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Sample records for acanthosis nigricans

  1. Acanthosis nigricans

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause any symptoms other than skin changes. Eventually, dark, velvety skin with very visible markings and creases ... care provider if you develop areas of thick, dark, velvety skin. Images Acanthosis nigricans - close-up Acanthosis ...

  2. Generalized benign acanthosis nigricans in an infant

    PubMed Central

    Das, Dipti; Das, Anupam; Kumar, Dhiraj; Gharami, Ramesh C.

    2014-01-01

    The generalized form of acanthosis nigricans, especially in infants, is extremely rare. Herein we report a 1-year-old female child who developed generalized acanthosis nigricans without any evidence of internal malignancy or endocrine disorder. This case is being reported for its rarity. PMID:25593799

  3. An approach to acanthosis nigricans

    PubMed Central

    Phiske, Meghana Madhukar

    2014-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is characterized by dark, coarse and thickened skin with a velvety texture, being symmetrically distributed on the neck, the axillae, antecubital and popliteal fossae, and groin folds, histopathologically characterized by papillomatosis and hyperkeratosis of the skin. A high prevalence of AN has been observed recently. Different varieties of AN include benign, obesity associated, syndromic, malignant, acral, unilateral, medication-induced and mixed AN. Diagnosis is largely clinical with histopathology needed only for confirmation. Other investigations needed are fasting lipoprotein profile, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, hemoglobin and alanine aminotransferase for obesity associated AN and radiological investigations (plain radiography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging/computerized tomography) for malignancy associated AN. The most common treatment modalities include retinoids and metformin. PMID:25165638

  4. Acanthosis nigricans: A fold (intertriginous) dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Bairamov, Orkhan; Tüzün, Yalçın

    2015-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a mucocutaneous disorder that is characterized by focal or diffuse hyperkeratotic, surfaces, which are symmetrically distributed hyperpigmented lesions of the skin. It rarely affects mucosal surfaces like oral cavities. Although it is commonly seen in adolescents, AN is also increasingly seen in children who are obese. Recent studies have found that AN can be a cutaneous indicator of insulin resistance and malignancy. Acanthosis nigricans has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, endocrinopathies, drugs, and malignancies. PMID:26051063

  5. Hyperinsulinemia and acanthosis nigricans in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, C. A.; Gilkison, C. R.; Keenan, B. S.; Nagamani, M.

    1997-01-01

    Compared with the US white, non-Hispanic population, the African-American population has a nearly two-fold higher prevalence of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Obesity, which usually precedes NIDDM, is associated with the skin lesion acanthosis nigricans in African Americans. This study was undertaken to determine what the relationship of acanthosis nigricans was to hyperinsulinemia, a major risk factor for NIDDM. Eighty-nine African-American subjects with acanthosis nigricans and 25 others without the skin lesion were evaluated using oral glucose tolerance testing and responsiveness to insulin. Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was present in 19 of the subjects with acanthosis nigricans. The prevalence of NIDDM in this group increased with increasing age, reaching 50% among those in their 40s. Fasting plasma insulin concentration was in direct proportion to the severity of the acanthosis nigricans involvement of the neck. These data suggest that among African Americans, this skin lesion is a marker for hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Furthermore, the presence of acanthosis nigricans identifies a subset with a much higher prevalence of NIDDM than is present in African Americans in the general population. PMID:9264219

  6. Unilateral nevoid acanthosis nigricans: Uncommon variant of a common disease

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anupam; Bhattacharya, Sabari; Kumar, Piyush; Gayen, Tirthankar; Roy, Kunal; Das, Nilay K.; Gharami, Ramesh C.

    2014-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a fairly common dermatosis characterized by hyperpigmented velvety plaques, having a predilection for the intertriginous areas. We herein present a case of unilateral nevoid acanthosis nigricans over the left lateral chest, in an adult male. The rarity of documentation of this entity in the world literature prompted us to report the case. PMID:25506563

  7. [Acral acanthosis nigricans associated with taking growth hormone].

    PubMed

    Peña Irún, A

    2014-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans is a skin lesion characterized by the presence of a hyperpigmented, velvety cutaneous thickening that usually appears in flexural areas. Less frequently, it can occur in other locations, such as the dorsum of hands and feet. In this case it is called acral acanthosis nigricans. It is a dermatological manifestation of systemic disease. It is often associated with insulin resistance-mediated endocrine diseases. A case is presented on a patient with acanthosis nigricans secondary to the use of growth hormone. PMID:23746703

  8. Acanthosis Nigricans among Northern Plains American Indian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Blakely; Noonan, Curtis; Bentley, Bonnie; Conway, Kathrene; Corcoran, Mary; FourStar, Kris; Gress, Shannon; Wagner, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present cross-sectional and prospective data on acanthosis nigricans (AN) prevalence in the context of other risk factors for diabetes including high body mass index (BMI), abnormal blood pressure (BP), physical inactivity and family history of diabetes among Northern Plains American Indian (AI) children.…

  9. Observing Anthropometric and Acanthosis Nigrican Changes among Children Over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Jennifer; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the anthropometrics and acanthosis nigricans (AN) in a sample of 7,337 children at two assessments. Four groups of children were identified based on the presence of AN at both time points: those who never had the marker, those who gained the marker, those who lost the marker, and those who maintained the marker. Group…

  10. Acanthosis Nigricans among Native Americans: an indicator of high diabetes risk.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, C A; Smith, M M; Gilkison, C R; Shaheb, S; Stahn, R M

    1994-01-01

    Prevalence of the skin lesion acanthosis nigricans was determined in two tribal communities in Texas and Nebraska. Thirty-eight percent of the Alabama-Coushatta tribe of Texas had acanthosis nigricans. Nineteen percent of Omaha and Winnebago tribal children had the skin lesion; the youngest children had the least acanthosis nigricans. Among weight-matched Alabama-Coushatta, fasting insulin concentrations were twofold higher in subjects with the lesion. It was concluded that acanthosis nigricans is highly prevalent among Native Americans and that its presence suggests insulin resistance. Thus, it may identify those with the highest risk for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in this population. PMID:7977931

  11. Resolution of Acanthosis Nigricans Following Curative Gastric Carcinoma Resection.

    PubMed

    Jagwani, A V; Reynu, R; Affirul, C A; Mustafa, M T; Kosai, N R

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a 48-year old, who presented with upper epigastrium pain associated with early satiety and significant weight loss. Physical examination revealed a thickening and darkening of skins around the skin folds, scalp, back and front of abdomen. A diagnosis of gastro-esophageal junction adenocarcinoma was confirmed by oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGDS) and biopsy. The biopsy of the skin lesion revealed a diagnosis of acanthosis nigricans, He underwent a total gastrectomy followed by adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy. Recovery is unremarkable. Interestingly, the skin lesions disappear following our therapy. We believe this may be attributed to the treatment of the malignancy. We highlight the interesting association, pathophysiology and therapy. PMID:27598021

  12. Hyperandrogenism-Insulin Resistance-Acanthosis Nigricans Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dédjan, A. H.; Chadli, A.; El Aziz, S.; Farouqi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Female hyperandrogenism is a frequent motive of consultation. It is revealed by hirsutism, acne or seborrhea, and disorders in menstruation cycle combined or not with virilisation signs. Several etiologies are incriminated but the hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans syndrome is rare. Observation. A 20-year-old girl, having had a five-year-old secondary amenorrhea. The exam revealed a patient, normotensive with a body mass index at 30 kg/m2 and a waist measurement of 120 cm, a severe hirsutism assessed to be 29 according to Ferriman Gallwey scale, virilisation signs of male morphotype, clitoridic hypertrophy and frontal alopecia, and an acanthosis nigricans behind the neck, in the armpits and elbows. The assessment carried out revealed testosteronemia at 1.28 ng/mL, which is more than twice the upper norm of the laboratory. Imaging studies were negative for both ovarian and adrenal masses. The retained diagnosis is HAIR-AN syndrome probably related to ovarian hyperthecosis and she was provided with androcur 50 mg/day and estradiol pills 2 mg/day and under hygiene-dietetic conditions. Conclusion. This case proves that HAIR-AN syndrome could be responsible for severe hyperandrogenism with virilisation signs. It must be retained after discarding the tumoral causes and when there are signs of insulin resistance. PMID:26229697

  13. Acanthosis Nigricans associated with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ferraz de Campos, Fernando Peixoto; Narvaez, Margarita Rosa Aveiga; Reis, Paola Vasconcellos Soares; Gomes, Augusto Cesar Marins; Paraskevopoulos, Daniela Kallíope de Sá; Santana, Frederico; Fugita, Oscar Eduardo Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN), an entity recognized since the 19th century, is a dermatopathy associated with insulin-resistant conditions, endocrinopathies, drugs, chromosome abnormalities and neoplasia. The latter, also known as malignant AN, is mostly related to abdominal neoplasms. Malignant AN occurs frequently among elderly patients. In these cases, the onset is subtle, and spreading involves the flexural regions of the body, particularly the axillae, palms, soles, and mucosa. Gastric adenocarcinoma is the most frequent associated neoplasia, but many others have been reported. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), although already reported, is rarely associated with malignant AN. The authors report the case of a woman who was being treated for depression but presented a long-standing and marked weight loss, followed by darkening of the neck and the axillary regions. Physical examination disclosed a tumoral mass in the left flank and symmetrical, pigmented, velvety, verrucous plaques on both axillae, which is classical for AN. The diagnostic work-up disclosed a huge renal mass, which was resected and further diagnosed as a RCC. The post-operative period was uneventful and the skin alteration was evanescent at the first follow-up consultation. The authors call attention to the association of AN with RCC. PMID:27284539

  14. Acanthosis Nigricans associated with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Narvaez, Margarita Rosa Aveiga; Reis, Paola Vasconcellos Soares; Gomes, Augusto Cesar Marins; Paraskevopoulos, Daniela Kallíope de Sá; Santana, Frederico; Fugita, Oscar Eduardo Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN), an entity recognized since the 19th century, is a dermatopathy associated with insulin-resistant conditions, endocrinopathies, drugs, chromosome abnormalities and neoplasia. The latter, also known as malignant AN, is mostly related to abdominal neoplasms. Malignant AN occurs frequently among elderly patients. In these cases, the onset is subtle, and spreading involves the flexural regions of the body, particularly the axillae, palms, soles, and mucosa. Gastric adenocarcinoma is the most frequent associated neoplasia, but many others have been reported. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), although already reported, is rarely associated with malignant AN. The authors report the case of a woman who was being treated for depression but presented a long-standing and marked weight loss, followed by darkening of the neck and the axillary regions. Physical examination disclosed a tumoral mass in the left flank and symmetrical, pigmented, velvety, verrucous plaques on both axillae, which is classical for AN. The diagnostic work-up disclosed a huge renal mass, which was resected and further diagnosed as a RCC. The post-operative period was uneventful and the skin alteration was evanescent at the first follow-up consultation. The authors call attention to the association of AN with RCC. PMID:27284539

  15. FGF21 Is Associated with Acanthosis Nigricans in Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yueye; Yang, Jie; Li, Yan; Chen, Jiaqi; Song, Kexiu; Wang, Xingchun; Bu, Le; Cheng, Xiaoyun; Wang, Jiying; Qu, Shen

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to investigate the relationship between FGF21 and obesity-related acanthosis nigricans (AN). Methods. 40 obese patients without AN (OB group), 40 obese patients with AN (AN group), and 40 healthy volunteers (control group, CON) were included in this study. Weight, BMI, lipid profile, FFA, UA, and CRP were measured in all participants. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed and serum glucose and plasma insulin were measured. Serum FGF21 was measured by ELISA. Results. Compared with OB group, AN group had higher levels of fasting insulin and homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P < 0.05), but lower serum levels of blood glucose. The difference of FGF21 among three groups was significant and AN group showed the highest serum level of FGF21 (P < 0.05). Serum FGF21 was most positively correlated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. Multiple logistic analysis showed that FGF21 was the independent risk factor for AN (OR 4.550; 95% CI 1.054–19.635; P = 0.042). Conclusion. AN patients had more serious hyperinsulinemia but better serum levels of blood glucose than OB. Increased FGF21 is associated with AN in obese patients and may be considered as compensatory response to the decreased insulin sensitivity. PMID:27190511

  16. Three Cases of Concomitant Acanthosis Nigricans with Confluent and Reticulated Papillomatosis in Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun; Kang, Bong Seon; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is characterized by symmetric, velvety, gray-brown hypertrophied plaques most commonly on the axillae and neck. Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis (CRP) is manifested by papules in the mid-chest that coalesce in the midline, and are arranged in a reticulated pattern peripherally. Both diseases are known to be related to endocrinopathies such as diabetes mellitus (DM), an insulin resistant state and obesity with unknown mechanisms. Herein, we presented three cases of concomitant acanthosis nigricans with confluent and reticulated papillomatosis in obese patients. PMID:27303169

  17. Is Acanthosis Nigricans a Reliable Indicator for Risk of Type 2 Diabetes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lisa H.; Ficca, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a thickening and hyperpigmentation of the skin commonly found on the neck, axilla, or groin and is generally caused by hyperinsulinemia, a consequence of insulin resistance associated with obesity. Insulin resistance is a primary risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and…

  18. A Comparison of Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, and Acanthosis Nigricans in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Tijerina, Sandra L.; Reyna, Maria Elena; Farooqi, Mohammad I.; Shelton, Margarette L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective quantitative study was to examine the relationships among acanthosis nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), school grade, and gender in children attending elementary school located in South West Texas. Data were collected by attending school district nurses. Researchers reviewed 7,026…

  19. Increasing Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, and Acanthosis Nigricans Abnormalities in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Garza, Viola; Fuentes, Lilia A.; Rodriguez, Melinda C.; Sullivan, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective quantitative study examined the relationships among gender, Acanthosis Nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) in children attending school Grades 1-9 in Southwest Texas. Of the 34,897 health screening records obtained for the secondary analysis, 32,788 were included for the study. A logistic regression…

  20. The association between acanthosis nigricans and dysglycemia in an ethnically diverse group of eighth grade students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of acanthosis nigricans (AN) and to quantify its association with dysglycemia in an ethnically diverse group of eighth-grade students. Data were collected in 2003 from a cross-sectional study of students from 12 middle schools in three US stat...

  1. A case of acanthosis nigricans as a paraneoplastic syndrome with squamous cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Karakas, Yusuf; Esin, Ece; Lacin, Sahin; Ceyhan, Koray; Heper, Aylin Okcu; Yalcin, Suayib

    2016-01-01

    A 55-year-old man presented with oral mucosal ulcers, blackening of both hands, and hyperpigmentation on axillary, anal, and inguinal regions for the last 3 months, which were all progressive. The patient was referred to the oncology department with the diagnosis of acanthosis nigricans for investigation of an underlying malignancy. He was a smoker. A computed tomography scan of thorax revealed enlarged mediastinal lymphadenopathies and a lesion on the left upper lobe. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the mediastinal lesion was consistent with squamous cell carcinoma, and biopsies of the skin and oral mucosal lesion also further confirmed the diagnosis of acanthosis nigricans. After docetaxel and cisplatin chemotherapy, a significant improvement in his skin and mucosal lesions was observed with almost complete resolution of the pulmonary lesion and the mediastinal lymph nodes. PMID:27536145

  2. Co-occurrence of acanthosis nigricans and bladder adenocarcinoma – case report

    PubMed Central

    Silny, Wojciech; Żaba, Ryszard; Osmola-Mańkowska, Agnieszka; Mackiewicz-Wysocka, Małgorzata; Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is characterized by the occurrence of symmetrical velvety hyperpigmented plaques that can be observed in each location on the skin. However, the lesions are most frequently located in the axillary, inguinal and nuchal areas. Primarily, the lesions appear as hyperpigmented focuses which later transform into papillary lesions. There are two forms of the disease – benign and malignant. Malignant AN is considered to represent paraneoplastic syndrome co-occurring with advanced cancer, but as such it is not malignant. This article presents a case of a patient diagnosed with AN and coexisting bladder cancer and discusses the case in the context of available literature. PMID:24596525

  3. Is Acanthosis Nigricans a Reliable Indicator for Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Obese Children and Adolescents?: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Cilymol; Rozmus, Cathy L.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes is becoming a major health problem affecting children and adolescents in the United States. This article reviews the current literature examining the association between the presence of acanthosis nigricans (AN) and risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in obese children and adolescents. Ethnicity, family…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Overweight, Elevated Blood Pressure, and Acanthosis Nigricans among Low-Income Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopping, Dana; Nevarez, Holly; Goto, Keiko; Morgan, Irene; Frigaard, Martin; Wolff, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the rates of overweight, elevated blood pressure, acanthosis nigricans, and their associated factors in third through fifth grade students over 4 years. Participants consisted of 279 students who participated in health screenings in 2002 and 2006. Hispanic students had significantly higher rates of overweight and…

  5. Acanthosis Nigricans

    MedlinePlus

    ... easy to fall into believing the hype about bleaches, skin scrubs, and over-the-counter exfoliating treatments. ... When Being Overweight Is a Health Problem Skin, Hair, and Nails Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It? ...

  6. Acanthosis Nigricans

    MedlinePlus

    ... or lactic acid. Over-the-counter lotions containing salicylic acid. Over-the-counter creams containing urea. Over-the- ... or beta-hydroxy acids (glycolic acid, lactic acid, salicylic acid) Prescription-strength urea A retinoid such as tretinoin, ...

  7. A STUDY OF PATHOGENESIS OF ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS AND ITS CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Neerja

    2011-01-01

    Background: Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a dermatosis characterized by thickened, hyperpigmented plaques, typically on the intertriginous surfaces and neck. Common in some populations, its prevalence depends on race. Clinicians should recognize AN; it heralds disorders ranging from endocrinologic disturbances to malignancy. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis of AN and its clinical implications and management. Materials and Methods: We selected 30 patients for the study. Diagnosis of associated disorders was established by history, physical examination, body mass index (BMI), hormone measurements by radioimmunoassays of thyroidnfunction tests, free testosterone, 17 (OH) progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), cortisol, gonadotropins, prolactin, immunoreactive insulin, and C-peptide levels. Results and Discussion: In our study, the flexural involvement (flexures of groins, knees and elbows) was seen in 40% patients, lip involvement was seen in 6.6% patients, and dorsal involvement was seen in 3.3% patients each. Increased serum testosterone levels were seen in 13.3% patients and increased DHEAS levels were seen in 20% patients. Regarding the types of AN, obesity induced AN or pseudo-AN was seen 70% patients, syndromic AN was seen in 23.35% patients and malignant AN was seen in 6.6% patients. The commonest histopathological feature of patients with AN was hyperkeratosis, seen in 100% patients, papillomatosis was seen in 90% patients, dermal infiltrate of lymphocytes and plasma cells was seen in 60% patients, horn pseudocysts were seen in 30% patients, and irregular acanthosis was seen in 26.6% patients. PMID:22345770

  8. Reliability and Validity of the Acanthosis Nigricans Screening Tool for Use in Elementary School-Age Children by School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Leslie K.; Hall, Lynne M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of an acanthosis nigricans (AN) screening tool for use in elementary school-age children of different ethnic groups. Cross-sectional data were collected via observation of 288, 5- to 12-year-old school-age children. Three nurse clinicians used a 0-4 grade AN screening tool to rate…

  9. Social Anxiety, Depression and Self-Esteem in Obese Adolescent Girls with Acanthosis Nigricans

    PubMed Central

    Pirgon, Özgür; Sandal, Gonca; Gökçen, Cem; Bilgin, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of acanthosis nigricans (AN) on depression symptoms, related quality of life and self-esteem scores in obese adolescent girls. Methods: Fifty-nine obese adolescent girls (mean age: 13.19±1.3 years, age range: 12-17 years, mean body mass index: 29.89±3.30) were enrolled in this study. The obese adolescent girls were divided into two groups based on presence or absence of AN. Non-obese healthy adolescents constituted the control group (30 girls, mean age: 13.5±1.4 years). All subjects were evaluated using the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAI-C), and the modified Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES). Higher scores indicated more severe depression and anxiety, as well as low self-esteem status. Results: The AN and non-AN obese groups showed significantly higher CDI, STAI-C and SES scores than the control group, and the two obese groups demonstrated no significant differences for these scores. The AN obese group with higher total testosterone levels (>50 ng/dL) had higher scores for SES (2.55±1.8 vs. 1.42±1.2; p=0.03) than the AN obese group with low total testosterone levels. SES scores significantly correlated with total testosterone levels (r=0.362; p=0.03) and fasting insulin (r=0.462; p=0.03) in the AN obese group. Conclusion: Higher SES scores (low self-esteem status) were determined in obese adolescents with acanthosis and were related to hyperandrogenism. This study also showed that a high testosterone level may be one of the important indicators of low self-esteem status in obese girls with AN. PMID:25800478

  10. [Systemic photochemotherapy (PUVA) in acanthosis nigricans maligna: regression of keratosis, hyperpigmentation and pruritus].

    PubMed

    Bonnekoh, B; Thiele, B; Merk, H; Mahrle, G

    1989-12-15

    We report on a 60-year-old patient, who developed malignant acanthosis nigricans (MAN) with intense itching 2 years after a large-cell bronchial carcinoma had been diagnosed and found inoperable. The MAN became manifest at a phase of full clinical remission of the lung tumor, which had been treated with cytostasis (cisplatin, vindesine), high energy irradiation, and extirpation of the lymph node metastases. One year after onset of MAN, the lung tumor relapsed, accompanied by an elevated serum level of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The patient was slightly obese, but not diabetic. The generalized MAN was treated with 18 exposures to systemic PUVA (photochemotherapy) over 9 weeks. The patient received 8-methoxypsoralene (8-MOP) orally and a total UVA dose of 52 J/cm2; the last exposure amounted to a maximum dose of 4 J/cm2. Under this treatment, the patient was completely relieved from tormenting pruritus; in addition, we observed significant regression of the pigmented keratoses as well as the intertriginous maceration. PMID:2561241

  11. The Association between Acanthosis Nigricans and Dysglycemia in an Ethnically Diverse Group of Eighth Grade Students

    PubMed Central

    Rafalson, Lisa; Pham, Trang H.; Willi, Steven M.; Marcus, Marsha; Jessup, Ann; Baranowski, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of acanthosis nigricans (AN) and to quantify its association with dysglycemia in an ethnically diverse group of eighth grade students. Data were collected in 2003 from a cross-sectional study of students from 12 middle schools in three U.S. states. Sex, race/ethnicity and pubertal status were self-reported. Anthropometric measures were recorded. Trained staff identified the presence and severity of AN by inspection of the back of the neck. Fasting and 2hr blood samples were analyzed for impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and high-risk glycated hemoglobin (A1C), respectively defined as ≥100 mg/dl, ≥140 mg/dl, and ≥ 5.7-6.4%. Overall, 25.0%, 58.2%, and 16.8% were Black, Hispanic and White, respectively. AN was present among 406 /1438 (28.2%) of students: 39% among Black, 30% among Hispanic, and 5.4% among White. IGT and highArisk A1C were present among 2.1%, and 12.4%, respectively. In multivariate logistic modeling after adjusting for gender, family history of diabetes, BMI percentile and pubertal staging, the presence (vs. absence) of AN was associated with a 59% increased likelihood of highArisk A1C: (P = 0.04), twice the likelihood of IGT (P=0.06), and 47% greater likelihood of IGT/IFG combined (P<0.0001). Adjustment for insulin attenuated the ORs by 25-70%. In a racially/ethnically diverse sample of U.S. adolescents, AN was common, occurring in 28% of the sample. AN was associated with a 50-100% increased likelihood of dysglycemia even after consideration of established diabetes risk factors. PMID:23592686

  12. Acanthosis nigricans predicts the clustering of metabolic syndrome components in Hispanic elementary school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Vanderbloemen, Laura; Skipper, Betty; Leggott, John; Sebesta, Emilie; Glew, Robert; Burge, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a dermatologic condition associated with hyperinsulinemia, a marker of insulin resistance that is the principal abnormality in metabolic syndrome (MetS). We examined the association of AN with the clustering of MetS components. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban school-based health center in New Mexico. Students without diabetes were evaluated for AN, a family history of type 2 diabetes, body mass index (BMI), and MetS components. The clustering of MetS components by BMI category and AN status was assessed by comparing the group means of summed average z-scores of fasting insulin, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure among the students. A multivariate model with BMI category and AN status controlling for Tanner stage was performed to identify the variables associated with the clustering of MetS components. Results Complete data were available for 90 children (age, 9.7 ± 1.4 years; 94 % Hispanic; 60 % female). In multivariate modeling of MetS cluster z-score, significant differences were found between the students with BMI < 85th percentile [−0.27; 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) = − 0.42 to − 0.11] and (a) the students with BMI 85th – 94.9th percentile with AN (0.74; 95 % CI = 0.17 – 1.31) and (b) the students with BMI ≥ 95th percentile with AN (0.86; 95 % CI = 0.54 – 1.18). No significant differences in the MetS cluster z-score were seen between the students with BMI < 85th percentile and those with BMI 85th – 94.9th percentile without AN (0.24; 95 % CI = − 0.33 to 0.81) or those with BMI ≥ 95th percentile without AN (0.31; 95 % CI = − 0.13 to 0.75). Conclusions Overweight/obese Hispanic elementary school-aged children with AN exhibit clustering of MetS components and could benefit from early intervention. PMID:23329755

  13. Defect in tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor from a patient with insulin resistance and acanthosis nigricans.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, R; Shiba, T; Tobe, K; Shibasaki, Y; Koshio, O; Izumi, T; Odawara, M; Mikami, Y; Matsuura, N; Akanuma, Y

    1990-04-01

    We report here a defect in tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor from an insulin-resistant patient with acanthosis nigricans using cultured Ebstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B-lymphocytes. As judged by affinity labeling and immunoblotting, the alpha- and beta-subunits of insulin receptors from the patient's lymphocytes exhibited the same mol wt as those from control subjects. Lectin-purified extracts from lymphocytes of the patient and the control subjects containing the same insulin-binding capacity were assayed for autophosphorylation and the ability to phosphorylate histone H2B. The degree of insulin-dependent autophosphorylation and the tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor from the patient's lymphocytes were decreased to 15% and 13%, respectively, in a cell-free system. The insulin-dependent autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor was also impaired in intact EBV lymphocytes from the patient. Consistent with these results, we found that one of this patient's alleles had a mutation in which valine is substituted for Gly996, the third glycine in the conserved Gly-X-Gly-X-X-Gly motif in the kinase domain. Thus, it seems likely that the defect in tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor cause the insulin resistance in this patient. The EBV lymphocyte can be a good system to detect genetically determined abnormalities in the insulin receptor. PMID:2180980

  14. Claviceps nigricans and Claviceps grohii: their alkaloids and phylogenetic placement.

    PubMed

    Pazoutová, Sylvie; Olsovská, Jana; Sulc, Miroslav; Chudícková, Milada; Flieger, Miroslav

    2008-06-01

    Claviceps purpurea, C. grohii, C. zizaniae, C. cyperi, and C. nigricans are closely related ergot fungi and form a monophyletic clade inside the genus Claviceps. Analysis of alkaloid content in C. nigricans sclerotia using UPLC detected ergocristine (1), ergosine (2), alpha-ergocryptine (3), and ergocristam (4). Alkaloids 1, 3, and 4 were found in the sclerotia of C. grohii. The content of 4 in the mixture of alkaloids from C. nigricans and C. grohii (over 8% and over 20%, respectively) was unusually high. Submerged shaken cultures of C. nigricans produced no alkaloids, whereas C. grohii culture formed small amounts (15 mg L (-1)) of extracellular clavines and 1. In the previously used HPLC method the ergocristam degradation product could have been obscured by the ergosine peak. Therefore sclerotia of a C. purpurea habitat-specific population G2 with the dominant production of 1 and 2 have been reanalyzed, but no 4 was detected. The phylogeny of the C. purpurea-related species group is discussed with regard to alkaloid-specific nonribosomal peptide synthetase duplication leading to the production of two main ergopeptines instead of a single product. PMID:18461998

  15. Histopathological changes in the placentas and fetuses of mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from the Myotis nigricans nigricans bat.

    PubMed

    Badra, E S; Sala, M A; Lopes, R A; Prado, J C; Albuquerque, S; Zucoloto, S; Carraro-Abrahão, A A

    2008-01-01

    Histopathological changes and placental transmission were studied in the late stages of pregnancy in mice infected with a strain of Trypanosoma cruzi, isolated from a Myotis nigricans nigricans bat. Large amastigote nests were observed in uterine muscles, as well as in decidual and endothelial placental cells. In addition, persistent coagulative and fibrotic vascular degeneration was observed. Large amastigote burdens were found in giant cells, spongioblasts and endothelial cells within the labyrinthine layer. Transplacental transmission was confirmed in 30% of the fetuses examined, in which amastigote nests were seen only in striated muscle. During the acute phase, intrauterine development was impaired as the result of parasitic invasion of the placenta, and fetal mortality rose to 10%. PMID:18640685

  16. DNA barcoding of Nilssonia congeners corroborates existence of wild N. nigricans in northeast India.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Shantanu; Laskar, Boni Amin; Venkataraman, Krishnamoorthy; Banerjee, Dhriti; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-07-01

    DNA barcode data of soft-shell turtles is limited in global DNA database while it is completely lacking for the highly debated species Nilssonia nigricans. We employed DNA barcoding technique to discriminate the species cluster for Nilssonia congeners, especially for the highly debated N. nigricans from different localities of northeast India. Sampling across the region included a few live specimens from wild, market sold carcass specimens, and a few dry carapaces meant for home decoration purpose. The generated sequences (621 bp of mtCOI) of dry carapaces showed 99-100% homology with the generated sequences of morphologically identified N. nigricans. The COI barcode sequences of N. nigricans (n = 12) showed 3.8% mean genetic divergence with N. hurum (n = 3), 10% with N. gangetica (n = 4), and 9.2% with N. formosa (GenBank sequences). Similarly, the mtCytb sequences of the dry carapace and live specimens of N. nigricans were 99-100% homologous with the conspecific database sequences and formed specific clusters. The inferred Neighbor-Joining (NJ), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and Bayesian (BA) phylogeny based on partial mtCOI gene efficiently discriminated all the congeners of Nilssonia into specific clusters and, therefore, it was helpful to detect the existence of N. nigricans. PMID:26057013

  17. Pest-managing activities of plant extracts and anthraquinones from Cassia nigricans from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Georges, Kambou; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Dalavoy, Sanjeev S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2008-04-01

    Insecticidal activity of eight plants collected from Burkina Faso was studied using mosquito (Ochlerotatus triseriatus), Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens larvae and adult white fly (Bemisia tabaci). The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Strophantus hispidus, Securidaca longepedunculata, Sapium grahamii, Swartzia madagascariensis, Cassia nigricans, Jatropha curcas and Datura innoxia were used in this study. Extracts were tested at 250 microg/mL concentration. All three extracts of C. nigricans, J. curcas (skin and seeds) and D. innoxia exhibited 100% mortality on fourth instar mosquito (O. triseriatus) larvae. In addition, the n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of S. hispidus, S. longepedunculata, S. grahamii showed 100% mortality. The ethyl acetate extract of S. madagascariensis was the most active on adult white fly and exhibited 80% mortality. Extracts of all other plants exhibited 30-50% mortality on B. tabaci. In the antifeedant assays against H. zea and H. virescens, the MeOH extracts of C. nigricans, S. madagascarensis and S. hispidus were more effective against H. zea as indicated by 74% larval weight reduction as compared to the control. Since C. nigricans is commonly used in West Africa to protect grain storage from insects, we have characterized the insecticidal components present in its extract. Bioassay directed isolation of C. nigricans leaf extract yielded anthraquinones emodin, citreorosein, and emodic acid and a flavonoid, luteolin. Emodin, the most abundant and active anthraquinone in C. nigricans showed approximately 85% mortality on mosquito larvae Anopheles gambiaea and adult B. tabaci at 50 and 25 microg/mL, respectively, in 24 h. These results suggest that the extract of C. nigricans has the potential to be used as an organic approach to manage some of the agricultural pests. PMID:17478091

  18. Rapid regulation of blood parameters under acute hypoxia in the Amazonian fish Prochilodus nigricans.

    PubMed

    Val, Adalberto Luis; Gomes, Katia Regina Maruyama; de Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca

    2015-06-01

    Prochilodus nigricans, locally known as curimatã, is an Amazonian commercial fish that endures adverse environmental conditions, in particular low dissolved oxygen, during its migration. Poorer environmental conditions are expected in the near future. Prochilodus nigricans overcomes current seasonal and diurnal changes in dissolved oxygen by adjusting erythrocytic levels of ATP and GTP, modulators of Hb-O2 affinity. Will this fish species be endangered under more extreme environmental conditions as hypoxia and acidification tend to occur in a shorter period of time? As P. nigricans does not exhibit any apparent morphological alterations to exploit the air-water interface, it must rely on fast adjustments of blood properties. To investigate this aspect, basic hematology indices, pHe, pHi, plasma lactate, erythrocytic levels of ATP and GTP and functional properties of the hemolysate of P. nigricans were analyzed over a period of 6h in hypoxia and subsequent recovery in normoxia. The levels of erythrocytic GTP were four times higher than ATP and were reduced to ¼ of the original level after 3h under hypoxia. Erythrocytic levels of ATP were unaffected over the experimental period. All other analyzed blood parameters exhibited a time-course change in animals under hypoxia and returned to normoxic levels. Considering the hemolysate functional properties and the ability to regulate the above mentioned blood characteristics, P. nigricans is able to endure short-term changes in dissolved oxygen. PMID:25737030

  19. GOUSSIA GIRELLAE N. SP. (APICOMPLEXA: EIMERIORINA) IN THE OPALEYE, 'GIRELLA NIGRICANS' (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Goussia girellae n. sp. is described from the opaleye fish, Girella nigricans. Merogonic stages were observed in the apices of intestinal epithelial cells, in the lamina propria, and in extraintestinal sites including liver, gills, and spleen. Gamonts were observed in the intesti...

  20. Natural growth, otolith shape and diet analyses of Odontesthes nigricans Richardson (Atherinopsidae) from southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattuca, M. E.; Lozano, I. E.; Brown, D. R.; Renzi, M.; Luizon, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Age and growth, otolith shape and diet of Odontesthes nigricans were analysed in order to provide an insight into the life history of the species and furthermore, to assess their possible use as a tool for discriminating silverside populations from the South Atlantic Ocean (Punta María) and Beagle Channel waters (Varela Bay). The age and growth analysis was performed by counting daily increments and annual marks in sagittae otoliths. Length-at-age data of individuals <65 mm standard length (SL) were fitted to the Laird-Gompertz model (SLt = 6.22 exp 2.45 [1-exp (-0.02t)]), which provided an excellent description of the pattern of daily growth for O. nigricans juveniles from Varela Bay. The spawning period was also assessed through back-calculation of hatching dates and it extended from November to February. The count of annual marks in larger individuals identified 7 year classes (0+ to 6+) in Varela Bay and 6 year classes (0+ to 5+) in Punta María. The von Bertalanffy growth model explained more than 95% of the growth patterns observed in O. nigricans from Varela Bay (SLt = 245.49 [1 - exp -0.24(t+0.46)]) and Punta María (SLt = 345.09 [1 - exp -0.15(t+0.31)]). Particularly, k and SL∞ varied significantly between sampling sites; reaching Punta María a larger SL∞ value with a lower k. Otolith shape variation was also explored using elliptical Fourier analysis and it showed significant differences between Varela Bay and Punta María populations. Furthermore, gut content analysis characterized O. nigricans as an invertebrate predator, being benthic organisms the most important components of its diet, which also showed significant site dependence. The use of all these analyses contributed to a holistic approach which maximized the likelihood of correctly identifying both O. nigricans populations in the southernmost limit of the species distribution.

  1. Combined Non-Target Effects of Insecticide and High Temperature on the Parasitoid Bracon nigricans.

    PubMed

    Abbes, Khaled; Biondi, Antonio; Kurtulus, Alican; Ricupero, Michele; Russo, Agatino; Siscaro, Gaetano; Chermiti, Brahim; Zappalà, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We studied the acute toxicity and the sublethal effects, on reproduction and host-killing activity, of four widely used insecticides on the generalist parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a natural enemy of the invasive tomato pest, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Laboratory bioassays were conducted applying maximum insecticide label rates at three constant temperatures, 25, 35 and 40°C, considered as regular, high and very high, respectively. Data on female survival and offspring production were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinetoram caused 80% mortality at 25°C and 100% at higher temperatures, while spinosad caused 100% mortality under all temperature regimes. Cyantraniliprole was slightly toxic to B. nigricans adults in terms of acute toxicity at the three temperatures, while it did not cause any sublethal effects in egg-laying and host-killing activities. The interaction between the two tested factors (insecticide and temperature) significantly influenced the number of eggs laid by the parasitoid, which was the lowest in the case of females exposed to chlorantraniliprole at 35°C. Furthermore, significantly lower B. nigricans demographic growth indexes were estimated for all the insecticides under all temperature conditions, with the exception of chlorantraniliprole at 25°C. Our findings highlight an interaction between high temperatures and insecticide exposure, which suggests a need for including natural stressors, such as temperature, in pesticide risk assessments procedures. PMID:26382245

  2. Combined Non-Target Effects of Insecticide and High Temperature on the Parasitoid Bracon nigricans

    PubMed Central

    Abbes, Khaled; Biondi, Antonio; Kurtulus, Alican; Ricupero, Michele; Russo, Agatino; Siscaro, Gaetano; Chermiti, Brahim; Zappalà, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We studied the acute toxicity and the sublethal effects, on reproduction and host-killing activity, of four widely used insecticides on the generalist parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a natural enemy of the invasive tomato pest, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Laboratory bioassays were conducted applying maximum insecticide label rates at three constant temperatures, 25, 35 and 40°C, considered as regular, high and very high, respectively. Data on female survival and offspring production were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinetoram caused 80% mortality at 25°C and 100% at higher temperatures, while spinosad caused 100% mortality under all temperature regimes. Cyantraniliprole was slightly toxic to B. nigricans adults in terms of acute toxicity at the three temperatures, while it did not cause any sublethal effects in egg-laying and host-killing activities. The interaction between the two tested factors (insecticide and temperature) significantly influenced the number of eggs laid by the parasitoid, which was the lowest in the case of females exposed to chlorantraniliprole at 35°C. Furthermore, significantly lower B. nigricans demographic growth indexes were estimated for all the insecticides under all temperature conditions, with the exception of chlorantraniliprole at 25°C. Our findings highlight an interaction between high temperatures and insecticide exposure, which suggests a need for including natural stressors, such as temperature, in pesticide risk assessments procedures. PMID:26382245

  3. A new species of Myotis from the Islas Tres Marias, Nayarit, Mexico, with comments on variation in Myotis nigricans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bogan, Michael A.

    1978-01-01

    A new Myotis is described from the Islas Tres Marias, Nayarit, Mexico. the new species is distinct from related taxa n the adjacent Mexican mainland (M. californicus, M. leibii, and M. carteri), although most closely related to M. carteri as shown by univariate and canonical variates analyses. An analysis of six groups of M. nigricans from Middle and South America supports the elevation of M. nigricans carteri to specific status, confirms the distinctness of M. nigricus extremus, but fails to substantiate subspecific status for bats from Columbia and Ecuador, recent recognized as M. n. punensis.

  4. Main features of the oxidative metabolism in gills and liver of Odontesthes nigricans Richardson (Pisces, Atherinopsidae).

    PubMed

    Lattuca, M E; Malanga, G; Aguilar Hurtado, C; Pérez, A F; Calvo, J; Puntarulo, S

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study comparatively the oxidative metabolism in gills and liver of a silverside, Odontesthes nigricans, in their natural environment, the Beagle Channel. Oxidative damage to lipids was evaluated by assessing TBARS and lipid radical content, in gills and liver. Gills showed a significantly higher degree of damage than liver. The content of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and catalase activity showed significantly higher values in the liver than in the gills. The ascorbyl radical (A(*)) content showed no significant differences between gills and liver. The ascorbate (AH(-)) content was 12+/-2 and 159+/-28 nmol/mg FW in gills and liver, respectively. Oxidative metabolism at the hydrophilic level was assessed as the ratio A(*)/AH(-). The ratio A(*)/AH(-) was significantly different between organs, (6+/-2)10(-5) and (5+/-2)10(-6), for the gills and the liver, respectively. Both, lipid radical content/alpha-tocopherol content and lipid radical content/beta-carotene content ratios were significantly higher in gills as compared to the values recorded for the liver, suggesting an increased situation of oxidative stress condition in the lipid phase of the gills. Taken as a whole, the O. nigricans liver exhibited a better control of oxidative damage than the gills, allowing minimization of intracellular damage when exposed to environmental stressing conditions. PMID:19706336

  5. Immune-enhancing activity of extracellular polysaccharides isolated from Rhizopus nigricans.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhidan; Kong, Mengli; Zhang, Pengying; Sun, Qingjie; Chen, Kaoshan

    2016-09-01

    Extracellular polysaccharides (EPS1-1) was extracted from fermentation liquor of Rhizopus nigricans and evaluated its immune-enhancing activities in vitro and in vivo. Results suggested that the proliferation of lymphocyte was stimulated after treated with EPS1-1. Moreover, the activities of macrophages were enhanced by increasing the activities of phagocytosis and acid phosphatase, the production of NO and the mRNA levels of IL-2, TNF-α and iNOS. Furthermore, EPS1-1 could significantly boost the immunity of normal and immunosuppressed mice, which included the increase of loaded swimming time, footpad swelling, organ index and the secretion of IL-2 and TNF-α in serum, thus suggesting that EPS1-1 could improve the body immunity through cellular immunity and humoral immunity. These findings provided further insights into the potential use of EPS1-1 as immunopotentiator or new function food. PMID:27185145

  6. Habitat Fragmentation in Arid Zones: A Case Study of Linaria nigricans Under Land Use Changes (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñas, Julio; Benito, Blas; Lorite, Juan; Ballesteros, Miguel; Cañadas, Eva María; Martinez-Ortega, Montserrat

    2011-07-01

    Habitat fragmentation due to human activities is one of the most important causes of biodiversity loss. In Mediterranean areas the species have co-evolved with traditional farming, which has recently been replaced for more severe and aggressive practices. We use a methodological approach that enables the evaluation of the impact that agriculture and land use changes have for the conservation of sensitive species. As model species, we selected Linaria nigricans, a critically endangered plant from arid and semiarid ecosystems in south-eastern Spain. A chronosequence of the evolution of the suitable habitat for the species over more than 50 years has been reconstructed and several geometrical fragmentation indices have been calculated. A new index called fragmentation cadence (FC) is proposed to quantify the historical evolution of habitat fragmentation regardless of the habitat size. The application of this index has provided objective forecasting of the changes of each remnant population of L. nigricans. The results indicate that greenhouses and construction activities (mainly for tourist purposes) exert a strong impact on the populations of this endangered species. The habitat depletion showed peaks that constitute the destruction of 85% of the initial area in only 20 years for some populations of L. nigricans. According to the forecast established by the model, a rapid extinction could take place and some populations may disappear as early as the year 2030. Fragmentation-cadence analysis can help identify population units of primary concern for its conservation, by means of the adoption of improved management and regulatory measures.

  7. Horizontal movements of Atlantic blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) in the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, R.T.; Wells, R.J.D.; Rooker, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined movements of Atlantic blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) from the Gulf of Mexico based upon 42 pop-up archival transmitting (PAT) tags. Long deployments (including one 334-day track) revealed diverse movement patterns within the Gulf of Mexico. North-south seasonal changes in blue marlin distribution showed strong correspondence with established seasonal patterns of sea surface temperature and primary production. During the summer spawning season, blue marlin utilized outer shelf and shelf edge waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and longer duration tracks indicated overwintering habitats in the Bay of Campeche. Egress occurred throughout the year and was difficult to determine because some tracks ended in the Straits of Florida (n = 3) while other tracks recorded movement through it or the Yucatan Channel (n = 4). Our results indicate that Atlantic blue marlin have a more restricted geographic range of habitats than previously recognized and that the Gulf of Mexico provides spatially dynamic suitable habitat that is utilized year-round through seasonal movements. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Early environment and recruitment of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) into the breeding population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, J.S.; Herzog, M.P.; Ward, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    In geese, growth regulates survival in the first year. We examined whether early growth, which is primarily governed by environmental conditions, also affects the probability that individuals that survive their first year enter the breeding population. We used logistic regression on a sample of Black Brant (Brauta bernicla nigricans) that were weighed at a known age in their first summer and observed during winter (indicating that they had survived the principal mortality period in their first year) to study whether early growth influenced the probability that those individuals would be recruited into the breeding population. We also examined the effects of cohort (1986-1996), sex, age when measured, and area where individuals were reared. The model with the lowest Akaike's Information Criterion score contained body mass, age (days) at measurement, cohort, sex, and brood-rearing area. Models that included variable mass had 85% of the cumulative model weight of the models we considered, indicating that gosling mass had a substantial effect on probability of them entering the breeding population. Females were more likely to be detected breeding than males, which is consistent with the differential fidelity of the sexes. Of individuals that survived the first year, larger goslings were more likely to become breeders. More recent cohorts were less likely to have been detected as breeders. Our findings indicate that environment during the growth period affects the ability of individuals to enter the breeding population, even after accounting for the effects of growth on survival.

  9. Geographic variation in the diet of opaleye (Girella nigricans) with respect to temperature and habitat.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Michael D; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2012-01-01

    We studied diet variation in an omnivorous fish across its range, which allowed us to test predictions about the effect of ocean temperature and habitat on herbivory. Throughout most of its geographic range, from Southern California to central Baja California, the opaleye (Girella nigricans) fed primarily on red and green algae, but there was significant variation in the amount of algal material in the diet among sites. The proportion of algal material in the diet was related to habitat, with algae making up a larger proportion of a fish's diet in algal-dominated habitats than in urchin barrens. Independent of habitat, the proportion of algal material in the diet increased with environmental temperature. Analyses of stable isotopes revealed similar changes in trophic position and confirmed that these associations with diet persisted over relatively long time scales. The shift to a more herbivorous diet at warmer temperatures is in agreement with past laboratory studies on this species that show a diet-dependent change in performance with temperature and can indicate a diet shift across the species' geographic range to meet its physiological demands. A possible plastic response to herbivory was a longer gut relative to body size. The results of this study are consistent with past findings that associate temperature with increases in the relative diversity of herbivorous fishes in tropical parts of the ocean. PMID:23029302

  10. Geographic Variation in the Diet of Opaleye (Girella nigricans) with Respect to Temperature and Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Michael D.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    We studied diet variation in an omnivorous fish across its range, which allowed us to test predictions about the effect of ocean temperature and habitat on herbivory. Throughout most of its geographic range, from Southern California to central Baja California, the opaleye (Girella nigricans) fed primarily on red and green algae, but there was significant variation in the amount of algal material in the diet among sites. The proportion of algal material in the diet was related to habitat, with algae making up a larger proportion of a fish’s diet in algal-dominated habitats than in urchin barrens. Independent of habitat, the proportion of algal material in the diet increased with environmental temperature. Analyses of stable isotopes revealed similar changes in trophic position and confirmed that these associations with diet persisted over relatively long time scales. The shift to a more herbivorous diet at warmer temperatures is in agreement with past laboratory studies on this species that show a diet-dependent change in performance with temperature and can indicate a diet shift across the species’ geographic range to meet its physiological demands. A possible plastic response to herbivory was a longer gut relative to body size. The results of this study are consistent with past findings that associate temperature with increases in the relative diversity of herbivorous fishes in tropical parts of the ocean. PMID:23029302

  11. Corynebacterium nigricans sp. nov.: Proposed Name for a Black-Pigmented Corynebacterium Species Recovered from the Human Female Urogenital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Sanjay K.; Bernard, Kathryn A.; Harney, Mary; Frank, Daniel N.; Reed, Kurt D.

    2003-01-01

    Six independent isolates of an unusual black-pigmented Corynebacterium species (strains CN-1, CN-2, CN-3415, W70124, 91-0032, and 92-0360) were recovered from the human female urogenital tract. Four of the six source patients had complications of pregnancy, including spontaneous abortion, preterm labor, and low amniotic fluid volume at the time of the pathogen isolation. One isolate was recovered from a vaginal ulcer. All six strains yielded black-pigmented colonies on sheep blood agar, chocolate agar, and colistin-nalidixic acid agar after 24 to 48 h of incubation at 35°C. The dry, adherent colonies pitted the agar surface. The cells were coccobacillary to rod-shaped, catalase positive, nonmotile, and nonlipophilic. Only five of six isolates were available for characterization. Biochemical and chemotaxonomic studies revealed that the strains belong to the genus Corynebacterium but differ from known corynebacterial species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strains are closely related and form a new subline within the genus Corynebacterium. We propose the name Corynebacterium nigricans sp. nov. for this group of coryneforms. The type strain of Corynebacterium nigricans is CN-1. It is deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (assigned strain number ATCC 700975) and in the Institute Pasteur collection (assigned strain number CIP 107346). PMID:12958268

  12. Rabson-Mendenhall Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Iffat; Altaf, Hinah; Yaseen, Atiya

    2014-01-01

    Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome (RMS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by growth retardation, dysmorphisms, lack of subcutaneous fat, acanthosis nigricans, enlarged genitalia, hirsutism, dysplastic dentition, coarse facial features, abnormal glucose homeostasis, hyperinsulinemia and pineal hyperplasia. Herein, we describe a 13-year-old girl with physical features of RMS who presented to us on account of acanthosis nigricans. PMID:25484423

  13. Anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities of an exopolysaccharide from Rhizopus nigricans on CT26 tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Cao, Jianfeng; Chen, Guochuang; Xu, Yanghui; Lu, Jingbo; Fang, Fang; Chen, Kaoshan

    2016-07-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) from Rhizopus nigricans. Our results showed EPS could significantly inhibit the tumor growth and increase the immune organs index of CT26 tumor-bearing mice. EPS treatment increased the productions of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in serum. The increase of percentage of CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells among total spleen T lymphocyte was also observed. Furthermore, EPS remarkably stimulate spleen lymphocytes proliferation in the absence or presence of mitogens. In addition, we found that EPS had synergistic effect with chemotherapy and improved immunosuppressive effect induced by 5-Fu. In summary, these findings indicated that the antitumor effects of EPS might be partly due to immune function activation and it might have potential to be used in the treatment for colorectal cancer. PMID:27163210

  14. Survival and breeding advantages of larger Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) goslings: Within- and among-cohort variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, J.S.; Chelgren, N.D.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relationship between mass late in the first summer and survival and return to the natal breeding colony for 12 cohorts (1986-1997) of female Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). We used Cormack-Jolly-Seber methods and the program MARK to analyze capture-recapture data. Models included two kinds of residuals from regressions of mass on days after peak of hatch when goslings were measured; one based on the entire sample (12 cohorts) and the other based only on individuals in the same cohort. Some models contained date of peak of hatch (a group covariate related to lateness of nesting in that year) and mean cohort residual mass. Finally, models allowed survival to vary among cohorts. The best model of encounter probability included an effect of residual mass on encounter probability and allowed encounter probability to vary among age classes and across years. All competitive models contained an effect of one of the estimates of residual mass; relatively larger goslings survived their first year at higher rates. Goslings in cohorts from later years in the analysis tended to have lower first-year survival, after controlling for residual mass, which reflected the generally smaller mean masses for these cohorts but was potentially also a result of population-density effects additional to those on growth. Variation among cohorts in mean mass accounted for 56% of variation among cohorts in first-year survival. Encounter probabilities, which were correlated with breeding probability, increased with relative mass, which suggests that larger goslings not only survived at higher rates but also bred at higher rates. Although our findings support the well-established linkage between gosling mass and fitness, they suggest that additional environmental factors also influence first-year survival. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  15. Impact of the processes of testicular regression and recrudescence in the prostatic complex of the bat Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    PubMed

    Beguelini, Mateus R; Góes, Rejane M; Rahal, Paula; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-07-01

    Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression during the annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of total testicular regression on the prostatic morphophisyology and its regulation. The prostatic complex (PC) of animals from the four periods of the reproductive cycle (active, regressing, regressed, and recrudescence) was analyzed by different histological, morphometric, and immunohistochemical procedures to characterize its variations, analyze its hormonal regulation and evaluate whether the prostate is affected by the processes of testicular regression and recrudescence. The results indicated a decrease in the prostatic parameters from the active to regressed periods, which are related to decreases in the testicular production of testosterone and in the prostatic expression of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor α (ERα) and aromatase. However, in regressed-recrudescence periods, the prostatic expression of AR, ERα and aromatase increased, indicating the reactivation of the PC. Despite this, the PC appears to have a slower reactivation and seems not to follow the testicular recrudescence in morphological and morphometric terms. With these data, we demonstrate that the prostatic physiology is directly affected by total testicular regression and conclude that it is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, via the production of testosterone by the testes, its conversion to dihydrotestosterone by 5α-redutase and to estrogen by aromatase, and the activation/deactivation of AR and ERα in epithelial cells, which regulate cell expression and proliferation. PMID:25703716

  16. Luteolin-7-glucoside inhibits IL-22/STAT3 pathway, reducing proliferation, acanthosis, and inflammation in keratinocytes and in mouse psoriatic model.

    PubMed

    Palombo, R; Savini, I; Avigliano, L; Madonna, S; Cavani, A; Albanesi, C; Mauriello, A; Melino, G; Terrinoni, A

    2016-01-01

    The epidermis is a dynamic tissue in which keratinocytes proliferate in the basal layer and undergo a tightly controlled differentiation while moving into the suprabasal layers. The balance between keratinocyte proliferation, differentiation, and death is essential, and its perturbation can result in pathological changes. Some common skin diseases, such as psoriasis, are characterized by hyperproliferation accompanied by inflammatory reactions, suggesting that molecules with topical anti-inflammatory and ROS scavenging abilities may be useful for their treatment. Here we investigate the potential of the flavone Luteolin-7-glucoside (LUT-7G) as a treatment for psoriasis. We show that LUT-7G leads to a modification of the cell cycle and the induction of keratinocyte differentiation, with modification of energy, fatty acid, and redox metabolism. LUT-7G treatment also neutralizes the proliferative stimulus induced by the proinflammatory cytokines IL-22 and IL-6 in HEKn. Moreover, in the Imiquimod (IMQ) mouse model of psoriasis, topical administration of LUT-7G leads to a marked reduction of acanthosis and re-expression of epidermal differentiation markers. Dissection of the IL-22 signalling pathway, activated by IMQ treatment, demonstrates that LUT-7G impairs the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated (activated) STAT3, blocking the IL-22 signalling cascade. Thus LUT-7G appears to be a promising compound for the treatment of hyperproliferative and inflammatory skin diseases, such as psoriasis. PMID:27537526

  17. Impact of the Processes of Total Testicular Regression and Recrudescence on the Epididymal Physiology of the Bat Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Beguelini, Mateus R.; Góes, Rejane M.; Rahal, Paula; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R.

    2015-01-01

    Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression within the same annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Studies have demonstrated that its epididymis has an elongation of the caudal portion, which stores spermatozoa during the period of testicular regression in July, but that they had no sperm during the regression in November. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the total testicular regression in the epididymal morphophysiology and patterns of its hormonal regulation. The results demonstrate a continuous activity of the epididymis from the Active to the Regressing periods; a morphofunctional regression of the epididymis in the Regressed period; and a slow recrudescence process. Thus, we concluded that the processes of total testicular regression and posterior recrudescence suffered by M. nigricans also impact the physiology of the epididymis, but with a delay in epididymal response. Epididymal physiology is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, through the production and secretion of testosterone by the testes, its conduction to the epididymis (mainly through luminal fluid), conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by the 5α-reductase enzyme (mainly in epithelial cells) and to estrogen by aromatase; and through the activation/deactivation of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor α in epithelial cells, which regulate the epithelial cell morphophysiology, prevents cell death and regulates their protein expression and secretion, which ensures the maturation and storage of the spermatozoa. PMID:26057377

  18. Impact of the Processes of Total Testicular Regression and Recrudescence on the Epididymal Physiology of the Bat Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    PubMed

    Beguelini, Mateus R; Góes, Rejane M; Rahal, Paula; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-01-01

    Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression within the same annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Studies have demonstrated that its epididymis has an elongation of the caudal portion, which stores spermatozoa during the period of testicular regression in July, but that they had no sperm during the regression in November. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the total testicular regression in the epididymal morphophysiology and patterns of its hormonal regulation. The results demonstrate a continuous activity of the epididymis from the Active to the Regressing periods; a morphofunctional regression of the epididymis in the Regressed period; and a slow recrudescence process. Thus, we concluded that the processes of total testicular regression and posterior recrudescence suffered by M. nigricans also impact the physiology of the epididymis, but with a delay in epididymal response. Epididymal physiology is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, through the production and secretion of testosterone by the testes, its conduction to the epididymis (mainly through luminal fluid), conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by the 5α-reductase enzyme (mainly in epithelial cells) and to estrogen by aromatase; and through the activation/deactivation of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor α in epithelial cells, which regulate the epithelial cell morphophysiology, prevents cell death and regulates their protein expression and secretion, which ensures the maturation and storage of the spermatozoa. PMID:26057377

  19. Carry-over effects of winter location contribute to variation in timing of nest initiation and clutch size in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamber, Jason L.; Sedinger, James S.; Ward, David H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed carry-over effects from winter location on timing of nest initiation and clutch size of Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) using observations of individually marked brant breeding at the Tutakoke River colony in Alaska, and wintering along a latitudinal gradient at three areas on the Pacific coast of Baja California: northernmost Bahia San Quintin (BSQ), Laguna Ojo de Liebre (LOL), and southernmost Laguna San Ignacio (LSI). Black Brant initiated nests according to a north—south trend in winter location, although year was a stronger predictor of initiation date than was wintering site. Female Black Brant that wintered at BSQ initiated nests 2.2 days earlier than females from LSI. Conversely, Black Brant showed only a weak south—north trend in clutch size; individuals from LSI laid slightly larger clutches than individuals from BSQ, probably because a smaller proportion of only high-quality females from the southernmost wintering area in Baja California were able to attain the nutritional condition necessary to breed. These results indicate that winter location can influence individual reproductive performance and, potentially, limit population growth of southern segments of the wintering Black Brant population.

  20. Form and function of the bulbus arteriosus in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans): static properties.

    PubMed

    Braun, Marvin H; Brill, Richard W; Gosline, John M; Jones, David R

    2003-10-01

    The juxtaposition of heart and gills in teleost fish means that the Windkessel function characteristic of the whole mammalian arterial tree has to be subserved by the extremely short ventral aorta and bulbus arteriosus. Over the functional pressure range, arteries from blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) have J-shaped pressure-volume (P-V) loops, while bulbi from the same species have r-shaped P-V loops, with a steep initial rise followed by a compliant plateau phase. The steep initial rise in pressure is due to the geometry of the lumen. The interactions between radius, pressure and tension require a large initial pressure to open the bulbar lumen for flow. The plateau is due to the unique organization of the bulbar wall. The large elastin:collagen ratio, limited amount of collagen arranged circumferentially, lack of elastin lamellae and low hydrophobicity of the elastin itself all combine to lower stiffness, increase extensibility and allow efficient recoil. Even though the modulus of bulbus material is much lower than that of an artery, at large volumes the overall stiffness of the bulbus increases rapidly. The morphological features that give rise to the special inflation characteristics of the bulbus help to extend flow and maintain pressure during diastole. PMID:12939364

  1. Complete genome sequence and lifestyle of black-pigmented Corynebacterium aurimucosum ATCC 700975 (formerly C. nigricans CN-1) isolated from a vaginal swab of a woman with spontaneous abortion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Corynebacterium aurimucosum is a slightly yellowish, non-lipophilic, facultative anaerobic member of the genus Corynebacterium and predominantly isolated from human clinical specimens. Unusual black-pigmented variants of C. aurimucosum (originally named as C. nigricans) continue to be recovered from the female urogenital tract and they are associated with complications during pregnancy. C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 (C. nigricans CN-1) was originally isolated from a vaginal swab of a 34-year-old woman who experienced a spontaneous abortion during month six of pregnancy. For a better understanding of the physiology and lifestyle of this potential urogenital pathogen, the complete genome sequence of C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 was determined. Results Sequencing and assembly of the C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 genome yielded a circular chromosome of 2,790,189 bp in size and the 29,037-bp plasmid pET44827. Specific gene sets associated with the central metabolism of C. aurimucosum apparently provide enhanced metabolic flexibility and adaptability in aerobic, anaerobic and low-pH environments, including gene clusters for the uptake and degradation of aromatic amines, L-histidine and L-tartrate as well as a gene region for the formation of selenocysteine and its incorporation into formate dehydrogenase. Plasmid pET44827 codes for a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase that plays the pivotal role in the synthesis of the characteristic black pigment of C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975. Conclusions The data obtained by the genome project suggest that C. aurimucosum could be both a resident of the human gut and possibly a pathogen in the female genital tract causing complications during pregnancy. Since hitherto all black-pigmented C. aurimucosum strains have been recovered from female genital source, biosynthesis of the pigment is apparently required for colonization by protecting the bacterial cells against the high hydrogen peroxide concentration in the vaginal environment

  2. Differential expression of aromatase, estrogen receptor alpha and 17β-HSD associated with the processes of total testicular regression and recrudescence in the bat Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    PubMed

    Beguelini, Mateus R; Falleiros, Luiz R; Góes, Rejane M; Rahal, Paula; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2014-05-15

    Despite the worldwide distribution and many unique reproductive adaptations that bats present, many aspects of their reproductive hormonal regulation have not been adequately studied, especially in species that presented patterns of total testicular regression. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the testicular expression of 17β-HSD type 1, aromatase and ERα in the bat Myotis nigricans, during the four periods of its reproductive cycle. Immunoreactivity for ERα was detected only in the cytoplasm of elongated spermatids and in the nuclei of spermatogonia and Sertoli cells. Expression of aromatase was observed in round and elongated spermatids and in Sertoli and Leydig cells. Immunoreactivity for 17β-HSD was restricted to the cytoplasm of Leydig cells. The three expression patterns varied significantly during the four periods of the reproductive cycle. Expression of ERα and aromatase in spermatids was continuous, while expression of ERα in spermatogonia occurred only in initial types (Ap). Expression of ERα and aromatase in Sertoli cells varied, with expression only in periods of spermatogenetic activities; and the same variation was observed for the expression of aromatase and 17β-HSD in Leydig cells. We, therefore, propose that the processes of total testicular regression and posterior recrudescence suffered by M. nigricans from September to January in the northwest of the São Paulo State of Brazil, are directly regulated by testosterone and estrogen. This occurs via the production of testosterone by 17β-HSD, its conversion into estrogen by aromatase, and activation/deactivation of Sertoli cells' AR and spermatogonia's ERα. PMID:24726986

  3. Two new Myxidium species (Myxosporea: Myxidiidae) infecting the gallbladder of African flying fish, Cheilopogon nigricans and Suez fusilier, Caesio suevicus from the Red Sea, Egypt: a morphological and morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem Sh

    2009-08-01

    Myxidium maamouni sp. n. and Myxidium aydai sp. n. were described from the gallbladder of the African flying fish Cheilopogon nigricans and Suez fusilier Caesio suevicus, respectively. Fishes were collected from the Red Sea at Al-Quseir, Egypt. M. maamouni have irregular to mostly rounded polysporous plasmodia with diameter of 27 microm. Spores were sigmoid or S-shaped and sometimes spindle-shaped in the frontal view with smooth valves. They measured 13.5 x 8.0 x 8.2 microm in size. Their polar capsules were equal pyriform and measured 7.0 x 3.2 microm in size with nine to 12 coils. Spores of M. aydai were spindle-shaped in the frontal view with thin smooth valves. They measured 23.0 x 5.6 x 5.5 microm in size. Their polar capsules were pyriform and measured 7.2 x 3.4 microm in size with eight to nine coils. PMID:19347364

  4. Am I at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes? Taking Steps to Lower Your Risk of Getting Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... a condition called acanthosis nigricans, characterized by a dark, velvety rash around my neck or armpits. I have a history of cardiovascular disease. The more items you checked, the higher your risk. [ Top ] Does sleep matter? Yes. Studies show that untreated sleep problems, especially ...

  5. Neurofibromatosis, Down's syndrome, and acquired abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Syed Yousuf; Manne, Vimala; Manne, Ranjit; Himani, Chennamaneni

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with Down's syndrome and neurofibromatosis who presented with a keloid, sebaceous cyst and acanthosis nigricans, along with dental and ophthalmological defects. The coexistence of neurofibromatosis type 1 and Down's syndrome which are two unrelated genetic conditions is itself a rarity. PMID:27294059

  6. Neurofibromatosis, Down's syndrome, and acquired abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syed Yousuf; Manne, Vimala; Manne, Ranjit; Himani, Chennamaneni

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with Down's syndrome and neurofibromatosis who presented with a keloid, sebaceous cyst and acanthosis nigricans, along with dental and ophthalmological defects. The coexistence of neurofibromatosis type 1 and Down's syndrome which are two unrelated genetic conditions is itself a rarity. PMID:27294059

  7. Delaying or Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... a condition called acanthosis nigricans, characterized by a dark, velvety rash around my neck or armpits. I have a history of cardiovascular disease. The more items you checked, the higher your risk. Does sleep matter? Yes. Studies show that untreated sleep problems, especially ...

  8. Are There Disorders or Conditions Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious health conditions, including metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. A symptom of PCOS called acanthosis nigricans (pronounced ay-kan-THOE-sis NY-grih-kanz )—patches of thickened, dark, velvety skin—is associated with ... by the ovaries. 2 Having abnormally high androgens causes many of the ...

  9. Systemic conditions in children associated with pigmentary changes.

    PubMed

    Treadwell, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Systemic conditions may have pigmentary associations. Prompt recognition of these associations allows the practitioner to initiate the appropriate workup and therapy when indicated. This contribution highlights some of the clinical features of neurofibromatosis 1, LEOPARD syndrome, acanthosis nigricans, hypomelanosis of Ito, incontinentia pigmenti, CHILD syndrome, and piebaldism to assist the dermatologist in making the proper diagnosis. PMID:25889139

  10. Identification of Some Charcoal-Black-Pigmented CDC Fermentative Coryneform Group 4 Isolates as Rothia dentocariosa and Some as Corynebacterium aurimucosum: Proposal of Rothia dentocariosa emend. Georg and Brown 1967, Corynebacterium aurimucosum emend. Yassin et al. 2002, and Corynebacterium nigricans Shukla et al. 2003 pro synon. Corynebacterium aurimucosum

    PubMed Central

    Daneshvar, Maryam I.; Hollis, Dannie G.; Weyant, Robbin S.; Jordan, Jean G.; MacGregor, John P.; Morey, Roger E.; Whitney, Anne M.; Brenner, Don J.; Steigerwalt, Arnold G.; Helsel, Leta O.; Raney, Patti M.; Patel, Jean B.; Levett, Paul N.; Brown, June M.

    2004-01-01

    Sixty-three clinical isolates of charcoal-black-pigmented, gram-positive coryneform rods were received for identification by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and were provisionally designated CDC fermentative coryneform group 4 (FCG4). Forty-five of these were characterized by morphological, physiologic, antimicrobial susceptibility, cellular fatty acids, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses. Nitrate reduction, cellular fatty acid analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and DNA-DNA hybridization studies segregated these strains into two groups: FCG4a (8 strains) and FCG4b (37 strains). The FCG4a strains, only one of which was from a female genitourinary source, produced cellular fatty acid and biochemical profiles similar to those observed with reference strains of Rothia dentocariosa and Rothia mucilaginosa, while the FCG4b strains were similar to Corynebacterium species. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis demonstrated species-level relatedness among six FCG4a tested strains and showed that they were a charcoal-black-pigmented variant of R. dentocariosa. Sixteen isolates of the FCG4b group, mainly from female genitourinary tract specimens, as well as the type strains of two recently named species, Corynebacterium aurimucosum and Corynebacterium nigricans, were shown by DNA-DNA hybridization analysis and the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to be related at the species level and unrelated to the type strain of R. dentocariosa; therefore, the Corynebacterium-like strains were classified as a charcoal-black-pigmented variant of C. aurimucosum, because this name has nomenclatural priority over C. nigricans. These findings indicate that FCG4 represents a heterogeneous group that contains pigmented variants of both R. dentocariosa and C. aurimucosum; hence, the descriptions of both R. dentocariosa and C. aurimucosum have been amended to include charcoal-black-pigmented variants, and C. nigricans is a pro synonym of C. aurimucosum. PMID

  11. Concentrations of cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-Zinc mining: Implications for monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained <12% of the total variation. Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet

  12. Concentrations of cadmium, cobalt, lead, nickel, and zinc in blood and fillets of northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-zinc mining: implications for monitoring.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, C J; Brumbaugh, W G; May, T W

    2009-04-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained <12% of the total variation. Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet

  13. Dermatologic manifestation of hyperandrogenism: a retrospective chart review.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte M; Rudolph, Jennifer; Gerber, Donald A; Glick, Sharon; Shalita, Alan R; Lowenstein, Eve J

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have described a wide spectrum of hyperandrogenism diseases, many of which are difficult to distinguish from each other. In order to better understand diseases of hyperandrogenism, the authors performed a retrospective study of the cutaneous features and metabolic findings in women with hyperandrogenism. A retrospective chart analysis compiled by three dermatologists in both academic and private settings was performed, including patients presenting with > or = 2 manifestations of hyperandrogenism. Relevant dermatologic and associated manifestations and laboratory and imaging study findings were reviewed. Moderate to severe acne was the most common manifestation. Other common manifestations that patients first presented with include hirsutism, acanthosis nigricans, androgenic alopecia, and skin tags. Oligomenorrhea was the most common systemic presenting sign. Statistical analysis of various clinical markers revealed correlations with hyperandrogenemia. Acanthosis nigricans and hirsutism were found to be useful clinical markers for hyperandrogenism, whereas androgenic alopecia was not. This study provides some insights into the presentation and diverse manifestations seen in hyperandrogenism. PMID:24933845

  14. Cardiometabolic Risk among African-American Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Appel, Susan J.; Oster, Robert A.; Floyd, Natalie A.; Ovalle, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the associations of the Homeostatic Model of Assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-ir), acanthosis nigricans, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with two of the commonly used definitions of the metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III {ATP III} and International Diabetes Federation {IDF}) among reproductive age healthy free living African-American women. Methods A pilot study with a cross-sectional design examined 33 African-American women aged 20 to 46 (mean 31.24, +/- 7.25), for the presence of metabolic syndrome determined by ATP III and IDF criteria, insulin resistance (HOMA-ir and/or acanthosis nigricans), degree of inflammation (hs-CRP) and presence of dysfibrinolysis (PAI-1). Results HOMA-ir identified insulin resistance in 27 (81.8%) of the women, whereas the presence of acanthosis nigricans indicated that 16 (48 %) of these women manifested insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome was found in 7 women (21.2 %) by ATP III or 9 (27.3 %) by IDF criteria. Bivariate correlations showed associations between HOMA-ir and waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), acanthosis nigricans, the ATP III and IDF definitions for metabolic syndrome. PAI-1 was significantly correlated with waist circumference, BMI, fasting glucose, HOMA-ir, and ATP III. Both HOMA-ir and PAI-1 were significantly and negatively correlated with HDL-C. hs-CRP was significantly correlated with BMI and 2-hour post glucose. Conclusion Both dysfibrinolysis (PAI-1 levels) and insulin resistance (HOMA-ir) when individually regressed on the ATP III definition of metabolic syndrome explained 32 % and 29% of the respective variance. The addition of HOMA-ir measurement may significantly improve early recognition of cardiometabolic risk among reproductive age African-American women who have not yet met the criteria for the ATP III or IDF definitions of the metabolic syndrome. Likewise, acanthosis nigricans is potentially a

  15. Paraneoplastic cutaneous manifestations: concepts and updates*

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Josenilson Antônio; Mesquita, Kleyton de Carvalho; Igreja, Ana Carolina de Souza Machado; Lucas, Isabella Cristina Rodrigues Naves; Freitas, Aline Ferreira; de Oliveira, Sandra Maximiano; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho; Campbell, Iphis Tenfuss

    2013-01-01

    The skin often signals systemic changes. Some neoplastic diseases that affect internal organs may trigger several cutaneous manifestations. Although these dermatoses are relatively unusual, the recognition of some typical paraneoplastic dermatoses may lead to the early diagnosis of a neoplasm and determine a better prognosis. In this review article, we discuss the paraneoplastic cutaneous manifestations strongly associated with neoplasms, which include acanthosis nigricans maligna, tripe palms, erythema gyratum repens, Bazex syndrome, acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa, necrolytic migratory erythema, Leser-Trélat sign and paraneoplastic pemphigus. We also review the clinical manifestations of each condition and include updated knowledge on disease pathogenesis. PMID:23538999

  16. Is this patient insulin resistant? How much does it matter?

    PubMed

    Sheeder, Jeanelle; Travers, Sharon H; Stevens-Simon, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    Alex was an obese 10-year-old girl with a family history of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and perhaps polycystic ovarian syndrome. Her physical examination was significant for a central accumulation of body fat and acanthosis nigricans. Although the laboratory studies indicated that Alex was not diabetic and probably not glucose intolerant, she could be insulin resistant (IR). Should any further evaluation be done? If Alex is IR, what kind of treatment should be offered? The following discussion addresses these questions by reviewing the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and consequences of isolated IR. PMID:14686557

  17. Deletion mutation in BSCL2 gene underlies congenital generalized lipodystrophy in a Pakistani family

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) also known as Berardinelli-Seip Congenital Lipodystrophy (BSCL) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by loss of adipose tissues, Acanthosis nigricans, diabetes mellitus, muscular hypertrophy, hepatomegaly and hypertriglyceridemia. There are four subclinical phenotypes of CGL (CGL1-4) and mutations in four genes AGPAT2, BSCL2, CAV1 and PTRF have been assigned to each type. Methods The study included clinical and molecular investigations of CGL disease in a consanguineous Pakistani family. For mutation screening all the coding exons including splice junctions of AGPAT2, BSCL2, CAV1 and PTRF genes were PCR amplified and sequenced directly using an automated DNA sequencer ABI3730. Results Sequence analysis revealed a single base pair deletion mutation (c.636delC; p.Tyr213ThrfsX20) in exon 5 of BSCL2 gene causing a frame shift and premature termination codon. Conclusion Mutation identified here in BSCL2 gene causing congenital generalized lipodystrophy is the first report in Pakistani population. The patients exhibited characteristic features of generalized lipodystrophy, Acanthosis nigricans, diabetes mellitus and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1913913076864247. PMID:23659685

  18. Correlation of Skin Changes with Hormonal Changes in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Gowri, B Vijaya; Chandravathi, PL; Sindhu, PS; Naidu, K Shanthi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenous collection of signs and symptoms that when gathered, form a spectrum of disorder with disturbance of reproductive, endocrine and metabolic functions. Aim: The aim of this study is to correlate the skin manifestations with hormonal changes and to know the incidence and prevalence of skin manifestations in patients with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients with PCOS were examined during 1 year time period from May 2008 P to May 2009. Detailed clinical history was taken from each patient. PCOS was diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonography. Hormonal assays included fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, dehydroepiandrostenedione, prolactin, free testosterone, fasting lipid profile and sex hormone binding globulin. The results obtained were statistically correlated. Results: In our study, the prevalence of cutaneous manifestations was 90%. Of all the cutaneous manifestations acne was seen in highest percentage (67.5%), followed by hirsutism (62.5%), seborrhea (52.5%), androgenetic alopecia (AGA) (30%), acanthosis nigricans (22.5%) and acrochordons (10%). Fasting insulin levels was the most common hormonal abnormality seen in both acne and hirsutism, whereas AGA was associated with high testosterone levels. Conclusion: The prevalence of cutaneous manifestations in PCOS was 90%. Hirsutism, acne, seborrhea, acanthosis nigricans and acrochordons were associated with increased levels of fasting insulin, whereas AGA showed higher levels of serum testosterone. PMID:26288423

  19. Restrictive pulmonary deficit is associated with inflammation in sub-optimally controlled obese diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Seemungal, Terence A. R.; Teelucksingh, Surujpal; Nayak, B. Shivananda

    2013-01-01

    Caribbean data linking inflammation, pulmonary dysfunction and diabetes is unavailable. Spirometry, acanthosis nigricans, hs-CRP were assessed in 109 type 2 diabetics (43% males) mean age=55.6 years, BMI=29.29 kg/m2, waist circumference=103.86 cm. Residual FEV1/FVC increased with age (P=0.005), BMI (P=0.011) and waist circumference (P=0.003). Residual FVC related inversely to hs-CRP (–0.178), P<0.06) systolic (–0.028, P<0.031), diastolic (–0.247, P<0.010) pressure and weight (–0.25, P<0.009). Residual FEV1 related inversely to diastolic pressure (–0.219, P<0.023), hs-CRP (–0.234, P<0.015), acanthosis nigricans (–0.029, P<0.029). HbA1C and residual FEV1 predict high hs-CRP (P=0.011, P=0.046). Low FVC with inflammation presents in poorly controlled obese diabetics. PMID:23825761

  20. An Autosomal Recessive Syndrome of Joint Contractures, Muscular Atrophy, Microcytic Anemia, and Panniculitis-Associated Lipodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Abhimanyu; Hernandez, Maria Dolores; Sousa, Ana Berta; Subramanyam, Lalitha; Martínez de Villarreal, Laura; dos Santos, Heloísa G.; Barboza, Oralia

    2010-01-01

    Context: Genetic lipodystrophies are rare disorders characterized by partial or complete loss of adipose tissue and predisposition to insulin resistance and its complications such as diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia, hepatic steatosis, acanthosis nigricans, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Objective: The objective of the study was to report a novel autosomal recessive lipodystrophy syndrome. Results: We report the detailed phenotype of two males and one female patient, 26–34 yr old, belonging to two pedigrees with an autosomal recessive syndrome presenting with childhood-onset lipodystrophy, muscle atrophy, severe joint contractures, erythematous skin lesions, and microcytic anemia. Other variable clinical features include hypergammaglobulinemia, hepatosplenomegaly, generalized seizures, and basal ganglia calcification. None of the patients had diabetes mellitus or acanthosis nigricans. Two had mild hypertriglyceridemia and all had low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Skin biopsy of an erythematous nodular skin lesion from one of the patients revealed evidence of panniculitis. The lipodystrophy initially affected the upper body but later became generalized involving abdomen and lower extremities as well. Conclusions: We conclude that these patients represent a novel autoinflammatory syndrome resulting in joint contractures, muscle atrophy, microcytic anemia, and panniculitis-induced lipodystrophy. The molecular genetic basis of this disorder remains to be elucidated. PMID:20534754

  1. Cutaneous manifestations of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Owen, Cindy England

    2016-06-01

    Skin findings can serve as a clue to internal disease. In this article, cutaneous manifestations of underlying lung malignancy are reviewed. Paraneoplastic dermatoses are rare, but when recognized early, can lead to early diagnosis of an underlying neoplasm. Malignancy-associated dermatoses comprise a broad group of hyperproliferative and inflammatory disorders, disorders caused by tumor production of hormonal or metabolic factors, autoimmune connective tissue diseases, among others. In this review, paraneoplastic syndromes associated with lung malignancy are discussed, including ectopic ACTH syndrome, bronchial carcinoid variant syndrome, secondary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy/digital clubbing, erythema gyratum repens, malignant acanthosis nigricans, sign of Leser-Trélat, tripe palms, hypertrichosis lanuginosa, acrokeratosis paraneoplastica, and dermatomyositis. PMID:27178690

  2. Pseudoacromegaly in congenital generalised lipodystrophy (Berardinelli-Seip syndrome).

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Datta, Saumik; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoacromegaly, or acromegaloidism, is characterised by a clinical appearance mimicking acromegaly in the absence of documented hypersomatotropism or past exposure to excess growth hormone. It can develop secondary to a number of congenital and acquired conditions of which severe insulin resistance is an important example. Lipodystrophy syndromes are a group of rare disorders of which autosomal recessive congenital generalised lipodystrophy is the most common type. Patients with this disorder are predisposed to insulin resistance and its associated complications such as diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridaemia, fatty liver, polycystic ovaries and acanthosis nigricans. Elevated circulating insulin levels in these patients rarely can give rise to soft tissue and bony overgrowth, with resultant acromegaloidism. We report an adolescent girl presenting with unusual prominence of her hands and feet; a thorough evaluation ultimately revealed a diagnosis of congenital generalised lipodystrophy. PMID:27068725

  3. Metformin - For the dermatologist.

    PubMed

    Bubna, Aditya Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Metformin though primarily an antidiabetic drug, has found to play an important role in a number of cutaneous disorders. Because of its role in improving hyperinsulinemia, it has proven beneficial in hormonal acne, hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) and acanthosis nigricans. Its antiandrogenic properties further serve as an add-on to the conventional management of hirsutism associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Very recently, systemic usage of metformin for psoriasis and cutaneous malignancies has shown promising results. Interestingly, metformin has also been topically used in hyperpigmentary disorders with pertinent levels of improvement and happens to be the most recent addition to the list of dermatologic indications. Though an oral hypoglycemic agent to begin with, metformin today has proven to be a boon for dermatologists. PMID:26997714

  4. Cutaneous markers of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Shridhar; Jhamb, Rajat

    2010-09-26

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is rapidly increasing in prevalence across the world and particularly in south Asians at a relatively younger age. As atherosclerosis starts in early childhood, the process of risk evaluation must start quite early. The present review addresses the issue of cutaneous markers associated with atherosclerosis, and the strengths and weaknesses of the markers in identifying early coronary atherosclerosis. A diligent search for such clinical markers, namely xanthelasma, xanthoma, arcus juvenilis, acanthosis nigricans, skin tags, ear lobe crease, nicotine stains, premature graying in smokers, hyperpigmented hands in betel quid sellers, central obesity, and signs of peripheral vascular disease may prove to be a rewarding exercise in identifying asymptomatic CAD in high risk individuals. PMID:21160602

  5. Metformin - For the dermatologist

    PubMed Central

    Bubna, Aditya Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Metformin though primarily an antidiabetic drug, has found to play an important role in a number of cutaneous disorders. Because of its role in improving hyperinsulinemia, it has proven beneficial in hormonal acne, hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) and acanthosis nigricans. Its antiandrogenic properties further serve as an add-on to the conventional management of hirsutism associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Very recently, systemic usage of metformin for psoriasis and cutaneous malignancies has shown promising results. Interestingly, metformin has also been topically used in hyperpigmentary disorders with pertinent levels of improvement and happens to be the most recent addition to the list of dermatologic indications. Though an oral hypoglycemic agent to begin with, metformin today has proven to be a boon for dermatologists. PMID:26997714

  6. The First Korean Case of Beare-Stevenson Syndrome with a Tyr375Cys Mutation in the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Eun, So-Hee; Ha, Ki Ssu; Je, Bo-Kyung; Lee, Eung Seok; Lee, Jung Hwa; Eun, Baik-Lin; Yoo, Kee Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Here we report the first case of a Korean infant with a cloverleaf-shaped craniosynostosis, in which the diagnosis of Beare-Stevenson syndrome was suspected upon observation of the typical morphological features. This infant exhibited craniofacial anomalies, ocular proptosis, cutis gyrata, acanthosis nigricans, prominent umbilical stump, furrowed palms and soles, hypospadia, and sacral skin tag coupled with dermal sinus tract. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the patient also had non-communicating hydrocephalus with Chiari malformation. This is the 8th report of Beare-Stevenson syndrome in the literature, which was confirmed by the detection of a Tyr375Cys mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene. PMID:17449949

  7. Metabolic Syndrome in Childhood: Rare Case of Alstrom Syndrome with Blindness.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Afzal; D'Souza, Benedicta; Yadav, Charu; Agarwal, Ashish; Kumar, Anand; Nandini, M; D'Souza, Vivian; Poornima, A M; Kamath, Nutan

    2016-10-01

    Alstrom's syndrome (AS) is a rare autosomal recessive ciliopathic condition affecting 1:10,00,000 children. It's a single gene disorder of ALMS1 on chromosome 2 with multisystem involvement with cone-rod retinal dystrophy causing juvenile blindness, obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 Diabetes mellitus, hypogonadism and sensorineural hearing loss. Till now only 800 patients with this disorder has been identified so far. In this report, we describe the case of a 9-year old male boy from south India. He had been initially referred for polyphagia, polyuria, polydipsia, generalized weakness from 1 weeks. On examination he was demonstrated features suggestive of AS, including blindness, obesity, type 2 diabetes, altered lipid profile, hypogonadism, acanthosis nigricans, seborrheic dermatitis, right ear discharge and episodes of respiratory tract infections. So, diagnosis of AS is critical as it can easily be overlooked because of the many features associated with metabolic syndrome starting at age 7, a relatively early age. PMID:27605748

  8. Morbid obesity in a child with monosomy 1p36 syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zagalo, Ana; Dias, Patricia; Pereira, Carla; Sampaio, Maria de Lurdes

    2012-01-01

    The monosomy 1p36 syndrome is a cause of syndromic obesity. It is characterised by psychomotor delay, hypotonia and typical craniofacial dysmorphism. Other features commonly associated are behavioural anomalies including hyperphagia and self-injuring, seizures, congenital heart disease and hypothyroidism. The authors report the case of a 9-year and 5-month-boy referred to the paediatric endocrinology clinics for morbid obesity. Clinical findings were generalised obesity with a body mass index >95th centile, acanthosis nigricans of the neck, arms with self inflicted lesions, deep-set eyes, straight eyebrows, broad nasal bridge and pointed chin. He was unable to walk and had no expressive language. Cytogenetic analysis identified 1p36.33-pter deletion (~139 Mb terminal deletion in chromosome 1 short arm) and Y chromosome duplication. The blood analysis showed insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. The authors emphasise the need to consider monosomy 1p36 as a cause of severe psychomotor delay and obesity. PMID:22605691

  9. Chronic Pruritus: a Paraneoplastic Sign

    PubMed Central

    Yosipovitch, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Chronic itch could be a presenting sign of malignancy. Pruritus of lymphoma is the common prototype of paraneoplastic itch and can precede other clinical signs by weeks and months. Paraneopalstic pruritus has also been associated with solid tumors and is an important clinical symptom in paraneoplastic skin diseases such as erythroderma, Grovers disease, malignant acanthosis nigricans, generalized granuloma annulare, Bazex syndrome and dermatomyositis. In any case with high index of suspicion a thorough work-up is required. This review highlights the association between itch and malignancy and presents new findings related to pathophysiological mechanisms and the treatment of itch associated with malignancy. Combinative therapies reducing itch sensitization and transmission using selective serotonin and neuroepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, Kappa opioids and Neuroleptics are of prime importance in reducing this bothersome symptom. PMID:21054705

  10. Mixed Form of Hirsutism in an Adolescent Female and Laser Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gacaferri Lumezi, Besa; Goci, Aferdita; Lokaj, Violeta; Latifi, Hatixhe; Karahoda, Natyra; Minci, Ganimete; Telaku, Drita; Gercari, Antigona; Kocinaj, Allma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Hirsutism is a common disorder of excess growth of terminal hair in an androgen-dependent male distribution in women, including the chin, upper lip, breasts, back, and abdomen. It is very important to identify the etiology of hirsutism and adequate treat is prior to any cosmetic therapy. Case Presentation: The case was a 17-year-old female with severe hirsutism, oligomenorrhea, and obesity. She was evaluated to identify the etiology and diagnosed as a case of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NC-CAH), and hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans (HAIR-AN) syndrome, which is a rare combination of hirsutism etiology. She was successfully treated according to the underlying pathology, and laser photoepilation was used as the preferred hair removal method. Discussion: Establishing the etiology, using the evidence–based strategies to improve hirsutism, and treating the underlying disorder, are essential for proper management of women with hirsutism. PMID:25068069

  11. Acne-associated syndromes: models for better understanding of acne pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Hong, J-B; Melnik, B C; Yamasaki, O; Dessinioti, C; Ju, Q; Liakou, A I; Al-Khuzaei, S; Katsambas, A; Ring, J; Zouboulis, C C

    2011-06-01

    Acne, one of the most common skin disorders, is also a cardinal component of many systemic diseases or syndromes. Their association illustrates the nature of these diseases and is indicative of the pathogenesis of acne. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and seborrhoea-acne-hirsutism-androgenetic alopecia (SAHA) syndrome highlight the role of androgen steroids, while polycystic ovary (PCO) and hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans (HAIR-AN) syndromes indicate insulin resistance in acne. Apert syndrome with increased fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) signalling results in follicular hyperkeratinization and sebaceous gland hypertrophy in acne. Synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) and pyogenic arthritis-pyoderma gangrenosum-acne (PAPA) syndromes highlight the attributes of inflammation to acne formation. Advances in the understanding of the manifestation and molecular mechanisms of these syndromes will help to clarify acne pathogenesis and develop novel therapeutic modalities. PMID:21198949

  12. Acne as a chronic systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, Christos C

    2014-01-01

    Acne is the most common skin disorder. In the majority of cases, acne is a disease that changes its skin distribution and severity over time; moreover, it can be a physically (scar development) and psychologically damaging condition that lasts for years. According to its clinical characteristics, it can be defined as a chronic disease according to the World Health Organization criteria. Acne is also a cardinal component of many systemic diseases or syndromes, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, seborrhea-acne-hirsutism-androgenetic alopecia syndrome, polycystic ovarian syndrome, hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans syndrome, Apert syndrome, synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis syndrome, and pyogenic arthritis-pyoderma gangrenosum-acne syndrome. Recent studies on the Ache hunter gatherers of Paraguay detected the lack of acne in association with markedly lower rates of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases, a finding that indicates either a nutritional or a genetic background of this impressive concomitance. PMID:24767186

  13. Insulin Resistance and Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Maddalena; Megna, Matteo; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In medical practice, almost every clinician may encounter patients with skin disease. However, it is not always easy for physicians of all specialties to face the daily task of determining the nature and clinical implication of dermatologic manifestations. Are they confined to the skin, representing a pure dermatologic event? Or are they also markers of internal conditions relating to the patient's overall health? In this review, we will discuss the principal cutaneous conditions which have been linked to metabolic alterations. Particularly, since insulin has an important role in homeostasis and physiology of the skin, we will focus on the relationships between insulin resistance (IR) and skin diseases, analyzing strongly IR-associated conditions such as acanthosis nigricans, acne, and psoriasis, without neglecting emerging and potential scenarios as the ones represented by hidradenitis suppurativa, androgenetic alopecia, and hirsutism. PMID:25977937

  14. Dermatosis as the initial presentation of gastric cancer: two cases

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Wei; Teng, Bu-Wei; Yu, De-Cai; Zheng, Li-Ming; Ding, Yi-Tao

    2014-01-01

    Paraneoplastic dermatoses are known to be certain dermatosis related with tumor. The common paraneoplastic dermatoses are acanthosis nigricans, acquired ichthyosis, dermatomyositis, erythroderma, and so on. Here we report two cases of paraneoplastic dermatoses associated with gastric cancer. One case was a 57-year-old man with dermatomyositis and proved to be associated with gastric cancer through stomachoscopy. The other was a 66-year-old man with erythroderma and proved to be associated with gastric cancer through stomachoscopy. Both cases were treated with radical total gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy (D2) and esophagojejunostomy of Roux-en-Y. The skin symptom of both cases had improved a lot but still existed after operation. Paraneoplastic dermatoses can be seen as the early manifestation of visceral carcinomas. As a result, gastric cancers should be excluded in the patients with paraneoplastic dermatoses. PMID:25400431

  15. Acquired hyperpigmentations*

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644

  16. FGFR3-related condition: a skeletal dysplasia with similarities to thanatophoric dysplasia and SADDAN due to Lys650Met.

    PubMed

    Farmakis, Shannon G; Shinawi, Marwan; Miller-Thomas, Michelle; Radmanesh, Alireza; Herman, Thomas E

    2015-03-01

    Mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene account for six related skeletal dysplasia conditions: achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, thanatophoric dysplasia types 1 and 2, SADDAN (severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans), and platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasia, San Diego type. This group of disorders has very characteristic clinical and radiologic features, which distinguish them from other skeletal dysplasias. They display a spectrum of severity in the skeletal findings, ranging from relatively mild hypochondroplasia to lethal thanatophoric dysplasia. We report a patient who has the missense FGFR3 mutation, Lys650Met, previously reported in association only with SADDAN, who exhibits some findings similar to both thanatophoric dysplasia (types 1 and 2) in addition to those findings characteristic of SADDAN. PMID:25119967

  17. Genetic epidemiology of cardiometabolic risk ractors and their clustering patterns in Mexican American children and adolescents: The SAFARI Study

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Sharon P.; Puppala, Sobha; Arya, Rector; Chittoor, Geetha; Farook, Vidya S.; Schneider, Jennifer; Resendez, Roy G.; Upadhayay, Ram Prasad; VandeBerg, Jane; Hunt, Kelly J.; Bradshaw, Benjamin; Cersosimo, Eugenio; VandeBerg, John L.; Almasy, Laura; Curran, Joanne E.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Lehman, Donna M.; Jenkinson, Christopher P.; Lynch, Jane L.; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Blangero, John; Hale, Daniel E.; Duggirala, Ravindranath

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric metabolic syndrome (MS) and its cardiometabolic components (MSCs) have become increasingly prevalent, yet little is known about the genetics underlying MS risk in children. We examined the prevalence and genetics of MS-related traits among 670 non-diabetic Mexican American (MA) children and adolescents, aged 6–17 years (49 % female), who were participants in the San Antonio Family Assessment of Metabolic Risk Indicators in Youth (SAFARI) study. These children are offspring or biological relatives of adult participants from three well-established Mexican American family studies in San Antonio, Texas, at increased risk of type 2 diabetes. MS was defined as ≥ 3 abnormalities among 6 MSC measures: waist circumference, systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and fasting and/or 2-h OGTT glucose. Genetic analyses of MS, number of MSCs (MSC-N), MS factors, and bivariate MS traits were performed. Overweight/obesity (53 %), pre-diabetes (13 %), acanthosis nigricans (33 %), and MS (19 %) were strikingly prevalent, as were MS components, including abdominal adiposity (32 %) and low HDL-cholesterol (32 %). Factor analysis of MS traits yielded three constructs: adipo-insulin-lipid, blood pressure, and glucose factors, and their factor scores were highly heritable. MS itself exhibited 68 % heritability. MSC-N showed strong positive genetic correlations with obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, and acanthosis nigricans, and negative genetic correlation with physical fitness. MS trait pairs exhibited strong genetic and/or environmental correlations. These findings highlight the complex genetic architecture of MS/MSCs in MA children, and underscore the need for early screening and intervention to prevent chronic sequelae in this vulnerable pediatric population. PMID:23736306

  18. Dermatological complications of obesity.

    PubMed

    García Hidalgo, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is a health problem of considerable magnitude in the Western world. Dermatological changes have been reported in patients with obesity, including: acanthosis nigricans and skin tags (due to insulin resistance); hyperandrogenism; striae due to over extension; stasis pigmentation due to peripheral vascular disease; lymphedema; pathologies associated with augmented folds; morphologic changes in the foot anatomy due to excess load; and complications that may arise from hospitalization. Acanthosis nigricans plaques can be managed by improved control of hyperinsulinemia; the vitamin D3 analog calcipitriol has also been shown to be effective. Skin tags can be removed by snipping with curved scissors, by cryotherapy or by electrodesiccation. Hyperandrogenism, a result of increased production of endogenous androgens due to increased volumes of adipose tissue (which synthesizes testosterone) and hyperinsulinemia (which increases the production of ovarian androgens) needs to be carefully assessed to ensure disorders such as virilizing tumors and congenital adrenal hyperplasia are treated appropriately. Treatment of hyperandrogenism should be centred on controlling insulin levels; weight loss, oral contraceptive and antiandrogenic therapies are also possible treatment options. The etiology of striae distensae, also known as stretch marks, is yet to be defined and treatment options are unsatisfactory at present; striae rubra and alba have been treated with a pulsed dye laser with marginal success. The relationship between obesity and varicose veins is controversial; symptoms are best prevented by the use of elastic stockings. Itching and inflammation associated with stasis pigmentation, the result of red blood cells escaping into the tissues, can be treated with corticosteroids. Lymphedema is associated with dilatation of tissue channels, reduced tissue oxygenation and provides a culture medium for bacterial growth. Lymphedema treatment is directed towards reducing the

  19. An atlas of the morphological manifestations of hidradenitis suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2014-01-01

    This article is dermatological atlas of the morphologic presentations of Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS). It includes: superficial abscesses (boils, furnucles, carbuncles), abscesses that are subcutaneous and suprafascial, pyogenic granulomas, cysts, painful erythematous papules and plaques, folliculitis, open ulcerations, chronic sinuses, fistulas, sinus tracts, scrotal and genital lyphedema, dermal contractures, keloids (some that are still pitted with follicular ostia), scarring, skin tags, fibrosis, anal fissures, fistulas (i.e. circinate, linear, arcuate), scarring folliculitis of the buttocks (from mild to cigarette-like scarring), condyloma like lesions in intertrigous areas, fishmouth scars, acne inversa, honey-comb scarring, cribiform scarring, tombstone comedones, and morphia-like plaques. HS can co-exist with other follicular diseases such as pilonidal cysts, dissecting cellulitis, acne conglobata, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acanthosis nigricans. In sum, the variety of presentations of HS as shown by these images supports the supposition that HS is a reaction pattern.HS is a follicular based diseased and its manifestations involve a multitude of follicular pathologies [1,2]. It is also known as acne inversa (AI) because of one manifestation that involves the formation of open comedones on areas besides the face. It is as yet unclear why HS is so protean in its manifestations. HS severity is assessed using the Hurley Staging System (Table 1). It also remains unclear why hidradentitis may remain limited to Hurley Stage 1, evolve to the more confluent (Hurley Stage 2), or progress even further to the fully confluent (Hurley Stage 3).In addition, HS can be associated with other follicular based diseases such as pilonidal cysts (PCs) of the sacrum and buttocks, dissecting cellulitis (DC), and acne conglobata (AC), which usually involves the face, chest, When HS occurs with PCs, DC, and/or AC it is referred to as the follicular occlusion triad or tetrad [2]. HS

  20. [Severe type A insulin resistance syndrome due to a mutation in the insulin receptor gene].

    PubMed

    Ros, P; Colino-Alcol, E; Grasso, V; Barbetti, F; Argente, J

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance syndromes without lipodystrophy are an infrequent and heterogeneous group of disorders with variable clinical phenotypes, associated with hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The three conditions related to mutations in the insulin receptor gene are leprechaunism or Donohue syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, and Type A syndrome. A case is presented on a patient diagnosed with type A insulin resistance, defined by the triad of extreme insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, and hyperandrogenism, carrying a heterozygous mutation in exon 19 of the insulin receptor gene coding for its tyrosine kinase domain that is crucial for the catalytic activity of the receptor. The molecular basis of the syndrome is reviewed, focusing on the structure-function relationships of the insulin receptor, knowing that the criteria for survival are linked to residual insulin receptor function. It is also pointed out that, although type A insulin resistance appears to represent a somewhat less severe condition, these patients have a high morbidity and their treatment is still unsatisfactory. PMID:25027621

  1. Efficacy of pioglitazone in familial partial lipodystrophy of the Dunnigan type: a case report.

    PubMed

    Moreau, F; Boullu-Sanchis, S; Vigouroux, C; Lucescu, C; Lascols, O; Sapin, R; Ruimy, D; Guerci, B; Pinget, M; Jeandidier, N

    2007-11-01

    A 25 year old woman consulted for a severe acanthosis nigricans and central distribution of fat. Her masculine type morphology was associated with muscular appearance of the limbs and excess fat deposits in the face and neck. Biological testing confirmed glucose intolerance associated with a severe insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and polycystic ovary syndrome. The detection of a heterozygous missense mutation in LAMIN A/C gene at position 482 confirmed the diagnosis of Familial Partial Lipodystrophy (FPLD2). Due to a deterioration of clinical and metabolic status, 15 and then 30 mg per day of pioglitazone were added to her previous treatment with metformin, bezafibrate and omega-3 fatty acids. Metabolic status improved rapidly after 3 months and continued thereafter. Weight remained stable, body mass composition and waist circumference improved. After 18 months of treatment, glycaemia and triglycerides levels normalized, hepatic enzymes and liver echographic features improved. Insulin sensitivity improved dramatically with a HOMA % S value of 73% with metformin and of 98.2% when pioglitazone was added. Leptin levels increased from 6.6 to 10.2 microg/ml. We report a very rapid and good efficacy of pioglitazone added to metformin without side effects in FPLD2. If confirmed on more patients, early use of pioglitazone in association with metformin could be proposed in FPLD2. PMID:17936664

  2. The Castleman's Disease and Related Disorders--A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Khan, M K; Talukder, R H; Kamruzzaman, M

    2016-01-01

    Castleman's disease is a rare primary disease of the lymph nodes. Little is known about the management of the disease. Surgical treatment gives a very good result. What other modalities of treatment could be done is not yet established. The role of surgery gives good result and follow up evaluation is satisfactory. We found a solitary intra-abdominal mass of lymphoid hyperplasia with a histological diagnosis of Castlemans disease identified in the pathological data base. Unicentric disease was defined as it was a solitary mass. Clinical, Radiological and Laboratory data were analysed to evaluate treatment response. The patient also has related disorders as Acanthosis nigricans, Myoneuronal disorder as-MG and bronchiolitis. The patient diagnosed as angiofollicular hyperplasia (Castleman's disease). After evaluation patient under went surgical treatment, partial excision of tumor mass due to morbid adhesion with inferior vena cava. The patient becomes symptom free and lump disappears within 60 days of treatment. There was no recurrence of the disease after further evaluation. The author recommends that in Unicentric variant of Castlemans disease surgical resection of the tumor is curative. The unicentric tumour may be hyaline-vascular or hyaline-vascular/ plasma cell type. Partial resection, Radiotherapy or observation alone may avoid excessive aggressive therapy. PMID:26931270

  3. A Heterozygous ZMPSTE24 Mutation Associated with Severe Metabolic Syndrome, Ectopic Fat Accumulation, and Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Galant, Damien; Gaborit, Bénédicte; Desgrouas, Camille; Abdesselam, Ines; Bernard, Monique; Levy, Nicolas; Merono, Françoise; Coirault, Catherine; Roll, Patrice; Lagarde, Arnaud; Bonello-Palot, Nathalie; Bourgeois, Patrice; Dutour, Anne; Badens, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    ZMPSTE24 encodes the only metalloprotease, which transforms prelamin into mature lamin A. Up to now, mutations in ZMPSTE24 have been linked to Restrictive Dermopathy (RD), Progeria or Mandibulo-Acral Dysplasia (MAD). We report here the phenotype of a patient referred for severe metabolic syndrome and cardiomyopathy, carrying a mutation in ZMPSTE24. The patient presented with a partial lipodystrophic syndrome associating hypertriglyceridemia, early onset type 2 diabetes, and android obesity with truncal and abdominal fat accumulation but without subcutaneous lipoatrophy. Other clinical features included acanthosis nigricans, liver steatosis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and high myocardial and hepatic triglycerides content. Mutated fibroblasts from the patient showed increased nuclear shape abnormalities and premature senescence as demonstrated by a decreased Population Doubling Level, an increased beta-galactosidase activity and a decreased BrdU incorporation rate. Reduced prelamin A expression by siRNA targeted toward LMNA transcripts resulted in decreased nuclear anomalies. We show here that a central obesity without subcutaneous lipoatrophy is associated with a laminopathy due to a heterozygous missense mutation in ZMPSTE24. Given the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and android obesity in the general population, and in the absence of familial study, the causative link between mutation and phenotype cannot be formally established. Nevertheless, altered lamina architecture observed in mutated fibroblasts are responsible for premature cellular senescence and could contribute to the phenotype observed in this patient. PMID:27120622

  4. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Reinehr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is emerging as a new clinical problem within pediatric practice. Recent reports indicate an increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents around the world in all ethnicities, even if the prevalence of obesity is not increasing any more. The majority of young people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus was found in specific ethnic subgroups such as African-American, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islanders and American Indians. Clinicians should be aware of the frequent mild or asymptomatic manifestation of type 2 diabetes mellitus in childhood. Therefore, a screening seems meaningful especially in high risk groups such as children and adolescents with obesity, relatives with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and clinical features of insulin resistance (hypertension, dyslipidemia, polycystic ovarian syndrome, or acanthosis nigricans). Treatment of choice is lifestyle intervention followed by pharmacological treatment (e.g., metformin). New drugs such as dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors or glucagon like peptide 1 mimetics are in the pipeline for treatment of youth with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, recent reports indicate a high dropout of the medical care system of adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus suggesting that management of children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus requires some remodeling of current healthcare practices. PMID:24379917

  5. Familial partial lipodystrophy: two types of an X linked dominant syndrome, lethal in the hemizygous state.

    PubMed Central

    Köbberling, J; Dunnigan, M G

    1986-01-01

    Familial lipodystrophy (referred to in publications as the Köbberling-Dunnigan syndrome) comprises at least two clinical phenotypes which are consistent within each pedigree. In type 1 familial lipodystrophy, loss of subcutaneous fat is confined to the limbs, sparing the face and trunk. In type 2 familial lipodystrophy, the trunk is also affected with the exception of the vulva, giving an appearance of labial hypertrophy. Diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinaemia, and acanthosis nigricans are present to a variable degree in some but not all patients with familial lipodystrophy, and the abnormal distribution of subcutaneous fat is the essential hallmark of the syndrome. In addition to a survey of published reports, new cases with the syndrome are described. Both types of partial lipodystrophy, occurring either as familial disease or as sporadic cases, have only been observed in female patients. Study of the pedigrees of five families with familial lipodystrophy (two Scottish and three German) suggests an X linked dominant mode of transmission, lethal in the hemizygous (XY) state. The two clinical phenotypes with their variably expressive metabolic abnormalities are consistent either with different mutants of the same allele or with two genes on adjacent loci. Other clinical phenotypes of familial lipodystrophy may exist due to further mutations of the same allele or of genes on adjacent loci. The nature of the disorder in patients with familial lipodystrophy usually escapes recognition for many years and the syndrome is almost certainly much commoner than the few families described to date suggest. Images PMID:3712389

  6. [Epithelial tumor-like changes, precancerous conditions and skin neoplasms (standardization study)].

    PubMed

    Bednár, B; Stanová, M

    1976-05-01

    A retrospective study of bioptic material was used to design the following outline of a histological classification of epithelial skin tumours tentatively compared with handbooks published by the WHO (1) and AFIP (2): I. Tumour-like changes: 1. senile verruca (mixed, acanthotic, melanoacanthotic, hyperkeratonic, reticular, inverted). 2. Virus verrucosities (v. vulgaris, v. plana, c. accuminatum, molluscom contagiosum). 3. Hamartogenic verrucosities (naevus verrucosus, n. comedonicus, fibroepithelial papilloma. 4. Genetically undefined verrucosities (acanthosis nigricans, light cell acanthoma, verrucous dyskeratosis). 5. Cysts (atheroma, epidermoid cyst, dermoid cyst, others). 6. Unclassified. II. Precanceroses: 1. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasis, 2. keratosis senilis, 3. Radiation dermatosis, 4. Unclassified. III. Epithelial tumours A. From surface epithelium 1. Spinocellular carcinoma (basic type, anaplastic, adenoid, sarcomatoid, clear cell carcinoma, intraepidermal). 2. Basocellular carcinoma: a) varieties derived from surface epithelium (intraepithelial, superficial, solid, cystic, invasive), b) varieties with adenoid features (cylindromatous, fibroepithelia), c) varieties with trichoepithelial features (keratinizing, pigment-type, clear cell type), d) naevus varieties (basocellular naevi). 3. Spinobasocellular carcinoma. 4. Unclassifiable. B. Sweat gland tumours: 1. syringocystadenoma papilliferum, 2. hidradenoma papillare, 3. nodular hidradenoma (eccrine spiradenoma, eccrine acrospiroma, myxochondroepithelioma, myoepithelioma, mucinous epithelioma), 4. syringoma, 5. eccrine cylindroma, 6. hidrocystoma, 7. eccrine poroma, 8. carcinomas (so called extramammary Paget carcinoma), 9. unclassifiable. C. Sebaceous gland tumours: 1. adenoma sebaceum, 2. carcinoma sebaceum, 3. quasi tumours (naevus sebaceus, Pringle's hamartoma, steatocystoma multiplex, hyperplasia), 4. unclassifiable. D. Trichoepithelial tumours: 1. trichofolliculoma, 2. follicular poroma, 3

  7. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Garness, Rachel L; Zarroug, Abdalla E; Kumar, Seema; Swain, James M

    2012-04-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a novel technique in pediatric bariatric surgery. The patient reported here participated in our pediatric weight management clinic for 2 years. His obesity was complicated by obstructive sleep apnea, acanthosis nigricans, and hypertension. His past medical history included 2 small bowel resections, bilateral nephrectomy and kidney transplantation for multicystic renal dysplasia, and 2 peritoneal dialysis-catheter infections. Gastric banding was contraindicated because of previous foreign body infections and chronic need of immunosuppression and steroids. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was of higher risk given his previous abdominal operations and the resulting medication absorption issues. He underwent LSG without any complications. Five trocars were utilized and a gastroscope was placed during gastric resection. Presurgical body mass index was 44.8 kg/m. At 18 months follow-up body mass index was 26.5 kg/m. We concur that LSG can be a safe and effective alternative in bariatric surgery in well-selected adolescents. PMID:22487636

  8. Black hairy tongue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although aesthetic concerns are common. Differential diagnosis includes pseudo-BHT, acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual observation, detailed history taking, and occasionally microscopic evaluation. Treatment involves identification and discontinuation of the offending agent, modifications of chronic predisposing factors, patient’s re-assurance to the benign nature of the condition, and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene with gentle debridement to promote desquamation. Complications of BHT (burning mouth syndrome, halitosis, nausea, gagging, dysgeusia) typically respond to therapy. Prognosis is excellent with treatment of underlying medical conditions. BHT remains an important medical condition which may result in additional burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate prevention, recognition and treatment. PMID:25152586

  9. A syndrome of insulin resistance resembling leprechaunism in five sibs of consanguineous parents.

    PubMed Central

    al-Gazali, L I; Khalil, M; Devadas, K

    1993-01-01

    Leprechaunism is a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with extreme insulin resistance with paradoxical hypo-glycaemia. It is characterised by prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, reduced subcutaneous tissue, coarse features, acanthosis nigricans, enlarged genitalia, and death in the first year of life. Defects in both the insulin receptor and postreceptor steps of the insulin action pathway have been reported. At the molecular level, several mutations have been described. The patients reported here are from a Yemeni family with a syndrome of insulin resistance similar to leprechaunism in which the parents are second cousins and five of their eight children are affected. However, the phenotypes seem to be less severe than the classical leprechaunism previously described. All the children are alive (oldest 11 years), there is normal subcutaneous tissue, and a normal growth pattern in some of them. It may be that this is a milder type of leprechaunism with a better prognosis, perhaps caused by a different type of mutation from those previously described. Images PMID:8326490

  10. Sixteen years and counting: the current understanding of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) signaling in skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Foldynova-Trantirkova, Silvie; Wilcox, William R; Krejci, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    In 1994, the field of bone biology was significantly advanced by the discovery that activating mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) receptor tyrosine kinase (TK) account for the common genetic form of dwarfism in humans, achondroplasia (ACH). Other conditions soon followed, with the list of human disorders caused by FGFR3 mutations now reaching at least 10. An array of vastly different diagnoses is caused by similar mutations in FGFR3, including syndromes affecting skeletal development (hypochondroplasia [HCH], ACH, thanatophoric dysplasia [TD]), skin (epidermal nevi, seborrhaeic keratosis, acanthosis nigricans), and cancer (multiple myeloma [MM], prostate and bladder carcinoma, seminoma). Despite many years of research, several aspects of FGFR3 function in disease remain obscure or controversial. As FGFR3-related skeletal dysplasias are caused by growth attenuation of the cartilage, chondrocytes appear to be unique in their response to FGFR3 activation. However, the reasons why FGFR3 inhibits chondrocyte growth while causing excessive cellular proliferation in cancer are not clear. Likewise, the full spectrum of molecular events by which FGFR3 mediates its signaling is just beginning to emerge. This article describes the challenging journey to unravel the mechanisms of FGFR3 function in skeletal dysplasias, the extraordinary cellular manifestations of FGFR3 signaling in chondrocytes, and finally, the progress toward therapy for ACH and cancer. PMID:22045636

  11. A Heterozygous ZMPSTE24 Mutation Associated with Severe Metabolic Syndrome, Ectopic Fat Accumulation, and Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Galant, Damien; Gaborit, Bénédicte; Desgrouas, Camille; Abdesselam, Ines; Bernard, Monique; Levy, Nicolas; Merono, Françoise; Coirault, Catherine; Roll, Patrice; Lagarde, Arnaud; Bonello-Palot, Nathalie; Bourgeois, Patrice; Dutour, Anne; Badens, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    ZMPSTE24 encodes the only metalloprotease, which transforms prelamin into mature lamin A. Up to now, mutations in ZMPSTE24 have been linked to Restrictive Dermopathy (RD), Progeria or Mandibulo-Acral Dysplasia (MAD). We report here the phenotype of a patient referred for severe metabolic syndrome and cardiomyopathy, carrying a mutation in ZMPSTE24. The patient presented with a partial lipodystrophic syndrome associating hypertriglyceridemia, early onset type 2 diabetes, and android obesity with truncal and abdominal fat accumulation but without subcutaneous lipoatrophy. Other clinical features included acanthosis nigricans, liver steatosis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and high myocardial and hepatic triglycerides content. Mutated fibroblasts from the patient showed increased nuclear shape abnormalities and premature senescence as demonstrated by a decreased Population Doubling Level, an increased beta-galactosidase activity and a decreased BrdU incorporation rate. Reduced prelamin A expression by siRNA targeted toward LMNA transcripts resulted in decreased nuclear anomalies. We show here that a central obesity without subcutaneous lipoatrophy is associated with a laminopathy due to a heterozygous missense mutation in ZMPSTE24. Given the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and android obesity in the general population, and in the absence of familial study, the causative link between mutation and phenotype cannot be formally established. Nevertheless, altered lamina architecture observed in mutated fibroblasts are responsible for premature cellular senescence and could contribute to the phenotype observed in this patient. PMID:27120622

  12. Acne - a potential skin marker of internal disease.

    PubMed

    Pace, Joseph L

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder in adult women. Hyperandrogenism is the crux of the pathogenesis of both acne and hirsutism, the most frequent clinical presentations of the syndrome. The chronic anovulation that may occur, often but not always associated with enlarged cystic ovaries, has long been recognized as an important feature of PCOS. In recent years major changes have occurred with regard to PCOS: Although management of the common cutaneous manifestations, mainly acne, hirsutism, alopecia, and acanthosis nigricans, remains strictly within the realm of daily dermatologic practice, the pendulum is shifting toward greater awareness of the longer-term systemic implications of PCOS, with emphasis on the unique opportunity and privileged position of the dermatologist to diagnose this potentially serious problem at an early stage, when effective long-term treatment can be instituted. Patients need to be advised that PCOS cannot be cured but can be controlled. Management should involve a multidisciplinary team with emphasis on lifestyle change, insulin sensitizing agents, androgen blockers, and attention to specific cutaneous manifestations. PMID:26321405

  13. The phenotype masks the genotype: A possible new expression of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mimbacas, Adriana; Vitarella, Graciela; Souto, Jorge; Reyes, Ana Laura; Farias, Joaquina; Fernández, Mariana; Fabregat, Matias; Javiel, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a new form of diabetes, with signs of both types 1 and 2, has not been often considered, until recently. It is of immense interest to explore the role of the admixture that characterizes the Uruguayan population (higher and different from other Latin America countries) for the presence of such expression of that particular disease. We describe here a child who possibly presents with this expression. He had typical signs of both diabetic conditions: type 1 (young age, positive immunologic and genetic markers, ketoacidosis) and type 2 (obesity [body mass index = 36 kg/m2] and acanthosis nigricans). In spite of complying with the established guidelines, therapeutic and nutritional control, quality of life and good metabolic control, the patient's obesity had been continually increasing. Looking for a genetic explanation, we studied three single nucleotide polymorphisms involved in three different metabolic pathways (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2, insulin receptor substrate-1 and uncoupling protein-2) associated with insulin resistance. Our patient showed three mutations, GG, GA, GG, associated with insulin resistance that explains obesity associated with limited response to the commonly used drugs. According to the clinical presentation and the genetic and immunological background, we considered that this patient presents with a new form of diabetes. We have termed this particular disease “hybrid diabetes” because of the involvement of genes associated with both the classical type of diabetes. However, at least in an admixed population such as in Uruguay, clinical classification would not strictly dictate the choice of treatment.

  14. Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a and insulin resistance in a child.

    PubMed

    Nwosu, Benjamin U; Lee, Mary M

    2009-06-01

    Background. A 5-year-old white girl with a history of hypothyroidism in infancy presented to the endocrinology clinic of a tertiary hospital. Her physical examination noted a stocky physique, broad chest, short neck and short digits. Two years later, skin examination revealed subcutaneous nodules and acanthosis nigricans.Investigations. Measurement of levels of serum phosphate, parathyroid hormone, ionized calcium and insulin; measurement of peak growth hormone by the arginine-levodopa stimulation test; calculation of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; assessment of bone age; DNA analysis of the GNAS gene.Diagnosis. Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a in a patient with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, characterized by hypocalcemia, hypothyroidism, growth-hormone deficiency and insulin resistance.Management. The child continued to take levothyroxine 25 microg once daily, and at 5 years of age she was started on 40 mg/kg elemental calcium as calcium carbonate daily, and calcitriol (active vitamin D) 0.25 microg twice daily. Lifestyle modifications were also recommended for weight control. At 6 years and 4 months of age, treatment with growth hormone was initiated at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg weekly. PMID:19465898

  15. Prevalence of Skin Changes in Diabetes Mellitus and its Correlation with Internal Diseases: A Single Center Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Kaushik; Das, KapilDev; Ghosh, Susmita; Chakraborty, Sisir; Jatua, Sanat Kumar; Bhattacharya, Ambarish; Ghosh, Manas

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: This single-center observational cross-sectional study has been done in an attempt to find out the prevalence of various skin manifestations in diabetes patients (DM) and their correlation with diabetes control and complications. Materials and Methods: Skin manifestations present over 12 months among those attend diabetes clinic were included in the study. Apart from demographic data and type, patients were also screened for micro vascular complications and control of diabetes over last 3 months. Results and Discussion: Sixty (n = 60) diabetes patisents (Type 1 DM, 9 patients and Type 2 DM 51 patients) have been found to have various skin lesions. Thirty-one (51.67%) patients presented with infectious conditions, vascular complications were present in 21 (35%) and dermatomes belonging to the miscellaneous group were present in 50 (83.33%) patients. Pyoderma, diabetic dermopathy, and pruritus without skin lesions were found to be most common manifestations in infective, vascular and miscellaneous group, respectively. Higher level of HB1AC was found in patient with diabetic bulla (10.5 ± 0), scleredema (9.75 ± 0.77), lichen planus (9.3 ± 1.6), and acanthosis nigricans (9.15 ± 0.89). Patients with psoriasis and vitiligo had statistically significant lower level of glycosylated hemoglobin (P =< 0.001 and 0.03, respectively). However, no association of any kind of skin manifestation with DM with other microangiopathic complications was found in this study. PMID:26538693

  16. [Habitat use patterns of the Black Brant Branta bernicla nigricans (Anseriformes: Anatidae) in natural and artificial areas of Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cedillo, Israel Martínez; Carmona, Roberto; Ward, David H; Danemann, Gustavo D

    2013-06-01

    The Black Brant is a common inhabitant of the Western Artic American tundra, which migrates to Southern Pacific coasts during the winter season. Approximately, 31000 birds (31%) constitute the Mexican population of Brants at Guerrero Negro, Ojo de Liebre, and Exportadora de Sal lagoon complex; nevertheless, there is little information about the distribution patterns and zone usage. At Guerrero Negro Lagoon (GNL), Ojo de Liebre Lagoon (OLL, both natural sites), and at Exportadora de Sal (ESSA, artificial site) we determined by monthly censuses (from November 2006 to April 2007, 08:00-16:00h) and observed: (1) season and site effects on population structure (age groups), and (2) the tide level relationship with the abundance and proportion of feeding birds. Within a total of 150 observation hours and 98 birds, our results showed a general 0.68 proportion of adults, that was higher in winter than in spring. The statistics analysis showed no effects by site on the proportion of feeding birds, but we observed a temporal decrease at ESSA and at GNL. In contrast the proportion of feeding birds at OLL was constant. We observed an increase in the juveniles between winter and spring. This increase is related with the differential migration, which mentions that the juveniles are the last to leave the wintering area. In winter the relations of the tide level with the abundance of Brant were: direct at ESSA, inverse at OLL and no relation found at GNL. In spring, no relation was observed in the sites. The proportion of Brants feeding at OLL (the site with the higher abundance) was independent of the tide level. This is related with two possible behaviors of the geese: (1) they can move through the lagoon and take advantage of the tidal lag, which is up to four hours; and (2) they can modify their feeding strategies, more on floating eelgrass (Zostera marina). PMID:23885600

  17. Prevalence of Hypovitaminosis D and Its Association with Comorbidities of Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ronald; Novick, Marsha; Lehman, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Our study sought to further delineate the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and its relationship to comorbidities of childhood obesity. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review from 155 obese children aged 5 to 19 years who attended the Penn State Children’s Hospital Pediatric Multidisciplinary Weight Loss Program from November 2009 through November 2010. We determined the incidence of hypovitaminosis D and examined its association with comorbidities including elevated blood pressure, diabetes, acanthosis nigricans, depression, hyper-lipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and abnormal liver function test results, as well as age, sex, and geographic location. Results: Under the latest Institute of Medicine definitions, vitamin D deficiency (< 20 ng/mL) and insufficiency (20–29 ng/mL) was present in 40% and 38% of children, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 27.8% in children aged 5 to 9 years, 35.4% in children aged 10 to 14 years, and 50.9% of children aged 15 years or older. Older age, African-American race, winter/spring season, higher insulin level, total number of comorbidities, and polycystic ovary syndrome (in girls) were significantly associated with vitamin D deficiency. African-American race, winter/spring season, hyperinsulinemia, elevated systolic blood pressure, urban location, and total numbers of comorbidities were significantly associated with hypovitaminosis D (< 30 ng/mL). Conclusions: Hypovitaminosis D is associated with several medical comorbidities in obese children. Given the large percentage of children, even in our youngest age group, who are vitamin D deficient, obese children should be considered for routine vitamin D screening. PMID:25662524

  18. Long-term clinical follow-up and molecular testing for diagnosis of the first Tunisian family with Alström syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chakroun, Amine; Ben Said, Mariem; Ennouri, Amine; Achour, Imen; Mnif, Mouna; Abid, Mohamed; Ghorbel, Abdelmonem; Marshall, Jan D; Naggert, Jürgen K; Masmoudi, Saber

    2016-09-01

    Alström syndrome is a clinically complex disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of sensory functions, resulting in visual and audiological impairment as well as metabolic disturbances. It is caused by recessively inherited mutations in the ALMS1 gene, which codes for a centrosomal/basal body protein. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic and clinical features of two Tunisian affected siblings with Alström syndrome. Detailed clinical examinations were performed including complete ophthalmic examination, serial audiograms and several biochemical and hormonal blood tests. For the molecular study, first genomic DNA was isolated using a standard protocol. Then, linkage analysis with microsatellite markers was performed and DNA array was used to detect known mutations. Subsequently, all ALMS1 exons were simultaneously sequenced for one affected patient with the TaGSCAN targeted sequencing panel. Finally, segregation of the causal variant was performed by Sanger sequencing. Both affected siblings had cone rod dystrophy with impaired visual acuity, sensorineural hearing loss and truncal obesity. One affected individual showed insulin resistance without diabetes mellitus. Other clinical features including cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction, hypothyroidism, hyperlipidemia, acanthosis nigricans, renal and hepatic dysfunction were absent. Genetic analysis showed the presence of a homozygous splice site mutation (c.10388-2A > G) in both affected siblings. Although Alström syndrome is relatively well characterized disease, this syndrome is probably misdiagnosed in Tunisia. Here, we describe the first report of Tunisian patients affected by this syndrome and carrying a homozygous ALMS1 mutation. The diagnosis was suspected after long-term clinical follow-up and confirmed by genetic testing. PMID:27523285

  19. Predictors of Acquired Lipodystrophy in Juvenile-Onset Dermatomyositis and a Gradient of Severity

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, April; Mamyrova, Gulnara; Rother, Kristina I.; Oral, Elif; Cochran, Elaine; Premkumar, Ahalya; Kleiner, David; James-Newton, Laura; Targoff, Ira N.; Pandey, Janardan P.; Carrick, Danielle Mercatante; Sebring, Nancy; O’Hanlon, Terrance P.; Ruiz-Hidalgo, Maria; Turner, Maria; Gordon, Leslie B.; Laborda, Jorge; Bauer, Steven R.; Blackshear, Perry J.; Imundo, Lisa; Miller, Frederick W.; Rider, Lisa G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the clinical features of 28 patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) and 1 patient with adult-onset dermatomyositis (DM), all of whom developed lipodystrophy (LD) that could be categorized into 1 of 3 phenotypes, generalized, partial, or focal, based on the pattern of fat loss distribution. LD onset was often delayed, beginning a median of 4.6 years after diagnosis of DM. Calcinosis, muscle atrophy, joint contractures, and facial rash were DM disease features found to be associated with LD. Panniculitis was associated with focal lipoatrophy while the anti-p155 autoantibody, a newly described myositis-associated autoantibody, was more associated with generalized LD. Specific LD features such as acanthosis nigricans, hirsutism, fat redistribution, and steatosis/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis were frequent in patients with LD, in a gradient of frequency and severity among the 3 sub-phenotypes. Metabolic studies frequently revealed insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia in patients with generalized and partial LD. Regional fat loss from the thighs, with relative sparing of fat loss from the medial thighs, was more frequent in generalized than in partial LD and absent from DM patients without LD. Cytokine polymorphisms, the C3 nephritic factor, insulin receptor antibodies, and lamin mutations did not appear to play a pathogenic role in the development of LD in our patients. LD is an under-recognized sequela of JDM, and certain DM patients with a severe, prolonged clinical course and a high frequency of calcinosis appear to be at greater risk for the development of this complication. High-risk JDM patients should be screened for metabolic abnormalities, which are common in generalized and partial LD and result in much of the LD-associated morbidity. Further study is warranted to investigate the pathogenesis of acquired LD in patients with DM. PMID:18344805

  20. A Case of Beare-Stevenson Syndrome with Unusual Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Ron, Nitin; Leung, Samuel; Carney, Erin; Gerber, Alexis; David, Karen Laurie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Beare-Stevenson syndrome (BSS) is an extremely rare genetic disorder, with fewer than 25 cases reported worldwide. This autosomal dominant syndrome has been linked to two mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2), Tyr375Cys and Ser372Cys, both causing amino acid changes. CASE REPORT BSS is characterized by a range of morphological features, some more classically associated than others, of which craniosynostosis has been almost uniformly present. Other common features include cutis gyrata, acanthosis nigricans, ear and eye defects, skin/mucosal tissue tags, prominent umbilical stump, and anogenital anomalies. This account reports what we believe to be the 25th case of BSS, and exhibits a constellation of the characteristic features similar to those previously described, including the presence of cutis gyrata, proptosis, a bifid scrotum, and hypospadias. However, craniosynostosis was not detected prenatally by ultrasound or at birth. Prenatal ultrasound may detect some dysmorphic features of BSS. Many of these features have also been associated with other genetic disorders with overlapping phenotypes. Our case presented with the unusual features of a natal tooth and absence of craniosynostosis at birth. At birth, a diagnosis of BSS was suspected based on clinical features despite the absence of craniosynostosis. This was later confirmed with the use of molecular analysis, revealing a Tyr375Cys mutation of exon 9 of the FGFR2 gene. CONCLUSIONS We suggest that a normal antenatal ultrasound scan and the absence of craniosynostosis at birth should not preclude further workup for BSS if this possibility is clinically suspected. PMID:27079505

  1. [Metabolic syndrome in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Barkai, László; Paragh, György

    2006-02-12

    Metabolic syndrome has an outstanding impact on public health due to its increasing prevalence and poor prognosis. The development of insulin resistance, as a consequence of obesity, can be demonstrated even in childhood which has a pivotal role in the pathomechanism of the syndrome. Besides obesity, low birth weight, increased gain in body mass in early childhood, decreased pubertal insulin sensitivity and clinical markers of insulin resistance (acanthosis nigricans, polycystic ovarian syndrome, premature adrenarche) confer risk of metabolic syndrome. Currently, there are no consistent and consensus based diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. The most recent definition of the International Diabetes Federation [central obesity plus any two of four factors (raised triglyceride, reduced high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, raised blood pressure and raised fasting plasma glucose)] is not approved for children and epidemiology data are not yet available. Applying the modified version of the most commonly used Adult Treatment Panel III diagnostic system for children and adolescents, the prevalence is given as 4.2% in the literature. As the components of the syndrome, frequency were as follows: 9.8-17.9% for abdominal obesity, 21.0-23.4% for elevated triglyceride, 18.3-23.3% for reduced high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, 4.9-7.1% for elevated blood pressure and 0.8-1.7% for impaired fasting glucose. High frequency of morphological and functional disturbances of the vascular and endothelial systems seen frequently among children with signs of metabolic syndrome suggests early cardiovascular events and underlines the clinical significance of this entity. The most effective tool for prevention of metabolic syndrome is to avoid the development of childhood obesity. In case of established disease, the effective treatment should address the different components of the syndrome. The authors emphasize the need of elaboration of consensus

  2. A Case of Beare-Stevenson Syndrome with Unusual Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Ron, Nitin; Leung, Samuel; Carney, Erin; Gerber, Alexis; David, Karen Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Case series Patient: — Final Diagnosis: Beare-Stevenson syndrome Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Genetic analysis Specialty: Pediatrics and Neonatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Beare-Stevenson syndrome (BSS) is an extremely rare genetic disorder, with fewer than 25 cases reported worldwide. This autosomal dominant syndrome has been linked to two mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2), Tyr375Cys and Ser372Cys, both causing amino acid changes. Case Report: BSS is characterized by a range of morphological features, some more classically associated than others, of which craniosynostosis has been almost uniformly present. Other common features include cutis gyrata, acanthosis nigricans, ear and eye defects, skin/mucosal tissue tags, prominent umbilical stump, and anogenital anomalies. This account reports what we believe to be the 25th case of BSS, and exhibits a constellation of the characteristic features similar to those previously described, including the presence of cutis gyrata, proptosis, a bifid scrotum, and hypospadias. However, craniosynostosis was not detected prenatally by ultrasound or at birth. Prenatal ultrasound may detect some dysmorphic features of BSS. Many of these features have also been associated with other genetic disorders with overlapping phenotypes. Our case presented with the unusual features of a natal tooth and absence of craniosynostosis at birth. At birth, a diagnosis of BSS was suspected based on clinical features despite the absence of craniosynostosis. This was later confirmed with the use of molecular analysis, revealing a Tyr375Cys mutation of exon 9 of the FGFR2 gene. Conclusions: We suggest that a normal antenatal ultrasound scan and the absence of craniosynostosis at birth should not preclude further workup for BSS if this possibility is clinically suspected. PMID:27079505

  3. Anthropometric and metabolic characteristics in children with clinically diagnosed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Mager, Diana R; Ling, Simon; Roberts, Eve A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Childhood obesity is currently approaching epidemic proportions worldwide. Various chronic diseases are associated with obesity, but nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has received little attention from paediatricians. AIM To examine anthropometric and metabolic variables relevant to NAFLD disease mechanism and severity. METHODS A retrospective review of 53 consecutive paediatric patients clinically diagnosed with NAFLD was performed between 1997 and 2004. Variables studied included ethnicity, body mass index, acanthosis nigricans, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine amino-transferase levels, and fasting levels of glucose, insulin and lipids. Insulin resistance was quantified by validated models (the homeostasis model of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] and the quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index [QUICKI]). RESULTS The cohort was comprised of 34 boys and 19 girls; there was a 2:1 male predominance. The mean age of the children was 13.5 years (median 14.2 years; range 5.6 to 18.9 years), and 13 were 11 years of age or younger. Forty-five per cent were Caucasian, 30% Asian and 21% Hispanic. Thirty-eight children (72%) were classified as obese and 11 children (21%) were classified as overweight, with a mean ideal body weight percentage of 150.9±4.2 (range 67% to 226%) and a BMI Z score of 1.9±0.1 (range −1.2 to 3.2). Hyperinsulinemia was present in 35 children (66%). Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR 9.8±2.6, abnormal if greater than 3) was associated with increased plasma triglyceride (P=0.03) and total cholesterol (P=0.04) levels. These parameters were significant irrespective of alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase levels. CONCLUSIONS Hyperlipidemia with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in overweight and obese children with fatty liver may be important signs of liver dysfunction in childhood NAFLD, irrespective of serum aminotransferases. In overweight or obese children with hyperlipidemia or insulin resistance

  4. Correlation between serum adiponectin and clinical characteristics, biochemical parameters in Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ramanand, Sunita J.; Ramanand, Jaiprakash B.; Ghongane, Balasaheb B.; Patwardhan, Milind H.; Patwardhan, Varsha M.; Ghanghas, Ravi; Halasawadekar, Nimish R.; Patil, Praveenkumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder. PCOS women are at a high risk for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MS). Adiponectin is positively related to insulin sensitivity. It has a preventive role in atherogenesis and MS. The present work was conducted to study the correlation between serum adiponectin levels and clinical characteristics and biochemical parameters in PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: A prospective study in 49 newly diagnosed (as per Rotterdam criteria) Indian PCOS women was conducted. PCOS women were clinically examined and investigated for biochemical parameters. Results: The mean serum adiponectin was 12 ± 9.4 μg/mL (range 0.47-45). Hypoadiponectinemia (serum adiponectin <4 μg/mL) was present in 22% patients. Age and adiponectin correlated significantly and inversely (r = −0.42, P = 0.027). Overweight/obese patients had lower mean adiponectin levels than normal weight (11.62 ± 9.5 vs 13.58 ± 9.5, P = 0.56). It was significantly lower in patients with acanthosis nigricans (AN) as compared with those without AN (8.4 ± 5.9 vs 15 ± 11, P = 0.038). Hirsute patients showed lower mean adiponectin levels than nonhirsute (10 ± 7.3 vs 13 ± 10, P = 0.57). A positive, insignificant correlation was observed between serum adiponectin and cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid stimulating hormone, levels. A negative insignificant correlation existed between serum adiponectin and luteinizing hormone (LH), LH: FSH ratio, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment. Conclusion: Hypoadiponectinemia is present in one-fifth of women with PCOS. Adiponectin levels decrease as age advances. Low levels of adiponectin possibly contributes to the development of dermal manifestation (AN) of insulin resistance. PMID:24741521

  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome: Is obesity a sine qua non? A clinical, hormonal, and metabolic assessment in relation to body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Pikee; Prakash, Anupam; Nigam, Aruna; Mishra, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the proportion of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients who have normal body mass index (BMI) and to compare the clinical, hormonal, and metabolic profile between lean and overweight patients of PCOS. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive infertile women with PCOS were studied and divided into lean (BMI between 18.5 and 23) and overweight (BMI ≥ 23). Metabolic and hormonal profile (serum FSH, LH, testosterone, prolactin, TSH on days 2–3 of menstrual cycle; serum progesterone premenstrually; serum insulin—fasting and 2 hours postglucose, glucose tolerance test, and fasting serum lipid profile) was performed along with pelvic sonogropahy; and clinical features, viz. waist hip ratio, hirsutism, acne, acanthosis nigricans, and clitoromegaly were recorded. Results: 42% of the PCOS subjects had normal BMI. Average age, hirsutism (80.9% vs. 89.7%), irregular cycles (92.8% vs. 96.6%), acne (9.5% vs. 15.5%), clitoromegaly (2.3% vs. 3.4%), endometrial thickness >4 mm (9.5% vs. 15.5%), and hormonal profile were similar in the lean and overweight PCOS groups. Family history of diabetes (9.5% vs. 24.1%), abnormal glucose tolerance test (GTT) (4.7% vs. 10.3%), deranged lipid profile (14.2% vs. 31%), and 2-hour postprandial insulin levels were higher in the overweight PCOS (P < 0.05). Insulin resistance was observed in 83.3% of lean PCOS but was still lower than 93.1% seen in overweight PCOS (P < 0.05). Conclusion: 42% of the PCOS had normal BMI, but clinical and hormonal profile was similar to PCOS patients with elevated BMI (overweight/obese). However, insulin resistance is observed in 83.3% of lean PCOS. Family history of diabetes, impaired GTT, deranged lipid profile, and insulin resistance were more prevalent in overweight PCOS. PMID:23226650

  6. Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy, Type 4 (CGL4) Associated with Myopathy due to Novel PTRF Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Shastry, Savitha; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Dirik, Eray; Turkmen, Mehmet; Agarwal, Anil K.; Garg, Abhimanyu

    2010-01-01

    Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by near total absence of body fat since birth with predisposition to insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis. Three CGL loci, AGPAT2, BSCL2 and CAV1 have been identified previously. Recently, mutations in polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) were reported in five Japanese patients presenting with myopathy and CGL (CGL4). We report on novel PTRF mutations and detailed phenotype of two male and three female patients with CGL4 belonging to two pedigrees of Mexican origin (CGL7100 and CGL178) and one pedigree of Turkish origin (CGL180). All patients had near total loss of body fat and congenital myopathy manifesting as weakness, percussion-induced muscle mounding and high serum creatine kinase levels. Four of them had hypertriglyceridemia. Three of them had atlantoaxial instability. Two patients belonging to CGL178 pedigree required surgery for pyloric stenosis in the first month of life. None of them had prolonged QT interval on electrocardiography but both siblings belonging to CGL7100 had exercise-induced arrhythmias. Three of them had mild acanthosis nigricans but had normal glucose tolerance. Two of them had hepatic steatosis. All patients had novel null mutations in PTRF gene. In conclusion, mutations in PTRF result in a novel phenotype that includes generalized lipodystrophy with mild metabolic derangements, myopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, atlantoaxial instability and pyloric stenosis. It is unclear how mutations in PTRF, which plays an essential role in formation of caveolae, affect a wide variety of tissues resulting in a variable phenotype. PMID:20684003

  7. [The polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance].

    PubMed

    Kreze, A; Hrnciar, J; Dobáková, M; Pekarová, E

    1997-10-01

    The insulin resistance syndrome and the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) appear to have some following coincidences: the existence of subclinical acanthosis nigricans in PCOS hyperinsulinemic women, correlation of insulin levels and free testosterone, insulin-like growth factor I binding protein (IGFIBP), and sex-hormone binding globulin. Insulin and IGFI act synergically with luteinizing hormone increasing the activity of cytochrome P450c17 and its enzymatic activity in the adrenals. The decrease in IGFI level and IGFI receptors in the ovarian granulosa cells reduce the steroids aromatisation. The increased expression of IGFI receptors in the theca cells favours the androgens' synthesis. Long-term insulin therapy results in an increase in ovary volume and the blood androgens levels. The deterioration of insulin resistance in PSOC women progresses also by the reduction of type I of skeletal muscle fibres which are sensitive to insulin, and the increase of type II fibres which are resistant to insulin in hyperandrogenemia. Testosterone deteriorates the skeletal as well as hepatic insulin sensitivity by both its facilitating effect on lipolysis and the increase of free fatty acids. Abdominal obesity seen in PCOS and insulin resistance is composed by adipocytes with glucocorticoid receptors, which after cortisol stimulation activate the lipoprotein lipase and fat accumulation. Gynoid obesity with the preferential aromatisation of steroids is not evolved because of the low estrogens and progesterone levels in PCOS. Low progesterone levels (with anticortisol effect) support the development of abdominal obesity. Ultimately, the early peak of insulin secretion (4-8 min) in PCOS is higher. This fact should testify a certain diabetic disposition. (Ref. 37.) PMID:9490171

  8. Loss of NPC1 function in a patient with a co-inherited novel insulin receptor mutation does not grossly modify the severity of the associated insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Kirk, J; Porter, K M; Parker, V; Barroso, I; O'Rahilly, S; Hendriksz, C; Semple, R K

    2010-12-01

    In Npc1 null mice, a model for Niemann Pick Disease Type C1, it has been reported that hepatocyte insulin receptor function is significantly impaired, consistent with growing evidence that membrane fluidity and microdomain structure have an important role in insulin signal transduction. However, whether insulin receptor function is also compromised in human Niemann Pick disease Type C1 is unclear. We now report a girl who developed progressive dementia, ataxia and opthalmoplegia from 9 years old, followed by severe acanthosis nigricans, hirsutism and acne at 11 years old. She was diagnosed with Niemann Pick Disease type C1 (OMIM#257220) based on positive filipin staining and reduced cholesterol-esterifying activity in dermal fibroblasts, and homozygosity for the p.Ile1061Thr NPC1 mutation. Further analysis revealed her also to be heterozygous for a novel trinucleotide deletion (c.3659 + 1_3659 + 3delGTG) at the end of exon 20 of INSR, encoding the insulin receptor, leading to deletion of Trp1193 in the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. INSR mRNA and protein levels were normal in dermal fibroblasts, consistent with a primary signal transduction defect in the mutant receptor. Although the proband was significantly more insulin resistant than her father, who carried the INSR mutation but was only heterozygous for the NPC1 variant, their respective degrees of IR were very similar to those previously reported in a father-daughter pair with the closely related p.Trp1193Leu INSR mutation. This suggests that loss of NPC1 function, with attendant changes in membrane cholesterol composition, does not significantly modify the IR phenotype, even in the context of severely impaired INSR function. PMID:20521171

  9. Early Signs of Atherogenesis in Adolescents in a Havana Family Medicine Catchment Area.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Wendy; Díaz-Perera, Georgia; Espinosa, Tania M

    2015-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Atherosclerosis is the common underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases; the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. It is a major contributor to disability and poorer quality of life and is costly to health systems, individuals, families and society. Early signs of atherogenesis are manifestations of atherosclerosis and known atherogenic risk factors occurring at young ages and detectable by health professionals. Early detection of such signs in children and adolescents enables actions to prevent short- and long-term complications. OBJECTIVE Detect early signs of atherogenesis in adolescents in Family Doctor-and-Nurse Office No. 13 of the Raúl Gómez García Polyclinic in Havana's 10 de Octubre Municipality. METHODS An observational, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted: the universe consisted of 110 adolescents and, once exclusion criteria were applied, the sample was made up of 96 adolescents in the office's geographical catchment area. Variables included sociodemographic data; measurements from physical and anthropometric examinations (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, presence of acanthosis nigricans); maternal history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, smoking during pregnancy; birth weight and duration of exclusive breastfeeding; lifestyle (physical activity, dietary habits by frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables, salt intake, and smoking); and a history of atherogenic risk factors and atherosclerotic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease and chronic kidney disease) in adolescents and their families. The number of early signs of atherogenesis was determined. Descriptive statistics and a chi-square test, with significance threshold set at p = 0.05, were used to examine differences by sex and age. RESULTS A total of 62.5% of participating adolescents were female and the same percent of the total

  10. Children’s Healthy Living (CHL) Program for remote underserved minority populations in the Pacific region: rationale and design of a community randomized trial to prevent early childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although surveillance data are limited in the US Affiliated Pacific, Alaska, and Hawaii, existing data suggest that the prevalence of childhood obesity is similar to or in excess of other minority groups in the contiguous US. Strategies for addressing the childhood obesity epidemic in the region support the use of community-based, environmentally targeted interventions. The Children’s Healthy Living Program is a partnership formed across institutions in the US Affiliated Pacific, Alaska, and Hawaii to design a community randomized environmental intervention trial and a prevalence survey to address childhood obesity in the region through affecting the food and physical activity environment. Methods/Design The Children’s Healthy Living Program community randomized trial is an environmental intervention trial in four matched-pair communities in American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, and Hawaii and two matched-pair communities in Alaska. A cross-sectional sample of children (goal n = 180) in each of the intervention trial communities is being assessed for outcomes at baseline and at 24 months (18 months post-intervention). In addition to the collection of the participant-based measures of anthropometry, diet, physical activity, sleep and acanthosis nigricans, community assessments are also being conducted in intervention trial communities. The Freely Associated States of Micronesia (Federated States of Micronesia, and Republics of Marshall Islands and Palau) is only conducting elements of the Children’s Healthy Living Program sampling framework and similar measurements to provide prevalence data. In addition, anthropometry information will be collected for two additional communities in each of the 5 intervention jurisdictions to be included in the prevalence survey. The effectiveness of the environmental intervention trial is being assessed based on the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance

  11. The Evaluation of the Impact of Age, Skin Tags, Metabolic Syndrome, Body Mass Index, and Smoking on Homocysteine, Endothelin-1, High-sensitive C-reactive Protein, and on the Heart

    PubMed Central

    El Safoury, Omar Soliman; Ezzat, Marwa; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud F; Shoukry, Nadia; Badawy, Ehssan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Skin tags (STs) are small, pedunculated skin-colored or brown papules that occur around any site where skin folds occur. The literature is short of comprehensive and controlled clinical studies aimed to evaluate the atherogenic risk factors in patients with STs. Aim of Work: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of age, STs, metabolic syndrome (METs), body mass index (BMI), and smoking on homocysteine (Hcy), endothelin-1 (ET-1), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), and on cardiovascular diseases. Materials and Methods: This study included 30 cardiac patients with STs, 30 non-cardiac patients with STs, and 30 healthy controls with neither heart disease nor STs. History of smoking, measurement of height, weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, STs number, color, acanthosis nigricans, estimation of serum level of fasting glucose, triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol, high-dense lipoproteins (HDL), Hcy, ET-1, Hs-CRP, and the presence of the METs were elicited in the three groups. Results: Regarding the Hcy, ET-1, and Hs-CRP, the cardiac-STs group showed the highest levels and the control group showed the least (P < 0.001). The percents of patients with METs were 56.7% in the cardiac-STs, 40% in the non-cardiac-STs, and 0% in the control group (P < 0.001). Mean BMI exceeded the limit of obesity in the cardiac-STs group (30.9 ± 3.9) and the non-cardiac-STs group (32.6 ± 6) and was normal in the control group (24.7 ± 2.8). Hyperpigmented STs were present in 66.7% of the cardiac-STs group. Multivariate regression analysis for the independent effectors on Hcy level were the presence of STs (P < 0.001), METs (P = 0.001), and BMI (P = 0.024). Regarding ET-1, the effectors were the presence of STs and METs (P = 0.032). For Hs-CRP, effectors were the presence of STs (P < 0.001) and smoking (P = 0.040). Multivariate logistic regression of the predictors of cardiac disease showed that the independent predictors of the occurrence of

  12. Association of obesity and overweight with the prevalence of insulin resistance, pre-diabetes and clinical–biochemical characteristics among infertile Mexican women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Muñoz, Enrique; Ortega-González, Carlos; Martínez-Cruz, Nayeli; Arce-Sánchez, Lidia; Estrada-Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Moran, Carlos; Sánchez-Serrano, Ana Paola; Higareda-Sánchez, Rodolfo; de la Jara-Díaz, Julio Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the association of obesity and overweight with the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR), pre-diabetes and clinical–biochemical characteristics among infertile Mexican women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design Retrospective cross-sectional study. Setting Level-three medical institution, an infertility clinic in Mexico City. Participants We included infertile Mexican women with diagnosis of PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria: group 1 (n=83), normal weight (body mass index (BMI) 18.5–24.9 kg/m2); group 2 (n=217), overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2); and group 3 (n=238), obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2). Primary and secondary outcome measures IR was determined by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) >2.5 and pre-diabetes by fasting glucose between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/L and/or glucose value between 7.8 and 11 mmol/L at 2 hours during an oral glucose tolerance test. We compared clinical–biochemical characteristics among groups. Results Prevalence of IR for groups 1, 2 and 3 was 19.3%, 56.2% and 78.2%; overweight and obesity increase the IR OR (CI 95%) to 5.3 (2.9 to 9.8) and 14.9 (8.0 to 28), respectively. Prevalence of pre-diabetes for groups 1, 2 and 3 was 7.2%, 17.5% and 31.5%; overweight and obesity increase the pre-diabetes OR (CI 95%) to 2.7 (1.1 to 6.7) and 5.9 (2.4 to 14), respectively. Acanthosis nigricans was more frequent in group 3 than group 1. Free Androgen Index (FAI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were lower in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. Progesterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were higher in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) was higher in group 1 than group 3. Conclusions Obese and overweight infertile Mexican women with PCOS, attending to an infertility clinic, have a higher prevalence of IR and pre-diabetes compared with normal-weight women with PCOS. Therapeutic interventions should include those that improved metabolic functioning prior to

  13. Insulin resistance in adolescents with Down syndrome: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Cristina T; Amaral, Daniela M; Ribeiro, Márcia G; Beserra, Izabel CR; Guimarães, Marília M

    2005-01-01

    Background The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is higher in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) than in the general population; it may be due to the high prevalence of obesity presented by many of them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the insulin resistance (IR) using the HOMA (Homeostasis Model Assessment) method, in DS adolescents, describing it according to the sex, body mass index (BMI) and pubertal development. Methods 15 adolescents with DS (8 males and 7 females) were studied, aged 10 to 18 years, without history of disease or use of medication that could change the suggested laboratory evaluation. On physical examination, the pubertal signs, acanthosis nigricans (AN), weight and height were evaluated. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin were analysed by the colorimetric method and RIA-kit LINCO, respectively. IR was calculated using the HOMA method. The patients were grouped into obese, overweight and normal, according to their BMI percentiles. The EPIINFO 2004 software was used to calculate the BMI, its percentile and Z score. Results Five patients were adults (Tanner V or presence of menarche), 9 pubertal (Tanner II – IV) and 1 prepubertal (Tanner I). No one had AN. Two were obese, 4 overweight and 9 normal. Considering the total number of patients, HOMA was 1.7 ± 1.0, insulin 9.3 ± 4.8 μU/ml and glucose 74.4 ± 14.8 mg/dl. The HOMA values were 2.0 ± 1.0 in females and 1.5 ± 1.0 in males. Considering the nutritional classification, the values of HOMA and insulin were: HOMA: 3.3 ± 0.6, 2.0 ± 1.1 and 1.3 ± 0.6, and insulin: 18.15 ± 1.6 μU/ml, 10.3 ± 3.5 μU/ml and 6.8 ± 2.8 μU/ml, in the obese, overweight and normal groups respectively. Considering puberty, the values of HOMA and insulin were: HOMA: 2.5 ± 1.3, 1.4 ± 0.6 and 0.8 ± 0.0, and insulin: 13.0 ± 5.8 μU/ml, 7.8 ± 2.9 μU/ml and 4.0 ± 0.0 μU/ml, in the adult, pubertal and prepubertal groups respectively. Conclusion The obese and overweight, female and adult patients showed

  14. Populations of sharpshooters in two citrus groves in east-central Florida as indicated by yellow sticky card traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sharpshooter species were captured on yellow sticky card traps in two citrus groves in east-central Florida: Homalodisca insolita, H. vitripennis and Oncometopia nigricans. H. vitripennis and O. nigricans were relatively common and H. vitripennis relatively abundant over a three year period ...

  15. Indirect effects of a key ecosystem engineer alter survival and growth of foundation coral species.

    PubMed

    White, Jada-Simone S; O'Donnell, James L

    2010-12-01

    Stegastes nigricans, a "farmerfish" that cultivates algal turf and defends territories from grazers and other intruders, can affect coral indirectly due to increased competition with farmed algal turf and/or reduced predation resulting from territorial aggression directed at corallivores. To investigate the indirect effects of this key ecosystem engineer on coral mortality and growth, we transplanted caged and exposed fragments of four coral species to patch reefs in French Polynesia on which we manipulated the presence of S. nigricans and turf, and to reefs naturally devoid of S. nigricans. Reef access was two to four times higher for herbivorous fishes, and two times higher for corallivorous fishes, when S. nigricans was removed, indicating that reef access is reduced for two important guilds of fishes when S. nigricans is present. Stegastes' territoriality indirectly benefited delicate acroporids (Montipora floweri and Acropora striata), yielding a twofold to fivefold reduction in skeletal loss due to lower predation frequencies in the presence of S. nigricans. Three corals, A. striata, M. floweri, and especially Porites australiensis, suffered mortality due to overgrowth significantly more frequently in the presence of farmed turf, but Pocillopora verrucosa did not. Algal abundance predicted the frequency of overgrowth for only A. striata and P. australiensis. M. floweri were more likely to be overgrown when exposed (uncaged) in the presence of S. nigricans, suggesting an interaction modification, in this case that initial predation increased susceptibility to competition with turf. In this community, the presence of S. nigricans may increase algal overgrowth of massive Porites by facilitating its turf competitors and simultaneously reduce predation of branching corals through territorial exclusion of corallivores. These indirect interactions may underlie previously documented community transitions from disturbance-resistant massive coral to recovering

  16. Characterization of membrane protein interactions in plasma membrane derived vesicles with quantitative imaging Förster resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Del Piccolo, Nuala; Hristova, Kalina

    2015-08-18

    single amino acid mutations that cause skeletal and cranial dysplasias, as well as cancer, we also study the effects of these mutations on dimerization. First, we show that the A391E mutation, linked to Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans and to bladder cancer, significantly enhances FGFR3 dimerization in the absence of ligand and thus induces aberrant receptor interactions. Second, we present results about the effect of three cysteine mutations that cause thanatophoric dysplasia, a lethal phenotype. Such cysteine mutations have been hypothesized previously to cause constitutive dimerization, but we find instead that they have a surprisingly modest effect on dimerization. Most of the studied pathogenic mutations also altered FGFR3 dimer structure, suggesting that both increases in dimerization propensities and changes in dimer structure contribute to the pathological phenotypes. The results acquired with the QI-FRET method further our understanding of the interactions between FGFR3 molecules and RTK molecules in general. Since RTK dimerization regulates RTK signaling, our findings advance our knowledge of RTK activity in health and disease. The utility of the QI-FRET method is not restricted to RTKs, and we thus hope that in the future the QI-FRET method will be applied to other classes of membrane proteins, such as channels and G protein-coupled receptors. PMID:26244699

  17. Verruculogen Produced by soil fungi in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, D S; Shreeve, B J; Roberts, B A; MacDonald, S M

    1981-01-01

    Soil fungi, including Aspergillus fischeri, Penicillium piceum, Penicillium nigricans, and Penicillium raistrickii, produced a tremorgenic toxin previously described as toxin X. Chemical analysis showed that this toxin was predominantly verruculogen. PMID:7316507

  18. Verruculogen Produced by soil fungi in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Patterson, D S; Shreeve, B J; Roberts, B A; MacDonald, S M

    1981-11-01

    Soil fungi, including Aspergillus fischeri, Penicillium piceum, Penicillium nigricans, and Penicillium raistrickii, produced a tremorgenic toxin previously described as toxin X. Chemical analysis showed that this toxin was predominantly verruculogen. PMID:7316507

  19. Comparative Genomics- Identifying similarities and differences across three leafhopper vectors of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafhoppers are the second most important vectors of agricultural diseases, thus we examined the gene expression across three leafhopper leafhoppers, Homalodisca vitripennis, Graphocephala atropunctata, and Oncometopia nigricans, which are vectors of the plant-infecting bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa...

  20. Enzymatic modification of schizophyllan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An enzymatic method was developed for the progressive modification of the polysaccharide schizophyllan. Fungal strains Hypocrea nigricans NRRL 62555, Penicillium crustosum NRRL 62558, and Penicillium simplicissimum NRRL 62550 were previously identified as novel sources of ß-endoglucanase with specif...

  1. Bite force and feeding kinematics in the eastern North Pacific Kyphosidae.

    PubMed

    Moran, Clinton Joseph; Ferry, Lara

    2014-04-01

    Some fishes that feed on attached food items possess an intramandibular joint (IMJ), which is thought to increase maximum gape and facilitate contact between the tooth-bearing surface and the substrate. However, the mechanical consequences of using an IMJ to remove attached food items from the substrate are still poorly understood. We examined the most prominent eastern North Pacific kyphosid, the scraper: Girella nigricans and two other kyphosids, Medialuna californiensis and Hermosilla azurea, which occupy similar habitats. Of the three species, G. nigricans had the highest theoretical bite force per unit length. We examined the feeding mechanics of G. nigricans in two different feeding scenarios: a scraping behavior elicited on a block of brine shrimp gelatin and a picking behavior elicited on Ulva sp. We measured cranial elevation, lower jaw rotation, premaxillary protrusion, premaxillary rotation, gape maximum, and intramandibular rotation. Ulva treatments produced significantly greater cranial rotation, when compared to gelatin treatments. Gelatin treatments were associated with greater lower jaw rotation and larger gape. Premaxillary rotation and premaxillary protrusion did not differ between treatments. Intramandibular rotation occurred only when G. nigricans physically contacted the gelatin, suggesting the IMJ is a passive joint with no associated musculature. We also noted that G. nigricans do not appear to use suction to draw food into the mouth. The lack of suction and the presence of the IMJ suggest that the jaws of G. nigricans are specialized for maximizing jaw force when scraping. PMID:24497484

  2. [Effects of peeling agents (resorcinol, crystalline sulfur, salicylic acid) on the epidermis of guinea pig (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Windhager, K; Plewig, G

    1977-08-22

    The mode of action of "classical peeling agents" such as resorcinol, crystalline sulfur, and salicylic acid on the epidermis is almost unknown. There are only a few experimental data available. Therefore the effects of resorcinol, crystalline sulfur, and salicylic acid were studied. A 1% and 3% concentration of these chemicals in vaselinum flavum or Unguentum Cordes was applied to the ears and flanks of adult male guinea pigs up to 14 days. Prior to biopsies at various time intervals, 3H-thymidine was injected intradermally. Specimens were paraffin embedded and routinely processed for autoradiographical analysis. The following parameters were assessed: Labelling index (L.I. in %); number of labelled basal cells per unit length of basement membrane; papillomatosis-index; and acanthosis-factor (projection histoplanimetry). The data were statistically analysed. The peeling agents induced a concentration-dependent increase of the L.I., acanthosis, and papillomatosis. Crystalline sulfur caused the most pronounced effect, followed by resorcinol. In contrast salicylic acid caused only a minute acanthosis factor and a slight increase in labelling. The correlation coefficient r of epidermal thickness to the L.I. for all concentrations and peeling agents used reaches the high figure of 0.978 for the ear. The 1% and 3% salicylic acid has a lower acanthosis factor than vaselinum flavum by itself. Preliminary autoradiographical studies in humans with 1% and 10% salicylic acid confirm these data. Salicylic acid counteracts acanthosis. These experiments show that crystalline sulfur and resorcinol have a potent effect on cell proliferation and acanthosis. They peel via proliferation hyperkeratosis. The mode of peeling by salicylic acid must be different, as cell proliferation and acanthosis are barely enhanced. The clinically known "keratolytic" effect of salicylic acid may be due to a direct action on the intercellular cement substance of the horny cells. PMID:907368

  3. Searching chromosomal landmarks in Indian lentils through EMA-based Giemsa staining method.

    PubMed

    Jha, Timir Baran; Halder, Mihir

    2016-09-01

    Lentil is one of the oldest protein-rich food crop with only one cultivated and six wild species. India is one important cultivator, producer and consumer of lentils and possesses a large number of germplasms. All species of lentil show 2n = 14 chromosomes. The primary objective of the present paper is to search chromosomal landmarks through enzymatic maceration and air drying (EMA)-based Giemsa staining method in five Indian lentil species not reported elsewhere at a time. Additionally, gametic chromosome analysis, tendril formation and seed morphology have been studied to ascertain interspecific relationships in lentils. Chromosome analysis in Lens culinaris, Lens orientalis and Lens odemensis revealed that they contain intercalary sat chromosome and similar karyotypic formula, while Lens nigricans and Lens lamottei showed presence of terminal sat chromosomes not reported earlier. This distinct morphological feature in L. nigricans and L. lamottei may be considered as chromosomal landmark. Meiotic analysis showed n = 7 bivalents in L. culinaris, L. nigricans and L. lamottei. No tendril formation was observed in L. culinaris, L. orientalis and L. odemensis while L. nigricans and L. lamottei developed very prominent tendrils. Based on chromosomal analysis, tendril formation and seed morphology, the five lentil species can be separated into two distinct groups. The outcome of this research may enrich conventional and biotechnological breeding programmes in lentil and may facilitate an easy and alternative method for identification of interspecific hybrids. PMID:26342302

  4. Lens Biodiversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lens genus includes the cultivated L. culinaris, and wild subspecies orientalis - the progenitor, tomentosus, and odemensis, are in the primary genepool, while L. ervoides, L. nigricans and L. lamottei are in the secondary – tertiary gene pool. The Middle East is the primary centre of diversity ...

  5. Leafhopper viral pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four newly discovered viral pathogens in leafhopper vectors of Pierce’s disease of grapes, have been shown to replicate in sharpshooter leafhoppers; the glassy-winged sharpshooter, GWSS, Homalodisca vitripennis, and Oncometopia nigricans (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The viruses were classified as memb...

  6. Expressed sequence tags from the black-winged sharpshooter: Application to biology and vector control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We identified 14 putative full-length transcripts of proteins important for the survival of the black-winged sharpshooter, BWSS, Oncometopia nigricans. The BWSS is considered a highly competent vector of several strains of the xylem-inhabiting bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of a numb...

  7. Three geese resembling Gray-Bellied Brant/Lawrence's Brant from Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckley, P.A.; Mitra, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    Three oddly plumaged brant, intermediate in several respects between 'Atlantic' or 'Pale-bellied Brant' (hrota) and ?Black Brant? (nigricans) were photographed and described on western Long Island, New York during 2002 (two in March, the third in October). Their plumage corresponded to that of the little-studied, and apparently genetically distinctive small population known among goose biologists as 'Gray-bellied Brant,' which breeds only on a few islands in the western Canadian High Arctic, stages in migration in the inner Aleutians, and winters in a small portion of the Greater Puget Sound area. But Gray-bellied Brant also wander, having recently been found in winter as far from Puget Sound as Baja California in the west, and Iceland and the British Isles to the east?these strays presumably having migrated southwest with Pacific-wintering nigricans and southeast with Atlantic-wintering hrota, respectively. Despite their tendency to associate with locally wintering hrota and nigricans, mixed pairs or hybrid young involving these vagrants have never been demonstrated in North America?nor have mixed pairs or hybrid young between hrota and nigricans, despite widespread belief to the contrary. Complicating the picture is that the type specimen of nigricans, a distinctive New Jersey specimen collected in 1846, also differs from 'true' Pacific Coast Black Brant in several respects, in a manner qualitatively similar to the LI birds described herein. The appearance of the type, often referred to informally as 'Lawrence?s Brant,' differs from typical Black Brant to such an extent that Delacour and Zimmer (1952) rejected application of nigricans to Pacific Black Brant, to which the name orientalis would have to be applied instead. Recent examination of museum specimens of breeding- and winter-area Gray-bellies confirms that Lawrence?s Brant closely resembles some of them?as do these three Long Island birds. Whatever the ultimate statuses of Gray-bellied and Lawrence's Brant

  8. Angiokeratoma circumscriptum neviforme: An entity, few and far between

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anupam; Mondal, Ashim Kumar; Saha, Abanti; Chowdhury, Satyendra Nath; Gharami, Ramesh Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Angiokeratomas are a group of vascular ectasias that involve the papillary dermis and may produce papillomatosis, acanthosis and hyperkeratosis of the epidermis. Angiokeratoma circumscriptum is the least common variant among many types. Angiokeratoma circumscriptum neviforme is a still rarer variety of angiokeratoma, which is classically seen at birth. We report here a case of congenital, linear, unilateral, verrucous plaques on the leg of a young girl, diagnosed as angiokeratoma circumscriptum neviforme (ACN). PMID:25396132

  9. Histological dermal changes caused by preparation and application procedures in percutaneous dose toxicity studies in dogs, rabbits and rats.

    PubMed

    Mitsuishi, Mikio; Oshikata, Takafumi; Kumabe, Shino; Kobayashi, Azusa; Katoku, Koshiro; Kanno, Takeshi; Hamamura, Masao; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    We reevaluated histological slides of dorsal skin in control animals from past percutaneous dose toxicity studies using dogs, rabbits and rats to provide background data concerning histological changes related to preparation and application procedures and vehicles or embrocations of every variety. Acanthosis, dermal or perifollicular inflammatory cell infiltration in dogs; hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, dermal inflammatory cell infiltration or hemorrhage in rabbits; and acanthosis, dermal inflammatory cell infiltration, crust or foreign body granuloma in rats were present as procedure-related underlying histological changes in the control animals. Four mechanical acts, (1) rubbing with gauze to remove an administered substance for reapplication, (2) use of a taut bandage to avoid slipping from the application site, (3) peeling a patch off as a preparation procedure for reapplication, and (4) clipping or shaving, were considered to cause injury to the skin. The degree of influence of the various application procedures was found to be as follows: sham, lotion < cream < ointment and tape in dogs; untreated control, sham < lotion < tape and poultice in rabbits; and sham, sodium carboxymethylcellulose < olive oil and lotion < ointment and tape in rats. The degree of ointment influence on rabbits is equivocal. PMID:26023255

  10. Histological dermal changes caused by preparation and application procedures in percutaneous dose toxicity studies in dogs, rabbits and rats

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuishi, Mikio; Oshikata, Takafumi; Kumabe, Shino; Kobayashi, Azusa; Katoku, Koshiro; Kanno, Takeshi; Hamamura, Masao; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    We reevaluated histological slides of dorsal skin in control animals from past percutaneous dose toxicity studies using dogs, rabbits and rats to provide background data concerning histological changes related to preparation and application procedures and vehicles or embrocations of every variety. Acanthosis, dermal or perifollicular inflammatory cell infiltration in dogs; hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, dermal inflammatory cell infiltration or hemorrhage in rabbits; and acanthosis, dermal inflammatory cell infiltration, crust or foreign body granuloma in rats were present as procedure-related underlying histological changes in the control animals. Four mechanical acts, (1) rubbing with gauze to remove an administered substance for reapplication, (2) use of a taut bandage to avoid slipping from the application site, (3) peeling a patch off as a preparation procedure for reapplication, and (4) clipping or shaving, were considered to cause injury to the skin. The degree of influence of the various application procedures was found to be as follows: sham, lotion < cream < ointment and tape in dogs; untreated control, sham < lotion < tape and poultice in rabbits; and sham, sodium carboxymethylcellulose < olive oil and lotion < ointment and tape in rats. The degree of ointment influence on rabbits is equivocal. PMID:26023255

  11. Mixed culture optimization for marigold flower ensilage via experimental design and response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Bolaños, José Luis; Jiménez-Islas, Hugo; Botello-Alvarez, Enrique; Rico-Martínez, Ramiro

    2003-04-01

    Endogenous microorganisms isolated from the marigold flower (Tagetes erecta) were studied to understand the events taking place during its ensilage. Studies of the cellulase enzymatic activity and the ensilage process were undertaken. In both studies, the use of approximate second-order models and multiple lineal regression, within the context of an experimental mixture design using the response surface methodology as optimization strategy, determined that the microorganisms Flavobacterium IIb, Acinetobacter anitratus, and Rhizopus nigricans are the most significant in marigold flower ensilage and exhibit high cellulase activity. A mixed culture comprised of 9.8% Flavobacterium IIb, 41% A. anitratus, and 49.2% R. nigricans used during ensilage resulted in an increased yield of total xanthophylls extracted of 24.94 g/kg of dry weight compared with 12.92 for the uninoculated control ensilage. PMID:12670157

  12. Geographic variation in the damselfish-red alga cultivation mutualism in the Indo-West Pacific

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background On coral reefs, damselfish defend their territories from invading herbivores and maintain algal turfs, from which they harvest filamentous algae. In southern Japan, intensive weeding of indigestible algae by Stegastes nigricans results in overgrowth by one filamentous alga, Polysiphonia sp. 1. Because this alga is highly susceptible to grazing and is competitively inferior to other algae, it survives only within the protective territories of this fish species, suggesting an obligate mutualism between damselfish and their cultivated alga. The wide distribution of damselfish species through the Indo-Central Pacific raises the question of whether this species-specific mutualism is maintained throughout the geographic range of the fish. To address this question, from all 18 damselfish species we conducted comprehensive surveys of algal flora within their territories throughout the Indo-West Pacific, and identified species of Polysiphonia using morphological examination and gene sequencing data. Results Several species of the genus Polysiphonia were observed as a major crop in territories throughout the geographic range of S. nigricans. Polysiphonia sp. 1 occurred only in territories of S. nigricans in central areas of the Indo-Pacific. However, its occurrence was low from the Great Barrier Reef and Mauritius. In contrast, other indigenous Polysiphonia species, which formed a clade with Polysiphonia sp. 1, occurred in the territories of fishes from Egypt, Kenya, and the Maldives. The other Polysiphonia species in the clade only inhabited damselfish territories and were never found elsewhere. Conclusions Cultivation mutualism between the damselfish S. nigricans and algae of Polysiphonia was maintained throughout the Indo-West Pacific, although algal crop species and the mode of cultivation (e.g., presence/absence of selective weeding, the species composition of algal turfs) varied among localities. This finding implies that damselfish utilize indigenous

  13. Occupational asthma in a coal miner.

    PubMed Central

    Gamboa, P. M.; Jáuregui, I.; Urrutia, I.; Antépara, I.; González, G.; Múgica, V.

    1996-01-01

    Occupational asthma in coal miners is hardly recognised. A report is presented of a coal miner whose clinical picture suggested a respiratory allergy which occurred only in the mine where he worked. Serum specific IgE levels, skin tests, and bronchial provocation tests with different commercial extracts showed sensitisation to Rhizopus nigricans. Rhizopus spp were found inside the mine, as demonstrated by cultures on petri plates. PMID:8795682

  14. Dengue virus in Mexican bats

    PubMed Central

    AGUILAR-SETIÉN, Á.; ROMERO-ALMARAZ, M. L.; SÁNCHEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, C.; FIGUEROA, R.; JUÁREZ-PALMA, L. P.; GARCÍA-FLORES, M. M.; VÁZQUEZ-SALINAS, C.; SALAS-ROJAS, M.; HIDALGO-MARTÍNEZ, A. C.; PIERLÉ, S. AGUILAR; GARCÍA-ESTRADA, C.; RAMOS, C.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Individuals belonging to five families, 12 genera, and 19 different species of bats from dengue endemic areas in the Gulf and Pacific coasts of Mexico were examined by ELISA, RT–PCR, and for the presence of dengue virus (DV) NS1 protein. Nine individuals from four species were seropositive by ELISA: three insectivorous, Myotis nigricans (four positives/12 examined), Pteronotus parnellii (3/19), and Natalus stramineus (1/4), and one frugivorous Artibeus jamaicensis (1/35) (12·86% seroprevalence in positive species). DV serotype 2 was detected by RT–PCR in four samples from three species (all from the Gulf coast – rainy season): two frugivorous, A. jamaicensis (2/9), and Carollia brevicauda (1/2), and one insectivorous, M. nigricans (1/11). The latter was simultaneously positive for NS1 protein. DV RT–PCR positive animals were all antibody seronegative. M. nigricans showed positive individuals for all three tests. This is the first evidence suggesting the presence of DV in bats from Mexico. PMID:18325131

  15. Hybridization of reef fishes at the Indo-Pacific biogeographic barrier: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie, A. D.; van Herwerden, L.; Choat, J. H.; Hobbs, J.-P. A.

    2007-12-01

    Hybridization is recognized as an important source of genetic variation. In some reef fishes, including the Acanthuridae, hybridization has been detected due to intermediate colouration. This study used a molecular genetic approach to investigate hybridization in two Acanthurid species: Acanthurus leucosternon and Acanthurus nigricans, which have Indian and Pacific Ocean distributions respectively and are sympatric in the eastern Indian Ocean. In this area a putatitve hybrid, Acanthurus cf. leucosternon has been recognized based on intermediate colouration and restriction to the sympatric region of otherwise allopatric putative parental species. This study aimed to test this hypothesis using genetic tools. The three species were sampled from Cocos (Keeling) and Christmas Islands, the biogeographic boundary where many Indian and Pacific Ocean biota meet. Representatives from allopatric populations of both parental species and outgroups were also sampled. Mitochondrial COI and intron 1 of the nuclear ribosomal protein S7 were sequenced from 13 and 30 specimens respectively. Although sample sizes in this study are relatively small and more genetic data, including an extended phylogeographic sampling, is required to further evaluate these findings, the COI results support hybrid origins of Acanthurus cf. leucosternon, but S7 data are inconclusive due to the possibility of incomplete lineage sorting . The fourfold more abundant Acanthurus nigricans is most often the maternal parent. Inter-fertile hybrids apparently backcross with rare Acanthurus leucosternon males, transferring Acanthurus nigricans mitochondria to this species. These results suggest that Acanthurus leucosternon may eventually be lost from these islands, due to their relative rarity and introgressive hybridization.

  16. Hirudinella ventricosa (Pallas, 1774) Baird, 1853 represents a species complex based on ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Dana M; Curran, Stephen S; Pulis, Eric E; Provaznik, Jennifer M; Franks, James S

    2013-10-01

    Digeneans in the genus Hirudinella de Blainville, 1828 (Hirudinellidae) from three species of pelagic fishes, Acanthocybium solandri (Cuvier), Makaira nigricans Lacépède and Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre), and one benthic fish, Mulloidichthys martinicus (Cuvier), from the Gulf of Mexico are investigated using comparison of ribosomal DNA. Four species are identified based on molecular differences: Hirudinella ventricosa (Pallas, 1774) Baird, 1853 from A. solandri, Hirudinella ahi Yamaguti, 1970 from T. albacares, and two unidentified but distinct species of Hirudinella, herein referred to as Hirudinella sp. A (from both M. nigricans and M. martinicus) and Hirudinella sp. B from M. nigricans. Additionally, H. ahi, based tentatively on morphological identification, is reported from Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus). This represents the first record of a hirudinellid from M. martinicus and the first record of H. ahi from T. thynnus. A phylogeny of some Hemiurata Skrjabin & Guschanskaja, 1954 using partial fragments of the 28S rDNA sequences is consistent with earlier phylogenies and the position of the Hirudinellidae Dollfus, 1932 is well-supported as a derived group most closely related to the Syncoeliidae Looss, 1899. PMID:24048751

  17. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the Royal Belgian Institute of Sciences, Brussels, with descriptions of two new species

    PubMed Central

    Breure, Abraham S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The type status is described of 57 taxa from the superfamily Orthalicoidea in the collection of the Brussels museum. Two new species are described: Stenostylus perturbatus sp. n., and Suniellus adriani sp. n. New lectotypes are designated for Bulimulus (Naesiotus) amastroides Ancey, 1887; Bulimulus blanfordianus Ancey, 1903; Bulimulus montivagus chacoensis Ancey, 1897; Bulimus coloratus Nyst, 1845; Plecochilus dalmasi Dautzenberg, 1900; Placostylus porphyrostomus elata Dautzenberg, 1923; Bulimulus ephippium Ancey, 1904; Bulimus fulminans Nyst, 1843; Bulimus funckii Nyst, 1843; Orphnus thompsoni lutea Cousin, 1887; Bulimus melanocheilus Nyst, 1845; Orphnus thompsoni nigricans Cousin, 1887; Orphnus thompsoni olivacea Cousin, 1887; Bulimulus pollonerae Ancey, 1897; Orphnus thompsoni zebra Cousin, 1887. New combinations are: Bostryx borellii (Ancey, 1897); Bostryx carandaitiensis (Preston, 1907); Protoglyptus mazei (Crosse, 1874); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) sanborni (Haas, 1947). New synonymies are established for the following nominal taxa: Orphnus thompsoni var. lutea Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845); Orphnus thompsoni var. nigricans Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845); Thaumastus nystianus var. nigricans Cousin, 1887 = Drymaeus (Drymaeus) nystianus (Pfeiffer, 1853); Orphnus thompsoni var. olivacea Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845); Orphnus thompsoni var. zebra Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845). PMID:21747669

  18. Altered expression of prohibitin in psoriatic lesions and its cellular implication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon Young; Kim, Younghwa; Hwang, Ha Young; Kim, Tae-Yoon

    2007-08-31

    Psoriasis is characterized by excessive proliferation of keratinocytes accompanying acanthosis and incomplete differentiation. Prohibitin was investigated by examining its function of HaCaT as well as psoriasis. Psoriatic involved skin revealed high level of prohibitin in the basal layer. Prohibitin was analyzed by applying RNAi (PHBi) with HaCaT, which demonstrated increased S-phase. PHBi showed enhanced sensitivity to anthralin-mediated cell death due to enhanced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting a protective role of prohibitin against apoptosis. Collectively, prohibitin plays a role both in cell cycle regulation and in maintaining mitochondrial integrity, implying its association with pathogenesis of psoriasis. PMID:17618601

  19. Acantholytic dermatosis of the vulva.

    PubMed

    Mansura, Adva; Maly, Alexander; Ramot, Yuval; Zlotogorski, Abraham

    2015-05-01

    Acantholytic dermatosis of the vulva is a rare condition, presenting with papular eruption in the genital area without history of Darier disease or Hailey-Hailey disease. We report a case with a papular pruritic eruption in the region of the vulva, coalescing into plaques. Biopsy specimen showed irregular acanthosis with an area of split-like bullous formation in the deeper part of the epidermis, as well as acantholytic cells, marked hypergranulosis and hyperkeratosis, compatible with the rare diagnosis of acantholytic dermatosis of the vulva. We review the clinical and histological characteristics of this uncommon disease. PMID:26295855

  20. Mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae) in wild raccoon dogs, Nyctereutes procyonoides, in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M; Nogami, S; Misumi, H; Maruyama, S; Shiibashi, T; Yamamoto, Y; Sakai, T

    2001-04-01

    Parasitological and histopathological examinations were performed in 25 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) obtained in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, all of which were found to be heavily infected with Sarcoptes scabiei. The mites detected on these raccoon dogs were morphologically indistinguishable from the human species, and no Demodex mites were detected. Histopathological examinations showed prominent hyperkeratosis and acanthosis with eczema, and numerous burrows containing mites were observed in the epidermis. The enzootic dermatitis of wild raccoon dogs in recent years was clearly demonstrated to be caused by S. scabiei in the present study. PMID:11346184

  1. Microspectrophotometric quantitation of nucleic acid and protein in irradiated epidermis.

    PubMed

    Conti, C J; Giménez, I B; Cabrini, R L

    1976-03-01

    Nucleic acid and proteins of newborn rat tail subjected to local X-irradiation were microspectrophotometrically studied. Feulgen, gallocyanine chrom-alum and naphthol yellow S methods were performed for demonstration of DNA, total nucleic acid and proteins respectively. The amount of proteins and total nucleic acid increases concomitantly with reactional acanthosis. However, the proteins and nucleic acid decrease as from day 3 post-irradiation. A tentative interpretation of the results would point to a giantization of the epidermic cells not only caused by aqueous imbition but also by an actual increase of the cellular protoplasm. PMID:1258094

  2. Pseudoepitheliomatous keratotic and micaceous balanitis of Civatte.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudip; Ghoshal, Loknath

    2014-04-01

    Pseudoepitheliomatous, keratotic, and micaceous balanitis is a rare condition characterized by verrucous excrescences with scaling. Most patients are over the age of 50 and frequently have been circumcised for phimosis in adult life. We present here a case of 35-year-old male patient with long standing phimosis presenting with a firm whitish plaque on the glans penis. The crusts were micaceous in nature. Histopathologically, there was pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia with acanthosis and no cellular atypia. The condition was explained to the patient and treatment options discussed. The patient was started on topical 5-fluorouracil cream on a daily basis as he did not express consent for operative intervention. PMID:24860747

  3. Bilateral Systematized Epidermolytic Verrucous Epidermal Nevus: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vivek; Saha, Abanti; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Das, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    Verrucous epidermal nevi are congenital, noninflammatory cutaneous hamartomas composed of keratinocytes. They follow the lines of Blaschko and show hyperkeratosis without cellular atypia. The routine histology shows variable amount of hyperkeratosis, acanthosis and papillomatosis and rarely epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. We saw a 3-year-old boy with bilaterally symmetrical, systematized verrucous plaques along the lines of Blaschko extensively involving the trunk and extremities but sparing the face and palmoplantar skin. Histopathology showed features of epidermal nevi with prominent epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. We report here the case for the rarity of this entity. PMID:26288413

  4. UNUSUAL PRESENTATION OF GENERALIZED MACULAR AMYLOIDOSIS IN A YOUNG ADULT

    PubMed Central

    Kudur, Mohan H; B, Sathish Pai; H, Sripathi; Prabhu, Smitha

    2008-01-01

    Macular amyloidosis is a common problem seen dermatology out-patient department. Generalized macular amyloidosis presenting with a poikilodermatous appearance is rare. In our case, an 18-year-old male presented with generalized hypopigmented macules with a poikilodermatous appearance of 10-year duration. His developmental milestones were normal with negative family history of similar complaints. Histopathology of hyperpigmented lesions revealed hyperkeratosis and acanthosis of epidermis and hypopigmented lesion showing only hyperkeratosis. Both lesions were showing the deposition of amorphous, hazy material in the tips of papillary dermis with perivascular inflammatory infiltrate. Congo red staining of the amorphous material was positive for amyloid. PMID:19882037

  5. Rare case of recurrent angiokeratoma of Fordyce on penile shaft.

    PubMed

    Pianezza, Michael L; Singh, Dharm; Van der Kwast, Theodore; Jarvi, Keith

    2006-10-01

    Angiokeratomas are benign cutaneous vascular lesions characterized by dilated thin-walled blood vessels lying in the upper part of the dermis, mostly associated with an epidermal reaction such as acanthosis and/or hyperkeratosis. Angiokeratomas of Fordyce are predominantly located on the scrotum and are only rarely found on the penis and then usually on the glans penis. We report a rare case of angiokeratoma of Fordyce located on the shaft of the penis and associated with two recurrences after appropriate surgical excision. PMID:17070385

  6. Altered expression of prohibitin in psoriatic lesions and its cellular implication

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soon Young; Kim, Younghwa; Hwang, Ha Young; Kim, Tae-Yoon . E-mail: tykimder@catholic.ac.kr

    2007-08-31

    Psoriasis is characterized by excessive proliferation of keratinocytes accompanying acanthosis and incomplete differentiation. Prohibitin was investigated by examining its function of HaCaT as well as psoriasis. Psoriatic involved skin revealed high level of prohibitin in the basal layer. Prohibitin was analyzed by applying RNAi (PHBi) with HaCaT, which demonstrated increased S-phase. PHBi showed enhanced sensitivity to anthralin-mediated cell death due to enhanced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting a protective role of prohibitin against apoptosis. Collectively, prohibitin plays a role both in cell cycle regulation and in maintaining mitochondrial integrity, implying its association with pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  7. Do biopesticides affect the demographic traits of a parasitoid wasp and its biocontrol services through sublethal effects?

    PubMed

    Biondi, Antonio; Zappalà, Lucia; Stark, John D; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide risk assessments are usually based on short-term acute toxicity tests, while longer-term population dynamic related traits, critical to the success of biological control and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, are often overlooked. This is increasingly important with respect to new biopesticides that frequently cause no short-term acute effects, but that can induce multiple physiological and behavioral sublethal effects, leading to a decrease in population growth and ecosystem services. In this study we assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of six biopesticides [abamectin, azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, borax plus citrus oil (Prev-Am®), emamectin benzoate, and spinosad], used in tomato crops to control the invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), on adults and pupae of the parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Data on female survival and production of female offspring were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinosad caused 100% and 80% mortality in exposed adults (even 10 d after the treatment) and pupae, respectively. Although most of the biopesticides had low levels of acute toxicity, multiple sublethal effects were observed. The biocontrol activity of both females that survived 1-h and 10-d old residues, and females that emerged from topically treated pupae was significantly affected by the application of the neurotoxic insecticides emamectin benzoate and abamectin. Furthermore, very low B. nigricans demographic growth indices were estimated for these two insecticides, indicating potential local extinction of the wasp populations. Among the tested products, Bt proved to be the safest for B. nigricans adults and pupae. Our findings emphasize that acute toxicity assessment alone cannot fully predict the actual impact of pesticides on non-target parasitoids. Thus, sublethal effects related to the species specific life-history variables

  8. Do Biopesticides Affect the Demographic Traits of a Parasitoid Wasp and Its Biocontrol Services through Sublethal Effects?

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Antonio; Zappalà, Lucia; Stark, John D.; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide risk assessments are usually based on short-term acute toxicity tests, while longer-term population dynamic related traits, critical to the success of biological control and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, are often overlooked. This is increasingly important with respect to new biopesticides that frequently cause no short-term acute effects, but that can induce multiple physiological and behavioral sublethal effects, leading to a decrease in population growth and ecosystem services. In this study we assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of six biopesticides [abamectin, azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, borax plus citrus oil (Prev-Am®), emamectin benzoate, and spinosad], used in tomato crops to control the invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), on adults and pupae of the parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Data on female survival and production of female offspring were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinosad caused 100% and 80% mortality in exposed adults (even 10 d after the treatment) and pupae, respectively. Although most of the biopesticides had low levels of acute toxicity, multiple sublethal effects were observed. The biocontrol activity of both females that survived 1-h and 10-d old residues, and females that emerged from topically treated pupae was significantly affected by the application of the neurotoxic insecticides emamectin benzoate and abamectin. Furthermore, very low B. nigricans demographic growth indices were estimated for these two insecticides, indicating potential local extinction of the wasp populations. Among the tested products, Bt proved to be the safest for B. nigricans adults and pupae. Our findings emphasize that acute toxicity assessment alone cannot fully predict the actual impact of pesticides on non-target parasitoids. Thus, sublethal effects related to the species specific life-history variables

  9. New additions to the leafhopper genus Salka Dworakowska (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) from Hainan and Henan Provinces of China.

    PubMed

    Song, Yue-Hua; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The leafhopper genus Salka Dworakowska, 1972 belongs to the Typhlocybinae tribe Erythroneurini with Zygina nigricans Matsumura, 1932 as its type species. The known species of this genus are distributed in the Oriental and Palearctic regions. Recently, it was reviewed by Zhang et al. (2009), Ohara (2012) and Song & Li (2012). Seventy-eight species are known, including 36 species from China. In this present work, two new species from China are described and illustrated. All specimens examined are deposited to the collection of the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, China (GUGC). PMID:27394468

  10. Molecular Taxonomy of the Trichophyton rubrum Complex

    PubMed Central

    Gräser, Y.; Kuijpers, A. F. A.; Presber, W.; de Hoog, G. S.

    2000-01-01

    The validity of taxa around Trichophyton rubrum was evaluated by a combination of phenetic and molecular methods. Morphological and physiological features were compared to results of sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal operon, PCR fingerprinting, and amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. The 15 species and varieties investigated (Trichophyton circonvolutum, Trichophyton fischeri, Trichophyton fluviomuniense, Trichophyton glabrum, Trichophyton gourvilii, Trichophyton kanei, Trichophyton kuryangei, Trichophyton megninii, Trichophyton pedis, Trichophyton raubitschekii, Trichophyton rodhaini, Trichophyton rubrum var. nigricans, Trichophyton soudanense, Trichophyton violaceum var. indicum, and Trichophyton yaoundei) were reclassified or synonymized as T. rubrum or T. violaceum. PMID:10970379

  11. Surgeons and suture zones: Hybridization among four surgeonfish species in the Indo-Pacific with variable evolutionary outcomes.

    PubMed

    DiBattista, Joseph D; Whitney, Jonathan; Craig, Matthew T; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Rocha, Luiz A; Feldheim, Kevin A; Berumen, Michael L; Bowen, Brian W

    2016-08-01

    Closely related species can provide valuable insights into evolutionary processes through comparison of their ecology, geographic distribution and the history recorded in their genomes. In the Indo-Pacific, many reef fishes are divided into sister species that come into secondary contact at biogeographic borders, most prominently where Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean faunas meet. It is unclear whether hybridization in this contact zone represents incomplete speciation, secondary contact, an evolutionary dead-end (for hybrids) or some combination of the above. To address these issues, we conducted comprehensive surveys of two widely-distributed surgeonfish species, Acanthurus leucosternon (N=141) and A. nigricans (N=412), with mtDNA cytochrome b sequences and ten microsatellite loci. These surgeonfishes are found primarily in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, respectively, but overlap at the Christmas and Cocos-Keeling Islands hybrid zone in the eastern Indian Ocean. We also sampled the two other Pacific members of this species complex, A. achilles (N=54) and A. japonicus (N=49), which are known to hybridize with A. nigricans where their ranges overlap. Our results indicate separation between the four species that range from the recent Pleistocene to late Pliocene (235,000-2.25million years ago). The Pacific A. achilles is the most divergent (and possibly ancestral) species with mtDNA dcorr≈0.04, whereas the other two Pacific species (A. japonicus and A. nigricans) are distinguishable only at a population or subspecies level (ΦST=0.6533, P<0.001). Little population structure was observed within species, with evidence of recent population expansion across all four geographic ranges. We detected sharing of mtDNA haplotypes between species and extensive hybridization based on microsatellites, consistent with later generation hybrids but also the effects of allele homoplasy. Despite extensive introgression, 98% of specimens had concordance between mtDNA lineage and

  12. Age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    I studied the frequency with which Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) of known age were observed breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. No one- or two-year old geese were observed on nests. Three-year old geese bred at a lower rate than four-year old geese. These data suggest that patterns of age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese are similar to other sympatrically nesting, large bodied geese [Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons)] but delayed relative to smaller bodied geese [Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima) and Pacific Black Brant (B. bernicla nigricans)].

  13. New geographic records of Hamlets, Hypoplectrus spp. (Serranidae), in the Caribbean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, E.H., Jr.; Bunkley-Williams, L.; Rogers, C.S.; Fenner, R.

    2006-01-01

    The exact number of species of hamlets, Hypoplectrus spp., in the Caribbean is controversial and the geographic distributions of these species/forms are poorly documented. We report Curac??ao, Netherlands Antilles, as a new locality for the Barred Hamlet, H. puella (Cuvier), and Shy Hamlet, H. guttavarius (Poey); and St. John and St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, for the Tan Hamlet, Hypoplectrus sp. The Black Hamlet, H. nigricans (Poey), has previously been reported from Curac??ao, but we did not see it there.

  14. Oesophageal subepithelial fibrosis: an extension of oral submucosal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Misra, S P; Misra, V; Dwivedi, M; Gupta, S C

    1998-12-01

    Fifty-five patients with oral submucosal fibrosis and an equal number of patients with no evidence of the disease were studied. All patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and any abnormality was noted. Multiple oesophageal biopsies were obtained from the upper end of the oesophagus and from any endoscopically observed abnormality. The histological changes in the two groups were assessed blindly by an experienced histopathologist. Histological abnormalities were noted in the oesophageal mucosa in 2% of controls and 66% of patients with oral submucosal fibrosis (p < 0.0001). In the control group, acanthosis was seen in one patient, while in the patient group atrophy of the squamous epithelium was evident in 52%, hyperkeratosis in 52%, parakeratosis in 30%, dyskeratosis in 14%, acanthosis in 14%, and papillomatosis and mild dysplasia in 2% patients. Subepithelial collagenization was seen in 32 (64%) patients. The oesophageal abnormalities were seen more frequently in patients who had consumed Pan masala, Gutka, betel nut, tobacco or a combination of some or all of these, with or without betel leaf, for > or = 5 years compared to those consuming them for a shorter period of time (91% vs 46%, p < 0.001). It is concluded that oral submucosal fibrosis is not a disease confined to the oral cavity; the oesophagus may also be involved in about two-thirds of patients. PMID:10320888

  15. Condylomata lata on the ankle: an unusual location.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Eri; Goto, Akane; Suzaki, Reiko; Sawada, Mizuki; Dekio, Itaru; Ishizaki, Sumiko; Fujibayashi, Mariko; Takahashi, Hayato; Tanaka, Masaru

    2016-04-01

    A 43-year-old Japanese man presented with reddish nodules on the ankle. The nodules had a yellowish crust and eroded surface. Dermoscopy revealed red to milky-red globules at the periphery and some glomerular vessels in the center and a whitish-pink network, which corresponded to capillary dilatation in the papillary dermis and prominent acanthosis, respectively. These structures were surrounded by a yellowish peripheral structureless area and multiple white, small, round structures in the center, corresponding to the macerated horny layer and keratin plugs. Blood samples were positive for rapid plasma reagin (1:64), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (1:20480), and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (1:1280). A lesional skin biopsy specimen showed irregular acanthosis and papillomatosis. The Warthin-Starry and anti-Treponema pallidum antibody stains on the biopsy specimen revealed many spirochetes in the lower epidermis and the papillary dermis. A diagnosis of secondary syphilis with condylomata lata was made. After one week of treatment with oral benzylpenicillin benzathine hydrate (Bicillin(®) G granules 400,000 units; Banyu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan), 1.6 million units (U) daily, the ankle lesions had resolved with a small ulcer and pigmentation. Although syphilis is a relatively common disease, this case study reports an unusual presentation as well as dermoscopy findings. PMID:27222772

  16. Condylomata lata on the ankle: an unusual location

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Eri; Goto, Akane; Suzaki, Reiko; Sawada, Mizuki; Dekio, Itaru; Ishizaki, Sumiko; Fujibayashi, Mariko; Takahashi, Hayato; Tanaka, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    A 43-year-old Japanese man presented with reddish nodules on the ankle. The nodules had a yellowish crust and eroded surface. Dermoscopy revealed red to milky-red globules at the periphery and some glomerular vessels in the center and a whitish-pink network, which corresponded to capillary dilatation in the papillary dermis and prominent acanthosis, respectively. These structures were surrounded by a yellowish peripheral structureless area and multiple white, small, round structures in the center, corresponding to the macerated horny layer and keratin plugs. Blood samples were positive for rapid plasma reagin (1:64), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (1:20480), and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (1:1280). A lesional skin biopsy specimen showed irregular acanthosis and papillomatosis. The Warthin-Starry and anti-Treponema pallidum antibody stains on the biopsy specimen revealed many spirochetes in the lower epidermis and the papillary dermis. A diagnosis of secondary syphilis with condylomata lata was made. After one week of treatment with oral benzylpenicillin benzathine hydrate (Bicillin® G granules 400,000 units; Banyu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan), 1.6 million units (U) daily, the ankle lesions had resolved with a small ulcer and pigmentation. Although syphilis is a relatively common disease, this case study reports an unusual presentation as well as dermoscopy findings. PMID:27222772

  17. Molecular phylogenetics of the Neotropical fish family Prochilodontidae (Teleostei: Characiformes).

    PubMed

    Melo, Bruno F; Sidlauskas, Brian L; Hoekzema, Kendra; Frable, Benjamin W; Vari, Richard P; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    Migratory detritivores of the characiform family Prochilodontidae occur throughout the freshwaters of much of South America. Prochilodontids often form massive populations and many species achieve substantial body sizes; a combination that makes them one of the most commercially important fish groups on the continent. Their economic significance notwithstanding, prochilodontids have never been the subject of a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis. Using three mitochondrial and three nuclear loci spanning all prochilodontid species, we generated a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for the family. Our results strongly support monophyly of the family and the three included genera. A novel, highly supported placement of Ichthyoelephas sister to the clade containing Prochilodus and Semaprochilodus diverges from a previous morphological hypothesis. Most previously hypothesized interspecific relationships are corroborated and some longstanding polytomies within Prochilodus and Semaprochilodus are resolved. The morphologically similar P. brevis, P. lacustris, P. nigricans and P. rubrotaeniatus are embedded within what is herein designated as the P. nigricans group. Species limits and distributions of these species are problematic and the group clearly merits taxonomic revision. PMID:27262428

  18. Novel sources of β-glucanase for the enzymatic degradation of schizophyllan.

    PubMed

    Sutivisedsak, Nongnuch; Leathers, Timothy D; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Nunnally, Melinda S; Peterson, Stephen W

    2013-03-01

    Schizophyllan is a homoglucan produced by the fungus Schizophyllum commune, with a β-1,3-linked backbone and β-1,6-linked side chains of single glucose units at every other residue. Schizophyllan is commercially produced for pharmaceutical and cosmetics uses. However, surprisingly little information is available on the biodegradation of schizophyllan. Enzymes that attack schizophyllan could be useful for controlled modifications of the polymer for novel applications. Enrichment cultures were used to isolate 20 novel fungal strains from soil samples, capable of growing on schizophyllan as a sole carbon source. Three additional strains were isolated as contaminants of stored schizophyllan solutions. Strains showing the highest levels of β-glucanase activity were identified as Penicillium simplicissimum, Penicillium crustosum, and Hypocrea nigricans. β-glucanases also showed activity against the similar β-glucans, laminarin and curdlan. By comparison, commercial β-glucanase from Trichoderma longibrachiatum and laminarinase from Trichoderma sp. showed lower specific activities toward schizophyllan than most of the novel isolates. β-glucanases from P. simplicissimum and H. nigricans exhibited temperature optima of 60°C and 50°C against schizophyllan, respectively, with broad pH optima around pH 5.0. Partial purifications of β-glucanase from P. simplicissimum and P. crustosum demonstrated the presence of multiple active endoglucanase species, including a 20-25 kD enzyme from P. simplicissimum. PMID:23410934

  19. Farming behaviour of reef fishes increases the prevalence of coral disease associated microbes and black band disease

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Jordan M.; Ainsworth, Tracy D.; Choat, J. Howard; Connolly, Sean R.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial community structure on coral reefs is strongly influenced by coral–algae interactions; however, the extent to which this influence is mediated by fishes is unknown. By excluding fleshy macroalgae, cultivating palatable filamentous algae and engaging in frequent aggression to protect resources, territorial damselfish (f. Pomacentridae), such as Stegastes, mediate macro-benthic dynamics on coral reefs and may significantly influence microbial communities. To elucidate how Stegastes apicalis and Stegastes nigricans may alter benthic microbial assemblages and coral health, we determined the benthic community composition (epilithic algal matrix and prokaryotes) and coral disease prevalence inside and outside of damselfish territories in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. 16S rDNA sequencing revealed distinct bacterial communities associated with turf algae and a two to three times greater relative abundance of phylotypes with high sequence similarity to potential coral pathogens inside Stegastes's territories. These potentially pathogenic phylotypes (totalling 30.04% of the community) were found to have high sequence similarity to those amplified from black band disease (BBD) and disease affected corals worldwide. Disease surveys further revealed a significantly higher occurrence of BBD inside S. nigricans's territories. These findings demonstrate the first link between fish behaviour, reservoirs of potential coral disease pathogens and the prevalence of coral disease. PMID:24966320

  20. Abundance, diversity, and activity of microbial assemblages associated with coral reef fish guts and feces.

    PubMed

    Smriga, Steven; Sandin, Stuart A; Azam, Farooq

    2010-07-01

    Feces and distal gut contents were collected from three coral reef fish species. Bacteria cell abundances, as determined via epifluorescence microscopy, ranged two orders of magnitude among the fishes. Mass-specific and apparent cell-specific hydrolytic enzyme activities in feces from Chlorurus sordidus were very high, suggesting that endogenous fish enzymes were egested into feces. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of 16S rRNA genes were more similar among multiple individuals of the surgeonfish Acanthurus nigricans than among individuals of the parrotfish C. sordidus or the snapper Lutjanus bohar. Analyses of feces-derived 16S rRNA gene clones revealed that at least five bacterial phyla were present in A. nigricans and that Vibrionaceae comprised 10% of the clones. Meanwhile, C. sordidus contained at least five phyla and L. bohar three, but Vibrionaceae comprised 71% and 76% of the clones, respectively. Many sequences clustered phylogenetically to cultured Vibrio spp. and Photobacterium spp. including Vibrio ponticus and Photobacterium damselae. Other Vibrionaceae-like sequences comprised a distinct phylogenetic group that may represent the presence of 'feces-specific' bacteria. The observed differences among fishes may reflect native gut microbiota and/or bacterial assemblages associated with ingested prey. PMID:20455942

  1. Intra- and interspecific challenges modulate cortisol but not androgen levels in a year-round territorial damselfish.

    PubMed

    Ros, Albert F H; Vullioud, Philippe; Bruintjes, Rick; Vallat, Armelle; Bshary, Redouan

    2014-05-15

    Interactions between individuals of different species are commonplace in animal communities. Some behaviors displayed during these interspecific social interactions may be very similar to those displayed during intraspecific social interactions. However, whether functional analogies between intra- and interspecific behaviors translate at the proximate level into an overlap in their underlying endocrine mechanisms remains largely unknown. Because steroids both mediate social behaviors and respond to them, we approached this question by comparing the behavioral and steroid response of free-living dusky gregories (Stegastes nigricans) to standardized territorial intrusions (sTI) of either conspecific or heterospecific food competitors. Stegastes nigricans is a year-round territorial fish that 'cultivates' the algae on which it feeds and is highly aggressive to both intra- and interspecific intruders. Behavioral differences between intra- and interspecific aggressive responses to sTI were marginal, and sTI tests caused an increase in cortisol levels that was positively related with the levels of aggression. In contrast, androgen levels did not increase in response to sTI, yet they showed a positive relationship with agonistic behavior. These results parallel a pattern that was first described for year-round territorial bird species. Furthermore, they suggest that changes in endocrine-hormone levels during territoriality might be independent of the species that induces the territorial response. PMID:24577440

  2. Farming behaviour of reef fishes increases the prevalence of coral disease associated microbes and black band disease.

    PubMed

    Casey, Jordan M; Ainsworth, Tracy D; Choat, J Howard; Connolly, Sean R

    2014-08-01

    Microbial community structure on coral reefs is strongly influenced by coral-algae interactions; however, the extent to which this influence is mediated by fishes is unknown. By excluding fleshy macroalgae, cultivating palatable filamentous algae and engaging in frequent aggression to protect resources, territorial damselfish (f. Pomacentridae), such as Stegastes, mediate macro-benthic dynamics on coral reefs and may significantly influence microbial communities. To elucidate how Stegastes apicalis and Stegastes nigricans may alter benthic microbial assemblages and coral health, we determined the benthic community composition (epilithic algal matrix and prokaryotes) and coral disease prevalence inside and outside of damselfish territories in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. 16S rDNA sequencing revealed distinct bacterial communities associated with turf algae and a two to three times greater relative abundance of phylotypes with high sequence similarity to potential coral pathogens inside Stegastes's territories. These potentially pathogenic phylotypes (totalling 30.04% of the community) were found to have high sequence similarity to those amplified from black band disease (BBD) and disease affected corals worldwide. Disease surveys further revealed a significantly higher occurrence of BBD inside S. nigricans's territories. These findings demonstrate the first link between fish behaviour, reservoirs of potential coral disease pathogens and the prevalence of coral disease. PMID:24966320

  3. [Association of the abundance and vertical distribution of tuna and beakfish in the southeast of the Caribbean sea].

    PubMed

    Eslava, Nora; González, Leo W; Gaertner, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    The longline hooks suspension depth was estimated using the Mechanic Imitation of Flexible Systems method. The vertical distribution of tunas and billfish was determined by the relative abundance index, obtained from the catch by 11 to 25 m -long longline vessels, -based at Cumaná, Venezuela, South-eastern Caribbean Sea in depths of 65 to 142 m. The CPUE was evaluated per species, according to depth. High values were found for most of the captured species in the layer from 105 to 125 m. Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) showed the highest yield (3.37 fish/100 hooks) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) the lowest (0.04 fish/100 hooks). However, the statistical comparison did not allow to reject the hypothesis of lack of depth efect (Kruskal-Wallis p > .05), and demonstrated a homogeneous distribution of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), sailfish (Istiophorus albicans), white marlin (Tetrapturus albidus) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) in the water column. The conclusion is that fish concentration in the Southern border of the Caribbean Sea is possibly due to several hydroclimatic factors--which affect tuna and billfish catching--such as water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration which limit the distribution according to depth. PMID:15162696

  4. A rare case of synchronous saree cancer.

    PubMed

    Naveen, N; Kumar, M Kamal; Babu, Ramesh K; Dhanraj, Prema

    2014-07-01

    Skin cancers are rather uncommon malignancies comprising less than 1% of all the cancers in India. Saree cancer is a rare type of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Saree and dhoti are traditional male and female costumes respectively, which is unique to the Indian subcontinent. Constant wear of this clothing tightly around the waist results in changes in pigmentation and scaling of the skin, acanthosis, scar and ulceration and subsequent, gradual malignant changes. The process of repeated trauma over a long time and consequent interference with the healing process may rationalise the reason for malignant transformation. Few papers have been published on saree cancer, in main stream medical journals. We are presenting a rare case of saree cancer in a 68-year-old woman, with two distant bilateral ulceroproliferative growths in loin (Synchronous), along the waistline, which showed well-differentiated SCC on biopsy. Wide excision with rhomboid transposition flap was done bilaterally. PMID:25538441

  5. Dhoti cancer: a waistline skin cancer with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Murtaza A; Saxena, Divish K; Chikhlikar, Akanksha A; Bangde, Akshay P; Rangwala, Murtuza

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancers account for less than 1 % of all malignancies in India. Squamous cell carcinomas occurring over the waistline due to tying of cotton cloth called dhoti in males and sarees in females are predominantly seen in traditional Indian population. On wearing of these clothes for years, there is a constant irritation which produces depigmentation, glazing of the skin, acanthosis, scar formation, and later on malignant transformation. Presenting a case of a 65-year-old male with 7 × 5 cm ulceroproliferative growth over the right waistline with a history of prolonged use of dhoti. Wide local excision of the growth with 2-cm margin and primary closure of wound by mobilizing the skin was carried out. Histopathology showed well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The patient is clinically disease free after postoperative follow-up of 1 year. PMID:26391587

  6. Transgenic rats overexpressing the human MrgX3 gene show cataracts and an abnormal skin phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Kaisho, Yoshihiko . E-mail: Kaisho_Yoshihiko@takeda.co.jp; Watanabe, Takuya; Nakata, Mitsugu; Yano, Takashi; Yasuhara, Yoshitaka; Shimakawa, Kozo; Mori, Ikuo; Sakura, Yasufumi; Terao, Yasuko; Matsui, Hideki; Taketomi, Shigehisa

    2005-05-13

    The human MrgX3 gene, belonging to the mrgs/SNSRs (mass related genes/sensory neuron specific receptors) family, was overexpressed in transgenic rats using the actin promoter. Two animal lines showed cataracts with liquification/degeneration and swelling of the lens fiber cells. The transient epidermal desquamation was observed in line with higher gene expression. Histopathology of the transgenic rats showed acanthosis and focal parakeratosis. In the epidermis, there was an increase in cellular keratin 14, keratin 10, and loricrin, as well as PGP 9.5 in innervating nerve fibers. These phenotypes accompanied an increase in the number of proliferating cells. These results suggest that overexpression of the human MrgX3 gene causes a disturbance of the normal cell-differentiation process.

  7. Some observations on sheep sarcoptic mange in Tehran province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahbari, S; Nabian, S; Bahonar, A R

    2009-03-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei infestation was diagnosed in 278 sheep from 12 fatling flocks. The sheep presented crusted skin lesions initially appear on the lips or nostrils, the lesion on nostrils also extend towards around the eyes, the supraorbital fossae and in some cases over entire face. The infested male lambs by mating behavior in fatling flocks caused transmitting the infection to fat tail area and scrotum. Histopathological study of lesions demonstrated marked acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis. Tunnels could be observed in the hyperkeratotic stratum corneum and mite segments were located mainly in the stratum corneum and also in the stratum granulosum. Attempts to eliminate S. scabiei var. ovis were made in 3 naturally infested sheep herds, by two dippings with two weeks interval with Amitraz, Cypermetrin and Prompetamphos. The results of this study indicate that acaricidal treatment of S. scabiei var. ovis in 3 naturally infested herds was successful, but a few cases of reinfestation were found in each treated group. PMID:18626781

  8. Histopathological study of the mite biting (Dermanyssus gallinae) in poultry skin

    PubMed Central

    Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Tavassoli, Mousa; Alimehr, Manochehr; Shokrpoor, Sara; Ghorbanzadeghan, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The red mite of poultry, Dremanyssus gallinae, is the most important hematophagous ectoparasite of poultry. In this study, pathologic changes of its biting on the poultry skin have been investigated. Thirty-two (Control = 16 and Treatment = 16) four weeks old Ross broilers (308) were infested with the mite on skin of hock joins. Samples were collected after 1, 24, 72 hours and 10 days. The skin samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and histological sections were prepared using routine Hematoxylin & Eosin staining method. Results showed that in all cases, except within first hour of infestation, lymphocytic infiltration was always a constant pathologic feature. Necrosis of feather's follicles was a prominent pathologic feature ensued due to vascular disturbances and resulted in loss of feather. Hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis and acanthosis were observed after 72 hours. These findings reveal that mite biting induces local epidermal hyperplasia. PMID:25610570

  9. Trichodinosis associated with pathology of the reproductive tract in waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Carnaccini, S; Lowenstine, L J; Sentíes-Cué, C G; Nyaoke, A; Bland, M; Bickford, A A; Shivaprasad, H L; Stoute, S T

    2016-08-01

    Trichodinid ciliophorans are opportunistic parasites of many species of fish, amphibians, and molluscs, but yet never reported in association with lesions in birds. Postmortem and histopathological evaluation of a commercial adult Toulouse gander and female goose, and a wild Mallard drake revealed the presence of severe pathological parasitic colonization of their reproductive tracts. Histopathological findings included moderate to severe granulocytic inflammation, acanthosis, accentuation of the rete pegs, and proliferative hyperplastic squamous metaplasia of the mucosa of the ejaculatory ducts and groove, sulcus spermaticus, glandular part of the phallus (cavum penis), and oviduct in association with large numbers of ciliated protozoa anchored to the tissues or free in the lumen. These protozoa had characteristic morphological features analogous to the family of Trichodinidae. The source of this parasitism could not be determined. To our knowledge, this is the first report of trichodinosis associated with pathology in birds. PMID:26926786

  10. ASSOCIATION AMONG HISTOLOGICAL FINDINGS SUGGESTIVE OF PAPILLOMA VIRUS ON HEMORRHOIDECTOMY SPECIMENS

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Soraya Souto; NAKAJIMA, Gerson Suguiyama; GUIMARÃES, Ricardo Alexandre; MOURÃO, Flávia da Costa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many researchers studied human Papillomavirus infection in the anal area supposing it represents a risk factor for precursor lesions of anal cancer. Aim: To study the association between histological findings suggestive of injury by the virus in hemorrhoidectomy specimens. Method: Prevalence study was carried out based on histopathological analysis of hemorrhoidectomy specimens to find viral cytopathic effects. These findings were compared with anal condyloma acuminata that had no relationship with hemorrhoidectomy for microscopic comparison. Results: Of the 91 hemorroidectomies analyzed, eight had findings suggestive of viral cytopathic effects, with the presence of irregular acanthosis in 63%, koilocytes in 50% and other indirect viral cytopathic effects, such as hyperkeratosis (38%), parakeratosis (25% ) and papillomatosis (13%). Conclusion: This study was unable to conclude that there is an association between these two pathologic entities. PMID:26734795

  11. Clinical effects of topical pimecrolimus in a patient with Fox-Fordyce disease.

    PubMed

    Milcic, Danijela; Nikolic, Milos

    2012-05-01

    Fox-Fordyce disease (FFD) is characterized by a pruritic eruption of skin-coloured or yellowish papules in areas rich in apocrine glands. The histology comprises dilatation of follicular infundibula with hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and spongiosis of the infundibular epithelium with perifollicular infiltration of lymphocytes and foamy histiocytes. We treated a 12-year-old girl with FFD with topical pimecrolimus for 12 weeks, this resulted in a complete clearance of lesions. After the therapy, the patient was followed for an additional 19 months without signs of relapse. The effects of pimecrolimus in FFD might imply that an inflammatory process inducing secondary reactive hyperkeratosis could be involved in the pathogenesis of FFD. PMID:22571582

  12. Palmar and plantar lichen planus: a case report and review of the literature*

    PubMed Central

    Velez, Ana Maria Abreu; Howard, Michael S; Pereyo, Neville

    2015-01-01

    Palmoplantar lichen planus is an uncommon dermatosis. We present a case of 38-year-old Caucasian male with a history of pruritic, scaly lesions on the right plantar foot. Physical examination revealed whitish plaques and numerous spiny hyperkeratotic papules and focal scaling. A biopsy demonstrated orthohyperkeratosis and acanthosis of the epidermis. Immunohistochemical staining revealed positivity within the epidermis and/or lichenoid infiltrate with CD3, CD8, CD45, CD68, myeloid histiod antigen, BCL2, p27, p53, HLA-DPDQDR, metallothionein and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1. The diagnosis of PPLP was thus confirmed; this case illustrates that PPLP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of uncommon foot dermatoses with a significant junctional inflammatory component. PMID:26312708

  13. Becker nevus syndrome presented with ipsilateral breast hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Pektas, Suzan Demir; Akoglu, Gulsen; Metin, Ahmet; Adiyaman, Nuran Sungu; Demirseren, Mustafa Erol

    2014-11-01

    Becker nevus syndrome (BNS) is a rare epidermal nevus syndrome characterized with Becker nevus and ipsilateral breast gland hypoplasia or other skin, skeletal and/or muscle tissue disorders. A 24-year-old woman presented with brown, irregular bordered patch with a diameter of approximately 10 cm which consisted of several small macules on the left breast skin. The ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed left breast hypoplasia. Histopathological examination demonstrated minimal acanthosis, papillomatosis, increase in basal layer melanin and hypertrophy of the erector pili muscle. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for androgen in the epidermis, dermal stromal cells and skin appendages. Depending on the clinical and histopathological findings, the patient was diagnosed as BNS. Diagnosis of BNS needs careful examination of pigmented macules and patches since non-hairy BN may be easily overlooked. Patients with BN should be evaluated for associated abnormalities of BNS, in which the severity and extend of ectodermal involvement may differ from patient to other. PMID:25484431

  14. Pathological changes in cattle naturally infected by Calicophoron daubneyi adult flukes.

    PubMed

    Fuertes, Miguel; Pérez, Valentín; Benavides, Julio; González-Lanza, M Camino; Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; Giráldez, Francisco Javier; Fernández, Miguel; Manga-González, M Yolanda; Ferreras, M Carmen

    2015-04-30

    Local host response and parasite distribution were studied in the forestomachs, abomasum, duodenum and regional lymph nodes of cattle suffering from bovine paramphistomosis. The parasites were found attached, by its ventral sucker, to small conical papillae of the rumen and reticulum. Affected papillae, showed morphological changes denoted by very narrow stalks and expanded heads. Histologically, these changes were characterized by epithelial acanthosis-hyperkeratosis of the epithelium. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was often related with the epithelial changes, although it was also found in the duodenal mucosa and submucosa. These cells were arranged as aggregates or follicles but sparse infiltration of eosinophils, globule leukocytes, mast cells or macrophages was also observed in the lamina propria. Tissue damage and inflammatory reaction were more severe in the ruminal atrium, where the largest number of flukes and affected papillae were observed. In contrast, lesions in the ruminal dorsal sac were absent or mild. Statistical correlation between lesion severity and parasite burden was confirmed. PMID:25801360

  15. Keratinization Disorders and Genetic Aspects in Palmar and Plantar Keratodermas.

    PubMed

    Stypczyńska, Ewa; Placek, Waldemar; Zegarska, Barbara; Czajkowski, Rafał

    2016-06-01

    Palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) is a heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders characterized by abnormal thickening of the palms and soles. There are three clinical patterns: diffuse, focal, and punctuate. Palmoplantar keratodermas can be divided into the following functional subgroups: disturbed gene functions in structural proteins (keratins), cornified envelope (loricrin, transglutaminase), cohesion (plakophilin, desmoplakin, desmoglein 1), cell-to-cell communication (connexins) and transmembrane signal transduction (cathepsin C). Unna-Thost disease is the most common variety of hereditary PPK. Mutations in keratin 1 have been reported in Unna-Thost disease. We report 12 cases in which Unna-Thost disease was diagnosed. Genealogical study demonstrated that the genodermatosis was a familial disease inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder. Dermatological examination revealed yellowish hyperkeratosis on the palms and soles. Oral mucosa, teeth, and nails remained unchanged. Histopathological examination of the biopsy sample taken from the soles of the patients showed orthokeratotic keratosis, hypergranulosis, and acanthosis without epidermolysis. PMID:27477171

  16. Pellagra in a patient with primary Sjögren’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ben Ghorbel, Imed; Litaiem, Noureddine; Chelly, Ines; Houman, Habib

    2014-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman presented with persistent dryness of the mouth and eyes. She presented with permanent photodistributed rash involving the face and distal extremities. Laboratory tests showed positive Sjögren's syndrome (SS)-A and SS-B antibodies. Histological examination of minor salivary gland biopsy revealed inflammatory infiltration grade 4 according to Chisholm's classification. Skin biopsy showed acanthosis, hyperkeratosis in the epidermis and little inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis. There was an infiltration of CD4 T lymphocytes in the dermis. Based on the characteristics of the dermatitis and on a rapid response to niacin replacement, the diagnosis of pellagra was carried out. A complete resolution of the dermatological signs was obtained within 2 months. To the best of our knowledge, the association between primary SS and pellagra has never been reported. We emphasise the possible mechanisms of this association. PMID:24943141

  17. Possible Antipruritic Mechanism of Cyclosporine A in Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kyi Chan; Tominaga, Mitsutoshi; Kamata, Yayoi; Umehara, Yoshie; Matsuda, Hironori; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Kina, Katsunari; Ogawa, Mayuko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Takamori, Kenji

    2016-06-15

    Cyclosporine A is an immunosuppressive agent that suppresses pruritus and is currently used in the treatment of patients with severe atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to elucidate the antipruritic mechanism of cyclosporine A using a mouse model of atopic dermatitis. Intraperitoneal injection of cyclosporine A (5 mg/kg) significantly reduced epidermal nerve density, number of scratching bouts, dermatitis scores, and transepidermal water loss, as well as decreasing the numbers of inflammatory cells in the dermis and decreasing epidermal thickness. Intraperitoneal injection of cyclosporine A dose-dependently inhibited increased itch-related receptor gene expression, such as interleukin-31 receptor A and neurokinin-1 receptor, in the dorsal root ganglion of atopic dermatitis model mice. Thus, the antipruritic efficacy of cyclosporine A may involve reduced epidermal nerve density and expression levels of itch-related receptor genes in the dorsal root ganglion, as well as improvement in acanthosis and reduction in cutaneous inflammatory cell number. PMID:26671728

  18. Dermatopathy in juvenile Angus cattle due to vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Thomas J; Rood, Kerry A; Kelly, E Jane; Hall, Jeffery O

    2012-07-01

    In juvenile cattle, vitamin A deficiency is reported most commonly as a neurological condition; only rarely are there dermatologic manifestations. In the current study, alopecia, severe epidermal and follicular orthokeratosis, and acanthosis due to hypovitaminosis A are reported in 2 of 32 Angus calves, with a third animal suspected. Affected animals responded to vitamin A supplementation, and no additional calves displayed signs. Vitamin A acts on skin by regulating DNA transcription in keratinocytes, reducing the number of tonofilaments and desmosomes, both involved in cell-to-cell adhesion. Hence, adequate levels of dietary vitamin A are necessary for normal keratinocyte turnover, and deficiencies result in retention of keratinized cells (orthokeratosis). The present report reminds diagnosticians to consider vitamin A deficiency in cases of orthokeratotic dermatopathy in cattle. PMID:22585959

  19. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of canine distemper virus-induced footpad hyperkeratosis (hard Pad disease) in dogs with natural canine distemper.

    PubMed

    Koutinas, A F; Baumgärtner, W; Tontis, D; Polizopoulou, Z; Saridomichelakis, M N; Lekkas, S

    2004-01-01

    Hard pad disease represents an uncommon manifestation of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection with a still uncertain pathogenesis. To study the pathogenesis of this uncommon, virally induced cutaneous lesion, the footpads of 19 dogs with naturally occurring distemper were investigated for histologic changes and distribution pattern of CDV antigen. All dogs displayed clinical signs of distemper, which had lasted from 10 to 75 days. Overt digital hyperkeratosis was observed in 12 animals (group A), whereas the footpads of the remaining seven dogs appeared normal macroscopically (group B). Orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis (12/12; 100%), irregular acanthosis (11/12; 92%), thickened rete ridges (10/12; 83%), and mild mononuclear perivascular (10/ 12; 83%) and periadnexal (7/12; 58%) dermatitis were the most common findings in dogs with hard pad disease. Surprisingly, orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis (5/7; 71%), irregular acanthosis (5/7; 71%), and thickened rete ridges (4/7; 57%) were also seen in the dogs without clinical evidence of digital hyperkeratosis. CDV-specific inclusion bodies and ballooning degeneration were not observed in the footpad epidermis of the 19 dogs. Immunohis-tochemistry revealed that CDV antigen was most frequently found in the stratum spinosum and granulosum and in the epithelial cells of the eccrine sweat glands and only rarely in the basal layer. Fibroblasts, pericytes, endothelial cells, and hair follicles were also positive in some animals. Despite the obvious difference regarding the macroscopic picture, the microscopic changes were less prominent between the animal groups. The selective infection of keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum might be the key event for the development of hard pad disease in the dog. PMID:14715962

  20. Clinicopathological features of mycosis fungoides in patients exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min Soo; Jang, Jun Gyu; Han, Sang Hwa; Park, Jong Bin; Kang, Dong Young; Kim, Sang Tae; Suh, Kee Suck

    2013-08-01

    There are no reports on the clinicopathological features of mycosis fungoides (MF) among veterans exposed to Agent Orange, one of the herbicides used during the Vietnam War. To evaluate the clinical, histopathological and genotypic findings of Vietnam War veterans with MF and a positive history of exposure to Agent Orange, we performed a comparative clinicopathological study between MF patients with a history of Agent Orange exposure and those without a history of Agent Orange exposure. Twelve Vietnam War veterans with MF were identified. The mean interval from Agent Orange exposure to diagnosis was 24.5 years (range, 9-35). Skin lesions were significantly present on exposed and unexposed areas. Most patients (75%) experienced pruritus (mean visual analog scale score of 6.7). MF was manifested by plaques in 10 patients and by lichenification in five. Histopathological features of most cases were consistent with MF. Biopsy specimens also demonstrated irregular acanthosis (66.7%). In the comparative study, MF patients with a history of Agent Orange exposure differed significantly from those without exposure to Agent Orange in demographic and clinical characteristics. In addition, patients with exposure had an increased tendency for lesions in the exposed area. Notably, our patients showed a higher frequency (33.3%) of mycosis fungoides palmaris et plantaris than in previous studies. Histologically, irregular acanthosis was more frequently observed than ordinary MF. Our results indicate that dermatologists should pay close attention to these clinicopathological differences. Careful assessment of history of exposure to defoliants is warranted in some cases suspicious for MF. PMID:23724870

  1. Spontaneous Atopic Dermatitis-Like Symptoms in a/a ma ft/ma ft/J Flaky Tail Mice Appear Early after Birth

    PubMed Central

    Kypriotou, Magdalini; Boéchat, Cloé; Huber, Marcel; Hohl, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in human profilaggrin gene have been identified as the cause of ichthyosis vulgaris (IV), and as a major predisposition factor for atopic dermatitis (AD). Similarly, flaky tail (a/a ma ft/ma ft/J) mice were described as a model for IV, and shown to be predisposed to eczema. The aim of this study was to correlate the flaky tail mouse phenotype with human IV and AD, in order to dissect early molecular events leading to atopic dermatitis in mice and men, suffering from filaggrin deficiency. Thus, 5-days old flaky tail pups were analyzed histologically, expression of cytokines was measured in skin and signaling pathways were investigated by protein analysis. Human biopsies of IV and AD patients were analyzed histologically and by real time PCR assays. Our data show acanthosis and hyperproliferation in flaky tail epidermis, associated with increased IL1β and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) expression, and Th2-polarization. Consequently, NFκB and Stat pathways were activated, and IL6 mRNA levels were increased. Further, quantitative analysis of late epidermal differentiation markers revealed increased Small proline-rich protein 2A (Sprr2a) synthesis. Th2-polarization and Sprr2a increase may result from high TSLP expression, as shown after analysis of 5-days old K14-TSLP tg mouse skin biopsies. Our findings in the flaky tail mouse correlate with data obtained from patient biopsies of AD, but not IV. We propose that proinflammatory cytokines are responsible for acanthosis in flaky tail epidermis, and together with the Th2-derived cytokines lead to morphological changes. Accordingly, the a/a ma ft/ma ft/J mouse model can be used as an appropriate model to study early AD onset associated with profilaggrin deficiency. PMID:23844115

  2. An image-processing program for automated counting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, D.J.; Anderson, W.H.; Anthony, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    An image-processing program developed by the National Institute of Health, IMAGE, was modified in a cooperative project between remote sensing specialists at the Ohio State University Center for Mapping and scientists at the Alaska Science Center to facilitate estimating numbers of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) in flocks at Izembek National Wildlife Refuge. The modified program, DUCK HUNT, runs on Apple computers. Modifications provide users with a pull down menu that optimizes image quality; identifies objects of interest (e.g., brant) by spectral, morphometric, and spatial parameters defined interactively by users; counts and labels objects of interest; and produces summary tables. Images from digitized photography, videography, and high- resolution digital photography have been used with this program to count various species of waterfowl.

  3. Toxigenic fungi in food.

    PubMed

    Davis, N D; Wagener, E; Dalby, D K; Morgan-Jones, G; Diener, U L

    1975-07-01

    Forty-five fungal isolates from moldy supermarket foods were tested for toxicity to brine shrimp, and twenty-two of these isolates were subsequently tested for toxicity to chicken embryos. Highly toxigenic fungi were Cladosporium sphaerospermum from a bakery product, Fusarium oxysporum from carrots, F. solani from cabbage, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium corylophilum from bread, P. cyclopium and P. herguei from corn meal, P. lanosum from onions,P. steckii from chocolate syrup, Penicillium sp. from jelly, and Rhizopus nigricans isolates from sweet potato, applesauce, and strawberries. Approximately one-third of the fungal cultures were moderately to highly toxigenic to brine shrimp and chicken embryos, while several additional cultures were slightly toxigenic. PMID:1147614

  4. Black brant from Alaska staging and wintering in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Bollinger, K.S.; Ward, David H.; Sedinger, J.S.; Miyabayashi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) nest in colonies in arctic Canada, Alaska, and Russia (Derksen and Ward 1993, Sedinger et al. 1993). Virtually the entire population stages in fall at Izembek Lagoon near the tip of the Alaska Peninsula (Bellrose 1976) before southward migration (Dau 1992) to winter habitats in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, and Baja California (Subcommittee on Black Brant 1992). A small number of black brant winter in Japan, Korea, and China (Owen 1980). In Japan 3,000–5,000 brant of unknown origin stop over in fall, and a declining population (<1,000) of birds winter here, primarily in the northern islands (Brazil 1991, Miyabayashi et al. 1994). Here, we report sightings of brant in Japan that were marked in Alaska and propose a migration route based on historical and recent observations and weather patterns.

  5. Arctic nesting geese: alaskan populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Stehn, Robert A.; Ely, Craig R.; Derksen, Dirk V.

    1995-01-01

    While data for some areas are lacking, populations of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) and medium-sized Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in interior and northern Alaska appear stable or have increased (King and Derksen 1986). Although only a small number of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) nest in Alaska, substantial populations occur in Canada and Russia. Populations of Pacific black brant (B. bernicla nigricans), emperor geese (C. canagica), greater white-fronted geese, and cackling Canada geese (B.c. minima) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) of western Alaska have declined from their historical numbers and are the focus of special management efforts (USFWS 1989). In addition, populations of tule white-fronted geese (A.a. gambeli), Aleutian Canada geese (B.c. leucopareia), Vancouver Canada Geese (B.c. fulva), and dusky Canada geese (B.c. occidentalis) are of special concern because of their limited geographic distributions and small numbers.

  6. Bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae, Nycteribiidae) parasitic on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) at Parque Estadual da Cantareira, São Paulo, Brazil: parasitism rates and host-parasite associations.

    PubMed

    Bertola, Patrícia Beloto; Aires, Caroline Cotrim; Favorito, Sandra Elisa; Graciolli, Gustavo; Amaku, Marcos; Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo

    2005-02-01

    A total of 443 bat flies belonging to the families Nycteribiidae and Strelidae, were collected on 22 species of bats (Molossidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae) from Parque Estadual da Cantareira (São Paulo, Brazil), between January, 2000 and January, 2001. Eighteen new occurrences of bat flies were recorded on Anoura geoffroyi (Anastrebla caudiferae), Glossophaga soricina (A. caudiferae), Sturnira lilium (Trichobius phyllostomae, T. furmani, and Paraeuctenodes similis), Artibeus lituratus (A. caudiferae), A. fimbriatus (Megistopoda proxima), A. obscurus (Metelasmus pseudopterus), Myotis nigricans (M. proxima, M. aranea, Paratrichobius longicrus), M. ruber (Anatrichobius passosi, Joblingia sp.), M. levis (A. passosi), M. albescens (A. passosi, Basilia andersoni), and Histiotus velatus (M. aranea). Seven new occurrences were recorded for the state of São Paulo, increasing the range for T. tiptoni, T. furmani, M. proxima, Aspidoptera falcata, A. caudiferae, A. modestini and B. andersoni. The relationships between parasitism and host sex, reproductive stage, age hyperparasitism by fungi are discussed. PMID:15867959

  7. Host specificity of Lepeophtheirus crassus (Wilson and Bere) (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on the marlin sucker Remora osteochir (Cuvier) in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ju-shey; Collete, Bruce B; Madinabeitia, Ione

    2006-10-01

    Three species of remoras--Remora brachyptera (Lowe), Remora osteochir (Cuvier), and Remora remora (Linnaeus)--were collected from 4 species of billfishes--Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw), Makaira nigricans Lacepéde, Tetrapturus albidus Poey, and Tetrapturus pfluegeri Robins and de Sylva--on board a Japanese long-liner Shoyo Maru during her cruise in 2002 across the Atlantic. However, only the marlin sucker (R. osteochir) was found to carry a parasitic copepod, Lepeophtheirus crassus (Wilson and Bere, 1936). Although 12 species of parasitic copepods have been reported from billfishes around the world ocean, none of them is L. crassus. Thus, L. crassus is considered a parasite specific to the marlin sucker. PMID:17152964

  8. Enzymatic modification of schizophyllan.

    PubMed

    Leathers, Timothy D; Sutivisedsak, Nongnuch; Nunnally, Melinda S; Price, Neil P J; Stanley, April M

    2015-03-01

    An enzymatic method was developed for the progressive modification of the polysaccharide schizophyllan. Fungal strains Hypocrea nigricans NRRL 62555, Penicillium crustosum NRRL 62558, and Penicillium simplicissimum NRRL 62550 were previously identified as novel sources of β-endoglucanase with specificity towards schizophyllan. Concentrated enzyme preparations from these strains showed specific activities of 1.7-4.3 U β-glucanase/mg protein. Using dilutions of these enzymes in time course digestions, schizophyllan was progressively modified to reduced molecular weight species. Glucose and oligosaccharides were found only in the more complete digestions, and thus modified schizophyllan can be produced quantitatively, without loss, to small molecules. Permethylation analysis confirmed that modified schizophyllan retains the fundamental linkage structure of native schizophyllan. Modified schizophyllan species showed progressively reduced viscosity profiles, and all exhibited pseudoplasticity in response to shear thinning. PMID:25335747

  9. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE LARGE SUBUNIT RUBISCO GENE SUPPORTS THE EXCLUSION OF AVRAINVILLEA AND CLADOCEPHALUS FROM THE UDOTEACEAE (BRYOPSIDALES, CHLOROPHYTA)(1).

    PubMed

    Curtis, Nicholas E; Dawes, Clinton J; Pierce, Sidney K

    2008-06-01

    The placement of Avrainvillea and Cladocephalus in the family Udoteaceae (order Bryopsidales) has been questioned on the basis of nuclear, plastid, and other ultrastructural characteristics unique to these genera. Bayesian analysis of the chloroplast-encoded LSU RUBISCO (rbcL) gene showed that the Udoteaceae is paraphyletic. Cladocephalus luteofuscus (P. Crouan et H. Crouan) Børgesen, Avrainvillea nigricans f. floridana D. Littler et Littler, and A. mazei G. Murray et Boodle form a clade with the freshwater alga Dichotomosiphon tuberosus (A. Braun ex Kütz.) A. Ernst that is basal to a clade that includes other members of the Udoteaceae, the Halimedaceae, and the Caulerpaceae. The noncalcified species Boodleopsis pusilla (Collins) W. R. Taylor, A. B. Joly et Bernat. groups with species of the calcified Udoteacean genera Penicillus, Rhipocephalus, Udotea, and Halimeda. PMID:27041434

  10. Gold content of ectomycorrhizal and saprobic macrofungi - an update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovi ka, J.; anda, Z.; Jelínek, E.

    2006-05-01

    Species of macrofungi growing in the wild were collected from non-auriferous and unpolluted areas, and analyzed for gold. In addition, preliminary results of samples originated from an auriferous area are presented. Gold was determined using long-term instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In total, 108 samples, including 49 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi and 30 species of terrestrial saprobes, were examined. The highest concentrations (expressed in dry weight) were found in ectomycorrhizal species Russula nigricans (235 ng g-1) and Suillus variegatus (1070 ng g-1). Among the saprobic macrofungi, an extraordinary high value 2250 ng g-1 was found in Lepiota cf. clypeolaria. Gold content of saprobic macrofungi originated from the auriferous area was obviously higher than that of macrofungi from non-auriferous areas. The highest contents were found in Agaricus silvaticus (4230 ng g-1) and in two samples of Lycoperdon perlatum (6955 and 7739 ng g-1).

  11. Blood selenium concentrations in female Pacific black brant molting in Arctic Alaska: Relationships with age and habitat salinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    Blood samples collected from 81 female Pacific black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska, were analyzed for selenium concentration. The concentration of selenium in blood of after second year (hatched two or more years ago) females (0.84 μg/g wet weight) was significantly greater than the concentration in second year (hatched the previous year) females (0.61 μg/g wet weight). The concentrations of selenium we found in blood of black brant were 1.5 to 2 times greater than baseline values typical of freshwater birds, but considerably lower than reported in other marine waterfowl sampled in Alaska. This finding may be attributable in part to the nearly exclusive herbivorous diet of black brant. No relationship was noted between blood selenium concentration and molting habitat salinity. We are unaware of any previous reports of blood selenium concentrations in black brant.

  12. Sporostatic effect of some oils against fungi causing otomycosis.

    PubMed

    Jain, S K; Agrawal, S C

    1992-01-01

    In vitro animycotic effect of mustard, groundnut, soybean, coconut and amla oils on five fungi i.e., Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Absidia corymbifera, Penicillium nigricans and Candida albicans isolated from otitic fungal infection of external ear (Tympanic membrane) of human being was studied. Spore germination was evaluated in the oil samples as such after heating for two minutes & after boiling the oil. Data show that mustard and coconut oil seem to be effective as in these the spore germination was poor. Other oils were not found to be much effective. Sporostatic effect was noted only when the oils were used after heating or boiling this may be correlated by the synthesis of enzymes during spore germination. PMID:1452224

  13. Homeopathic treatment for infertility in a prize Nelore bull.

    PubMed

    Lobreiro, J

    2007-01-01

    Treatments for infertility in bulls are not described in homeopathic literature. A few treatments, such as changing the protein content of the diet, giving extra minerals, etc have been proposed. This case report describes homeopathic treatment for infertility in a prize bull. A Nelore bull, considered infertile for 3 years, was treated with homeopathic Pulsatilla nigricans 200 CH. Decreased total sperm defects, increased sperm motility and a very impressive increased number of doses of semen produced were observed. The bull relapsed after treatment was withdrawn, but again responded when it was resumed. Since only one animal was observed one cannot assume that the observed changes were due only to this treatment. Further studies may establish the real benefits of a homeopathic medicine in bull infertility. PMID:17227749

  14. [Skin diseases associated with obesity in children].

    PubMed

    Lau, K; Höger, P H

    2013-04-01

    While the impact of obesity on diabetes, cardiovascular disease and carcinoma development has been studied extensively, only little attention has been paid to its influence on the skin. Obesity alters the skin barrier, can induce skin manifestations, and worsens existing skin diseases like psoriasis. Cutaneous manifestations of obesity may be pseudoacanthosis nigricans, fibroma pendulans (skin tags, fibroepithelial polyps) and striae distensae. Obesity is also associated with hyperandrogenism in women and girls, promoting acne vulgaris, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia. In addition, there is a pathogenic association between obesity and psoriasis: the release of pro-inflammatory factors from fat tissue results in the worsening of psoriasis; an association between the severity of psoriasis and the body mass index has been shown. Obesity promotes skin infections like erysipelas and intertrigo. PMID:23529600

  15. Concentration of Elements in Whole-body Fish, Fish Fillets, Fish Muscle Plugs, and Fish Eggs from the 2008 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs. Whole-body, fillet, or egg samples of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus furcatus, Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), walleye (Sander vitreus), crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Pomoxis nigromaculatus), shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and Missouri saddled darter (Etheostoma tetrazonum) were collected from 23 sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs also were collected from walleye (Sander vitreus) at one of the sites.

  16. Concentrations of Elements in Fish Fillets, Fish Muscle Plugs, and Crayfish from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillets of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), bass (Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus dolomieu, Morone chrysops), walleye (Sander vitreus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were collected from 21 sites as part of the Department's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Long-pincered crayfish (Orconectes longidigitus) were collected from one site to assess trophic transfer of metals to fish. Fish muscle plugs were collected from smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) at two different locations from one site.

  17. Amino acids in seeds and seedlings of the genus Lens.

    PubMed

    Rozan, P; Kuo, Y H; Lambein, F

    2001-09-01

    The amino acid content of seeds and 4-day-old seedlings were studied in five species of lentil: Lens culinaris, L. orientalis, L. ervoides, L. nigricans and L. odemensis. Free amino acid and also total protein amino acid content after HCl hydrolysis were determined by HPLC. The nonprotein UV-absorbing amino acids were determined by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The content of free protein amino acids in seeds varied among species and increased dramatically after germination. Asparagine is quantitatively most important in both seed and seedling. The content of free nonprotein amino acids is variable in seeds and seedlings. gamma-Hydroxyarginine, gamma-hydroxyornithine, alpha-aminobutyric acid and taurine were found in both seeds and seedlings. Homoarginine was found in four species but not in L. orientalis while gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), alpha-aminoadipic acid (alpha-aaa) and three isoxazolinone derivatives: beta-(isoxazolin-5-on-2-yl)-alanine (BIA), gamma-glutamyl-BIA (gamma-glu-BIA) and 2-carboxymethyl-isoxazolin-5-one (CMI) were found exclusively in the seedlings. CMI was identified for the first time in lentil species. Lathyrine, beta-(2-amino-pyrimidine-4-yl)-alanine, which was reported to be in the seeds of some Lathyrus species was confirmed to be present also in the seedling of L. culinaris (trace amount), L. nigricans and L. odemensis. Trigonelline (N-methyl-nicotinic acid), a plant hormone, is present both in seeds and seedlings in different concentrations except in L. ervoides. The different combination of nonprotein amino acids among the species gives indication of their genetic relationship and might partly explain the varying compatibility for interspecies crossing. PMID:11551552

  18. Chimpanzees prey on army ants at Seringbara, Nimba Mountains, Guinea: predation patterns and tool use characteristics.

    PubMed

    Koops, Kathelijne; Schöning, Caspar; McGrew, William C; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2015-03-01

    Chimpanzees are renowned for their use of foraging tools in harvesting social insects and some populations use tools to prey on aggressive army ants (Dorylus spp.). Tool use in army ant predation varies across chimpanzee study sites with differences in tool length, harvesting technique, and army ant species targeted. However, surprisingly little is known about the detailed ecology of army ant predation. We studied army ant predation by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at the Seringbara study site in the Nimba Mountains, Guinea (West Africa), over 10 years (2003-2013). We investigated chimpanzee selectivity with regards to army ant prey species. We assessed the temporal variation in army ant-feeding and examined whether army ant predation was related to rainfall or ripe fruit availability. Moreover, we examined whether chimpanzees showed selectivity regarding plant species used for tool manufacture, as well as the relationship between tool species preference and tool collection distance. Lastly, we measured tool properties and investigated the use of tool sets and composite tools in army ant predation. Seringbara chimpanzees preyed on one army ant species (D. nigricans) more often than expected based on encounter rates, which may be explained by the overlap in altitudinal distribution between chimpanzees and D. nigricans. Army ant predation was not related to rainfall or fruit availability. Chimpanzees were selective in their choice of tool materials and collected their preferred tool species (Alchornea hirtella) from greater distances than they did other species. Lastly, Seringbara chimpanzees used both tool sets and composite tools (tree perch) in army ant predation. Tool types (dig vs. dip) differed in width and strength, but not length. Tool composites were found at 40% of ant-feeding sites. Our study sheds new light on the ecology of army ant predation and provides novel insights into chimpanzee selection of army ant prey and tool species. PMID:25315798

  19. Papilionoid inflorescences revisited (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Prenner, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The inflorescence structure determines the spatiotemporal arrangement of the flowers during anthesis and is therefore vital for reproductive success. The Leguminosae are among the largest angiosperm plant families and they include some important crop plants. In papilionoid legumes, the raceme is the most common type of inflorescence. However, a range of other inflorescence types have evolved via various developmental processes. A (re-)investigation of inflorescences in Swainsona formosa, Cicer arietinum, Abrus precatorius, Hardenbergia violacea and Kennedia nigricans leads to new insights into reduction mechanisms and to a new hypothesis on the evolution of the papilionoid pseudoraceme. Methods Inflorescence morphology and ontogeny were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Key Results The inflorescence in S. formosa is an umbel with a rare type of pendulum symmetry which may be triggered by the subtending leaf. Inflorescences in C. arietinum are reduced to a single flower. An early formed adaxial bulge is the sterile apex of the inflorescence (i.e. the inflorescence is open and not terminated by a flower). In partial inflorescences of A. precatorius, the axis is reduced and its meristem is relocated towards the main inflorescence. Flower initiation follows a peculiar pendulum pattern. Partial inflorescences in H. violacea and in K. nigricans show reduction tendencies. In both taxa, initiated but early reduced bracteoles are present. Conclusions Pendulum symmetry in S. formosa is probably associated with distichous phyllotaxis. In C. arietinum, strong reduction tendencies are revealed. Based on studies of A. precatorius, the papilionoid pseudoraceme is reinterpreted as a compound raceme with condensed lateral axes. From an Abrus-like inflorescence, other types can be derived via reduction of flower number and synchronization of flower development. A plea is made for uniform usage of inflorescence terminology. PMID:23235698

  20. Insecticidal and vertebrate toxicity associated with ethnobotanicals used as post-harvest protectants in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Belmain, S R; Neal, G E; Ray, D E; Golob, P

    2001-03-01

    Six plant species (Cassia sophera, Chamaecrista nigricans, Mitragyna inermis, Ocimum americanum, Securidaca longepedunculata and Synedrella nodiflora) traditionally used in Ghana to control insect pests of stored grain and legumes were screened in the laboratory at three concentrations (0.5, 1 and 5%, w/w) against four common storage pests (Rhyzopertha dominica, Callosobruchus maculatus, Sitophilus zeamais and Prostephanus truncatus). All the plants showed some ability to control all or some of the test insect species. Levels of efficacy varied according to test concentration with the highest concentration tested providing the best control. The S. longepedunculata plant induced the highest percent mortality and was the best at reducing emergence of the F(1) generation. The six plants were also incorporated into standard rat diet at two concentrations (1 and 5%, w/w) and fed to rats over a 6-week period to assess potential deleterious effects against vertebrates. None of the plants demonstrated any neurotoxicological or neurobehavioural effects to the rats over the course of the trial. However, S. longepedunculata and C. nigricans caused a significant reduction in rat growth rate when incorporated at 5% in the diet, induced cell hyperplasia in the liver, and reduced the mean weight of the liver and kidneys, compared to the control group of rats. Kidney pathology was affected only by the 5% concentration of S. longepedunculata which caused a reduced accumulation of alpha2mu-globulin. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of farmer usage of insecticidal plants for stored product protection. PMID:11278061

  1. Feeding ecology of pelagic fish larvae and juveniles in slope waters of the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Wells, R J D; Rooker, J R

    2009-11-01

    Stable isotope ratios of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N) were used to investigate feeding patterns of larval and early juvenile pelagic fishes in slope waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Contribution of organic matter supplied to fishes and trophic position within this pelagic food web was estimated in 2007 and 2008 by comparing dietary signatures of the two main producers in this ecosystem: phytoplankton [based on particulate organic matter (POM)] and Sargassum spp. Stable isotope ratios of POM and pelagic Sargassum spp. were significantly different from one another with delta13C values of POM depleted by 3-6 per thousand and delta15N values enriched by 2 relative to Sargassum spp. Stable isotope ratios were significantly different among the five pelagic fishes examined: blue marlin Makaira nigricans, dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus, pompano dolphinfish Coryphaena equiselis, sailfish Istiophorus platypterus and swordfish Xiphias gladius. Mean delta13C values ranged almost 2 among fishes and were most depleted in I. platypterus. In addition, mean delta15N values ranged 4-5 with highest mean values found for both C. hippurus and C. equiselis and the lowest mean value for M. nigricans during both years. Increasing delta13C or delta15N with standard length suggested that shifts in trophic position and diet occurred during early life for several species examined. Results of a two-source mixing model suggest approximately an equal contribution of organic matter by both sources (POM=55%; pelagic Sargassum spp.=45%) to the early life stages of pelagic fishes examined. Contribution of organic matter, however, varied among species, and sensitivity analyses indicated that organic source estimates changed from 2 to 13% for a delta(13)C fractionation change of +/-0.25 per thousand or a delta15N fractionation change of +/-1.0 per thousand relative to original fractionation values. PMID:20738644

  2. Pesticide tolerant Azotobacter isolates from paddy growing areas of northern Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Chennappa, Gurikar; Adkar-Purushothama, C R; Suraj, Umdale; Tamilvendan, K; Sreenivasa, M Y

    2014-01-01

    A total of 14 Azotobacter strains were isolated from different paddy cultivating soils with pH ranging from 6.5 to 9.5 by using serial dilution agar plate method. The strains were Gram negative, rod shaped, cyst forming and developed brown to black colored colonies, which were glistening, smooth, slimy on Ashby's agar plates. Biochemically they were positive for biochemical tests namely, indole production, citrate, catalase, carbohydrate fermentation and Voges-Proskauer test. Further, sequence analysis of PCR amplicons obtained from these cultures revealed the presence of five different Azotobacter species viz., Azotobacter vinelandii, Azotobacter salinestris, Azotobacter sp., Azotobacter nigricans subsp. nigricans and Azotobacter tropicalis. Phylogenetically these strains were grouped into two distinct clusters. These strains were tested for their ability to grow on a media containing four different pesticides such as pendimethalin, glyphosate, chloropyrifos and phorate, which are commonly used for the paddy. Out of 14 strains tested, 13 strains were able to grow on a media containing herbicides such as pendimethalin, glyphosate and insecticides like chloropyrifos and phorate. However, five Azotobacter strains were able to grow at higher concentration of 5% pesticides, without affecting their growth rate. Further, the effect of pesticides on the indole acetic acid (IAA) production by Azotobacter strains was also estimated. Azotobacter-16 strain was found to produce 34.4 μg ml(-l) of IAA in a media supplemented with 1,000 mg of tryptophan and 5% of pendimethalin. Present study reveals that species of Azotobacter are able to grow and survive in the presence of pesticides and no significant effects were observed on the metabolic activities of Azotobacter species. PMID:23813305

  3. Group III secreted phospholipase A2 transgenic mice spontaneously develop inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hiroyasu; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Isogai, Yuki; Masuda, Seiko; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Yamamoto, Kei; Murakami, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    PLA2 (phospholipase A2) group III is an atypical sPLA2 (secretory PLA2) that is homologous with bee venom PLA2 rather than with other mammalian sPLA2s. In the present paper, we show that endogenous group III sPLA2 (PLA2G3) is expressed in mouse skin and that Tg (transgenic) mice overexpressing human PLA2G3 spontaneously develop skin inflammation. Pla2g3-Tg mice over 9 months of age frequently developed dermatitis with hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, parakeratosis, erosion, ulcer and sebaceous gland hyperplasia. The dermatitis was accompanied by infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages and by elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and prostaglandin E2. In addition, Pla2g3-Tg mice had increased lymph aggregates and mucus in the airway, lymphocytic sialadenitis, hepatic extramedullary haemopoiesis, splenomegaly with increased populations of granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages, and increased serum IgG1. Collectively, these observations provide the first demonstration of spontaneous development of inflammation in mice with Tg overexpression of mammalian sPLA2. PMID:19371233

  4. Sarcoptic mange in free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Hiroyoshi; Ogata, Munetsugu

    2005-06-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei infestation was diagnosed in three freshly dead free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. The dogs presented with an alopecic pruritic skin disease, with signs of alopecia on the ears, muzzle, around the eyes, elbow, thigh and the neck, and hyperpigmented and crusted skin lesions, which had a severe malodour. Skin scrapings revealed the presence of the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Histopathology of lesions demonstrated marked acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis and fungal elements, which were subsequently identified as Acremonium sp., Alternaria sp. and an unknown fungus. Mite segments were located mainly in the stratum corneum and also in the stratum granulosum. Tunnels could be observed in the hyperkeratotic stratum corneum. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the tortoise-like Sarcoptes scabiei with four long bristles, suckers and blade-like claws on legs 1 and 2, cuticular spines, prominent body striations and a terminal anus. SEM also revealed an adult female mite digging a tunnel with the head wedged into the very end of the closed burrow. Tunnels filled with eggshells, corneocyte debris and faecal pellets were also observed. PMID:15960631

  5. A Case of IFAP Syndrome with Severe Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Catarina; Gonçalves-Rocha, Miguel; Resende, Cristina; Vieira, Ana Paula; Brito, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The IFAP syndrome is a rare X-linked genetic disorder characterized by the triad of follicular ichthyosis, atrichia, and photophobia. Case Report. A three-month-old Caucasian, male patient was observed with noncicatricial universal alopecia and persistent eczema from birth. He had dystrophic nails, spiky follicular hyperkeratosis, and photophobia which became apparent at the first year of life. Short stature and psychomotor developmental delay were also noticed. Histopathological examination of skin biopsy on left thigh showed epidermis with irregular acanthosis, lamellar orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, and hair follicles fulfilled by parakeratotic hyperkeratosis. The chromosomal study showed a karyotype 46, XY. Total IgE was 374 IU/mL. One missense mutation c.1360G>C (p.Ala454Pro) in hemizygosity was detected on the MBTPS2 gene thus confirming the diagnosis of IFAP syndrome. Conclusions. We describe a boy with a typical clinical presentation of IFAP syndrome and severe atopic manifestations. A novel missense mutation c.1360G>C (p.Ala454Pro) in MBTPS2 gene was observed. The phenotypic expression of disease is quantitatively related to a reduced function of a key cellular regulatory system affecting cholesterol and endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. It can cause epithelial disturbance with failure in differentiation of epidermal structures and abnormal skin permeability barrier. However, no correlation phenotype/genotype could be established. PMID:25685152

  6. Huriez syndrome with superadded dermatophyte infection

    PubMed Central

    Surana, Trupti; Padhiar, Bela; Karia, Umesh; Pandya, Purna

    2016-01-01

    Palmoplantarkeratodermas (PPKs) are a heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders with underlying gene defects, and characterized by hyperkeratosis of palms and soles with or without other ectodermal and systemic abnormalities. Huriez syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant transgradient type of PPK with high frequency of squamous cell carcinoma in the affected skin. We hereby describe a case of a very rare autosomal dominant PPK in a 40-year-old male patient presenting since birth with PPK extending onto the dorsal aspects of hands and feet with peeling of the skin. The complaints were associated with sclerodactyly, hyperhidrosis, and nail abnormalities. Also superadded dermatophyte infection was observed involving abdomen. No history of loss of any digit. No mucosal, dental, or any systemic involvement was present. No sign of malignancy was noted. Baseline investigations, including ultrasonography of abdomen were normal. Histological findings were nonspecific with only orthohyperkeratosis and acanthosis. Diagnosis was mainly done on clinical grounds. The patient is better with oral retinoids and topical emollients and keratolytics along with antifungal treatment for dermatophyte infection. He is under follow up. PMID:27559505

  7. A Rare Case of Plantar Epithelioma Cuniculatum Arising from a Wart

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Rahul; Bhagat, Aditi; Vasudevan, Biju; Sridhar, Jandhyala; Madan, Renu; Ray, Manjusha

    2015-01-01

    A 68-year-old man, a known case of hypertension, coronary artery disease and old cardiovascular accident with right-sided hemiplegia, came with the chief complaints of a large cauliflower like growth with pus discharge on the left heel since 15 years. The patient had sustained a penetrating injury by a thorn on the left heel region few days before the lesion appeared. Dermatological examination revealed a single verrucous lesion measuring 7 × 7 cm on the left heel region associated with discharge of foul smelling cheesy material. There was also a enlarged right inguinal lymph node which was non-tender, firm, measuring 2 cm in diameter with normal overlying skin. X-ray left ankle was done which showed some soft tissue swelling. A skin biopsy showed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis and parakeratosis. Elongated rete ridges with keratinocyte hyperplasia, forming a large mass pressing on the underlying dermis were seen. There was formation of multiple large keratin filled invaginations and crypts. No atypical cells were seen. Based on history, clinical examination and investigations, a diagnosis of epithelium cuniculatum type of verrucous squamous cell carcinoma was made. A wide excision with a flap cover was performed in consultation with the oncosurgeon and the excision sample was sent for histopathological re-examination, which confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioma cuniculatum. PMID:26538697

  8. Lichen planus induced by pegylated interferon alfa-2a therapy in a patient monitored for delta hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Safak; Arslan, Eyup; Baysal, Birol; Baykara, Sule Nergiz; Uzun, Ozlem Ceren; Kaya, Sehmuz

    2015-01-01

    Interferons are used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B. They can induce or exacerbate some skin disorders, such as lichen planus. In this study, as we know, we presented the first case developing lichen planus while receiving interferon treatment due to delta hepatitis. A 31-year-old male patient presented to our outpatient clinic with HBsAg positivity. With his analyses, HBV DNA was negative, anti-delta total was positive, ALT was 72 U/L (upper limit 41 U/L), and platelet was 119 000/mm(3). He was therefore started on subcutaneous pegylated interferon alfa-2a therapy at 180 mcg/week for delta hepatitis. At month 4 of therapy, the patient developed diffuse eroded lace-like lesions in oral mucosa, white plaques on lips, and itchy papular lesions in the hands and feet. Lichen planus was considered by the dermatology clinic and topical treatment (mometasone furoate) was given. The lesions persisted at month 5 of therapy and biopsy samples were obtained from oral mucosal lesions and interferon dose was reduced to 135 mcg/week. Biopsy demonstrated nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium; epithelial acanthosis, spongiosis, and apoptotic bodies were observed in the epidermis and therefore lichen planus was considered. At month 6 of therapy, lesions did not improve and even progressed and interferon treatment was therefore discontinued. PMID:25821612

  9. CD8(+) T cells mediate RAS-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation through IFN-γ.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Andrew J; Mohammed, Javed; Horvath, Frank J; Podolsky, Michael A; Anderson, Cherie R; Glick, Adam B

    2013-04-01

    The RAS signaling pathway is constitutively activated in psoriatic keratinocytes. We expressed activated H-RAS(V12G) in suprabasal keratinocytes of adult mice and observed rapid development of a psoriasis-like skin phenotype characterized by basal keratinocyte hyperproliferation, acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, intraepidermal neutrophil microabscesses, and increased T helper type 1 (Th1)/Th17 and T cell type 1 (Tc1)/Tc17 skin infiltration. The majority of skin-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells coexpressed IFN-γ and IL-17A. When RAS was expressed on a Rag1-/- background, microabscess formation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and keratinocyte hyperproliferation were suppressed. Depletion of CD8(+), but not CD4(+), T cells reduced cutaneous and systemic inflammation, the RAS-induced increase in cutaneous Th17 and IL-17(+) γδ T cells, and epidermal hyperproliferation to levels similar to a Rag1-/- background. Reconstitution of Rag1-/- inducible RAS mice with purified CD8(+) T cells restored microabscess formation and epidermal hyperproliferation. Neutralization of IFN-γ, but not of IL-17A, in CD8(+) T-cell-reconstituted Rag1-/- mice expressing RAS blocked CD8-mediated skin inflammation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and keratinocyte hyperproliferation. These results show that CD8(+) T cells can orchestrate skin inflammation with psoriasis-like pathology in response to constitutive RAS activation in keratinocytes, and this is primarily mediated through IFN-γ. PMID:23151849

  10. A distinctive melanocytic lesion associated with melanoma-prone dysplastic naevus syndrome: the hybrid naevus.

    PubMed

    Schubert, C; Parwaresch, R; Rudolph, P

    2001-02-01

    Clinically and histologically, the concept of dysplastic nevi remains controversial. To elaborate more precise criteria for the nevi of patients with dysplastic naevus syndrome (DNS), we examined 58 nevi from seven DNS patients who developed one or several malignant melanomas. Clinical presentation and histomorphology were evaluated, and immunohistochemistry was performed using proliferation marker Ki-S5 and antibody DO-7 to the p53 protein. Sixty nevi from individuals without history of melanoma served as controls. Of the DNS nevi, 21 (36.2%) exhibited no morphological particularities. The remaining 37 nevi presented distinctive histological features consisting of a slight epidermal acanthosis, spitzoid vertically oriented nests of dyscohesive nevus cells, and single-standing atypical melanocytes in the basal cell layer of the epidermis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an average proliferation index of 2.5%, which significantly surpassed the mean growth fraction of conventional dysplastic nevi (<1%). No increase in p53 expression was observed. Characteristically, active proliferation was found in junctional single-standing melanocytes with or without nuclear atypia rather than in nest-shaped compounds. In conclusion, certain moles of patients with DNS possess distinctive features. The newly characterized criteria may provide a basis for the diagnosis of DNS and might help to identify patients at increased risk for malignant melanoma by examination of a single biopsy. PMID:11253119

  11. High-Fat Diet-Induced IL-17A Exacerbates Psoriasiform Dermatitis in a Mouse Model of Steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, Philippe; Serres, Laura; Jégou, Jean-François; Pohin, Mathilde; Delwail, Adriana; Petit-Paris, Isabelle; Levillain, Pierre; Favot, Laure; Samson, Michel; Yssel, Hans; Morel, Franck; Silvain, Christine; Lecron, Jean-Claude

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that psoriasis may be more severe in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, particularly in those with the inflammatory stage of steatohepatitis [nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]. Herein, we investigated the impact of diet-induced steatohepatitis on the severity of imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis. Mice fed with a high-fat diet developed steatohepatitis reminiscent of human NASH with ballooning hepatocytes and significant liver fibrosis. Mice with steatohepatitis also displayed moderate cutaneous inflammation characterized by erythema, dermal infiltrates of CD45(+) leukocytes, and a local production of IL-17A. Moreover, steatohepatitis was associated with an epidermal activation of caspase-1 and cutaneous overexpression of IL-1β. Imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis was exacerbated in mice with steatohepatitis as compared to animals fed with a standard diet. Scale formation and acanthosis were aggravated, in correlation with increased IL-17A and IL-22 expression in inflamed skins. Finally, intradermal injection of IL-17A in standard diet-fed mice recapitulated the cutaneous pathology of mice with steatohepatitis. The results show that high-fat diet-induced steatohepatitis aggravates the inflammation in psoriasiform dermatitis, via the cutaneous production of IL-17A. In agreement with clinical data, this description of a novel extrahepatic manifestation of NASH should sensitize dermatologists to the screening and the management of fatty liver in psoriatic patients. PMID:27423696

  12. Assessment of dermal exposure and histopathologic changes of different sized nano-silver in healthy adult rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kazem Koohi, Mohammad; Hejazy, Marzie; Asadi, Farzad; Asadian, Peyman

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dermal toxicity (Irritation/Corrosion) of three sizes of nanosilver particles (10, 20 and 30 nm) during 3 min, 1 and 4 hours according to the OECD/OCDE guideline Histopathological effects in secondary organs from liver, kidney, heart, spleen and brain 14 day post dermal administration are also reported. 10 and 20 nm Ag nanoparticles treated group showed well defined dermal erythema and oedema. Histopathological findings of 10 and 20 nm (4 hours exposure) on 14-day post dermal administration showed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, hair-filled follicles and papillomatosis in an irregular epidermis, fibrosis, hyperemia, erythema, intracellular oedema and hyalinisation of collagen in dermis of skin. Liver revealed midzonal and periacinar necrosis, portal mononuclear infiltration, liver fatty change, liver congestion and hyperemic central vein. Splenic red pulp congestion and white pulp hyperreactivity, splenic trabeculae and sinusoidal congestion and hyaline change were found in spleen. Fatty degeneration in some cardiovascular cells and subendocardial hemorrhage without inflammation was perceived. Picnotic appearance of pyramidal neurons in the brain cortex, gliosis and mild perineuronal oedema ischemic cell change and hyperemic meninges was observed in brain. Our research concluded that dermal exposure to lesser sizes of silver nanoparticles is more disastrous than greater ones.

  13. Loss of Matriptase Suppression Underlies Spint1 Mutation-Associated Ichthyosis and Postnatal Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Roman; Kosa, Peter; List, Karin; Bugge, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1 (HAI)-1 is an epithelial Kunitz-type transmembrane serine protease inhibitor that is encoded by the SPINT1 gene. HAI-1 displays potent inhibitory activity toward a large number of trypsin-like serine proteases. HAI-1 was recently shown to play an essential role in postnatal epithelial homeostasis. Thus, Spint1-deficient mice were found to display severe growth retardation and are unable to survive beyond postnatal day 16. The mice present histologically with overt hyperkeratosis of the forestomach, hyperkeratosis and acanthosis of the epidermis, and hypotrichosis associated with abnormal cuticle development. In this study, we show that loss of inhibition of a proteolytic pathway that is dependent on the type II transmembrane serine protease, matriptase, underlies the detrimental effects of postnatal Spint1 deficiency. Matriptase and HAI-1 precisely co-localize in all tissues that are affected by the Spint1 disruption. Spint1-deficient mice that have low matriptase levels, caused by a hypomorphic mutation in the St14 gene that encodes matriptase, not only survived the neonatal period but were healthy and displayed normal long-term survival. Furthermore, a detailed histological analysis of neonatal, young adult, as well as aged mice did not reveal any abnormalities in Spint1-deficent mice that have low matriptase levels. This study identifies matriptase suppression as an essential function of HAI-1 in postnatal tissue homeostasis. PMID:19389929

  14. KNEMIDOKOPTINID (EPIDERMOPTIDAE: KNEMIDOKOPTINAE) MITE INFESTATION IN WILD RED-CROWNED PARAKEETS (CYANORAMPHUS NOVAEZELANDIAE): CORRELATIONS BETWEEN MACROSCOPIC AND MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Bethany; Heath, Allen; Harvey, Cathy; Holyoake, Carly; Jakob-Hoff, Richard; Varsani, Arvind; Robertson, Ian; Warren, Kris

    2015-07-01

    During a study on health and disease in Red-crowned Parakeets (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) on Tiritiri Matangi Island and Little Barrier Island (Hauturu-o-Toi) in New Zealand between 2011 and 2013, an outbreak of feather loss prompted the collection of skin biopsies (n = 135) under anesthesia from the head of captured birds. A subset of samples (n = 7) was frozen to obtain whole specimens for identification of ectoparasites. Mites (range 1-11) were observed in 79/135 (58.5%) skin biopsies, whereas feather loss was only found in 47/142 (33.1%) birds captured during the sampling period. Compact orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and acanthosis were found in association with mites. Procnemidocoptes janssensi (Acari: Epidermoptidae, Knemidokoptinae) was identified from whole mites obtained from skin biopsies. We describe the presence, pathology, and stages of infestation for knemidokoptinid mange in a wild parrot population in New Zealand. Given the clinical and pathologic changes observed and poor knowledge of the parasite's New Zealand host and geographic distribution, further work is recommended for this and sympatric parrots, to understand relationships between the host, parasite, environment, and expression of disease. Results from this study reinforce the value of including biopsy samples for the investigation of skin disease in wild birds, particularly to link etiologic agents with pathologic changes. PMID:25973626

  15. Evidence of disease-related amphibian decline in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin; Corn, Paul Stephen; Pessier, Allan P.; Green, D. Earl

    2003-01-01

    The recent discovery of a pathogenic fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) associated with declines of frogs in the American and Australian tropics, suggests that at least the proximate cause, may be known for many previously unexplained amphibian declines. We have monitored boreal toads in Colorado since 1991 at four sites using capturea??recapture of adults and counts of egg masses to examine the dynamics of this metapopulation. Numbers of male toads declined in 1996 and 1999 with annual survival rate averaging 78% from 1991 to 1994, 45% in 1995 and 3% between 1998 and 1999. Numbers of egg masses also declined. An etiological diagnosis of chytridiomycosis consistent with infections by the genus Batrachochytrium was made in six wild adult toads. Characteristic histomorphological features (i.e. intracellular location, shape of thalli, presence of discharge tubes and rhizoids) of chytrid organisms, and host tissue response (acanthosis and hyperkeratosis) were observed in individual toads. These characteristics were indistinguishable from previously reported mortality events associated with chytrid fungus. We also observed epizootiological features consistent with mortality events associated with chytrid fungus: an increase in the ratio of female:male toads captured, an apparent spread of mortalities within the metapopulation and mortalities restricted to post metamorphic animals. Eleven years of population data suggest that this metapopulation of toads is in danger of extinction, pathological and epizootiological evidence indicates that B. dendrobatidis has played a proximate role in this process

  16. Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia (Heck’s Disease) in a 57-Year-Old Brazilian Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Luciano Alberto; de Castro, Joao Gabriel Leite; da Cruz, Alexandre Duarte Lopes; Barbosa, Bruno Henrique de Sousa; de Spindula-Filho, Jose Vieira; Costa, Mauricio Barcelos

    2016-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck’s disease, is a rare disease of the oral mucosa associated with infection by some subtypes of human papilloma virus, especially subtypes 13 or 32. The disease is predominantly found in children and adolescents with indigenous heritage, but other ethnic groups can be affected worldwide. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, it has not been reported in Brazil’s elderly population. This article describes a case of FEH in a 57-year-old Brazilian patient presenting since childhood, with multiple lesions in the lips, buccal mucosa and tongue. The solitary tongue lesion underwent excisional biopsy and the histopathological analysis showed parakeratosis, acanthosis, rete pegs with a club-shaped appearance, koilocytosis and the presence of mitosoid cells. These microscopic findings in conjunction with clinical presentation were sufficient to establish the accurate diagnosis of FEH. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed, but no one human papillomavirus (HPV) subtype could be identified. Clinicians must be aware of this rare oral disease, which can even affect elderly patients, as we described here. Treatment may be indicated in selected cases due to esthetic and/or functional problems. PMID:26985258

  17. [Semi-malignant pitch-acanthoma on the hand of a coke oven worker].

    PubMed

    Take, N; Kiryu, H

    1989-06-01

    We experienced a case of pitch-acanthoma which had developed on the hand of a coke worker after 15 years from his retirement. The patient was a 75-year-old male, who had worked mainly as a coke-oven worker for 24 years. In the spring of 1988, after 15 years from his retirement, he noticed a small nodule on the dorsal aspect of his right hand. He visited our clinic on June 1988 because the nodule was rapidly growing larger. The diagnosis of pitch-acanthoma was obvious from his occupational history and the characteristic poikilodermatous outlook of his skin. The tumor was removed surgically. Histological examination showed hyperkeratosis and acanthosis with horn-pearl formation. Moreover, a pack of atypical cells was observed within the lesion, suggesting an early malignant change. The patient was heavily exposed to a tar-gas-containing atmosphere in his workplace for quite a long period. As tar or pitch remains within the skin in spite of careful cleansing, workers in this atmosphere have a relatively high risk of developing skin cancer. Our present case shows that such malignant change can occur after long years and we would emphasize the necessity of a long term follow-up, perhaps throughout the lifetime of these workers. PMID:2772436

  18. Buschke-Löwenstein Tumour: Successful Treatment with Minimally Invasive Techniques.

    PubMed

    Correia, Estefânia; Santos, António

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of an 80-year-old female who presented with a four-year history of a growing mass in the perianal area with pain and bleeding during defaecation. Clinical examination revealed a locally destructive, cauliflower-like, verrucous mass measuring 10 × 12 cm in diameter. Histologic findings revealed a moderate degree of dysplasia of the epithelium with koilocytosis atypia, acanthosis, and parakeratosis, features that are consistent with Buschke-Löwenstein tumour. Polymerase-chain-reaction assay for human papillomavirus (HPV) showed an infection with HPV type 11. Full-thickness excision of involved skin was undertaken by cryotherapy and electrocautery over five months. The entire wound was left open to heal by secondary intention. After 3 years of follow-up, the patient has not experienced a recurrence, with excellent functional results, but the cosmetic results were satisfactory. These minimally invasive techniques can be safer and more cost-effective than surgery and the General Practitioner can play a key role in diagnosis. PMID:26417462

  19. Benign cutaneous biphasic hybrid tumor of perineurioma and cellular neurothekeoma: A case report expanding the clinical and histopathologic features of a recently described entity.

    PubMed

    Linos, Konstantinos; Stuart, Lauren; Goncharuk, Victor; Edgar, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Benign cutaneous plexiform hybrid tumor of perineurioma and cellular neurothekeoma (BCPHTPCN) is a recently described entity that presents as a solitary papule in the perioral area. As implied by its name, BCPHTPCN displays microscopic features of both perineurioma and cellular neurothekeoma arranged in a plexiform pattern. We report a case of nonplexiform benign cutaneous biphasic hybrid tumor of perineurioma and cellular neurothekeoma in a 36-year-old woman, who presented with a 4-year history of a firm, flesh-colored left ankle nodule. Histologically, there was a biphasic, well-circumscribed unencapsulated dermal mesenchymal proliferation with no connection to the epidermis, which exhibited mild acanthosis with slightly pigmented basal keratinocytes and overlying parakeratosis. The proliferation consisted of uniform bland spindle cells with bipolar cytoplasmic processes arranged in whorls with interspersed islands of epithelioid cells. Immunohistochemically, the spindle cell component was positive for CD34, EMA, and GLUT-1, consistent with perineurial differentiation, whereas the epithelioid nests were positive for NKI/C3 and MiTF, as expected in neurothekeoma. Stains for S100 protein, SOX10, desmin, claudin, pan-melanoma markers, and NSE were negative. We believe this case expands the histopathologic spectrum of BCPHTPCN showing that it can be grown in a nonplexiform pattern, and we suggest the term benign cutaneous biphasic hybrid tumor of perineurioma and cellular neurothekeoma as a more precise name. It is also, to the best of our knowledge, the first case reported outside the head and neck area. PMID:25229567

  20. Nummular Eczema of Breast: A Potential Dermatologic Complication after Mastectomy and Subsequent Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Iwahira, Yoshiko; Nagasao, Tomohisa; Shimizu, Yusuke; Kuwata, Kumiko; Tanaka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Purposes. The present paper reports clinical cases where nummular eczema developed during the course of breast reconstruction by means of implantation and evaluates the occurrence patterns and ratios of this complication. Methods. 1662 patients undergoing breast reconstruction were reviewed. Patients who developed nummular eczema during the treatment were selected, and a survey was conducted on these patients regarding three items: (1) the stage of the treatment at which nummular eczema developed; (2) time required for the lesion to heal; (3) location of the lesion on the reconstructed breast(s). Furthermore, histopathological examination was conducted to elucidate the etiology of the lesion. Results. 48 patients (2.89%) developed nummular eczema. The timing of onset varied among these patients, with lesions developing after the placement of tissue expanders for 22 patients (45.8%); after the tissue expanders were replaced with silicone implants for 12 patients (25%); and after nipple-areola complex reconstruction for 14 patients (29.2%). Nummular eczema developed both in periwound regions (20 cases: 41.7%) and in nonperiwound regions (32 cases: 66.7%). Histopathological examination showed epidermal acanthosis, psoriasiform patterns, and reduction of sebaceous glands. Conclusions. Surgeons should recognize that nummular eczema is a potential complication of breast reconstruction with tissue expanders and silicone implants. PMID:26380109

  1. Huriez syndrome with superadded dermatophyte infection.

    PubMed

    Surana, Trupti; Padhiar, Bela; Karia, Umesh; Pandya, Purna

    2016-01-01

    Palmoplantarkeratodermas (PPKs) are a heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders with underlying gene defects, and characterized by hyperkeratosis of palms and soles with or without other ectodermal and systemic abnormalities. Huriez syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant transgradient type of PPK with high frequency of squamous cell carcinoma in the affected skin. We hereby describe a case of a very rare autosomal dominant PPK in a 40-year-old male patient presenting since birth with PPK extending onto the dorsal aspects of hands and feet with peeling of the skin. The complaints were associated with sclerodactyly, hyperhidrosis, and nail abnormalities. Also superadded dermatophyte infection was observed involving abdomen. No history of loss of any digit. No mucosal, dental, or any systemic involvement was present. No sign of malignancy was noted. Baseline investigations, including ultrasonography of abdomen were normal. Histological findings were nonspecific with only orthohyperkeratosis and acanthosis. Diagnosis was mainly done on clinical grounds. The patient is better with oral retinoids and topical emollients and keratolytics along with antifungal treatment for dermatophyte infection. He is under follow up. PMID:27559505

  2. Tumorigenic activity of Merkel cell polyomavirus T antigens expressed in the stratified epithelium of mice

    PubMed Central

    Spurgeon, Megan E.; Cheng, Jingwei; Bronson, Roderick T.; Lambert, Paul F.; DeCaprio, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is frequently associated with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a highly aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. Most MCC tumors contain integrated copies of the viral genome with persistent expression of the MCPyV large T (LT) and small T (ST) antigen. MCPyV isolated from MCC typically contain wild type ST but truncated forms of LT that retain the N-terminus but delete the C-terminus and render LT incapable of supporting virus replication. To determine the oncogenic activity of MCC tumor-derived T antigens in vivo, a conditional, tissue-specific mouse model was developed. Keratin 14-mediated Cre recombinase expression induced expression of MCPyV T antigens in stratified squamous epithelial cells and Merkel cells of the skin epidermis. Mice expressing MCPyV T antigens developed hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and acanthosis of the skin with additional abnormalities in whisker pads, footpads and eyes. Nearly half of the mice also developed cutaneous papillomas. Evidence for neoplastic progression within stratified epithelia included increased cellular proliferation, unscheduled DNA synthesis, increased E2F-responsive genes levels, disrupted differentiation, and presence of a DNA damage response. These results indicate that MCPyV T antigens are tumorigenic in vivo, consistent with their suspected etiological role in human cancer. PMID:25596282

  3. Tumorigenic activity of merkel cell polyomavirus T antigens expressed in the stratified epithelium of mice.

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, Megan E; Cheng, Jingwei; Bronson, Roderick T; Lambert, Paul F; DeCaprio, James A

    2015-03-15

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is frequently associated with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a highly aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. Most MCC tumors contain integrated copies of the viral genome with persistent expression of the MCPyV large T (LT) and small T (ST) antigen. MCPyV isolated from MCC typically contains wild-type ST but truncated forms of LT that retain the N-terminus but delete the C-terminus and render LT incapable of supporting virus replication. To determine the oncogenic activity of MCC tumor-derived T antigens in vivo, a conditional, tissue-specific mouse model was developed. Keratin 14-mediated Cre recombinase expression induced expression of MCPyV T antigens in stratified squamous epithelial cells and Merkel cells of the skin epidermis. Mice expressing MCPyV T antigens developed hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and acanthosis of the skin with additional abnormalities in whisker pads, footpads, and eyes. Nearly half of the mice also developed cutaneous papillomas. Evidence for neoplastic progression within stratified epithelia included increased cellular proliferation, unscheduled DNA synthesis, increased E2F-responsive genes levels, disrupted differentiation, and presence of a DNA damage response. These results indicate that MCPyV T antigens are tumorigenic in vivo, consistent with their suspected etiologic role in human cancer. PMID:25596282

  4. Pseudoepitheliomatous changes in a case of vegetating Darier–White disease: a unique histopathological finding.

    PubMed

    Pezzini, Claudia; Vassallo, Camilla; Grasso, Vincenzo; Rivetti, Nicolò; Borroni, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Darier–White disease (DWD) is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis, characterized by constant and typical histopathological findings, such as hyperkeratosis, dyskeratosis with corps ronds and grains and papillary microvilli formation with suprabasal clefting. Despite its nearly constant histopathological presentation, unusual clinical variants are reported, such as the vegetating and cornifying ones. These variants share the same histopathological features of the classic type, except for the striking hyperkeratosis and acanthosis. Here, unreported pseudoepitheliomatous features are described in an elderly male patient with a long history of vegetating and verrucous papules and nodules of DWD, associated with typical nail involvement. These unique histolopathological changes were closely in conjunction with the characteristic microscopic features of DWD. Differential diagnosis with other pseudoepitheliomatous and acantholytic conditions such as reticulated seborrheic keratosis, inverted follicular keratosis, and acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma is also considered. Pseudoepitheliomatous features, in this case of vegetating DWD, could be regarded as a reactive epidermal phenomenon because of different stimuli, i.e. maceration, bacterial superinfection, and chronic scratching. PMID:25238450

  5. Activation of Nrf2 in keratinocytes causes chloracne (MADISH)-like skin disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Matthias; Willrodt, Ann-Helen; Kurinna, Svitlana; Link, Andrea S; Farwanah, Hany; Geusau, Alexandra; Gruber, Florian; Sorg, Olivier; Huebner, Aaron J; Roop, Dennis R; Sandhoff, Konrad; Saurat, Jean-Hilaire; Tschachler, Erwin; Schneider, Marlon R; Langbein, Lutz; Bloch, Wilhelm; Beer, Hans-Dietmar; Werner, Sabine

    2014-04-01

    The transcription factor Nrf2 is a key regulator of the cellular stress response, and pharmacological Nrf2 activation is a promising strategy for skin protection and cancer prevention. We show here that prolonged Nrf2 activation in keratinocytes causes sebaceous gland enlargement and seborrhea in mice due to upregulation of the growth factor epigen, which we identified as a novel Nrf2 target. This was accompanied by thickening and hyperkeratosis of hair follicle infundibula. These abnormalities caused dilatation of infundibula, hair loss, and cyst development upon aging. Upregulation of epigen, secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (Slpi), and small proline-rich protein 2d (Sprr2d) in hair follicles was identified as the likely cause of infundibular acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, and cyst formation. These alterations were highly reminiscent to the phenotype of chloracne/"metabolizing acquired dioxin-induced skin hamartomas" (MADISH) patients. Indeed, SLPI, SPRR2, and epigen were strongly expressed in cysts of MADISH patients and upregulated by dioxin in human keratinocytes in an NRF2-dependent manner. These results identify novel Nrf2 activities in the pilosebaceous unit and point to a role of NRF2 in MADISH pathogenesis. PMID:24503019

  6. Establishment of Two Mouse Models for CEDNIK Syndrome Reveals the Pivotal Role of SNAP29 in Epidermal Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Stina A; Seebode, Christina; Wieser, Georg L; Goebbels, Sandra; Möbius, Wiebke; Horowitz, Mia; Sarig, Ofer; Sprecher, Eli; Emmert, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the synaptosomal-associated protein 29 (SNAP29) gene cause the cerebral dysgenesis, neuropathy, ichthyosis, and keratoderma syndrome. In this study, we created total (Snap29(-/-)) as well as keratinocyte-specific (Snap29(fl/fl)/K14-Cre) Snap29 knockout mice. Both mutant mice exhibited a congenital distinct ichthyotic phenotype resulting in neonatal lethality. Mutant mice revealed acanthosis and hyperkeratosis as well as abnormal keratinocyte differentiation and increased proliferation. In addition, the epidermal barrier was severely impaired. These results indicate an essential role of SNAP29 in epidermal differentiation and barrier formation. Markedly decreased deposition of lamellar body contents in mutant mice epidermis and the observation of malformed lamellar bodies indicate severe impairments in lamellar body function due to the Snap29 knockout. We also found increased microtubule associated protein-1 light chain 3, isoform B-II levels, unchanged p62/SQSTM1 protein amounts, and strong induction of the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker C/EBP homologous protein in mutant mice. This emphasizes a role of SNAP29 in autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Our murine models serve as powerful tools for investigating keratinocyte differentiation processes and provide insights into the essential contribution of SNAP29 to epidermal differentiation. PMID:26747696

  7. Mal de Meleda: A Focused Review.

    PubMed

    Perez, Caroline; Khachemoune, Amor

    2016-02-01

    Mal de Meleda is a rare autosomal recessive palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) disease with an estimated prevalence of 1:100,000. Clinically, the onset of the disease is typically soon after birth and features a transgrediens (plantar surface progressing to dorsal surface) and progrediens (worsening with age) pattern of hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles. The disease can feature other potentially disfiguring effects on the hands and feet that can severely impact function. Histologically, the lesions show hyperkeratosis and acanthosis without epidermolysis in the epidermis, accompanied by perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate in the dermis. Secreted LY6/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR)-related protein-1 (SLURP-1) genetic mutations are implicated in Mal de Meleda. SLURP-1 is involved in mediation of inflammation as well as keratinocyte apoptosis regulation. Because the disease is so rare, there are no set guidelines for management, but the accepted approach tends to include oral acitretin plus topical keratolytic therapy. Genetic counseling should also be offered. This focused review highlights the clinical and histological features, differential diagnoses, genetic background, and the current thoughts on management of Mal de Meleda. PMID:26445964

  8. Elastosis Perforans Serpiginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Si-Hyung; Choi, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    Elastosis perforans serpiginosa is a rare skin disease characterized by transepidermal elimination of abnormal elastic fibers. This condition classically presents as small papules arranged in serpiginous or annular patterns on the neck, face, arms, or other flexural areas. While these lesions may spontaneously resolve, they often persist for longer periods of time. Though numerous treatment modalities have been described in the literature, most are not very effective. A 35-year-old man presented to Gangnam Severance Hospital with a 2-year history of skin eruptions on his neck, which were refractory to topical antifungal or steroid treatment. On examination, the patient showed multiple crusted and erythematous papules arranged in an annular pattern with central clearing. A biopsy specimen revealed acanthosis with notable transepidermal elimination of nuclear debris and eosinophilic degenerated elastic fibers from the dermis via an epidermal channel. Verhoeff-van Gieson staining showed dense clumps of altered elastic fibers in the papillary dermis. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of elastosis perforans serpisinosa was made. Treatment with topical 0.05% tretinoin application for 6 months resulted in no improvement. PMID:24648695

  9. Bovine papillomavirus type 9 induces epithelial papillomas on the teat skin of heifers.

    PubMed

    Hatama, Shinichi; Nishida, Tomoko; Kadota, Koichi; Uchida, Ikuo; Kanno, Toru

    2009-05-12

    Experiments were carried out to investigate whether papillomas could be induced on the teat skin of heifers by intradermal injection with bovine papillomavirus type 9 (BPV-9). Three heifers (#1 and 2, two 0.5-year-old Holsteins; #3, a 1.5-year-old Japanese Black) were injected with BPV-9 and one heifer (#4, a 0.5-year-old Holstein) was mock-infected. Viral DNA load in the inocula was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction assay and adjusted to 1.56x10(12) copies per injection. Papillomas appeared at the injection sites in the BPV-9-injected heifers #1, 2 and 3 and grew over the 8 (#1 and 2) and 4 (#3)mo observation period, respectively. However, no papillomas were found in the mock-infected heifer #4. The experimentally induced papillomas were excised and examined. Histologically, the lesions were characterized by hyperplasia of the epidermis with hyperkeratosis and marked acanthosis and were morphologically similar to naturally occurring lesions. BPV-9 DNA and bovine papillomavirus capsid antigen were abundant in the lesions. Therefore, we conclude that BPV-9 is an etiological agent causing epithelial papillomas on the teat skin of heifers. PMID:19095383

  10. Tannic acid modulates NFκB signaling pathway and skin inflammation in NC/Nga mice through PPARγ expression.

    PubMed

    Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Pitchaimani, Vigneshwaran; Sreedhar, Remya; Afrin, Rejina; Harima, Meilei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Nomoto, Mayumi; Miyashita, Shizuka; Suzuki, Kenji; Nakamura, Masahiko; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2015-12-01

    Polyphenolic compound tannic acid, which is mainly found in grapes and green tea, is a potent antioxidant with anticarcinogenic activities. In this present study, we hypothesized that tannic acid could inhibit nuclear factor (NF)κB signaling and inflammation in atopic dermatitis (AD) NC/Nga mice. We have analyzed the effects of tannic acid on dermatitis severity, histopathology and expression of inflammatory signaling proteins in house dust mite extract induced AD mouse skin. In addition, serum levels of T helper (Th) cytokines (interferon (IFN)γ, interleukin (IL)-4) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Treatment with tannic acid ameliorated the development of AD-like clinical symptoms and effectively inhibited hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, acanthosis, mast cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the AD mouse skin. Serum levels of IFNγ and IL-4 were significantly down-regulated by tannic acid. Furthermore, tannic acid treatment inhibited DfE induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, high mobility group protein (HMG)B1, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, NFκB, cyclooxygenase (COX)2, IL-1β and increased the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, DfE induced skin inflammation might be mediated through NFκB signaling and tannic acid may be a potential therapeutic agent for AD, which may possibly act via induction of PPARγ protein. PMID:26049169

  11. Late onset pityriasis rubra pilaris type IV treated with low-dose acitretin.

    PubMed

    Mota, Fernando; Carvalho, Sandrina; Sanches, Madalena; Selores, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology and great clinical variability. It has been divided into six categories. Types III, IV, and V occur in childhood and are distinguished by their clinical presentation, age of onset, and course. We report a 19-year-old male patient with a 2-week history of pruritic, scaling dermatosis of the hands, feet, elbows, and knees. He had no family history of skin disease. On physical examination, we observed circumscribed, reddish-orange, scaling plaques affecting the elbows and knees and a waxy palmoplantar keratoderma. The skin biopsy showed acanthosis, alternating orthokeratosis, parakeratosis, and follicular plugging suggestive of pityriasis rubra pilaris. The patient started treatment with oral acitretin, 25 mg every other day. The treatment was tolerated well, and after 6 months the lesions had resolved completely. Pityriasis rubra pilaris is a chronic papulosquamous disorder of unknown pathogenesis, characterized by reddish-orange scaly plaques, palmoplantar keratoderma, and keratotic follicular papules. There is still no consensus regarding the treatment, but therapeutic options include systemic retinoids, particularly acitretin in the recommended dose of 0.5 to 0.75 mg/kg/day. In our case, the patient was treated with a low-dose regimen of acitretin, which was effective and well tolerated. PMID:27014774

  12. Impaired hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling with abnormal epidermal differentiation in nackt mice, a cathepsin L-deficient mutation.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Fernando; Starost, Matthew F; Flores, Mónica; Gimenez-Conti, Irma B; Guénet, Jean-Louis; Conti, Claudio J

    2002-08-01

    We previously described an autosomal-recessive mutation named nackt (nkt) exhibiting partial alopecia associated with CD4(+) T-cell deficiency. Also, we recently reported that nkt (now Ctsl(nkt)) comprises a deletion in the cathepsin L (Ctsl) gene. Another recent study reported that Ctsl knockout mice have CD4(+) T-cell deficiency and periodic shedding of hair, which recapitulate the nkt mutation and the old furless (fs) mutation. The current study focuses on the dermatological aspects of the nkt mutation. Careful histological analysis of skin development of homozygous nkt mice revealed a delayed hair follicle morphogenesis and late onset of the first catagen stage. The skin of Ctsl(nkt)/Ctsl(nkt) mice showed mild epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis, severe hyperplasia of the sebaceous glands, and structural alterations of hair follicles. Epidermal differentiation seems to be affected in nkt skin, with overexpression of involucrin and profilaggrin/filaggrin along with focal areas of keratin 6 expression in the interfollicular epidermis. Severe epidermal hyperplasia, acanthosis, orthokeratosis, and hyperkeratosis were only observed in mice maintained in nonpathogen-free environments. The analysis of Rag2-/- Ctsl(nkt)/Ctsl(nkt) double-mutant mice indicates that the skin defect remains under the absence of T and B cells. This animal model provides in vivo evidence that cysteine protease cathepsin L plays a critical role in hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling, as well as epidermal differentiation. PMID:12163394

  13. Impaired Hair Follicle Morphogenesis and Cycling with Abnormal Epidermal Differentiation in nackt Mice, a Cathepsin L-Deficient Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, Fernando; Starost, Matthew F.; Flores, Mónica; Gimenez-Conti, Irma B.; Guénet, Jean-Louis; Conti, Claudio J.

    2002-01-01

    We previously described an autosomal-recessive mutation named nackt (nkt) exhibiting partial alopecia associated with CD4+ T-cell deficiency. Also, we recently reported that nkt (now Ctslnkt) comprises a deletion in the cathepsin L (Ctsl) gene. Another recent study reported that Ctsl knockout mice have CD4+ T-cell deficiency and periodic shedding of hair, which recapitulate the nkt mutation and the old furless (fs) mutation. The current study focuses on the dermatological aspects of the nkt mutation. Careful histological analysis of skin development of homozygous nkt mice revealed a delayed hair follicle morphogenesis and late onset of the first catagen stage. The skin of Ctslnkt/Ctslnkt mice showed mild epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis, severe hyperplasia of the sebaceous glands, and structural alterations of hair follicles. Epidermal differentiation seems to be affected in nkt skin, with overexpression of involucrin and profilaggrin/filaggrin along with focal areas of keratin 6 expression in the interfollicular epidermis. Severe epidermal hyperplasia, acanthosis, orthokeratosis, and hyperkeratosis were only observed in mice maintained in nonpathogen-free environments. The analysis of Rag2−/− Ctslnkt/Ctslnkt double-mutant mice indicates that the skin defect remains under the absence of T and B cells. This animal model provides in vivo evidence that cysteine protease cathepsin L plays a critical role in hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling, as well as epidermal differentiation. PMID:12163394

  14. The panoply of αβT cells in the skin.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Takashi; Kabashima, Kenji; Miyachi, Yoshiki

    2014-10-01

    Skin protects body from continual attack by microbial pathogens and environmental factors. Such barrier function of skin is achieved by multiple components including immune system, which is mainly regulated by lymphocytes. T lymphocytes (T cells) that express T cell receptor (TCR) α and β chains (αβT cells) control the strength and the type of immune response. CD4T cell population consists of helper T (Th) cell-subsets and immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg) cells. Th1 cells produce IFN-γ and protect against intracellular pathogens. Th2 cells produce IL-4 family cytokines and participate in allergic skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis (AD). Th17 cells secrete IL-17, recruit granulocytes to fight against extracellular microorganisms, and play a role in psoriasis and AD. Th22 cells produce IL-22 that activates epithelial cells and mediates acanthosis in psoriasis and AD. On the other hand, Foxp3+ Treg cells attenuate immune responses partly via TGF-β or IL-10. Tissue resident memory T (Trm) cells in the skin-most of which are epidermal CD8T cells-constitute the first line of the defense against repeated infections. CD8 T cells are also engaged in psoriasis, lichen planus, and drug eruptions. Skin harbors innate-like αβT cells such as natural killer T (NKT) cells as well, whose function is not fully revealed. Understanding these αβT cells helps to comprehend skin diseases. PMID:25190363

  15. Percutaneous penetration, melanin activation and toxicity evaluation of a phytotherapic formulation for vitiligo therapeutic.

    PubMed

    Truite, Cecília Valente Rodrigues; Philippsen, Gisele Strieder; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Bento, Antonio Carlos; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to apply photoacoustic spectroscopy for the ex vivo determination of the penetration rate of a phytotherapic formulation for vitiligo therapeutic, with or without salicylic acid as the promoter agent. In addition, the compound toxicity and morphophysiology effects were evaluated for different concentrations of salicylic acid. The experiments were performed as a function of the period of time of treatment in a well-controlled group of rabbits. Toxic effects were not observed with any of the tested products. All formulations containing salicylic acid induced cutaneous reaction which was dose dependent. The histological analysis showed that the use of the medication was associated with an increased comedogenic effect in relation to the control group, regardless of salicylic acid concentration. Inflammatory reactions and acanthosis were observed only in the animals treated with formulations containing higher concentrations of salicylic acid, while none of these effects were detected with the use of the formulation containing 2.5% (wt/vol) of salicylic acid. Photoacoustic depth monitoring showed that both formulations, with or without salicylic acid, propagated through the skin up to the melanocytes region, suggesting that the transport of the active agent may occur through the epithelial structure without the need of using queratinolitic substances, which are known to induce side effects in the animals. PMID:18028229

  16. Extra-palmoplantar lesions associated with palmoplantar pustulosis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T

    2009-11-01

    Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by sterile pustules predominantly involving the palms and soles of middle-aged women. In contrast, regions other than the palms and soles are occasionally affected, manifesting scaly erythemas which resemble psoriasis, and solitary pustules are also seen. Some of these extra-palmoplantar lesions are induced by the Koebner phenomenon or occur after focal infections like tonsillitis. The tenderness and inflammation of the extra-palmoplantar lesions in PPP are milder than in psoriasis. Histological features show mild acanthosis of the epidermis with parakeratosis and mild infiltration of inflammatory cells in the upper dermis. On the other hand, severe pustular lesions are occasionally seen in the palms and soles of the patients with pustular psoriasis. These findings suggest a close relationship between PPP and psoriasis; however, different genetic, environmental, and immunological factors are likely to be involved. Recently, understanding of psoriasis pathophysiology has greatly progressed, and the concept of psoriasis pathogenesis is currently viewed as complicated responses between infiltrating leucocytes and the resident skin, via a number of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and mediators produced in the skin under regulation of cellular immune systems. By contrast, the pathogenesis of PPP has been poorly investigated. This paper reviews findings of the clinicopathophysiology of PPP, making a focus on the extra-palmoplantar lesions. PMID:19453807

  17. Macular amyloidosis complicating macroprolactinoma--a novel clinical association.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Deep; Ahuja, Arvind; Sharma, Lokesh; Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Kulshreshtha, Bindu

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid deposition in the pituitary gland is a rare localised form of amyloidosis, and most commonly reported with prolactinoma. Macular amyloidosis is a rare form of localised cutaneous amyloidosis of obscure aetiology. In contrast to most localised amyloidosis, the precursor protein(s) of both macular amyloidosis and prolactinoma are unknown. A 35-year-old man with chronic headache (six years), blurring of vision (three years), and hyperpigmented macular lesion involving arms, legs, and back (two years) was diagnosed to have hyperprolactinaemia (8927 ng/mL) and secondary adrenal insufficiency. MRI revealed pituitary macroadenoma compressing the optic chiasma, encasing the right carotid artery and extending into the sphenoid sinus. A biopsy of skin from the right upper arm revealed thickened stratum corneum, acanthosis, and deposition of pale eosinophilic material in papillary dermis that gave a rose pink colour under methyl-violet and appeared congophilic with Congo red stain, which under polarised light showed green birefringence, diagnostic of macular amyloidosis. Headache, bitemporal haemianopia, and skin lesion improved following cabergoline therapy. Temporal profile of the disease characterised by symptoms of macroprolactinoma preceding onset of macular amyloidosis with resolution of symptoms of macroprolactinoma, accompanied by reductions in prolactin, and concomitant improvement in macular amyloidosis with cabergoline therapy may suggest some link between macroprolactinoma and macular amyloidosis. This report intends to highlight this novel association of macular amyloidosis and macroprolactinoma. PMID:26662655

  18. Oral hairy leukoplakia which occurred as a presenting sign of acute myeloid leukemia in a child.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Ho; Kim, Su-Han; Seo, Sang-Hee; Jung, Do-Sang; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kwon, Kyung-Sool

    2010-02-01

    Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is caused by the reactivation of a previous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in the epithelium of the tongue. Most lesions are characterized by corrugated whitish patches on the lateral border of the tongue. It is frequently associated with AIDS, but cases in patients with other immunosuppressed states have also been reported. In leukemia patients, OHL is rarely encountered, and appears only after chemotherapy. We report a case of OHL which occurred as a presenting sign of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a previously healthy 15-year-old child. A 15-year-old boy presented with a whitish patch on the left lateral border of the tongue. The biopsy specimen revealed papillomatosis, hyperkeratosis, acanthosis and ballooning degeneration in the stratum spinosum. The patient was EBV seropositive, and PCR analysis of EBV DNA in the lesional tissue was positive. After the diagnosis of OHL in dermatologic department, the patient was referred to pediatrics due to the abnormal peripheral blood smear, and was diagnosed with AML. PMID:20548888

  19. Clinical studies of pigmented lesions in human skin by using a multiphoton tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balu, Mihaela; Kelly, Kristen M.; Zachary, Christopher B.; Harris, Ronald M.; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; König, Karsten; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2013-02-01

    In vivo imaging of pigmented lesions in human skin was performed with a clinical multiphoton microscopy (MPM)-based tomograph (MPTflex, JenLab, Germany). Two-photon excited fluorescence was used for visualizing endogenous fluorophores such as NADH/FAD, keratin, melanin in the epidermal cells and elastin fibers in the dermis. Collagen fibers were imaged by second harmonic generation. Our study involved in vivo imaging of benign melanocytic nevi, atypical nevi and melanoma. The goal of this preliminary study was to identify in vivo the characteristic features and their frequency in pigmented lesions at different stages (benign, atypical and malignant) and to evaluate the ability of in vivo MPM to distinguish atypical nevi from melanoma. Comparison with histopathology was performed for the biopsied lesions. Benign melanocytic nevi were characterized by the presence of nevus cell nests at the epidermal-dermal junction. In atypical nevi, features such as lentiginous hyperplasia, acanthosis and architectural disorder were imaged. Cytological atypia was present in all the melanoma lesions imaged, showing the strongest correlation with malignancy. The MPM images demonstrated very good correlation with corresponding histological images, suggesting that MPM could be a promising tool for in vivo non-invasive pigmented lesion diagnosis, particularly distinguishing atypical nevi from melanoma.

  20. [Truss-induced macular amyloidosis].

    PubMed

    Abels, C; Karrer, S; Landthaler, M; Szeimies, R M

    2001-10-01

    A 80-year-old male presented with a long time history of a localized red-brown macule with superficial lichenification and slight scaling in the right groin. An earlier skin biopsy revealed the presence of amyloid deposits. The patient therefore had a complete internal checkup including a rectal biopsy for exclusion of systemic amyloidosis. However, the laboratory data did not reveal any specific abnormalities including immunoglobulins and Bence-Jones protein. The rectal biopsy was also nonspecific. After skin examination, a rebiopsy was performed at our department showing acanthosis and spongiosis of the epidermis with parakeratosis. A homogenous eosinophilic deposit was present in the upper dermis and stained positive with thioflavine. At the second visit the patient wore a truss for a right inguinal hernia, perfectly matching the area of the skin lesion. Thus, the diagnosis of a localized macular amyloidosis was confirmed very likely due to permanent local friction. The classification of localized cutaneous amyloidoses should include local trauma as a cause to avoid unnecessary and exhausting internal checkups to exclude systemic involvement. PMID:11715396

  1. Buschke-Löwenstein Tumour: Successful Treatment with Minimally Invasive Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Estefânia; Santos, António

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of an 80-year-old female who presented with a four-year history of a growing mass in the perianal area with pain and bleeding during defaecation. Clinical examination revealed a locally destructive, cauliflower-like, verrucous mass measuring 10 × 12 cm in diameter. Histologic findings revealed a moderate degree of dysplasia of the epithelium with koilocytosis atypia, acanthosis, and parakeratosis, features that are consistent with Buschke-Löwenstein tumour. Polymerase-chain-reaction assay for human papillomavirus (HPV) showed an infection with HPV type 11. Full-thickness excision of involved skin was undertaken by cryotherapy and electrocautery over five months. The entire wound was left open to heal by secondary intention. After 3 years of follow-up, the patient has not experienced a recurrence, with excellent functional results, but the cosmetic results were satisfactory. These minimally invasive techniques can be safer and more cost-effective than surgery and the General Practitioner can play a key role in diagnosis. PMID:26417462

  2. HPV16-E7 Expression in skin induces TSLP secretion, type 2 ILC infiltration and atopic dermatitis-like lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bergot, Anne-Sophie; Monnet, Nastasia; Tran, Le Son; Mittal, Deepak; Al-Kouba, Jane; Steptoe, Raymond J.; Grimbaldeston, Michele A.; Frazer, Ian H.; Wells, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common pruritic and inflammatory skin disorder with unknown etiology. Most commonly occurring during early childhood, atopic dermatitis is associated with eczematous lesions and lichenification, in which the epidermis becomes hypertrophied resulting in thickening of the skin. In this study, we report an atopic dermatitis-like pathophysiology results in a murine model following the expression of the high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 oncoprotein E7 in keratinocytes under the Keratin 14 promoter. We show that HPV 16 E7 expression in the skin is associated with skin thickening, acanthosis and light spongiosis. Locally, HPV 16 E7 expressing skin secreted high levels of TSLP and contained increased numbers of ILCs. High levels of circulating IgE were associated with increased susceptibility to skin allergy in a model of cutaneous challenge, and to airway bronchiolar inflammation, enhanced airway goblet cell metaplasia and mucus production in a model of atopic march. Surprisingly, skin pathology occurred independently of T-cells and mast cells. Thus, our findings suggest that the expression of a single HPV oncogene in the skin can drive the onset of atopic dermatitis-like pathology through the induction of TSLP and type 2 ILC infiltration. PMID:25601274

  3. Unravelling the life history of Amazonian fishes through otolith microchemistry.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Theodore W; Stewart, Donald J; Limburg, Karin E; Castello, Leandro

    2016-06-01

    Amazonian fishes employ diverse migratory strategies, but the details of these behaviours remain poorly studied despite numerous environmental threats and heavy commercial exploitation of many species. Otolith microchemistry offers a practical, cost-effective means of studying fish life history in such a system. This study employed a multi-method, multi-elemental approach to elucidate the migrations of five Amazonian fishes: two 'sedentary' species (Arapaima sp. and Plagioscion squamosissimus), one 'floodplain migrant' (Prochilodus nigricans) and two long-distance migratory catfishes (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii and B. filamentosum). The Sr : Ca and Zn : Ca patterns in Arapaima were consistent with its previously observed sedentary life history, whereas Sr : Ca and Mn : Ca indicated that Plagioscion may migrate among multiple, chemically distinct environments during different life-history stages. Mn : Ca was found to be potentially useful as a marker for identifying Prochilodus's transition from its nursery habitats into black water. Sr : Ca and Ba : Ca suggested that B. rousseauxii resided in the Amazon estuary for the first 1.5-2 years of life, shown by the simultaneous increase/decrease of otolith Sr : Ca/Ba : Ca, respectively. Our results further suggested that B. filamentosum did not enter the estuary during its life history. These results introduce what should be a productive line of research desperately needed to better understand the migrations of these unique and imperilled fishes. PMID:27429777

  4. Global Wild Annual Lens Collection: A Potential Resource for Lentil Genetic Base Broadening and Yield Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mohar; Bisht, Ishwari Singh; Kumar, Sandeep; Dutta, Manoranjan; Bansal, Kailash Chander; Karale, Moreshwar; Sarker, Ashutosh; Amri, Ahmad; Kumar, Shiv; Datta, Swapan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Crop wild relatives (CWRs) are invaluable gene sources for various traits of interest, yet these potential resources are themselves increasingly threatened by the impact of climate change as well as other anthropogenic and socio-economic factors. The prime goal of our research was to cover all aspects of wild Lens genetic resource management like species characterization, agro-morphological evaluation, diversity assessment, and development of representative sets for its enhanced utilization in lentil base broadening and yield improvement initiatives. We characterized and evaluated extensively, the global wild annual Lens taxa, originating from twenty seven counties under two agro-climatic conditions of India consecutively for three cropping seasons. Results on various qualitative and quantitative characters including two foliar diseases showed wide variations for almost all yield attributing traits including multiple disease resistance in the wild species, L. nigricans and L. ervoides accessions. The core set developed from the entire Lens taxa had maximum representation from Turkey and Syria, indicating rich diversity in accessions originating from these regions. Diversity analysis also indicated wide geographical variations across genepool as was reflected in the core set. Potential use of core set, as an initial starting material, for genetic base broadening of cultivated lentil was also suggested. PMID:25254552

  5. Carryover effects associated with winter location affect fitness, social status, and population dynamics in a long-distance migrant.

    PubMed

    Sedinger, James S; Schamber, Jason L; Ward, David H; Nicolai, Christopher A; Conant, Bruce

    2011-11-01

    We used observations of individually marked female black brant geese (Branta bernicla nigricans; brant) at three wintering lagoons on the Pacific coast of Baja California-Laguna San Ignacio (LSI), Laguna Ojo de Liebre (LOL), and Bahía San Quintín (BSQ)-and the Tutakoke River breeding colony in Alaska to assess hypotheses about carryover effects on breeding and distribution of individuals among wintering areas. We estimated transition probabilities from wintering locations to breeding and nonbreeding by using multistratum robust-design capture-mark-recapture models. We also examined the effect of breeding on migration to wintering areas to assess the hypothesis that individuals in family groups occupied higher-quality wintering locations. We used 4,538 unique female brant in our analysis of the relationship between winter location and breeding probability. All competitive models of breeding probability contained additive effects of wintering location and the 1997-1998 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event on probability of breeding. Probability of breeding in non-ENSO years was 0.98 ± 0.02, 0.68 ± 0.04, and 0.91 ± 0.11 for females wintering at BSQ, LOL, and LSI, respectively. After the 1997-1998 ENSO event, breeding probability was between 2% (BSQ) and 38% (LOL) lower than in other years. Individuals that bred had the highest probability of migrating the next fall to the wintering area producing the highest probability of breeding. PMID:22030737

  6. Messinian salinity crisis and the origin of freshwater lifestyle in western Mediterranean gobies.

    PubMed

    Penzo, E; Gandolfi, G; Bargelloni, L; Colombo, L; Patarnello, T

    1998-11-01

    The present paper reports on a molecular study based on 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA mitochondrial genes partly sequenced in 13 species of western Mediterranean gobies, three of which are strictly freshwater-dwelling. A total of 867 bp were aligned and used for the phylogenetic reconstruction. Two major lineages were identified, one clustering the sand gobies in a monophyletic clade. Relationships among taxa based on sequence analysis only partly match those based on morphological criteria, suggesting that the latter are somehow insufficient to correctly establish phylogenetic relationships within this family. The results provide evidence for a multiple independent evolution of the freshwater lifestyle in Knipowitschia and Padogobius lineages. On the basis of the present results, it is uncertain whether the freshwater preference within the genus Padogobius originated twice independently in P. nigricans and P. martensii or only once in their common ancestor. Estimation of the ages of the two major lineages of this group of fish with a molecular clock (in combination with the construction of a linearized tree) suggests that they are much older (at least 40 Myr) than previously thought. Thus, there should be no correlation between their diversification and the Miocene-Pliocene geological events, including the so-called Messinian salinity crisis, which occurred about 10 MYA and is believed to have played a role in their evolution. Alternatively, these gobies would have an evolutionary rate at least fourfold faster than those of other vertebrates. PMID:12572610

  7. Heterologous expression and secretion of an antifungal Bacillus subtilis chitosanase (CSNV26) in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kilani-Feki, Olfa; Frikha, Fakher; Zouari, Imen; Jaoua, Samir

    2013-07-01

    The aims of the study were the production improvement, the purification, the characterization and the activity investigation of chitosanase CSNV26 of Bacillus subtilis (V26). The gene csnV26 encoding for this protein was amplified and cloned in the pBAD vector then expressed in Escherichia coli (Top10). The SDS-PAGE and zymogram analysis of the recombinant protein showed that it has two active forms sized 27 and 31 kDa, corresponding to the protein with and without signal peptide. This protein has the particularity of being secreted by Top10-pBAD-csnV26 with a high yield of 6.2 g/l. The HPLC purification of CSNV26 from supernatant confirmed the presence of the two sizes. The investigation of the CSNV26 thermostability showed that the pure protein is highly stable keeping 68 % of its activity after 30-min treatment at 100 °C, contrarily to the protein present within the supernatant of E. coli and B. subtilis (V26). The molecular dynamics study of the predicted structure of protein in both forms showed that the presence of the peptide signal in the form of 31 kDa gave it a remarkable thermal stability. The antifungal activity of CSNV26 was evidenced on Rhizopus nigricans and Rhizopus oryzae. Indeed, it has provoked an alteration and embrittlement of their hyphae with onset of protoplast. PMID:23065029

  8. Temperature and diet effects on omnivorous fish performance: Implications for the latitudinal diversity gradient in herbivorous fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrens, M.D.; Lafferty, K.D.

    2007-01-01

    Herbivorous fishes show a clear latitudinal diversity gradient, making up a larger proportion of the fish species in a community in tropical waters than in temperate waters. One proposed mechanism that could drive this gradient is a physiological constraint due to temperature. One prediction based on this mechanism is that if herbivorous fishes could shift their diet to animal material, they would be better able to grow, survive, and reproduce in cold waters. We tested this prediction on the omnivore Girella nigricans under different temperature and diet regimes using RNA-DNA ratios as an indicator of performance. Fish had increased performance (100%) at low temperatures (12??C) when their diet was supplemented with animal material. In contrast, at higher temperatures (17, 22, and 27??C) fish showed no differences between diets. This indicates that omnivorous fishes could increase their performance at low temperatures by consuming more animal matter. This study supports the hypothesis that a relative increase in the nutritional value of plant material at warmer temperatures could drive the latitudinal diversity gradient in herbivorous fishes. ?? 2007 NRC.

  9. Culicidae (Diptera) selection of humans, chickens and rabbits in three different environments in the province of Chaco, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Marina; Zalazar, Laura; Willener, Juana Alicia; Almeida, Francisco Ludueña; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the selection of humans, chickens and rabbits by Culicidae in three different environments in the province of Chaco, Argentina. Mosquitoes were collected fortnightly using cylindrical metal traps containing animal bait (chickens and rabbits). The mosquitoes were collected between June 2001-May 2002. During the same period and with the same frequency, mosquitoes biting the human operators of the traps were collected during the first 15 min of exposure within different time intervals: from 09:00 am-11:00 am, 01:00 pm-03:00 pm, 05:00 pm-07:00 pm and 09:00 pm-10:00 pm. A total of 19,430 mosquitoes of 49 species belonging to 10 genera were collected. Culex species mainly selected chicken bait and Wyeomyia species selected rabbit bait. Ochlerotatus and Psorophora species were more abundant in rabbit-baited traps. Anopheles triannulatus, Coquillettidia nigricans, Ochlerotatus scapularis, Mansonia titillans and Psorophora albigenu showed a strong attraction for human bait. The Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Culex and Mansonia species were more active between 05:00 pm-09:00 pm, while Ochlerotatus, Psorophora, Haemagogus and Wyeomyia were most active from 09:00 am-07:00 pm. This study provides additional information about the biology and ecology of arbovirus vectors in Chaco. PMID:23903970

  10. Range extension of Myotis midastactus​ (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) to Paraguay

    PubMed Central

    Idárraga, Liu; Wilson, Don Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Myotis midastactus Moratelli and Wilson, 2014 (Vespertilionidae, Myotinae) was described from the Myotis simus Thomas, 1901 complex based on collections from the Bolivian Savannah. New information Four vouchers previously assigned to M. simus from the Alto Chaco in Paraguay (West of the Paraguay River) are reassigned here to M. midastactus. These specimens extend the geographic distribution of M. midastactus 1200 km southward, and constitute the first evidence of the species in the country. Based on other material from the Brazilian Pantanal and Cerrado, Central Paraguay and north-eastern Argentina, we also discuss the identity of simus-like populations south of the Amazon Basin. The status of these populations is still unclear, but the little evidence we have at hand indicates that these populations may represent another taxon—M. guaycuru Proença, 1943; whereas M. simus seems to be restricted to the Amazon basin. This hypothesis is still very speculative and requires further investigation. With the assignment of material from Alto Chaco to M. midastactus, seven species of Myotis are confirmed for Paraguay: M. albescens, M. lavali, M. levis, M. midastactus, M. nigricans, M. riparius, and M. ruber. PMID:26379462

  11. Artisanal fisheries of the Xingu River basin in Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Isaac, V J; Almeida, M C; Cruz, R E A; Nunes, L G

    2015-08-01

    The present study characterises the commercial fisheries of the basin of the Xingu River, a major tributary of the Amazon River, between the towns of Gurupá (at the mouth of the Amazon) and São Félix do Xingu. Between April, 2012, and March, 2014, a total of 23,939 fishing trips were recorded, yielding a total production of 1,484 tons of fish, harvested by almost three thousand fishers. The analysis of the catches emphasizes the small-scale and artisanal nature of the region's fisheries, with emphasis on the contribution of the motorised canoes powered by "long-tail" outboard motors. Larger motorboats operate only at the mouth of the Xingu and on the Amazon. Peacock bass (Cichla spp.), croakers (Plagioscion spp.), pacu (a group containing numerous serrasalmid species), aracu (various anostomids), and curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans) together contributed more than 60% of the total catch. Mean catch per unit effort was 18 kg/fisher-1.day-1, which varied among fishing methods (type of vessel and fishing equipment used), river sections, and time of the year. In most cases, yields varied little between years (2012 and 2013). The technical database provided by this study constitutes an important resource for the regulation of the region's fisheries, as well as for the evaluation of future changes resulting from the construction of the Belo Monte dam on the Xingu River. PMID:26691085

  12. Pranked by Audubon: Constantine S. Rafinesque's description of John James Audubon's imaginary Kentucky mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The North American naturalist Constantine S. Rafinesque spent much of the year 1818 engaged in a solo journey down the Ohio River Valley to explore parts of what was then the western United States. Along the way, he visited a number of fellow naturalists, and he spent more than a week at the Henderson, Kentucky, home of artist and ornithologist John James Audubon. During the succeeding two years, Rafinesque published descriptions of new species that resulted from his expedition, including eleven species of fishes that eventually proved to have been invented by Audubon as a prank on the credulous naturalist. Less well known are a number of “wild rats” described by Rafinesque that include one recognized species (Musculus leucopus) and ten other, imaginary “species” fabricated by Audubon (Gerbillus leonurus, G. megalops, Spalax trivittata, Cricetus fasciatus, Sorex cerulescens, S. melanotis, Musculus nigricans, Lemmus albovittatus, L. talpoides, Sciurus ruber). Rafinesque's unpublished sketches of these animals provide important insight regarding the supposed nature of the animals invented by Audubon and ultimately published by Rafinesque.

  13. Mate loss affects survival but not breeding in black brant geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicolai, Christopher A.; Sedinger, James S.; Ward, David H.; Boyd, W. Sean

    2012-01-01

    For birds maintaining long-term monogamous relationships, mate loss might be expected to reduce fitness, either through reduced survival or reduced future reproductive investment. We used harvest of male brant during regular sport hunting seasons as an experimental removal to examine effects of mate loss on fitness of female black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans; hereafter brant). We used the Barker model in program MARK to examine effects of mate loss on annual survival, reporting rate, and permanent emigration. Survival rates decreased from 0.847 ± 0.004 for females who did not lose their mates to 0.690 ± 0.072 for birds who lost mates. Seber ring reporting rate for females that lost their mates were 2 times higher than those that did not lose mates, 0.12 ± 0.086 and 0.06 ± 0.006, respectively, indicating that mate loss increased vulnerability to harvest and possibly other forms of predation. We found little support for effects of mate loss on fidelity to breeding site and consequently on breeding. Our results indicate substantial fitness costs to females associated with mate loss, but that females who survived and were able to form new pair bonds may have been higher quality than the average female in the population.

  14. Nutritional condition of Pacific Black Brant wintering at the extremes of their range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, D.D.; Barboza, P.S.; Ward, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Endogenous stores of energy allow birds to survive periods of severe weather and food shortage during winter. We documented changes in lipid, protein, moisture, and ash in body tissues of adult female Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) and modeled the energetic costs of wintering. Birds were collected at the extremes of their winter range, in Alaska and Baja California, Mexico. Body lipids decreased over winter for birds in Alaska but increased for those in Baja California. Conversely, body protein increased over winter for Brant in Alaska and remained stable for birds in Baja California. Lipid stores likely fuel migration for Brant wintering in Baja California and ensure winter survival for those in Alaska. Increases in body protein may support earlier reproduction for Brant in Alaska. Predicted energy demands were similar between sites during late winter but avenues of expenditure were different. Birds in Baja California spent more energy on lipid synthesis while those in Alaska incurred higher thermoregulatory costs. Estimated daily intake rates of eelgrass were similar between sites in early winter; however, feeding time was more constrained in Alaska because of high tides and short photoperiods. Despite differences in energetic costs and foraging time, Brant wintering at both sites appeared to be in good condition. We suggest that wintering in Alaska may be more advantageous than long-distance migration if winter survival is similar between sites and constraints on foraging time do not impair body condition. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  15. Changes in abundance and spatial distribution of geese molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska: Interspecific competition or ecological change?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Mallek, E.J.; King, R.J.; Schmutz, J.A.; Bollinger, K.S.; Derksen, D.V.

    2008-01-01

    Goose populations molting in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska have changed in size and distribution over the past 30 years. Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) are relatively stable in numbers but are shifting from large, inland lakes to salt marshes. Concurrently, populations of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) have increased seven fold. Populations of Canada geese (Branta canadensis and/or B. hutchinsii) are stable with little indication of distributional shifts. The lesser snow goose (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) population is proportionally small, but increasing rapidly. Coastline erosion of the Beaufort Sea has altered tundra habitats by allowing saltwater intrusion, which has resulted in shifts in composition of forage plant species. We propose two alternative hypotheses for the observed shift in black brant distribution. Ecological change may have altered optimal foraging habitats for molting birds, or alternatively, interspecific competition between black brant and greater white-fronted geese may be excluding black brant from preferred habitats. Regardless of the causative mechanism, the observed shifts in species distributions are an important consideration for future resource planning. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Mycologic Endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Clemons, Karl V; Shankar, Jata; Stevens, David A

    2016-01-01

    The interactions of fungi and chemical messenger molecules, hormones or pheromones, are addressed in this chapter. These interactions include mammalian fungal pathogens, also plant pathogens, or non-pathogenic fungi, which can result in functional responses in receptor- or non-receptor-mediated fashions. Endogenous ligands in the fungi have been demonstrated to be important for mating in a number of systems. Mammalian hormones have been demonstrated to have stimulatory or inhibitory effects on growth for organisms such as Candida albicans, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhizopus nigricans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Coccidioides, and dermatophytic fungi. A number of fungi have been shown to have specific binding proteins for corticosteroid, estrogen and progesterone that are stereo-specific and high affinity. In some instances, the interactions of a mammalian hormone with the organism, in vivo, affects pathogenesis. Genome expression profiles of C. albicans in the presence of estradiol or progesterone, and S. cerevisiae with progesterone, indicate major up-regulation of various drug resistance pumps, like CDR1, and CDR2, can affect antifungal susceptibility. Azole antifungal interactions occur with fungal hormone binding proteins. Azoles also can block mammalian steroidogenesis. The finding of interactions of mammalian hormones with fungi and subsequent functional responses by the fungi, suggest that hormonal interactions with fungal systems has been conserved throughout evolution and have an important role in fungal pathogenesis, as well as in the overall biology of the organisms. PMID:26589227

  17. Spatial and temporal segregation of spawning habitat by catostomids in the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grabowski, T.B.; Isely, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Spawning aggregations of five species of catostomids were observed on the two mid-channel gravel bars of the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina, in 2004 and 2005 to assess the degree of spatial and temporal overlap in the use of this habitat and determine the habitat preferences leading to segregation. Spawning catostomids showed a considerable amount of temporal overlap in their use of these mid-channel gravel bars. The observed temporal overlap was consistent between 2004 and 2005 and corresponded to temperatures at which species were present. The distribution of catostomids was not uniform at the upstream gravel bar. Carpsuckers Carpiodes sp., spotted sucker Minytrema melanops and robust redhorse Moxostoma robustum both demonstrated some spatial overlap with notchlip redhorse Moxostoma collapsum; however, their overall distributions were different from one another. Northern hogsucker Hypentelium nigricans was present across the gravel bars, apparently as an egg predator. Spawning catostomids segregated based on flow, depth, slope and substratum size. Whether due to limited habitat availability or changes in the timing of reproduction due to altered cues, temporal and spatial overlap occurs between spawning catostomids despite the apparent partitioning of available spawning habitat. It is unclear, however, if this overlap results in excessive mortality in the early life-history stages of these species. Results suggest spatial overlap among catostomid species was minimized due to species spawning in areas within a narrow range of conditions. Intraspecific interactions such as nest site superimposition or disturbance may be a concern. ?? 2007 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Feedback dynamics of grazing lawns: Coupling vegetation change with animal growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, B.T.; Herzog, M.P.; Ruess, R.W.; Sedinger, J.S.; Anthony, R.M.; Babcock, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    We studied the effects of grazing by Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) geese (hereafter Brant) on plant community zonation and gosling growth between 1987 and 2000 at a nesting colony in southwestern Alaska. The preferred forage of Brant, Carex subspathacea, is only found as a grazing lawn. An alternate forage species, C. ramenskii, exists primarily as meadow but also forms grazing lawns when heavily grazed. We mowed plots of ungrazed C. ramenskii meadows to create swards that Brant could select and maintain as grazing lawns. Fecal counts were higher on mowed plots than on control plots in the year after plots were mowed. Both nutritional quality and aboveground biomass of C. ramenskii in mowed plots were similar to that of C. subspathacea grazing lawns. The areal extent of grazing lawns depends in part on the population size of Brant. High Brant populations can increase the areal extent of grazing lawns, which favors the growth of goslings. Grazing lawns increased from 3% to 8% of surface area as the areal extent of C. ramenskii meadows declined between 1991 and 1999. Gosling mass was lower early in this time period due to density dependent effects. As the goose population stabilized, and area of grazing lawns increased, gosling mass increased between 1993 and 1999. Because larger goslings have increased survival, higher probability of breeding, and higher fecundity, herbivore-mediated changes in the distribution grazing lawn extent may result in a numerical increase of the population within the next two decades.

  19. Acoustic communication in two freshwater gobies: the relationship between ambient noise, hearing thresholds and sound spectrum.

    PubMed

    Lugli, M; Yan, H Y; Fine, M L

    2003-04-01

    Two freshwater gobies Padogobius martensii and Gobius nigricans live in shallow (5-70 cm) stony streams, and males of both species produce courtship sounds. A previous study demonstrated high noise levels near waterfalls, a quiet window in the noise around 100 Hz at noisy locations, and extremely short-range propagation of noise and goby signals. To investigate the relationship of this acoustic environment to communication, we determined audiograms for both species and measured parameters of courtship sounds produced in the streams. We also deflated the swimbladder in P. martensii to determine its effect on frequency utilization in sound production and hearing. Both species are maximally sensitive at 100 Hz and produce low-frequency sounds with main energy from 70 to 100-150 Hz. Swimbladder deflation does not affect auditory threshold or dominant frequency of courtship sounds and has no or minor effects on sound amplitude. Therefore, both species utilize frequencies for hearing and sound production that fall within the low-frequency quiet region, and the equivalent relationship between auditory sensitivity and maximum ambient noise levels in both species further suggests that ambient noise shapes hearing sensitivity. PMID:12665991

  20. Acoustic communication in two freshwater gobies: ambient noise and short-range propagation in shallow streams.

    PubMed

    Lugli, M; Fine, M L

    2003-07-01

    Noise is an important theoretical constraint on the evolution of signal form and sensory performance. In order to determine environmental constraints on the communication of two freshwater gobies Padogobius martensii and Gobius nigricans, numerous noise spectra were measured from quiet areas and ones adjacent to waterfalls and rapids in two shallow stony streams. Propagation of goby sounds and waterfall noise was also measured. A quiet window around 100 Hz is present in many noise spectra from noisy locations. The window lies between two noise sources, a low-frequency one attributed to turbulence, and a high-frequency one (200-500 Hz) attributed to bubble noise from water breaking the surface. Ambient noise from a waterfall (frequencies below 1 kHz) attenuates as much as 30 dB between 1 and 2 m, after which values are variable without further attenuation (i.e., buried in the noise floor). Similarly, courtship sounds of P. martensii attenuate as much as 30 dB between 5 and 50 cm. Since gobies are known to court in noisy as well as quiet locations in these streams, their acoustic communication system (sounds and auditory system) must be able to cope with short-range propagation dictated by shallow depths and ambient noise in noisy locations. PMID:12880062

  1. Enzootic Arbovirus Surveillance in Forest Habitat and Phylogenetic Characterization of Novel Isolates of Gamboa Virus in Panama.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Gillian; Loaiza, Jose R; Pongsiri, Montira J; Sanjur, Oris I; Pecor, James E; Auguste, Albert J; Kramer, Laura D

    2016-04-01

    Landscape changes occurring in Panama, a country whose geographic location and climate have historically supported arbovirus transmission, prompted the hypothesis that arbovirus prevalence increases with degradation of tropical forest habitats. Investigations at four variably degraded sites revealed a diverse array of potential mosquito vectors, several of which are known vectors of arbovirus pathogens. Overall, 675 pools consisting of 25,787 mosquitoes and representing 29 species from nine genera (collected at ground and canopy height across all habitats) were screened for cytopathic viruses on Vero cells. We detected four isolates of Gamboa virus (family:Bunyaviridae; genus:Orthobunyavirus) from pools of Aedeomyia squamipennis captured at canopy level in November 2012. Phylogenetic characterization of complete genome sequences shows the new isolates to be closely related to each other with strong evidence of reassortment among the M segment of Panamanian Gamboa isolates and several other viruses of this group. At the site yielding viruses, Soberanía National Park in central Panama, 18 mosquito species were identified, and the predominant taxa included A. squamipennis,Coquillettidia nigricans, and Mansonia titillans. PMID:26834200

  2. Mercury Bioaccumulation Response to Recent Hg Pollution Abatement in an Oceanic Predatory Fish, Blue Marlin, Versus the Response in a Coastal Predatory Species, Bluefish, in the Western North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, R. T.; Cross, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    The consumption of marine fish, especially predatory species high in the food chain, is the major route through which people in developed countries are exposed to mercury. Recent work on a coastal species, bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), determined that the mercury concentration in fish from the U. S. Mid-Atlantic coast decreased 43% from 1972 to 2011. This mercury decline in a coastal marine fish parallels the mercury decline in many freshwater fish in the U.S. and Canada during the same time period. The result heightens interest in determining whether or not there has been any change in mercury concentration in oceanic predatory fish species, that is, fish that are permanent residents of the open ocean, during the past four decades. To answer this question we compared mercury analyses we made in the 1970s on tournament-caught blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) with those we made from 1998 to 2013. This comparison indicates that from the 1970s to 2013 mercury concentration in blue marlin caught in the western North Atlantic Ocean off the U.S. east coast has declined about 45%, a decline that is remarkably similar to the decline reported in coastal bluefish. These results suggest that a large area of the western North Atlantic Ocean is responding to reductions in emissions of mercury in the U.S. and Canada with reduced mercury bioaccumulation in predatory fish.

  3. Characterization of films based on chitosan lactate and its blends with oxidized starch and gelatin.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Dariusz; Kordowska-Wiater, Monika; Nowak, Jakub; Baraniak, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of chitosan lactate (CHL) was tested against bacteria and phytopathogenic fungi. Then, the structural, physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of films based on CHL, oxidized potato starch (OPS), and gelatin (GEL) were investigated. With the exception of Rhizopus nigricans, CHL was effective against the target organisms. Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) were more sensitive to CHL than Gram-negative bacteria (Pectobacterium carotovorum and Escherichia coli). Cryo-SEM images showed total miscibility between the polymers in the blends and the ATR-FTIR spectra revealed that there was an interaction among the polymeric components. Pure CHL films displayed the highest moisture content (25.51%), water vapor permeability (48.78gmmm(-2)d(-1)kPa(-1)), and the lowest tensile and puncture strength (2.00 and 1.45MPa, respectively) among the studied films. CHL50/GEL50 films had lower permeability, higher mechanical strength, and lower elongation compared to CHL50/OPS50 films. Films obtained from CHL and CHL50/GEL50 were completely water-soluble and did not show sorbitol recrystallization. The incorporation of CHL into OPS and GEL films did not affect their transparency and improved UV-blocking capacity. CHL films were the only ones that exhibited antibacterial efficiency. Antifungal activities against Alternaria alternata and Monilinia fructigena were detected for CHL and CHL50/GEL50 films. PMID:25841370

  4. Egg size matching by an intraspecific brood parasite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemons, Patrick R.; Sedinger, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Avian brood parasitism provides an ideal system with which to understand animal recognition and its affect on fitness. This phenomenon of laying eggs in the nests of other individuals has classically been framed from the perspective of interspecific brood parasitism and host recognition of parasitic eggs. Few examples exist of strategies adopted by intraspecific brood parasites to maximize success of parasitic eggs. Intraspecific brood parasitism within precocial birds can be a risky strategy in that hatch synchrony is essential to reproductive success. Given that egg size is positively correlated with incubation time, parasitic birds would benefit by recognizing and selecting hosts with a similar egg size. Intraspecific brood parasitism is an alternative reproductive strategy in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans), a colonial nesting goose with precocial young. Based on a randomization test, parasitic eggs in this study differed less in size from eggs in their host's nests than did random eggs placed in random nests. Parasitic eggs were remarkably similar in size to hosts’ eggs, differing by <2% of volume on average from host eggs, whereas randomly paired eggs in random nests differed by nearly 8%. The precision with which parasitic brant match the egg size of hosts in our study supports our hypothesis that brant match egg size of hosts, thereby maximizing hatching success of their parasitic eggs.

  5. Comparative ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: Implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenkel, V. M.; Huse, G.; MacKenzie, B. R.; Alvarez, P.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Castonguay, M.; Goñi, N.; Grégoire, F.; Hátún, H.; Jansen, T.; Jacobsen, J. A.; Lehodey, P.; Lutcavage, M.; Mariani, P.; Melvin, G. D.; Neilson, J. D.; Nøttestad, L.; Óskarsson, G. J.; Payne, M. R.; Richardson, D. E.; Senina, I.; Speirs, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge on the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish stocks in the North Atlantic basin with emphasis on their role in the food web and the factors determining their relationship with the environment. We consider herring (Clupea harengus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly occur on both sides of the North Atlantic. We also include albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many of these species carry out extensive migrations from spawning grounds to nursery and feeding areas. Large oceanographic features such as the North Atlantic subpolar gyre play an important role in determining spatial distributions and driving variations in stock size. Given the large biomasses of especially the smaller species considered here, these stocks can exert significant top-down pressures on the food web and are important in supporting higher trophic levels. The review reveals commonalities and differences between the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish in the NE and NW Atlantic basins, identifies knowledge gaps and modelling needs that the EURO-BASIN project attempts to address.

  6. Latitudinal variation in population structure of wintering Pacific Black Brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamber, J.L.; Sedinger, J.S.; Ward, D.H.; Hagmeier, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    Latitudinal variation in population structure during the winter has been reported in many migratory birds, but has been documented in few species of waterfowl. Variation in environmental and social conditions at wintering sites can potentially influence the population dynamics of differential migrants. We examined latitudinal variation in sex and age classes of wintering Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). Brant are distributed along a wide latitudinal gradient from Alaska to Mexico during the winter. Accordingly, migration distances for brant using different wintering locations are highly variable and winter settlement patterns are likely associated with a spatially variable food resource. We used resightings of brant banded in southwestern Alaska to examine sex and age ratios of birds wintering at Boundary Bay in British Columbia, and at San Quintin Bay, Ojo de Liebre Lagoon, and San Ignacio Lagoon in Baja California from 1998 to 2000. Sex ratios were similar among wintering locations for adults and were consistent with the mating strategy of geese. The distribution of juveniles varied among wintering areas, with greater proportions of juveniles observed at northern (San Quintin Bay and Ojo de Liebre Lagoon) than at southern (San Ignacio Lagoon) locations in Baja California. We suggest that age-related variation in the winter distribution of Pacific Black Brant is mediated by variation in productivity among individuals at different wintering locations and by social interactions among wintering family groups.

  7. Winter movement dynamics of Black Brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindberg, Mark S.; Ward, David H.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Roser, John

    2007-01-01

    Although North American geese are managed based on their breeding distributions, the dynamics of those breeding populations may be affected by events that occur during the winter. Birth rates of capital breeding geese may be influenced by wintering conditions, mortality may be influenced by timing of migration and wintering distribution, and immigration and emigration among breeding populations may depend on winter movement and timing of pair formation. We examined factors affecting movements of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) among their primary wintering sites in Mexico and southern California, USA, (Mar 1998-Mar 2000) using capture-recapture models. Although brant exhibited high probability (>0.85) of monthly and annual fidelity to the wintering sites we sampled, we observed movements among all wintering sites. Movement probabilities both within and among winters were negatively related to distance between sites. We observed a higher probability both of southward movement between winters (Mar to Dec) and northward movement between months within winters. Between-winter movements were probably most strongly affected by spatial and temporal variation in habitat quality as we saw movement patterns consistent with contrasting environmental conditions (e.g., La Niña and El Niño southern oscillation cycles). Month-to-month movements were related to migration patterns and may also have been affected by differences in habitat conditions among sites. Patterns of winter movements indicate that a network of wintering sites may be necessary for effective conservation of brant.

  8. Diurnal observations on the behavioral ecology of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier) and Muraena miliaris (Kaup) on a Caribbean coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, R. W.; Abrams, M. D.; Schein, M. W.

    1983-09-01

    Activities of muraenids, primarily Gymnothorax moringa and Muraena miliaris, were observed on a Caribbean coral reef with a view to further understanding their role in the reef ecosystem. Other muraenid species included in the total of 198 sightings were Echidna catenata, Enchelycore nigricans, and an unidentified brown moray. The five species were unequally distributed among three basic habitats (sand, coral head, reef rock) available on the reef. Nine particular holes accounted for 52.5% of the total sightings, although hundreds of other seemingly appropriate sites were available. The eels (except M. miliaris) were transient with respect to given holes and particular sections of the reef. While some G. moringa were sighted in the same holes for several consecutive days, M. miliaris individuals remained in the same coral heads throughout the 6-week study period. Muraenids observed in this study showed high tolerances for and were tolerated by other fishes (including other morays) and invertebrates on the reef. They appeared to be opportunistic, roving predators and were not strictly nocturnal. Distinct behavioral interactions and displays between muraenids and reef fish were observed.

  9. Antimycotic effect of fixed oils treated with herbal seeds on the growth of fungi causing otomycosis.

    PubMed

    Jain, S; Agarwal, S C; Malaiya, S

    1993-07-01

    Invitro antimycotic effect of the coconut, mustard, groundnut & soyabeen oils and the seeds of trigonella, ajwoin, mustard and garlic bulbs were mixed in the above oil samples to determine their effect on the spore germination of five pathogenic fungi i.e., Aspergillus niger, A.flavus, Absidia corymbifera, Penicilium nigricans and Candida albicans, isolated from otitic fungal infection of external ear (tympanic membrane) of human beings of different places. Growth of these fungi was completely inhibited by the oil of mustard when mixed seeds of trigonella, ajwoin, mustard and garlic bulbs, while coconut oil with ajwoin seeds was found to be less funitoxic. In addition to these other oils and different plant parts were also found to have fungitoxicity against test pathogens and increase pf 50 - 100 percent inhibition was noted in these cases. Present study indicated the possible role of test oils and different plant parts in control of otomycosis in human being after further experimental in-vivo condition. PMID:22556643

  10. Inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence creates goose habitat along the Arctic coast of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tape, Ken D.; Flint, Paul L.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska is characterized by thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins, and the rate of coastal erosion has increased during the last half-century. Portions of the coast are <1 m above sea level for kilometers inland, and are underlain by ice-rich permafrost. Increased storm surges or terrestrial subsidence would therefore expand the area subject to marine inundation. Since 1976, the distribution of molting Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) on the Arctic Coastal Plain has shifted from inland freshwater lakes to coastal marshes, such as those occupying the Smith River and Garry Creek estuaries. We hypothesized that the movement of geese from inland lakes was caused by an expansion of high quality goose forage in coastal areas. We examined the recent history of vegetation and geomorphological changes in coastal goose habitat by combining analysis of time series imagery between 1948 and 2010 with soil stratigraphy dated using bomb-curve radiocarbon. Time series of vertical imagery and in situ verification showed permafrost thaw and subsidence of polygonal tundra. Soil stratigraphy and dating within coastal estuaries showed that non-saline vegetation communities were buried by multiple sedimentation episodes between 1948 and 1995, accompanying a shift toward salt-tolerant vegetation. This sedimentation allowed high quality goose forage plants to expand, thus facilitating the shift in goose distribution. Declining sea ice and the increasing rate of terrestrial inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence in coastal estuaries of Alaska may portend a 'tipping point' whereby inland areas would be transformed into salt marshes.

  11. Global wild annual Lens collection: a potential resource for lentil genetic base broadening and yield enhancement.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mohar; Bisht, Ishwari Singh; Kumar, Sandeep; Dutta, Manoranjan; Bansal, Kailash Chander; Karale, Moreshwar; Sarker, Ashutosh; Amri, Ahmad; Kumar, Shiv; Datta, Swapan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Crop wild relatives (CWRs) are invaluable gene sources for various traits of interest, yet these potential resources are themselves increasingly threatened by the impact of climate change as well as other anthropogenic and socio-economic factors. The prime goal of our research was to cover all aspects of wild Lens genetic resource management like species characterization, agro-morphological evaluation, diversity assessment, and development of representative sets for its enhanced utilization in lentil base broadening and yield improvement initiatives. We characterized and evaluated extensively, the global wild annual Lens taxa, originating from twenty seven counties under two agro-climatic conditions of India consecutively for three cropping seasons. Results on various qualitative and quantitative characters including two foliar diseases showed wide variations for almost all yield attributing traits including multiple disease resistance in the wild species, L. nigricans and L. ervoides accessions. The core set developed from the entire Lens taxa had maximum representation from Turkey and Syria, indicating rich diversity in accessions originating from these regions. Diversity analysis also indicated wide geographical variations across genepool as was reflected in the core set. Potential use of core set, as an initial starting material, for genetic base broadening of cultivated lentil was also suggested. PMID:25254552

  12. Reef fishes have higher parasite richness at unfished Palmyra Atoll compared to fished Kiritimati Island.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Shaw, Jenny C; Kuris, Armand M

    2008-09-01

    We compared parasite communities at two coral atolls in the Line Islands chain of the central Pacific (Kiritimati Island and Palmyra Atoll). Palmyra Atoll is relatively pristine while Kiritimati Island is heavily fished. At each island, we sampled five fish species for helminth and arthropod endoparasites: Chromis margaritifer, Plectroglyphidodon dickii, Paracirrhites arcatus, Acanthurus nigricans, and Lutjanus bohar. The surveys found monogeneans, digeneans, cestodes, nematodes, acanthocephalans, and copepods. Parasite richness was higher at Palmyra compared to Kiritimati for all five fish species. Fishes from Palmyra also tended to have more parasites species per host, higher parasite prevalence, and higher parasite abundance than did fishes from Kiritimati. The lower parasitism at Kiritimati may result from a simplified food web due to over fishing. Low biodiversity could impair parasite transmission by reducing the availability of hosts required by parasites with complex life cycles. Most notably, the lower abundances of larval shark tapeworms at Kiritimati presumably reflect the fact that fishing has greatly depleted sharks there in comparison to Palmyra. PMID:18846315

  13. Analysis of Fungal Flora in Indoor Dust by Ribosomal DNA Sequence Analysis, Quantitative PCR, and Culture▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Pitkäranta, M.; Meklin, T.; Hyvärinen, A.; Paulin, L.; Auvinen, P.; Nevalainen, A.; Rintala, H.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years increasing attention has been given to the potential health effects of fungal exposure in indoor environments. We used large-scale sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA to describe the mycoflora of two office buildings over the four seasons. DNA sequencing was complemented by cultivation, ergosterol determination, and quantitative PCR analyses. Sequences of 1,339 clones were clustered into 394 nonredundant fungal operational taxonomical units containing sequences from 18 fungal subclasses. The observed flora differed markedly from that recovered by cultivation, the major differences being the near absence of several typical indoor mold genera such as Penicillium and Aspergillus spp. and a high prevalence of basidiomycetes in clone libraries. A total of 55% of the total diversity constituted of unidentifiable ITS sequences, some of which may represent novel fungal species. Dominant species were Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. herbarum, Cryptococcus victoriae, Leptosphaerulina americana and L. chartarum, Aureobasidium pullulans, Thekopsora areolata, Phaeococcomyces nigricans, Macrophoma sp., and several Malassezia species. Seasonal differences were observed for community composition, with ascomycetous molds and basidiomycetous yeasts predominating in the winter and spring and Agaricomycetidae basidiomycetes predominating in the fall. The comparison of methods suggested that the cloning, cultivation, and quantitative PCR methods complemented each other, generating a more comprehensive picture of fungal flora than any of the methods would give alone. The current restrictions of the methods are discussed. PMID:17981947

  14. The Sponge Community of a Subtidal Area with Hydrothermal Vents: Milos Island, Aegean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pansini, M.; Morri, C.; Bianchi, C. N.

    2000-11-01

    Sponges were sampled by SCUBA diving at six subtidal rocky sites, three of which were close to hydrothermal vents, a common feature on the sea-floor off the south-east coast of Milos. Twenty-five species (2 Calcarea and 23 Demospongiae) were found, few compared with the 589 recorded for the Mediterranean, but an important addition to the scant information on the sponge fauna of the Aegean Sea. The number of species found at vent sites was consistently higher than that found at non-vent sites, but no vent-obligate species could be identified. However, Geodia cydonium and three species of Cliona ( C. copiosa, C. nigricans and C. rhodensis) showed a tendency to colonize vent areas. The former might take advantage of increased silica availability, the latter of the enhanced deposition of carbonates near vents. Substratum cover by sponges (estimated from wire-framed photographs of 0·7 m 2), varied greatly both among and within sites, mostly according to slope. Most sponge species preferred vertical to overhanging, shaded substrata. Proximity to vents seemed to have little or no influence on sponge cover, notwithstanding a primary effect on species diversity.

  15. Carryover effects associated with winter location affect fitness, social status, and population dynamics in a long-distance migrant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, James S.; Schamber, Jason L.; Ward, David H.; Nicolai, Christopher A.; Conant, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    We used observations of individually marked female black brant geese (Branta bernicla nigricans; brant) at three wintering lagoons on the Pacific coast of Baja California—Laguna San Ignacio (LSI), Laguna Ojo de Liebre (LOL), and Bahía San Quintín (BSQ)—and the Tutakoke River breeding colony in Alaska to assess hypotheses about carryover effects on breeding and distribution of individuals among wintering areas. We estimated transition probabilities from wintering locations to breeding and nonbreeding by using multistratum robust-design capture-mark-recapture models. We also examined the effect of breeding on migration to wintering areas to assess the hypothesis that individuals in family groups occupied higher-quality wintering locations. We used 4,538 unique female brant in our analysis of the relationship between winter location and breeding probability. All competitive models of breeding probability contained additive effects of wintering location and the 1997–1998 El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event on probability of breeding. Probability of breeding in non-ENSO years was 0.98 ± 0.02, 0.68 ± 0.04, and 0.91 ± 0.11 for females wintering at BSQ, LOL, and LSI, respectively. After the 1997–1998 ENSO event, breeding probability was between 2% (BSQ) and 38% (LOL) lower than in other years. Individuals that bred had the highest probability of migrating the next fall to the wintering area producing the highest probability of breeding.

  16. Fishing top predators indirectly affects condition and reproduction in a reef-fish community.

    PubMed

    Walsh, S M; Hamilton, S L; Ruttenberg, B I; Donovan, M K; Sandin, S A

    2012-03-01

    To examine the indirect effects of fishing on energy allocation in non-target prey species, condition and reproductive potential were measured for five representative species (two-spot red snapper Lutjanus bohar, arc-eye hawkfish Paracirrhites arcatus, blackbar devil Plectroglyphidodon dickii, bicolour chromis Chromis margaritifer and whitecheek surgeonfish Acanthurus nigricans) from three reef-fish communities with different levels of fishing and predator abundance in the northern Line Islands, central Pacific Ocean. Predator abundance differed by five to seven-fold among islands, and despite no clear differences in prey abundance, differences in prey condition and reproductive potential among islands were found. Body condition (mean body mass adjusted for length) was consistently lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the four prey species. Mean liver mass (adjusted for total body mass), an indicator of energy reserves, was also lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the prey species and the predator. Trends in reproductive potential were less clear. Mean gonad mass (adjusted for total body mass) was high where predator abundance was high for only one of the three species in which it was measured. Evidence of consistently low prey body condition and energy reserves in a diverse suite of species at reefs with high predator abundance suggests that fishing may indirectly affect non-target prey-fish populations through changes in predation and predation risk. PMID:22380551

  17. Going to great lengths: selection for long corolla tubes in an extremely specialized bat–flower mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Muchhala, Nathan; Thomson, James D.

    2009-01-01

    In a hypothesis that has remained controversial since its inception, Darwin suggested that long-tubed flowers and long-tongued pollinators evolved together in a coevolutionary race, with each selecting for increasing length in the other. Although the selective pressures that flowers impose on tongue length are relatively straightforward, in that longer tongues allow access to more nectar, selective pressures that pollinators impose on flower length are less clear. Here, we test for such selective pressures in the highly specialized mutualism between the nectar bat Anoura fistulata, which can extend its tongue twice as far as other nectar bats, and Centropogon nigricans, which has flowers of a similar length (8–9 cm). We used flight cage experiments to examine the effects of artificially manipulated flower lengths on (i) bat behaviour and (ii) pollen transfer. Increased length produced longer visits, but did not affect the force bats applied during visits. In the second experiment, flower length increased both the male and female components of flower function: long male flowers delivered more pollen grains and long female flowers received more pollen grains. However, pollen transfer was not correlated with visit duration, so the mechanism behind differences in pollen transfer remains unclear. By demonstrating that bats select for increasing flower length, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that A. fistulata evolved its remarkable tongue in a coevolutionary race with long-tubed flowers similar to that envisioned by Darwin. PMID:19324745

  18. Karyotypic conservatism in five species of Prochilodus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae) disclosed by cytogenetic markers

    PubMed Central

    Voltolin, Tatiana Aparecida; Penitente, Manolo; Mendonça, Bruna Bueno; Senhorini, José Augusto; Foresti, Fausto; Porto-Foresti, Fábio

    2013-01-01

    The family Prochilodontidae is considered a group with well conserved chromosomes characterized by their number, morphology and banding patterns. Thence, our study aimed at accomplishing a cytogenetic analysis with conventional methods (Giemsa staining, silver staining of the nucleolus organizer regions-AgNOR, and C-banding) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S and 5S ribosomal DNA probes in five species of the Prochilodus genus (Prochilodus argenteus, Prochilodus brevis, Prochilodus costatus, Prochilodus lineatus and Prochilodus nigricans) collected from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. The results revealed conservatism in chromosome number, morphology, AgNORs 18S and 5S rDNAs location and constitutive heterochromatin distribution patterns. The minor differences observed in this work, such as an Ag-NOR on a P. argenteus chromosome and a distinct C-banding pattern in P. lineatus, are not sufficient to question the conservatism described for this group. Future work using repetitive DNA sequences as probes for FISH will be interesting to further test the cytogenetic conservatism in Prochilodus. PMID:24130441

  19. Going to great lengths: selection for long corolla tubes in an extremely specialized bat-flower mutualism.

    PubMed

    Muchhala, Nathan; Thomson, James D

    2009-06-22

    In a hypothesis that has remained controversial since its inception, Darwin suggested that long-tubed flowers and long-tongued pollinators evolved together in a coevolutionary race, with each selecting for increasing length in the other. Although the selective pressures that flowers impose on tongue length are relatively straightforward, in that longer tongues allow access to more nectar, selective pressures that pollinators impose on flower length are less clear. Here, we test for such selective pressures in the highly specialized mutualism between the nectar bat Anoura fistulata, which can extend its tongue twice as far as other nectar bats, and Centropogon nigricans, which has flowers of a similar length (8-9 cm). We used flight cage experiments to examine the effects of artificially manipulated flower lengths on (i) bat behaviour and (ii) pollen transfer. Increased length produced longer visits, but did not affect the force bats applied during visits. In the second experiment, flower length increased both the male and female components of flower function: long male flowers delivered more pollen grains and long female flowers received more pollen grains. However, pollen transfer was not correlated with visit duration, so the mechanism behind differences in pollen transfer remains unclear. By demonstrating that bats select for increasing flower length, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that A. fistulata evolved its remarkable tongue in a coevolutionary race with long-tubed flowers similar to that envisioned by Darwin. PMID:19324745

  20. Biogenic amine content, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration of pork in tuna sausage products.

    PubMed

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Chih; Hong, Tang-Yao

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-five tuna sausage products were purchased from retail markets in Taiwan. The rates of occurrence of biogenic amines, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration by pork and poultry were determined. The average content of various biogenic amines in all tested samples was less than 2.0 mg/100 g (<0.05 to 1.85 mg/100 g). Thirteen histamine-producing bacterial strains isolated from tested samples produced 12.1 to 1,261 ppm of histamine in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine. Among them, Raoultella ornithinolytica (one strain), Enterobacter aerogenes (one strain), and Staphylococcus pasteuri (two strains) were identified as prolific histamine formers. PCR assay revealed that the adulteration rates were 80% (20 of 25) and 4% (1 of 25) for pork and poultry, respectively, in tuna sausage. The fish species in the tuna sausage samples were identified as Thunnus albacares for 22 samples (88%), Thunnus alalunga for 1 sample (4%), and Thunnus thynnus for 1 sample (4%), whereas the remaining sample was identified as Makaira nigricans (blue marlin). PMID:23043830

  1. Bioremediation of aflatoxins by some reference fungal strains.

    PubMed

    El-Shiekh, Hussein H; Mahdy, Hesham M; El-Aaser, Mahmoud M

    2007-01-01

    Aspergillus parasiticus RCMB 002001 (2) producing four types of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 was used in this study as an aflatoxin-producer. Penicillium griseofulvum, P. urticae, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Trichoderma viride, Candida utilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as a non-toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus were found to be able to exhibit growth on aflatoxin B1-containing medium up to a concentration of 500 ppb. It was also found that several fungal strains exhibited the growth in co-culture with A. parasiticus, natural aflatoxins producer, and were able to decreased the total aflatoxin concentration, resulting in the highest inhibition percentage of 67.2% by T viride, followed by P. lilacinus, P. griseofulvum, S. cerevisiae, C. utilis, P. urticae, Rhizopus nigricans and Mucor rouxii with total aflatoxin inhibition percentage of 53.9, 52.4, 52, 51.7, 44, 38.2 and 35.4%, respectively. The separation of bioremediation products using GC/MS revealed that the toxins were degraded into furan moieties. PMID:18062656

  2. Demographics of the spawning aggregations of four catostomid species in the Savannah River, South Carolina and Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grabowski, T.B.; Ratterman, N.L.; Isely, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Differences in the life history strategies employed by otherwise ecologically similar species of a fish assemblage may be an important factor in the coexistence of these species and is an essential consideration in the conservation and management of these assemblages. We collected scales to determine age and growth of four species of the catostomid assemblage (northern hogsucker Hypentelium nigricans, spotted sucker Minytrema melanops, notchlip redhorse Moxostoma collapsum and robust redhorse Moxostoma robustum) of the Savannah River, Georgia-South Carolina in spring 2004 and 2005. Robust redhorse was the largest species; reaching sexual maturity at an older age and growing faster as a juvenile than the other species. Spotted sucker did not achieve the same size as robust redhorse, but reached sexual maturity at younger ages. Notchlip redhorse was intermediate between the abovementioned two species in age at maturity and size. Northern hogsucker was the smallest species of the assemblage and reached the sexual maturity at the age of three. Both robust redhorse and spotted sucker were sexually dimorphic in size-at-age. The range of life history strategies employed by Savannah River catostomids encompasses the range of life history strategies exhibited within the family as a whole. ?? 2007 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  3. Diversity of mycorrhizal fungi of terrestrial orchids: compatibility webs, brief encounters, lasting relationships and alien invasions.

    PubMed

    Bonnardeaux, Yumiko; Brundrett, Mark; Batty, Andrew; Dixon, Kingsley; Koch, John; Sivasithamparam, K

    2007-01-01

    The diversity of mycorrhizal fungi associated with an introduced weed-like South African orchid (Disa bracteata) and a disturbance-intolerant, widespread, native West Australian orchid (Pyrorchis nigricans) were compared by molecular identification of the fungi isolated from single pelotons. Molecular identification revealed both orchids were associated with fungi from diverse groups in the Rhizoctonia complex with worldwide distribution. Symbiotic germination assays confirmed the majority of fungi isolated from pelotons were mycorrhizal and a factorial experiment uncovered complex webs of compatibility between six terrestrial orchids and 12 fungi from Australia and South Africa. Two weed-like (disturbance-tolerant rapidly spreading) orchids - D. bracteata and the indigenous Australian Microtis media, had the broadest webs of mycorrhizal fungi. In contrast, other native orchids had relatively small webs of fungi (Diuris magnifica and Thelymitra crinita), or germinated exclusively with their own fungus (Caladenia falcata and Pterostylis sanguinea). Orchids, such as D. bracteata and M. media, which form relationships with diverse webs of fungi, had apparent specificity that decreased with time, as some fungi had brief encounters with orchids that supported protocorm formation but not subsequent seedling growth. The interactions between orchid mycorrhizal fungi and their hosts are discussed. PMID:17289365

  4. Effects of spring environment on nesting phenology and clutch size of Black Brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindberg, M.S.; Sedinger, J.S.; Flint, P.L.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the effects of timing of spring snowmelt on nesting phenology, nest site selection, and clutch size of Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) breeding at the Tutakoke river colony, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. In late springs, brant nested later: however, time between peak arrival at Tutakoke and nest initiation (6 to 12 days) was similar in early and late springs. Nest initiation was more synchronized in late springs than early springs. Height of nests relative to spring meltwater levels was lower in late springs than early springs, indicating that the interval between snowmelt and nest initiation was shorten reduced availability of nest sites and increased nesting synchrony in late years may result in greater competition for available nest sites and reduced site fidelity. Clutch size was greater in late springs than in early springs. This increase in clutch size may result from greater accumulation of endogenous reserves on spring staging areas in late springs, or from demographic changes in the breeding population.

  5. Feeding in billfishes: inferring the role of the rostrum from a biomechanical standpoint.

    PubMed

    Habegger, Maria L; Dean, Mason N; Dunlop, John W C; Mullins, Gray; Stokes, Michael; Huber, Daniel R; Winters, Daniel; Motta, Philip J

    2015-03-01

    Perhaps the most striking feature of billfishes is the extreme elongation of the premaxillary bones forming their rostra. Surprisingly, the exact role of this structure in feeding is still controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the use of the rostrum from a functional, biomechanical and morphological standpoint to ultimately infer its possible role during feeding. Using beam theory, experimental and theoretical loading tests were performed on the rostra from two morphologically different billfish, the blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) and the swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Two loading regimes were applied (dorsoventral and lateral) to simulate possible striking behaviors. Histological samples and material properties of the rostra were obtained along their lengths to further characterize structure and mechanical performance. Intraspecific results show similar stress distributions for most regions of the rostra, suggesting that this structure may be designed to withstand continuous loadings with no particular region of stress concentration. Although material stiffness increased distally, flexural stiffness increased proximally owing to higher second moment of area. The blue marlin rostrum was stiffer and resisted considerably higher loads for both loading planes compared with that of the swordfish. However, when a continuous load along the rostrum was considered, simulating the rostrum swinging through the water, swordfish exhibited lower stress and drag during lateral loading. Our combined results suggest that the swordfish rostrum is suited for lateral swiping to incapacitate their prey, whereas the blue marlin rostrum is better suited to strike prey from a wider variety of directions. PMID:25617457

  6. Mass dynamics of wintering Pacific Black Brant: Body, adipose tissue, organ, and muscle masses vary with location

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, D.D.; Barboza, P.S.; Ward, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    We compared body size and mass of the whole body, organs, adipose tissue, and muscles of adult Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans (Lawrence, 1846)) collected concurrently in Alaska and Baja California during the fall, winter, and spring of 2002-2003. Head and tarsal lengths of males were similar between sites and slightly larger for females in Alaska than in Baja California. Brant appear to operate under similar physiological bounds, but patterns of nutrient allocation differ between sites. Birds wintering in Alaska lost similar amounts of adipose tissue during early winter as birds in Baja California gained during late winter before migration. Masses of the body, adipose tissue, and flight muscles during mid-winter were similar between sites. Seasonal adipose tissue deposition may, therefore, equally favor winter residency or long-distance migration. Gonad and liver masses increased in late winter for birds in Alaska but not for those in Baja California, suggesting birds wintering in Baja may delay reproductive development in favor of allocating reserves needed for migration. Phenotypic flexibility allows Brant to use widely divergent wintering sites. The wintering location of Brant likely depends more upon changes in environmental conditions and food availability, than upon physiological differences between the two wintering populations. ?? 2007 NRC.

  7. Response of fall-staging brant and Canada geese to aircraft overflights in southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, D.H.; Stehn, R.A.; Erickson, W.P.; Derksen, D.V.

    1999-01-01

    Because much of the information concerning disturbance of waterfowl by aircraft is anecdotal, we examined behavioral responses of Pacific brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) and Canada geese (B. canadensis taverneri) to experimental overflights during fall staging at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska. These data were used to develop predictive models of brant and Canada goose response to aircraft altitude, type, noise, and lateral distance from flocks. Overall, 75% of brant flocks and 9% of Canada goose flocks flew in response to overflights. Mean flight and alert responses of both species were greater for rotary-wing than for fixed-wing aircraft and for high-noise than for low-noise aircraft. Increased lateral distance between an aircraft and a flock was the most consistent predictive parameter associated with lower probability of a response by geese. Altitude was a less reliable predictor because of interaction effects with aircraft type and noise. Although mean response of brant and Canada geese generally was inversely proportional to aircraft altitude, greatest response occurred at intermediate (305-760 m) altitudes. At Izembek Lagoon and other areas where there are large concentrations of waterfowl, managers should consider lateral distance from the birds as the primary criterion for establishing local flight restrictions, especially for helicopters.

  8. Annotated check list of the Pyraloidea (Lepidoptera) of America North of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Scholtens, Brian G.; Solis, M. Alma

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An annotated check list of Pyraloidea of North America north of Mexico is presented, including 861 Crambidae and 681 Pyralidae with 1542 total species. It includes all new species described, tropical species with new records in the United States, and species introduced from Europe and Asia since 1983. The Notes section provides the seminal citations, data and/or commentary to all changes since 1983 for easy and future reference. In addition, this list proposes seven new generic combinations, the transfer of a phycitine species, Salebria nigricans (Hulst), to Epipaschiinae and its syn. n. with Pococera fuscolotella (Ragonot), and three new records for the United States. Purposefully, no new taxa are described here, but we found a gradual increase of 10% in the number of species described since 1983. Finally, we also include a list of thirteen species not included or removed from the MONA list. Many higher-level changes have occurred since 1983 and the classification is updated to reflect research over the last 30 years, including exclusion of Thyrididae and Hyblaeidae from the superfamily and recognition of Crambidae and Pyralidae as separate families. The list includes multiple changes to subfamilies based on morphology such as the synonymization of the Dichogamini with the Glaphyriinae, but also incorporating recent molecular phylogenetic results such as the synonymization of the Evergestinae with the Glaphyriinae. PMID:26668552

  9. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of 4-Vinyl-1-cyclohexene Diepoxide (CAS No. 106-87-6) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Dermal Studies).

    PubMed

    1989-11-01

    (males) or 19 (females) mg/mouse and included epidermal and sebaceous gland hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and ulceration. Thirteen-Week Studies: In the 13-week dermal studies, all rats survived to the end of the studies (doses up to 60 mg/rat). The final mean body weights of the 60 mg/rat groups were 9%-14% lower than those of the vehicle controls. Compound-related clinical signs in the 60 mg/rat groups observed during the second half of the studies included redness, scabs, and ulceration at the application site and burrowing behavior after dermal application. Hyperplasia of the sebaceous glands and acanthosis (hyperplasia) and hyperkeratosis of the squamous epithelium were seen at the site of application. In mice, no compound-related deaths occurred after applications of up to 10 mg/mouse in 13-week dermal studies, and final mean body weights of exposed and vehicle control mice were similar. Relative liver and kidney weights increased with dose. Compound-related lesions of the skin included sebaceous gland hyperplasia and acanthosis (hyperplasia) and hyperkeratosis of the stratified squamous epithelium at the site of application; ovarian atrophy was also considered to be compound related. In the 13-week oral studies, the major target organ of toxicity in rats and mice was the forestomach, as indicated by hyperkeratosis and hyperplasia of the stratified squamous epithelium. In female mice, ovarian atrophy was seen in 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene diepoxide-dosed groups. Two-year studies were conducted by administering 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene diepoxide in acetone by dermal application, 5 days per week for 105 weeks to groups of 60 rats of each sex at 0, 15, or 30 mg/animal. Groups of 60 mice of each sex were administered 0, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/animal on the same schedule for 103 weeks. None of the doses selected had produced ulceration of skin in 13-week studies. Ten animals from each group were killed and examined during month 15 for toxicologic evaluation. Immune Function Studies

  10. Zinc-responsive acral hyperkeratotic dermatosis—A novel entity or a subset of some well-known dermatosis?

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arghyaprasun; Aggarwal, Ishad; De, Abhishek; Samanta, Ayan; Chatterjee, Gobinda; Bala, Sanchaita; Biswas, Projna; Chowdhary, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Background: We are reporting a series of interesting cases, which presented to us with psoriasiform lesions distributed over the acral regions of the body. The cases are unusual because they were resistant to conventional treatment modalities like topical corticosteroids, tacrolimus and oral methotrexate but showed significant improvement on oral zinc therapy. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with characteristic clinical features of distinctive hyperkeratotic plaque in the acral areas, who were resistant to treatment by different modalities including potent topical steroids and oral methotrexate, were included for detailed investigations. A proper history was taken and relevant laboratory investigations were done which included blood count, urine, liver function, renal function, hepatitis-C virus serology and serum zinc levels. Patients were followed up every 2 weeks. Histopathological examinations of the lesional tissue were done at baseline and after 6 weeks of therapy. Patients were given oral zinc daily and no other treatment during the 6 weeks course. Results: All our patients were non-reactive to hepatitis-C. Of the ten patients only one patient (10%) showed low titer of serum zinc, another (10%) showed higher zinc level, while the rest of the patients had normal zinc level. Five of our patients had chronic renal failure, one had Grave's disease and the remaining had no associated systemic illness. Histopathology mostly showed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, prominent granular layer, spongiosis and dermal infiltrate. After 6 weeks of follow up, all patients showed rapid and remarkable therapeutic response with zinc. Conclusions: We here report a series of patients, discernible because of their uniform clinical presentation of acral hypekeratotic plaques and in showing a noticeable response to zinc. Clinical, histopathological and laboratory investigations were done to rule out diseases of similar morphology including psoriasis, acral necrolytic erythema and

  11. Pathologic findings in Western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus) from a notoedric mange epidemic in the San Bernardino Mountains, California.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Nicole; Swift, Pam; Villepique, Jeffrey T; Clifford, Deana L; Nyaoke, Akinyi; De la Mora, Alfonso; Moore, Janet; Foley, Janet

    2013-12-01

    Notoedric mange, caused by the contagious, burrowing mite Notoedres centrifera, has been associated with several large-scale population declines of western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus) and has been a significant obstacle to population recovery in Washington State where the species is listed as threatened. In 2009, residents and wildlife rehabilitators in the isolated San Bernardino Mountains of southern California reported a dramatic die-off of western gray squirrels, in what had been a previously dense and robust population. Individuals were observed suffering from abnormal neurologic behaviors (ataxia and obtundation) and severe skin disease. Full necropsy of five squirrels from the epidemic showed that all had moderate to severe infestation with mange mites and severe dermatitis characterized by hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, intralesional mites, intracorneal pustules and superficial bacteria. Mites from affected squirrels were evaluated by light and electron microscopy and identified as N. centrifera based on morphologic criteria. Additionally, the internal transcribed spacer-2 region of the mite was cloned, sequenced and accessioned in GenBank. The cause for the abnormal neurologic behavior was not confirmed on post-mortem examination. However, we hypothesize that mange can cause incoordination and obtundation as a result of malnutrition and dehydration, and intense pruritis may induce abnormal or erratic behavior that could be mistaken for neurologic signs. While we have characterized the severe impact this disease can have on individual animals, more work is needed to understand the impact on squirrel populations, particularly in view of the anecdotal reports of dramatic population declines that may take decades to recover. PMID:24533345

  12. Chronic actinic dermatitis/actinic reticuloid: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 37 cases.

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulos, Michael; Deonizio, Janyana; Martinez-Escala, M Estela; Gerami, Pedram; Guitart, Joan

    2014-11-01

    Chronic actinic dermatitis/actinic reticuloid (CAD/AR) is an eczematous hypersensitivity reaction to ultraviolet rays that can vary from mild eczematous cases to AR, the most severe cases which may resemble cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Diagnosis is based on clinical, histopathologic, and photobiologic features. In this study, we characterize the histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of 40 biopsies from 37 patients with established CAD. The cohort included 30 men and 7 women, ranging in age from 38 to 84 years (median, 62 years) and with a median duration of symptoms at presentation of 3 years (range, 1 to 40 years). All patients presented with erythematous lichenified plaques on sun-exposed areas. Severe cases (12/37) had extension to non-exposed areas. Positive photo-testing (20/20) and patch-testing (10/10) results, and cases with a high peripheral blood eosinophila (7/24) and HIV positivity (4/37) were noted. Skin biopsies demonstrated eczematous features including parakeratosis, acanthosis, spongiosis, and prominent dermal fibroplasia. Dermal dendrocytes were prominent in all cases with frequent multinucleated giant cells positive for factor XIIIa and S100 protein. Most cases displayed a brisk lymphocytic infiltrate with subtle exocytosis, atypical lymphocytes, and increased numbers of Langerhans cells, eosinophils, and plasma cells. There was a predominance of CD8 T cells within the epidermis (20/25) and a low CD4:CD8 ratio was noted in 20 of 25 cases. T-cell clonality studies were negative in 10 of 10 cases. CAD/AR may be difficult to distinguish from eczematous variants of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Important clues to differentiate both conditions include the identification of prominent dermal dendrocytes with multinucleated giant cells, eosinophils, plasma cells, and a low CD4:CD8 ratio. PMID:25238449

  13. Osteopathology in the Equine Distal Phalanx Associated With the Development and Progression of Laminitis.

    PubMed

    Engiles, J B; Galantino-Homer, H L; Boston, R; McDonald, D; Dishowitz, M; Hankenson, K D

    2015-09-01

    Although the equine distal phalanx and hoof lamellae are biomechanically and physiologically integrated, bony changes in the distal phalanx are poorly described in laminitis. The aims of this study were (1) to establish a laminitis grading scheme that can be applied to the wide spectrum of lesions seen in naturally occurring cases and (2) to measure and describe changes in the distal phalanx associated with laminitis using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histology. Thirty-six laminitic and normal feet from 15 performance and nonperformance horses were evaluated. A laminitis grading scheme based on radiographic, gross, histopathologic, and temporal parameters was developed. Laminitis severity grades generated by this scheme correlated well with clinical severity and coincided with decreased distal phalanx bone volume and density as measured by micro-CT. Laminitic hoof wall changes included progressive ventral rotation and distal displacement of the distal phalanx with increased thickness of the stratum internum-corium tissues with lamellar wedge formation. Histologically, there was epidermal lamellar necrosis with basement membrane separation and dysplastic regeneration, including acanthosis and hyperkeratosis, corresponding to the lamellar wedge. The changes detected by micro-CT corresponded to microscopic findings in the bone, including osteoclastic osteolysis of trabecular and osteonal bone with medullary inflammation and fibrosis. Bone changes were identified in horses with mild/early stages of laminitis as well as severe/chronic stages. The authors conclude that distal phalangeal pathology is a quantifiable and significant component of laminitis pathology and may have important implications for early detection or therapeutic intervention of equine laminitis. PMID:26063172

  14. Pathologic findings in Western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus) from a notoedric mange epidemic in the San Bernardino Mountains, California☆

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Nicole; Swift, Pam; Villepique, Jeffrey T.; Clifford, Deana L.; Nyaoke, Akinyi; De la Mora, Alfonso; Moore, Janet; Foley, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Notoedric mange, caused by the contagious, burrowing mite Notoedres centrifera, has been associated with several large-scale population declines of western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus) and has been a significant obstacle to population recovery in Washington State where the species is listed as threatened. In 2009, residents and wildlife rehabilitators in the isolated San Bernardino Mountains of southern California reported a dramatic die-off of western gray squirrels, in what had been a previously dense and robust population. Individuals were observed suffering from abnormal neurologic behaviors (ataxia and obtundation) and severe skin disease. Full necropsy of five squirrels from the epidemic showed that all had moderate to severe infestation with mange mites and severe dermatitis characterized by hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, intralesional mites, intracorneal pustules and superficial bacteria. Mites from affected squirrels were evaluated by light and electron microscopy and identified as N. centrifera based on morphologic criteria. Additionally, the internal transcribed spacer-2 region of the mite was cloned, sequenced and accessioned in GenBank. The cause for the abnormal neurologic behavior was not confirmed on post-mortem examination. However, we hypothesize that mange can cause incoordination and obtundation as a result of malnutrition and dehydration, and intense pruritis may induce abnormal or erratic behavior that could be mistaken for neurologic signs. While we have characterized the severe impact this disease can have on individual animals, more work is needed to understand the impact on squirrel populations, particularly in view of the anecdotal reports of dramatic population declines that may take decades to recover. PMID:24533345

  15. Th17 and regulatory T cells contribute to the in situ immune response in skin lesions of Jorge Lobo's disease.

    PubMed

    Kanashiro-Galo, Luciane; Pagliari, Carla; Barboza, Tania Cristina; de Brito, Arival Cardoso; Xavier, Marilia Brasil; de Oliveira, Clivia Maria Moraes; Unger, Deborah Aben Athar; Sotto, Mirian Nacagami; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simões; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas

    2016-01-01

    Jorge Lobo's disease (JLD) is a chronic granulomatous mycosis described in various Latin American countries. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the possible role of Th17 and Foxp3+ Treg cells in the pathogenesis of Jorge Lobo's disease. Human skin biopsies were submitted to an immunohistochemistry protocol to detect Foxp3, interleukin (IL)-1beta, CD25, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-23. The epidermis presented acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, and frequent presence of fungi. The dermis presented inflammatory infiltrate comprising macrophages, lymphocytes, epithelioid and multinucleated cells, and an intense number of fungi. Foxp3+ Treg cells and IL-17+ cells were visualized in lymphocytes in the inflammatory infiltrate. IL-1, IL-2R (CD25), IL-6, and IL-23 were visualized in the dermis, intermingled with fungal cells, permeating or participating of the granuloma. Following IL-17, the most prominent cytokine was IL-6. IL-23 and cells expressing CD25 were present in fewer number. The comparative analysis between IL-17 and Foxp3 demonstrated a statistically significant increased number of IL-17+ cells. Th17 cells play a role in the immune response of JLD. IL-1beta and IL-6 added to the previously described increased number of TGF-beta would stimulate such pattern of response. Th17 cells could be present as an effort to modulate the local immune response; however, high levels of a Th17 profile could overcome the role of Treg cells. The unbalance between Treg/Th17 cells seems to corroborate with the less effective immune response against the fungus. PMID:26333354

  16. Chemomodulatory Potential of Flaxseed Oil Against DMBA/Croton Oil-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jyoti; Singh, Ritu; Goyal, P K

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of flaxseed oil to prevent chemically induced skin cancer in mice. Cancer was induced on 2-stage skin carcinogenesis model by single topical application of 7,12 dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA), as, initiator, and two weeks later it was promoted by croton oil treatment thrice a week on the dorsal surface of mice for 16 weeks. Flaxseed oil (FSO; 100µL/animal/d) was orally administered 1 week before and 1 week after DMBA application (Peri-initiation stage). The animals of the FSO-administered group showed a significant reduction in tumor incidence (76.67%), cumulative number of tumors (37), tumor yield (3.7), and tumor burden (4.81) when compared with the carcinogen-treated control animals. Biochemical parameters in skin and liver tissue such as LPO and phase I enzymes were significantly (P < .01) reduced in the FSO-treated experimental group, whereas the phase II enzymes (GST, DT-diaphorase) and antioxidant parameters (GSH, GPx, SOD, catalase, and vitamin C) exhibited a significant (P < .01) elevation when compared with the animals of the carcinogen-treated control group. Histopathological alterations in the carcinogen-treated control animals were also observed in the form of epidermal hyperplasia, keratinized pearl formation, and acanthosis in skin and tumors, whereas these were found to be reduced after FSO administration. The results of the present study demonstrate that the oral administration of FSO has the potential to modulate the levels of LPO, antioxidants, and detoxification enzymes in the DMBA-croton oil-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice. PMID:26437861

  17. Transgenic rat model of childhood-onset dermatitis by overexpressing telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT).

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Ryosuke; Sato, Atsuko; Hamada, Shun; Yagi, Takeshi; Ohsawa, Ichiro; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro; Kobayashi, Eiji; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Murakami, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    Childhood-onset dermatitis is one of the most common skin disorders in children. Although various mouse models that mirror aspects of dermatitis have become available, there is still a need for an animal model that develops dermatitis in childhood and is more suitable for performing tissue transplantation experiments. There is emerging evidence that peripheral blood T lymphocytes from patients with dermatitis have significantly increased telomerase activity. Here, we developed telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT)-expressing transgenic (Tg) rats that spontaneously developed eczematous skin inflammation in childhood. Newborn TERT-Tg rats developed visible dermatitis in 56 % of cases, and the skin lesions microscopically showed spongiosis and acanthosis with infiltration of lymphocytes, eosinophils and mast cells. TERT-Tg rats with dermatitis exhibited increased CD4 (2.5-fold) and CD8 (fivefold) T cell numbers compared with dermatitis-free TERT-Tg rats. Stronger TERT activity was observed in the peripheral lymphocytes of dermatitis-positive TERT-Tg rats than those of dermatitis-free TERT-Tg rats. RT-PCR analysis revealed that IL-4 was markedly elevated in the spleen of dermatitis-positive TERT-Tg rats, and that interferon-gamma was increased in the dermatitis lesions. Moreover, skin grafting of TERT-Tg rats with dermatitis onto T cell-deficient nude rats demonstrated that the inflamed skin lesions could not be maintained. Taken together, the results suggest that TERT activation in T lymphocytes is one of the potential predisposing factors for dermatitis. Moreover, our results demonstrated that the TERT-Tg rats mirror aspects of human childhood-onset dermatitis and that these animals represent a potential animal model system for studying childhood-onset dermatitis. PMID:26885830

  18. Histamine induces proliferation in keratinocytes from atopic dermatitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Glatzer, Franziska; Gschwandtner, Maria; Ehling, Sarah; Rossbach, Kristine; Janik, Katrin; Klos, Andreas; Bäumer, Wolfgang; Kietzmann, Manfred; Werfel, Thomas; Gutzmer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidermal hyperproliferation resulting in acanthosis is an important clinical observation in atopic dermatitis and its underlying mechanisms are not completely understood by now. Objective Since elevated levels of histamine are present in lesional skin, we investigated the effect of histamine, especially with regard to H4R activation, on the proliferation of human and murine keratinocytes. Methods The expression of H4R on human and murine keratinocytes was detected by real-time PCR. Keratinocyte proliferation was evaluated by different in vitro cell proliferation assays, scratch assays and measurement of epidermal thickness of murine skin. Results We detected H4R mRNA on foreskin keratinocytes and on outer root sheath keratinocytes; H4R mRNA was more abundant in keratinocytes from patients with atopic dermatitis as compared to non-atopic donors. Stimulation of foreskin keratinocytes, atopic dermatitis outer root sheath keratinocytes and H4R transfected HaCaT cells with histamine and H4R agonist resulted in an increase of proliferation, which was blocked with the H4R-specific antagonist JNJ7777120. Abdominal epidermis of H4R-deficient mice was significantly thinner and the in vitro proliferation of keratinocytes derived from H4R-deficient mice was lower compared to control mice. Interestingly, we only detected H4R expression on murine keratinocytes after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycane. Conclusion The H4R is highly expressed on keratinocytes from atopic dermatitis patients and its stimulation induces keratinocyte proliferation. This might represent a mechanism that contributes to the epidermal hyperplasia observed in atopic dermatitis. PMID:23932072

  19. Psoriatic alopecia/alopecia areata-like reactions secondary to anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy: a novel cause of noncicatricial alopecia.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Leona A; Sperling, Leonard C; Baksh, Shashi; Lackey, Jeffrey; Thomas, Brian; Vleugels, Ruth Ann; Qureshi, Abrar A; Velazquez, Elsa F

    2011-04-01

    With the increasing use of anti-tumor necrosis factor α (anti-TNF) biologic drugs to treat autoimmune diseases, an expanding array of adverse reactions is emerging. Anti-TNF drug-induced alopecia is a less well-known side effect of this class of drugs. The aim of this study was to define the clinical and histopathological features of alopecia arising in the setting of anti-TNF therapy. Clinical and histopathological features of 3 patients who developed scalp alopecia during anti-TNF treatment were examined. Two of the 3 patients also developed psoriasiform lesions outside the scalp, and biopsies from both scalp and nonscalp sites were reviewed. Clinically, each patient had large scaly patches associated with the scalp alopecia. All scalp biopsies revealed psoriasiform epidermal features and alopecia areata-like dermal changes. Epidermal changes included acanthosis and confluent parakeratosis with neutrophils and frank pustules. Dermal changes included markedly increased catagen/telogen and miniaturized hairs and peribulbar lymphocytic inflammation. Numerous plasma cells and eosinophils were present in all cases. Biopsies from the nonscalp lesions showed psoriasiform changes and prominent eosinophils and plasma cells. Two patients showed significant improvement of the alopecia with topical treatment only. In conclusion, anti-TNF therapy-related alopecia may closely mimic psoriatic alopecia and alopecia areata but can be histologically distinguished from alopecia areata by epidermal psoriasiform changes and dermal plasma cells and from primary psoriasis by the presence of plasma cells and eosinophils. A correct diagnosis can enable effective treatment and, in some cases, allow anti-TNF therapy to continue. PMID:21317611

  20. Chronic graft-versus-host disease in the rat radiation chimera: I. clinical features, hematology, histology, and immunopathology in long-term chimeras

    SciTech Connect

    Beschorner, W.E.; Tutschka, P.J.; Santos, G.W.

    1982-04-01

    The clinical features, pathology, and immunopathology of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) developing in the long-term rat radiation chimera are described. At 6 to 12 months post-transplant, the previously stable ACI/LEW chimeras developed patchy to diffuse severe hair loss and thickened skin folds, and had microscopic features resembling scleroderma, Sjogren's syndrome, and chronic hepatitis. Skin histology showed dermal inflammation and acanthosis with atrophy of the appendages, with progression to dermal sclerosis. The liver revealed chronic hepatitis with bile duct injury and proliferation and periportal piecemeal necrosis. The tongue had considerable submucosal inflammation, muscular necrosis, and atrophy and arteritis. The serous salivary glands, lacrimal glands, and bronchi had lymphocytic inflammation and injury to duct, acinar, and mucosal columnar epithelium. The thymus had lymphocyte depletion of the medulla with prominent epithelium. The spleen and lymph nodes had poorly developed germinal centers but increased numbers of plasma cells. IgM was observed along the basement membrane and around the basal cells of the skin and tongue and along the basement membrane of the bile ducts. IgM was present also in the arteries of the tongue. Immunoglobulins eluted from the skin, cross-reacted with the bile duct epithelium and usually with both ACI and Lewis skin. Increased titers of speckled antinuclear antibodies were present in the serum of rats with chronic (GVHD). Chronic GVHD in the long-term rat radiation chimera is very similar to human chronic GVHD and is a potentially excellent model for autoimmune disorders including scleroderma, Sjorgren's syndrome, and chronic hepatitis.

  1. IL-36 promotes myeloid cell infiltration, activation and inflammatory activity in skin

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Alexander M.; Baliwag, Jaymie; Chen, Cynthia S.; Guzman, Andrew M.; Stoll, Stefan W.; Gudjonsson, Johann E.; Ward, Nicole L.; Johnston, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The IL-1 family members IL-36α (IL-1F6), IL-36β (IL-1F8) and IL-36γ (IL-1F9) and the receptor antagonist IL-36Ra (IL-1F5) constitute a novel signaling system that is poorly understood. We now show that these cytokines have profound effects on the skin immune system. Treatment of human keratinocytes with IL-36 cytokines significantly increased the expression of CXCL1, CXCL8, CCL3, CCL5, and CCL20, potent chemotactic agents for activated leukocytes, and IL-36α injected intradermally resulted in chemokine expression, leukocyte infiltration and acanthosis of mouse skin. Blood monocytes, myeloid dendritic cells (DC) and monocyte-derived DC (MO-DC) expressed IL-36R and responded to IL-36. In contrast, no direct effects of IL-36 on resting or activated human CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, or blood neutrophils, could be demonstrated. Monocytes expressed IL-1A, IL-1B and IL-6 mRNA and IL-1β and IL-6 protein and mDC upregulated surface expression of CD83, CD86 and HLADR and secretion of IL-1β and IL-6 after treatment with IL-36. Furthermore, IL-36α-treated MO-DC enhanced allogeneic CD4+ T cell proliferation, demonstrating that IL-36 can stimulate the maturation and function of DC and drive T cell proliferation. These data indicate that IL-36 cytokines actively propagate skin inflammation via the activation of keratinocytes, antigen presenting cells and, indirectly, T cells. PMID:24829417

  2. Abrupt Intralesional Color Change on Dermoscopy as a New Indicator of Early Superficial Spreading Melanoma in a Japanese Woman.

    PubMed

    Sadayasu, Anna; Tanaka, Masaru; Maumi, Yoshifumi; Ikeda, Eriko; Sawada, Mizuki; Ishizaki, Sumiko; Murakami, Yoshiyuki; Fujibayashi, Mariko

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of superficial spreading melanoma in the early stage is often difficult, even with dermoscopy. We report the case of a 37-year-old Japanese woman with superficial spreading melanoma in her left buttock. The lesion developed 20 years before becoming visible and gradually enlarged over the past few years without any symptoms. Physical examination showed a well-demarcated dark-brown macule 10 mm in diameter. Dermoscopy demonstrated a central dark area with a blue-grey structureless area, a milky-red area with irregular blue-grey dots or globules suggestive of regression structures, and multifocal black pigmentation with whitish scaly areas. An abrupt intralesional change in color from a central dark area to a peripheral light-brown area was also seen. The peripheral area showed an atypical pigment network with an obscure mesh and holes. Histopathologic examination of the lesion showed acanthosis with melanocytic proliferation and nuclear atypia, a band-like lymphocytic infiltrate, melanophages and a few nests of melanocytes just beneath the epidermis. The epidermal melanocytes were positive for S-100, Melan-A and HMB-45, but the dermal nests of melanocytes were negative for HMB-45 and positive for S-100 and Melan-A. A diagnosis of superficial spreading melanoma with a tumor thickness of 0.4 mm (pT1aN0M0, stage 1A) was established based on the clinical, dermoscopic and histopathologic findings. This case suggests that dermoscopy is useful in the diagnosis of this condition. An abrupt intralesional change of color might be a new indicator of early superficial spreading melanoma. PMID:26269701

  3. Type 2 diabetes in children: Clinical aspects and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    A strong link between obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome has been reported with development of a new paradigm to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with some evidence suggesting that beta-cell dysfunction is present before the onset of impaired glucose tolerance. Differentiating type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) from T2DM is actually not very easy and there exists a number of overlapping characteristics. The autoantibody frequencies of seven antigens in T1DM patients may turn out to be actually having T2DM patients (pre-T2DM). T2DM patients generally have increased C-peptide levels (may be normal at time of diagnosis), usually no auto-antibodies, strong family history of diabetes, obese and show signs of insulin resistance (hypertension, acanthosis, PCOS). The American Academy of Paediatrics recommends lifestyle modifications ± metformin when blood glucose is 126–200 mg/dL and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) <8.5. Insulin is recommended when blood glucose is >200 mg/dL and HbA1c >8.5, with or without ketosis. Metformin is not recommended if the patient is ketotic, because this increases the risk of lactic acidosis. Metformin is currently the only oral hypoglycemic that has been approved for use in children. Knowing these subtle differences in mechanism, and knowing how to test patients for which mechanism (s) are causing their diabetes mellitus, may help us eventually tailor treatment programs on an individual basis. PMID:25941651

  4. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide (CAS No. 1338-23-4) in Dimethyl Phthalate (CAS No. 131-11-3) (45:55) Administered Topically in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Zeiger, Errol

    1993-02-01

    -related increase in liver weight. In the 13-week dermal studies, groups of 10 rats and 10 mice of each sex were administered MEKP in DMP for 5 days per week at doses of 1.07, 3.57, 10.7, 35.7, and 107 mg/rat and 0.357, 1.19, 3.57, 11.9, and 35.7 mg/mouse. All high-dose mice, 3 high-dose female rats, and 1 female mouse in the 11.9 mg/animal group died or were sacrificed during the first week of the studies. Skin lesions similar to those seen in the 2-week studies were judged of sufficient severity to warrant early termination of surviving rats and mice in the 2 highest dose groups. All rats and mice in the remaining dose groups survived to the end of the studies, and weight gains were generally lower with increasing doses of MEKP. Skin lesions at the application site for the remaining animals (rats and mice) in the 10.7 mg/rat and 3.57 mg/mouse dose groups involved a spectrum of necrosis, inflammation, and acanthosis (epidermal hyperplasia). Lesions in the lower dose groups were limited to acanthosis and hyperkeratosis in rats (1.07 and 3.57 mg/rat) and acanthosis in mice (0.357 and 1.19 mg/mouse). While splenic and bone marrow lesions similar to those described in the 2-week studies were seen in animals that died early in the 13-week studies and in the rats and mice that showed ulcerative or necrotic injury, no other systemic changes were noted in animals that did not show ulcerative skin lesions. In genetic toxicity studies, MEKP in DMP (45:55 w/w) was not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA1535, TA1537, or TA98, with or without S9activation. A positive response was obtained in the mouse lymphoma assay for induction of trifluorothymidine resistance in L5178Y cells without S9. In cytogenetic tests with Chinese hamster ovary cells, MEKP induced sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations, with and without S9. No increase in the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes was observed in peripheral blood samples obtained from male and female mice at the

  5. Characterization of free nitrogen fixing bacteria of the genus Azotobacter in organic vegetable-grown Colombian soils

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Montaña, José Salvador; Martínez, María Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    With the purpose of isolating and characterizing free nitrogen fixing bacteria (FNFB) of the genus Azotobacter, soil samples were collected randomly from different vegetable organic cultures with neutral pH in different zones of Boyacá-Colombia. Isolations were done in selective free nitrogen Ashby-Sucrose agar obtaining a recovery of 40%. Twenty four isolates were evaluated for colony and cellular morphology, pigment production and metabolic activities. Molecular characterization was carried out using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). After digestion of 16S rDNA Y1-Y3 PCR products (1487pb) with AluI, HpaII and RsaI endonucleases, a polymorphism of 16% was obtained. Cluster analysis showed three main groups based on DNA fingerprints. Comparison between ribotypes generated by isolates and in silico restriction of 16S rDNA partial sequences with same restriction enzymes was done with Gen Workbench v.2.2.4 software. Nevertheless, Y1-Y2 PCR products were analysed using BLASTn. Isolate C5T from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown soils presented the same in silico restriction patterns with A. chroococcum (AY353708) and 99% of similarity with the same sequence. Isolate C5CO from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) grown soils showed black pigmentation in Ashby-Benzoate agar and high similarity (91%) with A. nigricans (AB175651) sequence. In this work we demonstrated the utility of molecular techniques and bioinformatics tools as a support to conventional techniques in characterization of the genus Azotobacter from vegetable-grown soils. PMID:24031700

  6. Biomarkers of metals exposure in fish from lead-zinc mining areas of southeastern Missouri, USA.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Christopher J; Whyte, Jeffrey J; Roberts, Aaron P; Annis, Mandy L; May, Thomas W; Tillitt, Donald E

    2007-05-01

    The potential effects of proposed lead-zinc mining in an ecologically sensitive area were assessed by studying a nearby mining district that has been exploited for about 30 y under contemporary environmental regulations and with modern technology. Blood and liver samples representing fish of three species (largescale stoneroller, Campostoma oligolepis, n=91; longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis, n=105; and northern hog sucker, Hypentelium nigricans, n=20) from 16 sites representing a range of conditions relative to mining activities were collected. Samples were analyzed for metals (also reported in a companion paper) and for biomarkers of metals exposure [erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity; concentrations of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), iron, and hemoglobin (Hb) in blood; and hepatic metallothionein (MT) gene expression and lipid peroxidation]. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher and ALA-D activity significantly lower in all species at sites nearest to active lead-zinc mines and in a stream contaminated by historical mining than at reference or downstream sites. ALA-D activity was also negatively correlated with blood lead concentrations in all three species but not with other metals. Iron and Hb concentrations were positively correlated in all three species, but were not correlated with any other metals in blood or liver in any species. MT gene expression was positively correlated with liver zinc concentrations, but neither MT nor lipid peroxidase differences among fish grouped according to lead concentrations were statistically significant. ZPP was not detected by hematofluorometry in most fish, but fish with detectable ZPP were from sites affected by mining. Collectively, these results confirm that metals are released to streams from active lead-zinc mining sites and are accumulated by fish. PMID:17335901

  7. Reconstruction of historic sea ice conditions in a sub-Arctic lagoon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petrich, Chris; Tivy, Adrienne C.; Ward, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Historical sea ice conditions were reconstructed for Izembek Lagoon, Bering Sea, Alaska. This lagoon is a crucial staging area during migration for numerous species of avian migrants and a major eelgrass (Zostera marina) area important to a variety of marine and terrestrial organisms, especially Pacific Flyway black brant geese (Branta bernicla nigricans). Ice cover is a common feature of the lagoon in winter, but appears to be declining, which has implications for eelgrass distribution and abundance, and its use by wildlife. We evaluated ice conditions from a model based on degree days, calibrated to satellite observations, to estimate distribution and long-term trends in ice conditions in Izembek Lagoon. Model results compared favorably with ground observations and 26 years of satellite data, allowing ice conditions to be reconstructed back to 1943. Specifically, periods of significant (limited access to eelgrass areas) and severe (almost complete ice coverage of the lagoon) ice conditions could be identified. The number of days of severe ice within a single season ranged from 0 (e.g., 2001) to ≥ 67 (e.g., 2000). We detected a slight long-term negative trend in ice conditions, superimposed on high inter-annual variability in seasonal aggregate ice conditions. Based on reconstructed ice conditions, the seasonally cumulative number of significant or severe ice days correlated linearly with mean air temperature from January until March. Further, air temperature at Izembek Lagoon was correlated with wind direction, suggesting that ice conditions in Izembek Lagoon were associated with synoptic-scale weather patterns. Methods employed in this analysis may be transferable to other coastal locations in the Arctic.

  8. Classification and Characterization of Species within the Genus Lens Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS)

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Melissa M. L.; Gujaria-Verma, Neha; Ramsay, Larissa; Yuan, Hai Ying; Caron, Carolyn; Diapari, Marwan; Vandenberg, Albert; Bett, Kirstin E.

    2015-01-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris) is a nutritious and affordable pulse with an ancient crop domestication history. The genus Lens consists of seven taxa, however, there are many discrepancies in the taxon and gene pool classification of lentil and its wild relatives. Due to the narrow genetic basis of cultivated lentil, there is a need towards better understanding of the relationships amongst wild germplasm to assist introgression of favourable genes into lentil breeding programs. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) is an easy and affordable method that allows multiplexing of up to 384 samples or more per library to generate genome-wide single nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. In this study, we aimed to characterize our lentil germplasm collection using a two-enzyme GBS approach. We constructed two 96-plex GBS libraries with a total of 60 accessions where some accessions had several samples and each sample was sequenced in two technical replicates. We developed an automated GBS pipeline and detected a total of 266,356 genome-wide SNPs. After filtering low quality and redundant SNPs based on haplotype information, we constructed a maximum-likelihood tree using 5,389 SNPs. The phylogenetic tree grouped the germplasm collection into their respective taxa with strong support. Based on phylogenetic tree and STRUCTURE analysis, we identified four gene pools, namely L. culinaris/L. orientalis/L. tomentosus, L. lamottei/L. odemensis, L. ervoides and L. nigricans which form primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary gene pools, respectively. We discovered sequencing bias problems likely due to DNA quality and observed severe run-to-run variation in the wild lentils. We examined the authenticity of the germplasm collection and identified 17% misclassified samples. Our study demonstrated that GBS is a promising and affordable tool for screening by plant breeders interested in crop wild relatives. PMID:25815480

  9. Antidermatophytic Activity of Mikania micrantha Kunth: An Invasive Weed

    PubMed Central

    Jyothilakshmi, Madhavankutty; Jyothis, Mathew; Latha, Mukalel Sankunni

    2015-01-01

    Context: The incidence of dermatophytosis has risen dramatically in recent years. Limited availability of side-effect free drugs has led to a search for new antidermatophytic agents. Objective: The objective was to investigate antidermatophytic activity and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity (protease inhibition assay) of whole plant (aerial parts only) of Mikania micrantha. Materials and Methods: The dried and powdered aerial parts of M. micrantha were extracted separately with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antidermatophytic activity was determined by agar tube dilution method against Epidermophyton floccosum var. nigricans, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton rubrum. The activities of various parts of the plant – flowers, leaves and stem were separately analyzed using their ethyl acetate extract. Fungicidal efficacy and trypsin inhibiting activity of the whole plant, flowers and leaves were also analyzed using the ethyl acetate extracts. Statistical Analysis Used: For trypsin inhibition assay results are expressed as mean ± standard division. For antidermatophytic assay, the significance of the difference between control and test was analyzed statistically using Fisher's exact test. Results: Ethyl acetate extract of M. micrantha exhibited excellent antidermatophytic activity, followed by petroleum ether and methanolic extracts. Ethyl acetate extracts of whole plant, flowers, leaves and stem completely inhibited the growth of dermatophytes at the tested concentration of 2 mg/mL. Furthermore, ethyl acetate extracts of whole plant, leaves and flowers were fungicidal, and the percentages of trypsin inhibition exhibited were 33.73 ± 0.306, 39.0 ± 0.505 and 35.53 ± 0.503, respectively. Conclusions: Since M. micrantha possesses antidermatophytic as well as anti-inflammatory activities, the plant is an excellent candidate for the development of new medicaments against dermatophytoses in traditional as well as modern medicine

  10. Inhibition of erythrocytes δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in fish from waters affected by lead smelters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Olsen, Bill; Serdar, Dave; Coffey, Mike

    2002-01-01

    We assessed the effects on fish of lead (Pb) released to streamsby smelters located in Trail, BC (Canada), E. Helena, MT, Herculaneum, MO, and Glover, MO. Fish were collected by electrofishing from sites located downstream of smelters and from reference sites. Blood from each fish was analyzed for δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and hemoglobin (Hb), and samples of blood, liver, or carcass were analyzed for Pb, zinc (Zn), or both. Fish collected downstreamof all four smelters sites had elevated Pb concentrations, decreased ALAD activity, or both relative to their respectivereference sites. At E. Helena, fish from the downstream site also had lower Hb concentrations than fish from upstream. Differences among taxa were also apparent. Consistent with previous studies, ALAD activity in catostomids (Pisces: Catostomidae-northern hog sucker,Hypentelium nigricans;river carpsucker, Carpiodes carpio; largescale sucker, Catostomus macrocheilus; and mountain sucker, C. platyrhynchus) seemed more sensitive to Pb-induced ALADinhibition than the salmonids (Pisces: Salmonidae-rainbow trout,Oncorhynchus mykiss; brook trout,Salvelinus fontinalis) or common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Some of these differences may have resulted from differential accumulation of Zn, which was not measured at all sites. We detected noALAD activity in channel catfish (Ictaluruspunctatus) from either site on the Mississippi River at Herculaneum, MO. Our findings confirmed that Pb is releasedto aquatic ecosystems by smelters and accumulated by fish, andwe documented potentially adverse effects of Pb in fish. We recommend that Zn be measured along with Pb when ALAD activityis used as a biomarker and the collection of at least 10 fish ofa species at each site to facilitate statistical analysis.

  11. Unravelling the life history of Amazonian fishes through otolith microchemistry

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Theodore W.; Stewart, Donald J.; Limburg, Karin E.; Castello, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Amazonian fishes employ diverse migratory strategies, but the details of these behaviours remain poorly studied despite numerous environmental threats and heavy commercial exploitation of many species. Otolith microchemistry offers a practical, cost-effective means of studying fish life history in such a system. This study employed a multi-method, multi-elemental approach to elucidate the migrations of five Amazonian fishes: two ‘sedentary’ species (Arapaima sp. and Plagioscion squamosissimus), one ‘floodplain migrant’ (Prochilodus nigricans) and two long-distance migratory catfishes (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii and B. filamentosum). The Sr : Ca and Zn : Ca patterns in Arapaima were consistent with its previously observed sedentary life history, whereas Sr : Ca and Mn : Ca indicated that Plagioscion may migrate among multiple, chemically distinct environments during different life-history stages. Mn : Ca was found to be potentially useful as a marker for identifying Prochilodus's transition from its nursery habitats into black water. Sr : Ca and Ba : Ca suggested that B. rousseauxii resided in the Amazon estuary for the first 1.5–2 years of life, shown by the simultaneous increase/decrease of otolith Sr : Ca/Ba : Ca, respectively. Our results further suggested that B. filamentosum did not enter the estuary during its life history. These results introduce what should be a productive line of research desperately needed to better understand the migrations of these unique and imperilled fishes. PMID:27429777

  12. Quantification of diagenetic overprint processes deduced from fossil carbonate shells and laboratory-based hydrothermal alteration experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesshaber, Erika; Casella, Laura; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Dietzel, Martin; Immenhauser, Adrian; Schmahl, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Benthic and nektonic marine biogenic carbonate archives represent the foundation of numerous studies aiming at reconstructions of past climate dynamics and environmental change. However, living organisms are not in thermodynamic equilibrium and create local chemical environments where physiologic processes such as biomineralization takes place. After the death of the organism the former physiologic disequilibrium conditions are not sustained any more and all biological tissues are altered by equilibration according to the surrounding environment: diagenesis. With increasing diagenetic alteration, the biogenic structure and fingerprint fades away and is replaced by inorganic features. Thus, recrystallization of organism-specific microstructure is a clear indicator for diagenetic overprint. Microstructural data, which mirror recrystallization, are of great value for interpreting geochemical proxies for paleo-environment reconstruction. Despite more than a century of research dealing with carbonate diagenesis, many of the controlling processes and factors are only understood in a qualitative manner. One of the main issues is that diagenetically altered carbonates are usually present as the product of a complex preceding diagenetic pathway with an unknown number of intermediate steps. In this contribution we present and discuss laboratory based alteration experiments with the aim to investigate time-series data sets in a controlled manner. We conducted hydrothermal alteration experiments with modern Arctica islandica (bivalvia) and Notosaria nigricans (brachiopoda) in order to mimic diagenetic overprint. We explore first the potential of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) measurements together with statistical data evaluation as a tool to quantify diagenetic alteration of carbonate skeletons. Subsequently, we compare microstructural patterns obtained from experimentally altered shell material with those of fossil specimens that have undergone variable degrees of

  13. Damselfish territories as a refuge for macroalgae on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoey, A. S.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2010-03-01

    Herbivory is widely accepted as a key process determining the benthic community structure and resilience of coral reefs. Recent studies have mostly focused on the importance of roving herbivorous fishes in ecosystem processes. Here, we examine the role of territorial damselfish in shaping patterns of macroalgal distribution based on benthic surveys and macroalgal bioassays. The territory composition and effect of resident damselfish on the removal of Sargassum bioassays were quantified for six species of damselfish on Lizard Island, a mid-shelf reef in the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The functional composition of algal communities within territories varied markedly among species. The territories of four species ( Dischistodus perspicillatus, Dischistodus pseudochrysopoecilus, Plectroglyphidodon lacrymatus, and Stegastes nigricans) were characterized by algal turfs, while the territories of two species ( Dischistodus prosopotaenia and Hemiglyphidodon plagiometopon) were characterized by foliose and leathery brown macroalgae. Sargassum, a generally rare alga on mid-shelf reefs, was a particularly common alga within D. prosopotaenia territories on the leeward side of the island but absent within their territories on the windward side of the island. D. prosopotaenia was the only species to retain the transplanted Sargassum, with only a minimal reduction in Sargassum biomass (1.1%) being recorded within their territories at both leeward and windward sites over a 24-h period. In contrast, reductions in Sargassum biomass were high in areas adjacent to D. prosopotaenia territories (83.8%), and within and adjacent to the territories of the five remaining damselfish species (76.2-92.5%). Overall, only one of the six damselfish species provided a refuge for leathery brown macroalgae and may facilitate the development of this macroalgae on mid-shelf reefs of the GBR.

  14. Biomarkers of metals exposure in fish from lead-zinc mining areas of Southeastern Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, C.J.; Whyte, J.J.; Roberts, A.P.; Annis, M.L.; May, T.W.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    The potential effects of proposed lead-zinc mining in an ecologically sensitive area were assessed by studying a nearby mining district that has been exploited for about 30 y under contemporary environmental regulations and with modern technology. Blood and liver samples representing fish of three species (largescale stoneroller, Campostoma oligolepis, n=91; longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis, n=105; and northern hog sucker, Hypentelium nigricans, n=20) from 16 sites representing a range of conditions relative to mining activities were collected. Samples were analyzed for metals (also reported in a companion paper) and for biomarkers of metals exposure [erythrocyte ??-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity; concentrations of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), iron, and hemoglobin (Hb) in blood; and hepatic metallothionein (MT) gene expression and lipid peroxidation]. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher and ALA-D activity significantly lower in all species at sites nearest to active lead-zinc mines and in a stream contaminated by historical mining than at reference or downstream sites. ALA-D activity was also negatively correlated with blood lead concentrations in all three species but not with other metals. Iron and Hb concentrations were positively correlated in all three species, but were not correlated with any other metals in blood or liver in any species. MT gene expression was positively correlated with liver zinc concentrations, but neither MT nor lipid peroxidase differences among fish grouped according to lead concentrations were statistically significant. ZPP was not detected by hematofluorometry in most fish, but fish with detectable ZPP were from sites affected by mining. Collectively, these results confirm that metals are released to streams from active lead-zinc mining sites and are accumulated by fish. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The management of pigmented lesions of the nail bed.

    PubMed

    Glat, P M; Spector, J A; Roses, D F; Shapiro, R A; Harris, M N; Beasley, R W; Grossman, J A

    1996-08-01

    Pigmented lesions of the nail bed, especially without a history of trauma, represent a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. These lesions are often categorized as melanonychia striata (MS), which refers to any linear tan-brown-black pigmentation of the nail bed. The differential diagnosis of MS includes subungual hematomas, onchomycosis nigricans, junctional nevi, melanoma in situ (MIS), and malignant melanoma (MM). Our algorithm at the New York University (NYU) Medical Center for the treatment of pigmented lesions of the nail bed is presented. A histopathologic diagnosis with any evidence of melanocytic atypia, however subtle, requires absolute confirmation by complete excision. The absence of a clear margin or recurrence requires total nail bed excision and reconstruction using a full-thickness graft. The diagnosis of MIS is similarly treated. The surgical management of subungual MM is discussed. All cases of MM of the hand treated at NYU were reviewed. In all, 30 patients were treated from 1982 to 1995. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 13 years. In our series, there were 8 cutaneous and 22 subungual melanomas. There was a marked delay in treatment of both groups, with subungual melanomas more often erroneously treated as other pathology prior to correct diagnosis. The 5-year survival rate was 100% for patients with cutaneous lesions, but only 80% for those with the subungual variety. There was a statistical difference in the depths of the lesions (subungual, 3.68 mm; cutaneous, 1.36 mm) with a p-value of 0.008. The role of elective lymph node dissection in the absence of clinical metastases as well as intraoperative sentinel lymphatic mapping remains controversial and is discussed. PMID:8863970

  16. Fine scale movements and habitat use of black brant during the flightless Wing Molt in Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Tyler L.; Flint, Paul L.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Thousands of Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) migrate annually to the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area (TLSA), Alaska, to undergo the flightless wing molt on tundra lakes and wetlands. GPS transmitters were attached to Brant over two summers (2007â€"2008) to examine patterns of movement and habitat use of molting Brant, including variation by habitat type, year and body mass. Molting Brant were located an average of 31 ±1 m (SE) from shore and this distance did not vary across any of the explanatory variables. Brant moved an average of 123 ±3 m hr -1 while flightless. Movement rates varied by year, averaging 22 ±12 m hr -1 faster in 2008, and across habitat types, averaging 22 ±13 m hr -1 faster in inland versus coastal and estuarine habitats. Two kernel home ranges were estimated: entire home range, which encompassed the complete 95% probability contour, and shoreline home range, which included only shoreline areas used by molting Brant. Entire home range (x bar = 15.1 ±2.2 km 2) was negatively correlated with body mass, suggesting that heavier individuals have more body reserves to contribute to feather growth and thereby require less food and smaller home ranges. Conversely, shoreline home range (x bar = 4.3 ±0.6 km 2) did not vary by body mass, but rather by habitat type, being larger in estuarine habitats. The complex shorelines and numerous deltaic islands of estuarine habitats offer more shoreline per area than either coastal or inland habitats. Brant appear to have limited ability to adjust their home range size or forage further from shore in response to variable food resources across years or habitats, instead altering their movement rate. Given this apparent lack of behavioral flexibility, Brant may be sensitive to development-related disturbances or habitat losses at molt sites in the TLSA.

  17. Fine scale movements and habitat use of black brant during the flightless Wing Molt in Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, T.L.; Flint, P.L.; Derksen, D.V.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Thousands of Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) migrate annually to the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area (TLSA), Alaska, to undergo the flightless wing molt on tundra lakes and wetlands. GPS transmitters were attached to Brant over two summers (2007?????"2008) to examine patterns of movement and habitat use of molting Brant, including variation by habitat type, year and body mass. Molting Brant were located an average of 31 ??1 m (SE) from shore and this distance did not vary across any of the explanatory variables. Brant moved an average of 123 ??3 m hr-1 while flightless. Movement rates varied by year, averaging 22 ??12 m hr-1 faster in 2008, and across habitat types, averaging 22 ??13 m hr-1 faster in inland versus coastal and estuarine habitats. Two kernel home ranges were estimated: entire home range, which encompassed the complete 95% probability contour, and shoreline home range, which included only shoreline areas used by molting Brant. Entire home range (x bar = 15.1 ??2.2 km2) was negatively correlated with body mass, suggesting that heavier individuals have more body reserves to contribute to feather growth and thereby require less food and smaller home ranges. Conversely, shoreline home range (x bar = 4.3 ??0.6 km2) did not vary by body mass, but rather by habitat type, being larger in estuarine habitats. The complex shorelines and numerous deltaic islands of estuarine habitats offer more shoreline per area than either coastal or inland habitats. Brant appear to have limited ability to adjust their home range size or forage further from shore in response to variable food resources across years or habitats, instead altering their movement rate. Given this apparent lack of behavioral flexibility, Brant may be sensitive to development-related disturbances or habitat losses at molt sites in the TLSA.

  18. Temporal and spatial shifts in habitat use by Black Brant immediately following flightless molt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Tyler L.; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Derksen, Dirk V.

    2010-01-01

    Each year thousands of Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) undergo flightless wing molt in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area (TLSA), Alaska, in two distinct habitats: inland, freshwater lakes and coastal, brackish wetlands. Brant lose body mass during wing molt and likely must add reserves upon regaining flight to help fuel their 2,500 km migration to autumn staging areas. We characterized movements and habitat use by Brant during post-molt (the period immediately following the recovery of flight) by (1) marking individual Brant with GPS (global positioning system) transmitters, and (2) conducting a series of replicate aerial surveys. Individuals molting in inland habitats promptly abandoned their molt wetland during the post-molt and moved into coastal habitats. Consequently, inland habitats were nearly deserted by early August when Brant had regained flight, a decrease of >5,000 individuals from the flightless period of early July. Conversely, coastal molting Brant largely remained in coastal habitats during the post-molt and many coastal wetlands were occupied by large flocks (>1,000 birds). Our results indicate that inland, freshwater wetlands were less suitable post-molt habitats for Brant, while coastal wetlands were preferred as they transitioned from flightless molt. The immediacy with which Brant vacated inland habitats upon regaining flight suggests that food may be limiting during molt and they are not selecting inland molt sites strictly for food resources, but rather a balance of factors including predator avoidance and acquisition of protein for feather growth. Our data clearly demonstrate that patterns of habitat use by Brant in the TLSA change over the course of the molt season, an important consideration for management of future resource development activities in this area.

  19. Inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence creates goose habitat along the Arctic coast of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tape, Ken D.; Flint, Paul L.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska is characterized by thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins, and the rate of coastal erosion has increased during the last half-century. Portions of the coast are <1 m above sea level for kilometers inland, and are underlain by ice-rich permafrost. Increased storm surges or terrestrial subsidence would therefore expand the area subject to marine inundation. Since 1976, the distribution of molting Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) on the Arctic Coastal Plain has shifted from inland freshwater lakes to coastal marshes, such as those occupying the Smith River and Garry Creek estuaries. We hypothesized that the movement of geese from inland lakes was caused by an expansion of high quality goose forage in coastal areas. We examined the recent history of vegetation and geomorphological changes in coastal goose habitat by combining analysis of time series imagery between 1948 and 2010 with soil stratigraphy dated using bomb-curve radiocarbon. Time series of vertical imagery and in situ verification showed permafrost thaw and subsidence of polygonal tundra. Soil stratigraphy and dating within coastal estuaries showed that non-saline vegetation communities were buried by multiple sedimentation episodes between 1948 and 1995, accompanying a shift toward salt-tolerant vegetation. This sedimentation allowed high quality goose forage plants to expand, thus facilitating the shift in goose distribution. Declining sea ice and the increasing rate of terrestrial inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence in coastal estuaries of Alaska may portend a ‘tipping point’ whereby inland areas would be transformed into salt marshes.

  20. Larval assemblages of large and medium-sized pelagic species in the Straits of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, David E.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Cowen, Robert K.

    2010-07-01

    Critical gaps in our understanding of the distributions, interactions, life histories and preferred habitats of large and medium-size pelagic fishes severely constrain the implementation of ecosystem-based, spatially structured fisheries management approaches. In particular, spawning distributions and the environmental characteristics associated with the early life stages are poorly documented. In this study, we consider the diversity, assemblages, and associated habitat of the larvae of large and medium-sized pelagic species collected during 2 years of monthly surveys across the Straits of Florida. In total, 36 taxa and 14,295 individuals were collected, with the highest diversity occurring during the summer and in the western, frontal region of the Florida Current. Only a few species (e.g. Thunnus obesus, T. alalunga, Tetrapturus pfluegeri) considered for this study were absent. Small scombrids (e.g. T. atlanticus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Auxis spp.) and gempylids dominated the catch and were orders of magnitude more abundant than many of the rare species (e.g. Thunnus thynnus,Kajikia albida). Both constrained (CCA) and unconstrained (NMDS) multivariate analyses revealed a number of species groupings including: (1) a summer Florida edge assemblage (e.g. Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleterattus, Istiophorus platypterus); (2) a summer offshore assemblage (e.g. Makaira nigricans, T. atlanticus, Ruvettus pretiosus, Lampris guttatus); (3) an ubiquitous assemblage (e.g. K. pelamis, Coryphaena hippurus, Xiphias gladius); and (4) a spring/winter assemblage that was widely dispersed in space (e.g. trachipterids). The primary environmental factors associated with these assemblages were sea-surface temperature (highest in summer-early fall), day length (highest in early summer), thermocline depth (shallowest on the Florida side) and fluorescence (highest on the Florida side). Overall, the results of this study provide insights into how a remarkable diversity of pelagic species

  1. Genomic atolls of differentiation in coral reef fishes (Hypoplectrus spp., Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Puebla, O; Bermingham, E; McMillan, W O

    2014-11-01

    Because the vast majority of species are well diverged, relatively little is known about the genomic architecture of speciation during the early stages of divergence. Species within recent evolutionary radiations are often minimally diverged from a genomic perspective, and therefore provide rare opportunities to address this question. Here, we leverage the hamlet radiation (Hypoplectrus spp., brightly coloured reef fishes from the tropical western Atlantic) to characterize genomic divergence during the early stages of speciation. Transect surveys and spawning observations in Belize, Honduras and Panama confirm that sympatric barred (H. puella), black (H. nigricans) and butter (H. unicolor) hamlets are phenotypically distinct and reproductively isolated, although hybrid spawnings and individuals with intermediate phenotypes are seen on rare occasions. A survey of approximately 100 000 restriction site-associated SNPs in 126 samples from the three species across the three replicate populations reveals extremely slight genomewide divergence among species (FST  = 0.0038), indicating that ecomorphological differences and functional reproductive isolation are maintained in sympatry in a backdrop of extraordinary genomic similarity. Nonetheless, a very small proportion of SNPs (0.05% on average) are identified as FST outliers among sympatric species. Remarkably, a single SNP is identified as an outlier in repeated populations for the same species pair. A minicontig assembled de novo around this SNP falls into the genomic region containing the HoxCa10 and HoxCa11 genes in 10 teleost species, suggesting an important role for Hox gene evolution in this radiation. This finding, if confirmed, would provide a better understanding of the links between micro- and macroevolutionary processes. PMID:25231270

  2. Can homeopathy bring additional benefits to thalassemic patients on hydroxyurea therapy? Encouraging results of a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Antara; Chakrabarty, Sudipa Basu; Karmakar, Susanta Roy; Chakrabarty, Amit; Biswas, Surjyo Jyoti; Haque, Saiful; Das, Debarsi; Paul, Saili; Mandal, Biswapati; Naoual, Boujedaini; Belon, Philippe; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2010-03-01

    Several homeopathic remedies, namely, Pulsatilla Nigricans (30th potency), Ceanothus Americanus (both mother tincture and 6th potency) and Ferrum Metallicum (30th potency) selected as per similia principles were administered to 38 thalassemic patients receiving Hydroxyurea (HU) therapy for a varying period of time. Levels of serum ferritin (SF), fetal hemoglobin (HbF), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet count (PC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), white blood cell (WBC) count, bilirubin content, alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and serum total protein content of patients were determined before and 3 months after administration of the homeopathic remedies in combination with HU to evaluate additional benefits, if any, derived by the homeopathic remedies, by comparing the data with those of 38 subjects receiving only HU therapy. Preliminary results indicated that there was a significant decrease in the SF and increase in HbF levels in the combined, treated subjects. Although the changes in other parameters were not so significant, there was a significant decrease in size of spleen in most patients with spleenomegaly and improvement in general health conditions along with an increased gap between transfusions in most patients receiving the combined homeopathic treatment. The homeopathic remedies being inexpensive and without any known side-effects seem to have great potentials in bringing additional benefits to thalassemic patients; particularly in the developing world where blood transfusions suffer from inadequate screening and fall short of the stringent safety standards followed in the developed countries. Further independent studies are encouraged. PMID:18955271

  3. Effects of El Niño on distribution and reproductive performance of Black Brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, J.S.; Ward, D.H.; Schamber, J.L.; Butler, W.I.; Eldridge, W.D.; Conant, B.; Voelzer, J.F.; Chelgren, N.D.; Herzog, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Climate in low-latitude wintering areas may influence temperate and high-latitude breeding populations of birds, but demonstrations of such relationships have been rare because of difficulties in linking wintering with breeding populations. We used long-term aerial surveys in Mexican wintering areas and breeding areas in Alaska, USA, to assess numbers of Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans; hereafter brant) on their principal wintering and breeding area in El Niño and non-El Niño years. We used Pollock's robust design to directly estimate probability of breeding and apparent annual survival of individually marked brant at the Tutakoke River (TR) colony, Alaska, in each year between 1988 and 2001. Fewer brant wintered in Mexico during every El Niño event since 1965. Fewer brant were observed on the principal breeding area following each El Niño since surveys began in 1985. Probability of breeding was negatively related to January sea surface temperature along the subtropical coast of North America during the preceding winter. Between 23% (five-year-olds or older) and 30% (three-year-olds) fewer brant nested in 1998 following the strong El Niño event in the winter of 1997–1998 than in non-El Niño years. This finding is consistent with life history theory, which predicts that longer-lived species preserve adult survival at the expense of reproduction. Oceanographic conditions off Baja California, apparently by their effect on Zostera marina (eelgrass), strongly influence winter distribution of brant geese and their reproduction (but not survival), which in turn affects ecosystem dynamics in Alaska.

  4. Density-dependent effects on growth, body size, and clutch size in black brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, J.S.; Lindberg, M.S.; Person, B.T.; Eichholz, M.W.; Herzog, M.P.; Flint, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    We documented gosling size in late summer, adult body size, and clutch size of known-age Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) females nesting on the Tutakoke River colony between 1986 and 1995. During this period, the colony increased from 1,100 to >5,000 nesting pairs. Gosling mass at 30 days of age declined from 764 ?? SE of 13 g and 723 ?? 15 g for males and females, respectively, in the 1986 cohort, to 665 ?? 18 g and 579 ?? 18 g in the 1994 cohort. Gosling size was directly negatively correlated with number of Black Brant broods. We detected no trend in adult body size for individuals from these cohorts; in fact, adults from the 1992 and 1994 cohorts had the largest overall masses. Clutch size increased with age from 3.4 eggs for 2-year-old females to 4.4 eggs for 5-year-old females. Clutch size declined during the study by 0.20 (3-year-old females) to 0.45 (2-year-old females) eggs. Clutch size did not decline between the 1986 and 1990 cohorts for females that were >5 years old. Our results for clutch size and gosling size are similar to those recorded for Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens). Our failure to detect a trend in adult body size, however, differs from the response of other geese to increasing population density. We interpret this difference in effects of density on adult size between Black Brant and other geese as an indication of stronger selection against the smallest individuals in Black Brant relative to other species of geese.

  5. High fidelity does not preclude colonization: range expansion of molting Black Brant on the Arctic coast of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Mallek, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    High rates of site fidelity have been assumed to infer static distributions of molting geese in some cases. To test this assumption, we examined movements of individually marked birds to understand the underlying mechanisms of range expansion of molting Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) on the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska. The Teshekpuk Lake Special Area (TLSA) on the ACP was created to protect the primary molting area of Brant. When established in 1977, the TLSA was thought to include most, if not all, wetlands used by molting Brant on the ACP. From 2010 to 2013, we surveyed areas outside the TLSA and counted an average of 9800 Brant per year, representing 29–37% of all molting Brant counted on the ACP. We captured and banded molting Brant in 2011 and 2012 both within the TLSA and outside the TLSA at the Piasuk River Delta and Cape Simpson to assess movements of birds among areas across years. Estimates of movement rates out of the TLSA exceeded those into the TLSA, demonstrating overall directional dispersal. We found differences in sex and age ratios and proportions of adult females with brood patches, but no differences in mass dynamics for birds captured within and outside the TLSA. Overall fidelity rates to specific lakes (0.81, range = 0.49–0.92) were unchanged from comparable estimates obtained in the early 1990s. We conclude that Brant are dispersing from the TLSA into new molting areas while simultaneously redistributing within the TLSA, likely as a consequence of changes in relative habitat quality. Shifts in distribution resulted from colonization of new areas by young birds as well as low levels of directional dispersal of birds that previously molted in the TLSA. Based on combined counts, the overall number of molting Brant across the ACP has increased substantially.

  6. Effects of Ca2+ on oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria from the thermogenic organ of marlin.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, J; Block, B A

    1996-12-01

    Mitochondria from the muscle-derived thermogenic (heater) organ and oxidative red muscle of the blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) were studied in order to evaluate aspects of the mechanism of thermogenesis in heater tissue. We investigated whether short-term Ca(2+)-induced uncoupling of mitochondria contributes to the thermogenic cycle of the heater organ by enhancing the respiration rate. Specific electrodes were used to obtain simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption and Ca2+ fluxes on isolated mitochondria, and the effects of various concentrations of Ca2+ on respiration rates and the ADP phosphorylated/atomic oxygen consumed (P/O) ratio were examined. Addition of Ca2+ in excess of 10 mumol l-1 to respiring heater organ or red muscle mitochondria partially inhibited state 3 respiration and reduced the P/O ratio, indicating that the mitochondria were partially uncoupled. These effects were blocked by 2 mumol l-1 Ruthenium Red. In heater organ mitochondria, state 3 respiration rate and the P/O ratio were not significantly reduced by 1 mumol l-1 free Ca2+, a concentration likely to be near the maximum achieved in a stimulated cell. This indicates that transient increases in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration may not significantly reduce the P/O ratio of heater organ mitochondria. The activity of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase in heater organ mitochondria was stimulated by approximately 15% by Ca2+ concentrations between 0.2 and 1 mumol l-1. These results suggest that heater organ mitochondria are able to maintain a normal P/O ratio and should maintain ATP output during transient increases in Ca2+ concentration, supporting a model in which an ATP-consuming process drives thermogenesis. Activation of mitochondrial dehydrogenases by low levels of Ca2+ may also enhance respiration and contribute to thermogenesis. PMID:9110954

  7. Distribution and Habitat Associations of Billfish and Swordfish Larvae across Mesoscale Features in the Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rooker, Jay R.; Simms, Jeff R.; Wells, R. J. David; Holt, Scott A.; Holt, G. Joan; Graves, John E.; Furey, Nathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted in surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) over a three-year period (2006–2008) to determine the relative value of this region as early life habitat of sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus), blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), white marlin (Kajikia albida), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Sailfish were the dominant billfish collected in summer surveys, and larvae were present at 37.5% of the stations sampled. Blue marlin and white marlin larvae were present at 25.0% and 4.6% of the stations sampled, respectively, while swordfish occurred at 17.2% of the stations. Areas of peak production were detected and maximum density estimates for sailfish (22.09 larvae 1000 m−2) were significantly higher than the three other species: blue marlin (9.62 larvae 1000 m−2), white marlin (5.44 larvae 1000 m−2), and swordfish (4.67 larvae 1000 m−2). The distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae varied spatially and temporally, and several environmental variables (sea surface temperature, salinity, sea surface height, distance to the Loop Current, current velocity, water depth, and Sargassum biomass) were deemed to be influential variables in generalized additive models (GAMs). Mesoscale features in the NGoM affected the distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae, with densities typically higher in frontal zones or areas proximal to the Loop Current. Habitat suitability of all four species was strongly linked to physicochemical attributes of the water masses they inhabited, and observed abundance was higher in slope waters with lower sea surface temperature and higher salinity. Our results highlight the value of the NGoM as early life habitat of billfishes and swordfish, and represent valuable baseline data for evaluating anthropogenic effects (i.e., Deepwater Horizon oil spill) on the Atlantic billfish and swordfish populations. PMID:22509277

  8. Change in abundance of pacific brant wintering in alaska: evidence of a climate warming effect?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, D.H.; Dau, C.P.; Lee, T.; Sedinger, J.S.; Anderson, B.A.; Hines, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Winter distribution of Pacific Flyway brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) has shifted northward from lowtemperate areas to sub-Arctic areas over the last 42 years. We assessed the winter abundance and distribution of brant in Alaska to evaluate whether climate warming may be contributing to positive trends in the most northern of the wintering populations. Mean surface air temperatures during winter at the end of the Alaska Peninsula increased about 1??C between 1963 and 2004, resulting in a 23% reduction in freezing degree days and a 34% decline in the number of days when ice cover prevents birds from accessing food resources. Trends in the wintering population fluctuated with states of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, increasing during positive (warm) phases and decreasing during negative (cold) phases, and this correlation provides support for the hypothesis that growth in the wintering population of brant in Alaska is linked to climate warming. The size of the wintering population was negatively correlated with the number of days of strong northwesterly winds in November, which suggests that the occurrence of tailwinds favorable for migration before the onset of winter was a key factor in whether brant migrated from Alaska or remained there during winter. Winter distribution of brant on the Alaska Peninsula was highly variable and influenced by ice cover, particularly at the heavily used Izembek Lagoon. Observations of previously marked brant indicated that the Alaska wintering population was composed primarily of birds originating from Arctic breeding colonies that appear to be growing. Numbers of brant in Alaska during winter will likely increase as temperatures rise and ice cover decreases at high latitudes in response to climate warming. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  9. Tracing carbon flow through coral reef food webs using a compound-specific stable isotope approach.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Kelton W; Thorrold, Simon R; Houghton, Leah A; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Coral reefs support spectacularly productive and diverse communities in tropical and sub-tropical waters throughout the world's oceans. Debate continues, however, on the degree to which reef biomass is supported by new water column production, benthic primary production, and recycled detrital carbon (C). We coupled compound-specific stable C isotope ratio (δ(13)C) analyses with Bayesian mixing models to quantify C flow from primary producers to coral reef fishes across multiple feeding guilds and trophic positions in the Red Sea. Analyses of reef fishes with putative diets composed primarily of zooplankton (Amblyglyphidodon indicus), benthic macroalgae (Stegastes nigricans), reef-associated detritus (Ctenochaetus striatus), and coral tissue (Chaetodon trifascialis) confirmed that δ(13)C values of essential amino acids from all baseline C sources were both isotopically diagnostic and accurately recorded in consumer tissues. While all four source end-members contributed to the production of coral reef fishes in our study, a single-source end-member often dominated dietary C assimilation of a given species, even for highly mobile, generalist top predators. Microbially reworked detritus was an important secondary C source for most species. Seascape configuration played an important role in structuring resource utilization patterns. For instance, Lutjanus ehrenbergii showed a significant shift from a benthic macroalgal food web on shelf reefs (71 ± 13 % of dietary C) to a phytoplankton-based food web (72 ± 11 %) on oceanic reefs. Our work provides insights into the roles that diverse C sources play in the structure and function of coral reef ecosystems and illustrates a powerful fingerprinting method to develop and test nutritional frameworks for understanding resource utilization. PMID:26590916

  10. Using typical endoscopic features to diagnose esophageal squamous papilloma

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ming-Wun; Bair, Ming-Joug; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Chu, Cheng-Hsin; Wang, Horng-Yuan; Wang, Tsang-En; Chang, Chen-Wang; Chen, Ming-Jen

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To better understand some of the superficial tiny lesions that are recognized as squamous papilloma of the esophagus (SPE) and receive a different pathological diagnosis. METHODS: All consecutive patients with esophageal polypoid lesions detected by routine endoscopy at our Endoscopy Centre between October 2009 and June 2014 were retrospectively analysed. We enrolled patients with SPE or other superficial lesions to investigate four key endoscopic appearances (whitish color, exophytic growth, wart-like shape, and surface vessels) and used narrow band imaging (NBI) to distinguish their differences. These series endoscopic images of each patient were retrospectively reviewed by three experienced endoscopists with no prior access to the images. All lesion specimens obtained by forceps biopsy were fixed in formalin and processed for pathological examination. The following data were collected from patient medical records: gender, age, indications for esophagogastroduodenoscopy, and endoscopic characteristics including lesion location, number, color, size, surface morphology, surrounding mucosa, and surface vessels under NBI. Clinicopathological features were also compared. RESULTS: During the study period, 41 esophageal polypoid lesions from 5698 endoscopic examinations were identified retrospectively. These included 24 patients with pathologically confirmed SPE, 11 patients with squamous hyperplasia, three patients with glycogenic acanthosis, two patients with ectopic sebaceous glands, and one patient with a xanthoma. In the χ2 test, exophytic growth (P = 0.003), a wart-like shape (P < 0.001), and crossing surface vessels under NBI (P = 0.001) were more frequently observed in SPE than in other lesion types. By contrast, there was no significant difference regarding the appearance of a whitish color between SPE and other lesion types (P = 0.872). The most sensitive characteristic was wart-like projections (81.3%) and the most specific was exophytic growth (87

  11. Effects of in Utero Exposure of C57BL/6J Mice to 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on Epidermal Permeability Barrier Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Muenyi, Clarisse S.; Carrion, Sandra Leon; Jones, Lynn A.; Kennedy, Lawrence H.; Slominski, Andrzej T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Development of the epidermal permeability barrier (EPB) is essential for neonatal life. Defects in this barrier are found in many skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis. Objective: We investigated the effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the development and function of the EPB. Methods: Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were gavaged with corn oil or TCDD (10 μg/kg body weight) on gestation day 12. Embryos were harvested on embryonic day (E) 15, E16, E17, and postnatal day (PND) 1. Results: A skin permeability assay showed that TCDD accelerated the development of the EPB, beginning at E15. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in transepidermal water loss (TEWL), enhanced stratification, and formation of the stratum corneum (SC). The levels of several ceramides were significantly increased at E15 and E16. PND1 histology revealed TCDD-induced acanthosis and epidermal hyperkeratosis. This was accompanied by disrupted epidermal tight junction (TJ) function, with increased dye leakage at the terminal claudin-1–staining TJs of the stratum granulosum. Because the animals did not have enhanced rates of TEWL, a commonly observed phenotype in animals with TJ defects, we performed tape-stripping. Removal of most of the SC resulted in a significant increase in TEWL in TCDD-exposed PND1 pups compared with their control group. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that in utero exposure to TCDD accelerates the formation of an abnormal EPB with leaky TJs, warranting further study of environmental exposures, epithelial TJ integrity, and atopic disease. Citation: Muenyi CS, Leon Carrion S, Jones LA, Kennedy LH, Slominski AT, Sutter CH, Sutter TR. 2014. Effects of in utero exposure of C57BL/6J mice to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on epidermal permeability barrier development and function. Environ Health Perspect 122:1052–1058; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1308045 PMID:24904982

  12. Granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions.

    PubMed

    Rossiello, Luigi; Palla, Marco; Aiello, Francesco Saviero; Baroni, Adone; Satriano, Rocco Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    slight acanthosis. A diagnosis of granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions was made, and a systemic therapy with hydroxychloroquine (200 mg twice daily for 6 weeks) was recommended.(1,2). PMID:17483662

  13. Severe ulceronecrotic dermatitis associated with mite infestation in the critically endangered Amargosa vole (Microtus californicus scirpensis).

    PubMed

    Foley, Janet; Branston, Tammy; Woods, Leslie; Clifford, Deana

    2013-08-01

    The entire range of the critically endangered Amargosa vole (Microtus californicus scirpensis) consists of less than 20 km(2) of riparian habitat in the Amargosa River drainage of the Mojave Desert in southern California. In September 2010, deformities on ears and chiggers on the ears and genitalia were detected, with some individuals so severely affected that they were missing ear pinnae altogether. Follow-up trapping was performed to document the presence of mites and mite-associated disease, and molecular characterization was performed on the mites. Of 151 Amargosa voles sampled from February to April of 2011, 60 (39.7%) voles had hard orange mites adhered to some part of their bodies, on ears of 46 (76.7%), on genitalia of 11 (18.3%), and near mammary tissue of 13 (21.7%) voles. Gross lesions were not detected on genitalia, but 47% of all individuals examined showed pinnal lesions and deformities, which included alopecia, swelling, marginal necrosis, and ulceration, as well as scarring, scabbing, and loss of pinna mass covering 25-100% of the pinnae. Biopsies revealed parakeratotic hyperkeratosis and acanthosis with diffuse neutrophilic exocytosis and dense necrotic granulocytes in the epidermis and superficial dermis associated with focal erosion and ulceration. In the underlying dermis, there were dense pleocellular inflammatory cell infiltrates composed primarily of necrotic granulocytes and multifocal hemorrhage. In some samples, mite mouthparts could be seen penetrating the superficial epidermis associated with focal necrosis, and mite fragments were found on the surface epidermis and within hair follicles. Microscopic examination of the mites documented that they were a larval trombiculid in the genus Neotrombicula with anatomical features that most closely resemble Neotrombicula microti, based on scutal shape, setation, and texture. PCR of 2 mite pools (each consisting of 3 mites from an individual animal) amplified 331 bp amplicons, which had 92

  14. Predicting effects of environmental change on a migratory herbivore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stillman, R A; Wood, K A; Gilkerson, Whelan; Elkinton, E; Black, J. M.; Ward, David H.; Petrie, M.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in climate, food abundance and disturbance from humans threaten the ability of species to successfully use stopover sites and migrate between non-breeding and breeding areas. To devise successful conservation strategies for migratory species we need to be able to predict how such changes will affect both individuals and populations. Such predictions should ideally be process-based, focusing on the mechanisms through which changes alter individual physiological state and behavior. In this study we use a process-based model to evaluate how Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) foraging on common eelgrass (Zostera marina) at a stopover site (Humboldt Bay, USA), may be affected by changes in sea level, food abundance and disturbance. The model is individual-based, with empirically based parameters, and incorporates the immigration of birds into the site, tidal changes in availability of eelgrass, seasonal and depth-related changes in eelgrass biomass, foraging behavior and energetics of the birds, and their mass-dependent decisions to emigrate. The model is validated by comparing predictions to observations across a range of system properties including the time birds spent foraging, probability of birds emigrating, mean stopover duration, peak bird numbers, rates of mass gain and distribution of birds within the site: all 11 predictions were within 35% of the observed value, and 8 within 20%. The model predicted that the eelgrass within the site could potentially support up to five times as many birds as currently use the site. Future predictions indicated that the rate of mass gain and mean stopover duration were relatively insensitive to sea level rise over the next 100 years, primarily because eelgrass habitat could redistribute shoreward into intertidal mudflats within the site to compensate for higher sea levels. In contrast, the rate of mass gain and mean stopover duration were sensitive to changes in total eelgrass biomass and the percentage of time

  15. Population demographics of catostomids in large river ecosystems: effects of discharge and temperature on recruitment dynamics and growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quist, M.C.; Spiegel, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Catostomids are among the most widespread and ecologically important groups of fishes in North America, particularly in large river systems. Despite their importance, little information is available on their population demographics and even less is known about factors influencing their population dynamics. The objectives of this study were to describe annual mortality, recruitment variation, and growth of eight catostomid species, and to evaluate the effects of discharge and temperature on year-class strength and growth in Iowa rivers. Catostomids were sampled from 3-km reaches in four nonwadable rivers during June–August 2009. Northern hogsucker, Hypentelium nigricans, golden redhorse, Moxostoma erythrurum, and shorthead redhorse, M. macrolepidotum, typically lived 6–8 years, had very stable recruitment, and had high total annual mortality (i.e., 40–60%). Golden redhorse exhibited the fastest growth of all species. Growth of northern hogsucker and shorthead redhorse was intermediate to the other catostomids. Highfin carpsucker, Carpiodes velifer, quillback, Carpiodes cyprinus, and white sucker, Catostomus commersonii, had high growth rates, low mortality (i.e., 25–30%), and relatively stable recruitment. River carpsucker, Carpiodes carpio, and silver redhorse, M. anisurum, had higher maximum ages (up to age 11), slower growth, lower total annual mortality (20–25%), and higher recruitment variability than the other species. Neither discharge nor temperature was strongly related to recruitment of catostomids. In contrast, several interesting patterns were observed with regard to growth. Species (e.g., carpsuckers, Carpiodes spp.) that typically consume prey items most common in fine substrates (e.g., chironomids) had higher growth rates in reaches dominated by sand and silt substrate. Species (e.g., northern hogsucker) that consume prey associated with large substrates (e.g., plecopterans) had much faster growth in reaches with a high proportion of rocky

  16. Mercury bioaccumulation and biomagnification in Ozarkstream ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, C.J.; Stricker, C.A.; Brumbaugh, W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Crayfish (Orconectes spp.), Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea), northern hog sucker (hog sucker; Hypentelium nigricans), and smallmouth bass (smallmouth; Micropterus dolomieu) from streams in southeastern Missouri (USA) were analyzed for total mercury (HgT) and for stable isotopes of carbon (δ¹³C), nitrogen (δ¹⁵N), and sulfur (δ³⁴S) to discern Hg transfer pathways. HgT concentrations were generally lowest in crayfish (0.005-0.112 μg/g dw) and highest in smallmouth (0.093-4.041 μg/g dw), as was δ¹⁵N. HgT was also lower and δ¹⁵N was higher in all biota from a stream draining a more heavily populated historical lead-zinc mining area than from similar sites with mostly undeveloped forested watersheds. δ¹³C in biota was lowest at spring-influenced sites, reflecting CO₂ inputs and temperature influences, and δ³⁴S increased from south to north in all taxa. However, HgT was not strongly correlated with either δ¹³C or δ³⁴S in biota. Trophic position (TP) computed from crayfish δ¹⁵N was lower in hog suckers (mean=2.8) than in smallmouth (mean=3.2), but not at all sites. HgT, δ¹³C, δ³⁴,/sup>S, and TP in hog suckers increased with total length (length) at some sites, indicating site-specific ontogenetic diet shifts. Changes with length were less evident in smallmouth. Length-adjusted HgT site means in both species were strongly correlated with HgT in crayfish (r²=0.97, P²=0.02, P>0.05). ANCOVA and regression models incorporating only TP and, for hog suckers, length, accurately and precisely predicted HgT concentrations in both fish species from all locations. Although low compared to many areas of the USA, HgT (and therefore methylmercury) concentrations in smallmouth and hog suckers are sufficiently high to represent a threat to human health and wildlife. Our data indicate that in Ozark streams, Hg concentrations in crayfish are at least partly determined by their diet, with concentrations in hog suckers, smallmouth, and possibly

  17. Mercury bioaccumulation and biomagnification in Ozark stream ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Stricker, Craig A.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Crayfish (Orconectes spp.), Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea), northern hog sucker (hog sucker; Hypentelium nigricans), and smallmouth bass (smallmouth; Micropterus dolomieu) from streams in southeastern Missouri (USA) were analyzed for total mercury (HgT) and for stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C), nitrogen (δ15N), and sulfur (δ34S) to discern Hg transfer pathways. HgT concentrations were generally lowest in crayfish (0.005-0.112 μg/g dw) and highest in smallmouth (0.093-4.041 μg/g dw), as was δ15N. HgT was also lower and δ15N was higher in all biota from a stream draining a more heavily populated historical lead-zinc mining area than from similar sites with mostly undeveloped forested watersheds. δ13C in biota was lowest at spring-influenced sites, reflecting CO2 inputs and temperature influences, and δ34S increased from south to north in all taxa. However, HgT was not strongly correlated with either δ13C or δ34S in biota. Trophic position (TP) computed from crayfish δ15N was lower in hog suckers (mean=2.8) than in smallmouth (mean=3.2), but not at all sites. HgT, δ13C, δ34S, and TP in hog suckers increased with total length (length) at some sites, indicating site-specific ontogenetic diet shifts. Changes with length were less evident in smallmouth. Length-adjusted HgT site means in both species were strongly correlated with HgT in crayfish (r2=0.97, Pr2=0.02, P>0.05). NCOVA and regression models incorporating only TP and, for hog suckers, length, accurately and precisely predicted HgT concentrations in both fish species from all locations. Although low compared to many areas of the USA, HgT (and therefore methylmercury) concentrations in smallmouth and hog suckers are sufficiently high to represent a threat to human health and wildlife. Our data indicate that in Ozark streams, Hg concentrations in crayfish are at least partly determined by their diet, with concentrations in hog suckers, smallmouth, and possibly other higher-level consumers largely

  18. Patterns of commercial fish landings in the Loreto region (Peruvian Amazon) between 1984 and 2006.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Aurea; Tello, Salvador; Vargas, Gladis; Duponchelle, Fabrice

    2009-03-01

    Patterns of commercial fish catches over the period from 1984 to 2006 were studied in the Loreto region and in Iquitos, which is the most important town of the region and the principal fish marketplace of the Peruvian Amazon. Despite important inter-annual variations, the overall fish landings have significantly increased in the region during this period. The same three species dominated the catches during the whole period (Prochilodus nigricans, Potamorhina altamazonica and Psectrogaster amazonica), making up about 62% of the catches. However, the number of species exploited by commercial fisheries increased considerably during the 22 years of this study (from about 21 species in 1984 to over 65 in 2006), although part of the difference may be accounted for by a better identification of individual species nowadays. At the same time, the large high-valued species, such as Arapaima gigas, Colossoma macropomum and Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, declined significantly and were replaced by smaller, short-lived and lower-valued species. Catches of the silver Arahuana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum) also declined significantly during the studied period, strengthening recent warnings about the species' conservation status (Moreau and Coomes, Oryx 40:152-160, 2006). The relative proportions of the trophic groups (detritivores, omnivores and piscivores) remained relatively constant over the study period, but there were significant changes in the relative abundances of the species groups. The proportion of the dominant group, the Characiformes, which averaged about 81% of the catches, increased between 1984 and 2006, whereas the proportion of the Siluriformes and Perciformes remained constant. On the other hand, the proportion of Osteoglossiformes, represented only by two well known species (Arapaima gigas and Osteoglossum bicirrhosum), declined sharply during the same period. Important differences were observed between the landings of Iquitos and the landing of the whole Loreto

  19. Peculiarities of sexual development and reproductive function in young women with childhood onset weight problems.

    PubMed

    Chikvaidze, N; Kristesashvili, J; Gegechkori, M

    2014-10-01

    The risks of reproductive problems are higher in underweight and overweight or obese women, especially in case of rapid weight gain or loss. But evidence is inconsistent especially in relation to the effect of age of body weight changes. The aim of the study was detection of peculiarities of sexual development and reproductive function in underweight and overweight/obese females with childhood thinness or childhood obesity. 103 young females (48 - with low BMI, 55 - with high BMI) with different reproductive problems were examined prospectively. In all investigated patients full clinical examination was held, including body mass index (BMI), type of body fat distribution (waist-to-hip ratio), age of body weight changes, assessment of hirsutism, acne, stretch marks and hyperpigmentation, menstrual disturbances and fertility problems were recorded and gynecological ultrasound was performed. There was no difference established according to the age of menarche and types of menstrual disturbances between the groups of low BMI and high BMI females (p>.05). The correlation was established between the onset of menstrual disruption and progression of changes in body mass (R=.448, p=.005). Hirsutism, stretch marks and acantosis nigricans (hyperpigmentation) were exhibited significantly more frequently in the patients with high BMI (p<.05), whilst distribution of acne was almost the same in the study groups (p>.05). 74.5% of overweight and obese patients had upper body fat distribution (waist-to-hip ratio > 0.8), whilst underweight patients had mostly equal (66.7%) or lower body fat distribution (31.3%) (p=.000). Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic syndrome (MS) was the most frequent in overweight and obese patients, whilst non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) and ovarian dysfunction prevailed in the underweight females (p<.05). Infertility was mostly observed in patients with high BMI (p<.05). In conclusion, the peculiarities of sexual development

  20. Accumulation of metals in fish from lead-zinc mining areas of southeastern Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2007-01-01

    The potential effects of proposed lead-zinc mining in an ecologically sensitive area were assessed by studying a nearby mining district that has been exploited for about 30 yr under contemporary environmental regulations and with modern technology. Blood and liver samples representing fish of three species (largescale stoneroller, Campostoma oligolepis, n=91; longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis, n=105; and northern hog sucker, Hypentelium nigricans, n=20) were collected from 16 sites representing a range of conditions relative to lead-zinc mining and ore beneficiation in southeastern Missouri. Samples were analyzed for lead, zinc, and cadmium, and for a suite of biomarkers (reported in a companion paper). A subset of the hog sucker (n=9) representing three sites were also analyzed for nickel and cobalt. Blood and liver lead concentrations were highly correlated (r=0.84-0.85, P<0.01) in all three species and were significantly (ANOVA, P<0.01) greater at sites <10 km downstream of active lead-zinc mines and mills and in a historical lead-zinc mining area than at reference sites, including a site in the area proposed for new mining. Correlations between blood and liver cadmium concentrations were less evident than for lead but were nevertheless statistically significant (r=0.26-0.69, P <0.01-0.07). Although blood and liver cadmium concentrations were highest in all three species at sites near mines, within-site variability was greater and mining-related trends were less evident than for lead. Blood and liver zinc concentrations were significantly correlated only in stoneroller (r=0.46, P<0.01) and mining-related trends were not evident. Concentrations of cobalt and nickel in blood and liver were significantly higher (ANOVA, P<0.01) at a site near an active mine than at a reference site and a site in the historical lead-zinc mining area. These findings confirm previous studies indicating that lead and other metals are released to streams from active lead-zinc mines and

  1. Community-specific biogeochemical responses to atmospheric nitrogen deposition in subalpine meadow ecosystems of the Cascade Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poinsatte, J. P.; Rochefort, R.; Evans, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated anthropogenic nitrogen (N) emissions result in higher rates of atmospheric N deposition (Ndep) that can saturate sensitive ecosystems. Consequences of increased Ndep include higher emissions of greenhouse gases, eutrophication of watersheds, and deterioration of vegetation communities. Most of the annual N deposition at higher elevations in the Cascades is stored in snowpack until spring snowmelt when it is released as a pulse that can be assimilated by plant and microbial communities, or lost as gaseous emissions or leachate. The relative magnitude of these fluxes is unknown, particularly with accelerated rates of snowpack loss due to climate change. We quantified storage of Ndep in winter snowpack and determined impacts of Ndep on biogeochemical processes in a lush-herbaceous community characterized by Valeriana sitchensis and Lupinus latifolius, a heath-shrub community characterized by Phyllodoce empetriformis and Cassiope mertensiana, and a wet-sedge community dominated by Carex nigricans. These communities were selected to represent early, mid, and late snowmelt vegetation regimes prevalent throughout the Cascades. Ammonium (NH4+) was the dominant form of Ndep in winter snowpack and Ndep rates were higher than anticipated based on nearby National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements. Vegetation N uptake was the dominant N sink in the ecosystem, with the highest growing season uptake occurring in the lush-herbaceous community, while soil N leaching was the dominant N loss, with the lush-herbaceous also having the highest rates. Microbial biomass N fluctuated substantially across the growing season, with high biomass N immediately after snowmelt and again 30 days following snow release. Soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions peaked 30 days following snowmelt for all three communities and were greatest in the wet sedge community. These results indicate that subalpine communities have unique responses to Ndep that vary throughout the growing

  2. Factors influencing route choice by avian migrants: a dynamic programming model of Pacific brant migration.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Jessica; Brodin, Anders

    2007-12-21

    We used stochastic dynamic programming to investigate a spectacular migration strategy in the black brant Branta bernicla nigricans, a species of goose. Black brant migration is well suited for theoretical analysis since there are a number of existing strategies that easily can be compared. In early autumn, almost the entire population of the black brant gathers at Izembek Lagoon on the Alaska Peninsula to stage and refuel before the southward migration. There are at least three distinct strategies, with most geese making a spectacular direct migration more than 5000km across the Gulf of Alaska to their wintering grounds in southern Baja California or mainland Mexico. This is a potentially dangerous strategy since foraging is not possible during the overseas passage. Some individuals instead use shorter flights to make a detour along the coast, a longer route that all individuals use for northwards migration in spring. Since flight costs accelerate with increasing body mass, migration by short flights is energetically cheaper than long-distance flights. A small but increasing part of the population has recently begun to winter at Izembek. We investigated this migration under two different suppositions using a dynamic state variable model. First, if the geese are free to make a strategic choice, under what assumptions should they prefer direct migration and under what assumptions should they prefer detour migration/winter residency? Second, provided that the dominating direct migration strategy is optimal, what conditions will force the geese to go for detour migration/winter residency? In the second case the geese may try to follow an optimal direct migration strategy, but stochastic events may force them to choose a suboptimal policy. We also simulated possible effects of global warming. The model suggests that the fuel level at arrival in Izembek and fuel gain rates are key factors and that tail winds must have been reliable in the past, otherwise direct

  3. Continuous adsorption and recovery of Cr(VI) in different types of reactors.

    PubMed

    Bai, Sudha R; Abraham, T Emilia

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the results of experiments on continuous adsorption and desorption of Cr(VI) ions by a chemically modified and polysulfone-immobilized biomass of the fungus Rhizopus nigricans. A fixed quantity of polymer-entrapped biomass beads corresponding to 2 g of dry biomass powder was employed in packed bed, fluidized bed, and stirred tank reactor for monitoring the continuous removal and recovery of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution and synthetic chrome plating effluent. Parameters such as flow rate (5, 10 and 15 mL/min), inlet concentration of Cr(VI) ions (50, 100, 150 and 250 mg/L) and the depth of biosorbent packing (22.8, 11.2 and 4.9 cm) were evaluated for the packed bed reactor. The breakthrough time and the adsorption rates in the packed bed column were found to decrease with increasing flow rate and higher Cr inlet concentrations and to increase with higher depths of sorbent packing. To have a comparative analysis of Cr adsorption efficiency in different types of reactors, the fluidized bed reactor and stirred tank reactor were operated using the same quantities of biosorbent material. For the fluidized bed reactor, Cr(VI) solution of 100 mg/L was pumped at 5 mL/min and fluidized by compressed air at a flow rate of 0.5 kg/cm.(2) The stirred tank reactor had a working volume of 200 mL capacity and the inlet/outlet flow rate was 5 mL/min. The maximum removal efficiency (mg Cr/g biomass) was obtained for the stirred tank reactor (159.26), followed by the fluidized reactor (153.04) and packed bed reactor (123.33). In comparison to the adsorption rate from pure chromate solution, approximately 16% reduction was monitored for synthetic chrome plating effluent in the packed bed. Continuous desorption of bound Cr ions from the reactors was effective with 0.01 N Na(2)CO(3) and nearly 80-94% recoveries have been obtained for all the reactors. PMID:16321053

  4. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in native and reforested areas in Rancho Alegre, Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Patricia Helena; dos Reis, Nelio Roberto; Andrade, Fabio Rodrigo; de Almeida, Inaê Guion

    2010-12-01

    Abstract: Generally, natural environments have been transformed into small forest remnants, with the consequent habitat loss and species extinction. The North Paraná State is not an exception, since only 2 to 4% of the original ecosystem occurs in small fragments of Stational Semidecidual Forest. We studied the species richness and abundance of bats in two forest fragments from the Fazenda Congonhas, in Rancho Alegre city, Parana State, Brazil. Four samplings were undertaken in a legally protected native area (107.8 ha) and in a reforested area (11.8 ha) between April 2007 and March 2008. Samplings began at nightfall and lasted six hours,during two consecutive nights in each location. The individuals were captured using eight mist nets, with the same capture effort in both environments. A total of 397 individuals, 14 species and 10 genera were captured in the native area; while in the reforested area, 105 individuals, six species and four genera. Artibeus lituratus was the most common species in both fragments (n = 328, 65.3%), followed by Artibeus fimbriatus (n = 44, 8.8%) and Artibeus jamaicensis (n = 30, 6.0%). Other species including Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspicillata, Sturnira lilium, Chrotopterus aurintus, Desmodus rotundus, Michronycteris megalotis, Phyllostomus hastatus, Phyllostomus discolor, Myoti levis, Myotis nigricans and Lasiurus blossevillii, accounted for 19.9% of the captures. The native area presented higher values of species richness (S = 14) and diversity (H' = 1.4802) in comparison to the reforested area (S = 6, H '= 0.57015). The t-test evidenced a significant difference between diversity among the sites (t = 7.1075). Chao 1 index indicated that the sampling effort recorded approximately 78% from the total species richness for the native area and 75% for the reforested area. Therefore, the preservation of the forest fragment is essential since it provides habitat for a diverse community of bats. Forest management and reforestation

  5. The Mice Drawer System (MDS) Tissue Sharing Programme: effect of space conditions on skin metabolic activity and vascularization and potential impact of radiations in mice.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusgens, Betty; Lambert, Charles; Liu, Yi; Cancedda, Ranieri; Tavella, Sara; Ruggiu, Alessandra; Colige, Alain

    morphological and immunochemical analysis aim at investigating dermal and epidermal thickness, number and surface of blood vessels (CD31, VW factor, type IV collagen) and lymphatics (D2-40, Lyve), score of acanthosis and papillomatosis, proliferation index (Ki67), epidermal markers of differentiation and FXIIIa positive dendritic cells. Another fragment of skin is used for measuring water content, total collagen content (hydroxyproline) and total proteoglycans content (uronic acid). A differential extraction procedure allows to quantify the newly synthetized collagen and the progressively more heavily cross-linked colla-gen, the pattern of extraction reflecting the turn-over rate of collagen. Quantitative RT-PCR procedure is used to evaluate the expression of extracellular matrix components (fibrillar and FACIT collagens), the enzymes involved in their postranslational modifications (ADAMTS-2, -3, -14, BMP1, prolylhydroxylase, lysyloxydase), the MMPs and their physiologic activators and inhibitors, proteoglycans of the hyalectans family and the SLRP, hyaluronansynthase, ag-grecanases of the ADAMTS family, and vascular markers (CD31, VEGF-A, -C, -D, VEGF-R1, -R2, -R3, PlGF, NRP1 2, SEMA3). A special attention will be paid to the splice variants of VEGF-A. We recently discovered a new splice variant, VEGF111, lacking exons 5, 6 and 7, bio-logically active and resistant to proteolysis that is specifically induced by genotoxic agents such as radiations. Its expression might reflect an impact of radiations during the long stay of the animals in space environment. Additionally, a genome-wide analysis of gene expression will be performed using DNA microarrays (Affimetrix). Partial results of the analyses under way will be presented. http://www.nasa.gov/missionp ages/station/science/experiments/M DS.html

  6. Meyerson Phenomenon as a Component of Melanoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Sezer, Engin; Özturk Durmaz, Emel; Çetin, Emel; Şahin, Sedef

    2016-04-01

    Meyerson phenomenon (MP) is characterized by a symmetrical area of erythema and scales encircling a central lesion, which is most commonly a banal melanocytic nevus. Herein, we describe an unusual case with MP representing an eczematized response to a melanoma in situ and review the literature covering this entity. A 56-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of a pruritic, pigmented lesion on the trunk. The patient had no other significant medical history and no notable family history of similar lesions. Physical examination revealed an irregular, hyperpigmented plaque, 1 cm in diameter, with a surrounding halo of erythematous, scaly areas on the right abdominal region (Figure 1, a). On dermatoscopical examination, an irregular, broadened pigment network, radial streaming, and a focal blue-white veil, encircled by a homogenous, erythematous zone was observed (Figure 1, b). Based on clinical and dermatoscopical findings, a presumptive diagnosis of MP occurring on an early melanoma was made and the lesion was excised with a 5 mm safety margin. Histopathological examination of the excised material revealed a central intraepidermal atypical, confluent melanocytic proliferation with angular, hyperkeratotic, and irregular nuclei and a prominent fixation artifact around the cells (Figure 1, c). Human melanoma black (HMB-45) immunostaining highlighted the confluence of the neoplastic melanocytic proliferation. Lymphohistiocytic infiltration with melanophages was also identified in the upper dermis. An interesting feature was the presence of subacute spongiotic dermatitis around the melanocytic lesions (i.e. parakeratosis, serum/crusting, spongiosis, lymphocyte exocytosis, and acanthosis). Immunohistochemical staining with the Langerhans cell marker, CD1a, revealed an increased cell population in the perilesional, erythematous halo (Figure 1, d). A diagnosis of MP existing on melanoma in situ was established with clinical and histopathological findings. No recurrence

  7. Insulin resistance and clinical aspects of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Naresh; Sharma, Barjesh Chander

    2005-10-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most common liver disorders. This is highly prevalent in obese and diabetic subjects. Persons with central obesity are at particular risk. Other clinical predictors are age more than 40-50 years and hyperlipidemias, but none of these factors is invariable for causation of NASH. Other reported associations are, celiac disease, Wilson's Disease and few other metabolic diseases. Drugs, particularly amiodarone, tamoxifen, nucleoside analogues and methotrxate have also been linked to NASH. The disease is evenly distributed in both sexes but advanced disease is more common in women. Ethnic variation exists and African Americans are less affected than Hispanic Americans. Specific clinical features of NASH are infrequent. Patients usually come to clinical attention by elevated liver enzymes found on routine evaluation but on history, about two third of patients will admit to have mild fatigue and about half will report right upper quadrant pain. Rarely, patient may present with a complication of cirrhosis. Physical examination may reveal hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Research in last few years has stressed that development of steatosis, stetohepatitis, fibrosis with subsequent cirrhosis are most probably the result of insulin resistance. Therefore, clinical features may reflect existence of insulin resistance. Obesity, particularly central obesity is most important of these. Patients may have sleep apnea syndrome. Hypertension and manifestations of diabetes mellitus like polyuria, polydypsia, and neurological deficits may occur. Patients may have varying combination of obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and impaired fibrinolysis (syndrome X). Children with insulin resistance may show acanthosis nigricance. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, which consists of insulin resistance, diabetes, obesity, hirsutism, oligo or polymenorrha and hyperlipidemia may have NASH. Other rare manifestations of insulin

  8. Individual heterogeneity in black brant survival and recruitment with implications for harvest dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Mark S; Sedinger, James S; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique

    2013-01-01

    We examined individual heterogeneity in survival and recruitment of female Pacific black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) using frailty models adapted to a capture–mark–recapture context. Our main objectives were (1) to quantify levels of heterogeneity and examine factors affecting heterogeneity, and (2) model the effects of individual heterogeneity on harvest dynamics through matrix models. We used 24 years of data on brant marked and recaptured at the Tutakoke River colony, AK. Multievent models were fit as hidden Markov chain using program E-SURGE with an adequate overdispersion coefficient. Annual survival of individuals marked as goslings was heterogeneous among individuals and year specific with about 0.23 difference in survival between “high” (0.73)- and “low” (0.50)-quality individuals at average survival probability. Adult survival (0.85 ± 0.004) was homogeneous and higher than survival of both groups of juveniles. The annual recruitment probability was heterogeneous for brant >1-year-old; 0.56 (±0.21) and 0.31 (±0.03) for high- and low-quality individuals, respectively. Assuming equal clutch sizes for high- and low-quality individuals and that 80% of offspring were in the same quality class as the breeding female resulted in reproductive values about twice as high for high-quality individuals than low-quality individual for a given class of individuals producing differential contributions to population growth among groups. Differences in reproductive values greatly increased when we assumed high-quality individuals had larger clutch sizes. When we assumed that 50% of offspring were in the same quality class as their mothers and clutches were equal, differences in reproductive values between quality classes were greatly reduced or eliminated (breeders [BRs]). We considered several harvest scenarios using the assumption that 80% of offspring were in the same quality class as their mothers. The amount of compensation for harvest mortality

  9. Individual heterogeneity in black brant survival and recruitment with implications for harvest dynamics.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Mark S; Sedinger, James S; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique

    2013-10-01

    We examined individual heterogeneity in survival and recruitment of female Pacific black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) using frailty models adapted to a capture-mark-recapture context. Our main objectives were (1) to quantify levels of heterogeneity and examine factors affecting heterogeneity, and (2) model the effects of individual heterogeneity on harvest dynamics through matrix models. We used 24 years of data on brant marked and recaptured at the Tutakoke River colony, AK. Multievent models were fit as hidden Markov chain using program E-SURGE with an adequate overdispersion coefficient. Annual survival of individuals marked as goslings was heterogeneous among individuals and year specific with about 0.23 difference in survival between "high" (0.73)- and "low" (0.50)-quality individuals at average survival probability. Adult survival (0.85 ± 0.004) was homogeneous and higher than survival of both groups of juveniles. The annual recruitment probability was heterogeneous for brant >1-year-old; 0.56 (±0.21) and 0.31 (±0.03) for high- and low-quality individuals, respectively. Assuming equal clutch sizes for high- and low-quality individuals and that 80% of offspring were in the same quality class as the breeding female resulted in reproductive values about twice as high for high-quality individuals than low-quality individual for a given class of individuals producing differential contributions to population growth among groups. Differences in reproductive values greatly increased when we assumed high-quality individuals had larger clutch sizes. When we assumed that 50% of offspring were in the same quality class as their mothers and clutches were equal, differences in reproductive values between quality classes were greatly reduced or eliminated (breeders [BRs]). We considered several harvest scenarios using the assumption that 80% of offspring were in the same quality class as their mothers. The amount of compensation for harvest mortality declined as the

  10. A study of waterbirds wintering in Mission Bay combining field methods and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, Lesley Mika

    natural area size. Favorable conditions occurred mid-winter for Eared Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis ) and Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) as the height of the population appeared early in winter. Presence and activity of shorebirds were associated with tidal cycle with shorebirds foraging at low tide and non-foraging activities at high tide. Cooler water temperature was preferred across several bird groups including Black Brant which may be in response to eelgrass fluctuation. Overall, more bird abundance and biodiversity were present the second year compared to the first. Twenty-two waterbird species out 72 of the total species documented during the project used man-made resources during winter and this may be at an advantage in the future compared to more sensitive species as wetland loss occurs with climate change and the increase in urbanization in natural areas. Increasing wetland area through ongoing restoration and reproduction of wetland habitat of similar quality may maintain or increase species richness with a higher carrying capacity of waterbird numbers present today.

  11. Impact of diagenetic alteration on brachiopod magnesium isotope signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, Sylvia; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Buhl, Dieter; Dietzel, Martin; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Carbonate rocks are amongst the most commonly exploited archives in palaeo-environmental studies. However, diagenetic processes overprint these carbonate rocks to different degrees, thus, the interpretation of individual proxy data sets such as element concentrations and isotope signatures is hindered. Furthermore, the process of diagenesis is still insufficiently understood. In order to shed light on diagenetic processes alteration experiments under controlled conditions were performed. Therefor, recent brachiopods of the species Notosaria nigricans were collected at Friday Harbour, USA. These shells were artificially altered using different solutions representing meteoric, marine and burial conditions. All three solutions were spiked with 16O-enriched water. Half of the shells were altered under 100°C, whilst the other half experienced a temperature of 175°C. This resulted in six different experimental setups. The duration of the experiments varied for each shell. Eighteen shells were selected in total for the analyses. Furthermore, two unaltered shells and four fossil brachiopod shells were used for comparison with the artificially altered ones. The Magnesium concentration as well as the Mg isotopic composition of the fluids and the shells were measured, whilst carbon and oxygen isotopes were analysed only on the shells. The oxygen isotopic composition of the altered shells exhibit a change in their values only at 175°C and not at 100°C. The same pattern is observed for the Mg isotopic composition of the shells, which were altered in the marine and burial solutions. The meteoric solution, however, is an exception. The original solution was Mg free and both at 100°C and 175°C the altered brachiopod shells are enriched in the lighter isotope compared to the unaltered shell. Thus, the heavier Mg isotope is preferably leached under meteoric conditions. However, solutions (marine and burial at 175°C) with a higher isotopic composition than the brachiopod