006-01-01

    The exact number of species of hamlets, Hypoplectrus spp., in the Caribbean is controversial and the geographic distributions of these species/forms are poorly documented. We report Curac??ao, Netherlands Antilles, as a new locality for the Barred Hamlet, H. puella (Cuvier), and Shy Hamlet, H. guttavarius (Poey); and St. John and St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, for the Tan Hamlet, Hypoplectrus sp. The Black Hamlet, H. nigricans (Poey), has previously been reported from Curac??ao, but we did not see it there.

  14. Oesophageal subepithelial fibrosis: an extension of oral submucosal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Misra, S P; Misra, V; Dwivedi, M; Gupta, S C

    1998-12-01

    Fifty-five patients with oral submucosal fibrosis and an equal number of patients with no evidence of the disease were studied. All patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and any abnormality was noted. Multiple oesophageal biopsies were obtained from the upper end of the oesophagus and from any endoscopically observed abnormality. The histological changes in the two groups were assessed blindly by an experienced histopathologist. Histological abnormalities were noted in the oesophageal mucosa in 2% of controls and 66% of patients with oral submucosal fibrosis (p < 0.0001). In the control group, acanthosis was seen in one patient, while in the patient group atrophy of the squamous epithelium was evident in 52%, hyperkeratosis in 52%, parakeratosis in 30%, dyskeratosis in 14%, acanthosis in 14%, and papillomatosis and mild dysplasia in 2% patients. Subepithelial collagenization was seen in 32 (64%) patients. The oesophageal abnormalities were seen more frequently in patients who had consumed Pan masala, Gutka, betel nut, tobacco or a combination of some or all of these, with or without betel leaf, for > or = 5 years compared to those consuming them for a shorter period of time (91% vs 46%, p < 0.001). It is concluded that oral submucosal fibrosis is not a disease confined to the oral cavity; the oesophagus may also be involved in about two-thirds of patients. PMID:10320888

  15. Condylomata lata on the ankle: an unusual location.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Eri; Goto, Akane; Suzaki, Reiko; Sawada, Mizuki; Dekio, Itaru; Ishizaki, Sumiko; Fujibayashi, Mariko; Takahashi, Hayato; Tanaka, Masaru

    2016-04-01

    A 43-year-old Japanese man presented with reddish nodules on the ankle. The nodules had a yellowish crust and eroded surface. Dermoscopy revealed red to milky-red globules at the periphery and some glomerular vessels in the center and a whitish-pink network, which corresponded to capillary dilatation in the papillary dermis and prominent acanthosis, respectively. These structures were surrounded by a yellowish peripheral structureless area and multiple white, small, round structures in the center, corresponding to the macerated horny layer and keratin plugs. Blood samples were positive for rapid plasma reagin (1:64), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (1:20480), and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (1:1280). A lesional skin biopsy specimen showed irregular acanthosis and papillomatosis. The Warthin-Starry and anti-Treponema pallidum antibody stains on the biopsy specimen revealed many spirochetes in the lower epidermis and the papillary dermis. A diagnosis of secondary syphilis with condylomata lata was made. After one week of treatment with oral benzylpenicillin benzathine hydrate (Bicillin(®) G granules 400,000 units; Banyu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan), 1.6 million units (U) daily, the ankle lesions had resolved with a small ulcer and pigmentation. Although syphilis is a relatively common disease, this case study reports an unusual presentation as well as dermoscopy findings. PMID:27222772

  16. Condylomata lata on the ankle: an unusual location

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Eri; Goto, Akane; Suzaki, Reiko; Sawada, Mizuki; Dekio, Itaru; Ishizaki, Sumiko; Fujibayashi, Mariko; Takahashi, Hayato; Tanaka, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    A 43-year-old Japanese man presented with reddish nodules on the ankle. The nodules had a yellowish crust and eroded surface. Dermoscopy revealed red to milky-red globules at the periphery and some glomerular vessels in the center and a whitish-pink network, which corresponded to capillary dilatation in the papillary dermis and prominent acanthosis, respectively. These structures were surrounded by a yellowish peripheral structureless area and multiple white, small, round structures in the center, corresponding to the macerated horny layer and keratin plugs. Blood samples were positive for rapid plasma reagin (1:64), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (1:20480), and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (1:1280). A lesional skin biopsy specimen showed irregular acanthosis and papillomatosis. The Warthin-Starry and anti-Treponema pallidum antibody stains on the biopsy specimen revealed many spirochetes in the lower epidermis and the papillary dermis. A diagnosis of secondary syphilis with condylomata lata was made. After one week of treatment with oral benzylpenicillin benzathine hydrate (Bicillin® G granules 400,000 units; Banyu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan), 1.6 million units (U) daily, the ankle lesions had resolved with a small ulcer and pigmentation. Although syphilis is a relatively common disease, this case study reports an unusual presentation as well as dermoscopy findings. PMID:27222772

  17. Novel sources of β-glucanase for the enzymatic degradation of schizophyllan.

    PubMed

    Sutivisedsak, Nongnuch; Leathers, Timothy D; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Nunnally, Melinda S; Peterson, Stephen W

    2013-03-01

    Schizophyllan is a homoglucan produced by the fungus Schizophyllum commune, with a β-1,3-linked backbone and β-1,6-linked side chains of single glucose units at every other residue. Schizophyllan is commercially produced for pharmaceutical and cosmetics uses. However, surprisingly little information is available on the biodegradation of schizophyllan. Enzymes that attack schizophyllan could be useful for controlled modifications of the polymer for novel applications. Enrichment cultures were used to isolate 20 novel fungal strains from soil samples, capable of growing on schizophyllan as a sole carbon source. Three additional strains were isolated as contaminants of stored schizophyllan solutions. Strains showing the highest levels of β-glucanase activity were identified as Penicillium simplicissimum, Penicillium crustosum, and Hypocrea nigricans. β-glucanases also showed activity against the similar β-glucans, laminarin and curdlan. By comparison, commercial β-glucanase from Trichoderma longibrachiatum and laminarinase from Trichoderma sp. showed lower specific activities toward schizophyllan than most of the novel isolates. β-glucanases from P. simplicissimum and H. nigricans exhibited temperature optima of 60°C and 50°C against schizophyllan, respectively, with broad pH optima around pH 5.0. Partial purifications of β-glucanase from P. simplicissimum and P. crustosum demonstrated the presence of multiple active endoglucanase species, including a 20-25 kD enzyme from P. simplicissimum. PMID:23410934

  18. Farming behaviour of reef fishes increases the prevalence of coral disease associated microbes and black band disease

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Jordan M.; Ainsworth, Tracy D.; Choat, J. Howard; Connolly, Sean R.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial community structure on coral reefs is strongly influenced by coral–algae interactions; however, the extent to which this influence is mediated by fishes is unknown. By excluding fleshy macroalgae, cultivating palatable filamentous algae and engaging in frequent aggression to protect resources, territorial damselfish (f. Pomacentridae), such as Stegastes, mediate macro-benthic dynamics on coral reefs and may significantly influence microbial communities. To elucidate how Stegastes apicalis and Stegastes nigricans may alter benthic microbial assemblages and coral health, we determined the benthic community composition (epilithic algal matrix and prokaryotes) and coral disease prevalence inside and outside of damselfish territories in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. 16S rDNA sequencing revealed distinct bacterial communities associated with turf algae and a two to three times greater relative abundance of phylotypes with high sequence similarity to potential coral pathogens inside Stegastes's territories. These potentially pathogenic phylotypes (totalling 30.04% of the community) were found to have high sequence similarity to those amplified from black band disease (BBD) and disease affected corals worldwide. Disease surveys further revealed a significantly higher occurrence of BBD inside S. nigricans's territories. These findings demonstrate the first link between fish behaviour, reservoirs of potential coral disease pathogens and the prevalence of coral disease. PMID:24966320

  19. Abundance, diversity, and activity of microbial assemblages associated with coral reef fish guts and feces.

    PubMed

    Smriga, Steven; Sandin, Stuart A; Azam, Farooq

    2010-07-01

    Feces and distal gut contents were collected from three coral reef fish species. Bacteria cell abundances, as determined via epifluorescence microscopy, ranged two orders of magnitude among the fishes. Mass-specific and apparent cell-specific hydrolytic enzyme activities in feces from Chlorurus sordidus were very high, suggesting that endogenous fish enzymes were egested into feces. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of 16S rRNA genes were more similar among multiple individuals of the surgeonfish Acanthurus nigricans than among individuals of the parrotfish C. sordidus or the snapper Lutjanus bohar. Analyses of feces-derived 16S rRNA gene clones revealed that at least five bacterial phyla were present in A. nigricans and that Vibrionaceae comprised 10% of the clones. Meanwhile, C. sordidus contained at least five phyla and L. bohar three, but Vibrionaceae comprised 71% and 76% of the clones, respectively. Many sequences clustered phylogenetically to cultured Vibrio spp. and Photobacterium spp. including Vibrio ponticus and Photobacterium damselae. Other Vibrionaceae-like sequences comprised a distinct phylogenetic group that may represent the presence of 'feces-specific' bacteria. The observed differences among fishes may reflect native gut microbiota and/or bacterial assemblages associated with ingested prey. PMID:20455942

  20. Molecular phylogenetics of the Neotropical fish family Prochilodontidae (Teleostei: Characiformes).

    PubMed

    Melo, Bruno F; Sidlauskas, Brian L; Hoekzema, Kendra; Frable, Benjamin W; Vari, Richard P; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    Migratory detritivores of the characiform family Prochilodontidae occur throughout the freshwaters of much of South America. Prochilodontids often form massive populations and many species achieve substantial body sizes; a combination that makes them one of the most commercially important fish groups on the continent. Their economic significance notwithstanding, prochilodontids have never been the subject of a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis. Using three mitochondrial and three nuclear loci spanning all prochilodontid species, we generated a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for the family. Our results strongly support monophyly of the family and the three included genera. A novel, highly supported placement of Ichthyoelephas sister to the clade containing Prochilodus and Semaprochilodus diverges from a previous morphological hypothesis. Most previously hypothesized interspecific relationships are corroborated and some longstanding polytomies within Prochilodus and Semaprochilodus are resolved. The morphologically similar P. brevis, P. lacustris, P. nigricans and P. rubrotaeniatus are embedded within what is herein designated as the P. nigricans group. Species limits and distributions of these species are problematic and the group clearly merits taxonomic revision. PMID:27262428

  1. [Association of the abundance and vertical distribution of tuna and beakfish in the southeast of the Caribbean sea].

    PubMed

    Eslava, Nora; González, Leo W; Gaertner, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    The longline hooks suspension depth was estimated using the Mechanic Imitation of Flexible Systems method. The vertical distribution of tunas and billfish was determined by the relative abundance index, obtained from the catch by 11 to 25 m -long longline vessels, -based at Cumaná, Venezuela, South-eastern Caribbean Sea in depths of 65 to 142 m. The CPUE was evaluated per species, according to depth. High values were found for most of the captured species in the layer from 105 to 125 m. Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) showed the highest yield (3.37 fish/100 hooks) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) the lowest (0.04 fish/100 hooks). However, the statistical comparison did not allow to reject the hypothesis of lack of depth efect (Kruskal-Wallis p > .05), and demonstrated a homogeneous distribution of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), sailfish (Istiophorus albicans), white marlin (Tetrapturus albidus) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) in the water column. The conclusion is that fish concentration in the Southern border of the Caribbean Sea is possibly due to several hydroclimatic factors--which affect tuna and billfish catching--such as water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration which limit the distribution according to depth. PMID:15162696

  2. Intra- and interspecific challenges modulate cortisol but not androgen levels in a year-round territorial damselfish.

    PubMed

    Ros, Albert F H; Vullioud, Philippe; Bruintjes, Rick; Vallat, Armelle; Bshary, Redouan

    2014-05-15

    Interactions between individuals of different species are commonplace in animal communities. Some behaviors displayed during these interspecific social interactions may be very similar to those displayed during intraspecific social interactions. However, whether functional analogies between intra- and interspecific behaviors translate at the proximate level into an overlap in their underlying endocrine mechanisms remains largely unknown. Because steroids both mediate social behaviors and respond to them, we approached this question by comparing the behavioral and steroid response of free-living dusky gregories (Stegastes nigricans) to standardized territorial intrusions (sTI) of either conspecific or heterospecific food competitors. Stegastes nigricans is a year-round territorial fish that 'cultivates' the algae on which it feeds and is highly aggressive to both intra- and interspecific intruders. Behavioral differences between intra- and interspecific aggressive responses to sTI were marginal, and sTI tests caused an increase in cortisol levels that was positively related with the levels of aggression. In contrast, androgen levels did not increase in response to sTI, yet they showed a positive relationship with agonistic behavior. These results parallel a pattern that was first described for year-round territorial bird species. Furthermore, they suggest that changes in endocrine-hormone levels during territoriality might be independent of the species that induces the territorial response. PMID:24577440

  3. Farming behaviour of reef fishes increases the prevalence of coral disease associated microbes and black band disease.

    PubMed

    Casey, Jordan M; Ainsworth, Tracy D; Choat, J Howard; Connolly, Sean R

    2014-08-01

    Microbial community structure on coral reefs is strongly influenced by coral-algae interactions; however, the extent to which this influence is mediated by fishes is unknown. By excluding fleshy macroalgae, cultivating palatable filamentous algae and engaging in frequent aggression to protect resources, territorial damselfish (f. Pomacentridae), such as Stegastes, mediate macro-benthic dynamics on coral reefs and may significantly influence microbial communities. To elucidate how Stegastes apicalis and Stegastes nigricans may alter benthic microbial assemblages and coral health, we determined the benthic community composition (epilithic algal matrix and prokaryotes) and coral disease prevalence inside and outside of damselfish territories in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. 16S rDNA sequencing revealed distinct bacterial communities associated with turf algae and a two to three times greater relative abundance of phylotypes with high sequence similarity to potential coral pathogens inside Stegastes's territories. These potentially pathogenic phylotypes (totalling 30.04% of the community) were found to have high sequence similarity to those amplified from black band disease (BBD) and disease affected corals worldwide. Disease surveys further revealed a significantly higher occurrence of BBD inside S. nigricans's territories. These findings demonstrate the first link between fish behaviour, reservoirs of potential coral disease pathogens and the prevalence of coral disease. PMID:24966320

  4. Pellagra in a patient with primary Sjögren’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ben Ghorbel, Imed; Litaiem, Noureddine; Chelly, Ines; Houman, Habib

    2014-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman presented with persistent dryness of the mouth and eyes. She presented with permanent photodistributed rash involving the face and distal extremities. Laboratory tests showed positive Sjögren's syndrome (SS)-A and SS-B antibodies. Histological examination of minor salivary gland biopsy revealed inflammatory infiltration grade 4 according to Chisholm's classification. Skin biopsy showed acanthosis, hyperkeratosis in the epidermis and little inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis. There was an infiltration of CD4 T lymphocytes in the dermis. Based on the characteristics of the dermatitis and on a rapid response to niacin replacement, the diagnosis of pellagra was carried out. A complete resolution of the dermatological signs was obtained within 2 months. To the best of our knowledge, the association between primary SS and pellagra has never been reported. We emphasise the possible mechanisms of this association. PMID:24943141

  5. Possible Antipruritic Mechanism of Cyclosporine A in Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kyi Chan; Tominaga, Mitsutoshi; Kamata, Yayoi; Umehara, Yoshie; Matsuda, Hironori; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Kina, Katsunari; Ogawa, Mayuko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Takamori, Kenji

    2016-06-15

    Cyclosporine A is an immunosuppressive agent that suppresses pruritus and is currently used in the treatment of patients with severe atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to elucidate the antipruritic mechanism of cyclosporine A using a mouse model of atopic dermatitis. Intraperitoneal injection of cyclosporine A (5 mg/kg) significantly reduced epidermal nerve density, number of scratching bouts, dermatitis scores, and transepidermal water loss, as well as decreasing the numbers of inflammatory cells in the dermis and decreasing epidermal thickness. Intraperitoneal injection of cyclosporine A dose-dependently inhibited increased itch-related receptor gene expression, such as interleukin-31 receptor A and neurokinin-1 receptor, in the dorsal root ganglion of atopic dermatitis model mice. Thus, the antipruritic efficacy of cyclosporine A may involve reduced epidermal nerve density and expression levels of itch-related receptor genes in the dorsal root ganglion, as well as improvement in acanthosis and reduction in cutaneous inflammatory cell number. PMID:26671728

  6. Trichodinosis associated with pathology of the reproductive tract in waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Carnaccini, S; Lowenstine, L J; Sentíes-Cué, C G; Nyaoke, A; Bland, M; Bickford, A A; Shivaprasad, H L; Stoute, S T

    2016-08-01

    Trichodinid ciliophorans are opportunistic parasites of many species of fish, amphibians, and molluscs, but yet never reported in association with lesions in birds. Postmortem and histopathological evaluation of a commercial adult Toulouse gander and female goose, and a wild Mallard drake revealed the presence of severe pathological parasitic colonization of their reproductive tracts. Histopathological findings included moderate to severe granulocytic inflammation, acanthosis, accentuation of the rete pegs, and proliferative hyperplastic squamous metaplasia of the mucosa of the ejaculatory ducts and groove, sulcus spermaticus, glandular part of the phallus (cavum penis), and oviduct in association with large numbers of ciliated protozoa anchored to the tissues or free in the lumen. These protozoa had characteristic morphological features analogous to the family of Trichodinidae. The source of this parasitism could not be determined. To our knowledge, this is the first report of trichodinosis associated with pathology in birds. PMID:26926786

  7. ASSOCIATION AMONG HISTOLOGICAL FINDINGS SUGGESTIVE OF PAPILLOMA VIRUS ON HEMORRHOIDECTOMY SPECIMENS

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Soraya Souto; NAKAJIMA, Gerson Suguiyama; GUIMARÃES, Ricardo Alexandre; MOURÃO, Flávia da Costa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many researchers studied human Papillomavirus infection in the anal area supposing it represents a risk factor for precursor lesions of anal cancer. Aim: To study the association between histological findings suggestive of injury by the virus in hemorrhoidectomy specimens. Method: Prevalence study was carried out based on histopathological analysis of hemorrhoidectomy specimens to find viral cytopathic effects. These findings were compared with anal condyloma acuminata that had no relationship with hemorrhoidectomy for microscopic comparison. Results: Of the 91 hemorroidectomies analyzed, eight had findings suggestive of viral cytopathic effects, with the presence of irregular acanthosis in 63%, koilocytes in 50% and other indirect viral cytopathic effects, such as hyperkeratosis (38%), parakeratosis (25% ) and papillomatosis (13%). Conclusion: This study was unable to conclude that there is an association between these two pathologic entities. PMID:26734795

  8. Clinical effects of topical pimecrolimus in a patient with Fox-Fordyce disease.

    PubMed

    Milcic, Danijela; Nikolic, Milos

    2012-05-01

    Fox-Fordyce disease (FFD) is characterized by a pruritic eruption of skin-coloured or yellowish papules in areas rich in apocrine glands. The histology comprises dilatation of follicular infundibula with hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and spongiosis of the infundibular epithelium with perifollicular infiltration of lymphocytes and foamy histiocytes. We treated a 12-year-old girl with FFD with topical pimecrolimus for 12 weeks, this resulted in a complete clearance of lesions. After the therapy, the patient was followed for an additional 19 months without signs of relapse. The effects of pimecrolimus in FFD might imply that an inflammatory process inducing secondary reactive hyperkeratosis could be involved in the pathogenesis of FFD. PMID:22571582

  9. Palmar and plantar lichen planus: a case report and review of the literature*

    PubMed Central

    Velez, Ana Maria Abreu; Howard, Michael S; Pereyo, Neville

    2015-01-01

    Palmoplantar lichen planus is an uncommon dermatosis. We present a case of 38-year-old Caucasian male with a history of pruritic, scaly lesions on the right plantar foot. Physical examination revealed whitish plaques and numerous spiny hyperkeratotic papules and focal scaling. A biopsy demonstrated orthohyperkeratosis and acanthosis of the epidermis. Immunohistochemical staining revealed positivity within the epidermis and/or lichenoid infiltrate with CD3, CD8, CD45, CD68, myeloid histiod antigen, BCL2, p27, p53, HLA-DPDQDR, metallothionein and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1. The diagnosis of PPLP was thus confirmed; this case illustrates that PPLP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of uncommon foot dermatoses with a significant junctional inflammatory component. PMID:26312708

  10. Becker nevus syndrome presented with ipsilateral breast hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Pektas, Suzan Demir; Akoglu, Gulsen; Metin, Ahmet; Adiyaman, Nuran Sungu; Demirseren, Mustafa Erol

    2014-11-01

    Becker nevus syndrome (BNS) is a rare epidermal nevus syndrome characterized with Becker nevus and ipsilateral breast gland hypoplasia or other skin, skeletal and/or muscle tissue disorders. A 24-year-old woman presented with brown, irregular bordered patch with a diameter of approximately 10 cm which consisted of several small macules on the left breast skin. The ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed left breast hypoplasia. Histopathological examination demonstrated minimal acanthosis, papillomatosis, increase in basal layer melanin and hypertrophy of the erector pili muscle. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for androgen in the epidermis, dermal stromal cells and skin appendages. Depending on the clinical and histopathological findings, the patient was diagnosed as BNS. Diagnosis of BNS needs careful examination of pigmented macules and patches since non-hairy BN may be easily overlooked. Patients with BN should be evaluated for associated abnormalities of BNS, in which the severity and extend of ectodermal involvement may differ from patient to other. PMID:25484431

  11. A rare case of synchronous saree cancer.

    PubMed

    Naveen, N; Kumar, M Kamal; Babu, Ramesh K; Dhanraj, Prema

    2014-07-01

    Skin cancers are rather uncommon malignancies comprising less than 1% of all the cancers in India. Saree cancer is a rare type of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Saree and dhoti are traditional male and female costumes respectively, which is unique to the Indian subcontinent. Constant wear of this clothing tightly around the waist results in changes in pigmentation and scaling of the skin, acanthosis, scar and ulceration and subsequent, gradual malignant changes. The process of repeated trauma over a long time and consequent interference with the healing process may rationalise the reason for malignant transformation. Few papers have been published on saree cancer, in main stream medical journals. We are presenting a rare case of saree cancer in a 68-year-old woman, with two distant bilateral ulceroproliferative growths in loin (Synchronous), along the waistline, which showed well-differentiated SCC on biopsy. Wide excision with rhomboid transposition flap was done bilaterally. PMID:25538441

  12. Dhoti cancer: a waistline skin cancer with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Murtaza A; Saxena, Divish K; Chikhlikar, Akanksha A; Bangde, Akshay P; Rangwala, Murtuza

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancers account for less than 1 % of all malignancies in India. Squamous cell carcinomas occurring over the waistline due to tying of cotton cloth called dhoti in males and sarees in females are predominantly seen in traditional Indian population. On wearing of these clothes for years, there is a constant irritation which produces depigmentation, glazing of the skin, acanthosis, scar formation, and later on malignant transformation. Presenting a case of a 65-year-old male with 7 × 5 cm ulceroproliferative growth over the right waistline with a history of prolonged use of dhoti. Wide local excision of the growth with 2-cm margin and primary closure of wound by mobilizing the skin was carried out. Histopathology showed well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The patient is clinically disease free after postoperative follow-up of 1 year. PMID:26391587

  13. Transgenic rats overexpressing the human MrgX3 gene show cataracts and an abnormal skin phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Kaisho, Yoshihiko . E-mail: Kaisho_Yoshihiko@takeda.co.jp; Watanabe, Takuya; Nakata, Mitsugu; Yano, Takashi; Yasuhara, Yoshitaka; Shimakawa, Kozo; Mori, Ikuo; Sakura, Yasufumi; Terao, Yasuko; Matsui, Hideki; Taketomi, Shigehisa

    2005-05-13

    The human MrgX3 gene, belonging to the mrgs/SNSRs (mass related genes/sensory neuron specific receptors) family, was overexpressed in transgenic rats using the actin promoter. Two animal lines showed cataracts with liquification/degeneration and swelling of the lens fiber cells. The transient epidermal desquamation was observed in line with higher gene expression. Histopathology of the transgenic rats showed acanthosis and focal parakeratosis. In the epidermis, there was an increase in cellular keratin 14, keratin 10, and loricrin, as well as PGP 9.5 in innervating nerve fibers. These phenotypes accompanied an increase in the number of proliferating cells. These results suggest that overexpression of the human MrgX3 gene causes a disturbance of the normal cell-differentiation process.

  14. Some observations on sheep sarcoptic mange in Tehran province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahbari, S; Nabian, S; Bahonar, A R

    2009-03-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei infestation was diagnosed in 278 sheep from 12 fatling flocks. The sheep presented crusted skin lesions initially appear on the lips or nostrils, the lesion on nostrils also extend towards around the eyes, the supraorbital fossae and in some cases over entire face. The infested male lambs by mating behavior in fatling flocks caused transmitting the infection to fat tail area and scrotum. Histopathological study of lesions demonstrated marked acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis. Tunnels could be observed in the hyperkeratotic stratum corneum and mite segments were located mainly in the stratum corneum and also in the stratum granulosum. Attempts to eliminate S. scabiei var. ovis were made in 3 naturally infested sheep herds, by two dippings with two weeks interval with Amitraz, Cypermetrin and Prompetamphos. The results of this study indicate that acaricidal treatment of S. scabiei var. ovis in 3 naturally infested herds was successful, but a few cases of reinfestation were found in each treated group. PMID:18626781

  15. Histopathological study of the mite biting (Dermanyssus gallinae) in poultry skin

    PubMed Central

    Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Tavassoli, Mousa; Alimehr, Manochehr; Shokrpoor, Sara; Ghorbanzadeghan, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The red mite of poultry, Dremanyssus gallinae, is the most important hematophagous ectoparasite of poultry. In this study, pathologic changes of its biting on the poultry skin have been investigated. Thirty-two (Control = 16 and Treatment = 16) four weeks old Ross broilers (308) were infested with the mite on skin of hock joins. Samples were collected after 1, 24, 72 hours and 10 days. The skin samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and histological sections were prepared using routine Hematoxylin & Eosin staining method. Results showed that in all cases, except within first hour of infestation, lymphocytic infiltration was always a constant pathologic feature. Necrosis of feather's follicles was a prominent pathologic feature ensued due to vascular disturbances and resulted in loss of feather. Hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis and acanthosis were observed after 72 hours. These findings reveal that mite biting induces local epidermal hyperplasia. PMID:25610570

  16. Keratinization Disorders and Genetic Aspects in Palmar and Plantar Keratodermas.

    PubMed

    Stypczyńska, Ewa; Placek, Waldemar; Zegarska, Barbara; Czajkowski, Rafał

    2016-06-01

    Palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) is a heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders characterized by abnormal thickening of the palms and soles. There are three clinical patterns: diffuse, focal, and punctuate. Palmoplantar keratodermas can be divided into the following functional subgroups: disturbed gene functions in structural proteins (keratins), cornified envelope (loricrin, transglutaminase), cohesion (plakophilin, desmoplakin, desmoglein 1), cell-to-cell communication (connexins) and transmembrane signal transduction (cathepsin C). Unna-Thost disease is the most common variety of hereditary PPK. Mutations in keratin 1 have been reported in Unna-Thost disease. We report 12 cases in which Unna-Thost disease was diagnosed. Genealogical study demonstrated that the genodermatosis was a familial disease inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder. Dermatological examination revealed yellowish hyperkeratosis on the palms and soles. Oral mucosa, teeth, and nails remained unchanged. Histopathological examination of the biopsy sample taken from the soles of the patients showed orthokeratotic keratosis, hypergranulosis, and acanthosis without epidermolysis. PMID:27477171

  17. Dermatopathy in juvenile Angus cattle due to vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Thomas J; Rood, Kerry A; Kelly, E Jane; Hall, Jeffery O

    2012-07-01

    In juvenile cattle, vitamin A deficiency is reported most commonly as a neurological condition; only rarely are there dermatologic manifestations. In the current study, alopecia, severe epidermal and follicular orthokeratosis, and acanthosis due to hypovitaminosis A are reported in 2 of 32 Angus calves, with a third animal suspected. Affected animals responded to vitamin A supplementation, and no additional calves displayed signs. Vitamin A acts on skin by regulating DNA transcription in keratinocytes, reducing the number of tonofilaments and desmosomes, both involved in cell-to-cell adhesion. Hence, adequate levels of dietary vitamin A are necessary for normal keratinocyte turnover, and deficiencies result in retention of keratinized cells (orthokeratosis). The present report reminds diagnosticians to consider vitamin A deficiency in cases of orthokeratotic dermatopathy in cattle. PMID:22585959

  18. Pathological changes in cattle naturally infected by Calicophoron daubneyi adult flukes.

    PubMed

    Fuertes, Miguel; Pérez, Valentín; Benavides, Julio; González-Lanza, M Camino; Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; Giráldez, Francisco Javier; Fernández, Miguel; Manga-González, M Yolanda; Ferreras, M Carmen

    2015-04-30

    Local host response and parasite distribution were studied in the forestomachs, abomasum, duodenum and regional lymph nodes of cattle suffering from bovine paramphistomosis. The parasites were found attached, by its ventral sucker, to small conical papillae of the rumen and reticulum. Affected papillae, showed morphological changes denoted by very narrow stalks and expanded heads. Histologically, these changes were characterized by epithelial acanthosis-hyperkeratosis of the epithelium. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was often related with the epithelial changes, although it was also found in the duodenal mucosa and submucosa. These cells were arranged as aggregates or follicles but sparse infiltration of eosinophils, globule leukocytes, mast cells or macrophages was also observed in the lamina propria. Tissue damage and inflammatory reaction were more severe in the ruminal atrium, where the largest number of flukes and affected papillae were observed. In contrast, lesions in the ruminal dorsal sac were absent or mild. Statistical correlation between lesion severity and parasite burden was confirmed. PMID:25801360

  19. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of canine distemper virus-induced footpad hyperkeratosis (hard Pad disease) in dogs with natural canine distemper.

    PubMed

    Koutinas, A F; Baumgärtner, W; Tontis, D; Polizopoulou, Z; Saridomichelakis, M N; Lekkas, S

    2004-01-01

    Hard pad disease represents an uncommon manifestation of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection with a still uncertain pathogenesis. To study the pathogenesis of this uncommon, virally induced cutaneous lesion, the footpads of 19 dogs with naturally occurring distemper were investigated for histologic changes and distribution pattern of CDV antigen. All dogs displayed clinical signs of distemper, which had lasted from 10 to 75 days. Overt digital hyperkeratosis was observed in 12 animals (group A), whereas the footpads of the remaining seven dogs appeared normal macroscopically (group B). Orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis (12/12; 100%), irregular acanthosis (11/12; 92%), thickened rete ridges (10/12; 83%), and mild mononuclear perivascular (10/ 12; 83%) and periadnexal (7/12; 58%) dermatitis were the most common findings in dogs with hard pad disease. Surprisingly, orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis (5/7; 71%), irregular acanthosis (5/7; 71%), and thickened rete ridges (4/7; 57%) were also seen in the dogs without clinical evidence of digital hyperkeratosis. CDV-specific inclusion bodies and ballooning degeneration were not observed in the footpad epidermis of the 19 dogs. Immunohis-tochemistry revealed that CDV antigen was most frequently found in the stratum spinosum and granulosum and in the epithelial cells of the eccrine sweat glands and only rarely in the basal layer. Fibroblasts, pericytes, endothelial cells, and hair follicles were also positive in some animals. Despite the obvious difference regarding the macroscopic picture, the microscopic changes were less prominent between the animal groups. The selective infection of keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum might be the key event for the development of hard pad disease in the dog. PMID:14715962

  20. Clinicopathological features of mycosis fungoides in patients exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min Soo; Jang, Jun Gyu; Han, Sang Hwa; Park, Jong Bin; Kang, Dong Young; Kim, Sang Tae; Suh, Kee Suck

    2013-08-01

    There are no reports on the clinicopathological features of mycosis fungoides (MF) among veterans exposed to Agent Orange, one of the herbicides used during the Vietnam War. To evaluate the clinical, histopathological and genotypic findings of Vietnam War veterans with MF and a positive history of exposure to Agent Orange, we performed a comparative clinicopathological study between MF patients with a history of Agent Orange exposure and those without a history of Agent Orange exposure. Twelve Vietnam War veterans with MF were identified. The mean interval from Agent Orange exposure to diagnosis was 24.5 years (range, 9-35). Skin lesions were significantly present on exposed and unexposed areas. Most patients (75%) experienced pruritus (mean visual analog scale score of 6.7). MF was manifested by plaques in 10 patients and by lichenification in five. Histopathological features of most cases were consistent with MF. Biopsy specimens also demonstrated irregular acanthosis (66.7%). In the comparative study, MF patients with a history of Agent Orange exposure differed significantly from those without exposure to Agent Orange in demographic and clinical characteristics. In addition, patients with exposure had an increased tendency for lesions in the exposed area. Notably, our patients showed a higher frequency (33.3%) of mycosis fungoides palmaris et plantaris than in previous studies. Histologically, irregular acanthosis was more frequently observed than ordinary MF. Our results indicate that dermatologists should pay close attention to these clinicopathological differences. Careful assessment of history of exposure to defoliants is warranted in some cases suspicious for MF. PMID:23724870

  1. Spontaneous Atopic Dermatitis-Like Symptoms in a/a ma ft/ma ft/J Flaky Tail Mice Appear Early after Birth

    PubMed Central

    Kypriotou, Magdalini; Boéchat, Cloé; Huber, Marcel; Hohl, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in human profilaggrin gene have been identified as the cause of ichthyosis vulgaris (IV), and as a major predisposition factor for atopic dermatitis (AD). Similarly, flaky tail (a/a ma ft/ma ft/J) mice were described as a model for IV, and shown to be predisposed to eczema. The aim of this study was to correlate the flaky tail mouse phenotype with human IV and AD, in order to dissect early molecular events leading to atopic dermatitis in mice and men, suffering from filaggrin deficiency. Thus, 5-days old flaky tail pups were analyzed histologically, expression of cytokines was measured in skin and signaling pathways were investigated by protein analysis. Human biopsies of IV and AD patients were analyzed histologically and by real time PCR assays. Our data show acanthosis and hyperproliferation in flaky tail epidermis, associated with increased IL1β and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) expression, and Th2-polarization. Consequently, NFκB and Stat pathways were activated, and IL6 mRNA levels were increased. Further, quantitative analysis of late epidermal differentiation markers revealed increased Small proline-rich protein 2A (Sprr2a) synthesis. Th2-polarization and Sprr2a increase may result from high TSLP expression, as shown after analysis of 5-days old K14-TSLP tg mouse skin biopsies. Our findings in the flaky tail mouse correlate with data obtained from patient biopsies of AD, but not IV. We propose that proinflammatory cytokines are responsible for acanthosis in flaky tail epidermis, and together with the Th2-derived cytokines lead to morphological changes. Accordingly, the a/a ma ft/ma ft/J mouse model can be used as an appropriate model to study early AD onset associated with profilaggrin deficiency. PMID:23844115

  2. Host specificity of Lepeophtheirus crassus (Wilson and Bere) (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on the marlin sucker Remora osteochir (Cuvier) in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ju-shey; Collete, Bruce B; Madinabeitia, Ione

    2006-10-01

    Three species of remoras--Remora brachyptera (Lowe), Remora osteochir (Cuvier), and Remora remora (Linnaeus)--were collected from 4 species of billfishes--Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw), Makaira nigricans Lacepéde, Tetrapturus albidus Poey, and Tetrapturus pfluegeri Robins and de Sylva--on board a Japanese long-liner Shoyo Maru during her cruise in 2002 across the Atlantic. However, only the marlin sucker (R. osteochir) was found to carry a parasitic copepod, Lepeophtheirus crassus (Wilson and Bere, 1936). Although 12 species of parasitic copepods have been reported from billfishes around the world ocean, none of them is L. crassus. Thus, L. crassus is considered a parasite specific to the marlin sucker. PMID:17152964

  3. Enzymatic modification of schizophyllan.

    PubMed

    Leathers, Timothy D; Sutivisedsak, Nongnuch; Nunnally, Melinda S; Price, Neil P J; Stanley, April M

    2015-03-01

    An enzymatic method was developed for the progressive modification of the polysaccharide schizophyllan. Fungal strains Hypocrea nigricans NRRL 62555, Penicillium crustosum NRRL 62558, and Penicillium simplicissimum NRRL 62550 were previously identified as novel sources of β-endoglucanase with specificity towards schizophyllan. Concentrated enzyme preparations from these strains showed specific activities of 1.7-4.3 U β-glucanase/mg protein. Using dilutions of these enzymes in time course digestions, schizophyllan was progressively modified to reduced molecular weight species. Glucose and oligosaccharides were found only in the more complete digestions, and thus modified schizophyllan can be produced quantitatively, without loss, to small molecules. Permethylation analysis confirmed that modified schizophyllan retains the fundamental linkage structure of native schizophyllan. Modified schizophyllan species showed progressively reduced viscosity profiles, and all exhibited pseudoplasticity in response to shear thinning. PMID:25335747

  4. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE LARGE SUBUNIT RUBISCO GENE SUPPORTS THE EXCLUSION OF AVRAINVILLEA AND CLADOCEPHALUS FROM THE UDOTEACEAE (BRYOPSIDALES, CHLOROPHYTA)(1).

    PubMed

    Curtis, Nicholas E; Dawes, Clinton J; Pierce, Sidney K

    2008-06-01

    The placement of Avrainvillea and Cladocephalus in the family Udoteaceae (order Bryopsidales) has been questioned on the basis of nuclear, plastid, and other ultrastructural characteristics unique to these genera. Bayesian analysis of the chloroplast-encoded LSU RUBISCO (rbcL) gene showed that the Udoteaceae is paraphyletic. Cladocephalus luteofuscus (P. Crouan et H. Crouan) Børgesen, Avrainvillea nigricans f. floridana D. Littler et Littler, and A. mazei G. Murray et Boodle form a clade with the freshwater alga Dichotomosiphon tuberosus (A. Braun ex Kütz.) A. Ernst that is basal to a clade that includes other members of the Udoteaceae, the Halimedaceae, and the Caulerpaceae. The noncalcified species Boodleopsis pusilla (Collins) W. R. Taylor, A. B. Joly et Bernat. groups with species of the calcified Udoteacean genera Penicillus, Rhipocephalus, Udotea, and Halimeda. PMID:27041434

  5. Gold content of ectomycorrhizal and saprobic macrofungi - an update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovi ka, J.; anda, Z.; Jelínek, E.

    2006-05-01

    Species of macrofungi growing in the wild were collected from non-auriferous and unpolluted areas, and analyzed for gold. In addition, preliminary results of samples originated from an auriferous area are presented. Gold was determined using long-term instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In total, 108 samples, including 49 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi and 30 species of terrestrial saprobes, were examined. The highest concentrations (expressed in dry weight) were found in ectomycorrhizal species Russula nigricans (235 ng g-1) and Suillus variegatus (1070 ng g-1). Among the saprobic macrofungi, an extraordinary high value 2250 ng g-1 was found in Lepiota cf. clypeolaria. Gold content of saprobic macrofungi originated from the auriferous area was obviously higher than that of macrofungi from non-auriferous areas. The highest contents were found in Agaricus silvaticus (4230 ng g-1) and in two samples of Lycoperdon perlatum (6955 and 7739 ng g-1).

  6. Blood selenium concentrations in female Pacific black brant molting in Arctic Alaska: Relationships with age and habitat salinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    Blood samples collected from 81 female Pacific black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska, were analyzed for selenium concentration. The concentration of selenium in blood of after second year (hatched two or more years ago) females (0.84 μg/g wet weight) was significantly greater than the concentration in second year (hatched the previous year) females (0.61 μg/g wet weight). The concentrations of selenium we found in blood of black brant were 1.5 to 2 times greater than baseline values typical of freshwater birds, but considerably lower than reported in other marine waterfowl sampled in Alaska. This finding may be attributable in part to the nearly exclusive herbivorous diet of black brant. No relationship was noted between blood selenium concentration and molting habitat salinity. We are unaware of any previous reports of blood selenium concentrations in black brant.

  7. Sporostatic effect of some oils against fungi causing otomycosis.

    PubMed

    Jain, S K; Agrawal, S C

    1992-01-01

    In vitro animycotic effect of mustard, groundnut, soybean, coconut and amla oils on five fungi i.e., Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Absidia corymbifera, Penicillium nigricans and Candida albicans isolated from otitic fungal infection of external ear (Tympanic membrane) of human being was studied. Spore germination was evaluated in the oil samples as such after heating for two minutes & after boiling the oil. Data show that mustard and coconut oil seem to be effective as in these the spore germination was poor. Other oils were not found to be much effective. Sporostatic effect was noted only when the oils were used after heating or boiling this may be correlated by the synthesis of enzymes during spore germination. PMID:1452224

  8. Concentration of Elements in Whole-body Fish, Fish Fillets, Fish Muscle Plugs, and Fish Eggs from the 2008 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs. Whole-body, fillet, or egg samples of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus furcatus, Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), walleye (Sander vitreus), crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Pomoxis nigromaculatus), shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and Missouri saddled darter (Etheostoma tetrazonum) were collected from 23 sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs also were collected from walleye (Sander vitreus) at one of the sites.

  9. Concentrations of Elements in Fish Fillets, Fish Muscle Plugs, and Crayfish from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillets of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), bass (Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus dolomieu, Morone chrysops), walleye (Sander vitreus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were collected from 21 sites as part of the Department's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Long-pincered crayfish (Orconectes longidigitus) were collected from one site to assess trophic transfer of metals to fish. Fish muscle plugs were collected from smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) at two different locations from one site.

  10. An image-processing program for automated counting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, D.J.; Anderson, W.H.; Anthony, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    An image-processing program developed by the National Institute of Health, IMAGE, was modified in a cooperative project between remote sensing specialists at the Ohio State University Center for Mapping and scientists at the Alaska Science Center to facilitate estimating numbers of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) in flocks at Izembek National Wildlife Refuge. The modified program, DUCK HUNT, runs on Apple computers. Modifications provide users with a pull down menu that optimizes image quality; identifies objects of interest (e.g., brant) by spectral, morphometric, and spatial parameters defined interactively by users; counts and labels objects of interest; and produces summary tables. Images from digitized photography, videography, and high- resolution digital photography have been used with this program to count various species of waterfowl.

  11. Toxigenic fungi in food.

    PubMed

    Davis, N D; Wagener, E; Dalby, D K; Morgan-Jones, G; Diener, U L

    1975-07-01

    Forty-five fungal isolates from moldy supermarket foods were tested for toxicity to brine shrimp, and twenty-two of these isolates were subsequently tested for toxicity to chicken embryos. Highly toxigenic fungi were Cladosporium sphaerospermum from a bakery product, Fusarium oxysporum from carrots, F. solani from cabbage, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium corylophilum from bread, P. cyclopium and P. herguei from corn meal, P. lanosum from onions,P. steckii from chocolate syrup, Penicillium sp. from jelly, and Rhizopus nigricans isolates from sweet potato, applesauce, and strawberries. Approximately one-third of the fungal cultures were moderately to highly toxigenic to brine shrimp and chicken embryos, while several additional cultures were slightly toxigenic. PMID:1147614

  12. Black brant from Alaska staging and wintering in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Bollinger, K.S.; Ward, David H.; Sedinger, J.S.; Miyabayashi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) nest in colonies in arctic Canada, Alaska, and Russia (Derksen and Ward 1993, Sedinger et al. 1993). Virtually the entire population stages in fall at Izembek Lagoon near the tip of the Alaska Peninsula (Bellrose 1976) before southward migration (Dau 1992) to winter habitats in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, and Baja California (Subcommittee on Black Brant 1992). A small number of black brant winter in Japan, Korea, and China (Owen 1980). In Japan 3,000–5,000 brant of unknown origin stop over in fall, and a declining population (<1,000) of birds winter here, primarily in the northern islands (Brazil 1991, Miyabayashi et al. 1994). Here, we report sightings of brant in Japan that were marked in Alaska and propose a migration route based on historical and recent observations and weather patterns.

  13. Arctic nesting geese: alaskan populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Stehn, Robert A.; Ely, Craig R.; Derksen, Dirk V.

    1995-01-01

    While data for some areas are lacking, populations of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) and medium-sized Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in interior and northern Alaska appear stable or have increased (King and Derksen 1986). Although only a small number of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) nest in Alaska, substantial populations occur in Canada and Russia. Populations of Pacific black brant (B. bernicla nigricans), emperor geese (C. canagica), greater white-fronted geese, and cackling Canada geese (B.c. minima) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) of western Alaska have declined from their historical numbers and are the focus of special management efforts (USFWS 1989). In addition, populations of tule white-fronted geese (A.a. gambeli), Aleutian Canada geese (B.c. leucopareia), Vancouver Canada Geese (B.c. fulva), and dusky Canada geese (B.c. occidentalis) are of special concern because of their limited geographic distributions and small numbers.

  14. Bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae, Nycteribiidae) parasitic on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) at Parque Estadual da Cantareira, São Paulo, Brazil: parasitism rates and host-parasite associations.

    PubMed

    Bertola, Patrícia Beloto; Aires, Caroline Cotrim; Favorito, Sandra Elisa; Graciolli, Gustavo; Amaku, Marcos; Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo

    2005-02-01

    A total of 443 bat flies belonging to the families Nycteribiidae and Strelidae, were collected on 22 species of bats (Molossidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae) from Parque Estadual da Cantareira (São Paulo, Brazil), between January, 2000 and January, 2001. Eighteen new occurrences of bat flies were recorded on Anoura geoffroyi (Anastrebla caudiferae), Glossophaga soricina (A. caudiferae), Sturnira lilium (Trichobius phyllostomae, T. furmani, and Paraeuctenodes similis), Artibeus lituratus (A. caudiferae), A. fimbriatus (Megistopoda proxima), A. obscurus (Metelasmus pseudopterus), Myotis nigricans (M. proxima, M. aranea, Paratrichobius longicrus), M. ruber (Anatrichobius passosi, Joblingia sp.), M. levis (A. passosi), M. albescens (A. passosi, Basilia andersoni), and Histiotus velatus (M. aranea). Seven new occurrences were recorded for the state of São Paulo, increasing the range for T. tiptoni, T. furmani, M. proxima, Aspidoptera falcata, A. caudiferae, A. modestini and B. andersoni. The relationships between parasitism and host sex, reproductive stage, age hyperparasitism by fungi are discussed. PMID:15867959

  15. [Skin diseases associated with obesity in children].

    PubMed

    Lau, K; Höger, P H

    2013-04-01

    While the impact of obesity on diabetes, cardiovascular disease and carcinoma development has been studied extensively, only little attention has been paid to its influence on the skin. Obesity alters the skin barrier, can induce skin manifestations, and worsens existing skin diseases like psoriasis. Cutaneous manifestations of obesity may be pseudoacanthosis nigricans, fibroma pendulans (skin tags, fibroepithelial polyps) and striae distensae. Obesity is also associated with hyperandrogenism in women and girls, promoting acne vulgaris, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia. In addition, there is a pathogenic association between obesity and psoriasis: the release of pro-inflammatory factors from fat tissue results in the worsening of psoriasis; an association between the severity of psoriasis and the body mass index has been shown. Obesity promotes skin infections like erysipelas and intertrigo. PMID:23529600

  16. Homeopathic treatment for infertility in a prize Nelore bull.

    PubMed

    Lobreiro, J

    2007-01-01

    Treatments for infertility in bulls are not described in homeopathic literature. A few treatments, such as changing the protein content of the diet, giving extra minerals, etc have been proposed. This case report describes homeopathic treatment for infertility in a prize bull. A Nelore bull, considered infertile for 3 years, was treated with homeopathic Pulsatilla nigricans 200 CH. Decreased total sperm defects, increased sperm motility and a very impressive increased number of doses of semen produced were observed. The bull relapsed after treatment was withdrawn, but again responded when it was resumed. Since only one animal was observed one cannot assume that the observed changes were due only to this treatment. Further studies may establish the real benefits of a homeopathic medicine in bull infertility. PMID:17227749

  17. Amino acids in seeds and seedlings of the genus Lens.

    PubMed

    Rozan, P; Kuo, Y H; Lambein, F

    2001-09-01

    The amino acid content of seeds and 4-day-old seedlings were studied in five species of lentil: Lens culinaris, L. orientalis, L. ervoides, L. nigricans and L. odemensis. Free amino acid and also total protein amino acid content after HCl hydrolysis were determined by HPLC. The nonprotein UV-absorbing amino acids were determined by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The content of free protein amino acids in seeds varied among species and increased dramatically after germination. Asparagine is quantitatively most important in both seed and seedling. The content of free nonprotein amino acids is variable in seeds and seedlings. gamma-Hydroxyarginine, gamma-hydroxyornithine, alpha-aminobutyric acid and taurine were found in both seeds and seedlings. Homoarginine was found in four species but not in L. orientalis while gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), alpha-aminoadipic acid (alpha-aaa) and three isoxazolinone derivatives: beta-(isoxazolin-5-on-2-yl)-alanine (BIA), gamma-glutamyl-BIA (gamma-glu-BIA) and 2-carboxymethyl-isoxazolin-5-one (CMI) were found exclusively in the seedlings. CMI was identified for the first time in lentil species. Lathyrine, beta-(2-amino-pyrimidine-4-yl)-alanine, which was reported to be in the seeds of some Lathyrus species was confirmed to be present also in the seedling of L. culinaris (trace amount), L. nigricans and L. odemensis. Trigonelline (N-methyl-nicotinic acid), a plant hormone, is present both in seeds and seedlings in different concentrations except in L. ervoides. The different combination of nonprotein amino acids among the species gives indication of their genetic relationship and might partly explain the varying compatibility for interspecies crossing. PMID:11551552

  18. Insecticidal and vertebrate toxicity associated with ethnobotanicals used as post-harvest protectants in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Belmain, S R; Neal, G E; Ray, D E; Golob, P

    2001-03-01

    Six plant species (Cassia sophera, Chamaecrista nigricans, Mitragyna inermis, Ocimum americanum, Securidaca longepedunculata and Synedrella nodiflora) traditionally used in Ghana to control insect pests of stored grain and legumes were screened in the laboratory at three concentrations (0.5, 1 and 5%, w/w) against four common storage pests (Rhyzopertha dominica, Callosobruchus maculatus, Sitophilus zeamais and Prostephanus truncatus). All the plants showed some ability to control all or some of the test insect species. Levels of efficacy varied according to test concentration with the highest concentration tested providing the best control. The S. longepedunculata plant induced the highest percent mortality and was the best at reducing emergence of the F(1) generation. The six plants were also incorporated into standard rat diet at two concentrations (1 and 5%, w/w) and fed to rats over a 6-week period to assess potential deleterious effects against vertebrates. None of the plants demonstrated any neurotoxicological or neurobehavioural effects to the rats over the course of the trial. However, S. longepedunculata and C. nigricans caused a significant reduction in rat growth rate when incorporated at 5% in the diet, induced cell hyperplasia in the liver, and reduced the mean weight of the liver and kidneys, compared to the control group of rats. Kidney pathology was affected only by the 5% concentration of S. longepedunculata which caused a reduced accumulation of alpha2mu-globulin. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of farmer usage of insecticidal plants for stored product protection. PMID:11278061

  19. Chimpanzees prey on army ants at Seringbara, Nimba Mountains, Guinea: predation patterns and tool use characteristics.

    PubMed

    Koops, Kathelijne; Schöning, Caspar; McGrew, William C; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2015-03-01

    Chimpanzees are renowned for their use of foraging tools in harvesting social insects and some populations use tools to prey on aggressive army ants (Dorylus spp.). Tool use in army ant predation varies across chimpanzee study sites with differences in tool length, harvesting technique, and army ant species targeted. However, surprisingly little is known about the detailed ecology of army ant predation. We studied army ant predation by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at the Seringbara study site in the Nimba Mountains, Guinea (West Africa), over 10 years (2003-2013). We investigated chimpanzee selectivity with regards to army ant prey species. We assessed the temporal variation in army ant-feeding and examined whether army ant predation was related to rainfall or ripe fruit availability. Moreover, we examined whether chimpanzees showed selectivity regarding plant species used for tool manufacture, as well as the relationship between tool species preference and tool collection distance. Lastly, we measured tool properties and investigated the use of tool sets and composite tools in army ant predation. Seringbara chimpanzees preyed on one army ant species (D. nigricans) more often than expected based on encounter rates, which may be explained by the overlap in altitudinal distribution between chimpanzees and D. nigricans. Army ant predation was not related to rainfall or fruit availability. Chimpanzees were selective in their choice of tool materials and collected their preferred tool species (Alchornea hirtella) from greater distances than they did other species. Lastly, Seringbara chimpanzees used both tool sets and composite tools (tree perch) in army ant predation. Tool types (dig vs. dip) differed in width and strength, but not length. Tool composites were found at 40% of ant-feeding sites. Our study sheds new light on the ecology of army ant predation and provides novel insights into chimpanzee selection of army ant prey and tool species. PMID:25315798

  20. Feeding ecology of pelagic fish larvae and juveniles in slope waters of the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Wells, R J D; Rooker, J R

    2009-11-01

    Stable isotope ratios of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N) were used to investigate feeding patterns of larval and early juvenile pelagic fishes in slope waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Contribution of organic matter supplied to fishes and trophic position within this pelagic food web was estimated in 2007 and 2008 by comparing dietary signatures of the two main producers in this ecosystem: phytoplankton [based on particulate organic matter (POM)] and Sargassum spp. Stable isotope ratios of POM and pelagic Sargassum spp. were significantly different from one another with delta13C values of POM depleted by 3-6 per thousand and delta15N values enriched by 2 relative to Sargassum spp. Stable isotope ratios were significantly different among the five pelagic fishes examined: blue marlin Makaira nigricans, dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus, pompano dolphinfish Coryphaena equiselis, sailfish Istiophorus platypterus and swordfish Xiphias gladius. Mean delta13C values ranged almost 2 among fishes and were most depleted in I. platypterus. In addition, mean delta15N values ranged 4-5 with highest mean values found for both C. hippurus and C. equiselis and the lowest mean value for M. nigricans during both years. Increasing delta13C or delta15N with standard length suggested that shifts in trophic position and diet occurred during early life for several species examined. Results of a two-source mixing model suggest approximately an equal contribution of organic matter by both sources (POM=55%; pelagic Sargassum spp.=45%) to the early life stages of pelagic fishes examined. Contribution of organic matter, however, varied among species, and sensitivity analyses indicated that organic source estimates changed from 2 to 13% for a delta(13)C fractionation change of +/-0.25 per thousand or a delta15N fractionation change of +/-1.0 per thousand relative to original fractionation values. PMID:20738644

  1. Papilionoid inflorescences revisited (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Prenner, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The inflorescence structure determines the spatiotemporal arrangement of the flowers during anthesis and is therefore vital for reproductive success. The Leguminosae are among the largest angiosperm plant families and they include some important crop plants. In papilionoid legumes, the raceme is the most common type of inflorescence. However, a range of other inflorescence types have evolved via various developmental processes. A (re-)investigation of inflorescences in Swainsona formosa, Cicer arietinum, Abrus precatorius, Hardenbergia violacea and Kennedia nigricans leads to new insights into reduction mechanisms and to a new hypothesis on the evolution of the papilionoid pseudoraceme. Methods Inflorescence morphology and ontogeny were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Key Results The inflorescence in S. formosa is an umbel with a rare type of pendulum symmetry which may be triggered by the subtending leaf. Inflorescences in C. arietinum are reduced to a single flower. An early formed adaxial bulge is the sterile apex of the inflorescence (i.e. the inflorescence is open and not terminated by a flower). In partial inflorescences of A. precatorius, the axis is reduced and its meristem is relocated towards the main inflorescence. Flower initiation follows a peculiar pendulum pattern. Partial inflorescences in H. violacea and in K. nigricans show reduction tendencies. In both taxa, initiated but early reduced bracteoles are present. Conclusions Pendulum symmetry in S. formosa is probably associated with distichous phyllotaxis. In C. arietinum, strong reduction tendencies are revealed. Based on studies of A. precatorius, the papilionoid pseudoraceme is reinterpreted as a compound raceme with condensed lateral axes. From an Abrus-like inflorescence, other types can be derived via reduction of flower number and synchronization of flower development. A plea is made for uniform usage of inflorescence terminology. PMID:23235698

  2. Pesticide tolerant Azotobacter isolates from paddy growing areas of northern Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Chennappa, Gurikar; Adkar-Purushothama, C R; Suraj, Umdale; Tamilvendan, K; Sreenivasa, M Y

    2014-01-01

    A total of 14 Azotobacter strains were isolated from different paddy cultivating soils with pH ranging from 6.5 to 9.5 by using serial dilution agar plate method. The strains were Gram negative, rod shaped, cyst forming and developed brown to black colored colonies, which were glistening, smooth, slimy on Ashby's agar plates. Biochemically they were positive for biochemical tests namely, indole production, citrate, catalase, carbohydrate fermentation and Voges-Proskauer test. Further, sequence analysis of PCR amplicons obtained from these cultures revealed the presence of five different Azotobacter species viz., Azotobacter vinelandii, Azotobacter salinestris, Azotobacter sp., Azotobacter nigricans subsp. nigricans and Azotobacter tropicalis. Phylogenetically these strains were grouped into two distinct clusters. These strains were tested for their ability to grow on a media containing four different pesticides such as pendimethalin, glyphosate, chloropyrifos and phorate, which are commonly used for the paddy. Out of 14 strains tested, 13 strains were able to grow on a media containing herbicides such as pendimethalin, glyphosate and insecticides like chloropyrifos and phorate. However, five Azotobacter strains were able to grow at higher concentration of 5% pesticides, without affecting their growth rate. Further, the effect of pesticides on the indole acetic acid (IAA) production by Azotobacter strains was also estimated. Azotobacter-16 strain was found to produce 34.4 μg ml(-l) of IAA in a media supplemented with 1,000 mg of tryptophan and 5% of pendimethalin. Present study reveals that species of Azotobacter are able to grow and survive in the presence of pesticides and no significant effects were observed on the metabolic activities of Azotobacter species. PMID:23813305

  3. Clinical studies of pigmented lesions in human skin by using a multiphoton tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balu, Mihaela; Kelly, Kristen M.; Zachary, Christopher B.; Harris, Ronald M.; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; König, Karsten; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2013-02-01

    In vivo imaging of pigmented lesions in human skin was performed with a clinical multiphoton microscopy (MPM)-based tomograph (MPTflex, JenLab, Germany). Two-photon excited fluorescence was used for visualizing endogenous fluorophores such as NADH/FAD, keratin, melanin in the epidermal cells and elastin fibers in the dermis. Collagen fibers were imaged by second harmonic generation. Our study involved in vivo imaging of benign melanocytic nevi, atypical nevi and melanoma. The goal of this preliminary study was to identify in vivo the characteristic features and their frequency in pigmented lesions at different stages (benign, atypical and malignant) and to evaluate the ability of in vivo MPM to distinguish atypical nevi from melanoma. Comparison with histopathology was performed for the biopsied lesions. Benign melanocytic nevi were characterized by the presence of nevus cell nests at the epidermal-dermal junction. In atypical nevi, features such as lentiginous hyperplasia, acanthosis and architectural disorder were imaged. Cytological atypia was present in all the melanoma lesions imaged, showing the strongest correlation with malignancy. The MPM images demonstrated very good correlation with corresponding histological images, suggesting that MPM could be a promising tool for in vivo non-invasive pigmented lesion diagnosis, particularly distinguishing atypical nevi from melanoma.

  4. [Truss-induced macular amyloidosis].

    PubMed

    Abels, C; Karrer, S; Landthaler, M; Szeimies, R M

    2001-10-01

    A 80-year-old male presented with a long time history of a localized red-brown macule with superficial lichenification and slight scaling in the right groin. An earlier skin biopsy revealed the presence of amyloid deposits. The patient therefore had a complete internal checkup including a rectal biopsy for exclusion of systemic amyloidosis. However, the laboratory data did not reveal any specific abnormalities including immunoglobulins and Bence-Jones protein. The rectal biopsy was also nonspecific. After skin examination, a rebiopsy was performed at our department showing acanthosis and spongiosis of the epidermis with parakeratosis. A homogenous eosinophilic deposit was present in the upper dermis and stained positive with thioflavine. At the second visit the patient wore a truss for a right inguinal hernia, perfectly matching the area of the skin lesion. Thus, the diagnosis of a localized macular amyloidosis was confirmed very likely due to permanent local friction. The classification of localized cutaneous amyloidoses should include local trauma as a cause to avoid unnecessary and exhausting internal checkups to exclude systemic involvement. PMID:11715396

  5. Percutaneous penetration, melanin activation and toxicity evaluation of a phytotherapic formulation for vitiligo therapeutic.

    PubMed

    Truite, Cecília Valente Rodrigues; Philippsen, Gisele Strieder; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Bento, Antonio Carlos; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to apply photoacoustic spectroscopy for the ex vivo determination of the penetration rate of a phytotherapic formulation for vitiligo therapeutic, with or without salicylic acid as the promoter agent. In addition, the compound toxicity and morphophysiology effects were evaluated for different concentrations of salicylic acid. The experiments were performed as a function of the period of time of treatment in a well-controlled group of rabbits. Toxic effects were not observed with any of the tested products. All formulations containing salicylic acid induced cutaneous reaction which was dose dependent. The histological analysis showed that the use of the medication was associated with an increased comedogenic effect in relation to the control group, regardless of salicylic acid concentration. Inflammatory reactions and acanthosis were observed only in the animals treated with formulations containing higher concentrations of salicylic acid, while none of these effects were detected with the use of the formulation containing 2.5% (wt/vol) of salicylic acid. Photoacoustic depth monitoring showed that both formulations, with or without salicylic acid, propagated through the skin up to the melanocytes region, suggesting that the transport of the active agent may occur through the epithelial structure without the need of using queratinolitic substances, which are known to induce side effects in the animals. PMID:18028229

  6. Nummular Eczema of Breast: A Potential Dermatologic Complication after Mastectomy and Subsequent Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Iwahira, Yoshiko; Nagasao, Tomohisa; Shimizu, Yusuke; Kuwata, Kumiko; Tanaka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Purposes. The present paper reports clinical cases where nummular eczema developed during the course of breast reconstruction by means of implantation and evaluates the occurrence patterns and ratios of this complication. Methods. 1662 patients undergoing breast reconstruction were reviewed. Patients who developed nummular eczema during the treatment were selected, and a survey was conducted on these patients regarding three items: (1) the stage of the treatment at which nummular eczema developed; (2) time required for the lesion to heal; (3) location of the lesion on the reconstructed breast(s). Furthermore, histopathological examination was conducted to elucidate the etiology of the lesion. Results. 48 patients (2.89%) developed nummular eczema. The timing of onset varied among these patients, with lesions developing after the placement of tissue expanders for 22 patients (45.8%); after the tissue expanders were replaced with silicone implants for 12 patients (25%); and after nipple-areola complex reconstruction for 14 patients (29.2%). Nummular eczema developed both in periwound regions (20 cases: 41.7%) and in nonperiwound regions (32 cases: 66.7%). Histopathological examination showed epidermal acanthosis, psoriasiform patterns, and reduction of sebaceous glands. Conclusions. Surgeons should recognize that nummular eczema is a potential complication of breast reconstruction with tissue expanders and silicone implants. PMID:26380109

  7. Huriez syndrome with superadded dermatophyte infection.

    PubMed

    Surana, Trupti; Padhiar, Bela; Karia, Umesh; Pandya, Purna

    2016-01-01

    Palmoplantarkeratodermas (PPKs) are a heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders with underlying gene defects, and characterized by hyperkeratosis of palms and soles with or without other ectodermal and systemic abnormalities. Huriez syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant transgradient type of PPK with high frequency of squamous cell carcinoma in the affected skin. We hereby describe a case of a very rare autosomal dominant PPK in a 40-year-old male patient presenting since birth with PPK extending onto the dorsal aspects of hands and feet with peeling of the skin. The complaints were associated with sclerodactyly, hyperhidrosis, and nail abnormalities. Also superadded dermatophyte infection was observed involving abdomen. No history of loss of any digit. No mucosal, dental, or any systemic involvement was present. No sign of malignancy was noted. Baseline investigations, including ultrasonography of abdomen were normal. Histological findings were nonspecific with only orthohyperkeratosis and acanthosis. Diagnosis was mainly done on clinical grounds. The patient is better with oral retinoids and topical emollients and keratolytics along with antifungal treatment for dermatophyte infection. He is under follow up. PMID:27559505

  8. Tumorigenic activity of Merkel cell polyomavirus T antigens expressed in the stratified epithelium of mice

    PubMed Central

    Spurgeon, Megan E.; Cheng, Jingwei; Bronson, Roderick T.; Lambert, Paul F.; DeCaprio, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is frequently associated with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a highly aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. Most MCC tumors contain integrated copies of the viral genome with persistent expression of the MCPyV large T (LT) and small T (ST) antigen. MCPyV isolated from MCC typically contain wild type ST but truncated forms of LT that retain the N-terminus but delete the C-terminus and render LT incapable of supporting virus replication. To determine the oncogenic activity of MCC tumor-derived T antigens in vivo, a conditional, tissue-specific mouse model was developed. Keratin 14-mediated Cre recombinase expression induced expression of MCPyV T antigens in stratified squamous epithelial cells and Merkel cells of the skin epidermis. Mice expressing MCPyV T antigens developed hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and acanthosis of the skin with additional abnormalities in whisker pads, footpads and eyes. Nearly half of the mice also developed cutaneous papillomas. Evidence for neoplastic progression within stratified epithelia included increased cellular proliferation, unscheduled DNA synthesis, increased E2F-responsive genes levels, disrupted differentiation, and presence of a DNA damage response. These results indicate that MCPyV T antigens are tumorigenic in vivo, consistent with their suspected etiological role in human cancer. PMID:25596282

  9. Tumorigenic activity of merkel cell polyomavirus T antigens expressed in the stratified epithelium of mice.

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, Megan E; Cheng, Jingwei; Bronson, Roderick T; Lambert, Paul F; DeCaprio, James A

    2015-03-15

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is frequently associated with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a highly aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. Most MCC tumors contain integrated copies of the viral genome with persistent expression of the MCPyV large T (LT) and small T (ST) antigen. MCPyV isolated from MCC typically contains wild-type ST but truncated forms of LT that retain the N-terminus but delete the C-terminus and render LT incapable of supporting virus replication. To determine the oncogenic activity of MCC tumor-derived T antigens in vivo, a conditional, tissue-specific mouse model was developed. Keratin 14-mediated Cre recombinase expression induced expression of MCPyV T antigens in stratified squamous epithelial cells and Merkel cells of the skin epidermis. Mice expressing MCPyV T antigens developed hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and acanthosis of the skin with additional abnormalities in whisker pads, footpads, and eyes. Nearly half of the mice also developed cutaneous papillomas. Evidence for neoplastic progression within stratified epithelia included increased cellular proliferation, unscheduled DNA synthesis, increased E2F-responsive genes levels, disrupted differentiation, and presence of a DNA damage response. These results indicate that MCPyV T antigens are tumorigenic in vivo, consistent with their suspected etiologic role in human cancer. PMID:25596282

  10. Pseudoepitheliomatous changes in a case of vegetating Darier–White disease: a unique histopathological finding.

    PubMed

    Pezzini, Claudia; Vassallo, Camilla; Grasso, Vincenzo; Rivetti, Nicolò; Borroni, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Darier–White disease (DWD) is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis, characterized by constant and typical histopathological findings, such as hyperkeratosis, dyskeratosis with corps ronds and grains and papillary microvilli formation with suprabasal clefting. Despite its nearly constant histopathological presentation, unusual clinical variants are reported, such as the vegetating and cornifying ones. These variants share the same histopathological features of the classic type, except for the striking hyperkeratosis and acanthosis. Here, unreported pseudoepitheliomatous features are described in an elderly male patient with a long history of vegetating and verrucous papules and nodules of DWD, associated with typical nail involvement. These unique histolopathological changes were closely in conjunction with the characteristic microscopic features of DWD. Differential diagnosis with other pseudoepitheliomatous and acantholytic conditions such as reticulated seborrheic keratosis, inverted follicular keratosis, and acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma is also considered. Pseudoepitheliomatous features, in this case of vegetating DWD, could be regarded as a reactive epidermal phenomenon because of different stimuli, i.e. maceration, bacterial superinfection, and chronic scratching. PMID:25238450

  11. Activation of Nrf2 in keratinocytes causes chloracne (MADISH)-like skin disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Matthias; Willrodt, Ann-Helen; Kurinna, Svitlana; Link, Andrea S; Farwanah, Hany; Geusau, Alexandra; Gruber, Florian; Sorg, Olivier; Huebner, Aaron J; Roop, Dennis R; Sandhoff, Konrad; Saurat, Jean-Hilaire; Tschachler, Erwin; Schneider, Marlon R; Langbein, Lutz; Bloch, Wilhelm; Beer, Hans-Dietmar; Werner, Sabine

    2014-04-01

    The transcription factor Nrf2 is a key regulator of the cellular stress response, and pharmacological Nrf2 activation is a promising strategy for skin protection and cancer prevention. We show here that prolonged Nrf2 activation in keratinocytes causes sebaceous gland enlargement and seborrhea in mice due to upregulation of the growth factor epigen, which we identified as a novel Nrf2 target. This was accompanied by thickening and hyperkeratosis of hair follicle infundibula. These abnormalities caused dilatation of infundibula, hair loss, and cyst development upon aging. Upregulation of epigen, secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (Slpi), and small proline-rich protein 2d (Sprr2d) in hair follicles was identified as the likely cause of infundibular acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, and cyst formation. These alterations were highly reminiscent to the phenotype of chloracne/"metabolizing acquired dioxin-induced skin hamartomas" (MADISH) patients. Indeed, SLPI, SPRR2, and epigen were strongly expressed in cysts of MADISH patients and upregulated by dioxin in human keratinocytes in an NRF2-dependent manner. These results identify novel Nrf2 activities in the pilosebaceous unit and point to a role of NRF2 in MADISH pathogenesis. PMID:24503019

  12. Establishment of Two Mouse Models for CEDNIK Syndrome Reveals the Pivotal Role of SNAP29 in Epidermal Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Stina A; Seebode, Christina; Wieser, Georg L; Goebbels, Sandra; Möbius, Wiebke; Horowitz, Mia; Sarig, Ofer; Sprecher, Eli; Emmert, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the synaptosomal-associated protein 29 (SNAP29) gene cause the cerebral dysgenesis, neuropathy, ichthyosis, and keratoderma syndrome. In this study, we created total (Snap29(-/-)) as well as keratinocyte-specific (Snap29(fl/fl)/K14-Cre) Snap29 knockout mice. Both mutant mice exhibited a congenital distinct ichthyotic phenotype resulting in neonatal lethality. Mutant mice revealed acanthosis and hyperkeratosis as well as abnormal keratinocyte differentiation and increased proliferation. In addition, the epidermal barrier was severely impaired. These results indicate an essential role of SNAP29 in epidermal differentiation and barrier formation. Markedly decreased deposition of lamellar body contents in mutant mice epidermis and the observation of malformed lamellar bodies indicate severe impairments in lamellar body function due to the Snap29 knockout. We also found increased microtubule associated protein-1 light chain 3, isoform B-II levels, unchanged p62/SQSTM1 protein amounts, and strong induction of the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker C/EBP homologous protein in mutant mice. This emphasizes a role of SNAP29 in autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Our murine models serve as powerful tools for investigating keratinocyte differentiation processes and provide insights into the essential contribution of SNAP29 to epidermal differentiation. PMID:26747696

  13. Mal de Meleda: A Focused Review.

    PubMed

    Perez, Caroline; Khachemoune, Amor

    2016-02-01

    Mal de Meleda is a rare autosomal recessive palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) disease with an estimated prevalence of 1:100,000. Clinically, the onset of the disease is typically soon after birth and features a transgrediens (plantar surface progressing to dorsal surface) and progrediens (worsening with age) pattern of hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles. The disease can feature other potentially disfiguring effects on the hands and feet that can severely impact function. Histologically, the lesions show hyperkeratosis and acanthosis without epidermolysis in the epidermis, accompanied by perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate in the dermis. Secreted LY6/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR)-related protein-1 (SLURP-1) genetic mutations are implicated in Mal de Meleda. SLURP-1 is involved in mediation of inflammation as well as keratinocyte apoptosis regulation. Because the disease is so rare, there are no set guidelines for management, but the accepted approach tends to include oral acitretin plus topical keratolytic therapy. Genetic counseling should also be offered. This focused review highlights the clinical and histological features, differential diagnoses, genetic background, and the current thoughts on management of Mal de Meleda. PMID:26445964

  14. Elastosis Perforans Serpiginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Si-Hyung; Choi, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    Elastosis perforans serpiginosa is a rare skin disease characterized by transepidermal elimination of abnormal elastic fibers. This condition classically presents as small papules arranged in serpiginous or annular patterns on the neck, face, arms, or other flexural areas. While these lesions may spontaneously resolve, they often persist for longer periods of time. Though numerous treatment modalities have been described in the literature, most are not very effective. A 35-year-old man presented to Gangnam Severance Hospital with a 2-year history of skin eruptions on his neck, which were refractory to topical antifungal or steroid treatment. On examination, the patient showed multiple crusted and erythematous papules arranged in an annular pattern with central clearing. A biopsy specimen revealed acanthosis with notable transepidermal elimination of nuclear debris and eosinophilic degenerated elastic fibers from the dermis via an epidermal channel. Verhoeff-van Gieson staining showed dense clumps of altered elastic fibers in the papillary dermis. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of elastosis perforans serpisinosa was made. Treatment with topical 0.05% tretinoin application for 6 months resulted in no improvement. PMID:24648695

  15. Bovine papillomavirus type 9 induces epithelial papillomas on the teat skin of heifers.

    PubMed

    Hatama, Shinichi; Nishida, Tomoko; Kadota, Koichi; Uchida, Ikuo; Kanno, Toru

    2009-05-12

    Experiments were carried out to investigate whether papillomas could be induced on the teat skin of heifers by intradermal injection with bovine papillomavirus type 9 (BPV-9). Three heifers (#1 and 2, two 0.5-year-old Holsteins; #3, a 1.5-year-old Japanese Black) were injected with BPV-9 and one heifer (#4, a 0.5-year-old Holstein) was mock-infected. Viral DNA load in the inocula was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction assay and adjusted to 1.56x10(12) copies per injection. Papillomas appeared at the injection sites in the BPV-9-injected heifers #1, 2 and 3 and grew over the 8 (#1 and 2) and 4 (#3)mo observation period, respectively. However, no papillomas were found in the mock-infected heifer #4. The experimentally induced papillomas were excised and examined. Histologically, the lesions were characterized by hyperplasia of the epidermis with hyperkeratosis and marked acanthosis and were morphologically similar to naturally occurring lesions. BPV-9 DNA and bovine papillomavirus capsid antigen were abundant in the lesions. Therefore, we conclude that BPV-9 is an etiological agent causing epithelial papillomas on the teat skin of heifers. PMID:19095383

  16. Tannic acid modulates NFκB signaling pathway and skin inflammation in NC/Nga mice through PPARγ expression.

    PubMed

    Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Pitchaimani, Vigneshwaran; Sreedhar, Remya; Afrin, Rejina; Harima, Meilei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Nomoto, Mayumi; Miyashita, Shizuka; Suzuki, Kenji; Nakamura, Masahiko; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2015-12-01

    Polyphenolic compound tannic acid, which is mainly found in grapes and green tea, is a potent antioxidant with anticarcinogenic activities. In this present study, we hypothesized that tannic acid could inhibit nuclear factor (NF)κB signaling and inflammation in atopic dermatitis (AD) NC/Nga mice. We have analyzed the effects of tannic acid on dermatitis severity, histopathology and expression of inflammatory signaling proteins in house dust mite extract induced AD mouse skin. In addition, serum levels of T helper (Th) cytokines (interferon (IFN)γ, interleukin (IL)-4) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Treatment with tannic acid ameliorated the development of AD-like clinical symptoms and effectively inhibited hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, acanthosis, mast cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the AD mouse skin. Serum levels of IFNγ and IL-4 were significantly down-regulated by tannic acid. Furthermore, tannic acid treatment inhibited DfE induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, high mobility group protein (HMG)B1, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, NFκB, cyclooxygenase (COX)2, IL-1β and increased the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, DfE induced skin inflammation might be mediated through NFκB signaling and tannic acid may be a potential therapeutic agent for AD, which may possibly act via induction of PPARγ protein. PMID:26049169

  17. Buschke-Löwenstein Tumour: Successful Treatment with Minimally Invasive Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Estefânia; Santos, António

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of an 80-year-old female who presented with a four-year history of a growing mass in the perianal area with pain and bleeding during defaecation. Clinical examination revealed a locally destructive, cauliflower-like, verrucous mass measuring 10 × 12 cm in diameter. Histologic findings revealed a moderate degree of dysplasia of the epithelium with koilocytosis atypia, acanthosis, and parakeratosis, features that are consistent with Buschke-Löwenstein tumour. Polymerase-chain-reaction assay for human papillomavirus (HPV) showed an infection with HPV type 11. Full-thickness excision of involved skin was undertaken by cryotherapy and electrocautery over five months. The entire wound was left open to heal by secondary intention. After 3 years of follow-up, the patient has not experienced a recurrence, with excellent functional results, but the cosmetic results were satisfactory. These minimally invasive techniques can be safer and more cost-effective than surgery and the General Practitioner can play a key role in diagnosis. PMID:26417462

  18. Group III secreted phospholipase A2 transgenic mice spontaneously develop inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hiroyasu; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Isogai, Yuki; Masuda, Seiko; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Yamamoto, Kei; Murakami, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    PLA2 (phospholipase A2) group III is an atypical sPLA2 (secretory PLA2) that is homologous with bee venom PLA2 rather than with other mammalian sPLA2s. In the present paper, we show that endogenous group III sPLA2 (PLA2G3) is expressed in mouse skin and that Tg (transgenic) mice overexpressing human PLA2G3 spontaneously develop skin inflammation. Pla2g3-Tg mice over 9 months of age frequently developed dermatitis with hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, parakeratosis, erosion, ulcer and sebaceous gland hyperplasia. The dermatitis was accompanied by infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages and by elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and prostaglandin E2. In addition, Pla2g3-Tg mice had increased lymph aggregates and mucus in the airway, lymphocytic sialadenitis, hepatic extramedullary haemopoiesis, splenomegaly with increased populations of granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages, and increased serum IgG1. Collectively, these observations provide the first demonstration of spontaneous development of inflammation in mice with Tg overexpression of mammalian sPLA2. PMID:19371233

  19. Sarcoptic mange in free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Hiroyoshi; Ogata, Munetsugu

    2005-06-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei infestation was diagnosed in three freshly dead free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. The dogs presented with an alopecic pruritic skin disease, with signs of alopecia on the ears, muzzle, around the eyes, elbow, thigh and the neck, and hyperpigmented and crusted skin lesions, which had a severe malodour. Skin scrapings revealed the presence of the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Histopathology of lesions demonstrated marked acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis and fungal elements, which were subsequently identified as Acremonium sp., Alternaria sp. and an unknown fungus. Mite segments were located mainly in the stratum corneum and also in the stratum granulosum. Tunnels could be observed in the hyperkeratotic stratum corneum. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the tortoise-like Sarcoptes scabiei with four long bristles, suckers and blade-like claws on legs 1 and 2, cuticular spines, prominent body striations and a terminal anus. SEM also revealed an adult female mite digging a tunnel with the head wedged into the very end of the closed burrow. Tunnels filled with eggshells, corneocyte debris and faecal pellets were also observed. PMID:15960631

  20. A Case of IFAP Syndrome with Severe Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Catarina; Gonçalves-Rocha, Miguel; Resende, Cristina; Vieira, Ana Paula; Brito, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The IFAP syndrome is a rare X-linked genetic disorder characterized by the triad of follicular ichthyosis, atrichia, and photophobia. Case Report. A three-month-old Caucasian, male patient was observed with noncicatricial universal alopecia and persistent eczema from birth. He had dystrophic nails, spiky follicular hyperkeratosis, and photophobia which became apparent at the first year of life. Short stature and psychomotor developmental delay were also noticed. Histopathological examination of skin biopsy on left thigh showed epidermis with irregular acanthosis, lamellar orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, and hair follicles fulfilled by parakeratotic hyperkeratosis. The chromosomal study showed a karyotype 46, XY. Total IgE was 374 IU/mL. One missense mutation c.1360G>C (p.Ala454Pro) in hemizygosity was detected on the MBTPS2 gene thus confirming the diagnosis of IFAP syndrome. Conclusions. We describe a boy with a typical clinical presentation of IFAP syndrome and severe atopic manifestations. A novel missense mutation c.1360G>C (p.Ala454Pro) in MBTPS2 gene was observed. The phenotypic expression of disease is quantitatively related to a reduced function of a key cellular regulatory system affecting cholesterol and endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. It can cause epithelial disturbance with failure in differentiation of epidermal structures and abnormal skin permeability barrier. However, no correlation phenotype/genotype could be established. PMID:25685152

  1. Huriez syndrome with superadded dermatophyte infection

    PubMed Central

    Surana, Trupti; Padhiar, Bela; Karia, Umesh; Pandya, Purna

    2016-01-01

    Palmoplantarkeratodermas (PPKs) are a heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders with underlying gene defects, and characterized by hyperkeratosis of palms and soles with or without other ectodermal and systemic abnormalities. Huriez syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant transgradient type of PPK with high frequency of squamous cell carcinoma in the affected skin. We hereby describe a case of a very rare autosomal dominant PPK in a 40-year-old male patient presenting since birth with PPK extending onto the dorsal aspects of hands and feet with peeling of the skin. The complaints were associated with sclerodactyly, hyperhidrosis, and nail abnormalities. Also superadded dermatophyte infection was observed involving abdomen. No history of loss of any digit. No mucosal, dental, or any systemic involvement was present. No sign of malignancy was noted. Baseline investigations, including ultrasonography of abdomen were normal. Histological findings were nonspecific with only orthohyperkeratosis and acanthosis. Diagnosis was mainly done on clinical grounds. The patient is better with oral retinoids and topical emollients and keratolytics along with antifungal treatment for dermatophyte infection. He is under follow up. PMID:27559505

  2. A Rare Case of Plantar Epithelioma Cuniculatum Arising from a Wart

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Rahul; Bhagat, Aditi; Vasudevan, Biju; Sridhar, Jandhyala; Madan, Renu; Ray, Manjusha

    2015-01-01

    A 68-year-old man, a known case of hypertension, coronary artery disease and old cardiovascular accident with right-sided hemiplegia, came with the chief complaints of a large cauliflower like growth with pus discharge on the left heel since 15 years. The patient had sustained a penetrating injury by a thorn on the left heel region few days before the lesion appeared. Dermatological examination revealed a single verrucous lesion measuring 7 × 7 cm on the left heel region associated with discharge of foul smelling cheesy material. There was also a enlarged right inguinal lymph node which was non-tender, firm, measuring 2 cm in diameter with normal overlying skin. X-ray left ankle was done which showed some soft tissue swelling. A skin biopsy showed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis and parakeratosis. Elongated rete ridges with keratinocyte hyperplasia, forming a large mass pressing on the underlying dermis were seen. There was formation of multiple large keratin filled invaginations and crypts. No atypical cells were seen. Based on history, clinical examination and investigations, a diagnosis of epithelium cuniculatum type of verrucous squamous cell carcinoma was made. A wide excision with a flap cover was performed in consultation with the oncosurgeon and the excision sample was sent for histopathological re-examination, which confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioma cuniculatum. PMID:26538697

  3. Lichen planus induced by pegylated interferon alfa-2a therapy in a patient monitored for delta hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Safak; Arslan, Eyup; Baysal, Birol; Baykara, Sule Nergiz; Uzun, Ozlem Ceren; Kaya, Sehmuz

    2015-01-01

    Interferons are used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B. They can induce or exacerbate some skin disorders, such as lichen planus. In this study, as we know, we presented the first case developing lichen planus while receiving interferon treatment due to delta hepatitis. A 31-year-old male patient presented to our outpatient clinic with HBsAg positivity. With his analyses, HBV DNA was negative, anti-delta total was positive, ALT was 72 U/L (upper limit 41 U/L), and platelet was 119 000/mm(3). He was therefore started on subcutaneous pegylated interferon alfa-2a therapy at 180 mcg/week for delta hepatitis. At month 4 of therapy, the patient developed diffuse eroded lace-like lesions in oral mucosa, white plaques on lips, and itchy papular lesions in the hands and feet. Lichen planus was considered by the dermatology clinic and topical treatment (mometasone furoate) was given. The lesions persisted at month 5 of therapy and biopsy samples were obtained from oral mucosal lesions and interferon dose was reduced to 135 mcg/week. Biopsy demonstrated nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium; epithelial acanthosis, spongiosis, and apoptotic bodies were observed in the epidermis and therefore lichen planus was considered. At month 6 of therapy, lesions did not improve and even progressed and interferon treatment was therefore discontinued. PMID:25821612

  4. CD8(+) T cells mediate RAS-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation through IFN-γ.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Andrew J; Mohammed, Javed; Horvath, Frank J; Podolsky, Michael A; Anderson, Cherie R; Glick, Adam B

    2013-04-01

    The RAS signaling pathway is constitutively activated in psoriatic keratinocytes. We expressed activated H-RAS(V12G) in suprabasal keratinocytes of adult mice and observed rapid development of a psoriasis-like skin phenotype characterized by basal keratinocyte hyperproliferation, acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, intraepidermal neutrophil microabscesses, and increased T helper type 1 (Th1)/Th17 and T cell type 1 (Tc1)/Tc17 skin infiltration. The majority of skin-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells coexpressed IFN-γ and IL-17A. When RAS was expressed on a Rag1-/- background, microabscess formation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and keratinocyte hyperproliferation were suppressed. Depletion of CD8(+), but not CD4(+), T cells reduced cutaneous and systemic inflammation, the RAS-induced increase in cutaneous Th17 and IL-17(+) γδ T cells, and epidermal hyperproliferation to levels similar to a Rag1-/- background. Reconstitution of Rag1-/- inducible RAS mice with purified CD8(+) T cells restored microabscess formation and epidermal hyperproliferation. Neutralization of IFN-γ, but not of IL-17A, in CD8(+) T-cell-reconstituted Rag1-/- mice expressing RAS blocked CD8-mediated skin inflammation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and keratinocyte hyperproliferation. These results show that CD8(+) T cells can orchestrate skin inflammation with psoriasis-like pathology in response to constitutive RAS activation in keratinocytes, and this is primarily mediated through IFN-γ. PMID:23151849

  5. A distinctive melanocytic lesion associated with melanoma-prone dysplastic naevus syndrome: the hybrid naevus.

    PubMed

    Schubert, C; Parwaresch, R; Rudolph, P

    2001-02-01

    Clinically and histologically, the concept of dysplastic nevi remains controversial. To elaborate more precise criteria for the nevi of patients with dysplastic naevus syndrome (DNS), we examined 58 nevi from seven DNS patients who developed one or several malignant melanomas. Clinical presentation and histomorphology were evaluated, and immunohistochemistry was performed using proliferation marker Ki-S5 and antibody DO-7 to the p53 protein. Sixty nevi from individuals without history of melanoma served as controls. Of the DNS nevi, 21 (36.2%) exhibited no morphological particularities. The remaining 37 nevi presented distinctive histological features consisting of a slight epidermal acanthosis, spitzoid vertically oriented nests of dyscohesive nevus cells, and single-standing atypical melanocytes in the basal cell layer of the epidermis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an average proliferation index of 2.5%, which significantly surpassed the mean growth fraction of conventional dysplastic nevi (<1%). No increase in p53 expression was observed. Characteristically, active proliferation was found in junctional single-standing melanocytes with or without nuclear atypia rather than in nest-shaped compounds. In conclusion, certain moles of patients with DNS possess distinctive features. The newly characterized criteria may provide a basis for the diagnosis of DNS and might help to identify patients at increased risk for malignant melanoma by examination of a single biopsy. PMID:11253119

  6. High-Fat Diet-Induced IL-17A Exacerbates Psoriasiform Dermatitis in a Mouse Model of Steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, Philippe; Serres, Laura; Jégou, Jean-François; Pohin, Mathilde; Delwail, Adriana; Petit-Paris, Isabelle; Levillain, Pierre; Favot, Laure; Samson, Michel; Yssel, Hans; Morel, Franck; Silvain, Christine; Lecron, Jean-Claude

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that psoriasis may be more severe in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, particularly in those with the inflammatory stage of steatohepatitis [nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]. Herein, we investigated the impact of diet-induced steatohepatitis on the severity of imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis. Mice fed with a high-fat diet developed steatohepatitis reminiscent of human NASH with ballooning hepatocytes and significant liver fibrosis. Mice with steatohepatitis also displayed moderate cutaneous inflammation characterized by erythema, dermal infiltrates of CD45(+) leukocytes, and a local production of IL-17A. Moreover, steatohepatitis was associated with an epidermal activation of caspase-1 and cutaneous overexpression of IL-1β. Imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis was exacerbated in mice with steatohepatitis as compared to animals fed with a standard diet. Scale formation and acanthosis were aggravated, in correlation with increased IL-17A and IL-22 expression in inflamed skins. Finally, intradermal injection of IL-17A in standard diet-fed mice recapitulated the cutaneous pathology of mice with steatohepatitis. The results show that high-fat diet-induced steatohepatitis aggravates the inflammation in psoriasiform dermatitis, via the cutaneous production of IL-17A. In agreement with clinical data, this description of a novel extrahepatic manifestation of NASH should sensitize dermatologists to the screening and the management of fatty liver in psoriatic patients. PMID:27423696

  7. Assessment of dermal exposure and histopathologic changes of different sized nano-silver in healthy adult rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kazem Koohi, Mohammad; Hejazy, Marzie; Asadi, Farzad; Asadian, Peyman

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dermal toxicity (Irritation/Corrosion) of three sizes of nanosilver particles (10, 20 and 30 nm) during 3 min, 1 and 4 hours according to the OECD/OCDE guideline Histopathological effects in secondary organs from liver, kidney, heart, spleen and brain 14 day post dermal administration are also reported. 10 and 20 nm Ag nanoparticles treated group showed well defined dermal erythema and oedema. Histopathological findings of 10 and 20 nm (4 hours exposure) on 14-day post dermal administration showed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, hair-filled follicles and papillomatosis in an irregular epidermis, fibrosis, hyperemia, erythema, intracellular oedema and hyalinisation of collagen in dermis of skin. Liver revealed midzonal and periacinar necrosis, portal mononuclear infiltration, liver fatty change, liver congestion and hyperemic central vein. Splenic red pulp congestion and white pulp hyperreactivity, splenic trabeculae and sinusoidal congestion and hyaline change were found in spleen. Fatty degeneration in some cardiovascular cells and subendocardial hemorrhage without inflammation was perceived. Picnotic appearance of pyramidal neurons in the brain cortex, gliosis and mild perineuronal oedema ischemic cell change and hyperemic meninges was observed in brain. Our research concluded that dermal exposure to lesser sizes of silver nanoparticles is more disastrous than greater ones.

  8. Loss of Matriptase Suppression Underlies Spint1 Mutation-Associated Ichthyosis and Postnatal Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Roman; Kosa, Peter; List, Karin; Bugge, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1 (HAI)-1 is an epithelial Kunitz-type transmembrane serine protease inhibitor that is encoded by the SPINT1 gene. HAI-1 displays potent inhibitory activity toward a large number of trypsin-like serine proteases. HAI-1 was recently shown to play an essential role in postnatal epithelial homeostasis. Thus, Spint1-deficient mice were found to display severe growth retardation and are unable to survive beyond postnatal day 16. The mice present histologically with overt hyperkeratosis of the forestomach, hyperkeratosis and acanthosis of the epidermis, and hypotrichosis associated with abnormal cuticle development. In this study, we show that loss of inhibition of a proteolytic pathway that is dependent on the type II transmembrane serine protease, matriptase, underlies the detrimental effects of postnatal Spint1 deficiency. Matriptase and HAI-1 precisely co-localize in all tissues that are affected by the Spint1 disruption. Spint1-deficient mice that have low matriptase levels, caused by a hypomorphic mutation in the St14 gene that encodes matriptase, not only survived the neonatal period but were healthy and displayed normal long-term survival. Furthermore, a detailed histological analysis of neonatal, young adult, as well as aged mice did not reveal any abnormalities in Spint1-deficent mice that have low matriptase levels. This study identifies matriptase suppression as an essential function of HAI-1 in postnatal tissue homeostasis. PMID:19389929

  9. KNEMIDOKOPTINID (EPIDERMOPTIDAE: KNEMIDOKOPTINAE) MITE INFESTATION IN WILD RED-CROWNED PARAKEETS (CYANORAMPHUS NOVAEZELANDIAE): CORRELATIONS BETWEEN MACROSCOPIC AND MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Bethany; Heath, Allen; Harvey, Cathy; Holyoake, Carly; Jakob-Hoff, Richard; Varsani, Arvind; Robertson, Ian; Warren, Kris

    2015-07-01

    During a study on health and disease in Red-crowned Parakeets (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) on Tiritiri Matangi Island and Little Barrier Island (Hauturu-o-Toi) in New Zealand between 2011 and 2013, an outbreak of feather loss prompted the collection of skin biopsies (n = 135) under anesthesia from the head of captured birds. A subset of samples (n = 7) was frozen to obtain whole specimens for identification of ectoparasites. Mites (range 1-11) were observed in 79/135 (58.5%) skin biopsies, whereas feather loss was only found in 47/142 (33.1%) birds captured during the sampling period. Compact orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and acanthosis were found in association with mites. Procnemidocoptes janssensi (Acari: Epidermoptidae, Knemidokoptinae) was identified from whole mites obtained from skin biopsies. We describe the presence, pathology, and stages of infestation for knemidokoptinid mange in a wild parrot population in New Zealand. Given the clinical and pathologic changes observed and poor knowledge of the parasite's New Zealand host and geographic distribution, further work is recommended for this and sympatric parrots, to understand relationships between the host, parasite, environment, and expression of disease. Results from this study reinforce the value of including biopsy samples for the investigation of skin disease in wild birds, particularly to link etiologic agents with pathologic changes. PMID:25973626

  10. Evidence of disease-related amphibian decline in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin; Corn, Paul Stephen; Pessier, Allan P.; Green, D. Earl

    2003-01-01

    The recent discovery of a pathogenic fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) associated with declines of frogs in the American and Australian tropics, suggests that at least the proximate cause, may be known for many previously unexplained amphibian declines. We have monitored boreal toads in Colorado since 1991 at four sites using capturea??recapture of adults and counts of egg masses to examine the dynamics of this metapopulation. Numbers of male toads declined in 1996 and 1999 with annual survival rate averaging 78% from 1991 to 1994, 45% in 1995 and 3% between 1998 and 1999. Numbers of egg masses also declined. An etiological diagnosis of chytridiomycosis consistent with infections by the genus Batrachochytrium was made in six wild adult toads. Characteristic histomorphological features (i.e. intracellular location, shape of thalli, presence of discharge tubes and rhizoids) of chytrid organisms, and host tissue response (acanthosis and hyperkeratosis) were observed in individual toads. These characteristics were indistinguishable from previously reported mortality events associated with chytrid fungus. We also observed epizootiological features consistent with mortality events associated with chytrid fungus: an increase in the ratio of female:male toads captured, an apparent spread of mortalities within the metapopulation and mortalities restricted to post metamorphic animals. Eleven years of population data suggest that this metapopulation of toads is in danger of extinction, pathological and epizootiological evidence indicates that B. dendrobatidis has played a proximate role in this process